WorldWideScience

Sample records for field final year

  1. Final Year Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubsch, Tristan [Howard University

    2013-06-20

    In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

  2. Encouraging contact with the business world through the final year project: an ex-perience applied to the outsourcing field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Blanco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an experience of how a final year project can be designed in order to encourage contact with the business world. This paper the general structure of the final year proyect, whose main topic is outsourcing, the main abilities and competencies developed by students while doing it, and the opinion of the students who have already done it.

  3. Fladis field experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Ott, S.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the Fladis field experiments was to investigate dispersion of liquefied ammonia with equal attention to the near-source aerosol jet, the intermediate heavy gas dispersion phase, and the downstream transition to passive dispersion. The present report presents the sensor layout and gives an overview of the available experimental data. This is done for observations in a fixed frame of reference and relative to the instantaneous plume centre line. The moving frame statistics are expected to compare better with wind tunnel simulations and numerical models which do not include plume meandering. The plume mass flux is estimated from the observed plume profiles and compared to the release rate. Average surface concentrations are found with a special interpolation method, and this is used to study how the averaging period affects the plume footprint. The instantaneous plume is non-Gaussian, and this is demonstrated by Lidar measurements in the far field and thermocouple measurements in the near-source jet. Probability functions and a spatial correlation for the concentration are found. The heat budget of the plume shows signs of heat flux from the ground. The composition of the liquid aerosols was observed to change from almost pure ammonia to almost pure water. A new two-dimensional `shallow layer` type model SLAM is developed, and an existing `box` type model for heavy-gas dispersion on a uniform terrain is generalized. (au) 3 tabs., 19 ills., 29 refs.

  4. Cassini at Saturn: The Final Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, L.; Edgington, S.; Altobelli, N.

    2015-10-01

    After 11 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn, a collaboration of NASA, ESA, and ASI, continues to wow the imagination and reveal unprecedented findings. Every year Cassini produces answers to questions raised by the Voyager flybys, while at the same time posing new questions that can only be answered with a long duration mission using a flagship-class spacecraft. Here we sample a few of Cassini's discoveries from the past year and give an overview of Cassini's final two years.

  5. Soil stabilization field trial : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A five-year study was initiated seeking materials/additives and procedures that help to mitigate : crack susceptibility in cement-treated material (CTM). A field test program of six 305-m (1000-ft) test : sections was implemented in August 2000. The ...

  6. RMDF leach-field decontamination. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.W.; Marzec, J.M.; Stelle, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the decontamination effort was to place the Radioactive Materials Disposal Facility (RMDF) leach field in a condition suitable for release for unrestricted use. Radioactively contaminated soil was excavated from the leach field to produce a condition of contamination as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The contaminated soil was boxed and shipped to an NRC-licensed burial site at Beatty, Nevada, and to the DOE burial site at Hanford, Washington. The soil excavation project successfully reduced the contamination level in the leach field to background levels, except for less than 0.6 mCi of Sr-90 and trace amounts of Cs-137 that are isolated in cracks in the bedrock. The cracks are greater than 10 ft below the surface and have been sealed with a bituminous asphalt mastic. A pathways analysis for radiation exposure to humans from the remaining radionuclides was performed, assuming intensive home gardening, and the results show that the total first year whole body dose equivalent would be about 0.1 mrem/year. This dose equivalent is a projection for the hypothetical ingestion of vegetables grown on the site. Assuming that an average adult consumes 64 kg of green leafy vegetables per year and that the entire yearly supply could be grown on the site, the amount of ingested Sr-90 and Cs-137 is calculated to be 1100 pCi/year and 200 pCi/year. This ingested quantity would produce a total first year whole body dose equivalent of 0.10 mrem, using the accepted soil-to-plant transfer factors of 0.0172 and 0.010 for Sr-90 and Cs-137, respectively. The whole body dose equivalent exposure value of 0.1 mrem/year is far below the tentative limit established by NRC of 5 mrem/year for areas released for unrestricted use

  7. Microbial field pilot study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m{sup 3}) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO{sub 2} content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  8. Antibiotic use among final year undergraduates in university of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the use of antibiotics among final year students in a Nigerian university campus, with a view to identifying patterns of use and reasons for adherence or non-adherence to therapy. A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected final year students of the University of Benin was conducted ...

  9. Workplace immersion in the final year of an undergraduate medicine course: the views of final year students and recent graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, Tarun; Hays, Richard; Woolley, Torres; Kelly, Gill; Jacobs, Harry

    2014-06-01

    Most medical schools require formal competence assessment of students immediately prior to graduation, but variation exists in the approach to endpoint assessments. This article reports perceptions of senior students and graduates from a school with a six-year program which has introduced final year workplace immersion placements following a barrier examination at the end of the penultimate Year 5. Final year students (22) and recent graduates (4) attended focus groups and in-depth interviews exploring their perceptions of the value of the curriculum experience during the final two years, the structure and timing of assessment, and their preparation for internship. Participants felt that the penultimate year was more pressured, and focused on passing "artificial" examinations. In contrast, the final year was more relaxed, building skills for postgraduate work and later career development. As a result, students felt well prepared for internship with some indication that the self-directed nature of the final year promoted a lifelong learning approach. The final year workplace immersion model was regarded positively by senior students of this medical school. This model may be a better way of preparing students to be junior doctors than a traditional final year heavy on theoretical learning and assessment.

  10. Final year student nurses' experiences of wound care: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousey, Karen; Stephenson, John; Cook, Leanne; Kinsey, Laura; Batt, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    This article reports on research to explore if pre-registration nursing students felt prepared to manage patients' skin integrity effectively on registration. Final year nursing students completing adult, child and mental health fields were invited to complete questionnaires to investigate the amount of teaching sessions delivered in university in relation to managing skin integrity during their 3-year training programme, discover if pre-registration nursing students received supplementary management of skin integrity teaching in the clinical areas, explore which member of staff in the clinical areas supported the students' learning in the area of skin integrity. Data was collected on 217 final year students (196 females and 21 males) at two higher education institutions in the north of England. The majority of respondents (n = 146; 68%) reported receiving less than 10 hours formal teaching at university on the subject of skin integrity over their 3-year courses. Of those registered on degree courses, 134 students (71%) reported receiving less than 10 hours formal teaching over their 3-year courses, compared with only 12 students (46%) registered on diploma courses. Some 198 (99%) of respondents reported that their clinical teaching was undertaken by registered nurses all or some of the time. Other health professionals were reported to provide substantially less clinical teaching; with the next largest contribution reported to be provided by specialist nurses, who provided all clinical teaching to 36 respondents (19%) and some clinical teaching to 115 respondents (59%). Some 149 respondents (70%) reported that the teaching they received had developed their knowledge and skills to maintain skin integrity for all patients. Respondents claimed that teaching received had developed their knowledge and skills, reporting an average of 16.9 hours spent in directed study; whereas those who did not claim that teaching they had received had developed their knowledge and

  11. Brain drain: final year medical students' intentions of training abroad.

    OpenAIRE

    Bojanić, Ana; Bojanić, Katarina; Likić, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Croatia, a new European Union (EU) member state since July 2013, there is already a shortage of around 3280 doctors to reach the European average. ----- OBJECTIVES: To investigate the emigration intentions of the current cohort of final year medical students at Zabreb School of Medicine. ----- METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was used in June 2013 to assess the attitudes of 232 final year medical students towards working conditions abroad and expectat...

  12. A mentorship programme for final-year students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Amy; Jones, Kevin; Stanton, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Current mentorship programmes in the UK tend to focus predominantly on junior medical students; however, final-year medical students may encounter significant academic and personal pressures. We established a mentoring scheme to provide individualised support for final-year students from a junior doctor mentor. The objectives of this study were to assess the benefits of the scheme and identify areas for future improvement. Final-year students at Great Western Hospital in Swindon (n = 34) were allocated a junior doctor mentor at the start of their attachment. At the end of the 3-month placement, students and mentors provided feedback on their experiences of the mentoring scheme. In total, 24 students and eight doctors returned completed questionnaires. Qualitative analyses were performed using the constant comparison method, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed on the numerical data. Key benefits for students were improved confidence, academic support, increased enjoyment and sense of belonging during their final year. Mentors valued the opportunity to gain teaching experience. All doctors and 96 per cent of students would recommend the scheme to a friend. Possible improvements include an introductory lecture alongside the handbook and a bank of 'reserve' mentors to stand-in when a mentor is away. The mentorship programme was a valuable addition to the final-year experience, with benefits for students and mentors alike. We will be continuing this programme in the future, and would recommend the adoption of mentorship schemes for other final-year cohorts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Final-year student nurses??? perceptions of role transition

    OpenAIRE

    Doody, Owen; Tuohy, Dympna; Deasy, Christine

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Role transition can be both challenging and exciting. This study presents the findings of phase one of a two-part study conducted by Deasy et al (2011), which explored final-year student nurses??? (n=116) perceptions and expectations of role transition. The students were registered on four-year BSc nursing programmes at an Irish university. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version 16). A response rate of 84% was achieved. Over half of respondents said they were adequately ...

  14. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  15. Perception of final year medical students about the choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Nigeria and many other countries, many specialties had problems with recruitment of medical teachers outside the core clinical departments. Objective: We aim at determining the factors that influence the choice of medical microbiology as a speciality among final year medical students in University of ...

  16. Attitude of final year medical students towards community medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several studies were conducted in the past in Nigerian Universities to determine undergraduate medical students' attitudes, aspirations and career preference but none was conducted in Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria. This study was undertaken to determine final year medical students' attitudes toward ...

  17. Attitude of final year medical students of a Nigerian university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An instrument whose items were sex, religion, sexual orientation, do you have a friend who is a homosexual and the 10 item version of the Attitude towards Lesbians and Gay men scale (ATLG) was administered on 85 final year medical students present in class on the day of questionnaire administration and who signed ...

  18. What Do Final Year Engineering Students Know about Sustainable Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, I.; Conlon, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents data from a project that aims to determine the level of knowledge and understanding of engineering students about sustainable development (SD). The data derive from a survey completed by final year engineering students in three Irish Higher Education Institutions. This paper is part of a larger study that examines the…

  19. Final year medical students’ understanding of family medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Petek Šter

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The European Academy of Teachers in General Practice / Family Medicine (EURACT has developed an educational agenda, the key document for teaching family medicine in Europe. The aim of our study was to find out how final year medical students at the beginning of their family medicine clerkship understand the discipline of family medicine. Methods. The attitudes toward family medicine were paraphrased and developed into a 164-item questionnaire, which was administered to 335 final-year medical students at the beginning of their clerkship. Using combinatorial optimization with genetic algorithms we selected 30 items which yielded the highest Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient. Finally, we performed a factor analysis to find which dimensions of family medicine were recognised by the students and compared them with the domains defined in the EURACT definition. Results. The 30-item questionnaire had a Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of 0.919. The differences between male and female students were not very significant (p=0.061. With the factor analysis we recognised seven factors, belonging to three out of six domains of the EURACT educational agenda: primary care management, personcenteredness and comprehensive approach. Conclusion. Final-year medical students at the beginning of their family medicine clerkship understand some of the dimensions of family medicine rather well, but they are not aware of some important competences of family doctors. There is a necessity to teach students about specific problem solving skills and the importance of balance between the health needs of an individual patient and the community.

  20. Final-year student nurses' perceptions of role transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Owen; Tuohy, Dympna; Deasy, Christine

    Role transition can be both challenging and exciting. This study presents the findings of phase one of a two-part study conducted by Deasy et al (2011), which explored final-year student nurses' (n=116) perceptions and expectations of role transition. The students were registered on four-year BSc nursing programmes at an Irish university. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version 16). A response rate of 84% was achieved. Over half of respondents said they were adequately prepared for the post of registered nurse. Respondents generally perceived themselves to be competent across a range of domains: managing workloads; prioritizing care delivery; interpersonal skills; time management skills; ethical decision making; and providing health information and education. In contrast, not all were confident about their knowledge and many expected the transition to be problematic. Most expected to be supported and to receive constructive feedback. Recommendations include nurturing supportive work environments to reduce stress and increase confidence.

  1. Final year engineering projects in Australia and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, H.; Goh, S.

    2010-05-01

    The paper starts by emphasising that final year engineering projects are regarded important in the training and education of professional engineers in Australia and Europe. The sources of projects available to students were also mentioned. Some Australian universities insist on individual projects but some not, each with their own reasons. However, it can be argued that all European universities run individual projects. In most cases, whether it is in Australia or Europe, the total load for final year engineering projects is about 6.25% of the load of engineering programmes. Assessment methods were also described. They were all different whether in Australia or Europe but not very significant. It was discovered that literature reviews, oral presentations and written reports or dissertations were important elements in the assessment schemes. Many university staff, in both continents, encouraged students to publish their work in international conferences and journals if the originality of the projects was high. It can be argued that the individual project is most effective in learning outcome; however, the cost involved is also very high and its sustainability in smaller universities in Australia is in doubt.

  2. High field superconductor development and understanding project, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.

    2009-07-15

    Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.

  3. Atoms and Ions Interacting with Particles and Fields: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robicheaux, Francis [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2014-09-18

    This grant supported research in basic atomic, molecular and optical physics related to the interactions of atoms with particles and fields. The duration of the grant was the 10 year period from 8/2003 to 8/2013. All of the support from the grant was used to pay salaries of the PI, postdocs, graduate students, and undergraduates and travel to conferences and meetings. The results were in the form of publications in peer reviewed journals. There were 65 peer reviewed publications over these 10 years with 8 of the publications in Physical Review Letters; all of the other articles were in respected peer reviewed journals (Physical Review A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Physics B, ...). I will disuss the results for the periods of time relevant for each grant period.

  4. Brain drain: final year medical students' intentions of training abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanic, Ana; Bojanic, Katarina; Likic, Robert

    2015-06-01

    In Croatia, a new European Union (EU) member state since July 2013, there is already a shortage of around 3280 doctors to reach the European average. To investigate the emigration intentions of the current cohort of final year medical students at Zabreb School of Medicine. An electronic questionnaire was used in June 2013 to assess the attitudes of 232 final year medical students towards working conditions abroad and expectations for career opportunities in Croatia following accession to the EU. With an overall response rate of 87%, more than half of the surveyed students (106/202, 53%) intended to travel abroad, either for specialty (52/202, 26%) or subspecialty (54/202, 27%) training. More female students (58/135, 43%) than male students (17/62, 27%) indicated they would not emigrate. Most attractive emigration destinations were: Germany (34/121, 28%), USA (19/121, 16%), the UK (19/121, 16%), Switzerland (16/121, 13%) and Canada (11/121, 9%). The most important goals that respondents aimed to achieve through training abroad were to excel professionally (45/120, 38%), to prosper financially (20/120, 17%) and to acquire new experiences and international exposure (31/120, 26%). Students' motivating factors, goals for and positive beliefs about training abroad, as well as negative expectations regarding career opportunities in Croatia, may point towards actions that could be taken to help make Croatia a country that facilitates medical education and professional career development of young doctors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Final year students' experiences of the Bachelor of Midwifery course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary; Kruger, Gina; Walter, Ruby; Mazzarino, Melissa

    2014-05-01

    : the aim of the study was to explore the experiences of final year Bachelor of Midwifery students. earlier research indicates that midwifery students experience a number of difficulties and concerns during their studentship. These difficulties can lead to a lack of confidence and poorer integration and socialisation into the profession. Ultimately, poorer integration may lead to dissatisfaction and attrition from the profession. a qualitative approach, informed by interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), was used in this study. Ten completing Bachelor of Midwifery students participated in in-depth interviews and reflected on their experiences over their three year course. Data were subjected to IPA analytic steps as proposed by Smith and Osborn (2008). demographics revealed that participants were generally aged more than 35 years and worked 16 hours or less per week. Most had two or more children and lived with a spouse/partner. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: (1) a challenging start; (2) coming to terms with course requirements; (3) developing strategies; and (4) overall satisfaction with the course. Participants generally considered that their individual strengths and determination helped them to negotiate the many challenges they encountered during the course. this study indicates that students undergo a process of adjustment as they travel through the Bachelor of Midwifery course. The most critical transition phase appears to occur in the first year and students may require additional supports to assist their socialisation into both the university and their course. Particular needs identified include return to study skills for mature-aged students and counselling and support group needs generally. The provision of such supports may assist with the retention of students within the course and may contribute to overall student satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Self esteem and assertiveness of final year Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagözoğlu, Serife; Kahve, Emine; Koç, Oznur; Adamişoğlu, Derya

    2008-07-01

    This study developed a quantitative methodology to ascertain the level of self esteem and assertiveness of last year students in baccalaureate degree programs at Cumhuriyet University Nursing School, School for Health Sciences' Midwifery School, Education Faculty's Mathematics Teacher, Classroom Teacher, and Social Sciences Teacher programs and to determine if there is a correlation between self esteem and assertiveness. The research population was a total of 372 students who were in their final year of university in these programs. Sampling was not done in the research, the entire population was studied. However there was a total of 82 students who were not included in the research because of illness, absenteeism, registration on hold, who could not be found on campus or who did not want to participate in the research and who did not correctly complete the survey form. The research was conducted with total of 290 students. Total response rate was 77.9%. The data were collected using a "Personal Information Form," Stanley Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory (SEI) and Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS). Frequency distribution, t test, correlation and variance analysis were used in the analysis of the data. The results of the study were that the nursing students had the highest scores from SEI (80.64+/-15.83). Similarly the nursing students had the highest scores on the RAS (36.29+/-25.33).

  7. Absenteeism and under-achievement in final year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2003-01-01

    Absenteeism among medical students has received little attention in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the causes of absenteeism from didactic lectures in ophthalmology and its correlation with performance in formative assessment. The attendance of 101 final year medical students for lectures in ophthalmology was studied in three parts: terms 1, 2 and 3. Based on the attendance in all three terms, students were divided into groups I to V, where group I students had good attendance in all three terms down to group V, with very poor attendance in one or more terms. The marks scored in the first, second and third terminal theory tests were tabulated separately. Results of the second and final professional examinations were assessed for the five groups of students. Students were asked to list the causes of absenteeism in a proforma. Data were analysed by regression analysis and Chi-square test. Significance was obtained at 5% level. In each formative assessment, higher attendance was associated with better marks (p absenteeism in 62.6% of instances. Six of the 10 students who failed the ophthalmology professional examination were in groups IV and V and had failed the second professional examination as well. They were designated low achievers, as were 3 students who made several attempts to pass the second professional examination and failed in ophthalmology despite a fair-good attendance. Learner absenteeism may contribute to low achievement. However, absenteeism may be symptomatic of low achievers. Low achievers or students with learning handicaps must be identified before admission or early in the medical course and encouraged to improve their performance and thereby enhance their self-esteem. A support group of family, peers, faculty and psychologists could help.

  8. Field evaluation of skid resistant surfaces : final report : part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-06-01

    This project was undertaken to establish a thin bituminous surface course that would possess good skid resistant qualities as well as, being both economical and durable. : This is the final report on the evaluation of skid resistant surfaces which wa...

  9. Final-year medical students′ perceptions regarding the curriculum in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrakrishnan Rayno Navinan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, has an integrated curriculum in which teaching of public health takes place through a series of modules which span the full five-year study programme. Aim: To assess final year medical student perceptions regarding the public health curriculum and to identify factors which influence this. Materials and Methods: The study was cross sectional. Convenience sampling was utilized on final-year students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. A self-administered 4-point Likert scale questionnaire covered general opinion on public healthcare and perceptions about the curriculum. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. Results: One hundred and eighty four students (94% participated in the study. Eighty-two percent (148 viewed public health as an important field. Only 9% (16 were interested in a career in public health. A significant association was found between choosing public health as career and the following: perception of public health as an important field; holding a good opinion about public health prior to commencement of the course; having found the field-based experience enjoyable and beneficial to the community; and feeling competent to work in the community at the end of the course (P < 0.01. With regard to teaching methods, group activities and discussion-centered activities were identified positively (153, 83% and 125, 68% respectively. The majority of students indicated that they were not stimulated to read more on the subject or regularly revise what they have learnt, both during the introductory public health programme and during the final year. Conclusions: The curriculum has been able to create a positive opinion about public health. However, students lack enthusiasm to learn independently. Experiential, group-centered teaching activities and a constructivist approach may be more effective in promoting independent learning

  10. Cathodic Protection Field Trials on Prestressed Concrete Components, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report in a study to demonstrate the feasibility of using cathodic protection (CP) on concrete bridge structures containing prestressed steel. The interim report, FHWA-RD-95-032, has more details on the installation of selected CP s...

  11. Alabama warm mix asphalt field study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation hosted a warm mix asphalt field demonstration in August 2007. The warm mix asphalt technology demonstrated was Evotherm Dispersed Asphalt Technology. The WMA and hot mix asphalt produced for the demonstration ...

  12. SMART operational field test evaluation : dispatchers survey report : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) has installed an automaticscheduling and dispatch system (ASD) in Southeast Michigan in accordance with their plans toimplement ITS as a site for an operational field test. The purpo...

  13. SMART operational field test evaluation : scheduler survey report : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) has installed an automatic scheduling and dispatch system (ASD) in Southeast Michigan in accordance with their plans to implement ITS as a site for an operational field test. The pur...

  14. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant-Based Outdoor Air Preconditioning Systems, Final Report: Phase 3; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the performance of two active desiccant cooling systems that were installed as pilot systems in two locations-a college dormitory and a research laboratory-during the fall of 1999. The laboratory system was assembled in the field from commercially available Trane air-handling modules combined with a standard total energy recovery module and a customized active desiccant wheel, both produced by SEMCO. The dormitory system was a factory-built, integrated system produced by SEMCO that included both active desiccant and sensible-only recovery wheels, a direct-fired gas regeneration section, and a pre-piped Trane heat pump condensing section. Both systems were equipped with direct digital control systems, complete with full instrumentation and remote monitoring capabilities. This report includes detailed descriptions of these two systems, installation details, samples of actual performance, and estimations of the energy savings realized. These pi lot sites represent a continuation of previous active desiccant product development research (Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000). Both systems performed as anticipated, were reliable, and required minimal maintenance. The dehumidification/total-energy-recovery hybrid approach was particularly effective in all respects. System performance showed remarkable improvement in latent load handling capability and operating efficiency compared with the original conventional cooling system and with the conventional system that remained in another, identical wing of the facility. The dehumidification capacity of the pilot systems was very high, the cost of operation was very low, and the system was cost-effective, offering a simple payback for these retrofit installations of approximately 5 to 6 years. Most important, the dormitory system resolved numerous indoor air quality problems in the dormitory by providing effective humidity control and increased, continuous ventilation air

  15. Gene transcription and electromagnetic fields. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, A.S.

    1992-12-31

    Our overall aim is to obtain sufficient information to allow us to ultimately determine whether ELF EM field exposure is an initiating factor in neoplastic transformation and/or if exposure can mimic characteristics of the second-step counterpart in neoplastic disease. This aim is based on our previous findings that levels of some transcripts are increased in cells exposed to EM fields. While the research is basic in nature, the ramifications have bearing on the general safety of exposure to EM fields in industrial and everyday life. A large array of diverse biological effects are reported to occur as the result of exposure to elf EM fields, suggesting that the cell response to EM fields is at a basic level, presumably initiated by molecular and/or biophysical events at the cell membrane. The hypothesized route is a signal transduction pathway involving membrane calcium fluxes. Information flow resulting from signal transduction can mediate the induction of regulatory factors in the cell, and directly affect how transcription is regulated.

  16. Final Environmental Assessment for Planned Growth Hulrburd Field, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    clay lenses and layers of organic debris; typically unfossiliferous Citronelle Formation non-indurated, multi-colored quartz sand with discontinuous... Citronelle Formation. Together, the Pliocene-Recent Sands and the Citronelle Formation make up the Sand & Gravel Aquifer informally referred to as the...deposits are mined from the Pliocene-Recent Sands unit and the Citronelle Formation in the vicinity of Hurlburt Field and southern Okaloosa County

  17. HTSL massive motor. Project: Motor field calculation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutt, H.J.; Gruener, A.

    2003-01-01

    HTS motors up to 300 kW were to be developed and optimized. For this, specific calculation methods were enhanced to include superconducting rotor types (hysteresis, reluctance and permanent magnet HTS rotors). The experiments were carried out in a SHM70-45 hysteresis motor. It was shown how static and dynamic trapped field magnetisation of the rotor with YBCO rings will increase flux in the air gap motor, increasing the motor capacity to twice its original level. (orig.) [de

  18. Final-year teacher training students' perceptions of THRASS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    in schools feel prepared to teach reading, but not spelling or creative writing. Keywords: developing countries ... In the past four years, the THRASS training programme has been offered to many schools in our ... ted for the future use of THRASS at CPUT, these questions will be addressed. THRASS. As there is a dearth of ...

  19. Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Year Schooling. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazleton, Jared E.; And Others

    This study describes the major forms of year-round education, evaluates their potential costs and educational benefits (including effects on student academic achievement, learning retention, socialization, and employability), and assesses such programs' feasibility as to legal requirements and effects on school personnel and the larger community.…

  20. Peat resource estimation in South Carolina. Final report, Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, M.; Andrejko, M.; Corvinus, D.; Tisdale, M.

    1982-01-01

    South Carolina has few indigenous energy resources. Most widely known and utilized are hydropower, wood, and solar. Peat is a material composed of partially decomposed organic matter that, after burial for long periods of time, may eventually become coal. Peat is utilized as an energy resource for the production of electricity and for home heating in Europe and the Soviet Union. There are peat deposits in South Carolina, but peat has never been used as an energy resource within the state. This report presents the results of the two years of a planned four-year study of the quantity and energy potential of peat in South Carolina. In this year's survey two activities were undertaken. The first was to visit highly probable peat deposits to confirm the presence of fuel-grade peat. The second was to survey and characterize in more detail the areas judged to be of highest potential as major resources. The factors carrying the greatest weight in our determination of priority areas were: (1) a description of peat deposits in the scientific literature or from discussions with state and federal soil scientists; (2) mention of organic soils on soil maps or in the literature; and (3) information from farmers and other local citizens.

  1. Field testing advanced geothermal turbodrill (AGT). Phase 1 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.; Cohen, J.H.

    1999-06-01

    Maurer Engineering developed special high-temperature geothermal turbodrills for LANL in the 1970s to overcome motor temperature limitations. These turbodrills were used to drill the directional portions of LANL`s Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Wells at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The Hot Dry Rock concept is to drill parallel inclined wells (35-degree inclination), hydraulically fracture between these wells, and then circulate cold water down one well and through the fractures and produce hot water out of the second well. At the time LANL drilled the Fenton Hill wells, the LANL turbodrill was the only motor in the world that would drill at the high temperatures encountered in these wells. It was difficult to operate the turbodrills continuously at low speed due to the low torque output of the LANL turbodrills. The turbodrills would stall frequently and could only be restarted by lifting the bit off bottom. This allowed the bit to rotate at very high speeds, and as a result, there was excessive wear in the bearings and on the gauge of insert roller bits due to these high rotary speeds. In 1998, Maurer Engineering developed an Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) for the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technology (NADET) at MIT by adding a planetary speed reducer to the LANL turbodrill to increase its torque and reduce its rotary speed. Drilling tests were conducted with the AGT using 12 1/2-inch insert roller bits in Texas Pink Granite. The drilling tests were very successful, with the AGT drilling 94 ft/hr in Texas Pink Granite compared to 45 ft/hr with the LANL turbodrill and 42 ft/hr with a rotary drill. Field tests are currently being planned in Mexico and in geothermal wells in California to demonstrate the ability of the AGT to increase drilling rates and reduce drilling costs.

  2. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  3. Brazilian energy balance 2013 - calendar year 2012: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1- Energy analysis and aggregated data- presents energy highlights per source in 2012 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth in 2012; Chapter 2- Energy supply and demand by source- has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3- Energy consumption by sector- presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4- Energy imports and exports- presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5- Balance of transformation centers- presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6- Energy resources and reserves- has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources; Chapter 7- Energy and socioeconomics- contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8- State energy data- presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential; Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex 1- Installed capacity- shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining; Annex 2- Self-production of electricity- presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex 3- World energy data- presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source and region; Annex 4- Useful

  4. Brazilian energy balance 2014 - calendar year 2013: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1- Energy analysis and aggregated data- presents energy highlights per source in 2012 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth in 2013; Chapter 2- Energy supply and demand by source- has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3- Energy consumption by sector- presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4- Energy imports and exports- presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5- Balance of transformation centers- presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6- Energy resources and reserves- has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources; Chapter 7- Energy and socioeconomics- contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8- State energy data- presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential; Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex 1- Installed capacity- shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining.; Annex 2- Self-production of electricity- presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex 3- World energy data- presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source and region; Annex 4- Useful

  5. Brazilian energy balance 2012 - calendar year 2011: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1- energy analysis and aggregated data- presents energy highlights per source in 2012 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth in 2011; Chapter 2 - Energy supply and demand by source- has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3 - Energy consumption by sector- presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4 - Energy imports and exports- presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5 - Balance of transformation centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6 - Energy resources and reserves- has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources; Chapter 7- Energy and socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8- State energy data- presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential; Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex 1- Installed capacity- shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining.; Annex 2- Self-production of electricity- presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex 3- World energy data- presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source and region; Annex 4

  6. Brazilian energy balance 2015: year 2014 - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Balance (BEB) contains the accounting relative to energy supply and consumption, as well the conversion processes and foreign trade. It presents in a single document the historical series of these operations and information about reserves, installed capacities and Federal States data. The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow. Chapters' content can be described as follows: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2014 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth. Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country. Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy. Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy. Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses. Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources. Chapter 7 - Energy and Socio economics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports. Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex I - Installed Capacity - shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed

  7. Effective Field Theories and Strong Interactions. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The framework of Effective Field Theories (EFTs) allows us to describe strong interactions in terms of degrees of freedom relevant to the energy regimes of interest, in the most general way consistent with the symmetries of QCD. Observables are expanded systematically in powers of M lo /M hi , where M lo (M hi ) denotes a low-(high-)energy scale. This organizational principle is referred to as 'power counting'. Terms of increasing powers in the expansion parameter are referred to as leading order (LO), next-to-leading order (NLO), etc. Details of the QCD dynamics not included explicitly are encoded in interaction parameters, or 'low-energy constants' (LECs), which can in principle be calculated from an explicit solution of QCD - for example via lattice simulations- but can also be determined directly from experimental data. QCD has an intrinsic scale M QCD ≅ 1 GeV, at which the QCD coupling constant α s (M QCD ) becomes large and the dynamics becomes non-perturbative. As a consequence M QCD sets the scale for the masses of most hadrons, such as the nucleon mass m N ≅ 940 MeV. EFTs can roughly be divided into two categories: those that can be matched onto QCD in perturbation theory, which we call high-energy EFTs, and those that cannot be matched perturbatively, which we call low-energy EFTs. In high-energy EFTs, M QCD typically sets the low-energy scale, and all the dynamics associated with this scale reside in matrix elements of EFT operators. These non-perturbative matrix elements are the LECs and are also referred to as long-distance contributions. Each matrix element is multiplied by a short-distance coefficient, which contains the dynamics from the high scale M hi . Since M hi >> M QCD , α s (M hi ) hi ∼ M Q , the heavy-quark mass, and in addition to M QCD there are low scales associated with the typical relative momentum ∼ M Q v and energy ∼ M Q v 2 of the heavy quarks. Depending on the sizes of M Q and the heavy-quark velocity v these scales can

  8. A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams. This report describes a method to characterize the relationship between the extirpation (the effective extinction) of invertebrate g...

  9. The phosphate field experiment IB 0013; annual report of the IMPHOS experiment; the eighth year: 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Jansen, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the eighth year of the Dutch IMPHOS field trial IB 0013 on calcareous silt loam soil with potato are presented and discussed. At the first stages of crop growth, phosphorus fertilization had a positive effect on fresh and dry matter yields of biomass. At the final harvest the potato

  10. The attitude of final year medical students to orthopaedics in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the attitude of final year medical students to the clinical posting and lectures in Orthopaedics and to find out the improvements they desire to make it more interesting. Material/Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out among one hundred and eighty two final year medical students of the ...

  11. A survey of interventional radiology awareness among final-year medical students in a European country.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, Sum

    2009-07-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) is a rapidly expanding specialty that is facing the challenges of turf wars and personnel shortages. Appropriate exposure of medical students to this field can be vital to recruitment of potential future trainees or referring physicians. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and views of final-year medical students in a single EU country regarding various aspects of IR. An electronic survey was sent via e-mail to all final-year medical students in a European country. The students were given a month to respond to the questionnaire. A total of 234 students of 675 (34.5%) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 35% had previously completed an attachment to the radiology department. The majority of students (63%) thought their knowledge in radiology in general was poor. The percentage of students who correctly identified procedures performed by interventional radiologists was 69% for Hickman line insertion, 79% for fibroid embolization, and 67.5% for lower limb angioplasty. Sixty percent, 30%, and 47% thought that interventional radiologists perform cardiac angioplasties, perform arterial bypasses, and create AV fistulas, respectively. Forty-nine percent felt that interventional radiologists are surgically trained. Eighty-three percent of students were first made aware of angioplasty by a cardiologist. Thirty-one percent thought that interventional radiologists do ward rounds, 24% thought that interventional radiologists have admitting rights, and 26% felt that interventional radiologists run an outpatient practice. A significant number of students (76%) thought that the job prospects in IR are good or excellent but only 40.5% were willing to consider a career in IR. In conclusion, this study indicates that IR remains a nascent but attractive specialty to the majority of medical students. Further development of the existing informal undergraduate curriculum to address shortcomings will ensure that IR continues to attract

  12. The final year of GPS Installations in the Alaska Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, B.; Pauk, B.; Enders, M.; Bierma, R.; Gasparich, S.; Marzulla, A.; Feaux, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is the geodetic component of the National Science Foundation funded Earthscope Project. The final PBO GPS network will comprise 1100 continuously operating GPS stations installed throughout the Western US and Alaska. The Alaska region is an important area of study because of the major crustal deformation and high volcanic activity associated with the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate. The PBO network will provide data to help better understand these earth processes. In the fifth and final year of the PBO installation phase, we built 31 GPS Stations and installed 8 tilt meters in Alaska. These installs completed the PBO network in Alaska which comprises 135 GPS stations and 12 tilt meters. We also completed maintenance visits to GPS stations installed during earlier years of the five year project. In the 2008 field season we faced some of our most difficult logistical challenges with installations in remote areas, islands and volcanoes. Highlights include boat-based helicopter supported installs in the Shumagin Islands on Chernabura, Nagai and Popof; and 13 GPS stations and 8 tiltmeters installed on Unimak Island to monitor Westdahl and Shishaldin volcanoes. The Unimak installations were completed in a four week period and were carried out in cooperation with scientists from the Alaska Volcano Observatory. We also installed the remaining stations monitoring the Denali fault and integrated the Denali earthquake response stations built by University of Alaska Fairbanks into the PBO network. Now that the installations are completed, the PBO network will be operated and maintained by UNAVCO engineers for the next 10 years. Data from all of the PBO stations are available from the UNAVCO archive.

  13. International electives in the final year of German medical school education – a student's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] The final year of medical school has a unique role for introducing students to their future responsibilities and challenges. At many medical schools, electives at an accredited institution abroad are a common part of the student’s final year experience. International electives provide an opportunity for a personal and academic experience that will often create new perspectives on clinical medicine and research, medical education and healthcare policy. In this article the authors reflect on their experience as elective students abroad and discuss the contribution of international electives to the constant development and progress of local final year rotations. They identify key areas for improving final year electives and outline essential features for a valuable and successful final year elective.

  14. International electives in the final year of German medical school education--a student's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Agrawal, Mridul; Wahlster, Lara

    2014-01-01

    The final year of medical school has a unique role for introducing students to their future responsibilities and challenges. At many medical schools, electives at an accredited institution abroad are a common part of the student's final year experience. International electives provide an opportunity for a personal and academic experience that will often create new perspectives on clinical medicine and research, medical education and healthcare policy. In this article the authors reflect on their experience as elective students abroad and discuss the contribution of international electives to the constant development and progress of local final year rotations. They identify key areas for improving final year electives and outline essential features for a valuable and successful final year elective.

  15. Reflections on the Final Year Learning Experience –Designing a Capstone Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sector educational reform to be implemented in 2012 in Hong Kong (HK is intended principally to prepare students for the future workplace. One of the explicit requirements for the new four-year undergraduate curriculum is the inclusion of a capstone course for final year students. This paper explores the uptake and reported effect of the capstone- liked final year project using participating students’ experience (voice in existing undergraduate study programmes in the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect student feedback; findings revealed considerations in terms of the core design elements highlighted in literature. The paper highlights students’ lack of readiness to successful transition into the workplace, linked to the current academic focus of projects. A framework that includes learning activities preferred by students is proposed for the final year learning experience. Findings from this study will be useful for curriculum development and evaluation of the final-year curriculum.

  16. Career intentions of final year medical students in Uganda after graduating: the burden of brain drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Samuel; Mukunya, David; Nakitende, Joyce; Nambasa, Stella; Nampogo, Adrian; Kalyesubula, Robert; Katamba, Achilles; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2015-08-01

    Uganda has severe shortage of human resources for health despite the heavy disease burden. The country has one of the highest fertility, and population growth rates in the world and is in dire need of trained health workers. The current doctor: patient ratio of 1:15000 is inadequate and this is further constrained by trained health workers leaving the country while others abandon the health sector. The aim of the study was to determine the career intentions of the final year medical students to leave the county and health field after graduating and the associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 251 final year medical students from Makerere, Mbarara, Gulu and Kampala International Universities. We enrolled all the eligible final year medical students. The study was conducted using face-to-face questionnaires in each university. We determined the demographics, reasons for leaving the country and health sector and the intended destinations of medical students who planned to leave the country. Data was entered in Epidata then exported and analyzed in stata 12. Of the 251 students enrolled in the study, 28(11.2 %) wanted to leave the health sector, with Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) having the highest percentage, 16.7 % and Kampala International University (KIU) the least, 7.7 %. Of the 28 who intended to leave the health sector, 82.1 % wanted to join the business sector, 10.7 % agriculture, and 7.1 % politics. Reasons given for the intent to leave were; lack of equipment and supplies in hospitals, over whelming patient numbers, very risky working environment, low payment to doctors, and political reasons. Overall, 112 (44.6 %) of the participants wanted to leave the country with 30.3 % intending to migrate to United States of America (USA), 11.9 % to United Kingdom (UK), 11.0 % to South Africa among others. Some of the reasons given were; doctors are paid a high salary abroad, safe working environment, and desire to continue

  17. Apollo Field Geology: 45 Years of Digesting Rocks, Field Data, and Future Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve Apollo astronauts participated in the Lunar Field Geological Experiment, overseen by Gene Shoemaker, Gordon Swann, and Bill Muehlberger and their Co-Investigators. In conjunction with geologists and engineers of the Geological Survey and NASA, this team planned, trained and executed the first extraterrestrial field geological investigation. As a result, astronaut sample selection, observations, photo-documentation and experiment deployment underpin 45 years of laboratory analyses and interpretation by thousands of lunar and planetary scientists. --Current hypotheses related to the origin, evolution and nature of the Moon would be far different had Apollo geological explorations not occurred, even assuming that all robotic missions flown before and since Apollo were flown. *Would we have recognized lunar meteorites without the broad suite of Apollo samples to guide us? If we eventually had properly identified such meteorites, would their chemistry and age data give us the same detailed insights about the origin and evolution of the Moon without the highly specific field documentation of samples collected by the astronauts? *Would we recognize that the early history of the Earth and Mars up to 3.8 billion years ago, including the development of life's precursors, was a period of the prolonged violence due to impacts of asteroids and comets? Would we have realized that clay minerals, produced by the alteration of impact-generated glass and debris, would have been dominant components and potential templates for complex organic molecules in the terrestrial and Martian environments? *Would we fully understand the surface environments of asteroids and young terrestrial planets without the detailed dissection and analysis of Apollo's lunar regolith samples? *Would the Moon's near-surface environment, and its mantle and core structure, be as well defined as they are without the ground-truth provided by Apollo samples and the equipment carefully emplaced there by the

  18. Tapping into the teaching experiences of final year education students to increase support for students in their first year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Geng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the mentorship of pairing first year and final year teacher education students during their school placements or practicum. Participating students were studied using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA approach and undertaking Perceived Stress Scale (PSS to interpret their experience and their stress levels in the peer mentorship program. This peer mentoring program offered benefits for the first year education students by reducing their stress levels significantly and providing reassurance about their performance during school practicum. It also prepared the final year students for taking on teacher mentor roles. While the student mentorship program cannot replace the support provided by schools and universities, it does offer first year students reassurance as to their practical teaching abilities and performance. In addition, this study provides several perspectives on student mentorship during teaching practicum that are worthy of further research.

  19. Experiences of final year nursing students in their preparedness to become registered nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Carlson

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of final year nursing students relating to how they experience their preparedness to fulfil the role of professional nurse; secondly, to explore and describe the experiences of novice professional nurses in the role of professional nurse; finally, to generate a model which will assist the final year nursing student to become a professional nurse. A theory-generative, qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilized to reach the objectives of the study. Results indicated that final year nursing students experience a lack of confidence to take on the responsibilities of professional nursing. The results are displayed in table form and discussed in the article. This abstract forms part of a bigger study that addresses the professional maturity of the novice professional nurse for the practice of nursing.

  20. Learning from errors: assessing final year medical students' reflection on safety improvement, five year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Vicki; Murphy, Douglas; Fioratou, Evridiki; Chaudhuri, Arun; Shaw, James; Davey, Peter

    2018-04-02

    Investigation of real incidents has been consistently identified by expert reviews and student surveys as a potentially valuable teaching resource for medical students. The aim of this study was to adapt a published method to measure resident doctors' reflection on quality improvement and evaluate this as an assessment tool for medical students. The design is a cohort study. Medical students were prepared with a tutorial in team based learning format and an online Managing Incident Review course. The reliability of the modified Mayo Evaluation of Reflection on Improvement tool (mMERIT) was analysed with Generalizability G-theory. Long term sustainability of assessment of incident review with mMERIT was tested over five consecutive years. A total of 824 students have completed an incident review using 167 incidents from NHS Tayside's online reporting system. In order to address the academic practice gap students were supervised by Senior Charge Nurses or Consultants on the wards where the incidents had been reported. Inter-rater reliability was considered sufficiently high to have one assessor for each student report. There was no evidence of a gradient in student marks across the academic year. Marks were significantly higher for students who used Section Questions to structure their reports compared with those who did not. In Year 1 of the study 21 (14%) of 153 mMERIT reports were graded as concern. All 21 of these students achieved the required standard on resubmission. Rates of resubmission were lower (3% to 7%) in subsequent years. We have shown that mMERIT has high reliability with one rater. mMERIT can be used by students as part of a suite of feedback to help supplement their self-assessment on their learning needs and develop insightful practice to drive their development of quality, safety and person centred professional practice. Incident review addresses the need for workplace based learning and use of real life examples of mistakes, which has been

  1. Short communication: final year students' deficits in physical examination skills performance in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautter, Markus; Diefenbacher, Katja; Koehl-Hackert, Nadja; Buss, Beate; Nagelmann, Lars; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The physical examination of patients is an important diagnostic competence, but little is known about the examination skills of final-year medical students. To investigate physical examination skills of final-year medical students. In a cross-sectional study, 40 final-year students were asked to perform a detailed physical examination on standardized patients. Their performances were video-recorded and rated by independent video assessors. Video ratings showed a mean success rate of 40.1 % (SD 8.2). As regards accompanying doctor-patient communication, final-year students achieved a mean of no more than 36.7 % (SD 8.9) in the appropriate use of the corresponding communication items. Our study revealed severe deficits among final-year medical students in performing a detailed physical examination on a standardized patient. Thus, physical examination skills training should aim to improve these deficits while also paying attention to communicative aspects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. [The competent surgeon. Bridging the gap between undergraduate final year and postgraduate surgery training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadmon, M; Ganschow, P; Gillen, S; Hofmann, H S; Braune, N; Johannink, J; Kühn, P; Buhr, H J; Berberat, P O

    2013-10-01

    Competency-based frameworks rely on relevant professional competency rather than formal regulations. The transitional phase between final year undergraduate and common trunk postgraduate medical training is characterized by an increase of professional responsibility whereby previously acquired knowledge, skills and abilities have to be merged and applied to patients. Undergraduate and postgraduate training programs should ensure a successive transfer of responsibility for medical practice to final year students and young residents depending on individual competence. The concept of entrustable professional activities (EPA) represents a curricular concept based on concrete medical tasks which may be assigned to the responsibility of the trainee.

  3. Factors associated with basketball field goals made in the 2014 NBA finals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Ciampolini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS The main objective of this study was to analyze the factors that preceded field goals made in the 2014 NBA finals considering the number of passes per offense, shooting conditions, and offense type variables. METHODS We assessed field goals attempted by 27 professional players that participated in the 2014 NBA finals. Data were collected by three researchers through an adapted version of the Technical-Tactical Performance Evaluation Tool in Basketball to systematically analyze all five games of those finals. Descriptive analysis consisted in absolute and relative frequency and inferential statistics were applied through Chi-Square test, Cohen’s D for effect size, and binary logistic regression test. Significance levels were set at 5% and all statistics were applied through SPSS 23.0. RESULTS Shooting efficacy was not associated with the number of passes made per offense. Regression statistics showed that shooting efficacy was highly associated with shooting condition rather than the offense type performed. However, fast breaks seem to lead to better shooting conditions (passively guarded and wide open when compared to set and regained offenses. CONCLUSION Evidence pointed to the importance of shooting condition as a determining factor in increasing the probability of field goals made throughout the games analyzed.

  4. Gender differences in the employment expectations of final year undergraduates in a university in Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the gender differences in final year undergraduates’ employment expectations, broken down by salary expectations, occupational expectations and working region expectations, in a university in Central China. It firstly examines whether or not there are gender differences in these employment expectations. It then identifies factors that have actually contributed to the gender differences in employment expectations. The study employs the conceptual frame...

  5. Analysis of final year DVM research projects submitted to the Faculty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the intellectual output of the undergraduate final year students. research projects submitted to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, from 1994 to 2004. The findings of the study show that a total of 194 research projects were produced within the period under study.

  6. Cueing Metacognition to Improve Researching and Essay Writing in a Final Year High School Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, L. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on degrees of awareness and use of specific metacognitive strategies by 16 students in a final-year high school biology class in New Zealand. The aims of the intervention were to broaden students' thinking about bioethical issues associated with cancer and to enhance students' use of metacognition. Cues and prompts were used in…

  7. A Compulsory Bioethics Module for a Large Final Year Undergraduate Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes a compulsory bioethics module delivered to [approximately] 120 biology students in their final year. The main intended learning outcome is that students should be able to analyse and reason about bioethical issues. Interactive lectures explain and illustrate bioethics. Underlying principles and example issues are used to…

  8. Analysis of final year DVM research projects submitted to the Faculty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central Research Laboratory

    This study analyzed the intellectual output of the undergraduate final year students‟ research projects submitted to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, from 1994 to 2004. The findings of the study show that a total of 194 research projects were produced within the period under study.

  9. White Collar Work: Career Ambitions of Fiji Final Year School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilan, Pam; Cavu, Paula; Tagicakiverata, Isimeli; Hazelman, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The career ambitions of 1012 pupils in the final years of secondary schooling in Fiji were surveyed. The range of careers they nominated was very narrow, with teaching, nursing and other white collar work in the majority of responses. This stands in somewhat stark contrast to projected labour force needs, and the current serious shortage of…

  10. Review of final-year medical students' rural attachment at district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-15

    Nov 15, 2013 ... This paper presents the first phase of an ongoing quality improvement review of the rural attachment undertaken by final-year medical students during their Family Medicine rotation at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Academic programme development should be iterative and context- specific. As such, the ...

  11. Knowledge and attitudes of final year medical students to first aid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a descriptive cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the knowledge of final year medical students at the University of Benin regarding emergency management of traumatic tooth avulsion. Data collected were information on demographics, knowledge and practice regarding emergency management of traumatic ...

  12. Academic achievement of final-year medical students on a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic achievement of final-year medical students on a rural clinical platform: Can we dispel the myths? ... African Journal of Health Professions Education ... Background: There is a growing body of literature relating to the establishment of rural clinical training platforms for medical students describing many positive ...

  13. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  14. Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…

  15. English Language Writing Anxiety among Final Year Engineering Undergraduates in University Putra Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Lau Sing; Rahmat, Nurhazlini

    2014-01-01

    Second Language Writing Anxiety (SLWA) is considered one of the most crucial factors affecting all second language learning. This study focused on a group of final year Engineering students' English Language writing anxiety (N = 93) in relation to their gender, race and MUET results. The findings showed that the male gender, Chinese and MUET band…

  16. Field test plan: Buried waste technologies, Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, R.E.; Hyde, R.A.; Engleman, V.S.; Evans, J.D.; Jackson, T.W.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that, when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies, form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The Fiscal Year 1995 effort is to deploy and test multiple technologies from four functional areas of buried waste remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, and treatment. This document is the basic operational planning document for the deployment and testing of the technologies that support the field testing in Fiscal Year 1995. Discussed in this document are the scope of the tests; purpose and objective of the tests; organization and responsibilities; contingency plans; sequence of activities; sampling and data collection; document control; analytical methods; data reduction, validation, and verification; quality assurance; equipment and instruments; facilities and utilities; health and safety; residuals management; and regulatory management

  17. A field like today's? The strength of the geomagnetic field 1.1 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprain, Courtney J.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Fairchild, Luke M.; Gaastra, Kevin

    2018-02-01

    Paleomagnetic data from ancient rocks are one of the few types of observational data that can be brought to be bear on the long-term evolution of Earth's core. A recent compilation of paleointensity estimates from throughout Earth history has been interpreted to indicate that Earth's magnetic field strength increased in the Mesoproterozoic (between 1.5 and 1.0 billion years ago), with this increase taken to mark the onset of inner core nucleation. However, much of the data within the Precambrian paleointensity database are from Thellier-style experiments with non-ideal behavior that manifests in results such as double-slope Arai plots. Choices made when interpreting these data may significantly change conclusions about long-term trends in the intensity of Earth's geomagnetic field. In this study, we present new paleointensity results from volcanics of the ˜1.1 billion-year-old North American Midcontinent Rift. While most of the results exhibit non-ideal double-slope or sagging behavior in Arai plots, some flows have more ideal single-slope behavior leading to paleointensity estimates that may be some of the best constraints on the strength of Earth's field for this time. Taken together, new and previously published paleointensity data from the Midcontinent Rift yield a median field strength estimate of 56.0 ZAm2—very similar to the median for the past 300 million years. These field strength estimates are distinctly higher than those for the preceding billion years after excluding ca. 1.3 Ga data that may be biased by non-ideal behavior—consistent with an increase in field strength in the late Mesoproterozoic. However, given that ˜90 per cent of paleointensity estimates from 1.1 to 0.5 Ga come from the Midcontinent Rift, it is difficult to evaluate whether these high values relative to those estimated for the preceding billion years are the result of a stepwise, sustained increase in dipole moment. Regardless, paleointensity estimates from the Midcontinent

  18. Prenatal sex and other preferences for reproductive career of final year graduation girl students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara R Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marriage of girls just after graduation is common in Western Maharashtra. This study was planned to know the views of final year graduation student towards reproductive carrier. Aim: To interact with final year girl students of various streams to know their preferences on various aspects of reproductive carrier and contraceptive awareness. Material and Methods: Study-design: Cross-sectional. Study-setting: Academic institutes of Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Corporation area. Study-subject: All willing final year Girl students. Exclusion Criteria: Married girls. Sample size: All final year girl students Sampling Technique: Cluster sample Study-Duration: 7 months. Study-tool: Pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Percentages, Chi-square test. Results: All girls who have responded prefer marrying and having first child at right age. All feel spacing is needed, at least of 2 years. Two children was the most common choice (52.3%. Forty-three percent girls feel male child is must and 52.3% of total girls will like to have sex determination done if required. Total 47.24% girls were unaware about any contraceptive methods but 88.2% girls knew the place of its availability. Most common source of information about contraceptive was school and friends. E-pill was known to 41.5% of girls. All girls felt the need for more information about reproductive health and according to 81.3% right age for it is 15-18 years. Conclusion: Girls have correct reproductive preferences except sex of child. Sex preference and Low contraceptive awareness needs strong intervention.

  19. Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical students in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masika, Moses Muia; Omondi, Gregory Barnabas; Natembeya, Dennis Simiyu; Mugane, Ephraim Mwatha; Bosire, Kefa Ogonyo; Kibwage, Isaac Ongubo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mobile phone penetration has increased exponentially over the last decade as has its application in nearly all spheres of life including health and medical education. This study aimed at assessing the use of mobile learning technology and its challenges among final year undergraduate students in the College of Health sciences, University of Nairobi. Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among final year undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were issued to all final year students in their lecture rooms after obtaining informed consent. Data on demographics, mobile device ownership and mobile learning technology use and its challenges was collected. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS®. Chi-square and t-test were used for bivariate analysis. Results We had 292 respondents; 62% were medical students, 16% were nursing students, 13% were pharmacy students and 9% were dental surgery students. The majority were female (59%) and the average age was 24 years. Eighty eight percent (88%) of the respondents owned a smart device and nearly all of them used it for learning. 64% of the respondents used medical mobile applications. The main challenges were lack of a smart device, lack of technical know-how in accessing or using apps, sub-optimal internet access, cost of acquiring apps and limited device memory. Conclusion Mobile learning is increasingly popular among medical students and should be leveraged in promoting access and quality of medical education. PMID:26327964

  20. Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical students in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masika, Moses Muia; Omondi, Gregory Barnabas; Natembeya, Dennis Simiyu; Mugane, Ephraim Mwatha; Bosire, Kefa Ogonyo; Kibwage, Isaac Ongubo

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone penetration has increased exponentially over the last decade as has its application in nearly all spheres of life including health and medical education. This study aimed at assessing the use of mobile learning technology and its challenges among final year undergraduate students in the College of Health sciences, University of Nairobi. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among final year undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were issued to all final year students in their lecture rooms after obtaining informed consent. Data on demographics, mobile device ownership and mobile learning technology use and its challenges was collected. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS(®). Chi-square and t-test were used for bivariate analysis. We had 292 respondents; 62% were medical students, 16% were nursing students, 13% were pharmacy students and 9% were dental surgery students. The majority were female (59%) and the average age was 24 years. Eighty eight percent (88%) of the respondents owned a smart device and nearly all of them used it for learning. 64% of the respondents used medical mobile applications. The main challenges were lack of a smart device, lack of technical know-how in accessing or using apps, sub-optimal internet access, cost of acquiring apps and limited device memory. Mobile learning is increasingly popular among medical students and should be leveraged in promoting access and quality of medical education.

  1. Field-portable and automated immunosensors for hexavalent uranium, other heavy metals and chelators. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Diane A.

    2009-01-01

    This is the final technical report for this 10-year project. A better understanding of in situ bioremediation processes and the development of strategies to enhance bacterial remediation of contaminated sites depend either directly or indirectly upon accurate detection and measurement of organics, metal and other toxic elements prior to, during and following the remediation process. Detection and measurement costs are presently high due to the complex methodologies required for analysis. Remediation costs could be significantly reduced through the use of rapid, simple on-site methods. The cost of laboratory analysis continues to climb and the outlay for the assessment of a single site can frequently reach hundreds of thousands of dollars. One estimate suggests that the use of low cost field methods (defined as less than $100/test) with 5-20% standard laboratory confirmation could reduce analytical costs by greater than 70%. Perhaps as important as the cost of analysis is ability to obtain data about the remediation process in near real-time. The instruments normally used for environmental analysis of uranium (atomic absorption spectrophotometer, inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer, IC-MS and kinetic phosphorescence analyzer) or can be quite expensive; these instruments are thus usually located only in centralized facilities. Environmental samples must therefore be transported to these facilities and often wait in a queue before they can be analyzed. Both sample transport and time-in-queue lead to long turn-around times (days to weeks). Such long turn-around times are especially worrisome during site remediation, especially when an unexpected finding might dictate a change in the methodologies being employed at the site. The goal of this project was to develop sensors that could yield reliable data in near realtime (< 1 hour) be field-ready (ie, simple, durable and accurate) and present low costs (<< $100/assay and <$5,000 for the initial equipment

  2. Medical education: views and recommendations by final year MBBS students of a private medical college in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Noreen Rahat; Daud, Seema; Manzoor, Iram

    2010-02-01

    To obtain the views and recommendations of final year MBBS medical students of Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore about various aspects of the current medical education. Cross-sectional survey. Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore in October and November 2007. Preformed close ended structured questionnaire regarding medical teaching and evaluation methods and recommendations was used to collect the data from students of final year MBBS (n=120) at Lahore Medical and Dental College. SPSS 15 program was used for analysis. Data was presented as frequency percentages. A majority of the students (79%) thought that multimedia was the most effective teaching tool, (54%) students viewed 45 minutes as ideal lecture duration. Measures suggested to improve the examination results were regular tests (54%), improved lecture content (32%) and regular tutorials (10%). MCQ's were the mode of examination questions preferred by 62% of students. Recommendations given by students for improving the current medical education were better teaching (26%) followed by increased motivation in students 54 (16%) and more hands-on training/practical field work (12%). Medical students in this study preferred multimedia, lecture duration less than 45 minutes and MCQ's as their preferred mode of evaluation. Students recommended increased emphasis on better lectures, increasing learning motivation in students and more hands on training/practical field work to improve current medical teaching.

  3. Status of SRNL radiological field lysimeter experiment-Year 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bagwell, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-10-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radiological Field Lysimeter Experiment is a one-of-a-kind field facility designed to study radionuclide geochemical processes at a larger spatial scale (from grams to tens of kilograms sediment) and temporal scale (from months to 10 years) than is readily afforded through laboratory studies. The lysimeter facility is intended to capture the natural heterogeneity of moisture and temperature regimes in the vadose zone, the unsaturated subsurface region between the surface soil and the underlying aquifer. The 48 lysimeter columns, which contain various radionuclides (and stable iodine), were opened to rainfall infiltration on July 5, 2012. The objective of this report is to provide a status of the lysimeter facility operations and to compile data collected during FY13, including leachate volume, rainfall, and soil moisture and temperature in situ probe data. Radiological leachate data are not presented in this document but will be the subject of a separate document.1 Leachate samples were collected quarterly and shipped to Clemson University for radiological analyses. Rainfall, leachate volume, moisture and temperature probe data were collected continuously. During operations of the facility this year, there were four safety or technical concerns that required additional maintenance: 1) radioactivity was detected in one of the overflow bottles (captured water collected from the secondary containment that does not come in contact with the radiological source material); 2) rainwater accumulated within the sample-bottle storage sheds; 3) overflow containers collected more liquid than anticipated; and 4) significant spider infestation occurred in the sample-bottle storage sheds. To address the first three concerns, each of the lysimeter columns was re-plumbed to improve and to minimize the number of joint unions. To address the fourth concern regarding spiders, new sample-bottle water sheds were purchased and a pest control

  4. TRANSITIONING BEYOND UNDERGRADUATE HOSPITALITY EDUCATION; A DIALOGIC ANALYSIS OF FINAL YEAR HOSPITALITY STUDENTS’ NARRATIVES OF EMPLOYABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hine, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Employability has become a key consideration for graduates, and society. Increasingly the trajectory of individuals at age 18 involves the completion of an undergraduate level degree qualification. This thesis presents a sociologically grounded study into the dialogic construction of employability in final year hospitality students and recent hospitality graduates. Drawing on a nationwide sample of UK based hospitality graduates, as they transition beyond undergraduate level higher educati...

  5. Do final-year medical students have sufficient prescribing competencies? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, David J; Tichelaar, Jelle; Graaf, Sanne; Otten, René H J; Richir, Milan C; van Agtmael, Michiel A

    2018-04-01

    Prescribing errors are an important cause of patient safety incidents and are frequently caused by junior doctors. This might be because the prescribing competence of final-year medical students is poor as a result of inadequate clinical pharmacology and therapeutic (CPT) education. We reviewed the literature to investigate which prescribing competencies medical students should have acquired in order to prescribe safely and effectively, and whether these have been attained by the time they graduate. PubMed, EMBASE and ERIC databases were searched from the earliest dates up to and including January 2017, using the terms 'prescribing', 'competence' and 'medical students' in combination. Articles describing or evaluating essential prescribing competencies of final-year medical students were included. Twenty-five articles describing, and 47 articles evaluating, the prescribing competencies of final-year students were included. Although there seems to be some agreement, we found no clear consensus among CPT teachers on which prescribing competencies medical students should have when they graduate. Studies showed that students had a general lack of preparedness, self-confidence, knowledge and skills, specifically regarding general and antimicrobial prescribing and pharmacovigilance. However, the results should be interpreted with caution, given the heterogeneity and methodological weaknesses of the included studies. There is considerable evidence that final-year students have insufficient competencies to prescribe safely and effectively, although there is a need for a greater consensus among CPT teachers on the required competencies. Changes in undergraduate CPT education are urgently required in order to improve the prescribing of future doctors. © 2018 VU University Medical Centre. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Development of Career Opportunities for Technicians in the Nuclear Medicine Field. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    This report describes a nationally coordinated program development project whose purpose was to catalyze the implementation of needed postsecondary educational programs in the field of nuclear medicine technology (NMT). The NMT project was carried out during the six year period 1968-74 in cooperation with more than 36 community/junior colleges and…

  7. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  8. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Poor academic performance: A perspective of final year diagnostic radiography students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gqweta, Ntokozo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A study was conducted on final year diagnostic radiography students at a University of Technology in Durban. The aim of the study was to investigate the final year diagnostic radiography students' opinions and views on academic performance in order to inform teaching and learning methods. The objectives were: •To explore the students' opinions regarding poor performance. •To identify strategies to improve academic performance. Method: A qualitative, interpretive approach was used to explain and understand the students' lived experiences of their academic performances. A short open ended questionnaire was administered to a cohort of final diagnostic radiography students following feedback on a written assessment. Questionnaire responses were then manually captured and analyzed. Results: Five (5) themes were identified that could possibly be associated with poor academic performance. These themes were, poor preparation, lack of independent study, difficulty in understanding learning content and misinterpretation of assessment questions, inefficient studying techniques as well as perceived improvement strategies. Conclusion: Students identified their inadequate preparation and the lack of dedicated independent studying as the main reasons for poor performance. Students preferred to be taught in an assessment oriented manner. However their identified improvement strategies were aligned with the learner centred approach.

  10. Oral health attitudes and behaviours of final-year dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, L B; Calache, H

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study of final-year dental students in 10 classes (1997, 2001-2009) were to examine their self-reported oral health attitudes and behaviours and describe any trends in these attributes. Students were surveyed in final semester via an anonymous questionnaire (34 behaviour questions; eight attitude statements). Distributions, trends over time and attitude-behaviour associations were examined. Of 583 students, 459 responded (79%). All tooth-brushed with fluoride toothpaste; 80% brushed ≥2/day. Overall, 85% flossed; over time flossing behaviour increased significantly (P teeth for all their life (76%); their future needs for fillings would be minimal (61%); smoking could adversely affect their teeth or gums (85%); and regular dental attendance was important for their dental health (51%). Congruent attitudes and behaviours favouring oral health were widely held concerning dental attendance, flossing and smoking. Final-year dental students showed well established, favourable oral hygiene attitudes and behaviours, with evidence to suggest this knowledge was developed whilst in dental school. Despite many ceasing smoking, 5% still smoked. All dental students should receive training in motivational counselling and tobacco cessation to ensure this is included in patient care. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Twelve years of cooperation in the field of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grapengiesser, Sten; Bennerstedt, Torkel

    2005-06-01

    SSI has pursued an international cooperation program since 1992 within the field of radiation protection and emergency preparedness for radiation accidents with the three Baltic countries as main beneficiaries. As the Baltic countries are members of the EU since May 2004, this bilateral support will now be phased out and replaced with other forms of cooperation. During the years passed, a large number of activities have been launched with a total budget of some 14 million ECU. The Baltic radiation protection authorities have played a big role in the cooperation and Baltic ministries, universities, nuclear technology installations and other industries using radiation have also been engaged in the projects. SKI, SKB, Studsvik and the Swedish nuclear power plants should be mentioned as major cooperation partners on the Swedish side. During autumn 2004 when such a large coordinated work program was coming to an end, SSI decided to hold a seminar with the purpose to follow up experiences from the work and discuss coming forms of cooperation. The seminar took place on the 18 of November 2004 and gathered some 80 participants, 29 of which from the Baltic countries. It was opened by Lars-Erik Holm, the SSI Director General, and the three Baltic countries then presented their views and impressions from the passed years of cooperation. The seminar was concluded with a panel discussion on 'How to proceed from today's situation'. The result was that SSI invited to a new coordination meeting during autumn 2005 to follow up and discuss coordination of radiation protection around the Baltic Sea together with the other Nordic radiation protection authorities.

  12. Twelve years of cooperation in the field of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grapengiesser, Sten; Bennerstedt, Torkel

    2005-06-01

    SSI has pursued an international cooperation program since 1992 within the field of radiation protection and emergency preparedness for radiation accidents with the three Baltic countries as main beneficiaries. As the Baltic countries are members of the EU since May 2004, this bilateral support will now be phased out and replaced with other forms of cooperation. During the years passed, a large number of activities have been launched with a total budget of some 14 million ECU. The Baltic radiation protection authorities have played a big role in the cooperation and Baltic ministries, universities, nuclear technology installations and other industries using radiation have also been engaged in the projects. SKI, SKB, Studsvik and the Swedish nuclear power plants should be mentioned as major cooperation partners on the Swedish side. During autumn 2004 when such a large coordinated work program was coming to an end, SSI decided to hold a seminar with the purpose to follow up experiences from the work and discuss coming forms of cooperation. The seminar took place on the 18 of November 2004 and gathered some 80 participants, 29 of which from the Baltic countries. It was opened by Lars-Erik Holm, the SSI Director General, and the three Baltic countries then presented their views and impressions from the passed years of cooperation. The seminar was concluded with a panel discussion on 'How to proceed from today's situation'. The result was that SSI invited to a new coordination meeting during autumn 2005 to follow up and discuss coordination of radiation protection around the Baltic Sea together with the other Nordic radiation protection authorities

  13. Clinical observed performance evaluation: a prospective study in final year students of surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Markey, G C

    2010-06-24

    We report a prospective study of clinical observed performance evaluation (COPE) for 197 medical students in the pre-qualification year of clinical education. Psychometric quality was the main endpoint. Students were assessed in groups of 5 in 40-min patient encounters, with each student the focus of evaluation for 8 min. Each student had a series of assessments in a 25-week teaching programme. Over time, several clinicians from a pool of 16 surgical consultants and registrars evaluated each student by direct observation. A structured rating form was used for assessment data. Variance component analysis (VCA), internal consistency and inter-rater agreement were used to estimate reliability. The predictive and convergent validity of COPE in relation to summative OSCE, long case, and overall final examination was estimated. Median number of COPE assessments per student was 7. Generalisability of a mean score over 7 COPE assessments was 0.66, equal to that of an 8 x 7.5 min station final OSCE. Internal consistency was 0.88-0.97 and inter-rater agreement 0.82. Significant correlations were observed with OSCE performance (R = 0.55 disattenuated) and long case (R = 0.47 disattenuated). Convergent validity was 0.81 by VCA. Overall final examination performance was linearly related to mean COPE score with standard error 3.7%. COPE permitted efficient serial assessment of a large cohort of final year students in a real world setting. Its psychometric quality compared well with conventional assessments and with other direct observation instruments as reported in the literature. Effect on learning, and translation to clinical care, are directions for future research.

  14. Course experiences, satisfaction and career intent of final year pre-registration Australian pharmacy students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Grace; Fois, Romano; Nissen, Lisa; Saini, Bandana

    2013-01-01

    Background In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce. Objective The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students’ career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. Methods A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. Results ‘Interest in health and medicine’ was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238). The majority of students were ‘somewhat satisfied’ with the choice of pharmacy (35.7%) as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as ‘felt pharmacy is a good profession’ (p=0.003) while negative associations included ‘joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry’ (p=0.001). Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was ‘changing’ while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as ‘competitive’ and ‘research’ respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital pharmacy

  15. Course experiences, satisfaction and career intent of final year pre-registration Australian pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce Objective: The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students’ career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. Methods: A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. Results: ‘Interest in health and medicine’ was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238. The majority of students were ‘somewhat satisfied’ with the choice of pharmacy (35.7% as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as ‘felt pharmacy is a good profession’ (p=0.003 while negative associations included ‘joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry’ (p=0.001. Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was ‘changing’ while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as ‘competitive’ and ‘research’ respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital

  16. Course experiences, satisfaction and career intent of final year pre-registration Australian pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Grace; Fois, Romano; Nissen, Lisa; Saini, Bandana

    2014-04-01

    In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students' perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students' current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce. The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students' career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. 'Interest in health and medicine' was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238). The majority of students were 'somewhat satisfied' with the choice of pharmacy (35.7%) as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as 'felt pharmacy is a good profession' (p=0.003) while negative associations included 'joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry' (p=0.001). Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was 'changing' while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as 'competitive' and 'research' respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital pharmacy. Complex factors including university experiences are involved in shaping

  17. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: 10 years of field research-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Gribbin, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Corbett, E.; Nguyen, K.; Bjornton, J.; Lee, D.; Dubossi, D.; Reyes, N.

    2014-12-01

    This fall marks the 10th year in which we have run a research-project-based educational program for high school students and science teachers at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. This summer's cohort included 31 teenagers, 7 science teachers, and 16 college students, most of whom are returning to the program to help run the research projects. Nearly all of our students attend non-competitive-entry public schools in NYC or the neighborhoods around the Observatory. Over 80% are from under-served minority populations. Most receive Title I/III assistance. About 60% are young women. During the past 10 years, nearly all of our participants have gone on to 4-year colleges. About half are declaring science and engineering majors. Our students receive scholarship support at rates several times higher than their graduating peers, including 5 Gates Millennium scholars over the past 5 years. Our science is centered on studies of a nearby tidal wetland, where we have expanded from fish collections in year one to include everything from sediment core analysis to soil chemistry to nutrient cycles to the local food web. In this presentation we will look back over 10 years of experience and focus on what lessons can be learned about (1) how to engage teams of young investigators in authentic scientific research; (2) what cultural/organizational structures encourage them to make use of place- and project-based learning and (3) what the participants themselves report as the most useful aspects of our programming. The presentation will include video clips from the students' field experiences and from reflective interviews with "graduates".

  18. Does doctors’ workload impact supervision and ward activities of final-year students? A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celebi Nora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital doctors face constantly increasing workloads. Besides caring for patients, their duties also comprise the education of future colleagues. The aim of this study was to objectively investigate whether the workload arising from increased patient care interferes with student supervision and is associated with more non-medical activities of final-year medical students. Methods A total of 54 final-year students were asked to keep a diary of their daily activities over a three-week period at the beginning of their internship in Internal Medicine. Students categorized their activities – both medical and non-medical - according to whether they had: (1 only watched, (2 assisted the ward resident, (3 performed the activity themselves under supervision of the ward resident, or (4 performed the activity without supervision. The activities reported on a particular day were matched with a ward specific workload-index derived from the hospital information system, including the number of patients treated on the corresponding ward on that day, a correction factor according to the patient comorbidity complexity level (PCCL, and the number of admissions and discharges. Both students and ward residents were blinded to the study question. Results A total of 32 diaries (59 %, 442 recorded working days were handed back. Overall, the students reported 1.2 ± 1.3 supervised, 1.8 ±1.6 medical and 3.6 ± 1.7 non-medical activities per day. The more supervised activities were reported, the more the number of reported medical activities increased (p  Conclusions There was a significant association between ward doctors’ supervision of students and the number of medical activities performed by medical students. The workload had no significant effect on supervision or the number of medical or non-medical activities of final-year students.

  19. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final detailed test plan : WSDOT deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to expand upon the evaluation components presented in "Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : WSDOT deployment". This document defines the objective, approach,...

  20. Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations of Strongly-Correlated Systems, the Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-07

    In this final report, we present preliminary results of ground state phases of interacting spinless Dirac fermions. The name "Dirac fermion" originates from the fact that low-energy excitations of electrons hopping on the honeycomb lattice are described by a relativistic Dirac equation. Dirac fermions have received much attention particularly after the seminal work of Haldale1 which shows that the quantum Hall physics can be realized on the honeycomb lattice without magnetic fields. Haldane's work later becomes the foundation of topological insulators (TIs). While the physics of TIs is based largely on spin-orbit coupled non-interacting electrons, it was conjectured that topological insulators can be induced by strong correlations alone.

  1. IMPER: Characterization of the wind field over a large wind turbine rotor - final report; Improved performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Wagner, R.

    2012-01-15

    A modern wind turbine rotor with a contemporary rotor size would easily with the tips penetrate the air between 116 m and 30 m and herby experience effects of different wind. With current rules on power performance measurements such as IEC 61400-121 the reference wind speed is measured at hub height, an oversimplification of the wind energy power over the rotor disk area is carried out. The project comprised a number of innovative and coordinated measurements on a full scale turbine with remote sensing technology and simulations on a 500 kW wind turbine for the effects of wind field characterization. The objective with the present report is to give a short overview of the different experiments carried out and results obtained within the final phase of this project. (Author)

  2. A survey of final year medical students at University College, Galway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, M; Leonard, B E

    1993-01-01

    The results of this survey of final year medical students at a provincial Irish university showed that over three-quarters came from families in which at least one parent was in a professional or semi-professional occupation. The majority of the students had repeated their Leaving Certificate examination. Most students expressed dissatisfaction with the career guidance counselling they received during their second level education. All the students came from secondary schools. While the majority expressed satisfaction with their choice of University course, approximately one-third had considered withdrawing from the course, particularly during the pre-clinical years. The main reasons given were financial difficulties, personal problems and difficulties with the course. Despite the provision of student counsellors and academic staff members to assist such students, the majority did not consult any staff member for help. Most students expected they would have to obtain employment outside of Ireland.

  3. Final year veterinary students' attitudes towards small animal dentistry: a questionnaire-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the attitudes of final year veterinary students towards small animal dentistry and to examine the teaching received in this subject, both at university and during extra-mural studies. A cross-sectional study of all UK final year veterinary students in 2012 was designed and used by a self-administered Internet-based questionnaire. Six of seven universities participated with 188 student responses. All students felt that it was important or very important for a small animal practitioner to have a broad understanding of dentistry, and that orodental problems were common or very common in small animals. Almost all (99 · 5%) students perceived small animal dentistry as an important or very important subject. Less than 40% of students felt that the teaching had prepared them for entering practice. Over 50% reported that they neither felt confident in discussing orodental problems with clients nor in performing a detailed examination of the oral cavity. Dental problems are perceived by students as frequently encountered in small animal practice. The veterinary surgeon should be adequately trained to detect, diagnose and treat dental disease in small animals and many students feel that their current teaching is inadequate. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Constraining Saturn's interior density profile from precision gravity field measurement obtained during Grand Finale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movshovitz, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Helled, R.; Hubbard, W. B.; Mankovich, C.; Thorngren, D.; Wahl, S. M.; Militzer, B.; Durante, D.

    2017-12-01

    The external gravity field of a planetary body is determined by the distribution of mass in its interior. Therefore, a measurement of the external field, properlyinterpreted, tells us about the interior density profile, ρ(r), which in turn can be used to constrain the composition in the interior and thereby learn about theformation mechanism of the planet. Recently, very high precision measurements of the gravity coefficients for Saturn have been made by the radio science instrument on the Cassini spacecraft during its Grand Finale orbits. The resulting coefficients come with an associated uncertainty. The task of matching a given density profile to a given set of gravity coefficients is relatively straightforward, but the question of how to best account for the uncertainty is not. In essentially all prior work on matching models to gravity field data inferences about planetary structure have rested on assumptions regarding the imperfectly known H/He equation of state and the assumption of an adiabatic interior. Here we wish to vastly expand the phase space of such calculations. We present a framework for describing all the possible interior density structures of a Jovian planet constrained by a given set of gravity coefficients and their associated uncertainties. Our approach is statistical. We produce a random sample of ρ(a) curves drawn from the underlying (and unknown) probability distribution of all curves, where ρ is the density on an interior level surface with equatorial radius a. Since the resulting set of density curves is a random sample, that is, curves appear with frequency proportional to the likelihood of their being consistent with the measured gravity, we can compute probability distributions for any quantity that is a function of ρ, such as central pressure, oblateness, core mass and radius, etc. Our approach is also Bayesian, in that it can utilize any prior assumptions about the planet's interior, as necessary, without being overly

  5. Dynamics and Morphology of Saturn’s North Polar Region During Cassini’s Final Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, John J.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn; McCabe, Ryan M.; Gunnarson, Jacob; Garland, Justin; Gallego, Angelina

    2017-10-01

    We present an analysis of Saturn’s north polar region utilizing Cassini ISS images captured in visible and near-infrared wavelengths during late 2016 and 2017, including images captured during Cassini’s Grand Finale orbits. To measure the wind field in the region, we utilize the two-dimensional correlation imaging velocimetry (CIV) technique. We also calculate the relative vorticity and divergence from the wind field. To detect changes in the dynamics, we compare measurements of the wind, relative vorticity, and divergence in 2012 and 2013 with those from 2016/2017. We also compare cloud reflectivity between 2012/2013 and 2016/2017 in images that show the north pole under similar illumination conditions. To detect changes in cloud reflectivity, we utilize a Minnaert correction to calculate the zonal mean reflectivity as a function of latitude. Furthermore, we compare the winds and cloud reflectivity at several wavelengths in order to look for changes occurring at different altitudes. Our results indicate that while the dynamics of the north polar region have remained relatively stable, there have been significant morphology changes that have resulted in dramatic color changes. We hypothesize that these changes are a result of the seasonal cycle and linked to the increased production of photochemical hazes in the atmosphere. Our work has been supported by NASA PATM NNX14AK07G, NSF AAG 1212216, and NASA NESSF NNX15AQ70H.

  6. LDRD final report on confinement of cluster fusion plasmas with magnetic fields.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argo, Jeffrey W.; Kellogg, Jeffrey W.; Headley, Daniel Ignacio; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Waugh, Caleb J.; Lewis, Sean M.; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Wisher, Matthew; Struve, Kenneth William; Savage, Mark Edward; Quevedo, Hernan J.; Bengtson, Roger

    2011-11-01

    Two versions of a current driver for single-turn, single-use 1-cm diameter magnetic field coils have been built and tested at the Sandia National Laboratories for use with cluster fusion experiments at the University of Texas in Austin. These coils are used to provide axial magnetic fields to slow radial loss of electrons from laser-produced deuterium plasmas. Typical peak field strength achievable for the two-capacitor system is 50 T, and 200 T for the ten-capacitor system. Current rise time for both systems is about 1.7 {mu}s, with peak current of 500 kA and 2 MA, respectively. Because the coil must be brought to the laser, the driver needs to be portable and drive currents in vacuum. The drivers are complete but laser-plasma experiments are still in progress. Therefore, in this report, we focus on system design, initial tests, and performance characteristics of the two-capacitor and ten-capacitors systems. The questions of whether a 200 T magnetic field can retard the breakup of a cluster-fusion plasma, and whether this field can enhance neutron production have not yet been answered. However, tools have been developed that will enable producing the magnetic fields needed to answer these questions. These are a two-capacitor, 400-kA system that was delivered to the University of Texas in 2010, and a 2-MA ten-capacitor system delivered this year. The first system allowed initial testing, and the second system will be able to produce the 200 T magnetic fields needed for cluster fusion experiments with a petawatt laser. The prototype 400-kA magnetic field driver system was designed and built to test the design concept for the system, and to verify that a portable driver system could be built that delivers current to a magnetic field coil in vacuum. This system was built copying a design from a fixed-facility, high-field machine at LANL, but made to be portable and to use a Z-machine-like vacuum insulator and vacuum transmission line. This system was sent to the

  7. Brazilian energy balance 2011 - year 2010. Final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2011 - ano base 2010. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2010 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2010; chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, desegregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2010, through graphs and tables; chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the Field Performance of Residential Fuel Cells: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrero, E.; McClelland, R.

    2004-05-01

    Distributed generation has attracted significant interest from rural electric cooperatives and their customers. Cooperatives have a particular nexus because of inherently low customer density, growth patterns at the end of long lines, and an influx of customers and high-tech industries seeking to diversify out of urban environments. Fuel cells are considered a particularly interesting DG candidate for these cooperatives because of their power quality, efficiency, and environmental benefits. The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association Cooperative Research Network residential fuel cell program demonstrated RFC power plants and assessed related technical and application issues. This final subcontract report is an assessment of the program's results. This 3-year program leveraged Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) funding.

  9. Dinosaurs in decline tens of millions of years before their final extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Benton, Michael J.

    2016-05-01

    Whether dinosaurs were in a long-term decline or whether they were reigning strong right up to their final disappearance at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event 66 Mya has been debated for decades with no clear resolution. The dispute has continued unresolved because of a lack of statistical rigor and appropriate evolutionary framework. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we apply a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to model the evolutionary dynamics of speciation and extinction through time in Mesozoic dinosaurs, properly taking account of previously ignored statistical violations. We find overwhelming support for a long-term decline across all dinosaurs and within all three dinosaurian subclades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha, and Theropoda), where speciation rate slowed down through time and was ultimately exceeded by extinction rate tens of millions of years before the K-Pg boundary. The only exceptions to this general pattern are the morphologically specialized herbivores, the Hadrosauriformes and Ceratopsidae, which show rapid species proliferations throughout the Late Cretaceous instead. Our results highlight that, despite some heterogeneity in speciation dynamics, dinosaurs showed a marked reduction in their ability to replace extinct species with new ones, making them vulnerable to extinction and unable to respond quickly to and recover from the final catastrophic event.

  10. Computer simulations of ionospheric electric fields and currents - final report of the IMS magnetometer project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamide, Y.; Kroehl, H.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report summarizes the major results of a five-year research project initiated by the authors who collaborated with as many as 100 scientists from many countries. In this project a numerical algorithm has been developed and improved from which one estimates the global distribution of electric fields and currents in the horizontal ionosphere as well as field-aligned vertical currents in the polar region from ground-based geomagnetic records and a model of ionospheric conductivity. As an important byproduct of the inversion scheme, we infer the distribution of Joule heat production from the ionospheric currents. Crucial tests of the method in accurately reproducing the large-scale measured patterns of electrodynamic parameters in the earth's environment have proved that the method will accurately reproduce inputs (e.g., ground magnetic perturbation vectors) within the numerical limitations of the most probable solutions of second-order differential equations. As these tests proved successful, the scheme was applied to the extensive geomagnetic data sets which were collected as part of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) to determine the instantaneous electric field and current patterns which agreed with those obtained by more direct methods, such as radar and satellite measurements.

  11. Conscious knowledge of learning: accessing learning strategies in a final year high school biology class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Lindsey; Gunstone, Richard

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative case study investigation of the knowledge and use of learning strategies by 16 students in a final year high school biology class to expand their conscious knowledge of learning. Students were provided with opportunities to engage in purposeful inquiry into the biological, social and ethical aspects of cancer. A constructivist approach was implemented to access prior content and procedural knowledge in various ways. Students were encouraged to develop evaluation of their learning skills independently through activities that promoted metacognition. Those students who planned and monitored their work produced essays of higher quality. The value and difficulties of promoting metacognitive approaches in this context are discussed, as well as the idea that metacognitive processes are difficult to research, because they have to be conscious in order to be identified by the learner, thereby making them accessible to the researcher.

  12. Respect in final-year student nurse–patient encounters – an interpretative phenomenological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clucas, Claudine; Chapman, Hazel M.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known regarding health-care professionals' understanding and experiences of respect towards patients. The study aimed to explore student nurses' understanding and experiences of respect in their encounters with patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight final-year student nurses with practice placements across different health-care trusts in the UK. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Three super-ordinate themes were identified: understanding of what it means to show respect, negotiating role expectations and personal attitudes in practice, and barriers related to the performance of the nursing role. The factors identified should be investigated further and addressed as they are likely to influence patients' experiences of feeling respected in nurse–patient interactions and subsequently their well-being and health-related behaviours. PMID:25750810

  13. Cueing Metacognition to Improve Researching and Essay Writing in a Final Year High School Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, L. N.

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports on degrees of awareness and use of specific metacognitive strategies by 16 students in a final-year high school biology class in New Zealand. The aims of the intervention were to broaden students' thinking about bioethical issues associated with cancer and to enhance students' use of metacognition. Cues and prompts were used in this unit of work to help students use metacognitive strategies since students did not generally use metacognitive strategies spontaneously. Scaffolding was mediated through the teacher modelling, questioning, cueing or prompting students to evaluate their learning. The research reported here illustrates how teachers can cue students to be more self-directed in their learning. Three case studies illustrate how learning strategies were used differentially. Most students were aware of strategies that could help them to learn more effectively. It was found that those students who were not only aware of but also used strategies to plan, monitor and evaluate their work, produced essays of higher quality.

  14. English Language Writing Anxiety among Final Year Engineering Undergraduates in University Putra Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Sing Min

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Second Language Writing Anxiety (SLWA is considered one of the most crucial factors affecting all second language learning. This study focused on a group of final year Engineering students’ English Language writing anxiety (N=93 in relation to their gender, race and MUET results. The findings showed that the the male gender, Chinese and MUET band 4 participants faced higher levels of anxiety as compared to the other groups respectively. Somatic anxiety was recorded to be the highest subscale of anxiety faced by most of the participants. The findings of this study can help in making suitable amendments in the engineering programme course structure, especially in determining the suitable English papers to be offered to the students.

  15. Clinical anxiety among final year dental students: The trainers and students perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Obarisiagbon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dental clinical setting, which is a significant learning environment for undergraduate dental students, may induce anxiety, which may adversely affect the clinical performance. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors provoking clinical anxiety in dental students from the trainers and students perspectives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 6 th (final year dental students of University of Benin and their clinical trainers between January and March 2012 using the 38-item modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire. Results: Of the 67 participants, 32 (47.8% were 6 th year dental students while 35 (52.2% were clinical trainers. According to the students, the top clinical anxiety provoking situations were inability to meet requirements before exams, inability to pass the final exams, dealing with psychiatric patients, coping with uncooperative children, getting infected by patients, fracturing a tooth during extraction, extracting the wrong tooth, discovering calculus by the supervisor after scaling, accidental pulp exposure, inadvertently hurting patients and using the high speed hand piece. There existed concordance on the top two clinical anxiety provoking situations reported by the students and their clinical trainers. However, measuring blood pressure, taking pulse, presenting in the clinic, handling a syncopal attack, and accidental pulp exposure were statistically significant contrasting clinical anxiety provoking situations from dental students and trainers perspectives. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed that clinical trainers share largely the same perspectives with the dental students on the clinical anxiety provoking situations with slight variations. Fostering a supportive learning environment conducive to dental student learning by strengthen efforts to minimize clinical anxiety is a necessity.

  16. Evaluation of final-year dental students concerning therapeutic decision making for proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervian, Juliane; Tovo, Maximiano Ferreira; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Brusco, Larissa Corrêa; Rosa, Francinne Miranda da

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the radiographic criteria used by final-year dental students when defining the need for restorative treatment for proximal caries, as well as investigating potentially associated factors in this therapeutic decision. A questionnaire with two schematic diagrams presenting five levels of proximal lesion penetration was administered to students attending the six private and three public dental schools in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Absolute and relative frequencies were described and inferential statistics involving Chi-square and McNemar tests and simple logistic regression were carried out to assess variations in therapeutic decisions related to patient dentition (deciduous/permanent) and gender, age and dental school (public/private). Of the 346 dental students assessed, 28.6% (99/346) indicated restorative treatment for lesions restricted to the enamel in deciduous teeth and 38.2% (132/346) indicated the same for permanent teeth, revealing a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001). Student gender and age were not associated with the therapeutic decision; however, a significant difference between dental schools was found when comparing restorative criteria in deciduous (p caries lesion was restricted to the enamel was 72% higher for students graduating from private schools compared to public schools (Odds Ratio: 1.72; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03-2.90). These data demonstrate a large variation between the therapeutic decisions regarding proximal caries reported by final-year dental students and suggest that deep reflection is needed on the part of faculty in order to provide an evidence-based education.

  17. Evaluation of final-year dental students concerning therapeutic decision making for proximal caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bervian

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the radiographic criteria used by final-year dental students when defining the need for restorative treatment for proximal caries, as well as investigating potentially associated factors in this therapeutic decision. A questionnaire with two schematic diagrams presenting five levels of proximal lesion penetration was administered to students attending the six private and three public dental schools in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Absolute and relative frequencies were described and inferential statistics involving Chi-square and McNemar tests and simple logistic regression were carried out to assess variations in therapeutic decisions related to patient dentition (deciduous/permanent and gender, age and dental school (public/private. Of the 346 dental students assessed, 28.6% (99/346 indicated restorative treatment for lesions restricted to the enamel in deciduous teeth and 38.2% (132/346 indicated the same for permanent teeth, revealing a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001. Student gender and age were not associated with the therapeutic decision; however, a significant difference between dental schools was found when comparing restorative criteria in deciduous (p < 0.001 and permanent molars (p < 0.001. The odds of restorative decision in permanent teeth when the caries lesion was restricted to the enamel was 72% higher for students graduating from private schools compared to public schools (Odds Ratio: 1.72; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03-2.90. These data demonstrate a large variation between the therapeutic decisions regarding proximal caries reported by final-year dental students and suggest that deep reflection is needed on the part of faculty in order to provide an evidence-based education.

  18. Medical students' preparation for the transition to postgraduate training through final year elective rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, W E Sjoukje; Wijnen-Meijer, Marjo; Ten Cate, Olle; van Dijk, Marijke

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study adds to the ongoing discussion on how to ease the transition from undergraduate medical training to postgraduate training. In the Netherlands there is no central matching system for admission to residency. Medical school graduates just apply for a position in an open job market. Many choose to acquire general or specialty-specific clinical experiences after the medical degree before residency, to further explore career opportunities and to increase their chances to get into their preferred specialty. To shorten this gap between undergraduate and the start of postgraduate training, the sixth and final year of most Dutch medical schools is designed as a "transitional year". Students work with more clinical responsibilities than in the earlier clerkships, and this year includes many elective options. Our study focuses on these elective options and explores how medical students use these transitional year electives to prepare for transition to postgraduate training. Methods: In 2012-2013 we asked all 274 graduating students at one Dutch medical school to complete an open-answer questionnaire with the following topics: their preferred specialty at the start of the transitional year, electives they chose during this year and reasons for these choices, and whether the transitional year electives changed their career considerations. Questionnaire results were coded by two researchers and were discussed with all members of the research team. Results: A total of 235 students responded (86%). Answers about motivation for choices revealed that most electives where chosen for career orientation and to optimize chances to get into a residency program. Students also focused on additional experiences in specialties related to their preferred specialty. Many students chose electives logically related to each other, e.g. combinations of surgery and radiology. About two-thirds of the respondents stated that their elective experiences did confirm their specialty

  19. Brazilian energy balance 2012 - calendar year 2011: final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2012- ano base 2011: relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1- energy analysis and aggregated data- presents energy highlights per source in 2012 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth in 2011; Chapter 2 - Energy supply and demand by source- has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3 - Energy consumption by sector- presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4 - Energy imports and exports- presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5 - Balance of transformation centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6 - Energy resources and reserves- has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources; Chapter 7- Energy and socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8- State energy data- presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential; Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex 1- Installed capacity- shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining.; Annex 2- Self-production of electricity- presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex 3- World energy data- presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source and region; Annex 4

  20. Brazilian energy balance 2013 - calendar year 2012: final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2013 - ano base 2012: relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1- Energy analysis and aggregated data- presents energy highlights per source in 2012 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth in 2012; Chapter 2- Energy supply and demand by source- has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3- Energy consumption by sector- presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4- Energy imports and exports- presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5- Balance of transformation centers- presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6- Energy resources and reserves- has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources; Chapter 7- Energy and socioeconomics- contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8- State energy data- presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential; Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex 1- Installed capacity- shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining; Annex 2- Self-production of electricity- presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex 3- World energy data- presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source and region; Annex 4- Useful

  1. Brazilian energy balance 2015: year 2014 - final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2015: ano base 2014 - relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Balance (BEB) contains the accounting relative to energy supply and consumption, as well the conversion processes and foreign trade. It presents in a single document the historical series of these operations and information about reserves, installed capacities and Federal States data. The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow. Chapters' content can be described as follows: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2014 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth. Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country. Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy. Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy. Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses. Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources. Chapter 7 - Energy and Socio economics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports. Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex I - Installed Capacity - shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed

  2. Brazilian energy balance 2014 - calendar year 2013: final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2014 - ano base 2013: relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1- Energy analysis and aggregated data- presents energy highlights per source in 2012 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth in 2013; Chapter 2- Energy supply and demand by source- has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3- Energy consumption by sector- presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4- Energy imports and exports- presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5- Balance of transformation centers- presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6- Energy resources and reserves- has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources; Chapter 7- Energy and socioeconomics- contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8- State energy data- presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential; Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex 1- Installed capacity- shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining.; Annex 2- Self-production of electricity- presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex 3- World energy data- presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source and region; Annex 4- Useful

  3. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonergan, Mark [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  4. Feedback of final year ophthalmology postgraduates about their residency ophthalmology training in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study documents a survey of final-year ophthalmology postgraduate students on the subject of their residency training. A similar survey conducted 7 years ago published in IJO had concluded that the residency program was not up to expectations in many centers. Our study aimed to see if ophthalmology training and student perceptions differed since then. Materials and Methods: For our study, we added a few questions to the same questionnaire used in the article "which is the best method to learn ophthalmology? Resident doctors′ perspective of ophthalmology training" published in IJO, Vol. 56 (5. Results: Forty-nine students (62.02% returned completed forms. Most students desired an orientation program on entering residency, and wished to undergo diagnostic training initially. Case-presentation with demonstration and Wet-lab learning were most preferred. There was a big difference between the number of surgeries students actually performed and the number they felt would have been ideal. Conclusion: On the whole, the students still felt the need for improved training across all aspects of ophthalmology.

  5. The Double Star magnetic field investigation: instrument design, performance and highlights of the first year's observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carr

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of the Double Star mission is the accurate measurement of the magnetic field vector along the orbits of the two spacecraft. The magnetic field is an essential parameter for the understanding of space plasma processes and is also required for the effective interpretation of data from the other instruments on the spacecraft. We present the design of the magnetic field instrument onboard both of the Double Star spacecraft and an overview of the performance as measured first on-ground and then in-orbit. We also report the results of in-flight calibration of the magnetometers, and the processing methods employed to produce the final data products which are provided to Double Star investigators, and the wider community in general. Particular attention is paid to the techniques developed for removing magnetic interference generated by the solar arrays on the first (equatorial orbiting spacecraft. Results from the first year of operations are reviewed in the context of combined observations by Double Star and Cluster, and examples given from the different regions visited by the spacecraft to date.

  6. Academic performance and scientific involvement of final year medical students coming from urban and rural backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasek, Ozren; Kolcic, Ivana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the academic performance and research involvement of students coming from urban and rural backgrounds. To our knowledge, this is the first such study of undergraduate medical students in Croatia. We surveyed the final (sixth) year medical students from Medical School, University of Zagreb, Croatia. Students were surveyed during the academic year 2004/2005, several months prior to their graduation. We analysed students' academic performance (grade point average, which is the most important academic success indicator in Croatia, and the number of failed study years) and research involvement (involvement in research projects and the possible subsequent publication of scientific articles). Additionally, we investigated the extent of extracurricular activities, and students' workplace preferences. Data were analysed using chi2 test, Fisher's exact test, and Kruskal-Wallis test, due to non-normal data distribution. A total of 204 students (out of 240 enrolled, with a response rate of 85%) were surveyed, and divided into three groups: (1) those coming from the highly urbanised background (capital and other highly urbanised areas; n = 100, 49%); (2) mid-urban (towns; n = 75, 37%); and (3) rural and remote backgrounds (n = 29, 14%). There was no indication of gender gap or age difference among the three groups. However, significant differences were recorded in most academic and research indicators. Students from highly urbanised backgrounds reported the best grade point average (p = 0.022). Students from rural and remote backgrounds most commonly reported a study year failure (p = 0.032), with 17 (59%) cases, compared with 32 (32%) and 31 (42%) cases in high and mid-urban ones, respectively. Rural and remote students were also the most likely to experience multiple years failure (p = 0.030), were the least often involved in research projects (p = 0.002), and reported the least interest in career supplemented with scientific research (p

  7. Nano-Filament Field Emission Cathode Development Final Report CRADA No. TSB-0731-93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, Tony [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fahlen, Ted [Candescent Technologies Corporation, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2018-01-17

    At the time the CRADA was established, Silicon Video Corporation, of Cupertino, CA was a one-year-old rapidly growing start-up company. SVC was developing flat panel displays (FPDs) to replace Cathode Ray Terminals (CRTs) for personal computers, work stations and televisions. They planned to base their products on low cost and energy efficient field emission technology. It was universally recognized that the display was both the dominant cost item and differentiating feature of many products such as laptop computers and hand-held electronics and that control of the display technology through U.S. sources was essential to success in these markets. The purpose of this CRADA project was to determine if electrochemical planarization would be a viable, inexpensive alternative to current optical polishing techniques for planarizing the surface of a ceramic backplate of a thin film display.

  8. Bonneville Second Powerhouse Tailrace and High Flow Outfall: ADCP and drogue release field study; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Chris B; Richmond, Marshall C; Guensch, Greg

    2001-01-01

    The Bonneville Project is one of four US Army Corps of Engineers operated dams along the Lower Columbia River. Each year thousands of smelt pass through this Project on their way to the Pacific Ocean. High flow outfalls, if specifically designed for fish passage, are thought to have as good or better smelt survival rates as spillways. To better understand the hydrodynamic flow field around an operating outfall, the Corps of Engineers commissioned measurement of water velocities in the tailrace of the Second Powerhouse. These data also are necessary for proper calibration and verification of three-dimensional numerical models currently under development at PNNL. Hydrodynamic characterization of the tailrace with and without the outfall operating was accomplished through use of a surface drogue and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Both the ADCP and drogue were linked to a GPS (global positioning system); locating the data in both space and time. Measurements focused on the area nearest to the high flow outfall, however several ADCP transects and drogue releases were performed away from the outfall to document ambient flow field conditions when the outfall was not operating

  9. Prevalence of Rubber Dam Usage Among Dental Practitioners and Final Year Students in Tirgu Mures: A Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csinszka K.-Ivácson A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of rubber dam usage among endodontists, other specialized practitioners, general practitioners and undergraduate final year students in Tirgu-Mures, Romania.

  10. Medical students' preparation for the transition to postgraduate training through final year elective rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Broek, W. E. Sjoukje

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study adds to the ongoing discussion on how to ease the transition from undergraduate medical training to postgraduate training. In the Netherlands there is no central matching system for admission to residency. Medical school graduates just apply for a position in an open job market. Many choose to acquire general or specialty-specific clinical experiences after the medical degree before residency, to further explore career opportunities and to increase their chances to get into their preferred specialty. To shorten this gap between undergraduate and the start of postgraduate training, the sixth and final year of most Dutch medical schools is designed as a “transitional year”. Students work with more clinical responsibilities than in the earlier clerkships, and this year includes many elective options. Our study focuses on these elective options and explores how medical students use these transitional year electives to prepare for transition to postgraduate training.Methods: In 2012-2013 we asked all 274 graduating students at one Dutch medical school to complete an open-answer questionnaire with the following topics: Questionnaire results were coded by two researchers and were discussed with all members of the research team. Results: A total of 235 students responded (86%. Answers about motivation for choices revealed that most electives where chosen for career orientation and to optimize chances to get into a residency program. Students also focused on additional experiences in specialties related to their preferred specialty. Many students chose electives logically related to each other, e.g. combinations of surgery and radiology. About two-thirds of the respondents stated that their elective experiences did confirm their specialty preferences or resulted in a more clear insight.Conclusion: We conclude that students use the transitional year electives to focus on their future postgraduate training program, i.e. for

  11. Study motives, career choices and interest in paediatric dentistry among final year dental students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike O; Sofola, Oyinkan O; Khami, Mohammad R; Esan, Ayodeji O; Popoola, Bamidele O; Orenuga, Omolola O; Folaranmi, Nkiru; Ligali, Taofeek O; Phillips, Abimbola S

    2014-07-02

    Students' motives for studying Dentistry have been a subject of interest for years because of the potential for understanding the psychological makeup and subsequent job satisfaction for the dentist. It is also useful in identifying expectations of the profession. This study therefore tried to identify study motives and career preferences of dental students especially with respect to the practice of paediatric dentistry. This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. The final year students in six dental schools in Nigeria were required to fill the questionnaire. Students were asked to rank their motives and career preferences on a Likert like scale with points ranging from 0-5 where 0 represented a factor that had no influence on their decision and 5 represented a very influential factor. The underlying dimensions for study motives, career preference, impression about and motive for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry were identified using factor analysis. One hundred and seventy nine of 223 students (80.3%) participated in this study. Motives for the practice of dentistry included characteristics of the profession, altruism and intellectual challenges, existence of artistic theme in dentistry and parent's recommendation. Overall, 67.1% of respondents indicated interest in postgraduate studies and 50.8% were interested in paediatric dentistry practice. The main motives for showing interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry were 'personal interest, professional interest and interest of significant others in children', and 'family influence'. Significantly more males than females were interested in the practice of paediatric dentistry though the motives for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry did not differ significantly by sex or age. The non-significant sex difference in the motives for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry is a possible reflection of changes in strong cultural themes in the

  12. Study motives, career choices and interest in paediatric dentistry among final year dental students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Students’ motives for studying Dentistry have been a subject of interest for years because of the potential for understanding the psychological makeup and subsequent job satisfaction for the dentist. It is also useful in identifying expectations of the profession. This study therefore tried to identify study motives and career preferences of dental students especially with respect to the practice of paediatric dentistry. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. The final year students in six dental schools in Nigeria were required to fill the questionnaire. Students were asked to rank their motives and career preferences on a Likert like scale with points ranging from 0–5 where 0 represented a factor that had no influence on their decision and 5 represented a very influential factor. The underlying dimensions for study motives, career preference, impression about and motive for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry were identified using factor analysis. Results One hundred and seventy nine of 223 students (80.3%) participated in this study. Motives for the practice of dentistry included characteristics of the profession, altruism and intellectual challenges, existence of artistic theme in dentistry and parent’s recommendation. Overall, 67.1% of respondents indicated interest in postgraduate studies and 50.8% were interested in paediatric dentistry practice. The main motives for showing interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry were ‘personal interest, professional interest and interest of significant others in children’, and ‘family influence’. Significantly more males than females were interested in the practice of paediatric dentistry though the motives for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry did not differ significantly by sex or age. Conclusion The non-significant sex difference in the motives for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry is a possible

  13. Professional confidence among Swedish final year midwifery students - A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Lena; Sharma, Bharati; Karlström, Annika; Tunon, Katarina; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2017-12-01

    Previous international studies have shown that midwifery students do not feel confident in many areas where they are supposed to practice independently. The knowledge about Swedish midwifery students' confidence is fairly under investigated. The purpose of the present study was to explore final years' midwifery students' professional confidence in basic midwifery skills according to ICM competencies and associated factors. A cross-sectional survey where all midwifery programs in Sweden were invited to participate. Data was collected by a questionnaire that measured midwifery students self-reported assessment of confidence against four selected domains of ICM competencies; antenatal, intrapartum, postpartum and new-born care. The main findings of this study showed that Swedish midwifery students were confident in managing normal pregnancy, labour and birth. Midwifery students at a school with a medical faculty were more confident in handling obstetric emergency situations. Some background variables were also associated with confidence. This study highlighted some midwifery skills that needs further training and reflection. More training and developing confidence in complicated and emergency situations are needed. There seem to be a need of midwifery education reforms if we believe that high levels of confidence at the time of graduation is equal to competent and skilled midwives in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring final-year nursing students' satisfaction with the viva assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonson, Yenna; Metcalfe, Lauren; Alexandrou, Evan; Cotton, Antoinette H; Mcnally, Stephen; Murphy, Jeff; Frost, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study conducted to develop and test the psychometric properties of a brief 5-item Satisfaction with the Oral Viva Assessment Scale. The viva has been increasingly used to gauge students' learning, beyond the traditional written assessments. This assessment approach may pose additional challenges to various student groups. Using a prospective, correlational design, this study surveyed 275 final year nursing students about their satisfaction with the viva as an assessment approach. The survey was administered to those who attended a revision session in an undergraduate high dependency unit. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses, as well as exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the scale were computed. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a one-component structure that explained 51% of the total variance, which was supported by confirmatory factor analysis (standardised factor loadings: 0.54-0.73). Internal consistency as computed by a Cronbach's alpha was 0.8. The results also revealed that those who obtained higher grades in their viva performance (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.58-4.90) and English-speaking only students (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.07-3.27) were more satisfied with the viva assessment. These findings support the validity and reliability of this scale, and can be used to assess students' satisfaction with the viva. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Well-being and help-seeking: an exploratory study among final-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Paula Bertozzi de Oliveira E Sousa; Martins, Luiz Antonio Nogueira; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Bellodi, Patrícia Lacerda

    2011-01-01

    Doubts, competitiveness and preparation for the residency examination increase stress and insecurity at the end of medical course. Well-being is very important at this point, but it is known that medical students are reluctant to seek help, particularly for emotional problems. This study investigated the relationship among well-being, perceived needs and help-seeking in final-year students. Well-being was assessed using Beck's Inventories of Anxiety (BAI) and Depression (BDI) and the WHOQOL-brief (quality of life). A questionnaire was used to assess perceived needs and medical school support resources. The students reported good quality of life (68%) but presented anxiety (27%), depression (20%) and impaired social functioning. Fifty-one percent of the students acknowledged academic needs and 25% psychological needs. Only a portion of the students with anxiety and depression or bad quality of life used the institutional support. Female gender, perceived psychological needs and anxiety symptoms were associated to the use of the Mental Health Service. Satisfaction with mentoring relationships and positive changes were associated to Mentoring attendance. There are different factors involved in help-seeking and identifying specificities in the use of institutional support resources can help to develop strategies to sensitize students about help-seeking during the medical course.

  16. Smartphones and professionalism: A cross-sectional study on interns and final-year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alqaryan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The smartphone is a powerful tool that can be used to improve the health care system as long as certain checks and balances are implemented. It is commonly used by health care providers and medical students. A cross-sectional study conducted at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. Final-year medical students and interns were included. A survey was distributed and divided into three sections: personal technology, experiences of using smartphones during clinical rotations, and attitudes about the usage of smartphones for clinical work. A total of 156 interns and students participated in the study. All of them owned a smartphone. Three-quarters of the respondents used their mobile for personal purposes, while 71.2% used them to look up medical references and resources. Respondents also used personal mobiles to keep in contact with team members regarding patient- (29.5% and non-patientrelated issues (26.3%. Some 16% of participants did not have any security features on their smartphones. Over half the participants did not get proper instructions about using their smartphones from either their medical college or senior residents or consultants. There is a lot to be done in this area, as certain regulations need to be carried out to lead toward a world that is pro-technology, health centered, and safe.

  17. Gender differences in academic stress and burnout among medical students in final years of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backović, Dušan V; Zivojinović, Jelena Ilić; Maksimović, Jadranka; Maksimović, Miloš

    2012-06-01

    The educational process brings a considerable amount of stress to medical students that can influence mental health status and contribute to further professional burnout. The authors assessed the academic stress influences, mental health status and burnout syndrome, with the intent to find different patterns in female and male medical students. The applied cross sectional study was in the form of an anonymous questionnaire which included: socio-demographic data, self-reported health status and influence of studying activities on stress level in 755 medical students who attended two final years. Mental health status was explored by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Female students assessed their physical health status and general stress level as worse compared to males (pstressful effects of contacts with patients (p=0.009) and autopsy (pgender difference. Measures for prevention of academic distress should be targeted at optimization of the educational process, development of the clinical skills and professionalism, with special concern to female students who manifested high vulnerability.

  18. An investigation into e-learning acceptance and gender amongst final year students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie Chinyamurindi

    2015-08-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the acceptance of the e-learning system within a South African HE setting, including the influential role of gender in the acceptance of such a system. Method: Quantitative data was collected through a cross-sectional survey using 113 registered final year students at a South African university who were making use of an e-learning system as part of their teaching delivery. The measuring instrument used was the technology acceptance instrument (TAI and included measures of computer self-efficacy (CSE, perceived ease of use (PEU, perceived usefulness (PU, and behavioural intention to use (BIU. Results: The presence of a gender divide was found to exist in this study. Women’s ratings of the acceptance of e-learning systems were found to be slightly higher than those of the male respondents. In addition to this, elements of the TAI were found to be related to one another. Conclusion: The study concludes by arguing that lecturers and facilitators need to pay attention to usage patterns of e-learning systems as they affect how such systems are adopted by their students. Therefore, preceding student acceptance of electronic learning systems should be efforts to address any issues that affect the acceptance and effective utilisation of such systems.

  19. Information literacy: are final-year medical radiation science students on the pathway to success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nadine; Lewis, Sarah; Brennan, Patrick; Robinson, John

    2010-01-01

    It is necessary for Medical Radiation Science (MRS) students to become information literate in order to interact with and thrive in the professional health care arena. All health care professionals require information literacy (IL) skills to be independent learners and critical thinkers. To achieve this, effective search and evaluation methods must be cultivated in students. Twenty-eight final year MRS students participated in a 30-minute digitally recorded interview regarding their knowledge of information sources, where they locate information, and how they evaluate these sources. Constant comparative analysis via grounded theory was used to thematise the data. A conceptual framework was developed demonstrating the link between the key concepts of convenience, confidence and competence. The impact of the internet on the IL skills of students has been profound, due mainly to convenience. Most students had little confidence in their IL skills, however there were still some students who were confident with their skills and were competent who still preferred to access information sources that were convenient because there was nothing preventing them from doing so. By identifying problem areas, educators can redesign curricula around the strengths and weaknesses of students' IL skills, thus promoting lifelong learning and using electronic based learning to its full potential.

  20. Physics 1909: A Portrait of the Field Hundred Years Ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Many physicists believe that after the discoveries of Max Planck (1900) and Albert Einstein (1905) physics was quickly transformed into a modern one based on relativistic and quantum principles. The study of the physics community and the physics papers published hundred years ago, in 1909, shows however, that only very few physicists took interest in the novelties while the bulk of physics remained classical and much oriented towards practical applications. Details are given on the physics topics, the strength of physics in various countries, the most important periodicals and prominent physicists of that time. (author)

  1. The lure of local SETI: Fifty years of field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailleris, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    With the commemoration in October 2007 of the Sputnik launch, space exploration celebrated its 50th anniversary. Despite impressive technological and scientific achievements the fascination for space has weakened during the last decades. One contributing factor has been the gradual disappearance of mankind's hope of discovering extraterrestrial life within its close neighbourhood. In striking contrast and since the middle of the 20th century, a non-negligible proportion of the population have already concluded that intelligent beings from other worlds do exist and visit Earth through space vehicles popularly called Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). In light of the continuous public interest for the UFO enigma symbolized by the recent widely diffused media announcements on the release of French and English governmental files; and considering the approach of broadening the strategies of the "Active SETI" approach and the existence of a rich multi-disciplinary UFO documentation of potential interest for SETI; this paper describes some past scientific attempts to demonstrate the physical reality of the phenomena and potentially the presence on Earth of probes of extraterrestrial origin. Details of the different instrumented field studies deployed by scientists and organizations during the period 1950-1990 in the USA, Canada and Europe are provided. In conclusion it will be argued that while continuing the current radio/optical SETI searches, there is the necessity to maintain sustaining attention to the topic of anomalous aerospace phenomena and to develop new rigorous research approaches.

  2. Career influences among final year dental students who plan to enter private practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing research about the influence of educational debt on students’ decision to enter general practice immediately after graduation is conflicting. Other potential factors that could affect this decision include the influence of a spouse or other family member, the importance of a mentoring dentist, and how students perceive the burden of their debt. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of debt on career decision-making while also considering the role of other influences. Methods Responses to a self-completed questionnaire of all final (fourth) year students at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry from 2007 through 2010 were analyzed to identify the importance of educational debt and the influence of spouses, other family members, and mentoring dentists in the decision to enter private general practice immediately after graduation. Statistical analysis included bivariate tests (t-tests and Chi-square tests) and multivariable logistic regression. Results 58.9% of respondents (N = 156) planned to immediately enter private practice after dental school. Bivariate analyses revealed women to be more likely to enter private practice than their male counterparts (69.0% vs. 51.8%, p = .006). Students planning to enter practice immediately did not differ significantly from those with other career plans on the basis of marital status or having a family member in dentistry. Anticipated educational debt of at least $100,000 was positively associated with plans to enter private practice immediately after graduation. Self-reported importance of educational debt was not associated with career plans. However, the influence of a spouse, other family members, and family dentists were also positively associated with the decision to enter private practice. These factors all maintained significance in the final multivariable model (p plans to enter private practice (OR = 2.34; p = 0.023). Conclusions Since the 1970s, increasing

  3. Career influences among final year dental students who plan to enter private practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashleanas, Benjamin M; McKernan, Susan C; Kuthy, Raymond A; Qian, Fang

    2014-03-08

    Existing research about the influence of educational debt on students' decision to enter general practice immediately after graduation is conflicting. Other potential factors that could affect this decision include the influence of a spouse or other family member, the importance of a mentoring dentist, and how students perceive the burden of their debt. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of debt on career decision-making while also considering the role of other influences. Responses to a self-completed questionnaire of all final (fourth) year students at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry from 2007 through 2010 were analyzed to identify the importance of educational debt and the influence of spouses, other family members, and mentoring dentists in the decision to enter private general practice immediately after graduation. Statistical analysis included bivariate tests (t-tests and Chi-square tests) and multivariable logistic regression. 58.9% of respondents (N = 156) planned to immediately enter private practice after dental school. Bivariate analyses revealed women to be more likely to enter private practice than their male counterparts (69.0% vs. 51.8%, p = .006). Students planning to enter practice immediately did not differ significantly from those with other career plans on the basis of marital status or having a family member in dentistry. Anticipated educational debt of at least $100,000 was positively associated with plans to enter private practice immediately after graduation. Self-reported importance of educational debt was not associated with career plans. However, the influence of a spouse, other family members, and family dentists were also positively associated with the decision to enter private practice. These factors all maintained significance in the final multivariable model (p plans to enter private practice (OR = 2.34; p = 0.023). Since the 1970s, increasing numbers of dentists in the U.S. have

  4. Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jaorsik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail.We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground reduced are presented.We nowimplement an optimal C(exp -1)1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained Lambda-CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is (sub 0) = 13.772 +/- 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H(sub 0) = 69.32 +/- 0.80 km/s/ Mpc. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n(sub s) = 0.9608+/-0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Omega = -0.0027+0.0039/-0.0038). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six

  5. 50% Failure Rate in Final Year Medical Exams – Whose Fault is it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran Bakoush

    2007-01-01

    their working life amongst more modern teaching systems and approaches in the west. So it is logical to conclude that should the methods of teaching and teaching skills improve, the success rate among final year medical students will undoubtedly follow suit.It is our recommendation that in order to improve the success rate amongst students, a more modern way of teaching is urgently required [3]. Teachers first need to recognise that problems exist, and then act proactively to address them [4]. One way is the provision of ‘Train The Trainer’ and other similar courses to increase teaching skills, coupled with more discussion groups, clinical clerks, case presentations, increased student involvement during medical rounds and within lectures, and increased attendance at common procedures. All of the above will surely result in increasing the success rate beyond the current 50% passing rate for final year students.

  6. The Fourth/Final-Year University Student Future Professional Career: Analysis of Factors and Personal Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lamanauskas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Career management as a lifelong lasting process becomes very actual in today's modern society because of many reasons. The environment becomes turbulent, in a general sense; therefore, it is natural that career environment, basically, is chaotic as well. Nevertheless, career for many people is, undoubtedly, very important, because it is directly related to life quality. Professional activity satisfies almost all human needs: physiological, safety, social, attainment, self-realisation, independence, autonomy and other. The efficiency of the mentioned activity and the ability of the personality to construct his career are closely related things. Individual's career process studies are especially popular recently, because deeper career perception helps to understand the most important relations between man and work, career management and constant learning, helps not only to know man's abilities, but also the abilities to give oneself to modern environment, to understand career projection possibilities, to plan one's professional future. Seeking to analyse final-year university student position regarding career questions, a written form survey was carried out. The research was carried out between September 2015 and March 2016. The research sample (185 was structured applying a consecutive 'bunch' system. The respondents from three Lithuanian universities Klaipėda, Vilnius and Šiauliai, were selected in the sample. Professional career parameters were evaluated: career conception, the importance of work values and abilities, study influence, promoting and limiting factors and personal qualities. The research is grounded on a mixed strategy, when quantitative and qualitative research approach is combined. The obtained results, based on qualitative analysis, about professional personal career promoting and limiting factors and personal qualities are presented in this research.

  7. Using root cause analysis to promote critical thinking in final year Bachelor of Midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Amanda G; Sidebotham, Mary; Creedy, Debra K; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Midwives require well developed critical thinking to practice autonomously. However, multiple factors impinge on students' deep learning in the clinical context. Analysis of actual case scenarios using root cause analysis may foster students' critical thinking and application of 'best practice' principles in complex clinical situations. To examine the effectiveness of an innovative teaching strategy involving root cause analysis to develop students' perceptions of their critical thinking abilities. A descriptive, mixed methods design was used. Final 3rd year undergraduate midwifery students (n=22) worked in teams to complete and present an assessment item based on root cause analysis. The cases were adapted from coroners' reports. After graduation, 17 (77%) students evaluated the course using a standard university assessment tool. In addition 12 (54%) students provided specific feedback on the teaching strategy using a 16-item survey tool based on the domain concepts of Educational Acceptability, Educational Impact, and Preparation for Practice. Survey responses were on a 5-point Likert scale and analysed using descriptive statistics. Open-ended responses were analysed using content analysis. The majority of students perceived the course and this teaching strategy positively. The domain mean scores were high for Educational Acceptability (mean=4.3, SD=.49) and Educational Impact (mean=4.19, SD=.75) but slightly lower for Preparation for Practice (mean=3.7, SD=.77). Overall student responses to each item were positive with no item mean less than 3.42. Students found the root cause analysis challenging and time consuming but reported development of critical thinking skills about the complexity of practice, clinical governance and risk management principles. Analysing complex real life clinical cases to determine a root cause enhanced midwifery students' perceptions of their critical thinking. Teaching and assessment strategies to promote critical thinking need to be

  8. Reflective writing by final year medical students: lessons for curricular change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Alka; Ganesh, Gayatri

    2010-01-01

    Reflective writinghas been used in undergraduate medical curricula to inculcate empathetic attitudes in medical students. Journal writing has been used to enhance reflection in a confidential space. We aimed to introduce our medical students to reflective writing of their daily experiences, both to enhance empathetic attitudes as well as to use the entries to Inform curricular changes. We invited 16 final year medical students posted in the Department of Medicine to record their emotional experiences during a 6-week posting. Freedom to abstain without prejudice was emphasized, yet all 16 students complied. According to the principle of grounded theory, the entries were grouped into 8 themes: (i) doctor-patient relationship; (ii) personal inadequacy; (iii) empathy; (iv) communication skills; (v) doctor's competence; (vi) patient behaviour; (vii) hospital practices; and (viii) personal feelings. There were 179 entries which were evaluable under the above categories, with no significant gender differences. Based on the entries, the following curricular suggestions were made: (i) use of diaries by medical students to express their emotional reactions and make value judgements, followed by guided discussion by experienced facilitators; (ii) introduction of communication skills courses at appropriate points to enhance Interview skills, empathetic listening, conflict resolution and breaking bad news; (iii) encourage reflection on healthcare delivery and its inequities and suggest methods of dealing with individual patients; and (iv) use of positive feedback and encouragement by faculty. Conclusions. Reflective journal writing by medical students in India gives valuable insights into improving communication skills and professionalism. Appropriate curricular changes should be made to meet the challenges posed by the existing healthcare system.

  9. Final report of QUIESST WP 2 – Extrapolation of near field Reflection Index data to far field reflection performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgendorf, D.; Roo, F. de; Wessels, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Sound reflectivity is one of the intrinsic acoustical characteristics of noise barriers. It describes which percentage of an incident sound field is reflected back towards the opposite side of the road. The reflectivity is determined by the absorption properties of the material of the barrier as

  10. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Smoking Among Final Year Medical Students: A Multicentric Survey From Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Zuhaib Y; Lodhi, Sameed K; Malik, Hamza; Jan, Mohsin M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer around the world. In a developing country like Pakistan with low levels of literacy and general awareness about adverse effects of smoking, doctors play a pivotal role in educating the masses about its harmful consequences and providing support for smoking cessation. However, their efficacy is affected if they smoke themselves, and oftentimes the habits cultivated during educational recourse are carried into the professional careers. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of smoking among final year medical students of Lahore, Pakistan, and the factors associated with it. Methodology Study approval was obtained from Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore Medical College, Ethics Review Committee. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four medical colleges and hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A questionnaire consisting of 14 questions related to basic demographics and smoking was used after being pilot tested on 20 students of CMH. The overall response rate was 74.89%. Data was collected from 337 respondents, of which 38 forms were discarded and 299 forms were analyzed by SPSS V21. Results Among the 299 respondents, there were 128 males (42.81%) and 171 females (57.19%) with 32 (10.70%) smokers. Male students reported smoking (n = 27, 21.09%) more than their female counterparts (n = 5, 0.02%). The mean age of participants was 23.01 years. Students having an active smoker at home had statistically significant positive correlations with current smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Students with household smoking contacts were also more likely to smoke if they belonged to the male gender. Conclusion Prevalence of smoking in medical students is lower than in the general population but still considerable in the male students. There is a need to target this particular population with interactive counseling sessions, education campaigns, and anti-smoking rules to decrease

  11. Knowledge and attitude of final - year medical students in Germany towards palliative care - an interinstitutional questionnaire-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To care for terminally ill and dying patients requires a thorough medical education, encompassing skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the field of palliative care. Undergraduate medical students in Germany will receive mandatory teaching in palliative care in the near future driven by recent changes in the Medical Licensure Act. Before new curricula can be implemented, the knowledge of medical students with respect to palliative care, their confidence to handle palliative care situations correctly, their therapeutic attitude, and their subjective assessment about previous teaching practices have to be better understood. Method We designed a composite, three-step questionnaire (self estimation of confidence, knowledge questions, and opinion on the actual and future medical curriculum conducted online of final - year medical students at two universities in Germany. Results From a total of 318 enrolled students, 101 responded and described limited confidence in dealing with specific palliative care issues, except for pain therapy. With regard to questions examining their knowledge base in palliative care, only one third of the students (33% answered more than half of the questions correctly. Only a small percentage of students stated they had gained sufficient knowledge and experience in palliative care during their studies, and the vast majority supported the introduction of palliative care as a mandatory part of the undergraduate curriculum. Conclusion This study identifies medical students' limited confidence and knowledge base in palliative care in 2 German universities, and underlines the importance of providing a mandatory palliative care curriculum.

  12. Outline of the safety research results, in the power reactor field, fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has promoted the safety research in fiscal year of 1996 according to the Fundamental Research on Safety Research (fiscal year 1996 to 2000) prepared on March, 1996. Here is described on the research results in fiscal year 1996, the first year of the 5 years programme, and whole outline of the fundamental research on safety research, on the power reactor field (whole problems on the new nuclear converter and the fast breeder reactor field and problems relating to the power reactor in the safety for earthquake and probability theoretical safety evaluation field). (G.K.)

  13. Results on safety research for five years (from fiscal year 1996 to 2000). A field of power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This safety research carried out by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) for five years ranged from 1996 to 2000 fiscal year, was performed according to the safety research basic plan (from 1996 to 2000 fiscal year) established on March, 1996 (revised again on May, 2000). This report was arranged on a field on power reactors (all subjects on fields of advanced conversion reactor and a subject on power reactor in a field of seismic resistant and probability theoretical safety evaluation) by combining its research results for five years ranged from 1996 to 2000 fiscal year with general outlines on the safety research basic plan. Here were shown outlines on the safety research basic plan, aims and subjects on safety research at a field of power reactors, a list of survey sheets on safety research result, and survey sheets on safety research results. The survey sheets containing research field, title, organization, researcher name, researching period, names of cooperative organization, using facilities, research outline, research results, established contents, application, and research trends, are ranged to 5 items on advanced conversion reactor, 29 items on high breeder reactor, 1 item on seismic resistance, and 5 items on probability theoretical safety evaluation. (G.K.)

  14. Results on safety research for five years (from fiscal year 1996 to 2000). A field of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This safety research carried out by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) for five years ranged from fiscal year 1996 to 2000, was performed according to the safety research basic plan (from fiscal year 1996 to 2000) established on March, 1996 (revised again on May, 2000). This report was arranged on a field on nuclear fuel cycle (all subjects on fields of nuclear fuel facility, environmental radioactivity and radioactive wastes and a subject on nuclear fuel cycle in a field of seismic resistant and probabilistic safety assessment) by combining its research results for five years ranged from 1996 to 2000 fiscal year with general outlines on the safety research basic plan. Here were shown outlines on the safety research basic plan, aims and subjects on safety research at a field of nuclear fuel cycle, a list of survey sheets on safety research result, and survey sheets on safety research results. The survey sheets containing research field, title, organization, researcher name, researching period, names of cooperative organization, using facilities, research outline, research results, established contents, application, and research trends, are ranged to 21 items on nuclear fuel facility, 1 item on seismic resistance, 2 items on probabilistic safety assessment, 8 items on environmental radioactivity, and 20 items on radioactive wastes. (G.K.)

  15. Personality traits as predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress with secondary school students of final years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujičić Milena M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to examine the predictive power of personality traits, as defined by the Big five model of personality in expressing depression, anxiety, and stress with secondary school students of final years. The research was conducted on a sample of 977 secondary school students in the third and fourth grade from ten secondary schools in Niš. The gender structure of the sample was as follows: 397 boys and 607 girls. The following instruments were used in the research: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995, Big Five Inventory - BFI (John, Donahue and Kentle, 1991. The results showed that the regression model constructed by personal traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to experience explain 26% of the criterion variable of Anxiety. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β=.34, p<0.01 . Other personal traits that contribute to the prediction of this variable at a statistically significant level are Extraversion (β =-.17, p<0.01, Agreeableness (β =-.14, p<0.01 and Conscientiousness (β =-.17, p<0.01. The same model explains 37% of the criterion variable Stress. The largest individual contribution to Stress prediction is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.57, p<0.01. The same model explains 27% of the criterion variable Anxiety as well. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.45, p<0.01, whereas a statistically significant correlation between personal traits Agreeableness (β =-.06, p<0.05 and Conscientious (β =-.12, p<0.01 exists. Results show that the difference between boys and girls in expressing Anxiety (t=-2.96, p<0.01 and Stress (t=-5.01, p<0.01 exists. These emotional states are more expressive with girls. However, there are no differences in expressing Depression

  16. Subtask 1.11 - Spectroscopic field screening of hazardous waste and toxic spills. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisanti, A.A.

    1997-10-01

    Techniques for the field characterization of soil contamination due to spillage of hazardous waste or toxic chemicals are time-consuming and expensive. Thus more economical, less time-intensive methods are needed to facilitate rapid field screening of contaminated sites. The overall objective of this project is to study the feasibility of using an evanescent field absorbance sensor Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic sensor coupled with cone penetrometry as a field screening method. The specific objectives of this project are as follows: design an accessory for use with FT-IR that interfaces the spectrometer to a cone penetrometer; characterize the response of the FT-IR accessory to selected hydrocarbons in a laboratory-simulated field environment; and determine the ability of the FT-IR-CPT instrument to measure hydrocarbon contamination in soil by direct comparison with a reference method (e.g., Soxhlet extraction followed by gas chromatography) to quantify hydrocarbons from the same soil

  17. Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Enedy

    2001-01-01

    A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant

  18. Finalize field testing of cold climate heat pump (CCHP) based on tandem vapor injection compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the system diagram and control algorithm of a prototype air-source cold climate heat pump (CCHP) using tandem vapor injection (VI) compressors. The prototype was installed in Fairbanks, Alaska and underwent field testing starting in 09/2016. The field testing results of the past six months, including compressor run time fractions, measured COPs and heating capacities, etc., are presented as a function of the ambient temperature. Two lessons learned are also reported.

  19. Development and Trial of a Two Year Program of String Instruction. Appendix F, Music. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. School of Music.

    This appendix contains music for the violin, viola, and cello, as well as rhythm games. The three parts of the appendix are: I. Tunes for the String Player, II. Our First Exercises, and III. Sight Reading. See TE 499 832 for the final report proper. (DB)

  20. Final-Year Results from the i3 Scale-Up of Reading Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Henry; Sirinides, Philip; Gray, Abby; Davila, Heather Goldsworthy; Sam, Cecile; Blalock, Toscha; Blackman, Horatio; Anderson-Clark, Helen; Schiera, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the 2010 economic stimulus, a $55 million "Investing in Innovation" (i3) grant from the US Department of Education was awarded to scale up Reading Recovery across the nation. This paper presents the final round of results from the large-scale, mixed methods randomized evaluation of the implementation and impacts of Reading…

  1. Services for Children with Deafblindness in Missouri. Final Report, Fiscal Year 1994-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howze, Yvonne; And Others

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of a federally supported program to provide services for children with deaf-blindness in Missouri. The project focused on the development, implementation, and evaluation of a four-component statewide comprehensive service delivery model to serve 193 deaf-blind children and youth through:…

  2. A near-peer teaching program designed, developed and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates for final year medical students sitting the final objective structured clinical examination (OSCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobowale Oluwaseun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The General Medical Council states that teaching doctors and students is important for the care of patients. Our aim was to deliver a structured teaching program to final year medical students, evaluate the efficacy of teaching given by junior doctors and review the pertinent literature. Methods We developed a revision package for final year medical students sitting the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. The package was created and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates and consisted of lectures and small group seminars covering the core areas of medicine and surgery, with a focus on specific OSCE station examples. Students were asked to complete a feedback questionnaire during and immediately after the program. Results One hundred and eighteen completed feedback questionnaires were analysed. All participants stated that the content covered was relevant to their revision. 73.2% stated that junior doctors delivered teaching that is comparable to that of consultant - led teaching. 97.9% stated the revision course had a positive influence on their learning. Conclusions Our study showed that recent medical graduates are able to create and deliver a structured, formal revision program and provide a unique perspective to exam preparation that was very well received by our student cohort. The role of junior doctors teaching medical students in a formal structured environment is very valuable and should be encouraged.

  3. Ready for practice? A study of confidence levels of final year dental students at Cardiff University and University College Cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, J; Lynch, C D; Burke, F M; Gilmour, A S M

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the self-reported confidence levels of final year students at the School of Dentistry, Cardiff University and at the University Dental School & Hospital, Cork, Ireland in performing a variety of dental procedures commonly completed in primary dental care settings. A questionnaire was distributed to 61 final year students at Cardiff and 34 final year students at Cork. Information requested related to the respondents confidence in performing a variety of routine clinical tasks, using a five-point scale (1=very little confidence, 5=very confident). Comparisons were made between the two schools, gender of the respondent, and whether or not a student intended completing a year of vocational training after graduation. A response rate of 74% was achieved (n=70). The greatest self-reported confidence scores were for 'scale and polish' (4.61), fissure sealants (4.54) and delivery of oral hygiene instruction (4.51). Areas with the least confidence were placement of stainless steel crowns (2.83), vital tooth bleaching (2.39) and surgical extractions (2.26). Students at Cardiff were more confident than those at Cork in performing simple extractions (Cardiff: 4.31; Cork: 3.76) and surgical extractions (Cardiff: 2.61; Cork: 1.88), whilst students in Cork were more confident in caries diagnosis (Cork: 4.24; Cardiff: 3.89) fissure sealing (Cork: 4.76; Cardiff: 4.33) and placement of preventive resin restorations (Cork: 4.68; Cardiff: 4.22).   Final year students at Cardiff and Cork were most confident in simpler procedures and procedures in which they had had most clinical experience. They were least confident in more complex procedures and procedures in which they had the least clinical experience. Increased clinical time in complex procedures may help in increasing final year students' confidence in those areas. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. NGSI FY15 Final Report. Innovative Sample Preparation for in-Field Uranium Isotopic Determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Thomas M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meyers, Lisa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-10

    Our FY14 Final Report included an introduction to the project, background, literature search of uranium dissolution methods, assessment of commercial off the shelf (COTS) automated sample preparation systems, as well as data and results for dissolution of bulk quantities of uranium oxides, and dissolution of uranium oxides from swipe filter materials using ammonium bifluoride (ABF). Also, discussed were reaction studies of solid ABF with uranium oxide that provided a basis for determining the ABF/uranium oxide dissolution mechanism. This report details the final experiments for optimizing dissolution of U3O8 and UO2 using ABF and steps leading to development of a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for dissolution of uranium oxides on swipe filters.

  5. An Approach to Developing Independent Learning and Non-Technical Skills Amongst Final Year Mining Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbs, C. G.; Grayson, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    There is mounting evidence to show that engineers need more than technical skills to succeed in industry. This paper describes a curriculum innovation in which so-called "soft" skills, specifically inter-personal and intra-personal skills, were integrated into a final year mining engineering course. The instructional approach was…

  6. Do Work Placements Improve Final Year Academic Performance or Do High-Calibre Students Choose to Do Work Placements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. M.; Green, J. P.; Higson, H. E.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether the completion of an optional sandwich work placement enhances student performance in final year examinations. Using Propensity Score Matching, our analysis departs from the literature by controlling for self-selection. Previous studies may have overestimated the impact of sandwich work placements on performance…

  7. "I Don't Really Understand Probability at All": Final Year Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Nicole; Muir, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on one aspect of a wider study that investigated a selection of final year pre-service primary teachers' responses to four probability tasks. The tasks focused on foundational ideas of probability including sample space, independence, variation and expectation. Responses suggested that strongly held intuitions appeared to…

  8. Conceptual studies of toroidal field magnets for the tokamak experimental power reactor. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncher, B.R.; Chi, J.W.H.; Fernandez, R.

    1976-01-01

    This report documents the principal results of a Conceptual Design Study for the Superconducting Toroidal Field System for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor. Two concepts are described for peak operating fields at the windings of 8 tesla, and 12 tesla, respectively. The design and manufacturing considerations are treated in sufficient detail that cost and schedule estimates could be developed. Major uncertainties in the design are identified and their potential impact discussed, along with recommendations for the necessary research and development programs to minimize these uncertainties. The minimum dimensions of a sub-size test coil for experimental qualification of the full size design are developed and a test program is recommended

  9. Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems Field Operational Test : Final Program Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This document presents results from the light-vehicle and heavy-truck field operational tests performed as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based : Safety Systems (IVBSS) program. The findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of M...

  10. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems field operational test final program report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    "This document presents results from the light-vehicle and heavy-truck field operational tests performed as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) program. The findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Mi...

  11. Final report: High current capacity high temperature superconducting film based tape for high field magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Xin

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of the program was to establish the process parameters for the continuous deposition of high quality, superconducting YBCO films on one meter lengths of buffered RABiTS tape using MOCVD and to characterize the potential utility of the resulting tapes in high field magnet applications

  12. Development, Field Test, and Refinement of Performance Training Programs in Armor Advanced Individual Training. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas L.; Taylor, John E.

    Performance-oriented instruction was developed, field tested, and refined in two Advanced Individual Training (AIT) programs--Armor Reconnaissance Specialist (MOS 11D) and Armor Crewman (MOS 11E). Tasks for both MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) were inventoried and the inventories were reduced by eliminating those tasks which are not required…

  13. Measuring the impact of complete streets projects : preliminary field testing : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report describes a field study that sought to assess the impact of Complete Streets (CS) projects in Buffalo, NY. Multiple data collection tools were deployed to capture a diversity of impacts on 8 street corridors where CS projects have been im...

  14. Seventh Fleet field training exercise : Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo : fires initiatives final report

    OpenAIRE

    Schacher, G. E. (Gordon Everett); Pilnick, Steve; Irvine, Nelson; Gallup, Shelley

    2003-01-01

    Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo was conducted during Seventh Fleet exercise Tandem Thrust 03. During the Field Training Exercise phase, testing of Time Sensitive Targets processes using the Joint Fires Network was carried out. This report contains results obtained on contributions made by the Joint Fires Network to Navy Time Sensitive Targeting and experiment lessons learned. NA

  15. Self-management support by final year nursing students: A correlational study of performance and person-related associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprez, Veerle; Beeckman, Dimitri; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Chronic conditions put a heavy burden on healthcare in every country. Supporting persons with a chronic illness to take an active role in the management of their condition is a core component in the Chronic Care Model. It implies confidence and good skills from professionals. To date, there is no evidence on final year nursing students' performance in supporting patients' self-management, nor on factors associated with this performance. To explore self-reported performance of supporting patients' self-management by final year nursing students, and person-related factors associated with this performance. A correlational multi-centre study of final year nursing students (N=256) from eight nursing schools. Students were recruited from a convenience sample of eight nursing schools. All final year students were invited to participate. Data were collected between January 2015 and May 2016 using self-administered validated questionnaires. Theoretical behavioural frameworks were used to select hypothesized associated factors for self-management support: self-efficacy to perform self-management support and socio-structural factors (Social Cognitive Theory); needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness, and patient-invested contingent self-esteem (Self-Determination Theory); and attitudes towards supporting patients' self-management (Theory of Planned Behaviour). Final year nursing students (N=256) reported an overall low level of performance in delivering self-management support during internship. Students lacked mainly competencies in collaborative goal setting and shared decision making. Students reported a significant gap between their confidence and their actual performance in self-management support (pLearning opportunities can be introduced in classroom activities and on internship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Emotional intelligence and academic performance in first and final year medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon How; Zain, Azhar Md; Hassan, Faezah

    2013-03-27

    Research on emotional intelligence (EI) suggests that it is associated with more pro-social behavior, better academic performance and improved empathy towards patients. In medical education and clinical practice, EI has been related to higher academic achievement and improved doctor-patient relationships. This study examined the effect of EI on academic performance in first- and final-year medical students in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using an objectively-scored measure of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Academic performance of medical school students was measured using continuous assessment (CA) and final examination (FE) results. The first- and final-year students were invited to participate during their second semester. Students answered a paper-based demographic questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT on their own. Relationships between the total MSCEIT score to academic performance were examined using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 year one and 79 year five) medical students participated (response rate of 66.0%). The gender and ethnic distribution were representative of the student population. The total EI score was a predictor of good overall CA (OR 1.01), a negative predictor of poor result in overall CA (OR 0.97), a predictor of the good overall FE result (OR 1.07) and was significantly related to the final-year FE marks (adjusted R(2) = 0.43). Medical students who were more emotionally intelligent performed better in both the continuous assessments and the final professional examination. Therefore, it is possible that emotional skill development may enhance medical students' academic performance.

  17. Retail Florist Management. 2+2 Articulated Curriculum in Agricultural Technology: First Year Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Texas Community Coll., Mount Pleasant.

    This guide is for an articulated two-year high school, two-year college curriculum for florist management developed by two postsecondary and five secondary institutions and representatives of the private sector in Texas. The guide includes the following: (1) a brief description of the occupation of retail florist manager; (2) the basic objective…

  18. Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and Response: Fiscal Year 2004 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2005-09-28

    Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.

  19. Biochemical basis of drought tolerance in hybrid Populus grown under field production conditions. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wierman, C. [Boise Cascade Corp., Wallula, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this cooperative effort was to assess the use of osmotically active compounds as molecular selection criteria for drought tolerance in Populus in a large-scale field trial. It is known that some plant species, and individuals within a plant species, can tolerate increasing stress associated with reduced moisture availability by accumulating solutes. The biochemical matrix of such metabolites varies among species and among individuals. The ability of Populus clones to tolerate drought has equal value to other fiber producers, i.e., the wood products industry, where irrigation is used in combination with other cultural treatments to obtain high dry weight yields. The research initially involved an assessment of drought stress under field conditions and characterization of changes in osmotic constitution among the seven clones across the six moisture levels. The near-term goal was to provide a mechanistic basis for clonal differences in productivity under various irrigation treatments over time.

  20. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. (Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

  1. Utility gas turbine combustor viewing system: Volume 1, Conceptual design and initial field testing: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, W.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report summarizes the development and field testing of a combustor viewing probe (CVP) as a flame diagnostic monitor for utility gas turbine engines. The prototype system is capable of providing a visual record of combustor flame images, recording flame spectral data, analyzing image and spectral data, and diagnosing certain engine malfunctions. The system should provide useful diagnostic information to utility plant operators, and reduce maintenance costs. The field tests demonstrated the ability of the CVP to monitor combustor flame condition and to relate changes in the engine operation with variations in the flame signature. Engine light off, run up to full speed, the addition of load, and the effect of water injection for NO/sub x/ control could easily be identified on the video monitor. The viewing probe was also valuable in identifying hard startups and shutdowns, as well as transient effects that can seriously harm the engine. 11 refs.

  2. Field test of ultra-low head hydropower package based on marine thrusters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    The project includes the design, fabrication, assembly, installation, and field test of the first full-scale operating hydropower package (turbine, transmission, and generator) based on a design which incorporates a marine-thruster as the hydraulic prime mover. Included here are: the project overview; engineering design; ultra-low head hydropower package fabrication; component procurement, cost control, and scheduling; thruster hydraulic section installation; site modeling and resulting recommended modifications; testing; and baseline environmental conditions at Stone Drop. (MHR)

  3. Final report for the field-reversed configuration power plant critical-issue scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, John F.; Mogahed, Elsayed A.; Emmert, Gilbert A.; Khater, Hesham Y.; Nguyen, Canh N.; Ryzhkov, Sergei V.; Stubna, Michael D.; Steinhauer, Loren C.; Miley, George H.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes research in which a team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed a scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis of deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core.

  4. Research and development of an aimed magnetic lead current density-magnetic field diagnostic. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A diagnostics survey was made to provide a clear definition of advanced diagnostic needs and the limitations of current approaches in addressing those needs. Special attention was given to the adequacy with which current diagnostics are interfaced to signal processing/data acquisition devices and systems. Critical evaluations of selected alternative diagnostic techniques for future R and D activities are presented. The conceptual basis of the Aimed Magnetic Lead Gradiometric system as a current density/magnetic field diagnostic is established

  5. Deep Vadose Zone–Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

    2013-03-14

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2012.

  6. P-scan - Further development and adaptation to field work. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Swedish Plant Inspectorate (SA) has carried out field tests with P-scan ultrasonic equipment under a grant from the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The aim was to use P-scan in the field and gather experience regarding methods and problems in mechanical testing of tubes and components. The field tests were done by the nuclear power department section for repeat testing in conjunction with routine tests of tubes and components in Ringhals 2 and Barsebaeck 1 reactors. Each test was accomplished at 8 inspection areas. The following brief conclusions can be drawn: P-scan has advantages in respect to documentation, evaluation and analysis of test data. The present set of Scanning units require considerable improvements. General specifications for a mechanized future tube and component test system have been collected. The system has a wide application in tests of many, uniform items which are easily accessible, such as pipelines for example. In the hear term the use of the P-scan system is limited to special applications where its documentation principle can be utilized. During the test period 1981 the use of P-scan with focussing detector is planned. The goal is to combine a refined ultrasound technique with P-scan system recorder technique.(G.B.)

  7. A Field Training Model for Creative Arts Therapies: Report from a 3-Year Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod

    2012-01-01

    Clinical field training is an essential component of educating future therapists. This article discusses a creative arts therapies field training model in Israel as designed and modified from 3 years of program evaluation in a changing regulatory context. A clinical seminar structure puts beginning students in the role of participant-observer in…

  8. Phase 1 Final Technical Report - MgB2 Synthesis: Pushing to High Field Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Mohit; McIntyre, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Accelerator Technology Corp. (ATC) has successfully completed its Phase 1 effort to develop rf plasma torch synthesis of MgB2 superconducting powder. The overall objective is to de-velop a way to introduce homogeneous alloying of C and SiC impurities into phase-pure MgB2. Several groups have attained remarkable benefits from such alloying in raising the upper critical field Hc2 from ∼14 T to ∼30 T (bulk) and ∼50 T (thin films). But no one has succeeded in pro-ducing that benefit homogeneously, so that current transport in a practical powder-in-tube (PIT) conductor is largely the same as without the alloying. ATC has conceived the possibility of attaining such homogeneity by passing aerosol suspen-sions of reactant powders through an rf plasma torch, with each reactant transported on a stream-line that heats it to an optimum temperature for the synthesis reaction. This procedure would uniquely access non-equilibrium kinetics for the synthesis reaction, and would provide the possi-bility to separately control the temperature and stoichiometry of each reactant as it enters the mixing region where synthesis occurs. It also facilitates the introduction of seed particles (e.g. nanoscale SiC) to dramatically enhance the rate of the synthesis reaction compared to gas-phase synthesis in rf plasma reported by Canfield and others. During the Phase 1 effort ATC commissioned its 60 kW 5 MHz rf source for a manufactur-ing-scale rf plasma torch. This effort required repair of numerous elements, integration of cooling and input circuits, and tuning of the load characteristics. The effort was successful, and the source has now been tested to ∼full power. Also in the Phase 1 effort we encountered a subsidiary but very important problem: the world is running out of the only present supply of phase-pure amorphous boron. The starting boron powder must be in the amorphous phase in order for the synthesis reaction to produce phase-pure MgB2. Even small contamination with

  9. Geomorphic stability field reconnaissance site visit, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, December 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    To license the Canonsburg site, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has required that geomorphic stability be demonstrated for the stream banks and slopes around the perimeter of the site for 200 years. Based on a study of the stream channel and slopes, it has been determined that due to recent human intervention, the required geomorphic stability cannot now be achieved without installation of erosion protection works and continued monitoring of the site. The Pittsburgh District Corps of Engineers has plans to channelize Chartiers Creek and install erosion protection rock within the next 5 or 6 years, if local government agencies raise the necessary matching funds. Much of the stream bank and slope adjacent to the ''fenced in'' western area of the site is anticipated to remain geomorphically stable for more than 20 years, but less than 200 years without human intervention. Therefore in much of this area, the Corps of Engineers will have adequate time to perform its work without jeopardizing the integrity of the controlled area. In contrast, two approximately 200-foot (ft) (60-meter [m]) long portions of the stream channel located north-northwest of the encapsulation area are subject to active stream erosion that threatens the integrity of the controlled area. These areas should be fixed by installation of erosion protection rock within the next 2 years

  10. Final Report: Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic evolution and instability of conductors driven by megagauss magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Bruno S.; Siemon, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    We are pleased to report important progress in experimentally characterizing and numerically modeling the transformation into plasma of walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields. Understanding this is important to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) because an important limitation to the metal liner approach to MTF comes from the strong eddy current heating on the surface of the metal liner. This has intriguing non-linear aspects when the magnetic field is in the megagauss regime as needed for MTF, and may limit the magnetic field in an MTF implosion. Many faculty, students, and staff have contributed to this work, and, implicitly or explicitly, to this report. Contributors include, in addition to the PIs, Andrey Esaulov, Stephan Fuelling, Irvin Lindemuth, Volodymyr Makhin, Ioana Paraschiv, Milena Angelova, Tom Awe, Tasha Goodrich, Arunkumar Prasadam, Andrew Oxner, Bruno Le Galloudec, Radu Presura, and Vladimir Ivanov. Highlights of the progress made during the grant include: (1) 12 articles published, and 44 conference and workshop presentations made, on a broad range of issues related to this project; (2) An ongoing experiment that uses the 1 MA, 100-ns Zebra z-pinch at UNR to apply 2 5 megagauss to a variety of metal surfaces, examining plasma formation and evolution; (3) Numerical simulation studies of the 1-MA Zebra, and potential Shiva Star and Atlas experiments that include realistic equations of state and radiation effects, using a variety of tables; and (4) Collaboration with other groups doing simulations of this experiment at LANL, VNIIEF, SNL, and NumerEx leading to a successful international workshop at UNR in the spring of 2008.

  11. Development, Demonstration, and Field Testing of Enterprise-Wide Distributed Generation Energy Management System: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, S.; Cooley, C.

    2005-01-01

    This report details progress on subcontract NAD-1-30605-1 between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and RealEnergy (RE), the purpose of which is to describe RE's approach to the challenges it faces in the implementation of a nationwide fleet of clean cogeneration systems to serve contemporary energy markets. The Phase 2 report covers: utility tariff risk and its impact on market development; the effect on incentives on distributed energy markets; the regulatory effectiveness of interconnection in California; a survey of practical field interconnection issues; trend analysis for on-site generation; performance of dispatch systems; and information design hierarchy for combined heat and power.

  12. Final report of twenty-two years of AEC support, 1953--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herriott, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported for: the partial clarification of many aspects of genetic transformation in H. influenzae; control of the many facets of the metabolic and genetic pathways of this organism; development of a totally defined medium for both growth and for competence; the discovery, analysis of kinetics and purification of the photphotoreactivating enzyme; the formation of new genetic units (heterozygotes) during renaturation of mixtures of transforming DNA and finally; the generation of mutations in free wild type DNA by nitrous acid or by thymine hydroperoxide. The latter mutagen is formed in DNA exposed to ionizing radiation and explains the mutations induced in genetic material by ionizing radiation. In addition to these research results, graduate students, postdoctorates and faculty have been trained in the molecular mechanisms of genetic processes through the study of transformation. (U.S.)

  13. Final theory spiral-field-model. Basic ideas for a compatible physics and a consistent nature science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartje, U.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    This script contains theses for an universal 'Spiral-Field-Theory' that are capable to dissolve problems in parallel from different areas which are far from each other. Starting point is the stuck principle discussion about the relationships between the Classic Physics and the Quantum Physics. Aim is the clarification of questions which remained open. In 1925 Max Planck had formulated as follows: 'The research of physics can not rest, so long not has been together-welded: on the one hand the mechanics and the electrodynamics with on the other hand the lesson of the stationary one and the radiating heat to a sole unitary theory'. The Spiral-Field-Model develops a supporting structure from General Field into which they will class the secure knowledge from experiments and well-proved theories. The most important thing of this new Final Theory is the detailed generating of all nature courses of phenomena exclusively from radiation and that in the direct meaning of the word. In the final effect the two great disciplines of the physics which are drifted from each other, become bonded together to a super ordinate theoretical building of the nature sciences. (orig.)

  14. Development of high field superconductors for high energy particle physics: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a high current capacity superconductor for use in high energy accelerator magnets operating at fields above 10 tesla. The conductor was to be used in an experimental magnet designed by Brookhaven National Laboratory based on requirements for advanced accelerator applications. The wire specifications to be met were as follows: a Nb 3 Sn conductor with a copper/non-copper ratio of 1:1; a wire diameter of 0.0268''; and a critical current density of 1000 A/mm 2 in a magnetic field of 10T. The scope of this work was to develop a process to manufacture such a conductor by testing a variety of fabrication techniques which examined variables such as: copper-to-filament area ratio; percentage of reacted Nb 3 Sn per filament; the relative Nb-Sn interfacial area; and the behavior of the composite geometry during extrusion and drawing. Proper control of these variables could reduce filament bridging, coupling, and ''sausaging,'' and thus improve the wire current density

  15. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 1: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). As a part of the IRP program, field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions willneed to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities.

  16. Site operator program final report for fiscal years 1992 through 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Birasco, S. [Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

    1998-01-01

    The Site Operator Program was an electric vehicle testing and evaluation program sponsored by US Department of Energy and managed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Program`s goals included the field evaluation of electric vehicles in real-world applications and environments; the support of electric vehicle technology advancement; the development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles. This report covers Program activities from 1992 to 1996. The Site Operator Program ended in September 1996, when it was superseded by the Field Operations Program. Electric vehicle testing included baseline performance testing, which was performed in conjunction with EV America. The baseline performance parameters included acceleration, braking, range, energy efficiency, and charging time. The Program collected fleet operations data on electric vehicles operated by the Program`s thirteen partners, comprising electric utilities, universities, and federal agencies. The Program`s partners had over 250 electric vehicles, from vehicle converters and original equipment manufacturers, in their operating fleets. Test results are available via the World Wide Web site at http://ev.inel.gov/sop.

  17. Final year students' learning experiences of the Bachelor of Midwifery course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary; Kruger, Gina

    2014-08-01

    the aim of the study was to explore the concerns of 3rd year Bachelor of Midwifery students. earlier research indicates that midwifery students experience a number of conflicting learning demands and expectations, during their student years. These difficulties can lead to anxiety and a lack of confidence, which have implications for student integration and socialisation into the profession. a qualitative method was used, underpinned by Smith and Osborn's (2008) approach to interpretative phenomenological analysis IPA. In-depth interviews were conducted among 10 senior midwifery students as they looked back over their three year course. Data were analysed using steps proposed by Smith and Osborn (2008). more than two-thirds of participants were over 35 years, and had two or more children. More than half were living with a spouse/partner and the majority worked 16 hours or less per week. Themes emerging from the data included (1) linking theory to practice; (2) a focus on clinical skills; (3) learning expectations and experiences; and (4) the role of midwifery lecturers/educators. midwifery students experience a number of challenges associated with their pre-registration midwifery education, including difficulty understanding the relevance of some study units to midwifery practice. A strong focus on practical skills may inhibit the development of cognitive skills such as critical evaluation and reflection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear Medical Technology. Curriculum for a Two Year Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatti, A.; Rich, D.

    Objectives of the project briefly described here were (1) to develop curriculum for a two-year nuclear medical technology program based on a working relationship between three institutions (community college, university health center, and hospital) and (2) to develop procedures for the operation of a medical imaging and radiation technology core…

  19. Early Tracking or Finally Leaving? Determinants of Early Study Success in First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan; Flache, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches underlie this investigation of the determinants of early study success among first-year university students. Specifically, to extend Walberg's educational productivity model, this study draws on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation in a contemporary university context. The survey data came from 407…

  20. CRISP. D3.3. Final report on field experiments and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Gustavsson, R.; Andrieu, C.

    2006-06-01

    This document describes the high level results of the three field experiments and tests performed within the CRISP project. The aims of the document are: To give an account of the lessons learned from the experiments as they have been performed; To give recommendations for strategic use of intelligent ICT in high-DG power networks (thinking forward from our experience in the experiments); and To compile 'industrial guidelines and recommendations' for the strategic use of intelligent ICT for various operational aspects of high-DG power networks. These strategic recommendations will not only cover technology issues, but also business, economic, and market considerations. The role of utilities and third parties in utilising this new technology in this changing scene forms an important issue to be dealt with

  1. Thermo-mechanical analyses and model validation in the HAW test field. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Broerse, J.; Prij, J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of the thermo-mechanical analysis work done for the design of the High Active Waste experiment and for the purpose of validation of the used models through comparison with experiments. A brief treatise is given on the problems of validation of models used for the prediction of physical behaviour which cannot be determined with experiments. The analysis work encompasses investigations into the initial state of stress in the field, the constitutive relations, the temperature rise, and the pressure on the liner tubes inserted in the field to guarantee the retrievability of the radioactive sources used for the experiment. The measurements of temperatures, deformations, and stresses are described and an evaluation is given of the comparison of measured and calculated data. An attempt has been made to qualify or even quantify the discrepancies, if any, between measurements and calculations. It was found that the model for the temperature calculations performed adequately. For the stresses the general tendency was good, however, large discrepancies exist mainly due to inaccuracies in the measurements. For the deformations again the general tendency of the model predictions was in accordance with the measurements. However, from the evaluation it appears that in spite of the efforts to estimate the correct initial rock pressure at the location of the experiment, this pressure has been underestimated. The evaluation has contributed to a considerable increase in confidence in the models and gives no reason to question the constitutive model for rock salt. However, due to the quality of the measurements of the stress and the relatively short period of the experiments no quantitatively firm support for the constitutive model is acquired. Collections of graphs giving the measured and calculated data are attached as appendices. (orig.)

  2. Self-management support by final year nursing students : a correlational study of performance and person-related associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Duprez, Veerle; Beeckman, Dimitri; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic conditions put a heavy burden on healthcare in every country. Supporting persons with a chronic illness to take an active role in the management of their condition is a core component in the Chronic Care Model. It implies confidence and good skills from professionals. To date, there is no evidence on final year nursing students’ performance in supporting patients’ self-management, nor on factors associated with this performance. Objectives To explore self-reporte...

  3. Level of stress in final year MBBS students at Rural Medical College: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Narwane Sandeep P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress, defined as an imbalance between environmental conditions necessary for survival and the ability of individuals to adapt to those conditions, have a high prevalence in MBBS students. A variety of stressors play a significant role in developing stress. Objective:To study the level of stress and stressors responsible in Final MBBS students of Rural Medical College, Loni. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in 100 students (50 of either sex willing to participate in the study. They were subjected to fill the Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire, which consists of 40 questions for evaluating the stressors and severity of stress perceived by the subjects. Results: 71% subjects’ perceived moderate stress, while 13% and 16% perceived high and mild stress respectively. Academic stressor counted for moderate stress in 63% and high stress in 24 % of subjects, which was higher than other stressors. Conclusion: Academic stressors being the major stressor perceived, Strategies are required to decrease the burden of academic stress in the students.

  4. Study motives, career choices and interest in paediatric dentistry among final year dental students in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Folayan, Morenike O; Sofola, Oyinkan O; Khami, Mohammad R; Esan, Ayodeji O; Popoola, Bamidele O; Orenuga, Omolola O; Folaranmi, Nkiru; Ligali, Taofeek O; Phillips, Abimbola S

    2014-01-01

    Background Students’ motives for studying Dentistry have been a subject of interest for years because of the potential for understanding the psychological makeup and subsequent job satisfaction for the dentist. It is also useful in identifying expectations of the profession. This study therefore tried to identify study motives and career preferences of dental students especially with respect to the practice of paediatric dentistry. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using a self-adminis...

  5. Somatosensory evoked field in response to visuotactile stimulation in 3- to 4-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Bastiaan Remijn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A child-customsized magnetoencephalography (MEG system was used to investigate somatosensory evoked field (SEF in 3- to 4-year-old children. Three stimulus conditions were used in which the children received tactile-only stimulation to their left index finger, or visuotactile stimulation. In the two visuotactile conditions the children received tactile stimulation to their finger while they watched a video of tactile stimulation applied either to someone else’s finger (the finger-touch condition, or to someone else’s toe (the toe-touch condition. The latencies and source strengths of equivalent current dipoles (ECD over contralateral (right somatosensory cortex were analyzed. In the preschoolers who provided valid ECDs, the stimulus conditions induced an early-latency ECD occurring in between 60-68 ms mainly with an anterior direction. We further identified a middle-latency ECD in between 97-104 ms, which predominantly had a posterior direction. Finally, initial evidence was found for a late-latency ECD at about 139-151 ms again more often with an anterior direction. Differences were found in the source strengths of the middle-latency ECDs among the stimulus conditions. For the paired comparisons that could be formed, ECD source strength was more pronounced in the finger-touch condition than in the tactile-only and the toe-touch condition. Although more research is necessary to expand the data set, this suggests that visual information modulated preschool SEF. The finding that ECD source strength was higher when seen and felt touch occurred to the same body part, as compared to a different body part, might further indicate that connectivity between visual and tactile information is indexed in preschool somatosensory cortical activity, already in a somatotopic way.

  6. Field Observation of the Green Ocean Amazon. Neutral Cluster Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petaja, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Backman, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manninen, H. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wimmer, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS) was deployed to the T3 site for Intensive Operations Periods 1 and 2 (IOP1 and IOP2). The NAIS is an instrument that measures aerosol particle and ion number size distributions in the mobility diameter range of 0.8 to 42 nm, corresponding to electrical mobility range between 3.2 and 0.0013 cm2 V-1 s-1. New particle formation (NPF) events were detected using the NAIS at the T3 field site during IOP1 and IOP2. Secondary NPF is a globally important source of aerosol number. To fully explain atmospheric NPF and subsequent growth, we need to directly measure the initial steps of the formation processes in different environments, including rain forest. Particle formation characteristics, such as formation and growth rates, were used as indicators of the relevant processes and participating compounds in the initial formation. In a case of parallel ion and neutral cluster measurements, we estimated the relative contribution of ion-induced and neutral nucleation to the total particle formation.

  7. Field drilling tests on improved geothermal unsealed roller-cone bits. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, R.R.; Jones, A.H.; Winzenried, R.W.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-05-01

    The development and field testing of a 222 mm (8-3/4 inch) unsealed, insert type, medium hard formation, high-temperature bit are described. Increased performance was gained by substituting improved materials in critical bit components. These materials were selected on bases of their high temperature properties, machinability and heat treatment response. Program objectives required that both machining and heat treating could be accomplished with existing rock bit production equipment. Six of the experimental bits were subjected to air drilling at 240/sup 0/C (460/sup 0/F) in Franciscan graywacke at the Geysers (California). Performances compared directly to conventional bits indicate that in-gage drilling time was increased by 70%. All bits at the Geysers are subjected to reaming out-of-gage hole prior to drilling. Under these conditions the experimental bits showed a 30% increase in usable hole drilled, compared with the conventional bits. The materials selected improved roller wear by 200%, friction per wear by 150%, and lug wear by 150%. These tests indicate a potential well cost savings of 4 to 8%. Savings of 12% are considered possible with drilling procedures optimized for the experimental bits.

  8. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  9. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 4, Appendixes E and F: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal, to be avoided during drilling activities. This report contains appendices E and F with information on the following: soil boring logs, and data validation of samples analyzed.

  10. Underground hydrogen storage. Final report. [Salt caverns, excavated caverns, aquifers and depleted fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foh, S.; Novil, M.; Rockar, E.; Randolph, P.

    1979-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of storing hydrogen in underground storage reservoirs is evaluated. The past and present technology of storing gases, primarily natural gas is reviewed. Four types of reservoirs are examined: salt caverns, excavated caverns, aquifers, and depleted fields. A technical investigation of hydrogen properties reveals that only hydrogen embrittlement places a limit on the underground storage by hydrogen. This constraint will limit reservoir pressures to 1200 psi or less. A model was developed to determine economic feasibility. After making reasonable assumptions that a utility might make in determining whether to proceed with a new storage operation, the model was tested and verified on natural gas storage. A parameteric analysis was made on some of the input parameters of the model to determine the sensitivity of the cost of service to them. Once the model was verified it was used to compute the cost of service of storing hydrogen in the four reservoir types. The costs of service for hydrogen storage ranged from 26 to 150% of the cost of the gas stored. The study concludes that it is now both safe and economic to store hydrogen in underground reservoirs.

  11. Spirituality, religion, and health: over the last 15 years of field research (1999-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the contribution of specific countries, journals, and authors in different scientific disciplines, little is known about the contribution of different world countries, journals, and authors to scientific research in the field of "Spirituality, religion, and health" (S/R). The present study aims to analyze the last 15 years of research in the field of spirituality and religiousness (S/R) through a bibliometric analysis. Using the Pubmed database, we retrieved all articles related to S/R field for the period 1999-2013. We then estimated the total number of publications, number of articles published per year, articles published per country, journals with most publications in S/R field, most productive authors, and most used keywords. We found a growth of publications in the last years, most from the United States and the United Kingdom and published in the English language. Noteworthy, some developing countries such as India, Brazil, Israel, and Iran are at higher positions in this list. The S/R articles were published in journals embracing all fields of research, including high impact journals. In the present study, we took a closer look at the field of "Spirituality, religion, and health," showing that this field of research has been constantly growing and consolidating in the scientific community.

  12. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Annual Report - Fiscal Year 2000; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Darrell R; Hughes, Pamela J; Pearson, Erik W

    2001-01-01

    The projects described in this report represent the Laboratory's investment in its future and are vital to maintaining the ability to develop creative solutions for the scientific and technical challenges faced by DOE and the nation. In accordance with DOE guidelines, the report provides, (a) a director's statement, (b) an overview of the laboratory's LDRD program, including PNNL's management process and a self-assessment of the program, (c) a five-year project funding table, and (d) project summaries for each LDRD project

  13. Direct heat resource assessment: Phase II, year 1. Final report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.; Cox, M.E.; Kauahikaua, J.P.; Mattice, M.D.

    1980-02-01

    During 1979 reconnaissance field surveys were conducted on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu with the objective of confirming groundwater chemical data and geophysical data compiled during the preliminary regional assessment of Phase I of the Direct Heat Resource Assessment Program. The exploration techniques applied include (1) groundwater chemistry, (2) mercury-radon surveys, (3) isotopic composition of groundwaters, (4) time domain electromagnetics, and (5) Schlumberger resistivity surveys. The results of these surveys can be classified as follows: (1) Hawaii: Kailua-Kona, strong geochemical anomalies; Kawaihae, strong geophysical anomalies, moderate to strong geochemical anomalies; Hualalai northwest rift, weak geochemical and moderate geophysical anomalies; South Point, moderate to weak geophysical anomalies; Hualalai southeast rift, weak geophysical anomalies; Keaau, weak geophysical and geochemical anomalies; (2) Maui: Haiku-Paia, strong geochemical anomalies; Olowalu-Ukamehame canyons, moderate to strong geochemical and geophysical anomalies; Lahaina, weak geochemical and geophysical anomalies; (3) Oahu: Lualualei, moderate to strong geochemical and geophysical anomalies; Waimanalo-Maunawili, insufficient data.

  14. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Hydrogeological field studies. Final Report - Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.N. [Univ of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (United States). Dept of Hydrology and Water Resources; Marley, R.D. [D.B. Stephens and Associates Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Norris, J.R. [Hydro Geo Chem Inc., Tucson, Arizona (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The hydrogeology of the Koongarra site was interpreted primarily from long-term hydrographs, water-level maps, water injection tests, aquifer pumping tests, logs of boreholes, and chemical analyses of groundwater samples. Data have been collected over a 21-year period starting with test-drilling in 1970. The first intensive period of hydrogeologic investigations was from 1978 through 1981 and was related to anticipated exploitation of uranium ore at Koongarra. The second period was from 1986 through 1991 and was related to the international Alligator Rivers Analogue Project under the direction of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. The conclusion which can be drawn from the chemical data is that water moving out of the No. 1 ore deposit is diluted rapidly with recharge from the surface as it migrates down the hydraulic gradient. Most of the groundwater outside of the ore deposit does not originate from the ore deposit, and flow models which assume unmodified stream tubes extending out of the ore deposit in a downgradient direction do not reflect the true system. Water in the ore deposit itself, must come from slow upward seepage through the fault zone. Owing to the fact that this water must be at least hundreds of years old, observed fluctuations of water levels in the deposit must reflect pressure head variations induced by seasonal recharge to the overlying surficial materials. Water level fluctuations do not signify a yearly displacement of water deep in the system. Water in the deeper part of the ore must be almost static compared to obvious rapid groundwater circulation in the area around PH88. Small changes in pH, temperature and specific electrical conductivity during aquifer tests indicate a complex hydraulic system which has a variable response to pumping as a function of time. Low concentration in tritium and Carbon-14 together with high concentrations of dissolved helium in the groundwaters all suggested strongly that semi static

  15. Demonstration project Klaipeda, Lithuania. Final evaluation of 1. year results after rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    In order to investigate various options for reduction of the district heating return temperature and for introduction of energy saving measures in the buildings, a demonstration area comprising eight buildings was selected. The eight buildings selected were typical 5-floor buildings built in 1982-89. This enabled the experience to be transferred to a maximum number of buildings in Klaipeda and in Lithuania, in general. All buildings had a one-string radiator system installed. Since 1991, the supply temperature in Klaipeda district heating system has been reduced. This has led to a lower indoor temperature, which has decreased from the design value 18 deg. C to 15 dec. C due to shortage of fuel. With such a low room temperature, the improved sytems may result in better comfort rather than in energy savings. The project has been implemented during a two-year period from heating season 97/98 to 98/99. The first year before the heating season 97/98, energy and flow meters were installed for measuring the existing heating and hot water consumption. For the next heating season 1998/1999, various energy saving measures were installed, and measurements were caried out again. After that, the energy consumption and temperature levels were analysed and compared for the two seasons. (au)

  16. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: demand analysis methodology. Volume IV. First year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, W.B.; Plaut, T.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of intercity freight pipelines, it was necessary to determine whether sufficient traffic flows currently exist between various origins and destinations to justify consideration of a mode whose operating characteristics became competitive under conditions of high-traffic volume. An intercity origin/destination freight-flow matrix was developed for a large range of commodities from published sources. A high-freight traffic-density corridor between Chicago and New York and another between St. Louis and New York were studied. These corridors, which represented 18 cities, had single-direction flows of 16 million tons/year. If trans-shipment were allowed at each of the 18 cities, flows of up to 38 million tons/year were found in each direction. These figures did not include mineral or agricultural products. After determining that such pipeline-eligible freight-traffic volumes existed, the next step was to determine the ability of freight pipeline to penetrate such markets. Modal-split models were run on aggregate data from the 1967 Census of Transportation. Modal-split models were also run on disaggregate data specially collected for this study. The freight pipeline service characteristics were then substituted into both the aggregate and disaggregate models (truck vs. pipeline and then rail vs. pipeline) and estimates of pipeline penetration into particular STCC commodity groups were made. Based on these very preliminary results, it appears that freight pipeline has market penetration potential that is consistent with high-volume participation in the intercity freight market.

  17. Communication skills assessment in the final postgraduate years to established practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Amy E; Morris, Marie C; Ridgway, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    Communication breakdown is a factor in the majority of all instances of medical error. Despite the importance, a relative paucity of time is invested in communication skills in postgraduate curricula. Our objective is to systematically review the literature to identify the current tools used to assess communication skills in postgraduate trainees in the latter 2 years of training and in established practice. Two reviewers independently reviewed the literature identifying communication skill assessment tools, for postgraduate trainees in the latter 2 years of training and in established practice following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework, and inclusion/exclusion criteria from January 1990 to 15 August 2014. PubMed/CINAHL/ERIC/EMBASE/PsycInfo/Psyc Articles/Cochrane. 222 articles were identified; after review, 34 articles fulfilled criteria for complete evaluation; the majority (26) had a high level of evidence scoring 3 or greater on the Best Evidence Medical Education guide. 22 articles used objective structured clinical examination/standardised patient (SP)-based formats in an assessment or training capacity. Evaluation tools included author-developed questionnaires and validated tools. Nineteen articles demonstrated an educational initiative. The reviewed literature is heterogeneous for objectives and measurement techniques for communication. Observed interactions, with patients or SPs, is the current favoured method of evaluation using author-developed questionnaires. The role of self-evaluation of skill level is questioned. The need for a validated assessment tool for communication skills is highlighted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Determination of the exposure to electromagnetic fields arising from radiofrequency identification technology (RFID) application. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Ueberbacher, Richard; Cecil, Stefan; Escorihuela-Navarro, Ana; Sainitzer, David; Weinfurter, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    In the frame of this project the extent of personal exposure against electromagnetic fields caused by various types of RFID equipment has been analyzed based on measurements on selected devices and numerical computations considering practically relevant exposure scenarios. The obtained results were assessed according to the ICNIRP guidelines published in 1998. Moreover, numerical computations were carried out in order to estimate disturbance voltages induced at the input of cardiac pacemakers. All relevant frequency bands used by present RFID devices were considered. With respect to RFID transponders it was shown that they do not cause relevant exposure. Exposure figures caused by typical active RFID transponders can be expected several orders of magnitude below the corresponding basic restrictions according to ICNIRP 1998. For the assessment of exposure caused by RFID reader devices a differentiation of device categories and operating frequencies is necessary. Small reader devices or handheld readers with operating ranges less than approximately 10 cm, e.g., for reading from or writing to electronic passports, tickets, etc., are based on inductive coupling at operating frequencies 13,56 MHz and 120 kHz. From the obtained results it can be concluded that these devices cause exposure well below the ICNIRP 1998 basic restrictions. Similarly, also measurement and computational results for inductively coupled RF access control and identification systems (13,56 MHz) with even higher operating ranges up to approximately 80 cm indicate that exposure above the basic restrictions is not to be expected for such devices under usual conditions in practice. In contrast, the obtained results for inductively coupled LF reading devices with operating ranges up to approximately 80 cm (operating frequency 120-125 kHz) showed that induced current densities in the central nervous tissue above the basic restrictions are possible for particular devices if a person approaches the

  19. Outline of results of safety research (in nuclear fuel cycle field in fiscal year 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The safety research in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation in fiscal year 1996 has been carried out based on the basic plan of safety research (from fiscal year 1996 to 2000) which was decided in March, 1996. In this report, on nuclear fuel cycle field, namely all the subjects in the fields of nuclear fuel facilities, environmental radioactivity and waste disposal, and the subjects related to nuclear fuel facilities among the fields of aseismatic and probabilistic safety assessments, the results of research in fiscal year 1996, the first year of the 5-year project, are summarized together with the outline of the basic plan of safety research. The basic policy, objective and system for promotion of the safety research are described. The objectives of the safety research are the advancement of safety technology, the safety of facilities, stable operation techniques, the safety design and the evaluation techniques of next generation facilities, and the support of transferring nuclear fuel cycle to private businesses. The objects of the research are uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and reprocessing, and waste treatment and storage. 52 investigation papers of the results of the safety research in nuclear fuel cycle field in fiscal year 1996 are collected in this report. (K.I.)

  20. Blending online techniques with traditional face to face teaching methods to deliver final year undergraduate radiology learning content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, David; Vincent, Tim; Watson, Gillian; Owens, Emma; Webb, Richard; Gainsborough, Nicola; Fairclough, Jil; Taylor, Nick; Miles, Ken; Cohen, Jon; Vincent, Richard

    2011-06-01

    To review the initial experience of blending a variety of online educational techniques with traditional face to face or contact-based teaching methods to deliver final year undergraduate radiology content at a UK Medical School. The Brighton and Sussex Medical School opened in 2003 and offers a 5-year undergraduate programme, with the final 5 spent in several regional centres. Year 5 involves several core clinical specialities with onsite radiology teaching provided at regional centres in the form of small-group tutorials, imaging seminars and also a one-day course. An online educational module was introduced in 2007 to facilitate equitable delivery of the year 5 curriculum between the regional centres and to support students on placement. This module had a strong radiological emphasis, with a combination of imaging integrated into clinical cases to reflect everyday practice and also dedicated radiology cases. For the second cohort of year 5 students in 2008 two additional online media-rich initiatives were introduced, to complement the online module, comprising imaging tutorials and an online case discussion room. In the first year for the 2007/2008 cohort, 490 cases were written, edited and delivered via the Medical School managed learning environment as part of the online module. 253 cases contained a form of image media, of which 195 cases had a radiological component with a total of 325 radiology images. Important aspects of radiology practice (e.g. consent, patient safety, contrast toxicity, ionising radiation) were also covered. There were 274,000 student hits on cases the first year, with students completing a mean of 169 cases each. High levels of student satisfaction were recorded in relation to the online module and also additional online radiology teaching initiatives. Online educational techniques can be effectively blended with other forms of teaching to allow successful undergraduate delivery of radiology. Efficient IT links and good image quality

  1. Blending online techniques with traditional face to face teaching methods to deliver final year undergraduate radiology learning content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, David; Vincent, Tim; Watson, Gillian; Owens, Emma; Webb, Richard; Gainsborough, Nicola; Fairclough, Jil; Taylor, Nick; Miles, Ken; Cohen, Jon; Vincent, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review the initial experience of blending a variety of online educational techniques with traditional face to face or contact-based teaching methods to deliver final year undergraduate radiology content at a UK Medical School. Materials and methods: The Brighton and Sussex Medical School opened in 2003 and offers a 5-year undergraduate programme, with the final 5 spent in several regional centres. Year 5 involves several core clinical specialities with onsite radiology teaching provided at regional centres in the form of small-group tutorials, imaging seminars and also a one-day course. An online educational module was introduced in 2007 to facilitate equitable delivery of the year 5 curriculum between the regional centres and to support students on placement. This module had a strong radiological emphasis, with a combination of imaging integrated into clinical cases to reflect everyday practice and also dedicated radiology cases. For the second cohort of year 5 students in 2008 two additional online media-rich initiatives were introduced, to complement the online module, comprising imaging tutorials and an online case discussion room. Results: In the first year for the 2007/2008 cohort, 490 cases were written, edited and delivered via the Medical School managed learning environment as part of the online module. 253 cases contained a form of image media, of which 195 cases had a radiological component with a total of 325 radiology images. Important aspects of radiology practice (e.g. consent, patient safety, contrast toxicity, ionising radiation) were also covered. There were 274,000 student hits on cases the first year, with students completing a mean of 169 cases each. High levels of student satisfaction were recorded in relation to the online module and also additional online radiology teaching initiatives. Conclusion: Online educational techniques can be effectively blended with other forms of teaching to allow successful undergraduate delivery of

  2. Blending online techniques with traditional face to face teaching methods to deliver final year undergraduate radiology learning content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howlett, David, E-mail: david.howlett@esht.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Eastbourne District General Hospital, Kings Drive, Eastbourne, East Sussex BN21 2UD (United Kingdom); Vincent, Tim [Department of IT, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS) (United Kingdom); Watson, Gillian; Owens, Emma [Department of Radiology, Eastbourne District General Hospital, Kings Drive, Eastbourne, East Sussex BN21 2UD (United Kingdom); Webb, Richard; Gainsborough, Nicola [Department of Medicine, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton (United Kingdom); Fairclough, Jil [Department of IT, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS) (United Kingdom); Taylor, Nick [Department of Medical Illustration, Eastbourne District General Hospital (United Kingdom); Miles, Ken [Department of Imaging, BSMS (United Kingdom); Cohen, Jon [Department of Infectious Diseases, BSMS (United Kingdom); Vincent, Richard [Department of Cardiology, BSMS (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To review the initial experience of blending a variety of online educational techniques with traditional face to face or contact-based teaching methods to deliver final year undergraduate radiology content at a UK Medical School. Materials and methods: The Brighton and Sussex Medical School opened in 2003 and offers a 5-year undergraduate programme, with the final 5 spent in several regional centres. Year 5 involves several core clinical specialities with onsite radiology teaching provided at regional centres in the form of small-group tutorials, imaging seminars and also a one-day course. An online educational module was introduced in 2007 to facilitate equitable delivery of the year 5 curriculum between the regional centres and to support students on placement. This module had a strong radiological emphasis, with a combination of imaging integrated into clinical cases to reflect everyday practice and also dedicated radiology cases. For the second cohort of year 5 students in 2008 two additional online media-rich initiatives were introduced, to complement the online module, comprising imaging tutorials and an online case discussion room. Results: In the first year for the 2007/2008 cohort, 490 cases were written, edited and delivered via the Medical School managed learning environment as part of the online module. 253 cases contained a form of image media, of which 195 cases had a radiological component with a total of 325 radiology images. Important aspects of radiology practice (e.g. consent, patient safety, contrast toxicity, ionising radiation) were also covered. There were 274,000 student hits on cases the first year, with students completing a mean of 169 cases each. High levels of student satisfaction were recorded in relation to the online module and also additional online radiology teaching initiatives. Conclusion: Online educational techniques can be effectively blended with other forms of teaching to allow successful undergraduate delivery of

  3. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics. Three year progress report and final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, R.H.; Madsen, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 the DOE grant in Nuclear theory with Professors Rubin H. Landau and Victor A. Madsen as co-principal investigators ended. Their research was carried out in collaboration with graduate students in Corvallis, and with scientists at LLNL-Livermore, Los Alamos, TRIUMF, KFA-Julich, Hamburg University, Melbourne University, The Thinking Machine Corporation and IBM Research. Activities in nuclear and particle physics at Oregon State University (OSU) were diverse and active. Madsen's work concentrated on the relation of reactions to the nuclear structure, and Landau's work concentrated on intermediate energy physics, few-body problems, and computational physics. The Landau group had a weekly meeting of students and visitors. There was a weekly nuclear seminar with experimental and theoretical colleagues, and a weekly departmental colloquium. The DOE support had permitted the group to run Unix workstations networked to other computers in the Physics Department and the University. Since 1990 OSU has been using IBM RISC System 6000/model 530 with console and four X-stations. The equipment was purchased and is maintained with yearly DOE funding of the group

  4. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan 1990-1999 : Environmental Strategy. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    In operating and maintaining its regional power transmission system, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) must address environmental concerns. Pollution sources and pathways for pollution migration, including potential contamination from hazardous or toxic materials, are present. BPA must develop and follow precautionary measures, respond to emergencies, minimize wastes, redress past problems, alert and train employees to problems and safety needs, constantly evaluate this effort and update the program for improvements and changes in regulations and technology. Part of BPA's mission is to conduct its operation, maintenance, and replacement programs in an environmentally sound manner. BPA recognizes its responsibility to be good stewards of the environment. BPA will meet its environmental obligations as set forth in environmental laws and regulations. BPA intends to make consistent and measurable progress toward meeting these responsibilities. The target for the 10-Year Plan is to achieve environmental compliance and meet the following goals: (1) protect human health and the environment; (2) avoid or limit liability (3) set up an effective internal management structure to maintain compliance; and (4) achieve cost-effective compliance. 6 figs.

  5. Assessment of the situation of centres of competence in the fields of nuclear fission and radiation protection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfert, K.; Buecherl, A.; Glaeser, H.; Zimmermann, M.; Metivier, H.; Richard, P.; Vasa, I.; Klener, V.; Riebold, W.L.

    2003-03-01

    An assessment of the present situation concerning centres of competence in the fields of Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection has been carried out with the intention to draw strategic conclusions as regards further needs in these fields, based on the actual situation and perceived future developments. This study was initiated by the programme committee for the Euratom research and training programme in the field of Nuclear Energy (1998 - 2002). To carry out this exercise, a Panel of four independent experts had been set up. The Panel had prepared a questionnaire comprising a comprehensive set of questions aiming at the acquisition of the information needed to carry out the assessment exercise. The questionnaire consisted in ten different form sheets and had been put on the Internet in order to ease the access and offer a comfortable way of filling in the form sheets. Out of 420 organisations invited to participate in the exercise, 293 organisations from EU member states, Central and Eastern European Accession Countries (CEEC) and from Norway and Switzerland, had responded and registered for participation. Finally, 218 organisations have participated in the exercise. In spite of all efforts undertaken, several known main European nuclear research actors from different European countries have not participated in the exercise. (orig.)

  6. Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project. Fiscal Year 2014 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacFarlan, Paul J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Slonecker, Bruce D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Frances N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steen, Franciska H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Office of Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with using PNNL facilities and processes to receive irradiated low enriched uranium–molybdenum (LEU-Mo) fuel plate samples and perform analysis in support of the M3 Reactor Conversion Program. This work is in support of the M3 Reactor Conversion Fuel Development Pillar that is managed by Idaho National Laboratory. The primary research scope was to determine the thermo-physical properties as a function of temperature and burnup. Work conducted in Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 complemented measurements performed in FY 2013 on four additional irradiated LEU-Mo fuel plate samples. Specifically, the work in FY 2014 investigated the influence of different processing methods on thermal property behavior, the absence of aluminum alloy cladding on thermal property behavior for additional model validation, and the influence of higher operating surface heat flux / more aggressive irradiation conditions on thermal property behavior. The model developed in FY 2013 and refined in FY 2014 to extract thermal properties of the U-Mo alloy from the measurements conducted on an integral fuel plate sample (i.e., U-Mo alloy with a thin Zr coating and clad in AA6061) continues to perform very well. Measurements conducted in FY 2014 on samples irradiated under similar conditions compare well to measurements performed in FY 2013. In general, there is no gross influence of fabrication method on thermal property behavior, although the difference in LEU-Mo foil microstructure does have a noticeable influence on recrystallization of grains during irradiation. Samples irradiated under more aggressive irradiation conditions, e.g., higher surface heat flux, revealed lower thermal conductivity when compared to samples irradiated at moderate surface heat fluxes, with the exception of one sample. This report documents thermal

  7. Southwest Center for Environmental Excellence and Opportunity Year End Report (Final Deliverable)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-11-09

    The Southwest Center for Environmental Excellence and Opportunity (Southwest CEEO) has been in existence since October 1996 at Albuquerque Technical Vocational Institute's (TVI) South Valley Campus. The Special Project was comprised of three objectives: (1) Increasing the number of Hispanics in careers related to the environment by improving education and job training opportunities; (2) Strengthening the infrastructure of Hispanic businesses and building their capacity to participate in environmental clean-up activities and potential technology commercialization; and (3) Increasing the Hispanic community's understanding of and participation in environmental protection through improved access to information and outreach activities, paying attention to cultural and linguistic issues. The Southwest CEEO has been successful in each of the above objective areas and continues to provide valuable services to TVI and the community. The Southwest CEEO has developed a scholarship/mentorship program involving business and industry, community organizations, and TVI faculty that will be replicated by other student mentorship programs. The Southwest CEEO has awarded approximately $50,000 over the two-year program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Oakland Operations Office. The Southwest CEEO has also developed a K-12 partnership with Albuquerque Public Schools (APS) to enhance environmental education for students and professional development for teachers. Incorporated into these student activities are experimental learning opportunities and curriculum development and/or enhancement. The Southwest CEEO has worked closely with the TVI Small Business Development Center (SBDC) to support Hispanic businesses in technology partnership activities. The Southwest CEEO in partnership the TVI SBDC has provided a large business forum and business workshops. In addition, the Southwest CEEO has developed a Technology Transfer Model that will be expanded in the future to a

  8. Introduction of virtual patients onto a final year anesthesia course: Hong Kong experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph YC Leung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph YC Leung1, Lester AH Critchley1, Alex LK Yung2, Shekhar M Kumta21Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 2Department of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong KongAbstract: e-Learning has revolutionized the way in which undergraduate medical education is delivered. One e-learning tool of note is the virtual patient (VP, a type of computer software that simulates real-life clinical scenarios, in which the learner emulates the role of health care provider to obtain the history, conduct examination, and make diagnoses and management decisions. VPs have been in use since 1993. Early designs were based on serial screen-cards of patient history, examination, investigations, diagnoses, treatment, and outcome, which the learner explored. With the development of web technology, VPs can now be accessed via the Internet and are more versatile, supporting different structural designs to suit a variety of learning objectives, and they can branch via different routes through a case. Using VPs has a number of advantages: 1 VPs improve access to learning material, 2 VPs help learners to acquire higher order cognitive skills like strategic thinking and decision making, 3 VPs provide a safe environment to practice, 4 VPs help to teach interdisciplinary care, and 5 VPs can be used instead of patients for examination. A number of well-known VP player systems are in use today: CASUS, CAMPUS, web-based Simulation of Patients, OpenLabyrinth, and vpSim. At the Chinese University of Hong Kong, we have also developed a web-based VP authoring and player system called Formative Assessment Case Studies (FACS, which is run by our Teaching and Learning Resources Centre. FACS has been integrated into Year-5 Anesthesia teaching since 2006. Three VP products have been developed: Anaesthesia FACS (six cases that teaches preoperative assessment, Acute Pain Management FACS, and an

  9. Understanding of antibiotic use and resistance among final-year pharmacy and medical students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Elkalmi, Ramadan; Rajiah, Kingston; Al-Shami, Abdul Kareem; Shamsudin, Siti Hadijah; Siddiqui, Mohammad Jamshed Ahmad; Abdul Aziz, Mohamad Akram Bin; Hanafi, Muhammad Badrulsyam Bin; Mohammad Shariff, Najwa Izzati Bt; Ramlan, Nasrul Hakim Bin; Jamil, Normunirah Bt; Mustapha, Nur Hayatul Akmal Bt; Hasman Yusri, Nuratiqah Bt; Shahri, Nurul Anisah Bt; Ismail, Radhiyah Bt; Zamri, Siti Maryam Bt

    2014-06-11

    This study is aimed to investigate the understanding of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance and its correlate factors among final-year medical and pharmacy students at International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). This was a cross-sectional study. The study instrument was developed by extensive literature search and was subjected to face validity and content validity to medical and pharmacy academics. A pilot study was conducted to ascertain the reliability coefficient. Data was entered to SPSS version 17 and descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. A total of 123 questionnaires were included in the study. Out of 123 respondents, 58.5% (n = 72) were final-year medical students, while 41.5% (n = 51) were final-year pharmacy students. The majority of the respondents showed adequate knowledge regarding the course contents related to antibiotics (n = 116; 94.3%). Almost all the respondents correctly reported the difference between bactericidal and bacteriostatic antibiotics. Only 15.4% (n = 19) and 27.6% (n = 34) of students were able to recognize Streptococcus pyogenes as non-pencillin resistant bacterium and Enterococcus as vancomycin-resistant bacterium, respectively. The students showed good understanding regarding antibiotic resistance. In comparison to medical students, pharmacy students showed better understanding and more adequate knowledge, as the mean value for each domain was slightly higher for pharmacy students. Extensively improving the curriculum and educating healthcare professionals, especially physicians and pharmacists, right from the time of their educational training can inculcate a moral responsibility toward the judicious use of antibiotics, which can serve to eradicate antibiotic resistance.

  10. Assessment of attitudes for interprofessional team working and knowledge of health professions competencies for final year health professional students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Se Wong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-professional education (IPE contributes to the development of an ‘inter-professional, collaborative and practice-ready’ healthcare workforce that is well prepared to respond to local healthcare needs. Little is known about the extent, to which health professional students who are nearing graduation understand the competencies of diverse health professions. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of final-year undergraduate students’ towards interprofessional team working and their knowledge of the competencies of 6 health professions. This study evaluated the final-year health professional students’ from six (6 health professions programmes namely medical, dental, nursing, pharmacy, dietetics and biomedical sciences programmes. Attitudes towards Health Care Team Scale (ATHCTS was used to measure students’ attitudes towards teamwork while a checklist was used measure students’ knowledge of 6 health professionals competencies. Construct validity was ascertain and findings from ATHCTS showed mean scores ranges from 48.57 to 54.23 indicating positive attitudes toward working within interprofessional health care teams. While the ACTHS findings were positive, the competencies checklist showed mixed findings in that students correctly identified some competencies and had misconceptions for others. For example, the majority of students regarded physicians as competent in ‘assessment and evaluation’ and ‘medication management’ while less than 50% of participants recognised the importance of assessment of patient’s health-illness as a competency for dieticians. Gaps identified in final year students’ knowledge of the roles and competencies of health professions has an impact on future interprofessional collaborative practice suggesting a need to further improve curriculum design and delivery of IPE.

  11. The phosphate field experiment IB 0013; annual report of the IMPHOS experiment; the ninth year: 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Jansen, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the ninth year of the Dutch IMPHOS field trial IB 0013 are presented. In 1999 spring barley was grown. The first stages of the growth of spring barley were positively affected by phosphorus fertilization. The more phosphorus was given, the better the crop responded. The soil structure

  12. Effects of microelements on soil nematode assemblages seven years after contaminating an agricultural field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, P.; Bakonyi, G.; Bongers, A.M.T.; Kádár, I.; Fábián, M.; Kiss, I.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term effects of Cd, Cr, Cu, Se and Zn were studied 7 years after artificially contaminating plots of an agricultural field on a calcareous chernozem soil. Effects of three to four different contamination levels (originally 10, 30, 90 and 270 mg kg(-1)) were studied. Nematode density was

  13. Do student nurses experience Imposter Phenomenon? An international comparison of Final Year Undergraduate Nursing Students readiness for registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin; Aubeeluck, Aimee; Fergusson, Diana; Craft, Judy; Knight, Jessica; Wirihana, Lisa; Stupple, Ed

    2016-11-01

    The transition shock or Imposter Phenomena sometimes associated with moving from student to Registered Nurse can lead to feelings of self-doubt and insecurity especially with the increased expectations and responsibilities that registration brings. The aim of this study was to examine the extent at which imposter phenomenon is evident in four final year nursing student cohorts in Australia, New Zealand and the UK. A survey design. The study took place at four higher education institutes - two metropolitan campuses and two regional campuses between October 2014 - February 2015 in Australia, New Zealand and the UK. A sample of 223 final year nursing students undertaking nationally accredited nursing programmes were approached. Each cohort exhibited mild to moderate feelings of Imposter Phenomena. A positive weak correlation between imposter phenomena and preparedness for practice was found. The New Zealand cohort scored higher than both the Australian and UK cohorts on both feelings of imposterism and preparedness for practice. Nursing students possess internalized feelings which suggest their performance and competence once qualified could be compromised. There is some speculation that the respective curriculums may have some bearing on preparing students for registration and beyond. It is recommended that educational programmes designed for this student cohort should be mindful of this internal conflict and potential external hostility. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Patient safety competence for final-year health professional students: Perceptions of effectiveness of an interprofessional education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jee-In; Yoon, Tai-Young; Jin, Hyeon-Jeong; Park, Yikyun; Park, Ju-Young; Lee, Beom-Joon

    2016-11-01

    As final-year medical and nursing students will soon play key roles in frontline patient care, their preparedness for safe, reliable care provision is of special importance. We assessed patient safety competencies of final-year health profession students, and the effect of a 1-day patient safety education programme on these competencies. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 233 students in three colleges of medicine, nursing, and traditional medicine in Seoul. A before-and-after study followed to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. Patient safety competency was measured using the Health-Professional Education for Patients Safety Survey (H-PEPSS) and an objective patient safety knowledge test. The mean scores were 3.4 and 1.7 out of 5.0, respectively. The communication domain was rated the highest and the teamwork domain was rated the lowest. H-PEPSS scores significantly differed between the students from three colleges. The 1-day patient safety education curriculum significantly improved H-PEPSS and knowledge test scores. These results indicated that strengthening patient safety competencies, especially teamwork, of students is required in undergraduate healthcare curricula. A 1-day interprofessional patient safety education programme may be a promising strategy. The findings suggest that interprofessional patient safety education needs to be implemented as a core undergraduate course to improve students' safety competence.

  15. Prescribing Safety Assessment 2016: Delivery of a national prescribing assessment to 7343 UK final-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Simon R J; Coleman, Jamie J; Bollington, Lynne; Taylor, Celia; Webb, David J

    2017-10-01

    Newly graduated doctors write a large proportion of prescriptions in UK hospitals but recent studies have shown that they frequently make prescribing errors. The prescribing safety assessment (PSA) has been developed as an assessment of competence in relation to prescribing and supervising the use of medicines. This report describes the delivery of the PSA to all UK final-year medical students in 2016 (PSA2016). The PSA is a 2-hour online assessment comprising eight sections which cover various aspects of prescribing defined within the outcomes of undergraduate education identified by the UK General Medical Council. Students sat one of four PSA 'papers', which had been standard-set using a modified Angoff process. A total of 7343 final-year medical students in all 31 UK medical schools sat the PSA. The overall pass rate was 95% with the pass rates for the individual papers ranging from 93 to 97%. The PSA was re-sat by 261 students who had failed and 80% of those candidates passed. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the four papers ranged from 0.74 to 0.77 (standard error of measurement 4.13-4.24%). There was a statistically significant variation in performance between medical school cohorts (F = 32.6, P medical students were able to meet a prespecified standard of prescribing competence. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Impact of focused training on communication skills of final-year medical students in a medical school in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nayyar; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Basheer, Aneesh; Kandasamy, Ravichandran

    2015-01-01

    Although communication skills are important for a good physician-patient relationship, Indian medical curricula give very little emphasis on training medical students in this aspect. To determine the change in communication skills of final-year medical students following focused training. This was an educational interventional study done at Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India, to assess communication skills among final-year MBBS students. Fifty-two students (24 males and 28 females) participated in the study. A pre-test was conducted in the form of an objectively structured clinical examination (OSCE), followed by focused training for four hours. The same OSCE was administered as post-test. A comparison between the pre-test and post-test scores was done using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. Ninety-six per cent of participants (50 out of 52) showed improvement in their performance after the focused training. The mean marks of the pre-test and post-test were 10.77± 3 and 18.04±2, respectively, out of a maximum mark of 20 (pcommunication skills of medical students. Hence, it may be included in the curriculum of undergraduate medical teaching programmes in India.

  17. FIELD DEPLOYMENT EVALUATION OF THE FREEZE-THAW/EVAPORATION (FTE) PROCESS TO TREAT OIL AND GAS PRODUCED WATERS. Task 45. Final topical report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames A. Grisanti; James A. Sorensen

    1999-01-01

    TASK 45 FIELD DEPLOYMENT EVALUATION OF THE FREEZE-THAW/ EVAPORATION (FTE ) PROCESS TO TREAT OIL AND GAS PRODUCED WATERS coupling evaporation with freezing. This offers operators a year- round method for treating produced water. Treating water with the FTE process reduces the volume of water to be disposed of as well as purifying the water to a level acceptable for watering livestock and agricultural lands. This process is currently used at two evaporation facilities, one in the San Juan Basin in New Mexico and one in the Green River Basin in Wyoming. the freezing point below that of pure water. When such a solution is cooled below 32EF, relatively pure ice crystals form, along with an unfrozen brine solution that contains elevated concentrations of salts. Because of the brine's high concentration of these constituents, its density is greater than that of the ice, and the purified ice and brine are easily separated. Coupling the natural processes of freezing and evaporation makes the FTE process a more cost- effective and efficient method for the treatment and disposal of produced water and allows for year-round operation of an FTE facility. drops below 32 F, produced water is automatically pumped from a holding pond and sprayed onto a freezing pad. The freezing pad consists of an elevated framework of piping with regularly placed, upright, extendable spray heads similar to those used to irrigate lawns. As the spray freezes, an ice pile forms over the elevated framework of pipes, and the brine, with an elevated constituent concentration, drains from the ice pile. The high-salinity brine, identified by its high electrical conductivity, is separated using automatic valves and pumped to a pond where it can subsequently be disposed of by conventional methods. As the ice pile increases in height, the sprayers are extended. When the ice on the freezing pad melts, the relatively pure water is pumped from the freezing pad and discharged or stored for later use . No new

  18. The emerging dental workforce: why dentistry? A quantitative study of final year dental students' views on their professional career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nairn HF

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental graduates are joining a profession experiencing changes in systems of care, funding and skill mix. Research into the motivation and expectations of the emerging workforce is vital to inform professional and policy decisions. The objective of this research was to investigate final year dental students' perceived motivation for their choice of career in relation to sex, ethnicity and mode of entry. Methods Self-administered questionnaire survey of all final year dental students at King's College London. Data were entered into SPSS; statistical analysis included Chi Squared tests for linear association, multiple regression, factor analysis and logistic regression. Results A response of 90% (n = 126 was achieved. The majority were aged 23 years (59%, female (58% and Asian (70%. One in 10 were mature students. Eighty per cent identified 11 or more 'important' or 'very important' influences, the most common of which were related to features of the job: 'regular working hours' (91%, 'degree leading to recognised job' (90% and 'job security' (90%. There were significant differences in important influences by sex (males > females: 'able to run own business'; females > males: 'a desire to work with people', ethnic group (Asians > white: 'wish to provide public service', 'influence of friends', 'desire to work in healthcare', having 'tried an alternative career/course' and 'work experience' and mode of entry (mature > early entry: 'a desire to work with people'. Multivariate analysis suggested 61% of the variation in influences is explained by five factors: the 'professional job' (31%, 'healthcare-people' (11%, 'academic-scientific' (8%, 'careers-advising' (6%, and 'family/friends' (6%. The single major influence on choice of career was a 'desire to work with people'; Indian students were twice as likely to report this as white or other ethnic groups. Conclusion Final year dental students report a wide range of important

  19. The Double Star magnetic field investigation: instrument design, performance and highlights of the first year's observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carr

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of the Double Star mission is the accurate measurement of the magnetic field vector along the orbits of the two spacecraft. The magnetic field is an essential parameter for the understanding of space plasma processes and is also required for the effective interpretation of data from the other instruments on the spacecraft. We present the design of the magnetic field instrument onboard both of the Double Star spacecraft and an overview of the performance as measured first on-ground and then in-orbit. We also report the results of in-flight calibration of the magnetometers, and the processing methods employed to produce the final data products which are provided to Double Star investigators, and the wider community in general. Particular attention is paid to the techniques developed for removing magnetic interference generated by the solar arrays on the first (equatorial orbiting spacecraft. Results from the first year of operations are reviewed in the context of combined observations by Double Star and Cluster, and examples given from the different regions visited by the spacecraft to date.

  20. Factors influencing choice of site for rural clinical placements by final year medical students in a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nontsikelelo O. Mapukata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of South Africa’s citizens who live in rural or underserved communities rely on the public health care sector to access quality health care. The value of rural exposure through clinical placements is well documented. Medical schools in South Africa have a responsibility to provide solutions that address the prevailing human resources challenges. Despite this commitment, medical students do not necessarily appreciate their role in resolving South Africa’s human resources challenges. This study aimed to assess the factors that influenced the choice of clinical learning sites in a self-selection process undertaken by Wits final year medical students for the compulsory 6-week integrated primary care block rotation.Methods: Qualitative data related to reasons for choice of service learning site were gathered from 524 pre-placement questionnaires completed by final year medical students entering the rotation over a 3-year period (2012–2014. Thematic analysis was performed using the MAXQDA software.Results: Eight themes emerged from the study indicating that the majority of participants were in favour of local urban underserved placement. Contextual factors, such as work commitments or family responsibilities, being compromised socially and losing academic standing were the main reasons for seeking urban placement. Good supervision, opportunistic learning, skills development and moral support were reasons for seeking rural placements. Previous voluntary exposure to rural practice or being of rural origin was a strong indicator for uptake of rural placement.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the challenges faced by coordinators in balancing personal and institutional needs with country needs and the contextual factors that must be considered when implementing medical education programmes that respond to social challenges.

  1. Influences of extreme weather, climate and pesticide use on invertebrates in cereal fields over 42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Julie A; Wheatley, Christopher J; Aebischer, Nicholas J; Moreby, Stephen J; Duffield, Simon J; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Morecroft, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Cereal fields are central to balancing food production and environmental health in the face of climate change. Within them, invertebrates provide key ecosystem services. Using 42 years of monitoring data collected in southern England, we investigated the sensitivity and resilience of invertebrates in cereal fields to extreme weather events and examined the effect of long-term changes in temperature, rainfall and pesticide use on invertebrate abundance. Of the 26 invertebrate groups examined, eleven proved sensitive to extreme weather events. Average abundance increased in hot/dry years and decreased in cold/wet years for Araneae, Cicadellidae, adult Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Braconidae, Enicmus and Lathridiidae. The average abundance of Delphacidae, Cryptophagidae and Mycetophilidae increased in both hot/dry and cold/wet years relative to other years. The abundance of all 10 groups usually returned to their long-term trend within a year after the extreme event. For five of them, sensitivity to cold/wet events was lowest (translating into higher abundances) at locations with a westerly aspect. Some long-term trends in invertebrate abundance correlated with temperature and rainfall, indicating that climate change may affect them. However, pesticide use was more important in explaining the trends, suggesting that reduced pesticide use would mitigate the effects of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. New York Power Authority/New York City Housing Authority refrigerator replacement program, first program year evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L.F.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States); Pratt, R.G.; Miller, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Acting as an energy services provider, the New York Power Authority (NYPA) has initiated a long-term project through which 20,000 refrigerators per year will be replaced with the most energy-efficient units possible in apartments managed by the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA). Using bulk purchasing as an incentive to appliance manufacturers to produce energy-efficient refrigerators suitable for use in apartments, replaced in the first year of the program, which ended in December 1996. These units, kWh per year. Savings were determined by field testing and laboratory testing of 220 existing refrigerators and 56 newly-installed units. In the next program year, a 15.0-cubic-foot Maytag refrigerator, newly-designed in response to bulk purchasing incentives, is being installed. The new unit has a label rating of 437 kWh per year, 31 percent better than 1993 energy standards. Old refrigerators removed from apartments are {open_quotes}demanufactured{close_quotes} in an environmentally-appropriate way and both metals and refrigerants are recovered for reuse.

  3. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the physician fee schedule for calendar year 2004. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-07

    This final rule will refine the resource-based practice expense relative value units (RVUs) and make other changes to Medicare Part B payment policy. The policy changes concern: Medicare Economic Index, practice expense for professional component services, definition of diabetes for diabetes self-management training, supplemental survey data for practice expense, geographic practice cost indices, and several coding issues. In addition, this rule updates the codes subject to the physician self-referral prohibition. We also make revisions to the sustainable growth rate and the anesthesia conversion factor. These changes will ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. We are also finalizing the calendar year (CY) 2003 interim RVUs and are issuing interim RVUs for new and revised procedure codes for CY 2004. As required by the statute, we are announcing that the physician fee schedule update for CY 2004 is -4.5 percent, the initial estimate of the sustainable growth rate for CY 2004 is 7.4 percent, and the conversion factor for CY 2004 is $35.1339. We published a proposed rule (68 FR 50428) in the Federal Register on Part B drug payment reform on August 20, 2003. This proposed rule would also make changes to Medicare payment for furnishing or administering certain drugs and biologicals. We have not finalized these proposals to take into account that the Congress is considering legislation that would address these issues. We will continue to monitor legislative activity that would reform the Medicare Part B drug payment system. If legislation is not enacted soon on this issue, we remain committed to completing the regulatory process.

  4. Evaluation of self-perception of mechanical ventilation knowledge among Brazilian final-year medical students, residents and emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo, Fernando Sabia; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; de Andrade Negri, Alexandre Jorgi; Cesar, Paulo; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Lopes, Antônio Carlos

    2017-02-01

    To present self-assessments of knowledge about mechanical ventilation made by final-year medical students, residents, and physicians taking qualifying courses at the Brazilian Society of Internal Medicine who work in urgent and emergency settings. A 34-item questionnaire comprising different areas of knowledge and training in mechanical ventilation was given to 806 medical students, residents, and participants in qualifying courses at 11 medical schools in Brazil. The questionnaire's self-assessment items for knowledge were transformed into scores. The average score among all participants was 21% (0-100%). Of the total, 85% respondents felt they did not receive sufficient information about mechanical ventilation during medical training. Additionally, 77% of the group reported that they would not know when to start noninvasive ventilation in a patient, and 81%, 81%, and 89% would not know how to start volume control, pressure control and pressure support ventilation modes, respectively. Furthermore, 86.4% and 94% of the participants believed they would not identify the basic principles of mechanical ventilation in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respectively, and would feel insecure beginning ventilation. Finally, 77% said they would fear for the safety of a patient requiring invasive mechanical ventilation under their care. Self-assessment of knowledge and self-perception of safety for managing mechanical ventilation were deficient among residents, students and emergency physicians from a sample in Brazil.

  5. A Model of the Earth's Magnetic Field From Two Year of Swarm Satellite Constellation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    More than two year of data from ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive a model of the Earth’s magnetic field and its time variation (secular variation). The model describes contributions from the core and lithosphere as well as large-scale contributions from the magnetosphere (and its...... Earth-induced counterpart). We use data from geomagnetic quiet times and co-estimate the Euler angles describing the rotation between the vector magnetometer instrument frame and the North-East-Center (NEC) frame. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm...... satellites and alongtrack first differences we include the East-west magnetic gradient information provided by the lower Swarm satellite pair, thereby explicitly taking advantage of the constellation aspect of Swarm. We assess the spatial and temporal model resolution that can be obtained from two years...

  6. The experience of final year medical students undertaking a general practice run with a distance education component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Steven; Gibbons, Veronique; Lawrenson, Ross

    2010-01-01

    In recognition of the difficulties posed for New Zealand medical students by travel during rural general practice attachments, a system of distance teaching was devised for final year medical students at the Waikato Clinical School. In place of weekly small group teaching using reflection on practice at the central campus led by a tutor, students participated in reflective learning via an electronic web based message board and once weekly brief individual discussion with a tutor. Moodle and Skype, both freeware applications, were used as the methods of facilitating asynchronous and synchronous learning environments. Students experienced significantly less travel time as a result of the innovation. They also reported enthusiasm for the modes of teaching and the technology. A small increase in tutor time commitment was necessary. Distance education initiatives can be undertaken with minimal expense in the general practice setting. The educational opportunities it offers can be similar to, but not identical to small group teaching.

  7. Evaluation of NANDA nursing diagnoses of healthcare college final year students during the clinical application of the mental health and disease nursing course

    OpenAIRE

    Gülay Taşdemir; Mehtap Kızılkaya

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the NANDA nursing diagnoses of Pamukkale University Denizli Healthcare College final year students for the patients they undertook the care of and to determine the aims and interventions relevant to these diagnoses.The study universe consisted of all Pamukkale University Denizli Healthcare College final year students who were continuing their education during the 2009-2010 educational year and took the Mental Health and Disease Nursing course ...

  8. Developing an outcome-based biodiversity metric in support of the field to market project: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, C. Ashton; Alexander-Vaughn, Louise B.; Collazo, Jaime A.; McKerrow, Alexa; Anderson, John

    2013-01-01

    expected impacts to shelter and forage resources, individual species, and overall biodiversity (species richness). This approach is modeled after an ecosystems services concept (WRI 2005), except that we examine services (i.e., resources) provided to vertebrate wildlife rather than service provided to the human population. SEGAP predicts species that are potentially present in an area given landscape-scale habitat availability, configuration, and context (e.g., patch size, proximity to resources, connectivity, potential for disturbance). Based on the prediction of species that may be potentially present, the impacts of management decisions within fields and around their borders can be analyzed based on the impact of those practices to the availability of species’ resources. The final metric provides an index of a producer’s relative impact, but perhaps even more importantly, the underlying database allows producers to explore details such as which species are most impacted or how alternative decisions would impact their score. 

  9. Final year medical students' views on simulation-based teaching: a comparison with the Best Evidence Medical Education Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskins, Zoë; Peile, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Simulation is being increasingly used in medical education. The aim of this study was to explore in more depth the features of simulation-based teaching that undergraduate medical students value using the Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) Systematic Review features that lead to effective learning as a framework. Thematic analysis of four semi-structured focus groups with final year medical students who had been taught acute care skills using a medium-fidelity whole-body simulator manikin (SimMan). Twelve key themes were identified, namely, feedback, integration into curriculum, learning style, learning environment, realism, teamwork, communication skills, confidence/increased self-efficacy, anxiety, performance, perceptions of foundation year 1 (FY1) and SimMan as a resource. Each theme is described with supporting quotes. Six of the ten features listed in the BEME review appeared to be of particular value to the medical students. This study provides a richer understanding of these features. In addition, new insights into the effect of simulation on confidence, anxiety and self-efficacy are discussed which may be affected by the 'performance' nature of simulation role-play. Students also contribute critical thought about the use of SimMan as a resource and provide novel ideas for reducing 'downtime'.

  10. The Gravity Field, Orientation, and Ephemeris of Mercury from MESSENGER Observations After Three Years in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan M.; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Gregory; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed three years of radio tracking data from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury and determined the gravity field, planetary orientation, and ephemeris of the innermost planet. With improvements in spatial coverage, force modeling, and data weighting, we refined an earlier global gravity field both in quality and resolution, and we present here a spherical harmonic solution to degree and order 50. In this field, termed HgM005, uncertainties in low-degree coefficients are reduced by an order of magnitude relative to the earlier global field, and we obtained a preliminary value of the tidal Love number k(sub 2) of 0.451+/-0.014. We also estimated Mercury's pole position, and we obtained an obliquity value of 2.06 +/- 0.16 arcmin, in good agreement with analysis of Earth-based radar observations. From our updated rotation period (58.646146 +/- 0.000011 days) and Mercury ephemeris, we verified experimentally the planet's 3: 2 spin-orbit resonance to greater accuracy than previously possible. We present a detailed analysis of the HgM005 covariance matrix, and we describe some near-circular frozen orbits around Mercury that could be advantageous for future exploration.

  11. Childhood brain tumor occurrence in relation to external power lines and other sources of residential magnetic fields. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurney, J.G.; Mueller, B.A.; Davis, S.

    1995-10-01

    A population-based case-control study of incident brain tumors was conducted in the Seattle area among children younger than 20 years, diagnosed from 1984-1990; mothers of 133 cases and 270 controls participated. The relation between childhood brain tumor occurrence and exposure to potential sources of residential magnetic fields was assessed, focusing on whether proximity to high-current residential power lines or use of electric appliances or electric heating sources by the mother while pregnant or by the child before diagnosis, were associated with increased risks of brain tumor occurrence. For the 120 cases and 240 controls, risk of brain tumor occurrence did not increase with increasing magnetic field exposure as indicated by the 5-level Wertheimer-Leeper (W-L) code. Relative to those with underground wiring, the odds ratios for increasing exposure levels were: very low current configuration, 1.3; ordinary low current configuration, 0.7; ordinary high-current configuration, 1.1; and very high current configuration, 0.5. When exposure was dichotomized as high versus low, the odds ratio was 0.9 (95% CI 0.5-1.5) and did not vary significantly. When the analysis was restricted to the 96 subjects known to live in only one home, the odds ratio was 1.1. The distributions of the 5-level W-L code were similar between study participants and non-respondents, and odds ratios were not appreciably changed when non-respondents were included in the analysis. No elevations in risk were found for ever-versus-never use of electric blankets, water beds, or electric heating sources. Odds ratios were slightly elevated for nine appliances and were at or below 1.0 for eight others. These data do not support the hypothesis that exposure to magnetic fields from high-current power lines, electric heating sources, or electric appliances, is associated with the subsequent occurrence of brain tumors in children

  12. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, Monday N; Bakare, Muideen O; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Onyeama, Gabriel M; Okonkwo, Kevin O

    2010-06-13

    Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire were administered to the students. The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67+/-3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24+/-3.24, 10.76+/-3.50 and 9.01+/-3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p=0.000), domain 3 (p=0.029), domain 4 (p=0.000) and total score (p=0.000), with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p=0.769). The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r=0.319, p=0.000) and the number of weeks of posting in paediatrics (r=0.372, p=0

  13. Understanding the Internal Magnetic Field Configurations of ICMEs Using More than 20 Years of Wind Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Vourlidas, A.; Raymond, J. C.; Linton, M. G.; Al-haddad, N.; Savani, N. P.; Szabo, A.; Hidalgo, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic topology, structure, and geometry of the magnetic obstacles embedded within interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are not yet fully and consistently described by in situ models and reconstruction techniques. The main goal of this work is to better understand the status of the internal magnetic field of ICMEs and to explore in situ signatures to identify clues to develop a more accurate and reliable in situ analytical models. We take advantage of more than 20 years of Wind observations of transients at 1 AU to compile a comprehensive database of ICMEs through three solar cycles, from 1995 to 2015. The catalog is publicly available at wind.gsfc.nasa.gov and is fully described in this article. We identify and collect the properties of 337 ICMEs, of which 298 show organized magnetic field signatures. To allow for departures from idealized magnetic configurations, we introduce the term "magnetic obstacle" (MO) to signify the possibility of more complex configurations. To quantify the asymmetry of the magnetic field strength profile within these events, we introduce the distortion parameter (DiP) and calculate the expansion velocity within the magnetic obstacle. Circular-cylindrical geometry is assumed when the magnetic field strength displays a symmetric profile. We perform a statistical study of these two parameters and find that only 35% of the events show symmetric magnetic profiles and a low enough expansion velocity to be compatible with the assumption of an idealized cylindrical static flux rope, and that 41% of the events do not show the expected relationship between expansion and magnetic field compression in the front, with the maximum magnetic field closer to the first encounter of the spacecraft with the magnetic obstacle; 18% show contractions ( i.e. apparent negative expansion velocity), and 30% show magnetic field compression in the back. We derive an empirical relation between DiP and expansion velocity that is the first step toward

  14. Final Sequestration Report for Fiscal Year 1998 (A Congressional Budget Office Report to the Congress and the Office of Management and Budget)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... Federal law requires CBO each year to issue a sequestration preview report five days before the President submits a budget, a sequestration update report on August 15, and a final sequestration...

  15. [Perception of vaccination and role of the pharmacist: A survey among final year pharmacy students in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comboroure, J-C; Mueller, J-E

    2014-03-01

    In France, the « HPST » law of 21 July 2009 assigns new responsibilities to pharmacists. Given the fact that the majority of vaccination coverage targets set by the Public Health Act of August 9, 2004 is not met, the question arises in how far pharmacies in town can contribute to better promotion and accessibility of vaccination. The objective of this investigation was to describe the perception of vaccination by final year pharmacy students and how they see their future professional contribution to improving vaccination coverage. A cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2013 using a questionnaire sent by email to all final year students enrolled in a French school of pharmacy. Among the 293 responding student (9.8% of the target population), 96% declared to be in favor of vaccination somewhat or strongly. The results for students in favor (not in favor) were as follows: the most frequently sources of influence for opinion on vaccination were university training 84% (83%), the personal doctor 38% (50%), health authorities 31% (33%). Ninety percent (83%) and over were fully vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus, polio, measles and hepatitis B, and 43% (27%) were satisfied with their medical school training on vaccination. Eighty-six percent of students were in favor of transmitting customers pharmaceutical sales data (« Dossier Pharmaceutique ») to individual electronic vaccination records. With regard to vaccination in pharmacies, 69% (42%) of students were in favor given medical prescription, 54% (33%) upon prescription by the pharmacist, 43% (50%) if administered by a nurse and 69% (42%) within the context of certification system for vaccination in pharmacies. Within the limits of bias possibly introduced by the low response rate, the results of this survey suggest that future pharmacists can be considered strategic partners improving vaccination coverage. The influence which university training can on vaccination perception have should be

  16. Short and long-term career plans of final year dental students in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background New dental schools have been established to train dentists in many parts of the world. This study examines the future dental workforce from the first dental school in the United Arab Emirates [UAE]; the aim of this study was to explore the short and long-term career aspirations of the final year dental students in the UAE in relation to their demography. Method Final year dental students of the Ajman University’s College of Dentistry (n=87) were invited to participate in a self-completion questionnaire survey. Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis were carried out on career aspirations using SPSS v20. Results Eighty-two percent of students (n=71) responded, the majority of whom were female (65%; n=46). Ethnicity was reported as: ‘other Arab’ (61%; n=43), ‘Emirati’ (17%, n=12), and ‘Other’ (21%, n=15). In the short-term, 41% (n=29) expressed a desire to work in government training centres, with Emirati students significantly more likely to do so (p=0.002). ‘Financial stability’ (80%; n=57) and ‘gaining professional experience’ (76%; n=54) emerged as the most important influences on their short-term career plans. The vast majority of students wished to specialise in dentistry (92%; n=65) in the longer term; logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of specialising in the most popular specialties of Orthodontics and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery were less for the ‘Other’ ethnic group when compared with ‘Emirati’ students (0.26; 95% CI 0.068-0.989; p=0.04). Almost three-quarters of the students overall (72%; n=51) intended to work full-time. ‘High income/financial security’ (97%; n=69), ‘standard of living’ (97%; n=69), ‘work/life balance’ (94%; n=67), and ‘professional fulfilment’ (87%; n=62) were reported by the students as the most influential items affecting their long-term professional career choices. Conclusion The findings suggest that students aspire to

  17. A final-year nursing student survey: rural attitudes, perceived competencies and intention to work across five Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudpong, Nareerut; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Batra, Bipin; Hou, Jianlin; Vu, Lan T H; Dipika, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Shortages and maldistribution of nurses remain significant problems in many countries. Having appropriate intervention strategies to retain nurses in underserved areas, where they are most needed, are crucial for health system strengthening. This study aimed to quantify attitudes to working in rural areas, perceived competencies, and intention to work among final-year nursing students, and to analyze the associations between those factors and their background characteristics across five countries in the Asia-Pacific Network for Health Professional Education Reforms (ANHER), namely Bangladesh, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. A descriptive comparative cross-sectional survey was conducted between July 2012 and July 2013, using a self-administered questionnaire to assess students' attitudes towards working in rural areas, their perceived competencies, and their intended job choices. A total of 10,169 final-year nursing students in five countries were selected. Bivariate models were constructed to compare students' characteristics. Statistically significant variables were further analyzed using multivariate models. Most nursing students in five countries had rural backgrounds. Students in India (67.1%) and Thailand (65.1%) held more positive attitudes towards working in rural areas. Students in Bangladesh (78.8%) and India (62.6%) believed that their schools prepared them well, and inspired them, to work in rural areas. The 'Lifelong learning' competency was ranked highest by students in all five countries, ranging from 76.2 to 91.7%. Their perceived competencies were significantly related to their background of having graduated from rural high schools and being admitted to study through rural recruitment. Rural upbringing and rural recruitment were significantly associated with more positive attitudes towards rural areas ( p -value work in the public sector immediately after graduation. These findings from five Asian countries confirm that nursing students with

  18. Multi-proxy reconstructions of precipitation field in China over the past 500 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Zhao, Sen; Guo, Zhengtang; Goosse, Hugues

    2017-04-01

    The dominant modes of variability of precipitation for the whole of China over the past millennium and the mechanism governing their spatial structure remain unclear. The first reason is probably that it is difficult to reconstruct the precipitation field in western China because the published high-resolution proxy records for this region are scarce. Numerous tree-ring chronologies have recently been archived in publicly available databases through PAGES2k activities, and these provide an opportunity to refine precipitation field reconstructions for China. Based on 600 proxy records, including 491 tree-ring chronologies, 108 drought/flood indices, and a long-term instrumental precipitation record from South Korea, we revised the precipitation field reconstruction for China for the past half millennium using the optimal information extraction method. A total of 3971 of 4189 grid points in the reconstruction field passed the cross-validation process, accounting for 94.8% of the total number of grid points. The first leading mode of variability of the reconstruction shows coherent variations over most of China. The second mode, a north-south dipole in eastern China with variations of the same sign in western China and southeastern China, may be controlled by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. The third mode, a "sandwich" triple mode in eastern China with variations of the same sign in western China and central China. Five of the six coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models (BCC-CSM1.1, CCSM4, FGOALS-s2, GISS-E2-R and MPI-ESM-P) of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project Phase III (PMIP3), can reproduce the south-north dipole mode of precipitation in eastern China, and its likely link with ENSO. However, there is mismatch in terms of their time development. This is consistent with an important role of the internal variability in the precipitation field changes over the past 500 years.

  19. A Three-Year Field Validation Study to Improve the Integrated Pest Management of Hot Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoon Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the integrated pest management (IPM of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control. The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper.

  20. Recognition acuity, grating acuity, contrast sensitivity, and visual fields in 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, Deborah D; Wood, Jeffrey; Twelker, J Daniel; Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma

    2010-01-01

    To measure monocular distance visual acuity (VA), grating VA, contrast sensitivity, and visual field extent in full-term, 6-year-old children. Subjects were 59 healthy full-term children aged 5.8 to 6.3 years who had no ocular abnormalities and no myopia of 1.00 diopter (D) or greater, hyperopia of 4.00 D or greater, astigmatism of 1.50 D or greater, or anisometropia of 1.50 D or greater spherical equivalent or cylinder, as evaluated by a standard eye examination with cycloplegic refraction. All were tested monocularly for recognition acuity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study VA charts), grating acuity (Teller acuity cards), contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity charts), and visual field extent (white-sphere kinetic perimetry). Right and left eye values did not differ significantly. Mean values for the right eye were 0.040 logMAR (SD, 0.075 log units) for Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study VA, 24.5 cycles per degree (SD, 0.3 octaves) for grating acuity, and 1.63 (SD, 0.12 log units) for contrast sensitivity. Mean visual field extent for the inferonasal, superonasal, superotemporal, and inferotemporal meridians was 59.1 degrees (SD, 9.7 degrees), 57.8 degrees (SD, 9.6 degrees), 71.2 degrees (SD, 12.3 degrees), and 100.4 degrees (SD, 6.6 degrees), respectively. The results provide additional normative monocular data on visual function in 6-year-old children and indicate that their thresholds are less than those of adults for distance recognition VA, grating VA, and contrast sensitivity, but similar to those of adults for white-sphere kinetic perimetry.

  1. Plant phenodynamics of a southeastern Manitoba old-field during six years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, B.N.

    1980-09-01

    Natural variation in timing of vegetation phenological stages constitutes a habitat variable of potential importance to meadow vole populations. Changes in this timing resulting from the continuous gamma irradiation of the Project ZEUS irradiator may affect the vole population through reproductive, nutritional or other differences. To quantify the amount of natural variation present in phenological development, 36 species present on an old-field near the ZEUS meadows were assessed for stage of development each week during the snow-free season for six consecutive years. (auth)

  2. Alcohol use, mental well-being, self-esteem and general self-efficacy among final-year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Mei-Ling; Connor, Jennie; Gray, Andrew; Tustin, Karen

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to quantify associations between drinking and mental well-being, self-esteem and general self-efficacy among New Zealand university students approaching graduation. A web-based survey was conducted across all eight New Zealand universities in 2011. Participants were enrolled in their final year of a bachelor degree or a higher qualification and were aged 25 years and under (n = 5082, response level 65 %). Measures included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, and items from the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. Linear regression models were used to estimate associations between the psychological measures and (1) drinking patterns for all participants (abstention/moderate/hazardous); and (2) consumption indicators for non-abstaining participants (frequency/quantity/heavy drinking frequency), adjusting for a range of individual, social and personality characteristics, separately for men and women. Lower mental well-being was associated with a moderate or hazardous drinking pattern for men, and a hazardous pattern for women, compared to abstaining participants. Higher self-esteem was associated with any level of heavy drinking frequency for men, while the heaviest drinking women had a pattern of lower self-esteem. There was a general pattern of higher general self-efficacy for men and women who drank alcohol. We observed that higher levels of drinking were associated with small, yet statistically significant, differences in psychological outcomes for men and women. Our findings are of uncertain clinical significance; however, they underscore the importance of investigating a fuller range of social and personality factors that may confound the association of drinking and psychological outcomes.

  3. First Year Teacher of First Year Teachers: A Reflection on Teacher Training in the Field of Piano Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgersma, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    While there is a great deal of scholarly inquiry focusing on student teaching experiences in the field of classroom education, there are few resources devoted to student teaching in the context of the applied music lesson. In this article, a teacher educator in the field of piano pedagogy uses self-study to combine reflection on personal…

  4. Knowledge and reported confidence of final year midwifery students regarding giving advice on contraception and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan H; Davis, Geraldine

    2014-05-01

    this study explored the views of three cohorts of final year midwifery students, regarding their confidence in giving advice to women on contraception and sexual health in the postnatal period. The project also investigated knowledge of contraception using a factual quiz, based on clinical scenarios regarding contraception and sexual health in the postpartum period. a mixed method design using qualitative data from focus groups, and mixed qualitative and quantitative data from a paper based questionnaire was used. the project was carried out in one higher educational institution in England. findings demonstrate that expressed confidence varies according to contraceptive method, with most confidence being reported when advising on the male condom. The findings of the factual quiz indicate that students applied theoretical knowledge poorly in a practically oriented context. These findings also indicated that most students limited advice to general advice. the paper concludes that midwifery students need more practically oriented education in contraception and sexual health, and that the role of mentors is very important in helping students feel confident when giving advice in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of simulation as a learning approach to non-technical skills awareness in final year student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Eloise; McLafferty, Isabella

    2011-11-01

    Understanding what non-technical skills are and their relevance for healthcare practitioners has become a new area of exploration. Although recent literature has highlighted the necessity of introducing non-technical skills training and assessment within medical education, nursing education has still to fully embrace this skills training. The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of simulated practice as a learning approach to demonstrate and assess non-technical skills for final year nursing students. An established ward simulation exercise was refocused to incorporate opportunities for these nursing students to be assessed on their ability to demonstrate application of non-technical skills. Opinions on whether this was a successful strategy were sought from the students by means of module evaluation questionnaires. Analysis of this data revealed that the majority of the students agreed that it was an effective learning approach, allowing them to demonstrate their non-technical skills, be assessed and subsequently identify further learning needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of the pre-internship objective structured clinical examination in final year medical students with comprehensive written examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Hasan; Labaf, Ali; Anvari, Pasha; Jamali, Arsia; Sheybaee-Moghaddam, Farshad

    2012-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of the pre-internship Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in final year medical students with comprehensive written examinations. Subjects and material All medical students of October 2004 admission who took part in the October 2010 National Comprehensive Pre-internship Examination (NCPE) and pre-internship OSCE were included in the study (n=130). OSCE and NCPE scores and medical grade point average (GPA) were collected. Results GPA was highly correlated with NCPE (r=0.76 and POSCE (r=0.68 and POSCE scores(r=0.6 and POSCE score is 0.46 (β=0.68 and POSCE. OR of GPA and male gender for high OSCE score are 4.89 (95% CI=2.37–10.06) and 6.95 (95% CI=2.00–24.21), respectively (POSCE and examination which mainly evaluate knowledge, judged by GPA and NCPE are moderately to highly correlated. Our results illustrate the interwoven nature of knowledge and clinical skills. In other words, certain level of knowledge is crucial for appropriate clinical performance. Our findings suggest neither OSCE nor written forms of assessments can replace each other. They are complimentary and should also be combined by other evaluations to cover all attributes of clinical competence efficiently. PMID:22547924

  7. A cross-sectional assessment of stress, coping, and burnout in the final-year medical undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students undergo significant stress during training which may lead to own suffering or problem in patient care. High level of burnouts and depression is also not uncommon. The transition from preclinical to clinical training has been regarded as crucial to student in relation to the stress. Methodology: An assessment of perceived stress and its relation to general psychopathology, the pattern of coping, and burnout in the final-year medical student was done to bring out clear nature, pattern, and extent of the problem. Results: Perceived stress had statistically significant association with general psychopathology and depressive-anxiety component of burnout. Acceptance, positive reframing, humor, planning, and active coping correlated with lower score on perceived stress. Conclusion: Higher score on perceived stress was associated with higher scores on general psychopathology and burnout. Age of joining MBBS course and doctor in the family did not affect the stress significantly. People who displayed positive coping strategies had lesser stress and general psychopathology.

  8. Lessons learnt from a three-year pilot field epidemiology training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Damian; Durand, A Mark; Hancock, Thane; Cash, Haley L; Hardie, Kate; Paterson, Beverley; Paulino, Yvette; White, Paul; Merritt, Tony; Fitzgibbons, Dawn; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Flint, James; Edwin A Merilles, Onofre; Kashiwabara, Mina; Biaukula, Viema; Lepers, Christelle; Souares, Yvan; Nilles, Eric; Batikawai, Anaseini; Huseynova, Sevil; Patel, Mahomed; Saketa, Salanieta T; Durrheim, David; Henderson, Alden; Roth, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific region has widely dispersed populations, limited financial and human resources and a high burden of disease. There is an urgent need to improve the availability, reliability and timeliness of useable health data. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learnt from a three-year pilot field epidemiology training programme that was designed to respond to these Pacific health challenges. The pilot programme built on and further developed an existing field epidemiology training programme for Pacific health staff. The programme was delivered in country by epidemiologists working for Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network partners. The programme consisted of five courses: four one-week classroom-based courses and one field epidemiology project. Sessions were structured so that theoretical understanding was achieved through interaction and reinforced through practical hands-on group activities, case studies and other interactive practical learning methods. As of September 2016, 258 students had commenced the programme. Twenty-six course workshops were delivered and one cohort of students had completed the full five-course programme. The programme proved popular and gained a high level of student engagement. Face-to-face delivery, a low student-to-facilitator ratio, substantial group work and practical exercises were identified as key factors that contributed to the students developing skills and confidence. Close engagement of leaders and the need to quickly evaluate and adapt the curriculum were important lessons, and the collaboration between external partners was considered important for promoting a harmonized approach to health needs in the Pacific.

  9. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  10. Examiner and simulated patient ratings of empathy in medical student final year clinical examination: are they useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; McKendree, Jean; Morgan, Lewys; Allgar, Victoria L; Brown, Andrew

    2014-09-22

    Many medical schools state that empathy is important and have curricular learning outcomes covering its teaching. It is thought to be useful in team-working, good bedside manner, patient perspective taking, and improved patient care. Given this, one might expect it to be measured in assessment processes. Despite this, there is relatively little literature exploring how measures of empathy in final clinical examinations in medical school map onto other examination scores. Little is known about simulated patient (actors) rating of empathy in examinations in terms of inter-rater reliability compared with clinical assessors or correlation with overall examination results. Examiners in final year clinical assessments in one UK medical school rated 133 students on five constructs in Objective Structured Long Examination Record (OSLER) with real patients: gathering information, physical examination, problem solving, managing the diagnosis, and relationship with the patient. Scores were based on a standardized well-established penalty point system. In separate Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) stations, different examiners used the same penalty point system to score performance in both interactional and procedural stations. In the four interaction-based OSCE stations, examiners and simulated patient actors also independently rated empathy of the students. The OSLER score, based on penalty points, had a correlation of -0.38 with independent ratings of empathy from the interactional OSCE stations. The intra-class correlation (a measure of inter-rater reliability) between the observing clinical tutor and ratings from simulated patients was 0.645 with very similar means. There was a significant difference between the empathy scores of the 94 students passing the first part of the sequential examination, based on combined OSCE and OSLER scores (which did not include the empathy scores), and 39 students with sufficient penalty points to trigger attendance for the

  11. Variability of the Surface Meteorological Fields over Eurasia for the Recent 30 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharin, D.V.

    2009-10-01

    On the basis of the Japanese reanalysis (JRA25) dataset (1979-2008), linear trends, interannual to decadal variability of the sea level pressure (SLP), surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation fields over the Eurasian region have been studied. For the recent 30 years there are only significant positive linear trends of SAT in the northwestern part of the Eurasia/eastern Asia in winter and central Europe in summer. Areas with significant negative trends of SAT are absent. For precipitation field there are no significant tendencies except for the significantly positive area over England both in winter and in summer time. In winter, there are two areas with the opposite SLP tendencies: insignificant negative (to the north of 45-50N) and significant positive (to the south of 45-50N) one. These trends could be accompanied by the corresponding tendencies bee-hive reproduction and honey production in different regions of Ukraine. Space-time patterns of the first, second and third EOF of the fields under study are mainly determined by the NAO and in the less extent by the SO (only in spring-summer). It was found that the leading modes become more contributive over the Eurasia for the last 30 years comparing with NCEP data for the previous period (1950-2001). It could imply that an internal signal of the ocean-atmosphere system, which determines space-time patterns over Eurasia, has arisen. Intercomparison of the space-time EOF patterns between JRA25 and NCEP (1950-2001) re-analyses show that in autumn, winter and spring the first 3-4 corresponding time coefficients stay at the same order (coefficient correlations between them are significant), while in summer such correspondence in order of modes is changed. (author)

  12. Constraining the regular Galactic magnetic field with the 5-year WMAP polarization measurements at 22 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Battaner, E.

    2010-11-01

    Context. The knowledge of the regular (large scale) component of the Galactic magnetic field gives important information about the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way, and also constitutes a basic tool to determine cosmic ray trajectories. It can also provide clear windows where primordial magnetic fields could be detected. Aims: We aim to obtain the regular (large scale) pattern of the magnetic field distribution of the Milky Way that better fits the polarized synchrotron emission as seen by the WMAP satellite in the 5 years data at 22 GHz. Methods: We have done a systematic study of a number of Galactic magnetic field models: axisymmetric (with and without radial dependence on the field strength), bisymmetric (with and without radial dependence), logarithmic spiral arms, concentric circular rings with reversals and bi-toroidal. We have explored the parameter space defining each of these models using a grid-based approach. In total, more than one million models were computed. The model selection was done using a Bayesian approach. For each model, the posterior distributions were obtained and marginalized over the unwanted parameters to obtain the marginal (one-parameter) probability distribution functions. Results: In general, axisymmetric models provide a better description of the halo component, although with regard to their goodness-of-fit, the other models cannot be rejected. In the case of the disk component, the analysis is not very sensitive for obtaining the disk large-scale structure, because of the effective available area (less than 8% of the whole map and less than 40% of the disk). Nevertheless, within a given family of models, the best-fit parameters are compatible with those found in the literature. Conclusions: The family of models that better describes the polarized synchrotron halo emission is the axisymmetric one, with magnetic spiral arms with a pitch angle of ≈24°, and a strong vertical field of 1 μG at z ≈ 1 kpc. When a radial

  13. Impact of field of study, college and year on calculation of cumulative grade point average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, Carla; Reiter, Harold I; Bridge, Michelle; Stefanowska, Patricia; Schmuck, Marylou; Norman, Geoff

    2008-08-01

    A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study. Additional concerns relate to the equivalence of grades obtained from different fields of study and institutions, with little hard data to guide conclusions. At the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine Class of 2007 at McMaster University, every undergraduate grade of 2,138 applicants, along with field of study and post-secondary educational institution, was analyzed. Individual grades were aggregated into an overall uGPA using published algorithms from several medical school, and correlated with a non-weighted sum. Correlations of the different schemas with equal weights ranged from 0.973 to 0.990. The extent of the difference between fields of study was small, accounting for only 1.5% of the variance. However, differences among 16 Ontario universities were larger, and accounted for 9.3% of the variance. The results of this study suggest that all weighting schemas are virtually equivalent, making any formulation reasonable. Differences by field of study are small, but do not show any bias against non-science students. Differences by institution are larger, amounting to a range in average score from 78.7 to 84.6; however it is not clear whether this reflects candidate ability or institutional policy, so attempts to correct for institution may be difficult.

  14. Final Report - Phase II - Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent; Sani, Rajesh

    2006-09-28

    Our understanding of subsurface microbiology is hindered by the inaccessibility of this environment, particularly when the hydrogeologic medium is contaminated with toxic substances. Past research in our labs indicated that the composition of the growth medium (e.g., bicarbonate complexation of U(VI)) and the underlying mineral phase (e.g., hematite) significantly affects the rate and extent of U(VI) reduction and immobilization through a variety of effects. Our research was aimed at elucidating those effects to a much greater extent, while exploring the potential for U(IV) reoxidation and subsequent re-mobilization, which also appears to depend on the mineral phases present in the system. The project reported on here was an extension ($20,575) of the prior (much larger) project. This report is focused only on the work completed during the extension period. Further information on the larger impacts of our research, including 28 publications, can be found in the final report for the following projects: 1) Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study Grant # DE-FG03-01ER63270, and 2) Acceptable Endpoints for Metals and Radionuclides: Quantifying the Stability of Uranium and Lead Immobilized Under Sulfate Reducing Conditions Grant # DE-FG03-98ER62630/A001 In this Phase II project, the toxic effects of uranium(VI) were studied using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 in a medium containing bicarbonate or 1, 4-piperazinediethane sulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate (PIPES) buffer (each at 30 mM, pH 7). The toxicity of uranium(VI) was dependent on the medium buffer and was observed in terms of longer lag times and in some cases, no measurable growth. The minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) was 140 M U(VI) in PIPES buffered medium. This is 36 times lower than previously reported for D. desulfuricans. These results suggest that U(VI) toxicity and the detoxification mechanisms of G20 depend greatly on the

  15. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2004-03-15

    approximately 15% in overall electrical energy consumption and a 12.5-kW reduction in peak demand. The cost of gas used for regeneration of the desiccant wheel over this period of time is estimated to be only $740, using a gas cost of $0.50 per therm--the summer rate in 2001. The estimated net savings is $5400 annually, resulting in a 1-2 year payback. It is likely that similar energy/cost savings were realized at the Callaway Gardens hotel. In this installation, however, a central plant supplied the chilled water serving fan coil units in the hotel wing retrofitted with the ADM, so it was not metered separately. Consequently, the owner could not provide actual energy consumption data specific to the facility. The energy and operating cost savings at both sites are directly attributable to higher cooling-season thermostat settings and decreased conventional system run times. These field installations were selected as an immediate and appropriate response to correct indoor humidity and fresh air ventilation problems being experienced by building occupants and owners, so no rigorous baseline-building vs. test-building energy use/operating cost savings results can be presented. The report presents several simulated comparisons between the ADM/roof HVAC approach and other equipment combinations, where both desiccant and conventional systems are modeled to provide comparable fresh air ventilation rates and indoor humidity levels. The results obtained from these simulations demonstrate convincingly the energy and operating cost savings obtainable with this hybrid desiccant/vapor-compression technology, verifying those actually seen at the pilot installations. The ADM approach is less expensive than conventional alternatives providing similar performance and indoor air quality and provides a very favorable payback (1 year or so) compared with oversized rooftop units that cannot be operated effectively with the necessary high outdoor air percentages.

  16. Contemporary practice education: Exploring student perceptions of an industrial radiography placement for final year diagnostic radiography students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareing, A.K.; Henderson, I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is a paucity of evidence in diagnostic radiography evaluating a career path into industrial imaging despite several higher education institutes stating this route as a career option on graduation. The link between a career in industrial radiography and diagnostic routes is unknown although there are anecdotal examples of individuals transferring between the two. Successfully obtaining a first post job following graduation in diagnostic radiography can be challenging in the current financial climate. A partnership was formed with an energy sector company that offered non-destructive testing/non-destructive evaluation (NDT/NDE) employing industrial radiographic technicians. Method: As an initial pilot, 5 (n = 5) final year diagnostic radiography students visited an industrial radiography site and underwent theoretical and practical training. Following this placement they engaged in a focus group and the student perceptions/responses were explored and recorded. Results: Common themes were identified and categorised via a thematic analysis. These were; radiation safety, physics and technology, widening access, graduate attributes/transferable skill sets and working conditions. Conclusion: Student discussion focussed around the benefits of working conditions in healthcare, the value of technology, safety and physics education in alternative placements and the transferability of skills into other/industrial sectors (e.g. NDT/NDE). Contemporary practice placements are a useful pedagogical approach to develop complex conceptual theoretical constructs, such as radiation physics. An in depth evaluation between the two industries skill sets is postulated. Additionally, this could offer alternative/emerging roles to interested diagnostic radiographers potentially meeting the skill shortage in industrial radiography. - Highlights: • Research in this area is novel. No evidence could be found to evaluate the links. • Students had theoretical

  17. Factors Associated with Discussion of Disasters by Final Year High School Students: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Alabdulkarim, Ali A Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Introduction The effect on behavioral change of educational programs developed to reduce the community's disaster informational vulnerability is not known. This study describes the relationship of disaster education, age, sex, and country-specific characteristics with students discussing disasters with friends and family, a measure of proactive behavioral change in disaster preparedness. Three thousand eight hundred twenty-nine final year high school students were enrolled in an international, multi-center prospective, cross-sectional study using a pre-validated written questionnaire. In order to obtain information from different educational systems, from countries with different risk of exposure to disasters, and from countries with varied economic development status, students from Bahrain, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Timor-Leste were surveyed. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between the likelihood of discussing disasters with friends and family (dependent variable) and a series of independent variables (age, gender, participation in school lessons about disasters, existence of a national disaster educational program, ability to list pertinent example of disasters, country's economic group, and disaster risk index) captured by the questionnaire or available as published data. There was no statistically significant relationship between age, awareness of one's surroundings, planning for the future, and foreseeing consequences of events with discussions about potential hazards and risks with friends and/or family. The national educational budget did not have a statistically significant influence. Participants who lived in a low disaster risk and high income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country were more likely to discuss disasters. While either school lessons or a national disaster education program had a unique, significant contribution to the model, neither had a better

  18. Low back pain-related beliefs and likely practice behaviours among final-year cross-discipline health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, A M; Slater, H; Smith, A J; Parkin-Smith, G F; Watkins, K; Chua, J

    2013-05-01

    Evidence points to clinicians' beliefs and practice behaviours related to low back pain (LBP), which are discordant with contemporary evidence. While interventions to align beliefs and behaviours with evidence among clinicians have demonstrated effectiveness, a more sustainable and cost-effective approach to positively developing workforce capacity in this area may be to target the emerging workforce. The aim of this study was to investigate beliefs and clinical recommendations for LBP, and their alignment to evidence, in Australian university allied health and medical students. Final-year students in chiropractic, medicine, occupational therapy, pharmacy and physiotherapy disciplines in three Western Australian universities responded to a survey. Demographic data, LBP-related beliefs data [modified Health Care Providers Pain and Impact Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS) and the Back Pain Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ)] and activity, rest and work clinical recommendations for an acute LBP clinical vignette were collected. Six hundred two students completed the survey (response rate 74.6%). Cross-discipline differences in beliefs and clinical recommendations were observed (p > 0.001). Physiotherapy and chiropractic students reported significantly more helpful beliefs compared with the other disciplines, while pharmacy students reported the least helpful beliefs. A greater proportion of chiropractic and physiotherapy students reported guideline-consistent recommendations compared with other disciplines. HC-PAIRS and BBQ scores were strongly associated with clinical recommendations, independent to the discipline of study and prior experience of LBP. Aligning cross-discipline university curricula with current evidence may provide an opportunity to facilitate translation of this evidence into practice with a focus on a consistent, cross-discipline approach to LBP management. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  19. Knowledge and practices of oral health care in final year undergraduate nursing students: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakant C Deogade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing personnel plays a crucial role in promoting health and preventing information dissemination in the community. Aim: to assess and evaluate the oral health knowledge and practices of final year nursing students of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh (India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five nursing colleges of Jabalpur. A total of 172 students participated in the survey, which were given a questionnaire that comprised 26 questions. The questionnaire were evaluated under four parts such as information on dental and oral health, oral hygiene practices, attitude toward dentist and dentistry, and interest to improve knowledge, after which the data were analyzed to compare the statistical significance among the variables. Results: 84.3% of the participants knew how many teeth we have in our mouth. Many of them were not aware of proper brushing method. However, they revealed an adequate knowledge toward the identification of disease and its relation to general health. They also showed knowledge regarding the effect of diet on oral health, but 83.1% of them were confused with the identification of tooth decay. Approximately 51.7% of participants were unsure about the number of visits a person should make to a dentist. Conclusion: Nursing undergraduates have adequate knowledge on the basic oral structure and identifying oral diseases. However, they are little puzzled with the brushing method, number of visits a person should make to a dentist. They were not updated with the specialties in dentistry. Many of them showed interest toward camps and clinical postings to enhance their knowledge toward oral health care.

  20. Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Smith, Ronald M.; Truex, Michael J.; Matthews, Hope E.

    2011-10-01

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2011. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development's (OTID) mission is to transform science into viable solutions for environmental cleanup. In 2010, OTID developed the Impact Plan, Science and Technology to Reduce the Life Cycle Cost of Closure to outline the benefits of research and development of the lifecycle cost of cleanup across the DOE complex. This plan outlines OTID's ability to reduce by $50 billion, the $200 billion life-cycle cost in waste processing, groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning. The projected life-cycle costs and return on investment are based on actual savings realized from technology innovation, development, and insertion into remedial strategies and schedules at the Fernald, Mound, and Ashtabula sites. To achieve our goals, OTID developed Applied Field Research Initiatives to facilitate and accelerate collaborative development and implementation of new tools and approaches that reduce risk, cost and time for site closure. The primary mission of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) is to protect our nation's water resources, keeping them clean and safe for future generations. The DVZ-AFRI was established for the DOE to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination. Subsurface contaminants include radionuclides, metals, organics, and liquid waste that originated from various sources, including legacy waste from the nation's nuclear weapons complexes. The DVZ-AFRI project team is translating strategy into action by working to solve these complex challenges in a

  1. Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Smith, Ronald M.; Truex, Michael J.; Matthews, Hope E.

    2011-01-01

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2011. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development's (OTID) mission is to transform science into viable solutions for environmental cleanup. In 2010, OTID developed the Impact Plan, Science and Technology to Reduce the Life Cycle Cost of Closure to outline the benefits of research and development of the lifecycle cost of cleanup across the DOE complex. This plan outlines OTID's ability to reduce by $50 billion, the $200 billion life-cycle cost in waste processing, groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning. The projected life-cycle costs and return on investment are based on actual savings realized from technology innovation, development, and insertion into remedial strategies and schedules at the Fernald, Mound, and Ashtabula sites. To achieve our goals, OTID developed Applied Field Research Initiatives to facilitate and accelerate collaborative development and implementation of new tools and approaches that reduce risk, cost and time for site closure. The primary mission of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) is to protect our nation's water resources, keeping them clean and safe for future generations. The DVZ-AFRI was established for the DOE to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination. Subsurface contaminants include radionuclides, metals, organics, and liquid waste that originated from various sources, including legacy waste from the nation's nuclear weapons complexes. The DVZ-AFRI project team is translating strategy into action by working to solve these complex challenges in a collaborative

  2. Climatic freshening of the deep North Atlantic (north of 500N) over the past 20 years. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Jenkins, W.J.; Rhines, P.B.; Rooth, C.G.; Swift, J.H.; Takahashi, T.; Williams, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    The Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) program was initiated as a multi-institution, multi-year effort to study ocean transport processes by measuring the distributions of man-made trace substances as they penetrate into the oceans. During the first major field effort of the TTO program, we carried out a seven leg cruise in 1981, occupying 250 geochemical stations covering the North Atlantic from 15 0 N to Spitsbergen. Samples were taken for the measurement of tracers such as tritium (and its daughter 3 He) and 14 C which were produced by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, and tracers that are byproducts of industrial activities, e.g. 85 Kr and trichlorofluoromethane. In addition, a series of precise measurements of nutrients, dissolved oxygen and hydrographic properties were made. We report here preliminary hydrographic results from the three most northerly legs, which show a temperature-salinity relationship throughout a large portion of the water volume north of 50 0 N systematically different from previously obtained (IGY) data. We contend that this difference is a result of a climatic variation in atmospheric and cryospheric conditions which manifest itself in a net change in the temperature and salinity characteristics of the overflow waters which supply the North Atlantic Deep Water masses. 11 references, 3 figures

  3. One year of musical training affects development of auditory cortical-evoked fields in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Trainor, Laurel J

    2006-10-01

    Auditory evoked responses to a violin tone and a noise-burst stimulus were recorded from 4- to 6-year-old children in four repeated measurements over a 1-year period using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Half of the subjects participated in musical lessons throughout the year; the other half had no music lessons. Auditory evoked magnetic fields showed prominent bilateral P100m, N250m, P320m and N450m peaks. Significant change in the peak latencies of all components except P100m was observed over time. Larger P100m and N450m amplitude as well as more rapid change of N250m amplitude and latency was associated with the violin rather than the noise stimuli. Larger P100m and P320m peak amplitudes in the left hemisphere than in the right are consistent with left-lateralized cortical development in this age group. A clear musical training effect was expressed in a larger and earlier N250m peak in the left hemisphere in response to the violin sound in musically trained children compared with untrained children. This difference coincided with pronounced morphological change in a time window between 100 and 400 ms, which was observed in musically trained children in response to violin stimuli only, whereas in untrained children a similar change was present regardless of stimulus type. This transition could be related to establishing a neural network associated with sound categorization and/or involuntary attention, which can be altered by music learning experience.

  4. Electric and Magnetic Fields Research and Public Information Dissemination Program annual report for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) Research and Public Information Dissemination (RAPID) Program was authorized by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 as a near-term effort to expand and accelerate the research needed to address the EMF issue. As required by this legislation, the EMF Interagency Committee, the National EMF Advisory Committee (NEMFAC), and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) are providing valued input and advice for the direction of this program. With this input and advice, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) have developed and are implementing five-year program plans. Multi-year health effects research projects and related EMF measurement and exposure assessment projects are underway using funds appropriated in fiscal years 1994, 1995, and 1996 together with voluntary non-Federal contributions. The results of these research projects, along with the results of other EMF research, will be used as input to the hazard evaluation effort, which is the focus of the EMF RAPID Program. A coordinated interagency program is underway to communicate needed information on the EMF issue in a clear manner to the public and other decision makers.

  5. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring for Washington Department of Wildlife; Five-year Project Report, 1986-1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerwin, John; Roberts, Steve; Oman, Leni; Bolding, Bruce

    1992-04-01

    The Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with the mandate to collect fish health data on the anadromous fish stocks of the Columbia River Basin in a standardized manner. The Washington Department of Wildlife began the project in 1986. Cumulative data and a final summary for this project are presented in this document. Fish stocks were examined monthly for length, weight, and health status at all Washington Department of Wildlife Columbia River Basin hatcheries. Assays for specific fish pathogens were conducted on all stocks of broodfish and smolts in the study area. Pathogens of interest were replicating viral agents, erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome virus (EIBSV), and Renibacterium salmoninarum. Sea-run cutthroat (SCT) were also sampled midway through the rearing cycle for R. salmoninarum. Juvenile fish were examined for the presence of any pathogen. Assays for Myxobolus cerebralis were conducted on fish stocks in several locations along the Columbia River. An organosomatic index analysis was made on each stock of smolts at the Cowlitz and Wells hatcheries. Results of the organosomatic index analysis were consistent between the years at each facility. However, the fish reared at Cowlitz displayed tissue changes associated with ceratomyxosis while those reared at Wells had a more desirable color and quality. Cell culture assays for viral agents in broodfish were positive for infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus (IHNV) in all stocks at the Cowlitz Hatchery four out of five years in the study. Other stations were less consistent over the years. Only the sea-run cutthroat stock spawned at Beaver Creek was negative for any virus. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was isolated from summer-run steelhead (SS) broodfish at Wells in 1989 and 1991 and at Yakima in 1991. Inclusions that are characteristic of EIBSV were found in red blood cells of brood fish from the Wells Hatchery in 1990 and 1991

  6. Lessons learnt from a three-year pilot field epidemiology training programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Hoy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The Pacific region has widely dispersed populations, limited financial and human resources and a high burden of disease. There is an urgent need to improve the availability, reliability and timeliness of useable health data. Context: The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learnt from a three-year pilot field epidemiology training programme that was designed to respond to these Pacific health challenges. The pilot programme built on and further developed an existing field epidemiology training programme for Pacific health staff. Action: The programme was delivered in country by epidemiologists working for Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network partners. The programme consisted of five courses: four one-week classroom-based courses and one field epidemiology project. Sessions were structured so that theoretical understanding was achieved through interaction and reinforced through practical hands-on group activities, case studies and other interactive practical learning methods. Outcome: As of September 2016, 258 students had commenced the programme. Twenty-six course workshops were delivered and one cohort of students had completed the full five-course programme. The programme proved popular and gained a high level of student engagement. Discussion: Face-to-face delivery, a low student-to-facilitator ratio, substantial group work and practical exercises were identified as key factors that contributed to the students developing skills and confidence. Close engagement of leaders and the need to quickly evaluate and adapt the curriculum were important lessons, and the collaboration between external partners was considered important for promoting a harmonized approach to health needs in the Pacific.

  7. Thyroid function 10-18 years after mantle field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerboom, P.F.; Hassink, E.A.M.; Melkert, R.; DeWit, L.; Nooijen, W.J.; Bruning, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Thyroid function was measured in 81 patients who had been curatively irradiated on a mantle field for Hodgkin's disease 10-18 years ago. 47 patients (58%) had elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, indicating hypofunction of the thyroid gland, compared with 4.6% of controls (hospital visitors) matched for age and sex. The mean free thyroxine index (FTI) was significantly lower in patients than in controls, but all FTI values were still normal. Age at the time of irradiation, sex, time since irradiation and administration of chemotherapy were not significant factors in the development of thyroid dysfunction. A life-long awareness of the possibility of insidiously developing myxedema in these patients is strongly advocated. (Author)

  8. Effectiveness of a constructed wetland for treating alkaline bauxite residue leachate: a 1-year field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Derek; Curtin, Teresa; Courtney, Ronan

    2017-03-01

    Increasing volumes of bauxite residues and their associated leachates represent a significant environmental challenge to the alumina industry. Constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential approach for leachate treatment, but there is limited data on field-scale applications. The research presented here provides preliminary evaluation of a purpose-built constructed wetland to buffer leachate from a bauxite residue disposal site in Ireland. Data collected over a 1-year period demonstrated that the pH of bauxite residue leachates could be effectively reduced from ca. pH 10.3 to 8.1 but was influenced by influent variability and temporal changes. The wetland was also effective in decreasing elemental loading, and sequential extractions suggested that the bulk of the sediment-bound metal inventory was in hard-to-leach phases. Elemental analysis of Phragmites australis showed that although vegetation displayed seasonal variation, no trace elements were at concentrations of concern.

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TRACK & FIELD INJURIES: A ONE YEAR EXPERIENCE IN ATHLETIC SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos TH Stergioulas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to record injuries in track & field events that were sustained by students who attended the athletic schools during a one-year period. From September 2009 to May 2010, the researchers observed 2045 students (883 males and 1163 females, who were participating in track and field events at the mentioned schools. During the study period 150 injuries were recorded, which accounted for 13.3% of all injuries sustained by students. Most of the injuries (34% according to the diagnosis were sprains and strains and occurred during the months of February, December and January. A large percentage of the injuries (45.4% were sustained by students who attended the Athletic Schools, which operated in the urban region. Students who attended the second class sustained more injuries than the other classes (first and third. Students who were practising or competing on a tartan playing surface were more likely to sustain an injury. Knee and ankle were the most frequent anatomical sites in which injuries (43.9% occurred. Additionally, 80.0% of injuries occurred in students who were practising or competing in running events. No statistical differences were observed in all above mentioned parameters amongst male and female students. Physical education (P.E. teachers should place more emphasis on prevention measures. These measures should include proper supervision of students during training, warming up and cooling down sessions with stretching techniques. By following these suggestions students will compete in a safe and healthy environment.

  10. Survival and Competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strains 20 Years after Introduction into Field Locations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narożna, Dorota; Pudełko, Krzysztof; Króliczak, Joanna; Golińska, Barbara; Sugawara, Masayuki; Mądrzak, Cezary J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-08-15

    It was previously demonstrated that there are no indigenous strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum forming nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with soybean plants in arable field soils in Poland. However, bacteria currently classified within this species are present (together with Bradyrhizobium canariense) as indigenous populations of strains specific for nodulation of legumes in the Genisteae tribe. These rhizobia, infecting legumes such as lupins, are well established in Polish soils. The studies described here were based on soybean nodulation field experiments, established at the Poznań University of Life Sciences Experiment Station in Gorzyń, Poland, and initiated in the spring of 1994. Long-term research was then conducted in order to study the relation between B. japonicum USDA 110 and USDA 123, introduced together into the same location, where no soybean rhizobia were earlier detected, and nodulation and competitive success were followed over time. Here we report the extra-long-term saprophytic survival of B. japonicum strains nodulating soybeans that were introduced as inoculants 20 years earlier and where soybeans were not grown for the next 17 years. The strains remained viable and symbiotically competent, and molecular and immunochemical methods showed that the strains were undistinguishable from the original inoculum strains USDA 110 and USDA 123. We also show that the strains had balanced numbers and their mobility in soil was low. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the extra-long-term persistence of soybean-nodulating strains introduced into Polish soils and the first analyzing the long-term competitive relations of USDA 110 and USDA 123 after the two strains, neither of which was native, were introduced into the environment almost 2 decades ago. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Non-Dipole Features of the Geomagnetic Field May Persist for Millions of Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, J.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present paleointensity results from within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), which is a large non-dipole feature of the geomagnetic field. Within the area of the SAA, anomalous declinations, inclinations, and intensities are observed. Our results suggest that the SAA has been present for at least 5 Ma. This is orders-of-magnitude greater than any previous estimate, and suggests that some non-dipole features do not `average out' over geologic time, which is a fundamental assumption in all paleodirectional studies. The SAA has been steadily growing in size since the first magnetic measurements were made in the South Atlantic, and it is widely believed to have appeared 400 years ago. Recent studies from South Africa (Tarduno et al. (2015)) and Tristan da Cunha (Shah et al. (2016)) have suggested that the SAA has persisted for 1 ka and 96 ka respectively. We conducted paleointensity (PI) experiments on basaltic lavas from James Ross Island, on the Antarctic Peninsula. This large shield volcano has been erupting regularly over the last 6+ Ma (dated via Ar/Ar geochronology), and therefore contains the most complete volcanostratigraphic record in the south Atlantic. Our PI experiments used the Thellier-Thellier method, the IZZI protocol, and the same selection criteria as the Lawrence et al. (2009) study of Ross Island lavas (near McMurdo Station), which is the only comparable PI study on the Antarctic continent. We determined an average paleointensity at JRI of 13.8±5.2 μT, which is far lower than what we would expect from a dipole field (55 μT). In addition, this is far lower than the current value over James Ross Island of 36 μT. These results support the following conclusions: The time-averaged field model of Juarez et al. (1998) and Tauxe et al. (2013) is strongly favored by our PI data. The SAA has persisted over James Ross Island for at least 5 Ma, and has not drifted significantly over that time. The strength of non-dipole features such as the SAA

  12. Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination; Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Final Year Medical Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwumba, Fred O; Ekwueme, Osa Eloka C; Okoh, Agharighom D

    2016-11-01

    The testicular cancer (TCa) incidence is increasing in many countries, with age-standardized incidence rates up to 7.8/100,000 men in the Western world, although reductions in mortality and increasingly high cure rates are being witnessed at the same time. In Africa, where rates are lower, presentation is often late and morbidity and mortality high. Given this scenario, awareness of testicular cancer and practice of testicular self-examination among future first response doctors is very important. This study was conducted to determine knowledge and attitude to testicular cancer, and practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) among final (6th) year medical students. In addition, the effect of an intervention in the form of a single PowerPoint® lecture, lasting 40 minutes with image content on testicular cancer and testicular self examination was assessed. Pre and post intervention administration of a self-administered structured pre tested questionnaire was performed on 151 medical students, 101 of whom returned answers (response rate of 66.8%). In the TC domain, there was a high level of awareness of testicular cancer, but poor knowledge of the age group most affected, with significant improvement post intervention (pintervention (ptesticular self-examination pre-intervention was found considering the nature of the study group..Respondents had surprisingly weak/poor responses to the question “How important to men’s health is regular testicular self-examination?” Answers to the questions “Do you think it is worthwhile to examine your testis regularly?” and “Would you be interested in more information on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination?” were also suboptimal, but improved post intervention pintervention indicates value in educational intervention. We recommend inclusion of TCa coverage and TSE teaching in the secondary school curriculum (targeting adolescents). Greater emphasis should also be given to testicular cancer in the

  13. Kurt Hübner, 38 years of service to the accelerator field

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Kurt Hübner will long be remembered at CERN for his leadership in the accelerator field during his 38 years of service to it. A brilliant, conscientious and determined physicist, he has always been known for his humility and humanity. He retired from CERN on 29th November. Kurt Hübner, who is Austrian, joined CERN in 1964 as a fellow, to work on the CESAR electron storage ring project for the ISR. He became a member of the personnel in 1966 and joined the ISR Division two years later. At the end of the 1970s he played an important role in the design studies for LEP, in particular proposing that the existing synchrotrons be used as the injectors for the new collider. It was therefore logical that he should take on the responsibility for designing the LEP injector chain from 1983 onwards. In addition to his involvement in the commissioning and operation of the collider, he took part in drawing up the proposals for the LHC and in the studies for CLIC, the project for a future linear collider...

  14. The Swedish final repository for reactor waste (SFR). A summary of the SFR project with special emphasis on the near-field assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, J.

    1988-01-01

    The first phase of the final repository for reactor waste (SFR) is scheduled for operation in April 1988. The construction work is finished and preoperational tests are in progress. Impact on the environment from SFR is analysed in a final safety report. This paper gives a summary of the design and performance of SFR. Assessments, made for the analysises of the long term safety, are given with special emphasis on the near-field. As a conclusion from the analysises, the dose commitment to the most affected individual during the post-closure period, has proved to constitute only an insignificant contribution to the natural radioactive environment of the area

  15. Contractor for geopressured-geothermal sites: Final contract report, Volume 1, fiscal years 1986--1990 (5 years), testing of wells through October 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Field tests and studies were conducted to determine the production behavior of geopressured-geothermal reservoirs and their potential as future energy sources. Results are presented for Gladys McCall Site, Pleasant Bayou Site, and Hulin Site.

  16. Field tests with vertical perforated drain pipes used for beach protection at Southern Holmsland Barrier on the Danish North Sea Coast (half year report)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    In accordance with the agreement of 18 August 2004 between Skagen Innovation Center (SIC) and the Danish Governmental Coastal Authority (KDI) a field test with the purpose of demonstrating the efficiency of the SIC vertical drain method as a mean for coastal protecting was initiated in a meeting 24...... August 2004. The test period is three years after which a final report has to be presented. The report shall contain an evaluation of the drain system with respect to qualitative and quantitative efficiency and environmental impact, as well as a related comparison with conventional coastal protection...

  17. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igwe Monday N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire were administered to the students. Results The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67 ± 3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24 ± 3.24, 10.76 ± 3.50 and 9.01 ± 3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p = 0.000, domain 3 (p = 0.029, domain 4 (p = 0.000 and total score (p = 0.000, with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p = 0.769. The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r = 0.319, p = 0

  18. Chemkrete Modified asphaltic concrete field trial construction and three year evaluation : experimental project program No. 3 asphalt additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    This report documents the construction of a Chemkrete modified asphaltic concrete field trial and presents three year performance data. Normal plant and roadway operations were maintained throughout the production of the Chemkrete modified mix. Initi...

  19. 76 FR 31979 - Notice of Interim Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the Ukiah Field Office in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... California Vehicle Code (Section 4000 (a)). Weapon means any firearm, crossbow, bow and arrow, air or gas..., compressed air, or by string or spring. Section 2 Interim Final Supplementary Rules of Conduct The following... of nearby Federal and state off-highway vehicle (OHV) areas has increased visitation and the duration...

  20. Final design and progress of WEAVE: the next generation wide-field spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, Gavin; Trager, Scott; Abrams, Don Carlos; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Middleton, Kevin; Benn, Chris; Dee, Kevin; Sayède, Frédéric; Lewis, Ian; Pragt, Johannes; Pico, Sergio; Walton, Nic; Rey, Jeurg; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Peñate, José; Lhome, Emilie; Agócs, Tibor; Alonso, José; Terrett, David; Brock, Matthew; Gilbert, James; Schallig, Ellen; Ridings, Andy; Guinouard, Isabelle; Verheijen, Marc; Tosh, Ian; Rogers, Kevin; Lee, Martin; Steele, Iain; Stuik, Remko; Tromp, Niels; Jaskó, Attila; Carrasco, Esperanza; Farcas, Szigfrid; Kragt, Jan; Lesman, Dirk; Kroes, Gabby; Mottram, Chris; Bates, Stuart; Rodriguez, Luis Fernando; Gribbin, Frank; Delgado, José Miguel; Herreros, José Miguel; Martin, Carlos; Cano, Diego; Navarro, Ramon; Irwin, Mike; Lewis, Jim; Gonzalez Solares, Eduardo; Murphy, David; Worley, Clare; Bassom, Richard; O'Mahoney, Neil; Bianco, Andrea; Zurita, Christina; ter Horst, Rik; Molinari, Emilio; Lodi, Marcello; Guerra, José; Martin, Adrian; Vallenari, Antonella; Salasnich, Bernardo; Baruffolo, Andrea; Jin, Shoko; Hill, Vanessa; Smith, Dan; Drew, Janet; Poggianti, Bianca; Pieri, Mat; Dominquez Palmero, Lillian; Farina, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    We present the Final Design of the WEAVE next-generation spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), together with a status update on the details of manufacturing, integration and the overall project schedule now that all the major fabrication contracts are in place. We also

  1. Field Data Collection Study Final Report; Natatorium Current Study, Waikiki, HI, 23-29 Aug 2007 (NODC Accession 0044080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field data collection was conducted for the U.S. Army Engineer District, Pacific Ocean, Honolulu (POH), during 23-29 August 2007, in the vicinity of the Natatorium,...

  2. Technical procedures for water resources: Volume 3, Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Water Resources (ONWI, 1987). This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Water Resources Site Study Plan. This procedure provides the general method for the field collection of water and sediment samples from playa lakes using an Alpha horizontal type sampler or equivalent or a peristaltic pump for water and a KB-coring devise or ponar grab for sediments. The samples will be preserved and then shipped to a laboratory for analysis. The water quality and sediment samples will be collected as part of the surface-water quality field study described in the Site Plan for Water Resources. 15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  3. 78 FR 28643 - Program Year (PY) 2013 Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Allotments; PY 2013 Wagner-Peyser Act Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... at (202) 693-2784. Individuals with hearing or speech impairments may access the telephone numbers... WIA Title I Youth, Adults and Dislocated Worker Activities programs; final allotments for Employment...) 693-3593 or LaSharn Youngblood at (202) 693-3606; WIA Adult and Dislocated Worker Activities and ES...

  4. The Impacts of Regular Upward Bound on Postsecondary Outcomes Seven to Nine Years after Scheduled High School Graduation. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seftor, Neil S.; Mamun, Arif; Schirm, Allen

    2009-01-01

    This last report from Mathematica's evaluation of Upward Bound analyzes data from the final round of survey and transcript data collection as well as administrative records from the National Student Clearinghouse and the federal Student Financial Aid files. It provides the first estimates of the effects of Upward Bound on postsecondary completion.…

  5. 75 FR 13257 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited Five-year (Sunset) Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited Five... Pigment 23 (CVP-23) ] from India pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act... merchandise includes the crude pigment in any form (e.g., dry powder, paste, wet cake) and finished pigment in...

  6. 77 FR 41448 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Final Five Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... for leasing. Table B (from the PFP document) lists the location and timing of the proposed lease sales... additional deferral area is located north of Barrow and covers 208 OCS lease blocks beyond the northern edge... assessment of market and resource conditions. Table B--Proposed Final Program for 2012-2017--Lease Sale...

  7. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  8. Biological effects of power line fields: New York State Power Lines Project Scientific Advisory Panel: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlbom, A.; Albert, E.N.; Fraser-Smith, A.C.; Grodzinsky, A.J.; Marron, M.T.; Martin, A.O.; Persinger, M.A.; Shelanski, M.L.; Wolpow, E.R.

    1987-07-01

    The New York State Power Lines Project was established to conduct research and to review the scientific literature to determine whether health hazards of electric and magnetic fields are possible. Particular attention was directed to the fields generated by 765-kV overhead transmission lines. The research program provided support to 16 research groups studying human, animal and isolated cell sensitivity to electric and magnetic fields. No effects were found on reproduction, growth or development. Several studies showed no evidence of genetic or chromosomal damage that might lead to inherited effects or cause cancer. While most measurements of behavior and brain function did not demonstrate changes, some did show changes that were small but consistent. Some of these appear to result from changes in body rhythms, and might interfere with normal sleep patterns. There were also changes in pain responses and in the ability of rats to learn. A more serious concern comes from a study of cancer in children suggesting that children with leukemia and brain cancer are more likely to live in homes where there are elevated 60-Hz magnetic field levels. Although much more research is needed before the question whether the magnetic fields actually cause or promote cancer can be resolved, the basis for such an hypothesis is now established. 159 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. A Theory-Informed Qualitative Exploration of Social and Environmental Determinants of Physical Activity and Dietary Choices in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities in Their Final Year of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gemma; Jahoda, Andrew; Matthews, Lynsay; Hankey, Catherine; Melville, Craig; Murray, Heather; Mitchell, Fiona

    2018-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity is higher in those with intellectual disabilities than the general population. The aim of the study was to understand the determinants of physical activity and dietary patterns in this population during their final year of school. Method: Qualitative data were generated from 10 interviews with adolescents with…

  10. Two Different Approaches to Teaching Final-Year Projects for Mechanical Engineers and Biotechnologists at Ngee Ann Polytechnic--Case Studies Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kath; Rebaczonok-Padulo, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Ngee Ann Polytechnic, a leading postsecondary technical institution in Singapore, offers English for academic and occupational purposes to prepare students for writing their final year projects. This article discusses the approaches used in Mechanical Engineering and Biotechnology projects. A sample exercise is appended. (Contains two references.)…

  11. The Relationship between University Learning Experiences and English Teaching Self-Efficacy: Perspectives of Five Final-Year Pre-Service English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Ksenia; Pill, Shane

    2015-01-01

    No literature exists on English teaching efficacy or self-efficacy or on pre-service teachers' English teaching self-efficacy and its relationship to pre-service teacher education. This project addressed this conceptual and methodological gap in current teacher efficacy research literature. Five pre-service English teachers in their final year of…

  12. An Analysis of the Content, Policies and Assessment of ICT Curricula in the Final Years of Secondary Schooling in Australia and Vietnam: A Comparative Educational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thang Manh; Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores and analyses similarities and differences in ICT curricula, policies, and assessment between the Vietnamese and Australian educational systems for the final years of secondary educational level. It was found that while having a common core set of tendencies, the Australian ICT curricula, policies, and assessments differ…

  13. Assessment of the situation of centres of competence in the fields of nuclear fission and radiation protection. Final report

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfert, K; Glaeser, H; Klener, V; Métivier, H; Richard, P; Riebold, W L; Vasa, I; Zimmermann, M

    2003-01-01

    An assessment of the present situation concerning centres of competence in the fields of Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection has been carried out with the intention to draw strategic conclusions as regards further needs in these fields, based on the actual situation and perceived future developments. This study was initiated by the programme committee for the Euratom research and training programme in the field of Nuclear Energy (1998 - 2002). To carry out this exercise, a Panel of four independent experts had been set up. The Panel had prepared a questionnaire comprising a comprehensive set of questions aiming at the acquisition of the information needed to carry out the assessment exercise. The questionnaire consisted in ten different form sheets and had been put on the Internet in order to ease the access and offer a comfortable way of filling in the form sheets. Out of 420 organisations invited to participate in the exercise, 293 organisations from EU member states, Central and Eastern European Acces...

  14. A model of Earth’s magnetic field derived from 2 years of Swarm satellite constellation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris; Kotsiaros, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    More than 2 years of magnetic field data taken by the three-satellite constellation mission Swarm are used to derive a model of Earth’s magnetic field and its time variation. This model is called SIFMplus. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm satellites......, explicit advantage is taken of the constellation aspect of Swarm by including East–West magnetic intensity and vector field gradient information from the lower satellite pair. Along-track differences of the magnetic intensity as well as of the vector components provide further information concerning...... dependence for n=7–15, demonstrates the possibility to determine high-quality field models from only 2 years of Swarm data, thanks to the unique constellation aspect of Swarm. To account for the magnetic signature caused by ionospheric electric currents at polar latitudes we co-estimate, together...

  15. Acceptability of the Conceptions of Higher Education Quality to First Year Students of the Study Field of Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žibeniene, Gintaute; Savickiene, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    The article presents which conceptions of higher education quality are most acceptable to first-year students of the study field of pedagogy. It is significant to analyse students' opinions as more than 10 years ago the EU member states agreed that higher education institutions bear responsibility for the quality of higher education. Being members…

  16. ASA conference on radiation and health: Health effects of electric and magnetic fields: Statistical support for research strategies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This report is a collection of papers documenting presentations made at the VIII ASA (American Statistical Association) Conference on Radiation and Health entitled Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields: Statistical Support for Research Strategies. Individual papers are abstracted and indexed for the database.

  17. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, S.

    1995-12-01

    To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfilling its responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) outlines the key activities that the NLLWMP will accomplish in the following fiscal year. Additional activities are added during the fiscal year as necessary to accomplish programmatic goals. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during fiscal year 1995

  18. Assistance in MSD Research and Development: Part 2, Full scale field testing at mining operations: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsey, P.N.; Canon, C.

    1988-06-01

    Full scale and field testing of a simple mechanical stemming aid is described. The aid comprises a solid unit placed in the stemming above the explosive column and is designed to improve blasting efficiency and reduce drilling and blasting costs. It is designed to work with back filled drill cuttings or any other suitable stemming material. The results of Phase I testing were highly successful, indicating that the stemming aid has technically an extremely good chance of success at full scale when constructed of low cost materials. Phase II of the stemming aid research and development program comprised of the testing of various forms of the stemming is at full scale in non-research oriented i.e. field settings. The stemming aid was field tested at 4 different sites for a variety of mining application: First in underground workings at the UMR experimental mine in one and three quarter inch diameter horizontal blast holes incorporated into full blast patterns; three and three and a half inch blast holes at two crushed rock/limestone quarries in the Rolla area and at a surface coal mine operation run by Peabody Coal Company at Lynnville, Indiana in which nine and seven eighths, ten and five eighths and fifteen and a quarter inch diameter blast holes were used for parting and overburden removal. 2 refs., 37 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. No evidence for the presence of oogonia in the human ovary after their final clearance during the first two years of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, A G; Høyer, P E; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-01-01

    present also in peri- and post-natal ovaries. METHODS For this study, 82 human ovaries were collected: 25 from embryos from 5 to 10 weeks post conception (wpc), 2 at 18 wpc, 32 from 32 wpc to 2 years and 23 from 2 to 32 years. Of these, 80 ovaries were fixed and paraffin-embedded and 2 (8 year...... before 2 years, leaving only diplotene oocytes stained for C-KIT. From 18 wpc to 2 years, the medulla contained conglomerates of healthy and degenerating oogonia and small follicles, waste baskets (WBs) and oogonia enclosed in growing follicles (FWB). Medulla of older ovaries contained groups...... of primordial, healthy follicles. CONCLUSIONS We found no evidence for the presence of oogonia in the human ovary after their final clearing during the first 2 years. We suggest that perinatal medullary WB and FWB give rise to the groups of small, healthy follicles in the medulla....

  20. Insights From the Development of an Environmental Science Professional Development Field Course for Undergraduates from Two-Year and Four-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C. M.; Hall, S. R.; Walker, B.; Paul, J.

    2017-12-01

    Existing STEM retention and diversity programs have identified access to field and professional experiences as critical to helping students identify as scientists, form networks, and gain important skills necessary for employment. This program reimagines the traditional geology field course as a professional development experience for students at 2-year and 4-year institutions interested in environmental careers. Students participate in a summer field course in the Sierra Nevada of California, during which time they complete geology, geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology field projects designed to compliment the curriculum of Environmental Geoscience, Environmental Science, and Environmental Studies programs. During the course students interact with local professionals in the environmental sector and work to earn badges based on the skills demonstrated during field projects. Badges create transparent documentation of skill mastery for students and provide a new way for students to understand and market their skills and competencies to potential employers. We will report on the curriculum development, implementation and assessment of the first cohort of students to participate in the program. Preliminary results of formative and summative assessments and their implications for student success and program design will be addressed.

  1. Knowledge and attitude of final - year medical students in Germany towards palliative care - an interinstitutional questionnaire-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Martin; Schmiedel, Sven; Nauck, Friedemann; Alt-Epping, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To care for terminally ill and dying patients requires a thorough medical education, encompassing skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the field of palliative care. Undergraduate medical students in Germany will receive mandatory teaching in palliative care in the near future driven by recent changes in the Medical Licensure Act. Before new curricula can be implemented, the knowledge of medical students with respect to palliative care, their confidence to handle palliative ...

  2. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase I and Phase II. Volume IV. Field activities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, C.

    1984-01-01

    This volume describes those activities which took place at the Sperry DOE Gravity Head plant site at the East Mesa Geothermal Reservoir near Holtville, California between February 1980, when site preparation was begun, and November 1982, when production well 87-6 was permanently abandoned. Construction activities were terminated in July 1981 following the liner collapse in well 87-6. Large amounts of program time manpower, materials, and funds had been diverted in a nine-month struggle to salvage the production well. Once these efforts proved futile, there was no rationale for continuing with the site work unless and until sufficient funding to duplicate well 87-6 was obtained. Activities reported here include: plant construction and pre-operational calibration and testing, drilling and completion of well 87-6, final repair effort on well 87-6, abandonment of well 87-6, and performance evaluation of well 87.6. (MHR)

  3. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-01-01

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

  4. The relationship between an athlete's maximal aerobic speed determined in a laboratory and their final speed reached during a field test (UNCa Test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, D F; García, G C; Secchi, J D; Maddigan, M E

    2014-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to apply a field test to predict the maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of an athlete using the same protocol done in a laboratory. Fourteen male subjects volunteered to participate in this study and were evaluated on four separate occasions. First, an anthropometric evaluation was carried out. Secondly, an aerobic test was done on the treadmill with a gass analyzer to measure the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2máx) and to calculate the MAS. Third, Unca test was evaluated again to confirm the reliability of the test. Finally, the participants were evaluated on field using the National University of Catamarca test (UNCa test). The MAS reached on a treadmill 15.6±1.0 km·h-1 was significantly higher than that found during the field test 13,6 ± 1,1 km·h-1 (P=0.0001). However the relationship between the treadmill and the field test were highly correlated in all variables: speed: r=0.83, distance covered r= 0,81, test duration r=0.83. If MAS found on a treadmill is considered to be "the gold-standard" to validate MAS on field, it can be said that the UNCa test underestimates speed.

  5. Field Evaluation of Real-time Cloud OD Sensor TWST during the DOE ARM TCAP Campaign 2013 Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niple, N. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States); Conant, J. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States); Jones, S. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States); Scott, H. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States); Lannarilli, F. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this internal research and development (IRAD)-funded campaign by Aerodyne Research, Inc. was to demonstrate the field-worthiness and assess the performance of a real-time cloud optical depth (COD) sensor (dubbed three-waveband spectrally-agile technique [TWST]) through a side-by-side comparison with proven, ground-based operational sensors currently deployed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mobile Facility (AMF) site on the Cape Cod National Seashore for the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). We anticipated direct comparisons with the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET; when in cloud mode) and SAS instruments and expected ancillary data from other sensors such as the Total Sky Imager, the Scanning Cloud Radar, and the Microwave Radiometer to facilitate and validate these comparisons. Because the cloud optical depth retrieval algorithms used by AERONET, solar array spectrometer (SAS), and TWST are totally independent, this deployment provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the field performance of TWST. If the effort proves successful, it may qualify TWST for operational service or additional evaluation effort.

  6. Field Evaluation of Real-time Cloud OD Sensor TWST during the DOE ARM TCAP Campaign 2013 Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niple, E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Conant, J. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Jones, S. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Scott, H. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Iannarilli, F. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2016-02-02

    The objective of this internal research and development (IRAD)-funded campaign by Aerodyne Research, Inc. was to demonstrate the field-worthiness and assess the performance of a real-time cloud optical depth (COD) sensor (dubbed three-waveband spectrally-agile technique [TWST]) through a side-by-side comparison with proven, ground-based operational sensors currently deployed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mobile Facility (AMF) site on the Cape Cod National Seashore for the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). We anticipated direct comparisons with the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET; when in cloud mode) and SAS instruments and expected ancillary data from other sensors such as the Total Sky Imager, the Scanning Cloud Radar, and the Microwave Radiometer to facilitate and validate these comparisons. Because the cloud optical depth retrieval algorithms used by AERONET, solar array spectrometer (SAS), and TWST are totally independent, this deployment provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the field performance of TWST. If the effort proves successful, it may qualify TWST for operational service or additional evaluation effort.

  7. Technical procedures for utilities and solid waste: Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The evaluation of environmental issues and concerns and the addressing of statutory requirements are fundamental parts in the characterization of the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Utilities and Solid Waste considerations. This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Utilities and Solid Waste Site Study Plan. The purpose and scope of the Utilities and Solid Waste Technical Procedure is to develop and implement a data collection procedure to fulfill the data base needs of the Utilities and Solid Waste SSP. The procedure describes a method of obtaining, assessing and verifying the capabilities of the regional service utilities and disposal contractors. This data base can be used to identify a preferred service source for the engineering contractor. The technical procedure was produced under the guidelines established in Technical Administrative Procedure No. 1.0, Preparation, Review and Approval of Technical Procedures

  8. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O.; Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs

  9. Five years of field hydrographic research in the Large Aral Sea (2002-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, P. O.; Ni, A. A.; Kudyshkin, T. V.; Kurbaniyazov, A. K.; Dikarev, S. N.

    2009-03-01

    The paper is intended to provide a summarizing account of hydrographic research activities on the Large Aral Sea since 2002. To date of the writing (August, 2006), 6 field surveys have been accomplished, some of which consisted of separate legs covering different parts of the lake. The 3D thermohaline structure was investigated by means of surface-to-bottom profiling from motor boats at various hydrographic stations. In a part of the cruises, direct observations of water velocity and lake surface height were also conducted from mooring stations at specific locations. The measurements were accompanied by water sampling and collection of meteorological data. Over the period of the observations, the surface salinity in the western, relatively deep basin has increased from about 82 g•kg - 1 in November 2002 to over 99 g•kg - 1 in March 2006. Because the lake surface level remained nearly constant during this period, spanning only slightly between 30.1 and 30.7 m above the ocean level, and the fluvial and groundwater inputs of salts are likely negligible at the temporal scale of a few years, this continuing salinity build-up in the western basin must be associated with water exchanges with the shallow and saltier eastern basin. In the latter, salinity has decreased from up to 160 g•kg - 1 as previously reported for 2002 [Mirabdullaev, I.M., I.M. Joldasova, Z.A. Mustafaeva, S. Kazakhbaev, S.A. Lyubimova, and B.A. Tashmukhamedov, 2004. Succession of ecosystems of the Aral Sea during its transition from oligohaline to polyhaline waterbody. J. Marine Systems, 47(1-4), 101-108.] to only about 130 g•kg - 1 in 2005. The denser eastern basin water sinking down the slope of the western trench is responsible for enhanced vertical stratification observed in 2002 and 2003. Such stratification greatly damped vertical mixing, which resulted in hypoxia and sulfide contamination in the bottom layer. However, the water column was ventilated in spring of 2004, presumably

  10. Mass transit development for small urban areas; a case study: Tompkins County, N. Y. Second-year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyburg, A.H.

    1976-11-01

    This report presents the results of the second-year effort within a three-year research project to develop a transportation planning methodology for small urban areas concerned with the provision of public transportation service. This phase of the research concentrates on problems of access to health services, transportation service for the disadvantaged, potential coordination and integration of existing transportation systems, alternative systems designs and their evaluation, and suitable marketing and monitoring programs for public transportation service in small urban areas. This effort, together with elements of the first-year research will culminate in the preparation of a transit planning manual suitable for use by the transportation planner in small to medium-size urban areas.

  11. Case report: Inhaled foreign body mismanaged as TB, finally removed using a rigid bronchoscopy after 6 years of impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Rubena Lumaya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body aspiration is an important cause of mortality in children aged less than three years. Foreign body (FB inhalation can pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, especially in longstanding cases and complications such as recurrent pneumonia, lung collapse and lung abscess may develop. We report a case of an 11-year old boy with foreign body impacted in his bronchus for six years, which was mistakenly managed as pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiological evidence confirmed the diagnosis and a rigid bronchoscopy was used to remove the metallic foreign body. The standard of care for the management of a FB in a bronchus is a rigid bronchoscopy; however flexible bronchoscopy can be used, especially in adults. A thorough history with radiological evidence are essential and sometimes, followed by a diagnostic bronchoscopy.

  12. MODIS/Terra Vegetation Continuous Fields Yearly L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V051

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terra MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) product is a sub-pixel-level representation of surface vegetation cover estimates globally. Designed to...

  13. MODIS/Terra Vegetation Continuous Fields Yearly L3 Global 250m SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terra MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) product is a sub-pixel-level representation of surface vegetation cover estimates globally. Designed to...

  14. High throughput field plant phenotyping facility at University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the first year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y.; Bai, G.; Irmak, S.; Awada, T.; Stoerger, V.; Graef, G.; Scoby, D.; Schnable, J.

    2017-12-01

    University of Nebraska - Lincoln's high throughput field plant phenotyping facility is a cable robot based system built on a 1-ac field. The sensor platform is tethered with eight cables via four poles at the corners of the field for its precise control and positioning. The sensor modules on the platform include a 4-band RGB-NIR camera, a thermal infrared camera, a 3D LiDAR, VNIR spectrometers, and environmental sensors. These sensors are used to collect multifaceted physiological, structural and chemical properties of plants from the field plots. A subsurface drip irrigation system is established in this field which allows a controlled amount of water and fertilizers to be delivered to individual plots. An extensive soil moisture sensor network is also established to monitor soil water status, and serve as a feedback loop for irrigation scheduling. In the first year of operation, the field is planted maize and soybean. Weekly ground truth data were collected from the plots to validate image and sensor data from the phenotyping system. This presentation will provide an overview of this state-of-the-art field plant phenotyping facility, and present preliminary data from the first year operation of the system.

  15. 78 FR 10206 - Notice of Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the Ukiah Field Office in Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... California Vehicle Code (Section 4000(a)). Weapon means any firearm, crossbow, bow and arrow, air or gas..., compressed air, string, or spring. Section 2. Rules of Conduct The following rules apply year round to all... vessel, or parking a vehicle or trailer for the apparent purpose of overnight occupancy. Cave Resource...

  16. Clovis-Portales Bilingual Early Childhood Program. Third Year Evaluation Study (1974-75). Final Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Billy E.; And Others

    This report describes an external evaluation study of two of the components (instructional and community-parental involvement) on an on-going bilingual intervention program for 3- and 4-year-old children. The purpose of the intervention program is to facilitate the learning of English and Spanish simultaneously in an environment designed to…

  17. Performance Evaluation of Advanced Retrofit Roof Technologies Using Field-Test Data Phase Three Final Report, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents some miscellaneous data from two low-slope and two steep-slope experimental roofs. The low-slope roofs were designed to compare the performance of various roof coatings exposed to natural weatherization. The steep-slope roofs contained different combinations of phase change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface and above-sheathing ventilation, with standing-seam metal panels on top. The steep-slope roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. This article describes phase three (3) of a study that began in 2009 to evaluate the energy benefits of a sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing standing-seam metal roofing panels combined with energy efficient features like above-sheathing-ventilation (ASV), phase change material (PCM) and rigid insulation board. The data from phases 1 and 2 have been previously published and reported [Kosny et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011; Biswas and Childs, 2012; Kosny et al., 2012]. Based on previous data analyses and discussions within the research group, additional test roofs were installed in May 2012, to test new configurations and further investigate different components of the dynamic insulation systems. Some experimental data from phase 3 testing from May 2012 to December 2013 and some EnergyPlus modeling results have been reported in volumes 1 and 3, respectively, of the final report [Biswas et al., 2014; Biswas and Bhandari, 2014].

  18. The Swarm Initial Field Model – a Model of the Earth’s Magnetic Field for 2014 Determined From One Year of Swarm Satellite Constellation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Hulot, Gauthier; Lesur, Vincent

    Almost one year of data from ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive a model of the Earth’s magnetic field and its time variation (secular variation). The model describes contributions from the core and lithosphere as well as large-scale contributions from the magnetosphere (and its......) frame. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm satellites we include the East-west magnetic gradient information provided by the lower Swarm satellite pair, thereby explicitly taking advantage of the constellation aspect of Swarm. We assess the spatial...... and temporal model resolution that can be obtained from one year of Swarm satellite data by comparison with other recent models that also include non-Swarm magnetic observations....

  19. [Experience with prosthetic disc nucleus device in Mexico. Final report of a 4-year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Olivares, Luis Miguel; Pérez-Víquez, Ariel; Miramontes-Martínez, Víctor; Alpízar-Aguirre, Armando; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Discal hernia is generally treated by discectomies that are mutilating and cause instability and low back pain in 50% of the patients. Partial arthroplasty is used in an attempt to avoid degeneration after a discectomy. Nineteen patients from the INR (National Institute of Rehabilitation) were selected with extruded discal hernia. All inclusion criteria were met, with a minimal follow-up of 4 years. Evolution was evaluated with the Oswestry scale (OS) and x-ray studies. Statistical analysis was done with Student's t-test. Sixteen men and three women were included in the study, with an average age of 35.4 years. OS before surgery was 57.37% and improved to 22% (p < 0.001). The results obtained in the Prolo scale 4 years later were for the economy scale, p < 0.001 (Wilcoxon Z = 3.87) and for the functional scale, p < 0.001 (Wilcoxon Z = -3.94). The intervertebral space height (IS) before surgery was 6 and 8 mm, and 4 years later, in 12 patients it remained between 8 and 10 mm. The prosthesis had variations according to its initial placement in seven patients, and in all there was subsidence. In two cases migration surpassed the limits of the vertebral body without clinical repercussion. None of the patients required re-operation. Prosthetic disc nucleus device improved clinical conditions and x-rays of the patients using Oswestry, Prolo and intersomatic space height enhancement after 4 years of follow-up in 12/19 patients.

  20. One Year of Musical Training Affects Development of Auditory Cortical-Evoked Fields in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2006-01-01

    Auditory evoked responses to a violin tone and a noise-burst stimulus were recorded from 4- to 6-year-old children in four repeated measurements over a 1-year period using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Half of the subjects participated in musical lessons throughout the year; the other half had no music lessons. Auditory evoked magnetic fields…

  1. Utilization of ultrasonic tomography for the mapping of residual stress fields in thick metal sections. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, B.P.; Hufferd, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    It is well known that the velocity of sound propagation through a solid is altered when a stress is applied. The velocity change is small, and dependent upon the type of wave being propagated as well as the magnitude of the stress. Sensitivity is greatest to shear wave sound with the polarization vector parallel to the direction of stress. In this case, velocity changes as great as 0.6 percent were measured. Preliminary work is described aimed at evaluating computerized reconstruction of velocity fields from velocity profiles to map residual stress concentrations in thick metal sections. Experimental results with liquid and solid models are described. One could image velocity anomalies of 0.2 percent and estimate that 0.05 percent is technically feasible. It is concluded that this technique has great potential for finding and mapping residual stress in thick metal sections

  2. Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO: From AMIE Field Observations to Global-Cloud Permitting Models Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada). Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Dept.

    2017-02-09

    This is a multi-institutional, collaborative project using a three-tier modeling approach to bridge field observations and global cloud-permitting models, with emphases on cloud population structural evolution through various large-scale environments. Our contribution was in data analysis for the generation of high value cloud and precipitation products and derive cloud statistics for model validation. There are two areas in data analysis that we contributed: the development of a synergistic cloud and precipitation cloud classification that identify different cloud (e.g. shallow cumulus, cirrus) and precipitation types (shallow, deep, convective, stratiform) using profiling ARM observations and the development of a quantitative precipitation rate retrieval algorithm using profiling ARM observations. Similar efforts have been developed in the past for precipitation (weather radars), but not for the millimeter-wavelength (cloud) radar deployed at the ARM sites.

  3. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 4: growth, reproduction, and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    Swine were exposed to uniform, vertical, 60-Hz, 30-kV/m electric fields for 20 hours/day, 7 days/week. The parental generation (F/sub 0/ gilts) was bred after 4 months on study; some were killed for teratologic study at 100 days of gestation (dg), and the others produced a first-generation (F/sub 1/) of offspring. The pooled incidence of terata in these litters was similar in the exposed and sham-exposed groups. The F/sub 0/ females, which produced the F/sub 1/ generation, were rebred after 18 months of exposure and were killed at 100 dg: malformation incidence in exposed litters (75%) was significantly greater than in sham-exposed litters (29%). Types of malformations were not dissimilar between the two groups. The F/sub 1/ gilts were bred at 18 months of age; there were indications of impaired copulatory behavior and decreased fertility in the exposed animals. Defective offspring were found in significantly more of the exposed litters (71%) than in sham-exposed litters (33%). The F/sub 1/ sows were bred again 10 months later, and teratologic evaluations were performed on their second litters at 100 dg. The percentage of litters with malformed fetuses was essentially identical in the exposed and sham-exposed groups (70 and 73%, respectively). The change in malformation incidences between generations and between the first and second breedings makes it difficult to unequivocally conclude that chronic exposure to a strong electric field caused developmental effects in swine, although it appears there may be an association. It is also possible that other factors, such as housing, inbreeding, disease or its treatment may have contributed to the results. 22 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Comparison of effects of training programs for final year nursing students in Turkey: differences in self-efficacy with regard to information literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbıçakçı, Şeyda; Gezer, Nurdan; Bilik, Özlem

    2015-02-01

    Information literate person are aware of where and how they can obtain the information they need. Little is known about student nurses information literacy skills in different education programs. To find out how final year nursing students rated their own abilities to acquire new information. This study used comparative and descriptive cross-sectional surveys. Participants were final year students in two different programs, in two different universities in Turkey. The study sample consisted of final year nursing students who received training in Classic Learning (N: 61) and Problem-Based Learning (N: 96). As an evaluation instrument for the perceptions of the students their own information literacy, a scale consisting of 28 questions with 7 Likert ratings for each was used (min: 28, max: 196). The return rates of the surveys were 96.7% in the school with classic training and 81.2% in the school with PBL. It was found that the average scores of the students were high, with a mean of 137±29 in the school where the classic training program was carried out, and 163±21 in the school where the training was PBL. A statistically significant difference was found by comparing the average scores of the two independent groups (t : -6.0; pinformation literacy. We conclude that training programs should be reviewed, and new methods should be developed based on these concepts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Can a multisensory teaching approach impart the necessary knowledge, skills, and confidence in final year medical students to manage epistaxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, George; Biron, Vincent L; Campbell, Chase; Cote, David Wj; Ansari, Kal

    2013-10-09

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a multisensory teaching approach in imparting the knowledge, skills, and confidence to manage epistaxis in a cohort of fourth year medical students. One hundred and thirty four fourth year medical students were recruited into the study from Aug 2011 to February 2012 in four groups. Students listened to an audio presentation (PODcast) about epistaxis and viewed a video presentation on the technical skills (VODcast). Following this, students completed a 5-minute Individual Readiness Assessment Test (IRAT) to test knowledge accrued from the PODcast and VODcast. Next, students observed a 10-minute expert demonstration of the technical skills on a human cadaver and spent half an hour practicing these techniques on cadaver simulators with expert guidance. The students' confidence was assessed with Confidence Level Questionnaires (CLQs) before and after their laboratory session. The skill level of a subset of students was also assessed with a pre- and post-laboratory Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Eighty two percent of the participants achieved a score of at least 80% on the IRAT. The CLQ instrument was validated in the study. There was a statistically significant improvement between the pre- and post-laboratory CLQ scores (pteaching approach. This study provides further evidence that a multisensory teaching intervention effectively imparts the necessary knowledge, skill and confidence in fourth year medical students to manage epistaxis.

  6. Selection of 3013 Containers for Field Surveillance. Fiscal Year 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheadle, Jesse [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, (SRNS), Aiken, SC (United States); McClard, James [Project Services Group LLC, Suwanee, GA (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    This update is the eighth in a series of reports that document the binning and sample selection of 3013 containers for the Field Surveillance program as part of the Integrated Surveillance Program. This report documents changes made to both the container binning assignments and the sample selection approach. Binning changes documented in this update are a result of changes to the prompt gamma calibration curves and the reassignment of a small number of Hanford items from the Pressure bin to the Pressure and Corrosion (P&C) bin. Field Surveillance sample selection changes are primarily a result of focusing future destructive examinations (DEs) on the potential for stress corrosion cracking in higher moisture containers in the P&C bin. The decision to focus the Field Surveillance program on higher moisture items is based on findings from both the Shelf-life testing program and DEs.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Advanced Retrofit Roof Technologies Using Field-Test Data Phase Three Final Report, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    This article presents various metal roof configurations that were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, U.S.A. between 2009 and 2013, and describes their potential for reducing the attic-generated space conditioning loads. These roofs contained different combinations of phase change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface and above-sheathing ventilation, with standing-seam metal panels on top. These roofs were designed to be installed on existing roofs decks, or on top of asphalt shingles for retrofit construction. All the tested roofs showed the potential for substantial energy savings compared to an asphalt shingle roof, which was used as a control for comparison. The roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. The attics were built on top of a conditioned room. All attics were vented at the soffit and ridge. The test roofs and attics were instrumented with an array of thermocouples. Heat flux transducers were installed in the roof deck and attic floor (ceiling) to measure the heat flows through the roof and between the attic and conditioned space below. Temperature and heat flux data were collected during the heating, cooling and swing seasons over a 3 year period. Data from previous years of testing have been published. Here, data from the latest roof configurations being tested in year 3 of the project are presented. All test roofs were highly effective in reducing the heat flows through the roof and ceiling, and in reducing the diurnal attic temperature fluctuations.

  8. Direct utilization of geothermal resources field experiments at Monroe, Utah. Final report, July 14, 1978-July 13, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, C.K.; Owen, L.B. (eds.)

    1982-12-01

    The City of Monroe, Utah undertook a project to demonstrate the economic and technical viability of utilizing a low temperature geothermal resource to provide space and hot water heating to commercial, municipal, and domestic users within the community. During the course of the project, resource development and assessment, including drilling of a production well, was successfully completed. Upon completion of the field development and assessment phase of the program and of a preliminary design of the district heating system, it was determined that the project as proposed was not economically viable. This was due to: (1) a significant increase in estimated capital equipment costs resulting from the general inflation in construction costs, the large area/low population density in Monroe, and a more remote fluid disposal well site than planned, could not balance increased construction costs, (2) a lower temperature resource than predicted, and (3) due to predicted higher pumping and operating costs. After a thorough investigation of alternatives for utilizing the resource, further project activities were cancelled because the project was no longer economical and an alternative application for the resource could not be found within the constraints of the project. The City of Monroe, Utah is still seeking a beneficial use for the 600 gpm, 164/sup 0/F geothermal well. A summary of project activities included.

  9. Laboratory and field evaluations of a methodology for determining hexavalent-chromium emissions from stationary sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, A.C.

    1991-10-01

    The study was initiated to determine whether chromium emissions should be regulated under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). To support stationary source regulations, it is important that (1) the sampling procedure not change the chromium valence state during sampling and (2) an analytical technique for measuring low concentration levels of chromium be available. These goals are achieved with the current EPA 'Draft Method for Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium at Stationary Sources.' The draft method utilizes a recirculating system to flush impinger reagent into the sampling nozzle during sample collection. Immediate contact of the stack gas with impinger reagent 'fixes' the chromium valence state. Ion chromatography coupled with post column derivatization and ultraviolet visible detector is used to analyze Cr(VI) in the parts per trillion range. Field tests were conducted at metal plating facilities, industrial cooling towers, municipal waste incinerators, sewage sludge incinerators, and hazardous waste incinerators. It was at the hazardous waste facility that the new method was proven to have acceptable precision and essentially no conversion in the sample train

  10. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 3, Appendixes B, C, and D: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. Geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendices B, C, and D contains information on the following: geophysical contour maps and profile plots; human health risk assessment; and ecological risk assessment.

  11. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  12. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  13. Two examples of the interplay between field observations and laboratory experiments from 35 years of research with planktonic organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    Two studies of complicated ecological phenomena in Lake Maarsseveen (The Netherlands) are presented to illustrate that a combination of field and laboratory analysis might be a successful approach. In the first one, the yearly varying ratio of population abundance of two diatoms, Asterionella

  14. Can a multisensory teaching approach impart the necessary knowledge, skills, and confidence in final year medical students to manage epistaxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a multisensory teaching approach in imparting the knowledge, skills, and confidence to manage epistaxis in a cohort of fourth year medical students. Methods One hundred and thirty four fourth year medical students were recruited into the study from Aug 2011 to February 2012 in four groups. Students listened to an audio presentation (PODcast) about epistaxis and viewed a video presentation on the technical skills (VODcast). Following this, students completed a 5-minute Individual Readiness Assessment Test (IRAT) to test knowledge accrued from the PODcast and VODcast. Next, students observed a 10-minute expert demonstration of the technical skills on a human cadaver and spent half an hour practicing these techniques on cadaver simulators with expert guidance. The students’ confidence was assessed with Confidence Level Questionnaires (CLQs) before and after their laboratory session. The skill level of a subset of students was also assessed with a pre- and post-laboratory Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Results Eighty two percent of the participants achieved a score of at least 80% on the IRAT. The CLQ instrument was validated in the study. There was a statistically significant improvement between the pre- and post-laboratory CLQ scores (pepistaxis. PMID:24479815

  15. Dynamical properties and extremes of Northern Hemisphere climate fields over the past 60 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faranda, Davide; Messori, Gabriele; Alvarez-Castro, M. Carmen; Yiou, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric dynamics are described by a set of partial differential equations yielding an infinite-dimensional phase space. However, the actual trajectories followed by the system appear to be constrained to a finite-dimensional phase space, i.e. a strange attractor. The dynamical properties of this attractor are difficult to determine due to the complex nature of atmospheric motions. A first step to simplify the problem is to focus on observables which affect - or are linked to phenomena which affect - human welfare and activities, such as sea-level pressure, 2 m temperature, and precipitation frequency. We make use of recent advances in dynamical systems theory to estimate two instantaneous dynamical properties of the above fields for the Northern Hemisphere: local dimension and persistence. We then use these metrics to characterize the seasonality of the different fields and their interplay. We further analyse the large-scale anomaly patterns corresponding to phase-space extremes - namely time steps at which the fields display extremes in their instantaneous dynamical properties. The analysis is based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, over the period 1948-2013. The results show that (i) despite the high dimensionality of atmospheric dynamics, the Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure and temperature fields can on average be described by roughly 20 degrees of freedom; (ii) the precipitation field has a higher dimensionality; and (iii) the seasonal forcing modulates the variability of the dynamical indicators and affects the occurrence of phase-space extremes. We further identify a number of robust correlations between the dynamical properties of the different variables.

  16. Final Report for 3-year grant no. DE-FG05-85ER40226. Investigations in Elementary Particle Theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kephart, Thomas W. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Scherrer, Robert J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Weiler, Thomas J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2014-11-23

    The research interests of our three Co-PI’s complement each other very well. Kephart works mainly on models of particle unification in four or higher dimensions, on aspects of gravity such as inflation, black-holes, and the very early Universe, and on applications of knot theory and topology to various physical systems (including gluon dynamics). Scherrer works mainly on aspects of the intermediate-aged Universe, including dark matter and dark energy, and particle physics in the early Universe. Weiler works mainly on neutrino physics, dark matter signatures, and extreme particle-astrophysics in the late Universe, including origins of the highest-energy cosmic-rays and gamma-rays, and the future potential of neutrino astrophysics. Kephart and Weiler have lately devoted some research attention to the LHC and its reach for probing physics beyond the Standard Model. During the 3-year funding period, our grant supported one postdoc (Chiu Man Ho) and partially supported two students, Peter Denton and Lingjun Fu. Chiu Man collaborated with all three of the Co-PI’s during the 3-year funding period and published 16 refereed papers. Chiu Man has gone on to a postdoc with Steve Hsu at Michigan State University. Denton and Fu will both receive their PhDs during the 2014-15 academic year. The total number of our papers published in refereed journals by the three co-PIs during the period of this grant (2011-present) is 54. The total number of talks given by the group members during this time period, including seminars, colloquia, and conference presentations, is 47. Some details of the accomplishments of our DOE funded researchers during the grant period include Weiler being named a Simons Fellow in 2013. He presented an invited TEDx talk in 2012. His paper on closed timelike curves (2013) garnered a great deal of national publicity. Scherrer’s paper on the “little rip” (2011) fostered a new area of cosmological research, and the name “little rip” has now entered

  17. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenberg, R.B.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 to assist states and compacts in their siting and licensing efforts for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) is the element of the DOE that performs the key support activities under the Act. The NLLWMP's activities are driven by the needs of the states and compacts as they prepare to manage their low-level waste under the Act. Other work is added during the fiscal year as necessary to accommodate new requests brought on by status changes in states' and compacts' siting and licensing efforts. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during FY 1997

  18. Two thousand years of geomagnetic field direction over central Europe revealed by indirect measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Péter

    2010-04-01

    Supplemented by 32 new directions, the Hungarian archaeomagnetic data set now consists of 217 archaeologically dated directions ranging in age from 300 BC to 1800 AD. From this data set, reference curves of secular variation of the geomagnetic field direction were computed using hierarchical modelling and curve estimation by moving average technique. Thanks to some of the new data, the gap in the earlier reference curves around 500 AD has now been filled up. For comparison's sake, directional records of comparable length from central Europe were also processed by the same curve building method. For this purpose, all dated directional data (declination and inclination with statistics) were drawn from the GEOMAGIA50 database for France, Germany, the Ukraine and Moldavia, Bulgaria and Italy and transferred via their virtual geomagnetic poles to a reference point of their respective countries. The resulting reference curves, including those for Hungary, show more or less similar temporal behaviour to the corresponding CALS7K.2 model curves (also available from the GEOMAGIA50 database), but significant deviations from the low-order CALS7K.2 predictions are also discernible owing to the likely presence of additional higher-order complications in the regional field. Therefore, the regional field and its secular variation are suggested to be approximated by the reference rather than the predicted curves. At any other location within the study area, the direction of the regional field can be obtained by spatial interpolation from the reference curves as illustrated by isogonic and isoclinic maps shown for selected times. Local time-series of interpolated directions for other central European countries lacking reference curves might serve as master curves for magnetic dating.

  19. Multi-proxy reconstructions of precipitation field in China over the past 500 years.

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Feng; Zhao, sen; Guo, Zhengtang; Goosse, Hugues; Yin, Qiuzhen

    2017-01-01

    The dominant modes of variability of precipitation for the whole of China over the past millennium and the mechanism governing their spatial structure remain unclear. This is mainly due to insufficient high-resolution proxy records of precipitation in western China. Numerous tree-ring chronologies have recently been archived in publicly available databases through PAGES2k activities, and these provide an opportunity to refine precipitation field reconstructions for China. Ba...

  20. Systemic acquired resistance (50 years after discovery): moving from the lab to the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzo, Franco; Faoro, Franco

    2013-12-26

    Induction of plant defense(s) against pathogen challenge(s) has been the object of progressively more intense research in the past two decades. Insights on mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and similar, alternative processes, as well as on problems encountered on moving to their practical application in open field, have been carefully pursued and, as far as possible, defined. In reviewing the number of research works published in metabolomic, genetic, biochemical, and crop protection correlated disciplines, the following outline has been adopted: 1, introduction to the processes currently considered as models of the innate immunity; 2, primary signals, such as salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA), involved with different roles in the above-mentioned processes; 3, long-distance signals, identified from petiole exudates as mobile signaling metabolites during expressed resistance; 4, exogenous inducers, including the most significant chemicals known to stimulate the plant resistance induction and originated from both synthetic and natural sources; 5, fungicides shown to act as stimulators of SAR in addition to their biocidal action; 6, elusive mechanism of priming, reporting on the most recent working hypotheses on the pretranscriptional ways through which treated plants may express resistance upon pathogen attack and how this resistance can be transmitted to the next generation; 7, fitness costs and benefits of SAR so far reported from field application of induced resistance; 8, factors affecting efficacy of induced resistance in the open field, indicating that forces, unrevealed under controlled conditions, may be operative in the field; 9, concluding remarks address the efforts required to apply the strategy of crop resistance induction according to the rules of integrated pest management.

  1. Coping with the challenges of early disaster response: 24 years of field hospital experience after earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Abargel, Avi; Peleg, Kobi; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2013-10-01

    To propose strategies and recommendations for future planning and deployment of field hospitals after earthquakes by comparing the experience of 4 field hospitals deployed by The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps in Armenia, Turkey, India and Haiti. Quantitative data regarding the earthquakes were collected from published sources; data regarding hospital activity were collected from IDF records; and qualitative information was obtained from structured interviews with key figures involved in the missions. The hospitals started operating between 89 and 262 hours after the earthquakes. Their sizes ranged from 25 to 72 beds, and their personnel numbered between 34 and 100. The number of patients treated varied from 1111 to 2400. The proportion of earthquake-related diagnoses ranged from 28% to 67% (P earthquakes, patient caseload and treatment requirements varied widely. The variables affecting the patient profile most significantly were time until deployment, total number of injured, availability of adjacent medical facilities, and possibility of evacuation from the disaster area. When deploying a field hospital in the early phase after an earthquake, a wide variability in patient caseload should be anticipated. Customization is difficult due to the paucity of information. Therefore, early deployment necessitates full logistic self-sufficiency and operational versatility. Also, collaboration with local and international medical teams can greatly enhance treatment capabilities.

  2. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

  3. Final Scientific/Technical Report of Gas Hydrate Dynamics on the Alaskan Beaufort Continental Slope: Modeling and Field Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbach, Matthew J [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Colwell, Frederick S [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Harris, Robert [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Methane Hydrates, a solid form of methane and water, exist at high pressures and low temperatures, occurs on every continental margin on Earth, represents one of the largest reservoirs of carbon on the planet, and, if destabilized, may play an important role in both slope stability and climate change. For decades, researchers have studied methane hydrates with the hope of determining if methane hydrates are destabilizing, and if so, how this destabilization might impact slope stability and ocean/atmosphere carbon budgets. In the past ~5 years, it has become well established that the upper “feather-edge” of methane hydrate stability (intermediate water depths of ~200-500 meters below sea level) represents an important frontier for methane hydrates stability research, as this zone is most susceptible to destabilization due to minor fluctuations in ocean temperature in space and time. The Arctic Ocean—one of the fastest warming regions on Earth—is perhaps the best place to study possible changes to methane hydrate stability due to ocean warming. To address the stability of methane hydrates at intermediate ocean depths, Southern Methodist University in partnership with Oregon State University and The United State Geological Survey at Woods Hole began investigating methane hydrate stability in intermediate water depths below both the US Beaufort Sea and the Atlantic Margin, from 2012-2017. The work was funded by the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The key goal of the SMU component of this study was to collect the first ever heat flow data in the Beaufort Sea and compare measured shallow (probe-based1) heat flow values with deeper (BSR-derived2) heat flow values, and from this, determine whether hydrates were in thermal equilibrium. In September 2016, SMU/OSU collected the first ever heat flow measurements in the US Beaufort Sea. Despite poor weather and rough seas, the cruise was a success, with 116 heat flow

  4. Wide-Field Landers Temporary Keratoprosthesis in Severe Ocular Trauma: Functional and Anatomical Results after One Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Nowomiejska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate longitudinal functional and anatomical results after combined pars plana vitrectomy (PPV and penetrating keratoplasty (PKP using a wide-field Landers intraoperative temporary keratoprosthesis (TKP in patients with vitreoretinal pathology and corneal opacity due to severe ocular trauma. Material and Methods. Medical records of 12 patients who had undergone PPV/PKP/KP due to severe eye trauma were analyzed. Functional (best-corrected visual acuity and anatomic outcomes (clarity of the corneal graft, retinal attachment, and intraocular pressure were assessed during the follow-up (mean 16 months. Results. Final visual acuities varied from NLP to CF to 2 m. Visual acuity improved in 7 cases, was unchanged in 4 eyes, and worsened in 1 eye. The corneal graft was transparent during the follow-up in 3 cases and graft failure was observed in 9 eyes. Silicone oil was used as a tamponade in all cases and retina was reattached in 92% of cases. Conclusions. Combined PPV and PKP with the use of wide-field Landers TKP allowed for surgical intervention in patients with vitreoretinal pathology coexisting with corneal wound. Although retina was attached in most of the cases, corneal graft survived only in one-fourth of patients and final visual acuities were poor.

  5. A two-year field study of phytoremediation using Solanum nigrum L. in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Puhui; Song, Yufang; Jiang, Yongji; Tang, Xiwang; Tong, Yan'an; Gao, Pengcheng; Han, Wenshe

    2016-09-01

    A two-year in-situ phytoremediation trial was launched in Shenyang Zhangshi (Sewage) Irrigation Area (SZIA). The phytoremediation efficiency of Solanum nigrum L. was determined, by both monitoring the change of soil Cadmium level in the upper 20 cm of soil, and calculating the plant uptake of soil Cd. After two years experimental, by monitoring the soil Cd concentrations, The Cd concentrations decreased on average from 2.75 mg kg(-1)to 2.45 mg kg(-1) in the first year and from 2.33 mg kg(-1) to 1.53 mg kg(-1) in the second year, amounting to a decrease by a factor of 10.6% in the first year and 12% in the second year. After two years phytoremediation by S. nigrum, Cd concentrations of the seven experimental plots with S. nigrum growth decreased from 2.75 mg kg(-1) to 1.53 mg kg(-1), a decrease by a factor of 24.9%. And the soil Cd concentration decreased only 2.1% and 1.7% in the bared experimental plot. And the calculating of Cd uptake by S. nigrum shown that, the plants uptake 4.46% and 5.18% of the total soil Cd in 2008 and 2009, while the soil Cd concentrations decreased by a factor of 10.6% in 2008 and 12.1% in 2009.

  6. Applicability of federal and state environmental requirements to selected DOE field installations and recommendations for development of generic compliance guidance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This final report identifies and describes federal and state environmental requirements applicable to selected Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear field installations, establishes priorities for the requirements, determines the need for development of additional compliance guidance, and recommends development of compliance guidance for specific priority requirements. Compliance guidance developed as part of the study is summarized. The applicability of environmental requirements to 12 DOE field installations was reviewed. Five installations were examined under Task 4. They are: Nevada Test Site; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Seven other installations were reviewed under Task 2 and included: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Hanford; Savannah River Plant; Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Pantex Plant; Rocky Flats Plant; and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This report combines results of the two tasks. The objective of the study was to identify the set of environmental requirements which are applicable to DOE field installations, track changes in the requirements, and prepare compliance guidance for important requirements and important regulatory developments as necessary. A cumulative calendar update for July 1982 represents the current status of applicable requirements. Environmental profiles of each facility, along with ambient monitoring results, are presented. Applicable federal requirements are identified. The specific applicability of federal and state requirements is detailed for each installation. Compliance guidance available from various agencies is described. Each requirement described is ranked by priority, and recommendations are made for development of additional guidance

  7. The impact of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on stream periphyton: An eleven-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, T.M.; Uzarski, D.G.; Stelzer, R.S.; Eggert, S.L.; Sobczak, W.V.; Mullen, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Potential effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields on periphyton were studied from 1983 to 1993 using a Before, After, Control and Impact design. The study was conducted at two sites on the Ford River, a fourth-order brown water trout stream in Dickinson County, Michigan. The Reference site received 4.9-6.5 times less exposure to ground electric fields and from 300 to 334 times less exposure to magnetic flux from 1989 to 1993 when the antenna was operational at 76 Hz than did the Antenna site. The objective of the study was to determine if ELF electromagnetic fields had caused changes in structure and/or function of algal communities in the Ford River. Significant differences in chlorophyll a standing crop and daily accumulation rate (a surrogate for primary productivity), and organic matter standing crop and daily accumulation rate were observed between the Reference and Antenna site after the antenna became operational. These four related community function variables all increased at the Antenna site with largest and most consistent increases occurring for chlorophyll measures. Compared to pre-operational data, the increase in chlorophyll at the Antenna site also occurred during a period of low amperage testing in 1986-1988, and did not increase further when the antenna became fully operational in 1989, indicating a low threshold for response. There was no significant differences between the Antenna and Reference sites in community structure variables such as diversity, evenness and the relative abundance of dominant diatoms. Thus, 76 Hz ELF electromagnetic radiation apparently did not change the basic makeup of the diatom community but did increase accumulation rates and standing crops of chlorophyll a and organic matter.

  8. A 64-year-old woman with a left upper-lung field lobulated mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dios, Jose Angelo; Javaid, Adnan; Mesologites, Thalia; Lahiri, Bimalin

    2011-04-01

    Pulmonary mucinous cystic neoplasia (PMCN) is an uncommon primary lung malignancy. Approximately 80 cases have been reported in the literature. We describe a case and review the literature on this malignancy. Our patient was asymptomatic and presented with a left upper-lung field lobulated mass. Primary PMCN is a spectrum of mucinous cystic lesions that should be considered as a separate lung tumor entity due to its unique morphologic features and its distinct clinical behavior. Prognosis is generally better than other more common lung malignancies.

  9. Final Technical Report for Years 1-4 of the Early Career Research Project "Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter" - ARRA portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Denes [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-04-14

    The Section below summarizes research activities and achievements during the first four years of the PI’s Early Career Research Project (ECRP). Two main areas have been advanced: i) radiative 3 ↔ 2 radiative transport, via development of a new computer code MPC/Grid that solves the Boltzmann transport equation in full 6+1D (3X+3V+time) on both single-CPU and parallel computers; ii) development of a self-consistent framework to convert viscous fluids to particles, and application of this framework to relativistic heavy-ion collisions, in particular, determination of the shear viscosity. Year 5 of the ECRP is under a separate award number, and therefore it has its own report document ’Final Technical Report for Year 5 of the Early Career Research Project “Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCDmatter”’ (award DE-SC0008028). The PI’s group was also part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration, a multi-institution project that overlapped in time significantly with the ECRP. Purdue achievements as part of the JET Topical Collaboration are in a separate report “Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration” (award DE-SC0004077).

  10. The impact of integrated team care taught using a live NHS contract on the educational experience of final year dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, D R; Holmes, S; Woolford, M J; Dunne, S M

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the responses of the dental student body in the first three years of outreach education (2010-13) at the University of Portsmouth Dental Academy in the areas of integrated team work and use of a current NHS contact. Use of a questionnaire to allow both quantitative and qualitative data to be obtained, administered to the three cohorts of students at the end of their longitudinal attendance at the Academy in their final year of education at King's College London Dental Institute. Data were obtained from 227 students which represented a 95% return rate. Sixty-four percent of students strongly agreed with both statements: 'I am confident with working with a dental nurse' and 'I now understand properly the scope of practice of dental hygiene-therapists'. Sixty-seven percent strongly agreed with the statement 'I have had useful experience of working in NHS primary care during the final year'. Eighty percent either strongly agreed or agreed with the statement 'My experience of real Units of Dental Activity and Key Performance Indicators has encouraged me to positively consider NHS high street dentistry as a career option'. Within the limitations of this study the dental students reported having gained useful experience of working in integrated team care dentistry. They expressed strong support for the education that is being delivered in an outreach environment and, most importantly, the student body was looking forward to entering general dental practice in the UK.

  11. Magnetic Field Mental Representations of 14-15 Years Old Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Pantidos, Panagiotis; Vitoratos, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    Children's mental representations about physical concepts and phenomena play a vital role in the learning process. This is confirmed by the data derived from relevant researches which demonstrate that the students formulate incompatible ideas compared with the scientific ones. In this research we investigate the representations of 14-15 years old…

  12. Final Technical Report for Year 5 Early Career Research Project "Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Denes [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2016-05-25

    The Section below summarizes research activities and achievements during the fifth (last) year of the PI’s Early Career Research Project (ECRP). Unlike the first four years of the project, the last year was not funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The ECRP advanced two main areas: i) radiative 3 ↔ 2 radiative transport, via development of a new computer code MPC/Grid that solves the Boltzmann transport equation in full 6+1D (3X+3V+time); and ii) application of relativistic hydrodynamics, via development of a self-consistent framework to convert viscous fluids to particles. In Year 5 we finalized thermalization studies with radiative gg ↔ ggg transport (Sec. 1.1.1) and used nonlinear covariant transport to assess the accuracy of fluid-to-particle conversion models (Sec. 1.1.2), calculated observables with self-consistent fluid-to-particle conversion from realistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution (Secs. 1.2.1 and 1.2.2), extended the covariant energy loss formulation to heavy quarks (Sec. 1.4.1) and studied energy loss in small systems (Sec. 1.4.2), and also investigated how much of the elliptic flow could have non-hydrodynamic origin (Sec 1.3). Years 1-4 of the ECRP were ARRA-funded and, therefore, they have their own report document ’Final Technical Report for Years 1-4 of the Early Career Research Project “Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter”’ (same award number DE-SC0004035). The PI’s group was also part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration, a multi-institution project that overlapped in time significantly with the ECRP. Purdue achievements as part of the JET Top- ical Collaboration are in a separate report “Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration” (award DE-SC0004077).

  13. Field test corrosion experiences when co-firing straw and coal: 10 year status within Elsam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Berg; Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, Ole Hede

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, straw is utilised for the generation of energy and district heating in power plants. Combustion of straw gives rise to high contents of potassium chloride and some sulphur dioxide in the flue gas. These compounds can lead to deposits with high content of potassium chloride and potassium...... sulphate on superheater tubes resulting in increased corrosion rates. From field experimental results this paper show, that by co-firing straw with coal, corrosion rates can be brought down to an acceptable level. This paper firstly deals with the results from a demonstration program co-firing coal...... and straw at the 150 MW pulverized coal fired boiler Studstrup unit 1. Two exposure series lasting 3000 hours each were performed for co-firing 10 and 20% of straw (% energy basis) with coal. Using built in test tubes in the hot end of the actual superheaters and air/water cooled corrosion probes...

  14. Development of Duplex Stainless Steels by Field-Assisted Hot Pressing: Influence of the Particle Size and Morphology of the Powders on the Final Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Junceda, A.; Rincón, M.; Torralba, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of processing duplex stainless steels with promising properties using a powder metallurgical route, including the consolidation by field-assisted hot pressing, is assessed in this investigation. The influence of the particle size and morphology of the raw austenitic and ferritic powders on the final microstructure and properties is also evaluated for an austenitic content of 60 wt pct. In addition, the properties of a new microconstituent generated between the initial constituents are analyzed. The maximum sintered density (98.9 pct) and the best mechanical behavior, in terms of elastic modulus, nanohardness, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and ductility, are reached by the duplex stainless steel processed with austenitic and ferritic gas atomized stainless steel powders.

  15. Findings from Seven Years of Field Performance Data for Automated Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Mathieu, Johanna; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    California is a leader in automating demand response (DR) to promote low-cost, consistent, and predictable electric grid management tools. Over 250 commercial and industrial facilities in California participate in fully-automated programs providing over 60 MW of peak DR savings. This paper presents a summary of Open Automated DR (OpenADR) implementation by each of the investor-owned utilities in California. It provides a summary of participation, DR strategies and incentives. Commercial buildings can reduce peak demand from 5 to 15percent with an average of 13percent. Industrial facilities shed much higher loads. For buildings with multi-year savings we evaluate their load variability and shed variability. We provide a summary of control strategies deployed, along with costs to install automation. We report on how the electric DR control strategies perform over many years of events. We benchmark the peak demand of this sample of buildings against their past baselines to understand the differences in building performance over the years. This is done with peak demand intensities and load factors. The paper also describes the importance of these data in helping to understand possible techniques to reach net zero energy using peak day dynamic control capabilities in commercial buildings. We present an example in which the electric load shape changed as a result of a lighting retrofit.

  16. Decline of a Hydrothermal Vent Field - Escanaba Trough 12 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Davis, A. S.; Lilley, M. D.; McClain, J. S.; Olson, E. S.; Ross, S. L.; Von Damm, K. L.

    2001-12-01

    Hydrothermal venting was discovered in Escanaba Trough, the southern sediment-covered portion of the Gorda Ridge, in 1988. Large pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide mounds are abundant at each of the volcanic/intrusive centers that have been investigated in Escanaba Trough, but the only area of known hydrothermal venting is the NESCA site along the ridge axis at 41\\deg N. Hydrothermal fluids venting at 217\\deg C and 108\\deg C were sampled in 1988 on two sulfide mounds separated by about 275 m. The end-member fluid compositions were indistinguishable within analytical errors. Several sulfide mounds were observed in 1988 which had diffusely venting low temperature (holes were drilled in the NESCA area in 1996 on ODP Leg 169, including Hole 1036I that penetrated to basaltic basement at 405 m below sea floor (mbsf). Surveys of the area using the drill string camera located only one area of active venting at the same mound where 217\\deg C vent fluids were sampled from two active vents in 1988. Drill hole 1036A was spudded between the two active vents on this sulfide mound (approximately 4 and 8 m away) and penetrated to 115 mbsf. The NESCA site was revisited in 2000 using MBARI's R/V Western Flyer and ROV Tiburon. The hydrothermal vents appeared essentially identical to observations made from the drill string camera in 1996 despite the presence of a drill hole within meters of the two vents. The maximum vent temperature measured in 2000 was 212\\deg C. Fluid samples have major element and isotopic compositions very similar to those collected in 1988. The vent fluids have higher methane ( ~19 mmol/kg) than those from the geologically similar Middle Valley vent field, but lower values than those at Guaymas Basin. Drill hole 1036A was weakly venting, but the diffuse hydrothermal fluids could not be sampled with the equipment available. The walls of the drill hole were colonized by palm worms, limpets, and snails. Four other drill holes showed no hydrothermal flow nor

  17. Choosing final-year placement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    class consultants'. 2. Financial implications. The students considered financial constraints on themselves and their parents. Students living at home felt that it would be expensive to relocate and cheaper to remain at the urban campus. The.

  18. Longitudinal evaluation of a pilot e-portfolio-based supervision programme for final year medical students: views of students, supervisors and new graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Gillian H S; Burford, Bryan; Shapiro, Ethan; Price, Richard

    2017-08-22

    Little is known about how best to implement portfolio-based learning in medical school. We evaluated the introduction of a formative e-portfolio-based supervision pilot for final year medical students by seeking views of students, supervisors and graduates on use and educational effects. Students and supervisors were surveyed by questionnaire, with free text comments invited. Interviews were held with new graduates in their first Foundation Programme placement. Most students used the e-portfolio (54%) and met with their supervisor (62%) 'once or twice' only. Students had more negative views: 22% agreed that the pilot was beneficial, while most supervisors thought that e-portfolio (72%) and supervision (86%) were a 'good idea'. More students reported supervision meetings benefited learning (49%) and professional development (55%) than the e-portfolio did (16%; 28%). Only 47% of students felt 'prepared' for future educational processes, though graduates noted benefits for navigating and understanding e-portfolio building and supervision. Factors limiting engagement reflected 'burden', while supervision meetings and early experience of postgraduate processes offered educational value. Final year students have negative attitudes to a formative e-portfolio, though benefits for easing the educational transition are recognised by graduates. Measures to minimize time, repetition and redundancy of processes may encourage use. Engagement is influenced by the supervisor relationship and educational value may be best achieved by supporting supervisors to develop strategies to facilitate, and motivate self-directed learning processes in undergraduates.

  19. Final-Year Students' and Clinical instructors' Experience of Workplace-Based Assessments Used in a Small-Animal Primary-Veterinary-Care Clinical Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Cynthia A; Coe, Jason B; Hecker, Kent G

    2015-01-01

    Final-year veterinary students must meet baseline clinical competency upon completion of their training for entry to practice. Workplace-based assessments (WBAs), widely used in human medical training to assess post-graduate students' professionalism and clinical performance, have recently been adopted in undergraduate veterinary clinical teaching environments. WBAs should support veterinary trainees' learning in a clinical teaching environment, though utility of WBAs within veterinary education may differ from that in medical training due to differences in context and in learners' stage of clinical development. We conducted focus groups with final-year veterinary students and clinical instructors following the implementation of three WBAs (Direct Observation of Procedural Skills [DOPS], the Mini-Clinical evaluation exercise [Mini-CEX], and the In-Training Evaluation Report [ITER]) during a small-animal primary-veterinary-care rotation. Students and clinical instructors viewed the DOPS and Mini-CEX as feasible and valuable learning and assessment tools that offered an overall opportunity for timely in-the-moment feedback. Instructors viewed the ITER as less feasible in the context of a service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environment. Students believed the ITER had potential to be informative, although in its existing application the ITER had limited utility due to time constraints on instructors that prevented them from providing students with individualized and specific feedback. In service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environments, successful implementation of WBAs requires balancing provision of feedback to students, time demands on clinical instructors, and flexibility of assessment tools.

  20. Emigration-related attitudes of the final year medical students in Croatia: a cross-sectional study at the dawn of the EU accession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolčić, Ivana; Cikeš, Mihaela; Boban, Kristina; Bućan, Jasna; Likić, Robert; Curić, Goran; Dogaš, Zoran; Polašek, Ozren

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the emigration-related attitudes of final year medical students in Croatia at the dawn of the EU accession in 2013. All final-year medical students at four Croatian medical schools (Zagreb, Rijeka, Split, and Osijek) were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey on emigration attitudes. Among 260 respondents (response rate 61%), 90 students (35%) reported readiness for permanent emigration, expecting better quality of life (N=22, 31%), better health care organization (N=17, 24%), more professional challenges (N=10, 14%), or simply to get a job (N=8, 11%), while the least common expectation were greater earnings (N=7, 10%). The most common target countries were Germany (N=36, 40%), USA and Canada (N=15, 17%), and UK (N=10, 11%). In a multivariate analysis, readiness for permanent emigration was associated with an interest in undertaking a temporary training abroad (odds ratio [OR] 6.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.83-16.72), while the belief that the preferred specialty could be obtained in Croatia appeared protective against emigration (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.59). Despite shortages of health care workers in Croatia, the percentage of students with emigration propensity was rather high. Prevalent negative perception of the Croatian health care and recent Croatian accession to the EU pose a threat of losing newly graduated physicians to EU countries.

  1. The field-irradiator gamma study: Fourteen years of irradiation of the boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Hawkins, J.L.; Laverock, M.J.; Sheppard, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Field-Irradiator Gamma (FIG) project is a long-term experiment on the response of boreal forest vegetation to chronic ionizing radiation. The forest was irradiated from 1973 to 1986 by a 370 TBq point source of 137 Cs placed at a height of 20 m. The forest is now in the recovery phase. The irradiated forest included several different community types, and each of these was affected differently by the radiation stress. New vegetation zones have now been created because of the selective tolerance to radiation along a gradient from background dose rates to a maximum of 65 mGy h -1 . One of the easiest measured indicators of the radiation stress has been photographic documentation of changes in forest communities over time. Measured changes in species composition and the decrease in tree canopy cover at dose rates >2 Gy h -1 have also helped quantify radiation effects. Indicators such as trends in annual growth rings have been less satisfactory. Our experiment suggests that there are no visible impacts at chronic dose rates less than 0.1 mGy h -1 and the threshold for effects likely is between 0.1 and 1 mGy h -1 . The experimental area has been preserved to allow measurements of long-term recovery of the site

  2. Fabulous Finales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four elementary teachers present several suggestions for exciting end-of-the-school-year learning activities. Ideas include making math a field day, enjoying an imagination celebration, broadcasting a book fair, planning a turn-of-the-century picnic, celebrating school history, and participating in a moving up day. (SM)

  3. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rate, and Current Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We present total conduction (Wilson) currents for more than 1000 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds acquired over nearly two decades. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16. kV/m, with mean (median) of 0.9 kV/m (0.29 kV/m). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS/m to 3.6 pS/m, with mean and median of 2.2 pS/m. Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(exp -2) to 33.0 nA m(exp -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(exp -2) (0.6 nA m(exp -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.7 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.41 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min-1, respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  4. Perceived sources of stress amongst final year dental under graduate students in a dental teaching institution at Bangalore, India: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Harikiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental schools are known to be highly demanding and stressful learning environments. Dentistry involves an acquisition of required academic, clinical and interpersonal skills during the course of learning. Practicing dentistry requires clinical skills and patient management skills, which also add to the stress perceived by the students. Identifying sources of stress represents the crucial first step towards advocating policy changes and strategies to alleviate the stressors and enhance students′ stress coping skills. The aim of this study was to identify self-reported sources of the stress among the final year [4 th year] dental undergraduate students in a Dental Teaching Institution in Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: A 38 items, 4-point Likert Scale item modified Dental Environmental Stress (DES questionnaire, addressing 5 stressor domains (living accommodation, interpersonal relationships, academics, clinical skills and miscellaneous was administered to all final year undergraduate dental students of the Institution. Items and domains were considered to be perceived as "stressful", when students classified them as ′slightly′, ′moderately′ or ′severely stressful′. Descriptive and bivariate analyzes based on chi square tests were performed. Results: Out of the 38 items, 19 items were reported to be "stressful" by >70% of the students. Of these, examinations, difficulty in managing difficult cases, lack of patient co-operation, difficulty and amount of course work and completing clinical requirements were reported to be "stressful" by >85% of the students. Personal physical health, difficulty in making friends, staying with roommates, narcotic substance dependencies were least commonly reported to be "stressful". Discussion and Conclusion: The stress provoking factors among >70% of the students are quite similar to those reported by the researchers′ worldwide. Curricular changes, student support mechanisms at

  5. UPWARD MOVEMENT OF PLUTONIUM TO SURFACE SEDIMENTS DURING AN 11-YEAR FIELD STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D.; Beals, D.; Cadieux, J.; Halverson, J.

    2010-01-25

    An 11-y lysimeter study was established to monitor the movement of Pu through vadose zone sediments. Sediment Pu concentrations as a function of depth indicated that some Pu moved upward from the buried source material. Subsequent numerical modeling suggested that the upward movement was largely the result of invading grasses taking up the Pu and translocating it upward. The objective of this study was to determine if the Pu of surface sediments originated from atmosphere fallout or from the buried lysimeter source material (weapons-grade Pu), providing additional evidence that plants were involved in the upward migration of Pu. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 242}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic fraction ratios of the lysimeter surface sediments, as determined by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS), were 0.063 and 0.00045, respectively; consistent with the signatures of the weapons-grade Pu. Our numerical simulations indicate that because plants create a large water flux, small concentrations over multiple years may result in a measurable accumulation of Pu on the ground surface. These results may have implications on the conceptual model for calculating risk associated with long-term stewardship and monitored natural attenuation management of Pu contaminated subsurface and surface sediments.

  6. Ten years of Italian historiography of psychology: a field in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Glauco; Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

    2010-08-01

    This article briefly outlines a picture of the activities and research conducted in Italy on the history of psychology during the last 10 years, focusing its attention on institutions, scholars, conferences, archives, journals, and so forth. At the dawn of the 21st century, the tradition of historical-psychological studies that developed in the last quarter of the 20th century has led to a renewed situation in teaching organization and research, with the emergence of several groups, especially at the universities of Rome "Sapienza", Bari, Milan-Bicocca, and Urbino, and of a second generation of young historians increasingly engaged on an international level. After a general survey conducted with historiometric method on the principal areas of research cultivated and on the themes dealt with, we mention a change that has occurred in the historiographical approach, a transition from a historiography addressed prevalently to the "history of ideas" to one that, pursuing the approach of a new and critical "multifactorial" history, proves to be more attentive to the social and institutional history, in correspondence with established international trends.

  7. Relationship between electron field-aligned anisotropy and dawn-dusk magnetic field: Nine years of Cluster observations in the Earth magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, E.; Petrukovich, A.; Artemyev, A.; Nakamura, R.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the distribution and possible origins of thermal anisotropic electrons in the Earth's magnetotail, using 9 years of Cluster observations. We mainly focus on relation between electron anisotropy and Bz and By magnetic field components (in GSM coordinates). The anisotropy of electron population is characterized by temperature ratio T∥/T⊥ and by the maximum of phase space density ratio F∥/F⊥ (∥ and ⊥ are relative to the background magnetic field). The population identified by large F∥/F⊥ is organized as short-time (dozens of seconds) bursts with enhanced F∥ and can be observed even in the plasma sheet with small T∥/T⊥. The thermal anisotropy T∥/T⊥ is larger for time intervals characterized by stronger Bz and By: the strong By corresponds to the T∥/T⊥ peak around the magnetotail neutral plane Bx=0, whereas the strong Bz corresponds to larger T∥/T⊥ with a flat profile across the magnetotail. There is a dawn-dusk asymmetry: large T∥/T⊥ corresponds mostly to strong Bz at the dusk flank and to strong By at the dawn flank. Using these differences of the electron anisotropy dependence on By and Bz, we discuss two possible mechanisms responsible for the anisotropy formation.

  8. Turkish Final Year Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes Concerning Drug Company Interactions: A Perspective from a Minimally Regulated Environment for Medical Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Ercument Beyhun

    Full Text Available Interactions between drug companies and medical students may affect evidence-based medical practice and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess drug company-medical student interactions in a medical faculty where limited specific national or institutional regulations apply between drug companies and medical students. The objectives of the study were to determine the exposure and attitudes of final year medical students in terms of drug company-medical student and physician interactions, to identify factors affecting those attitudes and to provide data for policymakers working on the regulation of interactions between drug companies and medical students. This anonymous questionnaire-based study of 154 medical final year medical students at the Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey, in April and May 2015 attracted a response rate of 92.2% (n/N, 154/164. Exposure to interaction with a pharmaceutical representative was reported by 90.3% (139/154 of students, and 68.8% (106/154 reported experiencing such interaction alongside a resident. In addition, 83.7% (128/153 of students reported an interaction during internship. Furthermore, 69.9% (107/153 of students agreed that interactions influence physicians' prescription preferences, while 33.1% (51/154 thought that a medical student should never accept a gift from a drug company and 24.7% (38/154 agreed with the proposition that "drug companies should not hold activities in medical faculties". Students with rational prescription training expressed greater agreement with the statement "I am skeptical concerning the information provided by drug companies during interactions" than those who had not received such training, and this finding was supported by logistic regression [O.R.(C.I, p -3.7(1.2-11.5, p = 0.022]. Acceptance of advertisement brochures was found to significantly reduce the level of agreement with the proposition that "A physician should not accept any

  9. Mini-Mega-TORTORA wide-field monitoring system with sub-second temporal resolution: first year of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, S.; Beskin, G.; Biryukov, A.; Bondar, S.; Ivanov, E.; Katkova, E.; Perkov, A.; Sasyuk, V.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present the summary of first years of operation and the first results of a novel 9-channel wide-field optical monitoring system with sub-second temporal resolution, Mini-Mega-TORTORA (MMT-9), which is in operation now at Special Astrophysical Observatory on Russian Caucasus. The system is able to observe the sky simultaneously in either wide (˜900 square degrees) or narrow (˜100 square degrees) fields of view, either in clear light or with any combination of color (Johnson-Cousins B, V or R) and polarimetric filters installed, with exposure times ranging from 0.1 s to hundreds of seconds. The real-time system data analysis pipeline performs automatic detection of rapid transient events, both near-Earth and extragalactic. The objects routinely detected by MMT include faint meteors and artificial satellites. The pipeline for a longer time scales variability analysis is still in development.

  10. Universe of quantum whirls in the final theory spiral field model. Basic ideas for a compatible physics and a consistent nature science. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartje, Udo A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Internationally stressed physics is looking for the solution of the basic problems of physics at higher and higher energies in impressive plants which outbid themselves in their expenditure for technology reciprocally. If with this manner shall be to seek the ''atomos'' and the ''unit of the physics'' then this is an error way. Sought-after Higgs particles are certainly not a simply thing; but a most complex object which would contain an enormous number of effect quanta in its structure. Since Planck, Poincare, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Schroedinger, De Broglie and others well-known physicists we know that this ''atomos'' have only a tiny energy quantity which single is not measurable. The search with gigantic machines is at all besides more nonsensical than such processes there will pump even energy into it. The elementary contains only fractions from the energy what is in known smallest particles or weakest beams too. This work follows another approach to grasp the nature in a Final Theory (Grand Unification) on a deductive way. It starts from a most general analysis and synthesis of scientific and everyday-language concepts. This shored up it on the principle of general physical field. The dynamic processes of the field are vivid illustrated by graphic means in systems of coordinates with space-time. Through it arises a everywhere consistent view for most simple existences and simple structures up to most complicate existences for all fields of physics and philosophy. That remained shut off till now obstinately for the cognition. A important result is the solution of the puzzle of ''Dualism of Wave and Particle''. Matter-structures consist not from 'a priori' existing 'little verdicts' which secondary swing. But they consist from beams; which remain in the inside of the particles radiation-like: and they rotate there in themselves. This creates locality without changing the radiation itself into 'electrons' which rotate on paths. The Classical Physics and the

  11. Universe of quantum whirls in the final theory spiral field model. Basic ideas for a compatible physics and a consistent nature science. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartje, Udo A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Internationally stressed physics is looking for the solution of the basic problems of physics at higher and higher energies in impressive plants which outbid themselves in their expenditure for technology reciprocally. If with this manner shall be to seek the ''atomos'' and the ''unit of the physics'' then this is an error way. Sought-after Higgs particles are certainly not a simply thing; but a most complex object which would contain an enormous number of effect quanta in its structure. Since Planck, Poincare, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, Schroedinger, De Broglie and others well-known physicists we know that this ''atomos'' have only a tiny energy quantity which single is not measurable. The search with gigantic machines is at all besides more nonsensical than such processes there will pump even energy into it. The elementary contains only fractions from the energy what is in known smallest particles or weakest beams too. This work follows another approach to grasp the nature in a Final Theory (Grand Unification) on a deductive way. It starts from a most general analysis and synthesis of scientific and everyday-language concepts. This shored up it on the principle of general physical field. The dynamic processes of the field are vivid illustrated by graphic means in systems of coordinates with space-time. Through it arises a everywhere consistent view for most simple existences and simple structures up to most complicate existences for all fields of physics and philosophy. That remained shut off till now obstinately for the cognition. A important result is the solution of the puzzle of ''Dualism of Wave and Particle''. Matter-structures consist not from 'a priori' existing 'little verdicts' which secondary swing. But they consist from beams; which remain in the inside of the particles radiation-like: and they rotate there in themselves. This creates locality without changing the radiation itself into 'electrons' which rotate on paths. The Classical Physics and the

  12. The evaluation of a framework for measuring the non-technical ward round skills of final year nursing students: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kara; McKenzie, Karen; Kelleher, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The importance of non-technical skills (NTS) to patient outcomes is increasingly being recognised, however, there is limited research into how such skills can be taught and evaluated in student nurses in relation toward rounds. This pilot study describes an evaluation of a NTS framework that could potentially be used to measure ward round skills of student nurses. The study used an observational design. Potential key NTS were identified from existing literature and NTS taxonomies. The proposed framework was then used to evaluate whether the identified NTS were evident in a series of ward round simulations that final year general nursing students undertook as part of their training. Finally, the views of a small group of qualified nurse educators, qualified nurses and general nursing students were sought about whether the identified NTS were important and relevant to practice. The proposed NTS framework included seven categories: Communication, Decision Making, Situational Awareness, Teamwork and Task Management, Student Initiative and Responsiveness to Patient. All were rated as important and relevant to practice. The pilot study suggests that the proposed NTS framework could be used as a means of evaluating student nurse competencies in respect of many non-technical skills required for a successful ward round. Further work is required to establish the validity of the framework in educational settings and to determine the extent to which it is of use in a non-simulated ward round setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extreme rainfall and snowfall alter responses of soil respiration to nitrogen fertilization: a 3-year field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengming; Xu, Yehong; Zhou, Xuhui; Tang, Jianwu; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Ding, Weixin

    2017-08-01

    Extreme precipitation is predicted to be more frequent and intense accompanying global warming and may have profound impacts on soil respiration (Rs) and its components, that is, autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration. However, how natural extreme rainfall or snowfall events affect these fluxes are still lacking, especially under nitrogen (N) fertilization. In this study, extreme rainfall and snowfall events occurred during a 3-year field experiment, allowing us to examine their effects on the response of Rs, Rh, and Ra to N supply. In normal rainfall years of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013, N fertilization significantly stimulated Rs by 23.9% and 10.9%, respectively. This stimulation was mainly due to the increase of Ra because of N-induced increase in plant biomass. In the record wet year of 2013/2014, however, Rs was independent on N supply because of the inhibition effect of the extreme rainfall event. Compared with those in other years, Rh and Ra were reduced by 36.8% and 59.1%, respectively, which were likely related to the anoxic stress on soil microbes and decreased photosynthates supply. Although N supply did not affect annual Rh, the response ratio (RR) of Rh flux to N fertilization decreased firstly during growing season, increased in nongrowing season and peaked during spring thaw in each year. Nongrowing season Rs and Rh contributed 5.5-16.4% to their annual fluxes and were higher in 2012/2013 than other years due to the extreme snowfall inducing higher soil moisture during spring thaw. The RR of nongrowing season Rs and Rh decreased in years with extreme snowfall or rainfall compared to those in normal years. Overall, our results highlight the significant effects of extreme precipitation on responses of Rs and its components to N fertilization, which should be incorporated into models to improve the prediction of carbon-climate feedbacks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A directional Secular Variation Curve for Greece for the last 4500 years: Comparison with regional and global geomagnetic field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marco, E.; Tema, E.; Lanos, P.; Kondopoulou, D.

    2009-12-01

    A total of 64 Greek archaeomagnetic directional data have been used for the establishment of the variation of the Earth’s magnetic field in Greece over the past 4500 years. Most of the data come from archaeological material but some data from Santorini lava flows are also included. The data ages range from Minoan times (~2500 BC) up to the last century with a gap around 10th to 6th century BC. All data have been relocated to Athens (37.97° N, 23.72° E) using the virtual geomagnetic pole method. Data coming from direct measurements available in Greece for the last four centuries have been also added. The secular variation (SV) curves for declination and inclination have been obtained using hierarchical Bayesian modelling. For comparison, the dataset has been also analysed using the bi-variate moving average window technique with 150 years time window shifted by 75 years. The obtained smoothed curves accompanied by a 95 % confidence envelope are compared with archaeomagnetic data from Mediterranean area and with SV curves from nearby countries. The Greek curves have also been compared with the predictions of the SCHA.DIF.3K regional and the CALS7K and ARCH3K global geomagnetic field models. Despite the differences recognised between these models, the Greek archaeomagnetic SV curve is in reasonably good agreement with their basic trends. The proposed directional SV curve can contribute, together with the intensity SV curve previously published for Greece, to the reliable archaeomagnetic dating of Greek artefacts based on the full description of the Earth’s magnetic field (declination, inclination, intensity). It is clear that the continuous update of the dataset with new results from well-dated archaeological material will increase the precision of the SV curve, especially for the time periods poorly covered by data.

  15. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.

  16. Shedding light into the black box: A prospective longitudinal study identifying the CanMEDS roles of final year medical students' on-ward activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaj, Till Johannes; Schmid, Carolin; Koechel, Ansgar; Stiepak, Jan; Groener, Jan B; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    To our best knowledge, a rigorous prospective analysis of final year medical students' (FY medical students) activity profiles during workplace learning is lacking. The present study investigated the CanMEDS characteristics of all on-ward activities performed by internal medicine FY medical students. We tested the hypotheses that during FY medical student workplace training (I) routine activities are predominantly performed, while supervised, more complex activities are underrepresented with (II) FY medical students performing an insufficient number of autonomous activities and that (III) the CanMEDS roles of the Communicator and the Professional prevail. During the second and the sixth week of their final year trimester at the University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, N = 34 FY medical students (73% female; mean age 26.4 ± 2.4) were asked to keep a detailed record of all their on-ward activities and to document the duration, mode of action (active versus passive; independent versus supervised), estimated relevance for later practice, and difficulty-level in specially designed activity logbooks. CanMEDS roles were assigned to the documented activities via post-hoc expert consensus. About 4308 activities lasting a total of 2211.4 h were documented. Drawing blood (20.8%) was the most frequently documented medical activity followed by full admission procedures (9.6%). About 14.9% of the time was spent with non-medical activities. About 82.1% of all medical activities performed went unsupervised. The Communicator (42%), the Professional (38%), and the Collaborator (7%) were assigned as the top three CanMEDS roles. The results call for increased efforts in creating more authentic learning experiences for FY medical students shifting towards more complex, supervised tasks, and improved team integration.

  17. Factors associated with final year nursing students' desire to work in the primary health care setting: Findings from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline G; Aggar, Christina; Thomas, Tamsin H T; Gordon, Christopher J

    2018-02-01

    Registered nurses are under-represented in the primary health care setting both internationally and in Australia, and this shortage is predicted to worsen. To address the increasingly complex healthcare needs of an ageing population, it is vital to develop and sustain a primary health care nursing workforce, yet attracting nurses is challenging. In Australia, registered nurses graduating from university typically commence their careers in hospital-based transition to professional practice programs. Similar programs in primary health care settings may be a valuable strategy for developing the primary health care nursing workforce, yet little is known about nursing students desire to work in this setting, factors that influence this, or their expectations of primary health care-focused transition to professional practice programs. This study sought to identify factors associated with final year nursing students' desire to work in primary health care setting including demographic factors, expectations of future employment conditions, and job content. It also explored expectations of graduate transition programs based in primary health care. A cross-sectional survey design comprising a quantitative online survey. 14 Australian universities from all states/territories, both rural and urban. 530 final-year nursing students. Binary logistic regression identifying factors contributing to desire to work in primary health care. The desire of nursing students to work in primary health care is associated with older age, greater perceived value of employment conditions including flexibility, and less perceived importance of workplace support. Collaborative efforts from primary health care nurses, health professionals, academics and policy makers are needed to attract new graduate nurses to primary health care. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Disaster Risk Education of Final Year High School Students Requires a Partnership with Families and Charity Organizations: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Ngo, Hanh

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The aim of disaster reduction education (DRE) is to achieve behavioral change. Over the past two decades, many efforts have been directed towards this goal, but educational activities have been developed based on unverified assumptions. Further, the literature has not identified any significant change towards disaster preparedness at the individual level. In addition, previous research suggests that change is dependent on multiple independent predictors. It is difficult to determine what specific actions DRE might result in; therefore, the preamble of such an action, which is to have discussions about it, has been chosen as the surrogate outcome measure for DRE success. This study describes the relationship of the perceived entity responsible for disaster education, disaster education per se, sex, and country-specific characteristics, with students discussing disasters with friends and family as a measure of proactive behavioral change in disaster preparedness. A total of 3,829 final year high school students participated in an international, multi-center prospective, cross-sectional study using a validated questionnaire. Nine countries with different levels of disaster exposure risk and economic development were surveyed. Regression analyses examined the relationship between the likelihood of discussing disasters with friends and family (dependent variable) and a series of independent variables. There was no statistically significant relationship between a single entity responsible for disaster education and discussions about potential hazards and risks with friends and/or family. While several independent predictors showed a significant main effect, DRE through school lessons in interaction with Family & Charity Organizations had the highest predictive value. Disaster reduction education might require different delivery channels and methods and should engage with the entities with which the teenagers are more likely to collaborate. Codreanu TA

  19. An evaluation of a structured learning programme as a component of the clinical practicum in final year bachelor of nursing programme: a pre-post-test analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Elizabeth; Murphy, Maria; Pascoe, Elizabeth; Scanlon, Andrew; Gan, Sharon

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of a structured learning programme as a component of the clinical practicum in final year bachelor of nursing course on the student's report of their anxiety and self-efficacy pre-post programme participation. Student anxiety and low levels of self-efficacy are known to affect the quality of clinical learning. A three-day structured learning programme at the commencement of an acute care clinical placement was designed to reduce student anxiety and enhance self-efficacy. A pre-post test design. The hospital anxiety and depression scale (The HAD) and the general self-efficacy scale (GSES-12) were administered prior to the commencement of the structured learning programme (time one) and at the end of the programme (time two). One hundred and twenty final year students undertaking an acute care clinical placement participated in the programme in three cohorts and completed the questionnaires at time one and 118 at time two. Students levels of anxiety >8 with The HAD pre-post programme 53 vs. 30% (p learning programme resulted in a statistically significant reduction in student anxiety and increase in self-efficacy across the three cohort groups. This effect can be achieved with the development of a relatively low cost/low technology structured learning programme that is part of an acute care clinical placement. Nurse educators should not assume that students are less anxious about their acute care clinical placements as the semester proceeds. There is a typical correlation between increased anxiety and decreased self-efficacy which is likely to impact on student learning in the clinical setting. Significant results can be achieved with a relatively low cost and a low technology enabling intervention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Biochar Improves Soil Aggregate Stability and Water Availability in a Mollisol after Three Years of Field Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Yang, Lijie; Yu, Chunxiao; Yin, Guanghua; Doane, Timothy A.; Wu, Zhijie; Zhu, Ping; Ma, Xingzhu

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, bulk density, aggregate stability, field capacity and plant available water in a representative Chinese Mollisol. Four treatments were as follows: no fertilization (CK), application of inorganic fertilizer (NPK), combined application of inorganic fertilizer with maize straw (NPK+S) and addition of biochar with inorganic fertilizer (NPK+B). Our results showed that after three consecutive years of application, the values of soil bulk density were significantly lower in both organic amendment-treated plots than in unamended (CK and NPK) plots. Compared with NPK, NPK+B more effectively increased the contents of soil organic carbon, improved the relative proportion of soil macro-aggregates and mean weight diameter, and enhanced field capacity as well as plant available water. Organic amendments had no obvious effect on soil C/N ratio or wilting coefficient. The results of linear regression indicated that the improvement in soil water retention could be attributed to the increases in soil organic carbon and aggregate stability. PMID:27191160

  1. Performance of first-year undergraduate students attending exact sciences courses in problems of the additive conceptual field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Akemi Kato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper, which is part of a research based on the theoretical framework of the Theory of Conceptual Fields, investigated the performance of first-year undergraduate students attending Exact Sciences courses at the State University of Maringá, Brazil, with regard to the solution of problems in the additive conceptual field. Results obtained by these students evidenced some types of reasoning involved in additive structure that stand as an obstacle to the learning of Mathematics and may interfere with their future studies. Among the three classes that constitute the additive conceptual field proposed by Gérard Vergnaud, transformation problems had the highest rate of unsatisfactory results. However, errors committed by the students were detected in all problems of the diagnostic test. These results underscore the need for a broader discussion in academic environments that takes into account the difficulties in the test with regard to reasoning involving additive structure so that changes in the curricular structures of Exact Sciences courses may be fostered.

  2. Biochar Improves Soil Aggregate Stability and Water Availability in a Mollisol after Three Years of Field Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Ma

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, bulk density, aggregate stability, field capacity and plant available water in a representative Chinese Mollisol. Four treatments were as follows: no fertilization (CK, application of inorganic fertilizer (NPK, combined application of inorganic fertilizer with maize straw (NPK+S and addition of biochar with inorganic fertilizer (NPK+B. Our results showed that after three consecutive years of application, the values of soil bulk density were significantly lower in both organic amendment-treated plots than in unamended (CK and NPK plots. Compared with NPK, NPK+B more effectively increased the contents of soil organic carbon, improved the relative proportion of soil macro-aggregates and mean weight diameter, and enhanced field capacity as well as plant available water. Organic amendments had no obvious effect on soil C/N ratio or wilting coefficient. The results of linear regression indicated that the improvement in soil water retention could be attributed to the increases in soil organic carbon and aggregate stability.

  3. Biochar Improves Soil Aggregate Stability and Water Availability in a Mollisol after Three Years of Field Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ningning; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Yulan; Yang, Lijie; Yu, Chunxiao; Yin, Guanghua; Doane, Timothy A; Wu, Zhijie; Zhu, Ping; Ma, Xingzhu

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, bulk density, aggregate stability, field capacity and plant available water in a representative Chinese Mollisol. Four treatments were as follows: no fertilization (CK), application of inorganic fertilizer (NPK), combined application of inorganic fertilizer with maize straw (NPK+S) and addition of biochar with inorganic fertilizer (NPK+B). Our results showed that after three consecutive years of application, the values of soil bulk density were significantly lower in both organic amendment-treated plots than in unamended (CK and NPK) plots. Compared with NPK, NPK+B more effectively increased the contents of soil organic carbon, improved the relative proportion of soil macro-aggregates and mean weight diameter, and enhanced field capacity as well as plant available water. Organic amendments had no obvious effect on soil C/N ratio or wilting coefficient. The results of linear regression indicated that the improvement in soil water retention could be attributed to the increases in soil organic carbon and aggregate stability.

  4. Evaluation of remotely sensed DMP product using multi-year field measurements of biomass in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutini, Francesco; Stroppiana, Daniela; Boschetti, Mirco; Brivio, Pietro A.; Bartholome, Etienne; Beye, Gora

    2011-11-01

    The Sahelian belt of West Africa is a region characterized by wide climate variations, which can in turn affect the survival of local populations especially in rangeland, as happened during the dramatic food crisis in the 70-80s caused by severe drought. This work has been carried out in the framework of the EU FP7 Geoland2 project as a contribution to the ECOWAS component (Economic Community Of West African States) of the AMESD (African Monitoring of the Environment for Sustainable Development) programme with the purpose of establishing the reliability of Dry Matter Productivity (DMP) developed by Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), a spatial estimation of dry matter (DM) obtained from remotely sensed data. DMP can be of great help in monitoring savanna pasturelands in a region characterized by food insecurity and a significant variability of biomass production, linked to climate variations, which can in turn affect the survival of local populations. The evaluation of DMP was carried out thanks to the Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE) and Action Contre la Fame (ACF), the partners who provided the field biomass measurements. The paper shows the correlation of DMP with field measurements of herbaceous biomass, and discusses the differences among the different sites where ground data were collected. The analysis of other environmental variables (land cover, rainfall), which can be influential on rangeland biomass production, is presented in order to better explain the variance of field measurements among the different years.

  5. Peripheral Lesions Identified on Ultrawide Field Imaging Predict Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression over 4 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Paolo S; Cavallerano, Jerry D; Haddad, Nour Maya N; Kwak, Hanna; Dyer, Kelli H; Omar, Ahmed F; Shikari, Hasanain; Aiello, Lloyd M; Sun, Jennifer K; Aiello, Lloyd Paul

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether peripheral diabetic retinopathy (DR) lesions identified on ultrawide field (UWF) imaging are associated with increased DR progression. Prospective, longitudinal cohort. Two hundred eyes of 100 participants previously enrolled in a comparative instrument validation study. Baseline mydriatic 7-standard field Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) photographs and UWF images were obtained. On UWF images, DR lesions with a greater extent outside versus inside standard ETDRS fields were defined as predominantly peripheral lesions (PPLs). Follow-up ETDRS photographs were obtained 4.2±0.3 years after baseline. Baseline and follow-up DR severity were graded from ETDRS photographs. Rates of 2-step or more progression and progression to proliferative DR (PDR) in eyes with PPLs compared with eyes without PPLs identified on UWF imaging at baseline. In eyes without PDR (n = 109) at baseline, 56 (51%) had at least 1 field with PPLs and 43 (39%) had DR progression. Compared with eyes without PPLs, eyes with PPLs had a 3.2-fold increased risk of 2-step or more DR progression (6 [11%] vs. 19 [34%]; P = 0.005) and a 4.7-fold increased risk for progression to PDR (3 [6%] vs. 14 [25%]; P = 0.005). These findings remained statistically significant after adjusting for gender, diabetes type, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and baseline DR severity. Increasing extent of fields with PPLs increased the risk for 2-step or more DR progression (P = 0.004) and progression to PDR (P = 0.009). Presence and increasing extent of PPLs were associated with increased risk of DR progression over 4 years, independent of baseline DR severity and HbA1c levels. Increasing extent of PPLs substantially increased the risk of DR progression and progression to PDR, especially with less severe DR at baseline. These findings demonstrate that detailed peripheral retinal evaluation provides important information that is necessary to assess completely the risk of DR

  6. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Veterans' Group Life Insurance regulation update--ABO, VGLI application, SGLI 2-year disability extension. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) insurance regulations concerning Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to reflect the statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010, which became law on October 13, 2010, and resulted in the need for amendments to change the SGLI Disability Extension period from 1 year to 2 years in duration; provide SGLI Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) retroactive coverage effective from October 7, 2001, for all qualifying injuries regardless of the geographic location and military operation in which the injuries were incurred; and remove the SGLI and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) Accelerated Benefits Option (ABO) discount rate. This rule also clarifies that ``initial premium'' refers to ``initial Veterans' Group Life Insurance premium,'' updates the current address of the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (OSGLI), managed by Prudential Insurance Company of America, to reflect where the ABO application is mailed for processing, and corrects the OSGLI phone number. Finally, this rule removes the ABO application form from the regulation, and it corrects and clarifies language concerning the VGLI application period that was inadvertently incorrectly modified in a prior amendment of the regulations.

  7. GeoFORCE Alaska: Four-Year Field Program Brings Rural Alaskan High School Students into the STEM Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowell, S. J.; Rittgers, A.; Stephens, L.; Hutchinson, S.; Peters, H.; Snow, E.; Wartes, D.

    2016-12-01

    GeoFORCE Alaska is a four-year, field-based, summer geoscience program designed to raise graduation rates in rural Alaskan high schools, encourage participants to pursue college degrees, and increase the diversity of Alaska's technical workforce. Residents of predominantly Alaska Native villages holding degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) bring valuable perspectives to decisions regarding management of cultural and natural resources. However, between 2010 and 2015 the average dropout rate for students in grades 7-12 was 8.5% per year in the North Slope School District and 7% per year in the Northwest Arctic School District. 2015 graduation rates were 70% and 75%, respectively. Statewide statistics highlight the challenge for Alaska Native students. During the 2014-2015 school year alone 37.6% of Alaska Native students dropped out of Alaskan public schools. At the college level, Alaska Native students are underrepresented in University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) science departments. Launched in 2012 by UAF in partnership with the longstanding University of Texas at Austin program, GeoFORCE applies the cohort model, leading the same group of high school students on geological field academies during four consecutive summers. Through a combination of active learning, teamwork, and hands-on projects at spectacular geological locations, students gain academic skills and confidence that facilitate high school and college success. To date, GeoFORCE Alaska has recruited two cohorts. 78% of these students identify as Alaska Native, reflecting community demographics. The inaugural cohort of 18 students from the North Slope Borough completed the Fourth-Year Academy in summer 2015. 94% of these students graduated from high school, at least 72% plan to attend college, and 33% will major in geoscience. A second cohort of 34 rising 9th and 10th graders entered the program in 2016. At the request of corporate sponsors, this cohort was recruited from both the

  8. What makes a likely abortion provider? Evidence from a nationwide survey of final-year students at Ghana's public midwifery training colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody; Nakua, Emmanuel; Dzomeku, Veronica; Moyer, Cheryl A

    2016-03-01

    Even in countries where the abortion law is technically liberal, the full application of the law has been delayed due to resistance on the part of providers to offer services. Ghana has a liberal law, allowing abortions for a wide range of indications. The current study sought to investigate factors associated with midwifery students' reported likelihood to provide abortion services. Final-year students at 15 public midwifery training colleges participated in a computer-based survey. Demographic and attitudinal variables were tested against the outcome variable, likely to provide comprehensive abortion care (CAC) services, and those variables found to have a significant association in bivariate analysis were entered into a multivariate model. Marginal effects were assessed after the final logistic regression was conducted. A total of 853 out of 929 eligible students enrolled in the 15 public midwifery schools took the survey, for a response rate of 91.8%. In multivariate regression analysis, the factors significantly associated with reported likeliness to provide CAC services were having had an unplanned pregnancy, currently using contraception, feeling adequately prepared, agreeing it is a good thing women can get a legal abortion and having been exposed to multiple forms of education around surgical abortion. Midwifery students at Ghana's public midwifery training colleges report that they are likely to provide CAC. Ensuring that midwives-in-training are well trained in abortion services, as well as encouraging empathy in these students, may increase the number of providers of safe abortion care in Ghana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Final year nursing students in Nigeria; How knowledgeable and prepared are they to offer medical care to patients with chronic kidney disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwuonu, Chimezie Godswill; Kanu, Hannah Sylvanus; Odigie, Ojeh-Oziegbe

    2017-01-01

    Nurses play an important role in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of care. In other to perform their functions, it is pertinent that they have a good understanding of kidney functions and CKD. We do not know if the current educational curriculum prepares them adequately for this role. To assess the knowledge level of kidney functions and diseases among final year nursing students in Abia State Nigeria. This was a cross sectional study involving final year diploma and Bachelor of nursing (B.Nursing) students who were randomly chosen. Structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 18 items was the tool for data collection. A score of one was given for each correctly answered question on functions of the kidney, symptoms, signs, causes, and complications of CKD. A score of 50% and above was regarded as good knowledge. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed, but 186 were returned (response rate of 93%). Male:female ratio was 1:14.5. One hundred and seventeen (62.9%) knew the correct definition of CKD, but only 69 (37.1%) knew the normal range of glomerular filtration rate. Eighty-one percent had good knowledge of kidney functions while 39 (21%) had good knowledge of CKD. Overall, 42 (22.6%) had good knowledge of kidney functions and CKD. Students who rotated through the dialysis unit during their clinical posting had higher mean knowledge score than others (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in the mean knowledge scores of the diploma and B.Nursing students (P = 0.76). The majority of the final year students had poor knowledge of CKD. There is need to expand the current teaching curriculum so as to increase the knowledge of these future nurses on the basic concepts of CKD to improve outcomes of patient management. Résumé Contexte: Les infirmiers jouent un rôle important dans le suivi des personnes souffrant de la maladie rénale chronique (MRC) aux premiers, deuxièmes et

  10. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  11. Arthroscopic decompression not recommended in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy: a final review of a randomised controlled trial at a minimum follow-up of ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, S; Lehtinen, J T; Arnala, I

    2017-06-01

    Rotator cuff tendinopathy has a multifactorial origin. Rejecting the mechanistic theory has also led to abandoning operative treatment at initial presentation in the first line. Physiotherapy exercise programmes are the accepted first line treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term additional benefits of subacromial decompression in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy. This randomised controlled trial of 140 patients (52 men, 88 women, mean age 47.1 years; 18 to 60) with rotator cuff tendinopathy extended previous work up to a maximum of 13 years. The patients were randomised into two treatment groups: arthroscopic acromioplasty and a supervised exercise treatment and a similar supervised exercise treatment alone. Self-reported pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) was the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures were disability, working ability, pain at night, Shoulder Disability Questionnaire score and the number of painful days during the three months preceding the final assessment. A total of 90 patients (64%) returned questionnaires at a mean 12 years after randomisation. On an intention-to-treat basis, both treatment groups reached statistically significant improvement compared with the initial VAS for pain, but there was no significant difference between groups. The same was true in the secondary outcome measures. Due to group changes, the results were also analysed per protocol: operated or not. No significant differences between the groups were found. The natural history of rotator cuff tendinopathy probably plays a significant role in the results in the long-term. Even though the patients who underwent operative treatment had a stronger belief in recovery, which is likely to be surgical and the effect of placebo, the exercise group obtained similar results. In the future, an optimum exercise regime should be searched for, as the most clinically and cost-effective conservative treatment for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Cite this

  12. [Knowledge and attitude of medical students in Germany towards palliative care : Does the final year of medical school make a difference?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Schmiedel, S; Nauck, F; Alt-Epping, B

    2016-06-01

    The practical year (PY) during the final year of medical education is intended to deepen and broaden knowledge, skills, and abilities that were acquired during previous years of their studies. Against this background, this study pursues the question of how the knowledge of future physicians and their confidence in terms of cancer pain therapy and other palliative care issues develops during the PY. At the end of the PY, students from two university hospitals completed a 3-part online questionnaire (self-assessment of the confidence, questions about palliative care knowledge, and assessment of palliative care training during the PY). These results are compared with previously published data from the same collective that had been collected at the beginning of the PY. Overall, 92 of 318 students participated (28.9 %). Less than 10 % of students said that they were more confident regarding palliative care topics at the end of their medical studies. Improvements in the self-assessment could only be observed in the recognition of and screening for cancer pain (increase from 36 % to 65%). With regard to the palliative care knowledge, only the knowledge of how to treat symptoms other than pain improved significantly; however, knowledge in this regard prior to the PY was particularly low (an increase from 25 % to 35 %, p palliative care training, between 36 and 83 % of participants stated having insufficient opportunities to gain knowledge and experience on various topics in the treatment of patients with advanced and incurable diseases during their PY. In the present study, considerable deficits in confidence and knowledge regarding palliative care issues were also observed at the end of PY. Integration of palliative care into the medical school curriculums should be given special attention in terms of a longitudinal training of the PY.

  13. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  14. Well-being and help-seeking: an exploratory study among final-year medical students Bem-estar e busca de ajuda: um estudo exploratório entre alunos de medicina ao final curso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bertozzi de Oliveira e Sousa Leão

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Doubts, competitiveness and preparation for the residency examination increase stress and insecurity at the end of medical course. Well-being is very important at this point, but it is known that medical students are reluctant to seek help, particularly for emotional problems. This study investigated the relationship among well-being, perceived needs and help-seeking in final-year students. METHODS: Well-being was assessed using Beck's Inventories of Anxiety (BAI and Depression (BDI and the WHOQOL-brief (quality of life. A questionnaire was used to assess perceived needs and medical school support resources. RESULTS: The students reported good quality of life (68% but presented anxiety (27%, depression (20% and impaired social functioning. Fifty-one percent of the students acknowledged academic needs and 25% psychological needs. Only a portion of the students with anxiety and depression or bad quality of life used the institutional support. Female gender, perceived psychological needs and anxiety symptoms were associated to the use of the Mental Health Service. Satisfaction with mentoring relationships and positive changes were associated to Mentoring attendance. CONCLUSION: There are different factors involved in help-seeking and identifying specificities in the use of institutional support resources can help to develop strategies to sensitize students about help-seeking during the medical courseOBJETIVO: Dúvidas, competição e o exame de residência aumentam o estresse e a insegurança ao final do curso; entretanto, sabe-se que alunos de Medicina são resistentes a procurar ajuda, especialmente para problemas emocionais. Este estudo investigou a relação entre bem-estar, percepção de necessidades e busca de ajuda entre alunos do último ano do curso médico. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se os Inventários Beck (ansiedade e depressão, o WHOQOL-breve (qualidade de vida e um questionário para avaliar necessidades e o uso dos recursos de

  15. [Final results from four clinical studies in the field of cardiovascular diseases integrated in the "Mattoni del SSN - Mattone Outcome" Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errigo, Paola; Seccareccia, Fulvia; Rosato, Stefano; Maraschini, Alice; Badoni, Gabriella; Perucci, Carlo Alberto; Fusco, Danilo; D'Ovidio, Mariangela; Stafoggia, Massimo; Barone, Anna Patrizia

    2011-12-01

    Observational outcome studies represent a valid approach to evaluating comparative treatment effectiveness in real populations. The main objective of outcome research is to underline what works and what does not work in the field of health assistance. In 2004 the Italian Ministry of Health launched the Project "Mattone Misura dell'Outcome" aimed at assessing the introduction of procedures and methods for the systematic evaluation of outcomes in the national health system. A new experience, the PROGRESSI program (PROGRamma ESiti per SIVeAS e LEA), started in 2008 with the aim to further develop the methodologies for outcome evaluation. In this Supplement the final results from four clinical studies named "Sperimentazioni dell'area cardiovascolare del Progetto Mattoni" are presented. These studies started between 2005 and 2007 and their main objectives were to evaluate: --the contribution of information from current informative systems and clinical studies in risk-adjustment methodologies; --the advisability of introducing some clinical items in current informative systems to improve outcome estimates; --the goodness of follow-up procedures from current informative systems; and --the role of disease registries in the validation of comparative evaluation measures. The four studies were designed as voluntary prospective multicentre studies. Results concerning the characteristics of the enrolled populations as well as the risk-adjustment models built using information from current informative systems and/or clinical information are presented. As expected, each study produced specific remarks both in terms of clinical findings and contribution of different informative systems to the risk-adjustment models. In general, models built with information from both current informative systems and clinical information show the best performance. Findings from these analyses will provide the public health system with suitable indications to improve statistical methodologies for

  16. Multi-proxy reconstructions of May-September precipitation field in China over the past 500 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Zhao, Sen; Guo, Zhengtang; Goosse, Hugues; Yin, Qiuzhen

    2017-12-01

    The dominant modes of variability of precipitation for the whole of China over the past millennium and the mechanism governing their spatial structure remain unclear. This is mainly due to insufficient high-resolution proxy records of precipitation in western China. Numerous tree-ring chronologies have recently been archived in publicly available databases through PAGES2k activities, and these provide an opportunity to refine precipitation field reconstructions for China. Based on 479 proxy records, including 371 tree-ring width chronologies, a tree-ring isotope chronology, and 107 drought/flood indices, we reconstruct the precipitation field for China for the past half millennium using the optimal information extraction method. A total of 3631 of 4189 grid points in the reconstruction field passed the cross-validation process, accounting for 86.68 % of the total number of grid points. The first leading mode of variability of the reconstruction shows coherent variations over most of China. The second mode is a north-south dipole in eastern China characterized by variations of the same sign in western China and northern China (except for Xinjiang province). It is likely controlled by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. The third mode is a sandwich triple mode in eastern China including variations of the same sign in western China and central China. The last two modes are reproduced by most of the six coupled climate models' last millennium simulations performed in the framework of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase III (PMIP3). In particular, the link of the second mode with ENSO is confirmed by the models. However, there is a mismatch between models and proxy reconstructions in the time development of different modes. This mismatch suggests the important role of internal variability in the reconstructed precipitation mode variations of the past 500 years.

  17. Multi-proxy reconstructions of May–September precipitation field in China over the past 500 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dominant modes of variability of precipitation for the whole of China over the past millennium and the mechanism governing their spatial structure remain unclear. This is mainly due to insufficient high-resolution proxy records of precipitation in western China. Numerous tree-ring chronologies have recently been archived in publicly available databases through PAGES2k activities, and these provide an opportunity to refine precipitation field reconstructions for China. Based on 479 proxy records, including 371 tree-ring width chronologies, a tree-ring isotope chronology, and 107 drought/flood indices, we reconstruct the precipitation field for China for the past half millennium using the optimal information extraction method. A total of 3631 of 4189 grid points in the reconstruction field passed the cross-validation process, accounting for 86.68 % of the total number of grid points. The first leading mode of variability of the reconstruction shows coherent variations over most of China. The second mode is a north–south dipole in eastern China characterized by variations of the same sign in western China and northern China (except for Xinjiang province. It is likely controlled by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO variability. The third mode is a sandwich triple mode in eastern China including variations of the same sign in western China and central China. The last two modes are reproduced by most of the six coupled climate models' last millennium simulations performed in the framework of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase III (PMIP3. In particular, the link of the second mode with ENSO is confirmed by the models. However, there is a mismatch between models and proxy reconstructions in the time development of different modes. This mismatch suggests the important role of internal variability in the reconstructed precipitation mode variations of the past 500 years.

  18. Does exposure to environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields cause cognitive and behavioral effects in 10-year-old boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvente, Irene; Pérez-Lobato, Rocío; Núñez, María-Isabel; Ramos, Rosa; Guxens, Mònica; Villalba, Juan; Olea, Nicolás; Fernández, Mariana F

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields from non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association of environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure with neurobehavioral function of children. A subsample of 123 boys belonging to the Environment and Childhood cohort from Granada (Spain), recruited at birth from 2000 through 2002, were evaluated at the age of 9-11 years. Spot electric field measurements within the 100 kHz to 6 GHz frequency range, expressed as both root mean-square (S(RMS) and maximum power density (S(MAX)) magnitudes, were performed in the immediate surrounds of childreńs dwellings. Neurocognitive and behavioral functions were assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used, adjusting for potential confounders. All measurements were lower than reference guideline limits, with median S(RMS) and S(MAX) values of 285.94 and 2759.68 μW/m(2), respectively. Most of the cognitive and behavioral parameters did not show any effect, but children living in higher RF exposure areas (above median S(RMS) levels) had lower scores for verbal expression/comprehension and higher scores for internalizing and total problems, and obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders, in comparison to those living in areas with lower exposure. These associations were stronger when S(MAX) values were considered. Although some of our results may suggest that low-level environmental RF-EMF exposure has a negative impact on cognitive and/or behavior development in children; given limitations in the study design and that the majority of neurobehavioral functioning tasks were not affected, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  20. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chul Yun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013 in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively.

  1. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-09-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively.

  2. Effects of UV-B radiation on soybean yield and seed quality: a 6-year field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.; Sullivan, J.H.; Lydon, J.

    1990-01-01

    Two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars, Essex and Williams, were grown in the field for 6 consecutive seasons under ambient and supplemental levels of ultravio-Set-B radiation to determine the potential for alterations in yield or seed quality with a reduction in the stratospheric ozone column. The supplemental UV-B fluences simulated a 16 or 25% ozone depletion. The data presented here represent the first field experiment conducted over multiple seasons which assesses the effects of increased UV-B radiation on seed yield. Overall, the cultivar Essex was found to be sensitive to UV-B radiation (yield reductions of 20%) while the cultivar Williams was tolerant. However, the effectiveness of UV-B radiation in altering yield was strongly influenced by the seasonal microclimate, and the 2 cultivars responded differently to these changing factors. Yield was reduced most in Essex during seasons in which water availability was high and was reduced in Williams only when water was severely limiting. The results of these experiments demonstrate the necessity for multiple-year experiments and the need to increase our understanding of the interaction between UV-B radiation and other environmental stresses in order to assess the potential consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion. (author)

  3. Rust infection and survival of 49 Pinus monticola families at a field site six years after planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Kolpak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This field trial evaluates white pine blister rust resistance of 49 families of Pinus monticola from Oregon and Washington. The Optical site had 93% of the trees infected six years after planting, but rust mortality is currently low. Families ranged between 31 to 100 percent infected and the number of stem symptoms ranged between three and eighteen. Families with R-gene resistance (HR from the Cr2 gene were highly susceptible at Optical due to the presence of a virulent race of rust (vcr2. Families without Cr2 and with moderate to high frequencies of canker-free or bark reaction ('Q' families in seedling screening at Dorena Genetic Resource Center (DGRC were the most resistant at Optical with higher bark reaction and lower percent infection, mortality, and number of stem symptoms. Another subset of the families were inoculated in a seedling trial at DGRC using rust strains not containing vcr2. The Cr2 families had predictable levels of resistance and Q families also showed moderate levels of resistance in the DGRC seedling trial. Percent stem symptom and bark reaction traits were positively correlated between screening and field trials. Also the number of needle lesions in artificial screening was positively correlated with the number of stem symptoms at Optical.

  4. Das interaktive Chirurgische Logbuch im Praktischen Jahr: Eine mehrjährige Retrospektive [Interactive Logbook in the Surgical Training of Final Year Medical Students: A Four-Year Retrospective

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    Kadmon, Guni

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: An interactive surgical logbook was introduced in 2004 as part of a reform of the 16-week surgical training period of the final medical year at Heidelberg University. The present work describes its aims and development and examines its utilization by students and supervising doctors over a period of four years. Methods: The surgical training period of the final medical year was evaluated in 2003 by means of questionnaires and interviews with doctors, nurses, orderlies, and final-year medical students. Subsequently, a catalog of training objectives was compiled, which formed the basis for a logbook that states the training objectives, outlines the curriculum of the surgical training period, and includes separate pages for documenting 31 different medical procedures including the treatment of three patients under one’s care. It further includes tables for recording one’s attendance at training activities and detachable forms for self-assessment, evaluation of the surgical training period, and assessment of the student by the training doctors. The logbook was given to all students in their final-year surgical training period, but its use was optional. The entries in all returned logbooks were retrieved, recorded, and analyzed. Results: The return rate of the logbooks was initially low but rose within two years to 80%–100%. The extent of the entries was, however, continuously poor. Nineteen percent of the logbooks were devoid of entries, approximately 40% had no entries of clinical procedures, and the majority of the rest contained very incomplete records. The extent of feedback and comments by the supervising doctors was very limited, and their assessment forms often were filled in by the students themselves. By contrast, students returned numerous self-assessment and evaluation questionnaires that were complete and contained differentiated entries. Informal interviews with students revealed that cooperation was lacking on the

  5. Is the delivery of a quality improvement education programme in obstetrics and gynaecology for final year medical students feasible and still effective in a shortened time frame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Bridget; Wise, Michelle R; Peiris-John, Roshini; Sadler, Lynn; Mahony, Faith; Wells, Susan

    2017-05-26

    Teaching clinical audit skills to nascent health professionals is one strategy to improve frontline care. The undergraduate medical curriculum at the University of Auckland provides improvement science theory and skills in Year 5 teaching, and the opportunity to put this into practice during an Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G) clinical attachment in Year 6. In 2015, a revised medical school curriculum at the university resulted in a planned reduction of the O&G attachment from five weeks to four, necessitating revision of the Year 6 Quality Improvement (QI) project. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the revised programme provided an important experiential learning opportunity for medical students without imposing an unsustainable burden on clinical services. Based on a CIPP (Context/Input/Process/Product) evaluation model, the study was conducted in several stages to get a sense of the context as the new programme was being planned (Context evaluation), the feasibility of an alternative approach to meet the educational need (Input evaluation), the implementation of the revised programme (Process evaluation) and finally, the programme outcomes (Product evaluation). We used multiple data sources (supervisors, students, academic administrators, and hospital staff) and data collection methods (questionnaires, focus groups, individual interviews, consultative workshops, student reports and oral presentations). The context evaluation revealed the Year 6 QI programme to be valuable and contributed to O&G service improvements, however, the following concerns were identified: time to complete the project, timely topic selection and access to data, recognition of student achievement, and staff workload. The evaluation of the revised QI project indicated improvement in student perceptions of their QI knowledge and skills, and most areas previously identified as challenging, despite the concurrent reduction in the duration of the O&G attachment. Applying the CIPP model

  6. Biochar effects on uptake of cadmium and lead by wheat in relation to annual precipitation: a 3-year field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Fengfeng; Zuo, Jing; Chen, De; Li, Lianqing; Pan, Genxing; Crowley, David E

    2018-02-01

    Biochar has been widely studied for its ability to reduce plant uptake of heavy metals by lowering metal bioavailabilities through adsorption and pH-driven fixation reactions. However, the long-term effect of biochar on heavy metal bioavailabilities in alkaline soils under natural redox condition is rarely studied. Here, we report a study examining the effects of biochar on bioavailability and partitioning of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) among different soil fractions over 3 years in a field study with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plots were established on two similar soils having low and high levels of contamination, both of which were amended in the first year with wheat straw biochar at 0, 20, and 40 t ha -1 . Precipitation patterns varied greatly over the study period, with 2014 having record drought, which was followed by 2 years having extreme flooding events. Results showed a significant increase in grain yield and reductions in Cd and Pb concentrations in wheat grain in the biochar-amended soils in 2014. In contrast, bioavailable (exchangeable) heavy metal concentrations and plant uptake of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in the subsequent very wet years in 2015 and 2016, where the effects of biochar were much more variable and had an overall lesser effect on reducing heavy metal uptake. The results suggest that fluctuations in soil pH and redox caused by periodic drought and flood cycles strongly drive metal cycling through mobilization and immobilization of metals associated with different mineral phases. Under these conditions, biochar may have reduced efficacy for reducing heavy metal uptake in wheat.

  7. Self-assessment of nursing competency among final year nursing students in Thailand: a comparison between public and private nursing institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaengdee, Krisada; Kantamaturapoj, Kanang; Seneerattanaprayul, Parinda; Putthasri, Weerasak; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong

    2016-01-01

    Nurses play a major role in Thailand's health care system. In recent years, the production of nurses, in both the public and private sectors, has been growing rapidly to respond to the shortage of health care staff. Alongside concerns over the number of nurses produced, the quality of nursing graduates is of equal importance. This study therefore aimed to 1) compare the self-assessed competency of final year Thai nursing students between public and private nursing schools, and 2) explore factors that were significantly associated with competency level. A cross-sectional clustered survey was conducted on 40 Thai nursing schools. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaire consisted of questions about respondents' background, their education profile, and a self-measured competency list. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multivariate regression analysis were applied. A total of 3,349 students participated in the survey. Approximately half of the respondents had spent their childhood in rural areas. The majority of respondents reported being "confident" or "very confident" in all competencies. Private nursing students reported a higher level of "public health competency" than public nursing students with statistical significance. However, there was no significant difference in "clinical competency" between the two groups. Nursing students from private institutions seemed to report higher levels of competency than those from public institutions, particularly with regard to public health. This phenomenon might have arisen because private nursing students had greater experience of diverse working environments during their training. One of the key limitations of this study was that the results were based on the subjective self-assessment of the respondents, which might risk respondent bias. Further studies that evaluate current nursing curricula in both public and private nursing schools to assess whether they meet the health

  8. Availability Perception And Constraints Of Final Year Students To The Use Of Computer-Based Information Communication Technologies Cb-Icts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that ICTs are the major focus for the day to day running of every society. ICTs create a room for a quicker faster easier access and exchange of information in the world today. The study investigated the availability attitude and constraints of final year students in the use of computer-based ICTs CB-ICTs in Abia State. Data were collected with the use of a well structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results from analysis revealed that the mean age of the respondents was 23 years 7 CB-ICTs were available to the respondents at varying degrees. The respondents had a positive attitude x amp773 3.11 to the use of CB-ICTs and the major constraint to their use of CB-ICTs was poor resource centre where they can access CB-ICTs. Based on the findings we recommended that resource centres should be built in the institution and if it exists should be well equipped and running. Equally awareness to the fact that there is or there will be a resource centre in the institution should be widely spread so that students can utilize the opportunity of its existence and make maximum use of the facilities there in. On the other hand internet service provider should scale up their services in the area so as to provide a more stable internet connection in the institution as this will enable the students to use more effectively CB-ICTs in the institution and for their academic work.

  9. Knowledge of HIV and factors associated with attitudes towards HIV among final-year medical students at Hanoi medical university in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platten, Michael; Pham, Ha N; Nguyen, Huy V; Nguyen, Nhu T; Le, Giang M

    2014-03-20

    The success of HIV care strongly depends upon skills of the healthcare worker. Vietnam has a punitive history towards HIV and even though this has changed recently, persons living with HIV are still facing discrimination. The objective of this paper is to assess the gaps in knowledge of HIV and factors associated with discriminatory attitudes towards persons living with HIV among medical students in order to improve medical training. In a cross-sectional quantitative study using a structured questionnaire, 200 final-year medical students at Hanoi Medical University were approached for data collection in May of 2012. Descriptive statistics (percentages) were used to present four HIV knowledge tests. Linear regression models were examined to highlight factors that are associated with general attitudes towards HIV and attitudes towards HIV in a clinical setting. Although students performed overall well in the knowledge category of HIV discrimination and stigma, there were several gaps in knowledge of HIV, including the categories of HIV-related basic sciences, prevention, and care and treatment. Knowledge of stigma and discrimination was a significant positive predictor of General non-prejudicial attitude to HIV and AIDS (β=0.186, Pstudents. As persons who inject drugs carry a proportionately high burden of HIV in Vietnam, it is also important to include methadone training for students.

  10. Exploring the Knowledge and Perception of Generic Medicines among Final Year Undergraduate Medical, Pharmacy, and Nursing Students in Sierra Leone: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bai James

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most low-income nations have national medicine policy that emphasized the use of generic medicines in the public health sector. However, the use of generics is often debatable as there are concerns over its efficacy, quality, and safety compared to their branded counterparts. This study was conducted to compare the knowledge and perception of generic medicines among final year undergraduate medical, pharmacy, and nursing students in Sierra Leone. We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among these students at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences University of Sierra Leone. Out of the 62 students, only two (2/62, 3.2% knew about the acceptable bioequivalence limit. At least half of respondents in all three groups agreed that all generics are therapeutically equivalent to their innovator brand. At least half of the medicine (21/42, 50% and nursing (6/9, 66.6% students, compared to pharmacy students (5/11, 45.5%, believed that higher safety standards are required for proprietary medicines than for generic medicines. Most of them agreed that they need more information on the safety, quality, and efficacy aspects of generics (59/62, 95.2%. All three groups of healthcare students, despite variations in their responses, demonstrated a deficiency in knowledge and misconception regarding generic medicines. Training on issues surrounding generic drugs in healthcare training institutions is highly needed among future healthcare providers in Sierra Leone.

  11. Use of Video-Projected Structured Clinical Examination (ViPSCE) instead of the traditional oral (Viva) examination in the assessment of final year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shallaly, Gamal; Ali, Eltayeb

    2004-03-01

    Assessment of medical students using the traditional oral (viva) system has been marred by being highly subjective, non-structured, and biased. The use of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) would circumvent these disadvantages. The OSCE is, however, costly and time-consuming particularly if used for assessment of large numbers of students. The need for another form of examination that enjoys the advantages of the OSCE while avoiding its disadvantages in the face of limited resources has been the inspiration behind this innovative approach. (1) To identify the characteristics of the new Video-Projected Structured Clinical Examination (ViPSCE). (2) To compare the acceptability of ViPSCE and OSCE by students and tutors. (3) To compare the time-effectiveness of ViPSCE and OSCE. We used a slide video projection to assess the surgical knowledge, problem solving and management abilities of 112 final year medical students at Alazhari University, Khartoum, Sudan. Students completed evaluation forms at the end of the examination. The administration of the ViPSCE was smooth and straightforward. Feedback of the students showed that they preferred the ViPSCE to both traditional oral (viva) examination and OSCE. The examination time was 2 hours using video projection compared to the 6 hours that it used to take a class of 112 students to complete a classical OSCE. The ViPSCE is a better replacement for the traditional oral exam. It is much less time- consuming than traditional OSCE.

  12. Can final year medical students significantly contribute to patient care? A pilot study about the perception of patients and clinical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christian; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Tauschel, Diethard; Riechmann, Merle; Tekian, Ara

    2010-01-01

    Active participation of medical students in patient care has been shown to be important for professional development of learners. Not much is known about the impact of active student participation (ASP) to the quality of patient care. We established a Clinical Education Ward (CEW) for the final year medical students caring for patients under structured clinical supervision. This study investigates the views of both patients and clinical staff on the impact of ASP on patient care. The Picker Inpatient Questionnaire (PIQ) was used to survey all the patients admitted to the CEW during the pilot phase. Results concerning the general quality of health care and the patient-physician relationship (PPR) were compared to two matched pair control groups: patients of the same department (CG1) and of internal wards in Germany (CG2). In addition, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from patients and clinical staff members to specify the impact of students on patient care. Out of 111 patients, 64 responded. The PIQ results revealed very minor problems in the assessment of the overall general quality of care and in PPR at the CEW, while significant improvements existed when compared to CG2. Furthermore, 79% of the patients and 95% of the staff members recorded a positive impact of ASP. Qualitative data illustrated and complemented these results. Chances and challenges in programs with high participation of students in clinical care are discussed. ASP may not only be useful for learners but also offers chances and benefits for patient care.

  13. Money makes the (medical assessment) world go round: The cost of components of a summative final year Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig; Ross, Sarah; Cleland, Jennifer; Walsh, Kieran

    2015-04-29

    The widely used Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is undoubtedly expensive. Cost-effectiveness is one of the components of the assessment utility index defining its usefulness. Our current financial climate demands increased transparency in the costs associated with medical education and it is now vital to ascertain how much is spent on assessments, such as the OSCE, and in particular costs associated with the different types of stations within the OSCE. A retrospective case-study approach was used to identify all costs associated with the development, production, administration and post-examination phases of the 2013 final year MBChB OSCE at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. This 15 station OSCE was held over 2 days for 185 students. This OSCE cost £65,328 to run. Costs per station ranged from £3108 (prescribing) to £6577 (eye examination). The cost per student was £355. The costs of a "high stakes" OSCE are sobering. The bulk of costs identified are not modifiable in light of what is currently known about the metrics of OSCE utility, particularly reliability and validity. Providers, and funders, of medical education must be prepared to assign significant resource to OSCE assessment and centres should be encouraged to calculate precise costs associated with assessment to inform resource allocation decisions.

  14. Analysis of stress-causing factors in the final undergraduate year of the nursing course - doi 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i2.9209

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Hirata Soares

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory and descriptive study that analyzed the intensity of stress caused by different situations is provided. The sample consisted of 47 final-year nursing students at the State University of Londrina and was carried out between July and September 2009. Data, obtained by a seven-item visual analogue scale and by a single open question on the perception of other stress sources, were analyzed through rating scores and resulted in a data table. Most students were rated at intensity 3 (38.3% and 4 (36.2%, or rather, maximum overload stress for academic studies. Lack of leisure time and fear of unemployment after graduation were regarded as stress-causing situations, coupled to a feeling of being unprepared to exercise one’s profession. Financial difficulties led to lower intensity but medium-significance factors for stress development. Interpersonal relationships received the lowest intensity scores. Results indicated future changes in the curriculum of the nursing course to minimize the suffering and harm to the students’ mental health and to provide the full development of their emotional maturity.  

  15. Effect of a clinical skills refresher course on the clinical performance, anxiety and self-efficacy of the final year undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Hooman; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Houser, Marian L; Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh; Kermanshahi, Seyedeh Sosan Nouri; Torabi, Sedigheh

    2017-11-01

    Although the final year of nursing undergraduate programs that focus on clinical education are planned to prepare nursing students to better transition to the real world of health care service; evidence has shown that this program is not sufficient to reach this end goal. This controlled trial study was to investigate the effectiveness of a basic clinical skills refresher course for nursing students before entering the internship program. The sample consisted of 160 undergraduate nursing students assigned into two groups. The intervention was a three-day refresher course directed by nurse instructors for intervention group focused on 10 basic nursing procedures in the clinical skill lab. The control group did not receive any intervention. The students' anxiety, clinical self- efficacy and clinical skills practice were measured before and after intervention in both groups. The results indicated that the students who took part in the refresher course experienced lower anxiety levels, higher levels of clinical self-efficacy, and have better clinical skills during their internships. The undergraduate nursing curriculum can be strengthened by the basic clinical skills refresher course. This refresher course can bridge the theory - practice gap and provide a better transition from the student to nurse role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Analysis of the Content, Policies and Assessment of ICT Curricula in the Final Years of Secondary Schooling in Australia and Vietnam: A Comparative Educational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Stoilescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores and analyses similarities and differences in ICT curricula, policies, and assessment between the Vietnamese and Australian educational systems for the final years of secondary educational level. It was found that while having a common core set of tendencies, the Australian ICT curricula, policies, and assessments differ markedly from the Vietnamese counterparts. These differences can be explained by economic and cultural factors, national-wide educational trends, ICT strategies, and their degrees of implementation in schools. We found that limited constructivist implementations are used in ICT curricula in both countries, as Australian education has high expectations in national evaluations with an emphasis on standardized tests and Vietnamese education is still entrapped in prescriptive lessons of traditional pedagogy, emphasizing transmission model of information. We found that lack of opportunities in teacher professional development in ICT training is common for both countries. While the Australian educational system still struggles, especially in providing opportunities for learning theoretical and programming aspects, multiple challenging aspects were found in the ICT content and policies of the Vietnamese educational system that call for immediate change and improvement. In this sense, Vietnamese administrators are recommended to extensively follow up their educational strategies and policies, in order to make sure that their reforms are adequately implemented in schools. In order to bridge the gap and implement adequate ICT curricula, rigorous professional training in ICT teaching is essential for both Australian and Vietnamese teachers.

  17. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2008. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2008 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. In May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV were suspended by the DOE. The environmental monitoring programs were continued throughout the year. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2008 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  18. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2007. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Rutherford, Phil [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Lenox, Art [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Blair, Lori [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Amar, Ravnesh [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Costa, Paul [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Galvez, Lydia [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Jameson, Blythe [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Galvez, Lydia [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company

    2008-09-30

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2007 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. In May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV were suspended until DOE completes the SSFL Area IV Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The environmental monitoring programs were continued throughout the year. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2007 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and/or other licensed sites approved by DOE for radioactive waste disposal. No liquid radioactive wastes were released into the environment in 2007.

  19. The first Italian superconducting fault current limiter: Results of the field testing experience after one year operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, L; Bocchi, M; Ascade, M; Valzasina, A; Rossi, V; Angeli, G; Ravetta, C

    2014-01-01

    Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico S.p.A. (RSE) has been gaining a relevant experience in the simulation, design and installation of resistive-type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) devices for more than five years in the framework of a R and D national project funded by the Ricerca di Sistema (RdS). The most recent outcome of this research activity is the installation of a resistive-type BSCCO-based 9 kV / 3.4 MVA SFCL device in a single feeder branch of the Medium Voltage (MV) distribution network managed by A2A Reti Elettriche S.p.A (A2A) in the Milano area. This installation represents the first SFCL successfully installed in Italy. In this paper, we report on the main outcomes after a more than 1-year long steady-state field testing activity. The design of an upgraded device to be installed in the same substation has already been initiated: the new SFCL will allow to protect four different feeders, therefore implying a device upgrade up to 15.6 MVA.

  20. Final Report - Phase II - Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study ($20,575 extension)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent Peyton; Rajesh Sani

    2006-01-01

    Our understanding of subsurface microbiology is hindered by the inaccessibility of this environment, particularly when the hydrogeologic medium is contaminated with toxic substances. Past research in our labs indicated that the composition of the growth medium (e.g., bicarbonate complexation of U(VI)) and the underlying mineral phase (e.g., hematite) significantly affects the rate and extent of U(VI) reduction and immobilization through a variety of effects. Our research was aimed at elucidating those effects to a much greater extent, while exploring the potential for U(IV) reoxidation and subsequent re-mobilization, which also appears to depend on the mineral phases present in the system. The project reported on here was an extension ($20,575) of the prior (much larger) project. This report is focused only on the work completed during the extension period. Further information on the larger impacts of our research, including 28 publications, can be found in the final report for the following projects: (1) Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study Grant DE-FG03-01ER63270, and (2) Acceptable Endpoints for Metals and Radionuclides: Quantifying the Stability of Uranium and Lead Immobilized Under Sulfate Reducing Conditions Grant DE-FG03-98ER62630/A001 In this Phase II project, the toxic effects of uranium(VI) were studied using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 in a medium containing bicarbonate or 1, 4-piperazinediethane sulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate (PIPES) buffer (each at 30 mM, pH 7). The toxicity of uranium(VI) was dependent on the medium buffer and was observed in terms of longer lag times and in some cases, no measurable growth. The minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) was 140 (micro)M U(VI) in PIPES buffered medium. This is 36 times lower than previously reported for D. desulfuricans. These results suggest that U(VI) toxicity and the detoxification mechanisms of G20 depend greatly

  1. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Luiz de Oliveira ROSA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States. Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers, synthetic resins (681 papers, dental cements (440 papers, dental alloys (392 papers and dental adhesives (361 papers. The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents, followed by dental implants (8 patents and composite resins (7 patents. Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development

  2. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; Silva, Tiago Machado; Lima, Giana da Silveira; Silva, Adriana Fernandes; Piva, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in countries such as Brazil.

  3. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSA, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; SILVA, Tiago Machado; LIMA, Giana da Silveira; SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; PIVA, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in

  4. How International Field Experiences Promote Cross-Cultural Awareness in Preservice Teachers through Experiential Learning: Findings from a Six-Year Collective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, Erik; Sharma, Suniti; Phillion, JoAnn

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: The article examines how international field experiences promote cross-cultural awareness in U.S. American preservice teachers through experiential learning. The findings presented here are based on a 6-year study of a short-term study abroad program in Honduras that included an international field experience component and took…

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): North Hollywood/Burbank Well Field Area 1, San Fernando Valley Site, California (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-24

    The North Hollywood - Burbank Well Field (NHBWF) is located within the San Fernando Valley Ground Water basin, which can provide drinking water for approximately 500,000 people residing in the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles. In 1980 TCE and PCE were discovered in 25% of DWP's wells. In July 1981, DWP and the Southern California Association of Governments began a two-year study funded by EPA. The study revealed the occurrence of ground-water contamination plume patterns that are spreading toward the southeast. The primary contaminant of concern to the ground-water is TCE with PCE and other VOCs present. The selected remedial action for the site is ground-water pump and treatment using aeration and granular-activated-carbon - air-filtering units, with discharge to the DWP Pumping Station for chlorination and distribution. Spent carbon will be removed and replaced with fresh carbon, with the spent carbon scheduled either for disposal or regeneration. The estimated capital cost for this remedial action is $2,192,895 with present worth OandM of $2,284,105.

  6. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    evaluate reproductive performance in animals that are subjected to different feed supplementation strategies. It was, however, realised that this technique has potential to monitor and improve existing support services to livestock farmers such as artificial insemination and to introduce new services such as early diagnosis of non-pregnancy and infertility. In order to ensure future sustainability of the RIA for use in such applications, the work on the second component has now been taken under a new project (RAF/5/046). This publication contains the results presented by the scientists of National Agricultural Research Systems of African countries who participated in the Final Review meeting held in Cairo, Egypt from 25 to 29 November 2000, which dealt with only the nutrition component, Development and Field Evaluation of Feed Supplementation Strategies. This publication also contains some selected papers presented at the National Training Workshop on Field Evaluation and Development of the Dry Season Feed Supplementation Packages for Ruminant Animals in the Traditional Smallholder Farms organized with financial assistance from the IAEA, from 25 to 29 July 1999, in Lusaka, Zambia

  7. Strong opioid prescription in cancer patients in their final year of life: A population-based analysis using a Taiwanese health insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Lin; Hsieh, Ruey Kuen; Tang, Chao-Hsiun

    2018-03-02

    Pain assessment and management have been important criteria in hospital accreditation in Taiwan since 2007. We used a Taiwanese health insurance database to determine factors influencing patterns of strong opioid use in cancer patients in their final 12 months of life. Data from patients with cancer in Taiwan outpatient clinics with cancer-related deaths between 2008 and 2011 were included in the analysis. Strong opioid prescription data from the last 12 months of each patient's life, as well as patient, physician, and hospital characteristics, were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Among 162 679 patients, more were male (63.6%) than female (36.4%) and almost half (49.3%) were ≥70 years old. Most (44.9%) patients had gastrointestinal cancer. More than one-third (35.4%) of patients were prescribed strong opioids during the 12 months before death, and more than half (53.2%) of those prescribed opioids received them in the 3 months before death. Median duration of strong opioid use was 81 days before death. Patients with head/neck cancer (52.8%) or who were treated in hematology and oncology departments (45.8%) were most likely, and patients with gastrointestinal cancer (hazard ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.67) or treated in gastroenterology departments (hazard ratio = 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.93) were least likely to be prescribed strong opioids. Strong opioid prescriptions varied among patients with different cancer diagnoses and physicians. Information from this study can guide efforts to improve patient and physician education about cancer pain management. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of final year medical, occupational therapy and sport science students regarding physiotherapy, in KwaZulu Natal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Puckree

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about physiotherapy  has affected its status. In a developing profession whose patient base is still significantly dependent on referral from medical practitioners, certain stereo-typic attitudes about it require attention. This study investigated the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of the 2009 final year medical, occupational therapy and sport science students at one university in KwaZulu natal, regarding  physio therapy. A saturation sample of 292 students from the selected groups was  invited  to  participate  in  the study. The  cross  sectional  survey  used a questionnaire  with  open  and  closed ended  questions.  The  data  was  reduced to percentages and analysed using chi square tests at p< 0, 05. The overall response rate was 51% with 95% occupational therapy, 71% sport science and only 31% medical students responding. About 74% of the respondents had adequate knowledge about physiotherapy. Seventy five percent of medical and 50% of oT students knew that physiotherapists were first contact practitioners. over 50% of the respondents who had experienced physiotherapy displayed positive attitudes and felt that physio-therapy was a good career choice. Massage was the best known (95% and electrotherapy the least known (44% modality. orthopedics (88%, sports physio therapy (84% and rehabilitation (78% were better known. we conclude that the response rate to the study especially by medical students is of concern despite the overall positive attitudes displayed by the participants.

  9. Field assessment of balance in 10 to 14 year old children, reproducibility and validity of the Nintendo Wii board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech; Junge, Tina; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-06-10

    Because body proportions in childhood are different to those in adulthood, children have a relatively higher centre of mass location. This biomechanical difference and the fact that children's movements have not yet fully matured result in different sway performances in children and adults. When assessing static balance, it is essential to use objective, sensitive tools, and these types of measurement have previously been performed in laboratory settings. However, the emergence of technologies like the Nintendo Wii Board (NWB) might allow balance assessment in field settings. As the NWB has only been validated and tested for reproducibility in adults, the purpose of this study was to examine reproducibility and validity of the NWB in a field setting, in a population of children. Fifty-four 10-14 year-olds from the CHAMPS-Study DK performed four different balance tests: bilateral stance with eyes open (1), unilateral stance on dominant (2) and non-dominant leg (3) with eyes open, and bilateral stance with eyes closed (4). Three rounds of the four tests were completed with the NWB and with a force platform (AMTI). To assess reproducibility, an intra-day test-retest design was applied with a two-hour break between sessions. Bland-Altman plots supplemented by Minimum Detectable Change (MDC) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) demonstrated satisfactory reproducibility for the NWB and the AMTI (MDC: 26.3-28.2%, CCC: 0.76-0.86) using Centre Of Pressure path Length as measurement parameter. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated satisfactory concurrent validity between the NWB and the AMTI, supplemented by satisfactory CCC in all tests (CCC: 0.74-0.87). The ranges of the limits of agreement in the validity study were comparable to the limits of agreement of the reproducibility study. Both NWB and AMTI have satisfactory reproducibility for testing static balance in a population of children. Concurrent validity of NWB compared with AMTI was satisfactory. Furthermore, the

  10. Medicare program; announcement of the calendar year 2002 conversion factor for the hospital outpatient prospective payment system and a pro rata reduction on transitional pass-through payments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-02

    This final rule announces the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system conversion factor for calendar year (CY) 2002. In addition, it describes the Secretary's estimate of the total amount of transitional pass-through payments for CY 2002 and the implementation of a uniform reduction in each of the pass-through payments for that year.

  11. Durable Efficacy and Safety of Long-Term OnabotulinumtoxinA Treatment in Patients with Overactive Bladder Syndrome: Final Results of a 3.5-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitti, Victor W; Ginsberg, David; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Sussman, David; Radomski, Sidney; Sand, Peter; De Ridder, Dirk; Jenkins, Brenda; Magyar, Andrew; Chapple, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    These are the final results of the prospective, multicenter, long-term (3.5-year) study of the efficacy/safety of onabotulinumtoxinA for overactive bladder syndrome. Patients who completed either of 2, 24-week phase 3 trials could enter a 3-year extension and continue treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA 100 U as needed to control overactive bladder symptoms. Data were analyzed by the treatment(s) received (up to 6) and in discrete subgroups that received 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 treatments (to evaluate the consistency of the response after repeat treatments in the same patient groups). Assessments included the change from baseline in the number of urinary incontinence episodes per day and the proportion of patients who reported improvement/great improvement in urinary symptoms on the TBS (Treatment Benefit Scale) at week 12 as co-primary end points. Other end points were the change from baseline in I-QOL (Incontinence Quality of Life), the number of urgency and micturition episodes per day; duration of effect; the number of adverse events; and the initiation of intermittent catheterization. Consistent mean reductions in urinary incontinence were observed following continued onabotulinumtoxinA treatment, ranging from -3.1 to -3.8 in the overall population and -2.9 to -4.5 in the discrete subgroups. Durable improvements were seen in overactive bladder symptoms and quality of life. A high proportion of patients rated their condition as improved/greatly improved. The median duration of effect was 7.6 months. The most common adverse event was urinary tract infection. The rate of de novo catheterization after the first treatment was 4.0% and it ranged from 0.6% to 1.7% after subsequent treatments. Long-term onabotulinumtoxinA treatment consistently decreased overactive bladder symptoms and improved quality of life with no new safety signals. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-assessment of nursing competency among final year nursing students in Thailand: a comparison between public and private nursing institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawaengdee K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Krisada Sawaengdee,1,2 Kanang Kantamaturapoj,3 Parinda Seneerattanaprayul,1 Weerasak Putthasri,1 Rapeepong Suphanchaimat,1,4 1International Health Policy Program (IHPP, 2Praboromrajchanok Institute for Health Workforce Development, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, 3Banphai Hospital, Khon Kaen, 4Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand Introduction and objectives: Nurses play a major role in Thailand’s health care system. In recent years, the production of nurses, in both the public and private sectors, has been growing rapidly to respond to the shortage of health care staff. Alongside concerns over the number of nurses produced, the quality of nursing graduates is of equal importance. This study therefore aimed to 1 compare the self-assessed competency of final year Thai nursing students between public and private nursing schools, and 2 explore factors that were significantly associated with competency level.Methods: A cross-sectional clustered survey was conducted on 40 Thai nursing schools. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaire consisted of questions about respondents’ background, their education profile, and a self-measured competency list. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multivariate regression analysis were applied. Results: A total of 3,349 students participated in the survey. Approximately half of the respondents had spent their childhood in rural areas. The majority of respondents reported being “confident” or “very confident” in all competencies. Private nursing students reported a higher level of “public health competency” than public nursing students with statistical significance. However, there was no significant difference in “clinical competency” between the two groups.Conclusion: Nursing students from private institutions seemed to report higher levels of competency than

  13. [Working on the ward as part of the medical school curriculum: the influence of final year students on learning outcomes of medical students in their 7th semester and their feeling integrated].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, Christoph; Schrauth, Markus; Kraus, Bernd; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Integrating medical students into their future working environment is of utmost importance in order to ensure a smooth transition from university life to clinical practice. In the German-speaking area, there has so far been no quantitative analysis of the extent or the quality of supervision received by medical students during their ward clerkship during their clinical studies in the specialist field of internal medicine. In the summer of 2005, 161 medical students in their 6th and 7th semester undertook ward clerkships on internal wards at the University Clinic of Heidelberg and its academic hospitals. Using a questionnaire, a survey was conducted among these students about the intensity and quality of supervision received during their work on ward. Medical students working on the wards of academic hospitals were significantly more frequently co-supervised by senior physicians (p learning outcomes (p integrated on the ward. Final year students play a central role in incorporating medical students into the ward routines of teaching hospitals. While they cannot replace instruction or supervision by a qualified physician, the promising potential of "peer-teaching" programmes should be utilized and junior physicians should be systematically prepared for and supervised in this important function.

  14. Shifts in soil fungal communities in Tuber melanosporum plantations over a 20-year transition from agriculture fields to oak woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To explore the diversity of soil fungi found in black truffle (Tuber melanosporum plantations following the introduction of the mycorrhizal-colonized host tree, (Quercus ilex, through the development of the brûlé and production of mature sporocarps.Area of study: This research was carried out province of Teruel, Aragon (central eastern Spain.Material and Methods: Soil samples from 6 plantations were collected beneath Q. ilex trees inoculated with T. melanosporum, of 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 20 years after out planting in truffle plantations. Soil DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified and sequenced to compare soil fungi present at different ages.Main results: As tree age increased, we observed an increased frequency of T. melanosporum (from 8% to 71% of sequenced colonies and concomitant decrease in the combined frequency of Fusarium spp. and Phoma spp. (from 64% to 3%.Research highlights: There are important shifts in species richness and in functional groups in the soil fungal communities in maturing black truffle-oak woodland plantations. The observed inverse relationship between the frequency of soil endophytic and/or pathogenic fungi and that of the mycorrhizal mutualist T. melanosporum provides support to continue a deeper analysis of shifts in fungal communities and functional groups where there is a transition from agriculture fields to woodlands.Abbreviations used: Ectomycorrhiza (ECM fungus; Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM; Operational taxonomic unit (OTU.

  15. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2010. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2010 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2010 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  16. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2011 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2011 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  17. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2006. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2007-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2006 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Closure of the liquid metal test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2006 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  18. Shifts in soil fungal communities in Tuber melanosporum plantations over a 20-year transition from agriculture fields to oak woodlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, L.; Fischer, C.R.; Bonet, J.A.; Castaño, C.; Colinas, C.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: To explore the diversity of soil fungi found in black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) plantations following the introduction of the mycorrhizal-colonized host tree, (Quercus ilex), through the development of the brûlé and production of mature sporocarps. Area of study: This research was carried out province of Teruel, Aragon (central eastern Spain). Material and Methods: Soil samples from 6 plantations were collected beneath Q. ilex trees inoculated with T. melanosporum, of 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 20 years after out planting in truffle plantations. Soil DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified and sequenced to compare soil fungi present at different ages. Main results: As tree age increased, we observed an increased frequency of T. melanosporum (from 8% to 71% of sequenced colonies) and concomitant decrease in the combined frequency of Fusarium spp. and Phoma spp. (from 64% to 3%). Research highlights: There are important shifts in species richness and in functional groups in the soil fungal communities in maturing black truffle-oak woodland plantations. The observed inverse relationship between the frequency of soil endophytic and/or pathogenic fungi and that of the mycorrhizal mutualist T. melanosporum provides support to continue a deeper analysis of shifts in fungal communities and functional groups where there is a transition from agriculture fields to woodlands. (Author)

  19. Eighteen years of GPS surveys in the Aeolian Islands (southern Italy: open data archive and velocity field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Esposito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1970s, geodetic networks became a most important tool to monitor the present day deformations of the volcanic arc of the Aeolian Islands. The first benchmarks were installed in this region at Lipari and Vulcano Islands and the number of GPS benchmarks increased in time since the early ’90s. These networks were periodically surveyed in the frame of national and international geodynamic projects and for Civil Protection programs devoted to the mitigation of the volcanic hazard. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV played a fundamental role in the realization and periodical reoccupation of these networks, with the goal to investigate the tectonic and volcanic processes, still active in this crucial area of the central Mediterranean. An updated GPS velocity map for this region, both for the horizontal and vertical component of land motion, with details for Lipari, Vulcano and Panarea Islands, is provided in this paper. The presented GPS velocity field also includes a set of additional discrete stations located in northern Sicily and Calabria together with data from the available CGPS networks active in southern Italy. Here we show the results from eighteen years of repeated GPS surveys performed in this region in the time span 1995-2013 and the open access AINET-GPS data archive, now freely available for the scientific community. Data will support scientific research and hopefully improve the assessment of volcanic and seismic hazard in this region.

  20. Site Environmental Report For Calendar Year 2012. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2012 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2012 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  1. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2009. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2009 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2009 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  2. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2004. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Lee, Majelle [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2004 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Closure of the liquid metal test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2004 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  3. Randomized Comparison of Final Kissing Balloon Dilatation Versus No Final Kissing Balloon Dilatation in Patients With Coronary Bifurcation Lesions Treated With Main Vessel Stenting. Five Year Clinical Outcome in The Nordic-Baltic Bifurcation Study III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Matti; Holm, Niels R; Kervinen, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Background- It is unknown whether the preferred 1-stent bifurcation stenting approach with stenting of the main vessel (MV) and optional side branch stenting using drug-eluting stents should be finalized by a kissing balloon dilatation (FKBD). Therefore, we compared strategies of MV stenting...... angiographic side branch (re)stenosis, especially in patients with true bifurcation lesions. The simple no-FKBD procedures resulted in reduced use of contrast media and shorter procedure and fluoroscopy times. Long-term data on stent thrombosis are needed. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http...

  4. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Susanne [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-02-09

    We participated in a FASTER SCM intercomparison for which we ran our SCM for 3 years at the SGP to analyze statistics of the precipitation field (Song et al., 2013). An important feature of these simulations was the use of relaxation forcing to observed T, q, which decouples the model convection from the forcing and allows precipitation errors to emerge. Because the GISS cumulus parameterization includes a trigger that prevents convection until sufficient lifting is present, and because convection at the SGP is usually triggered by mesoscale motions that are not represented in the forcing when relaxation is applied, the duration of SCM precipitation is shorter than observed (Del Genio and Wolf, 2012) and thus its mean precipitation less than observed. However, its diurnal cycle phase is correct, and it is the only operational cumulus parameterization in the intercomparison that does not produce excessive warm season precipitation under weak large-scale forcing conditions.

  5. Magnetic Field Effect in Conjugated Molecules-Based Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-23

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0073 Magnetic field effect in conjugated molecules-based devices Tzung-Fang Guo NATIONAL CHENG KUNG UNIVERSITY Final Report 10...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 22 Jul 2014 to 21 Jul 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Magnetic field effect in conjugated molecules-based devices 5a... Magnetic field effect in conjugated molecule-based devices. The final year of the project had a collaboration with Professor Bin Hu at the University

  6. Carbon dioxide stimulation of photosynthesis in Liquidambar styraciflua is not sustained during a 12-year field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Jensen, Anna M; Medlyn, Belinda E; Norby, Richard J; Tissue, David T

    2014-11-17

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) often increases photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) in field studies of temperate tree species. However, there is evidence that A may decline through time due to biochemical and morphological acclimation, and environmental constraints. Indeed, at the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) study in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, A was increased in 12-year-old sweetgum trees following 2 years of ∼40 % enhancement of CO2. A was re-assessed a decade later to determine if the initial enhancement of photosynthesis by eCO2 was sustained through time. Measurements were conducted at prevailing CO2 and temperature on detached, re-hydrated branches using a portable gas exchange system. Photosynthetic CO2 response curves (A versus the CO2 concentration in the intercellular air space (Ci); or A-Ci curves) were contrasted with earlier measurements using leaf photosynthesis model equations. Relationships between light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat), maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax), chlorophyll content and foliar nitrogen (N) were assessed. In 1999, Asat for eCO2 treatments was 15.4 ± 0.8 μmol m(-2) s(-1), 22 % higher than aCO2 treatments (P < 0.01). By 2009, Asat declined to <50 % of 1999 values, and there was no longer a significant effect of eCO2 (Asat = 6.9 or 5.7 ± 0.7 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for eCO2 or aCO2, respectively). In 1999, there was no treatment effect on area-based foliar N; however, by 2008, N content in eCO2 foliage was 17 % less than that in aCO2 foliage. Photosynthetic N-use efficiency (Asat : N) was greater in eCO2 in 1999 resulting in greater Asat despite similar N content, but the enhanced efficiency in eCO2 trees was lost as foliar N declined to sub-optimal levels. There was no treatment difference in the declining linear relationships between Jmax or Vcmax with declining N, or in the ratio of Jmax : Vcmax through time. Results suggest that the initial enhancement of photosynthesis to elevated CO2

  7. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-30

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2013 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2013 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. Due to the suspension of D&D activities in Area IV, no effluents were released into the atmosphere during 2013. Therefore, the potential radiation dose to the general public through airborne release was zero. Similarly, the radiation dose to an offsite member of the public (maximally exposed individual) due to direct radiation from SSFL is indistinguishable from background. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and/or other licensed sites approved by DOE for radioactive waste

  8. Quantify Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric (3D) Magnetic Fields in Tokamaks, Final Report for FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) FY2014 Joint Research Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, E. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Park, J. -K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Marmar, E. S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ahn, J. -W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Berkery, J. W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Canik, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ferraro, N. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenwald, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kim, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); King, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lanctot, M. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lazerson, S. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom). Euratom/CCFE Association; Logan, N. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Lore, J. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Menard, J. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Shafer, M. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Reiman, A. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Rice, J. E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Sugiyama, L. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Volpe, F. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Wang, Z. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Wolfe, S. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The goal of the 2014 Joint Research Target (JRT) has been to conduct experiments and analysis to investigate and quantify the response of tokamak plasmas to non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields. Although tokamaks are conceptually axisymmetric devices, small asymmetries often result from inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of the magnet coils, or from nearby magnetized objects. In addition, non-axisymmetric fields may be deliberately applied for various purposes. Even at small amplitudes of order 10-4 of the main axisymmetric field, such “3D” fields can have profound impacts on the plasma performance. The effects are often detrimental (reduction of stabilizing plasma rotation, degradation of energy confinement, localized heat flux to the divertor, or excitation of instabilities) but may in some case be beneficial (maintenance of rotation, or suppression of instabilities). In general, the magnetic response of the plasma alters the 3D field, so that the magnetic field configuration within the plasma is not simply the sum of the external 3D field and the original axisymmetric field. Typically the plasma response consists of a mixture of local screening of the external field by currents induced at resonant surfaces in the plasma, and amplification of the external field by stable kink modes. Thus, validated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the plasma response to 3D fields are crucial to the interpretation of existing experiments and the prediction of plasma performance in future devices. The non-axisymmetric coil sets available at each facility allow well-controlled studies of the response to external 3D fields. The work performed in support of the 2014 Joint Research Target has included joint modeling and analysis of existing experimental data, and collaboration on new experiments designed to address the goals of the JRT. A major focus of the work was validation of numerical models through quantitative comparison to experimental data, in

  9. PV String to 3-Phase Inverter with Highest Voltage Capabilities, Highest Efficiency and 25 Year Lifetime: Final Technical Report, November 7, 2011 - November 6, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, R.

    2012-12-01

    Final report for Renewable Power Conversion. The overall objective of this project was to develop a prototype PV inverter which enables a new utility-scale PV system approach where the cost, performance, reliability and safety benefits of this new approach have the potential to make all others obsolete.

  10. Trial for the Prevention of Depression (TriPoD) in final-year secondary students : Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, Yael; Calear, Alison L.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Batterham, Philip J.; Licinio, Julio; King, Catherine; Thomsen, Noel; Scott, Jan; Donker, Tara; Merry, Sally; Fleming, Theresa; Stasiak, Karolina; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that current treatments cannot fully alleviate the burden of disease associated with depression but that prevention approaches offer a promising opportunity to further reduce this burden. Adolescence is a critical period in the development of mental illness, and final

  11. Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 9, Data for assessing health risks in potential theaters of operation for US military forces: (Final report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W. (eds.)

    1988-02-01

    Data are presented in this volume for assessing the health risks in populations of military personnel that could result as a consequence of exposure to field waters containing constituents or infectious organisms of military concern, which are from natural and anthropogenic sources, at levels above those recommended as field-water-quality standards (i.e., above safe levels). Turbidity and color are the physical properties that are of military concern in field water. The other constituents that are of military concern in field water are (1) total dissolved solids, (2) chloride, (3) magnesium, (4) sulfate, (5) arsenic, (6) cyanide, (7) the pesticide lindane, and (8) metabolites of algae and associated bacteria. Bacteria, viruses, and parasites (e.g., protozoa and helminths) are categories of water-related infectious organisms that are of military concern. Figures were developed from dose-response data to enable military risk managers to quickly assess the potential performance-degrading effects in personnel exposed to a measured concentration of a particular constituent in field water. The general physical, chemical, and biological quality of field waters in geographic regions worldwide, representing potential theaters of operation for U.S. military forces, also are evaluated. This analysis is based on available water-quality monitoring data and indicators of likely water-quality conditions (e.g., geohydrology, climate, sanitation, industrialization, etc.). Accompanying our evaluation are maps and tables alerting military planners and risk managers to the physical, chemical, or biological quality of field water that can be expected generally in geographic regions of concern.

  12. Reduced persistence of the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin in agricultural soil following several years of exposure in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Edward, E-mail: ed.topp@agr.gc.ca; Renaud, Justin; Sumarah, Mark; Sabourin, Lyne

    2016-08-15

    The macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin are very important in human and animal medicine, and can be entrained onto agricultural ground through application of sewage sludge or manures. In the present study, a series of replicated field plots were left untreated or received up to five annual spring applications of a mixture of three drugs to achieve a nominal concentration for each of 10 or 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} soil; the latter an environmentally relevant concentration. Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory, and supplemented with antibiotics to establish the dissipation kinetics of erythromycin and clarithromycin using radioisotope methods, and azithromycin using HPLC-MS/MS. All three drugs were dissipated significantly more rapidly in soils with a history of field exposure to 10 mg kg{sup −1} macrolides, and erythromycin and clarithromycin were also degraded more rapidly in field soil exposed to 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} macrolides. Rapid mineralization of {sup 14}C-labelled erythromycin and clarithromycin are consistent with biodegradation. Analysis of field soils revealed no carryover of parent compound from year to year. Azithromycin transformation products were detected consistent with removal of the desosamine and cladinose moieties. Overall, these results have revealed that following several years of exposure to macrolide antibiotics these are amenable to accelerated degradation. The potential accelerated degradation of these drugs in soils amended with manure and sewage sludge should be investigated as this phenomenon would attenuate environmental exposure and selection pressure for clinically relevant resistance. - Highlights: • The impact of field exposure on persistence of macrolide antibiotics was evaluated. • Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory with macrolides. • Field exposure resulted in more rapid dissipation of all macrolides. • Radiolabelled erythromycin and clarithromycin were rapidly mineralized

  13. Horizontal and vertical deformation field in New Caledonia, South West Pacific, derived from more than 20 years of GNSS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballu, V.; Calmant, S.; Valty, P.; Gravelle, M.; Sakic, P.; Aucan, J.; Pelletier, B.

    2015-12-01

    New Caledonia is located in the South West Pacific Ocean, on the Australian Plate just before its subduction under the North Fiji Basin. Because it is on the subducting side of the plate interface, New Caledonia is considered to be stable to first order and not to undergo rapid deformation. However, moderate seismicity is recorded close to the plate interface, in the southern part of the main land and along the Loyalty ridge. In addition, the main island and Loyalty ridge are subjected to long-term vertical deformation due to the flexure of the plate entering subduction. A geodetic network was installed since the early days of GPS (~1990) and has been further developed and occasionally measured since. Due to the low number of global GNSS recording stations in the early 1990s, the positioning accuracy that can be achieved with these data is poor compared to present-day standards, and expected movements are slow (possibly less than 1 mm/yr). However, the >20 year length of the time series may allow us to determine the current deformation field in New Caledonia and Loyalty Ridge. We pay special care in using older GNSS data for characterizing ground motions, reprocessing all available data using a range of different processing strategies and products. We calculated daily positions from double-differenced ionosphere-free carrier phase data in a global network using the GAMIT software and combined and aligned the results on the ITRF2008 using the CATREF software, according to the processing strategy developed as part of the current ULR6 (www.sonel.org) reprocessing campaign for IGS. We compare the double difference results with those obtained in PPP mode using JPL GIPSY software as well as CNES GINS software and different products (MIT, JPL and GRG orbits and clocks provided in the framework of the IGS2 reprocessing campaign). We present both the results for New Caledonia and an analysis of the applicability of these different processing strategies to older GNSS

  14. One year after the 1 April 2014 Iquique tsunami field survey along the coasts of Chile and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2015-04-01

    One year ago on the evening of 1 April, 2014 a magnitude Mw 8.2 earthquake occurred off the coast of northern Chile off the coast of Pisagua within a region of historic quiescence termed the northern Chile seismic gap. The ensuing tsunami inundation caused mostly minor damage centered in Iquique and neighbouring stretches of coastline. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1868 and 1877 tsunamis in the region along with the recent 2010 Maule tsunami, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were no tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The Arica native local scientist deployed overnight and started the tsunami survey in Iquique on the day after the earthquake. The international scientist joined the local effort from April 6 to 11, 2014. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 700 km stretch of coastline from the Mejillones Peninsula (23.5° S) north of Antofagasta in Chile up to Vila Vila (18.1° S) in southern Peru. We surveyed 30 locations with differential GPS and laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Camarones exceeding 5 m in tsunami runup height. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of Chile and Peru both at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2014 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1868, 1877 and 2010 Chile tsunamis. Comparing to other similar magnitude events such as the 2007 Pisco tsunami in Peru the 1 April 2014

  15. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rates, and Electric Current Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total conduction currents and flash rates for around 900 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds over 17 years. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV m(sup -1) to 16. kV m(sup -1), with mean (median) of 0.9 kV m(sup -1) (0.29 kV m(sup -1)). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS m(sup -1) to 3.6 pS m(sup -1), with mean and median of 2.2 pS m(sup -1). Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(sup -2) to 33.0 nA m(sup -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(sup -2) (0.6 nA m(sup -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.6 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.39 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min(sup -1), respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  16. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  17. Numerical simulation of high-energy-electron gerated field in dielectrics of various geometries. Final report, June 1, 1979-May 15, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    It has been observed that the exposure of dielectrics to electron beams can produce an electric field of sufficient magnitude to cause dielectric breakdown. The present investigations will be directed to calculate the electric field intensity in dielectrics under spherical and cylindrical geometries. In the spherical geometry the method of multiple images renders the full numerical calculation unnecessary, whereas in a finite length cylindrical geometry the full numerical calculation seems to be inevitable. A description and results of the spherical geometry are presented and a more detailed presentation of the finite cylinder geometry is given

  18. Assessment of the fears of the public concerning possible hazards from HF electromagnetic fields of mobile phone equipment - annual enquiries. Final report on the enquiry of 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belz, Janina

    2007-01-01

    The BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Federal Radiation Protection Office) carries out a continuous series of investigations on citizens' fears concerning the potential hazards of HF electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones (''Ermittlung der Befuerchtungen und Aengste der breiten Oeffentlichkeit hinsichtlich moeglicher Gefahren der hochfrequenten elektromagnetischen Felder des Mobilfunks''). For this purpose, enquiries by telephone were carried out annually between 2003 and 2006 among representative parts of the population by the Institut fuer angewandte Sozialwissenschaft. These are to investigate the awareness of the population of health risks of electromagnetic fields and also show changes in awareness over the period under investigation. (orig.) [de

  19. Follow-up and Final Results of the Oslo I Study Comparing Screen-Film Mammography and Full-field Digital Mammography with Soft-Copy Reading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaane, P.; Skjennald, A.; Young, K. [Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Radiology] [and others

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To compare cancer detection rates of screen-film (SFM) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with soft-copy reading in a screening program including the initial positive scores for interval cancers and cancers in the subsequent screening round, and to analyze the false-negative FFDM interpretations. Material and Methods: Using a paired study design, 3683 women underwent SFM and FFDM in a population-based screening program. Two standard views of each breast were acquired. The images were interpreted without previous films for comparison. Independent double reading using a 5-point rating scale for probability of cancer was used for each modality. An examination was defined as positive if at least one of the two independent readers scored 2 or higher on the 5-point rating scale. SFM-positive cases were discussed in a SFM consensus meeting and FFDM-positive cases in a separate FFDM consensus meeting before recall. The study population was followed for more than 2 years so that interval cancers and screen-detected cancers in the subsequent screening round could be included. Cancer detection rates were compared using the McNemar test for paired proportions. The kappa statistic and Wilcoxon signed-rank test for matched pairs were used for comparing rating scores. The reading time was recorded for all FFDM interpretations. Results: A total of 31 cancers (detection rate 0.84%) were diagnosed initially, of which SFM detected 28 and FFDM 23 (McNemar test P 0.23, discordant pair 8 and 3). Two cancers with a positive score at initial SFM reading and three with a positive score at initial FFDM reading were dismissed at SFM and FFDM consensus meetings, respectively. The difference in cancer detection after recall (discordant pair 11 and 5) was not significant (McNemar test, P = 0.21). Of the 10 interval cancers and 16 screen-detected cancers in the subsequent round, 3 had true-positive SFM scores while 4 had true-positive FFDM scores in the initial reading session. A

  20. Tile drain losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from fields under integrated and organic crop rotations. A four-year study on a clay soil in southwest Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Maria; Ulén, Barbro; Söderström, Mats; Roland, Björn; Delin, Karl; Helander, Carl-Anders

    2012-09-15

    In order to explore the influence of site-specific soil properties on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses between individual fields and crop sequences, 16 drained fields with clay soils were investigated in a four-year study. Mean total N (TN) loss was 6.6-11.1 from a conventional, 14.3-21.5 from an organic and 13.1-23.9 kg ha(-1) year(-1) from an integrated cropping system across a 4 year period, with 75% in nitrate form (NO(3)-N). Mean total P (TP) loss was 0.96-3.03, 0.99-4.63 and 0.76-2.67 kg ha(-1) year(-1), from the three systems respectively during the same period, with 25% in dissolved reactive form (DRP). Median N efficiency was calculated to be 70% including gains from estimated N fixation. According to principal component factor (PCA) analysis, field characteristics and cropping system were generally more important for losses of N and P than year. Accumulation of soil mineral N in the autumn and (estimated) N fixation was important for N leaching. No P fertilisers were used at the site in either cropping system. Total P concentration in drainage water from each of the fields was marginally significantly (pleguminous crops needs to be considered carefully when designing cropping systems high efficiency in N utilisation and low environmental impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a geothermal resource in a fractured volcanic formation: Case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field, Japan. Final report, May 1, 1995--November 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, S.K.; Combs, J.; Pritchett, J.W. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The principal purpose of this case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is to document and to evaluate the use of drilling logs, surface and downhole geophysical measurements, chemical analyses and pressure transient data for the assessment of a high temperature volcanic geothermal field. This comprehensive report describes the work accomplished during FY 1993-1996. A brief review of the geological and geophysical surveys at the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is presented (Section 2). Chemical data, consisting of analyses of steam and water from Sumikawa wells, are described and interpreted to indicate compositions and temperatures of reservoir fluids (Section 3). The drilling information and downhole pressure, temperature and spinner surveys are used to determine feedzone locations, pressures and temperatures (Section 4). Available injection and production data from both slim holes and large-diameter wells are analyzed to evaluate injectivity/productivity indices and to investigate the variation of discharge rate with borehole diameter (Section 5). New interpretations of pressure transient data from several wells are discussed (Section 6). The available data have been synthesized to formulate a conceptual model for the Sumikawa Geothermal Field (Section 7).

  2. [Rules and impact factors of greenhouse gases emission in the saline-alkali paddy fields in different years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Fang, Tian-Ru; Hou, Ke-Yi; Zhao, Ren-Zhu; Liang, Shuang

    2014-12-01

    With the method of combining field