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Sample records for field emission determines

  1. Relative work function of clean molybdenum single-crystal planes determined by field emission microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeret, G.; Abon, M.; Tardy, B.; Teichner, S.J.

    1974-01-01

    A probe-hole field emission microscope was used to determine the work function of clean molybdenum single crystal planes relative to the average work function of the field emitter, assumed to be 4.20 eV. Results are compared with other available data

  2. Field determination of multipollutant, open area combustion source emission factors with a hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, J.; Mitchell, W.; Chirayath, V.; Jonsson, J.; Tabor, D.; Gullett, B.

    2017-10-01

    An emission sensor/sampler system was coupled to a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to characterize gases and particles in the plumes emitted from open burning of military ordnance. The UAV/sampler was tested at two field sites with test and sampling flights spanning over 16 h of flight time. The battery-operated UAV was remotely maneuvered into the plumes at distances from the pilot of over 600 m and at altitudes of up to 122 m above ground level. While the flight duration could be affected by sampler payload (3.2-4.6 kg) and meteorological conditions, the 57 sampling flights, ranging from 4 to 12 min, were typically terminated when the plume concentrations of CO2 were diluted to near ambient levels. Two sensor/sampler systems, termed ;Kolibri,; were variously configured to measure particulate matter, metals, chloride, perchlorate, volatile organic compounds, chlorinated dioxins/furans, and nitrogen-based organics for determination of emission factors. Gas sensors were selected based on their applicable concentration range, light weight, freedom from interferents, and response/recovery times. Samplers were designed, constructed, and operated based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods and quality control criteria. Results show agreement with published emission factors and good reproducibility (e.g., 26% relative standard deviation for PM2.5). The UAV/Kolibri represents a significant advance in multipollutant emission characterization capabilities for open area sources, safely and effectively making measurements heretofore deemed too hazardous for personnel or beyond the reach of land-based samplers.

  3. A novel field measurement method for determining fine particle and gas emissions from residential wood combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissari, Jarkko; Hytönen, Kati; Lyyränen, Jussi; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    Emission data from residential wood combustion are usually obtained on test stands in the laboratory but these measurements do not correspond to the operational conditions in the field because of the technological boundary conditions (e.g. testing protocol, environmental and draught conditions). The field measurements take into account the habitual practice of the operators and provide the more reliable results needed for emission inventories. In this study, a workable and compact method for measuring emissions from residential wood combustion in winter conditions was developed. The emissions for fine particle, gaseous and PAH compounds as well as particle composition in real operational conditions were measured from seven different appliances. The measurement technique worked well and was evidently suitable for winter conditions. It was easy and fast to use, and no construction scaffold was needed. The dilution of the sample with the combination of a porous tube diluter and an ejector diluter was well suited to field measurement. The results indicate that the emissions of total volatile organic carbon (TVOC) (17 g kg -1 (of dry wood burned)), carbon monoxide (CO) (120 g kg -1) and fine particle mass (PM 1) (2.7 g kg -1) from the sauna stove were higher than in the other measured appliances. In the masonry heaters, baking oven and stove, the emissions were 2.9-9 g kg -1 TVOC, 28-68 g kg -1 CO and 0.6-1.6 g kg -1 PM 1. The emission of 12 PAHs (PAH 12) from the sauna stove was 164 mg kg -1 and consisted mainly of PAHs with four benzene rings in their structure. PAH 12 emission from other appliances was, on average, 21 mg kg -1 and was dominated by 2-ring PAHs. These results indicate that despite the non-optimal operational practices in the field, the emissions did not differ markedly from the laboratory measurements.

  4. Field determination of multipollutant, open area combustion source emission factors with a hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emission sensor/sampler system was coupled to a NASA hexacopter unmanned aerial system (UAS) to characterize gases and particles in the plume emitted from open burning of military ordnance. The UAS/sampler was tested at two field sites resulting in 33 flights at Radford, VA a...

  5. Field emission electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to field emission electronics, a promising field at the interface between “classic” vacuum electronics and nanotechnology. In addition to theoretical models, it includes detailed descriptions of experimental and research techniques and production technologies for different types of field emitters based on various construction principles. It particularly focuses on research into and production of field cathodes and electron guns using recently developed nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes. Further, it discusses the applications of field emission cathodes in new technologies such as light sources, flat screens, microwave and X-ray devices.

  6. Determining Thunderstorm Electric Fields using Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, B.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a novel non-intrusive way to investigate electric fields in thunderclouds.Energetic cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. The front of the shower is a plasma cloud that contains 10^6 or more free electrons and positrons moving towards the Earth's surface at the speed of light. The electric fields that exists in thunderclouds induces electric currents in the plasma cloud that emit radio waves. The radio footprint for intensity, linear and circular polarization thus contains the finger print of the atmospheric electric fields along the path of the air shower.Here we report on the analysis of many cosmic-ray radio footprints as have been measured at LOFAR, a dense array of simple radio antennas (several thousands of dual-polarized antennas) primarily developed for radio-astronomy observations. We show that this method can be used to determine the charge structure in thunderclouds and discuss the accuracy of the method. We have observed seasonal dependencies.

  7. Determining Thunderstorm Electric Fields using Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, B.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a novel non-intrusive way to investigate electric fields in thunderclouds.Energetic cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. The front of the shower is a plasma cloud that contains 10^6 or more free electrons and positrons moving

  8. Field emission in RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    Electron field emission limits the accelerating gradient in superconducting cavities. It is shown how and why it is an important problem. The phenomenology of field emission is then described, both in DC and RF regimes. Merits of a few plausible 'remedies' to field emission are discussed. (author)

  9. Laboratory and field evaluations of a methodology for determining hexavalent-chromium emissions from stationary sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, A.C.

    1991-10-01

    The study was initiated to determine whether chromium emissions should be regulated under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). To support stationary source regulations, it is important that (1) the sampling procedure not change the chromium valence state during sampling and (2) an analytical technique for measuring low concentration levels of chromium be available. These goals are achieved with the current EPA 'Draft Method for Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium at Stationary Sources.' The draft method utilizes a recirculating system to flush impinger reagent into the sampling nozzle during sample collection. Immediate contact of the stack gas with impinger reagent 'fixes' the chromium valence state. Ion chromatography coupled with post column derivatization and ultraviolet visible detector is used to analyze Cr(VI) in the parts per trillion range. Field tests were conducted at metal plating facilities, industrial cooling towers, municipal waste incinerators, sewage sludge incinerators, and hazardous waste incinerators. It was at the hazardous waste facility that the new method was proven to have acceptable precision and essentially no conversion in the sample train

  10. Direct Determination of Field Emission across the Heterojunctions in a ZnO/Graphene Thin-Film Barristor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edmund M; Min, Bok Ki; Kim, Seong K; Kim, Seong Jun; Kang, Min-A; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok; Jung, Jongwan; Kim, Sangtae

    2015-08-26

    Graphene barristors are a novel type of electronic switching device with excellent performance, which surpass the low on-off ratios that limit the operation of conventional graphene transistors. In barristors, a gate bias is used to vary graphene's Fermi level, which in turn controls the height and resistance of a Schottky barrier at a graphene/semiconductor heterojunction. Here we demonstrate that the switching characteristic of a thin-film ZnO/graphene device with simple geometry results from tunneling current across the Schottky barriers formed at the ZnO/graphene heterojunctions. Direct characterization of the current-voltage-temperature relationship of the heterojunctions by ac-impedance spectroscopy reveals that this relationship is controlled predominantly by field emission, unlike most graphene barristors in which thermionic emission is observed. This governing mechanism makes the device unique among graphene barristors, while also having the advantages of simple fabrication and outstanding performance.

  11. Determination of uncertainty of automated emission measuring systems under field conditions using a second method as a reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, H.; Aunela-Tapola, L.; Tolvanen, M.; Vahlman, T. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Environmental Technology; Kovanen, K. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1999-09-01

    This report presents a procedure to determine the uncertainty of an automated emission measuring system (AMS) by comparing the results with a second method (REF). The procedure determines the uncertainty of AMS by comparing the final concentration and emission results of AMS and REF. In this way, the data processing of the plant is included in the result evaluation. This procedure assumes that the uncertainty of REF is known and determined in due form. The uncertainty determination has been divided into two cases; varying and nearly constant concentration. The suggested procedure calculates the uncertainty of AMS at the 95 % confidence level by a tabulated t-value. A minimum of three data pairs is required. However, a higher amount of data pairs is desirable, since a low amount of data pairs results in a higher uncertainty of AMS. The uncertainty of AMS is valid only within the range of concentrations at which the tests were carried out. Statistical data processing shows that the uncertainty of the reference method has a significant effect on the uncertainty of AMS, which always becomes larger than the uncertainty of REF. This should be taken into account when testing whether AMS fulfils the given uncertainty limits. Practical details, concerning parallel measurements at the plant, and the costs of the measurement campaign, have been taken into account when suggesting alternative ways for implementing the comparative measurements. (orig.) 6 refs.

  12. Field emission for cantilever sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.K.; le Fèbre, A.J.; Pandraud, G.; van der Drift, E.; French, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Field emission provides an alternative sensing solution in scaled electromechanical systems and devices, when typical displacement detection techniques fail in submicron and nanodimenions. Apart from its independency from device dimension, it has also a high response, integration and high

  13. Electron beam brightness with field immersed emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    The beam quality or brightness of an electron beam produced with field immersed emission is studied with two models. First, an envelope formulation is used to determine the scaling of brightness with current, magnetic field and cathode radius, and examine the equilibrium beam radius. Second, the DPC computer code is used to calculate the brightness of two electron beam sources

  14. Field Emission from Carbon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giubileo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Field emission electron sources in vacuum electronics are largely considered to achieve faster response, higher efficiency and lower energy consumption in comparison with conventional thermionic emitters. Carbon nanotubes had a leading role in renewing attention to field emission technologies in the early 1990s, due to their exceptional electron emitting properties enabled by their large aspect ratio, high electrical conductivity, and thermal and chemical stability. In the last decade, the search for improved emitters has been extended to several carbon nanostructures, comprising carbon nanotubes, either individual or films, diamond structures, graphitic materials, graphene, etc. Here, we review the main results in the development of carbon-based field emitters.

  15. Study of field emission phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, Devaki; Vijendran, P.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of field emission has been explained, using Fowler-Nordheim equation and the Fowler-Nordheim plot. The imaging theory is also described in brief. The fabrication details of a field emission microscope (FEM) are mentioned. The design of the tube and the emitter assemblies are explained in detail. Simple experiments that can be demonstrated on the FEM such as indexing, detetermination of work function and surface diffusion constants, etc. are also mentioned. The use of FEM as a simple teaching aid has been brought out. (K.B.)

  16. Pulsar Emission Geometry and Accelerating Field Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesar, Megan E.; Harding, Alice K.; Miller, M. Coleman; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Parent, Damien

    2012-01-01

    The high-quality Fermi LAT observations of gamma-ray pulsars have opened a new window to understanding the generation mechanisms of high-energy emission from these systems, The high statistics allow for careful modeling of the light curve features as well as for phase resolved spectral modeling. We modeled the LAT light curves of the Vela and CTA I pulsars with simulated high-energy light curves generated from geometrical representations of the outer gap and slot gap emission models. within the vacuum retarded dipole and force-free fields. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood method was used to explore the phase space of the magnetic inclination angle, viewing angle. maximum emission radius, and gap width. We also used the measured spectral cutoff energies to estimate the accelerating parallel electric field dependence on radius. under the assumptions that the high-energy emission is dominated by curvature radiation and the geometry (radius of emission and minimum radius of curvature of the magnetic field lines) is determined by the best fitting light curves for each model. We find that light curves from the vacuum field more closely match the observed light curves and multiwavelength constraints, and that the calculated parallel electric field can place additional constraints on the emission geometry

  17. Field electron emission from branched nanotubes film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Baoqing; Tian Shikai; Yang Zhonghai

    2005-01-01

    We describe the preparation and analyses of films composed of branched carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNTs were grown on a Ni catalyst film using chemical vapor deposition from a gas containing acetylene. From scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, the branched structure of the CNTs was determined; the field emission characteristics in a vacuum chamber indicated a lower turn on field for branched CNTs than normal CNTs

  18. Field emission studies at Saclay and Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, J.

    1996-01-01

    During the last five years, DC and RF equipment for field emission studies have been developed at Saclay and Orsay laboratories. Combining these devices, straight comparison has been carried out between DC and RF field emission from artificial emission sites on the same sample. Other topics are also reviewed: high field cleaning, plausible origins of thermal effects that occurred on emission sites in RF, behaviour of alumina particles under RF field, and optical observations and measurements. (author)

  19. Field electron emission spectrometer combined with field ion/electron microscope as a field emission laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkuratov, S.I.; Ivanov, S.N.; Shilimanov, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    The facility, combining the field ion microscope, field electron emission microscope and field electron emission spectrometer, is described. Combination of three methodologies makes it possible to carry out the complete cycle of emission studies. Atom-plane and clean surface of the studied samples is prepared by means of field evaporation of the material atom layers without any thermal and radiation impact. This enables the study of atom and electron structure of clean surface of the wide range materials, the study whereof through the field emission methods was previously rather difficult. The temperature of the samples under study changes from 75 up to 2500 K. The energy resolution of the electron analyzer equals 30 MeV. 19 refs., 10 figs

  20. Marshmallowing of nanopillar arrays by field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Hua; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Blick, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    We fabricated nanoscale field electron emitters formed by highly-doped silicon nanopillars on a silicon membrane. Electron-beam induced deposition of carbon-based contaminants is employed as a probe of the spatial activity of electron emission from the nanopillars. In stark contrast to the general assumption that field emission only occurs at the tips of nanoscale emitters, we found strong emission from the sidewalls of the nanopillars. This is revealed by the deposition of carbon contaminants on these sidewalls, so that the nanopillars finally resemble marshmallows. We conclude that field emission from nanostructured surfaces is more intricate than previously expected.

  1. Marshmallowing of nanopillar arrays by field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J; Qin, H; Kim, H-S; Blick, R H

    2009-01-01

    We have fabricated mechanically flexible field electron emitters formed by highly-doped silicon nanopillars on a silicon membrane. Electron beam induced deposition of carbon-based contaminants is employed to probe the spatial activity of electron emission from the nanopillars. The experimental configuration provides a powerful tool to investigate the physics of the field electron emission (FEE). In contrast to the general assumption that field emission only occurs at the tips of nanoscale emitters, we found that the emission from the nanopillars' sidewalls is as strong as from their tips.

  2. Field emission from a single nanomechanical pillar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun S; Qin Hua; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M; Blick, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    We measured field emission from a silicon nanopillar mechanically oscillating between two electrodes. The pillar has a height of about 200 nm and a diameter of 50 nm, allowing resonant mechanical excitations at radio frequencies. The tunnelling barriers for field emission are mechanically modulated via displacement of the gold island on top of the pillar. We present a rich frequency-dependent response of the emission current in the frequency range of 300-400 MHz at room temperature. Modified Fowler-Nordheim field emission is observed and attributed to the mechanical oscillations of the nanopillar

  3. Coulomb scattering in field and photofield emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donders, P.J.; Lee, M.J.G.

    1987-01-01

    An anomalous high-energy tail has been observed in the measured total energy distribution (TED) in photofield emission from tungsten. The strength of this tail is proportional to the product of the photofield emission current and the total emission current. Similar high- and low-energy tails in the TED's in field emission, which have previously been reported by several workers, are also observed. In any given measurement, the fraction of the total photofield-emission current in the anomalous photofield-emission tail is approximately equal to the fraction of the total field-emission current in the anomalous field-emission tail. Measurements of both the absolute strengths and energy dependences of the anomalous tails are reported. The experimental observations are consistent with the predictions of a classical calculation of the energy transfer that results from the Coulomb interaction between electrons in the vacuum near the field emitter. The various internal mechanisms that have previously been invoked to account for the tails in field-emission TED's do not appear to contribute significantly to the anomalous distributions observed in the present work

  4. Field emission from finite barrier quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas Sett, Shubhasree, E-mail: shubhasree24@gmail.com [The Institution of Engineers - India, 8, Gokhale Road, Kolkata 700 020 (India); Bose, Chayanika, E-mail: chayanikab@ieee.org [Electronics and Telecommunication Engg. Dept., Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2014-10-01

    We study field emission from various finite barrier quasi-low dimensional structures, taking image force into account. To proceed, we first formulate an expression for field emission current density from a quantum dot. Transverse dimensions of the dot are then increased in turn, to obtain current densities respectively from quantum wire and quantum well with infinite potential energy barriers. To find out field emission from finite barrier structures, the above analysis is followed with a correction in the energy eigen values. In course, variations of field emission current density with strength of the applied electric field and structure dimensions are computed considering n-GaAs and n-GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As as the semiconductor materials. In each case, the current density is found to increase exponentially with the applied field, while it oscillates with structure dimensions. The magnitude of the emission current is less when the image force is not considered, but retains the similar field dependence. In all cases, the field emission from infinite barrier structures exceeds those from respective finite barrier ones.

  5. The oxidized porous silicon field emission array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Demroff, H.P.; Elliott, T.S.; Kasprowicz, T.B.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Trost, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of developing a highly efficient microwave power source has led the authors to investigate new methods of electron field emission. One method presently under consideration involves the use of oxidized porous silicon thin films. The authors have used this technology to fabricate the first working field emission arrays from this substance. This approach reduces the diameter of an individual emitter to the nanometer scale. Tests of the first samples are encouraging, with extracted electron currents to nearly 1 mA resulting from less than 20 V of pulsed DC gate voltage. Modulated emission at 5 MHz was also observed. Developments of a full-scale emission array capable of delivering an electron beam at 18 GHz of minimum density 100 A/cm 2 is in progress

  6. Electron field emission for ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, A. R.; Auciello, O.; Ding, M. Q.; Gruen, D. M.; Huang, Y.; Zhirnov, V. V.; Givargizov, E. I.; Breskin, A.; Chechen, R.; Shefer, E. (and others)

    2001-03-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films 0.1--2.4 {mu}m thick were conformally deposited on sharp single Si microtip emitters, using microwave CH{sub 4}--Ar plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in combination with a dielectrophoretic seeding process. Field-emission studies exhibited stable, extremely high (60--100 {mu}A/tip) emission current, with little variation in threshold fields as a function of film thickness or Si tip radius. The electron emission properties of high aspect ratio Si microtips, coated with diamond using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process were found to be very different from those of the UNCD-coated tips. For the HFCVD process, there is a strong dependence of the emission threshold on both the diamond coating thickness and Si tip radius. Quantum photoyield measurements of the UNCD films revealed that these films have an enhanced density of states within the bulk diamond band gap that is correlated with a reduction in the threshold field for electron emission. In addition, scanning tunneling microscopy studies indicate that the emission sites from UNCD films are related to minima or inflection points in the surface topography, and not to surface asperities. These data, in conjunction with tight binding pseudopotential calculations, indicate that grain boundaries play a critical role in the electron emission properties of UNCD films, such that these boundaries: (a) provide a conducting path from the substrate to the diamond--vacuum interface, (b) produce a geometric enhancement in the local electric field via internal structures, rather than surface topography, and (c) produce an enhancement in the local density of states within the bulk diamond band gap.

  7. Determinants and predictability of global wildfire emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Knorr

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is one of the largest sources of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols globally. These emissions have a major impact on the radiative balance of the atmosphere and on air quality, and are thus of significant scientific and societal interest. Several datasets have been developed that quantify those emissions on a global grid and offered to the atmospheric modelling community. However, no study has yet attempted to systematically quantify the dependence of the inferred pyrogenic emissions on underlying assumptions and input data. Such a sensitivity study is needed for understanding how well we can currently model those emissions and what the factors are that contribute to uncertainties in those emission estimates.

    Here, we combine various satellite-derived burned area products, a terrestrial ecosystem model to simulate fuel loads and the effect of fire on ecosystem dynamics, a model of fuel combustion, and various emission models that relate combusted biomass to the emission of various trace gases and aerosols. We carry out simulations with varying parameters for combustion completeness and fuel decomposition rates within published estimates, four different emissions models and three different global burned-area products. We find that variations in combustion completeness and simulated fuel loads have the largest impact on simulated global emissions for most species, except for some with highly uncertain emission factors. Variation in burned-area estimates also contribute considerably to emission uncertainties. We conclude that global models urgently need more field-based data for better parameterisation of combustion completeness and validation of simulated fuel loads, and that further validation and improvement of burned area information is necessary for accurately modelling global wildfire emissions. The results are important for chemical transport modelling studies, and for simulations of biomass burning impacts on the

  8. Field emission current from a junction field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monshipouri, Mahta; Abdi, Yaser

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication of a titanium dioxide/carbon nanotube (TiO 2 /CNT)-based transistor is reported. The transistor can be considered as a combination of a field emission transistor and a junction field-effect transistor. Using direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) technique, CNTs were grown on a p-typed (100)-oriented silicon substrate. The CNTs were then covered by TiO 2 nanoparticles 2–5 nm in size, using an atmospheric pressure CVD technique. In this device, TiO 2 /CNT junction is responsible for controlling the emission current. High on/off-current ratio and proper gate control are the most important advantages of device. A model based on Fowler–Nordheim equation is utilized for calculation of the emission current and the results are compared with experimental data. The effect of TiO 2 /CNT hetero-structure is also investigated, and well modeled

  9. Pattern changes in determinants of Chinese emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zhifu; Meng, Jing; Guan, Dabo; Shan, Yuli; Liu, Zhu; Wang, Yutao; Feng, Kuishuang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-07-01

    The Chinese economy has been recovering slowly from the global financial crisis, but it cannot achieve the same rapid development of the pre-recession period. Instead, the country has entered a new phase of economic development—a ‘new normal’. We use a structural decomposition analysis and environmental input-output analysis to estimate the determinants of China’s carbon emission changes during 2005-2012. China’s imports are linked to a global multi-regional input-output model based on the Global Trade and Analysis Project database to calculate the embodied CO2 emissions in imports. We find that the global financial crisis has affected the drivers of China’s carbon emission growth. From 2007 to 2010, the CO2 emissions induced by China’s exports dropped, whereas emissions induced by capital formation grew rapidly. In the ‘new normal’, the strongest factors that offset CO2 emissions have shifted from efficiency gains to structural upgrading. Efficiency was the strongest factor offsetting China’s CO2 emissions before 2010 but drove a 1.4% increase in emissions in the period 2010-2012. By contrast, production structure and consumption patterns caused a 2.6% and 1.3% decrease, respectively, in China’s carbon emissions from 2010 to 2012. In addition, China tends to shift gradually from an investment to a consumption-driven economy. The proportion of CO2 emissions induced by consumption had a declining trend before 2010 but grew from 28.6%-29.1% during 2010-2012.

  10. Field emission properties of an array of pyramidal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Assis, Thiago A [Departamento de QuImica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Borondo, F [Departamento de QuImica, Instituto Mixto de Ciencias Matematicas CSIC-UAM-UC3M-UCM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); De Castilho, C M C; Brito Mota, F [Grupo de Fisica de SuperfIcies e Materiais, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario da Federacao, 40210-340, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Benito, R M, E-mail: t.albuquerque@uam.e, E-mail: f.borondo@uam.e, E-mail: caio@ufba.b, E-mail: fbmota@ufba.b, E-mail: rosamaria.benito@upm.e [Grupo de Sistemas Complejos, Departamento de Fisica y Mecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-07

    The properties and efficiency of the emission current density produced by a metallic array of pyramidal structures are investigated. The theoretical results obtained by numerical integration of the corresponding Laplace equation using a finite differences scheme offer useful information for the optimization of field emission devices based on cathodes with this geometry. Our study shows that the inter-pyramidal distance strongly affects the current density, and even more important for this issue is the protrusion characteristics of these structures. Another relevant, although less important, parameter determining this density is the anode-cathode distance. The effect of the array characteristics on the maximum local electric field intensity is also discussed.

  11. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  12. Fluxon induced resistance and field emission

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, Sergio; Darriulat, Pierre; Peck, M A; Valente, A M; Van't Hof, C A

    2000-01-01

    The surface resistance of superconducting niobium films induced by the presence of trapped magnetic flux, presumably in the form of a pinned fluxon lattice, is shown to be modified by the presence of a field emitting impurity or defect. The modification takes the form of an additional surface resistance proportional to the density of the fluxon lattice and increasing linearly with the amplitude of the microwave above a threshold significantly lower than the field emission threshold. Such an effect, precursor of electron emission, is observed here for the first time in a study using radiofrequency cavities operated at their fundamental 1.5 GHz frequency. The measured properties of the additional surface resistance severely constrain possible explanations of the observed effect.

  13. Electron injection in diodes with field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denavit, J.; Strobel, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents self-consistent steady-state solutions of the space charge, transmitted current, and return currents in diodes with electron injection from the cathode and unlimited field emission of electrons and ions from both electrodes. Time-dependent particle simulations of the diode operation confirm the analytical results and show how these steady states are reached. The results are applicable to thermionic diodes and to photodiodes

  14. High performance field emission of silicon carbide nanowires and their applications in flexible field emission displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yunkang; Chen, Jing; Di, Yunsong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a facile method to fabricate the flexible field emission devices (FEDs) based on SiC nanostructure emitters by a thermal evaporation method has been demonstrated. The composition characteristics of SiC nanowires was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), while the morphology was revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results showed that the SiC nanowires grew along the [111] direction with the diameter of ˜110 nm and length of˜30 μm. The flexible FEDs have been fabricated by transferring and screen-printing the SiC nanowires onto the flexible substrates exhibited excellent field emission properties, such as the low turn-on field (˜0.95 V/μm) and threshold field (˜3.26 V/μm), and the high field enhancement factor (β=4670). It is worth noting the current density degradation can be controlled lower than 2% per hour during the stability tests. In addition, the flexible FEDs based on SiC nanowire emitters exhibit uniform bright emission modes under bending test conditions. As a result, this strategy is very useful for its potential application in the commercial flexible FEDs.

  15. High performance field emission of silicon carbide nanowires and their applications in flexible field emission displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunkang Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a facile method to fabricate the flexible field emission devices (FEDs based on SiC nanostructure emitters by a thermal evaporation method has been demonstrated. The composition characteristics of SiC nanowires was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, selected area electron diffraction (SAED and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX, while the morphology was revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The results showed that the SiC nanowires grew along the [111] direction with the diameter of ∼110 nm and length of∼30 μm. The flexible FEDs have been fabricated by transferring and screen-printing the SiC nanowires onto the flexible substrates exhibited excellent field emission properties, such as the low turn-on field (∼0.95 V/μm and threshold field (∼3.26 V/μm, and the high field enhancement factor (β=4670. It is worth noting the current density degradation can be controlled lower than 2% per hour during the stability tests. In addition, the flexible FEDs based on SiC nanowire emitters exhibit uniform bright emission modes under bending test conditions. As a result, this strategy is very useful for its potential application in the commercial flexible FEDs.

  16. Field emission current from a junction field-effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monshipouri, Mahta; Abdi, Yaser, E-mail: y.abdi@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Fabrication of a titanium dioxide/carbon nanotube (TiO{sub 2}/CNT)-based transistor is reported. The transistor can be considered as a combination of a field emission transistor and a junction field-effect transistor. Using direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) technique, CNTs were grown on a p-typed (100)-oriented silicon substrate. The CNTs were then covered by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles 2–5 nm in size, using an atmospheric pressure CVD technique. In this device, TiO{sub 2}/CNT junction is responsible for controlling the emission current. High on/off-current ratio and proper gate control are the most important advantages of device. A model based on Fowler–Nordheim equation is utilized for calculation of the emission current and the results are compared with experimental data. The effect of TiO{sub 2}/CNT hetero-structure is also investigated, and well modeled.

  17. Determinants of Nitrous Oxide Emission from Agricultural Drainage Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reay, D. S.; Edwards, A. C.; Smith, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    Emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from agricultural drainage waters are poorly quantified and its determinants are not fully understood. Nitrous oxide formation in agricultural soils is known to increase in response to N fertiliser application, but the response of N 2 O in field drainage waters is unknown. This investigation combined an intensive study of the direct flux of N 2 O from the surface of a fertilised barley field with measurement of dissolved N 2 O and nitrate (NO 3 ) concentrations in the same field's drainage waters. Dissolved N 2 O in drainage waters showed a clear response to field N fertilisation, following an identical pattern to direct N 2 O flux from the field surface. The range in N 2 O concentrations between individual field drains sampled on the same day was large, indicating considerable spatial variability exists at the farm scale. A consistent pattern of very rapid outgassing of the dissolved N 2 O in open drainage ditches was accentuated at a weir, where increased turbulence led to a clear drop in dissolved N 2 O concentration. This study underlines the need for carefully planned sampling campaigns wherever whole farm or catchment N 2 O emission budgets are attempted. It adds weight to the argument for the downward revision of the IPCC emission factor (EF 5 -g) for NO 3 in drainage waters

  18. Determinants of nitrous oxide emission from agricultural drainage waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reay, D. S.; Edwards, A. C.; Smith, K. A.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from agricultural drainage waters are poorly quantified and its determinants are not fully understood. Nitrous oxide formation in agricultural soils is known to increase in response to N fertiliser application, but the response of N 2 O in field drainage waters is unknown. This investigation combined an intensive study of the direct flux of N 2 O from the surface of a fertilised barley field with measurement of dissolved N 2 O and nitrate (NO 3 ) concentrations in the same field's drainage waters. Dissolved N 2 O in drainage waters showed a clear response to field N fertilisation, following an identical pattern to direct N 2 O flux from the field surface. The range in N 2 O concentrations between individual field drains sampled on the same day was large, indicating considerable spatial variability exists at the farm scale. A consistent pattern of very rapid outgassing of the dissolved N 2 O in open drainage ditches was accentuated at a weir, where increased turbulence led to a clear drop in dissolved N 2 O concentration. This study underlines the need for carefully planned sampling campaigns wherever whole farm or catchment N 2 O emission budgets are attempted. It adds weight to the argument for the downward revision of the IPCC emission factor (EF 5 -g) for NO 3 in drainage waters

  19. Electron field emission from undoped and doped DLC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakhovskoi, A G; Evtukh, A A; Felter, T E; Klyui, N I; Kudzinovsky, S Y; Litovchenko, V G; Litvin, Y M

    1999-01-01

    Electron field emission and electrical conductivity of undoped and nitrogen doped DLC films have been investigated. The films were grown by the PE CVD method from CH(sub 4):H(sub 2) and CH(sub 4):H(sub 2):N(sub 2) gas mixtures, respectively. By varying nitrogen content in the gas mixture over the range 0 to 45%, corresponding concentrations of 0 to 8% (atomic) could be achieved in the films. Three different gas pressures were used in the deposition chamber: 0.2, 0.6 and 0.8 Torr. Emission current measurements were performed at approximately 10(sup -6) Torr using the diode method with emitter-anode spacing set at 20(micro)m. The current - voltage characteristics of the Si field electron emission arrays covered with DLC films show that threshold voltage (V(sub th)) varies in a complex manner with nitrogen content. As a function of nitrogen content, V(sub th) initially increases rapidly, then decreases and finally increases again for the highest concentration. Corresponding Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots follow F-N tunneling over a wide range. The F-N plots were used for determination of the work function, threshold voltage, field enhancement factor and effective emission area. For a qualitative explanation of experimental results, we treat the DLC film as a diamond-like (sp(sup 3) bonded) matrix with graphite-like inclusions

  20. Earthworms can increase nitrous oxide emissions from managed grassland: a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; López González, E.; Hummelink, E.W.J.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are important in determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soils. In laboratory studies they have been shown to increase emissions of the potent GHG nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we test whether these earthworm-induced N2O emissions also occur in the field. We quantified N2O emissions

  1. Carbon nanowalls in field emission cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyanin A. F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon nanowall (CNW layers were grown from a gas mixture of hydrogen and methane, activated by a DC glow discharge, on Si substrates (Si/CNW layered structure. The second layer of CNW was grown either on the first layer (Si/CNW/CNW structure or on Ni or NiO films deposited on the first CNW layer (Si/CNW/Ni/CNW and Si/CNW/NiO/CNW structures. The composition and structure of the resulting layered structures were studied using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. It was found that annealing of Si/CNW structure in vacuum, growing of the second CNW layer on Si/CNW, as well as deposition of Ni or NiO films prior to the growing of the second CNW layer improve functional properties of field emission cathodes based on the electron-emitting CNW layers.

  2. Determination of quenching coefficients by time resolved emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gans, T.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Doebele, H.F. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Laser- und Plasmaphysik

    2001-07-01

    Capacitively coupled RF discharges (CCRF discharges) at 13.56 MHz in hydrogen exhibit a field reversal phase of about 10 ns during which an intense electron current provides collisional excitation, within the sheath region. After this strongly dominant short pulsed electron impact excitation, it is possible to determine quenching coefficients from the lifetime of the fluorescence at various pressures by time resolved OES even for high energy levels and without any restrictions of optical selection rules. This novel technique allows the measurement of quenching coefficients for atomic and molecular emission lines of hydrogen itself, as well as for emission lines of small admixtures (e.g. noble gases) to the hydrogen discharge, since with a fast gate-able ICCD camera operating at 13.56 MHz it is possible to measure even faint emission lines temporally resolved.

  3. Determination of quenching coefficients by time resolved emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, T.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Doebele, H.F.

    2001-01-01

    Capacitively coupled RF discharges (CCRF discharges) at 13.56 MHz in hydrogen exhibit a field reversal phase of about 10 ns during which an intense electron current provides collisional excitation, within the sheath region. After this strongly dominant short pulsed electron impact excitation, it is possible to determine quenching coefficients from the lifetime of the fluorescence at various pressures by time resolved OES even for high energy levels and without any restrictions of optical selection rules. This novel technique allows the measurement of quenching coefficients for atomic and molecular emission lines of hydrogen itself, as well as for emission lines of small admixtures (e.g. noble gases) to the hydrogen discharge, since with a fast gate-able ICCD camera operating at 13.56 MHz it is possible to measure even faint emission lines temporally resolved

  4. Role of adsorbates on current fluctuations in DC field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, M.; Bonin, B.; Long, H.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    Field emission experiments in DC regime usually show important current fluctuations for a fixed electric field. These fluctuations are attributed to adsorbed layers (molecules or atoms), liable to affect the work function, height and shape of the potential barrier binding the electron in the metal. The role of these adsorbed species is investigated by showing that the field emission from a well desorbed sample is stable and reproducible and by comparing the emission from the same sample before and after desorption. (author)

  5. Field emission of carbon nanotubes grown on nickel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yemin; Huo Kaifu; Chen Hong; Lu Yinong; Xu Li; Hu Zheng; Chen Yi

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized directly on the electrically conducting nickel substrate without additional catalyst. Field emission properties of the as-prepared sample were characterized using parallel plate diode configurations. It was observed that the field emission qualitatively follows the conventional Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) theory from the straight line of ln(I/V 2 ) versus 1/V plot at the high applied field region. The uniformity and stability of the electron emission have also been examined. The low electron turn-on field (E to ) and high emission current density indicates the potential applications of this new CNT-based emitter

  6. Vertically aligned zinc selenide nanoribbon arrays: microstructure and field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lijuan; Pang Qi; Cai Yuan; Wang Ning; Ge Weikun; Wang Jiannong; Yang Shihe

    2007-01-01

    Uniform ZnSe precursor (ZnSe : 0.38en, en = ethylenediamine) nanoribbon arrays are grown vertically on Zn foils in ethylenediamine (en) using a solvothermal method. After the annealing treatment in N 2 , the ZnSe nanoribbon arrays can be obtained without an obvious morphology change and the crystallinity of ribbons is greatly improved. The microstructures of both individual ZnSe precursor and ZnSe nanoribbons are investigated. Field emission characteristics show that the onset field required drawing a current density of ∼0.1 μ A cm -2 from the ZnSe nanoribbons is 5.0 V μm -1 and the field enhancement factors are determined to be ∼1382

  7. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces; determination of emissions and emission reducing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Angerer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 382.000 t of wood waste from production processes are fired in Baden-Wuerttemberg per year in 4345 furnaces with capacities of less than 1 MW (field of application of the ''1 BImSchV''). This corresponds to an energy consumption of 5600 TJ. The firings with a totally installed capacity of 594 MW are operated mainly by joiners, carpenters, in sawmills and furniture factories. Certainly there are typical differences between the diverse branches concerning the characteristics of the firings such as capacity, kind of firing, of fuel supply and heat generation. Because of lacking established emission factors, at present time the emissions of these furnaces cannot be calculated. Therefore field measurements are carried out at a representative selection of the registered installations. The emissions are measured in consideration of the usual ways of operation and the commonly used fuels. Supplementarily the compound of the emitted hydrocarbons and their dependence on completeness of the combustion as well as the compound and the grain size distribution of the particle emissions are investigated. (orig.) [de

  8. Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO2 Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: MVA Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaszuba, John [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Sims, Kenneth [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2014-09-30

    correction factors for measuring radon in CO2-rich environments. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; she is currently employed with a geologic consulting company. Measurement of radon in springs has improved significantly since the field program first began; however, in situ measurement of 222Rn and particularly 220Rn in springs is problematic. Future refinements include simultaneous salinity measurements and systematic corrections, or adjustments to the partition coefficient as needed for more accurate radon concentration determination. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; he is currently employed with a geologic consulting company. Both graduate students are poised to begin work in a CCS technology area. Laboratory experiments evaluated important process-level fundamentals that effect measurements of radon and CO2. Laboratory tests established that fine-grained source minerals yield higher radon emissivity compared to coarser-sized source minerals; subtleties in the dataset suggest that grain size alone is not fully representative of all the processes controlling the ability of radon to escape its mineral host. Emissivity for both 222Rn and 220Rn increases linearly with temperature due to reaction of rocks with water, consistent with faster diffusion and enhanced mineral dissolution at higher temperatures. The presence of CO2 changes the relative importance of the factors that control release of radon. Emissivity for both 222Rn and 220Rn in CO2-bearing experiments is greater at all temperatures compared to the experiments without CO2, but emissivity does not increase as a simple function of temperature. Governing processes may include a balance between enhanced dissolution versus carbonate mineral formation in CO2-rich waters.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of field emission from a planar nanodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torfason, Kristinn; Valfells, Agust; Manolescu, Andrei [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2015-03-15

    High resolution molecular dynamics simulations with full Coulomb interactions of electrons are used to investigate field emission in planar nanodiodes. The effects of space-charge and emitter radius are examined and compared to previous results concerning transition from Fowler-Nordheim to Child-Langmuir current [Y. Y. Lau, Y. Liu, and R. K. Parker, Phys. Plasmas 1, 2082 (1994) and Y. Feng and J. P. Verboncoeur, Phys. Plasmas 13, 073105 (2006)]. The Fowler-Nordheim law is used to determine the current density injected into the system and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to find a favourable point of emission on the emitter surface. A simple fluid like model is also developed and its results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations.

  10. Ensaios de campo para determinação de emissões de biogás em camadas de cobertura de aterros de resíduos sólidos Field tests for biogas emissions determination in cover layers of municipal solid waste landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Odete Holanda Mariano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma metodologia de campo utilizada para determinar as emissões de biogás através das camadas de cobertura de aterros de resíduos sólidos urbanos, por meio de ensaios simples, diretos e de baixo custo. Os resultados obtidos nesses estudos indicaram que o fluxo de metano (CH4 pode atingir valores de até 150 kg/m². ano, o que representa 630 mil toneladas do CO2eq por ano em um simples aterro de 20 hectares. A espessura da camada de cobertura, que variou entre 0,2 e 0,7 m, não foi um fator relevante nas emissões medidas, enquanto que as pressões de biogás no contato camada-lixo, com valores acima de 500 Pa, favorecem a formação de microfissuras no solo da camada de cobertura, o que eleva as emissões de gases nesses pontos.This paper presents a field methodology used to determine emissions of biogas through the cover layers of municipal solid waste landfills, by means of simple, straightforward and inexpensive tests. The results from these studies indicated that the flow of methane (CH4 can reach values up to 150 kg/m². year, representing 630,000 tons of CO2eq per year in a mere 20 hectares of landfill. The thickness of the cover layer, which ranged between 0.2 and 0.7 m, was not a relevant factor in the measured emissions, while the pressure of biogas in the contact layer-waste, with values above 500 Pa, favors the formation of microcracks on the soil of the cover layer, which increases the emissions of gases in these points.

  11. Effect of annealing on field emission properties of nanodiamond coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, C.X.; Yun, J.N.; Zhao, L.L.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Wang, X.W.; Chen, Y.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Field electron emission of detonation nanodiamond (ND) coated on a titanium substrate by electrophoretic deposition is investigated. It is found that thermal annealing can significantly improve the field emission properties of the ND layer, which can be mainly attributed to the formation of the TiC phase between diamond and Ti. The first-principles calculated results show that the formation of transition layers can lower the interface barrier and enhance the field electron emission of ND coating. Besides, the transformation of diamond to graphite after annealing has been revealed by Raman spectra. This transformation also benefits the electron emission enhancement.

  12. Effect of annealing on field emission properties of nanodiamond coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, C.X., E-mail: zhaicatty@126.co [School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi' an 710127, Shaanxi (China); Yun, J.N.; Zhao, L.L.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Wang, X.W.; Chen, Y.Y. [School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi' an 710127, Shaanxi (China)

    2011-03-01

    Field electron emission of detonation nanodiamond (ND) coated on a titanium substrate by electrophoretic deposition is investigated. It is found that thermal annealing can significantly improve the field emission properties of the ND layer, which can be mainly attributed to the formation of the TiC phase between diamond and Ti. The first-principles calculated results show that the formation of transition layers can lower the interface barrier and enhance the field electron emission of ND coating. Besides, the transformation of diamond to graphite after annealing has been revealed by Raman spectra. This transformation also benefits the electron emission enhancement.

  13. Knife-edge thin film field emission cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.; Demroff, H.P.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, T.S.; Mazumdar, T.K.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Trost, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Cathodes made of thin-film field emission arrays (FEA) have the advantages of high current density, pulsed emission, and low bias voltage operation. The authors have developed a technology to fabricate knife-edge field emission cathodes on (110) silicon wafers. The emitter geometry is optimized for efficient modulation at high frequency. Cathode fabrication progress and preliminary analysis of their applications in RF power sources are presented

  14. Electron field emission from boron doped microcrystalline diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.; Baranauskas, V.; Fontana, M.; Ceragioli, H.J.; Peterlevitz, A.C.; Mallik, K.; Degasperi, F.T.

    2007-01-01

    Field emission properties of hot filament chemical vapor deposited boron doped polycrystalline diamond have been studied. Doping level (N B ) of different samples has been varied by the B/C concentration in the gas feed during the growth process and doping saturation has been observed for high B/C ratios. Threshold field (E th ) for electron emission as function of B/C concentration has been measured, and the influences of grain boundaries, doping level and surface morphology on field emission properties have been investigated. Carrier transport through conductive grains and local emission properties of surface sites have been figured out to be two independent limiting effects in respect of field emission. Emitter current densities of 500 nA cm -2 were obtained using electric fields less than 8 V/μm

  15. Carbon Transfers and Emissions Following Harvest and Pile Burning in Coastal Douglas-fir Forests Determined from Analysis of High-Resolution UAV Imagery and Point Clouds and from Field Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Gougeon, F.; Kelley, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Forest carbon (C) models require knowledge on C transfers due to intense disturbances such as fire, harvest, and slash burning. In such events, live trees die and C transferred to detritus or exported as round wood. With burning, live and detrital C is lost as emissions. Burning can be incomplete, leaving wood, charred and scattered or in unburnt rings and piles. For harvests, all round wood volume is routinely measured, while dispersed and piled residue volumes are typically assessed in field surveys, scaled to a block. Recently, geospatial methods have been used to determine, for an entire block, piled residues using LiDAR or image point clouds (PC) and dispersed residues by analysis of high-resolution imagery. Second-growth Douglas-fir forests on eastern Vancouver Island were examined, 4 blocks at Oyster River (OR) and 2 at Northwest Bay (NB). OR blocks were cut winter 2011, piled spring 2011, field survey, aerial RGB imagery and LiDAR PC acquired fall 2011, piles burned, burn residues surveyed, and post-burn aerial RGB imagery acquired 2012. NB blocks were cut fall 2014, piled spring 2015, field survey, UAV RGB imagery and image PC acquired summer 2015, piles burned and burn residues surveyed spring 2016, and post-burn UAV RGB imagery and PC acquired fall 2016. Volume to biomass conversion used survey species proportions and wood density. At OR, round wood was 261.7 SE 13.1, firewood 1.7 SE 0.3, and dispersed residue by survey, 13.8 SE 3.6 tonnes dry mass (t dm) ha-1. Piled residues were 8.2 SE 0.9 from pile surveys vs. 25.0 SE 5.9 t dm ha-1 from LiDAR PC bulk pile volumes and packing ratios. Post-burn, piles lost 5.8 SE 0.5 from survey of burn residues vs. 18.2 SE 4.7 t dm ha-1 from pile volume changes using 2011 LiDAR PC and 2012 imagery. The percentage of initial merchantable biomass exported as round & fire wood, remaining as dispersed & piled residue, and lost to burning was, respectively, 92.5%, 5.5% and 2% using only field methods vs. 87%, 7% and 6% from

  16. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knápek, Alexandr, E-mail: knapek@isibrno.cz [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic); Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel [Department of Physics, FEEC, Brno University of Technology, Technická 8, Brno (Czech Republic); Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  17. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knápek, Alexandr; Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel; Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  18. Photo field emission spectroscopy of the tantalum band structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleint, Ch.; Radon, T.

    1978-01-01

    Photo field emission (PFE) currents of clean and barium covered tantalum tips have been measured with single lines of the mercury arc spectrum and phase-sensitive detection. Field strength and work function were determined from Fowler-Nordheim plots of the FE currents. Shoulders in the PFE current-voltage characteristics could be correlated to transitions in the band structure of tantalum according to a recently proposed two-step PFE model. A comparison with the relativistic calculations of Mattheiss and the nonrelativistic bands of Petroff and Viswanathan shows that Mattheiss' bands are more appropriate. Beside direct transitions several nondirect transitions from the different features composing the upper two density of states maxima below the Fermi edge of tantalum have been found. (Auth.)

  19. Laser terahertz emission microscopy with near-field probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Using an AFM, an optical near-field image at 800 nm of a dipole antenna for THz emission is measured, and by simultaneously collecting the emitted THz radiation, the laser light confined under the AFM probe gives a THz emission resolution of less than 50 nm.......Using an AFM, an optical near-field image at 800 nm of a dipole antenna for THz emission is measured, and by simultaneously collecting the emitted THz radiation, the laser light confined under the AFM probe gives a THz emission resolution of less than 50 nm....

  20. Systematic Field Study of NO(x) Emission Control Methods for Utility Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartok, William; And Others

    A utility boiler field test program was conducted. The objectives were to determine new or improved NO (x) emission factors by fossil fuel type and boiler design, and to assess the scope of applicability of combustion modification techniques for controlling NO (x) emissions from such installations. A statistically designed test program was…

  1. Ammonia emission from organic pig houses determined with local parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Hol, J.M.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ammonia emissions from houses for growing-finishing pigs with an outside yard. While regular emission measurements are not possible in these open systems another approach was used. Local parameters were measured and used in an existing NH3 emission

  2. Electron field emission characteristics of carbon nanotube on tungsten tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Ngoc Hong; Bui Hung Thang; Nguyen Tuan Hong; Phan Ngoc Minh; Lee, Soonil

    2009-01-01

    Electron field emission characteristic of carbon nanotubes on tungsten tip was investigated in 2x10 -6 Torr vacuum. The measurement results showed that the CNTs/W tip could emit electron at 0.7 V/μm (nearly 10 times lower than that of the W tip itself) and reach up to 26 μA at the electric field of 1 V/μm. The emission characteristic follows the Fowler-Nordheim mechanism. Analysis of the emission characteristic showed that the CNTs/W tip has a very high value of field enhancement factor (β = 4.1 x 10 4 cm -1 ) that is much higher than that of the tungsten tip itself. The results confirmed the excellent field emission behavior of the CNTs materials and the CNTs/W tip is a prospective candidate for advanced electron field emitter.

  3. Recent progress in nanostructured next-generation field emission devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Gaurav; Lahiri, Indranil

    2014-01-01

    Field emission has been known to mankind for more than a century, and extensive research in this field for the last 40–50 years has led to development of exciting applications such as electron sources, miniature x-ray devices, display materials, etc. In the last decade, large-area field emitters were projected as an important material to revolutionize healthcare and medical devices, and space research. With the advent of nanotechnology and advancements related to carbon nanotubes, field emitters are demonstrating highly enhanced performance and novel applications. Next-generation emitters need ultra-high emission current density, high brightness, excellent stability and reproducible performance. Novel design considerations and application of new materials can lead to achievement of these capabilities. This article presents an overview of recent developments in this field and their effects on improved performance of field emitters. These advancements are demonstrated to hold great potential for application in next-generation field emission devices. (topical review)

  4. Recent progress in nanostructured next-generation field emission devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Gaurav; Lahiri, Indranil

    2014-08-01

    Field emission has been known to mankind for more than a century, and extensive research in this field for the last 40-50 years has led to development of exciting applications such as electron sources, miniature x-ray devices, display materials, etc. In the last decade, large-area field emitters were projected as an important material to revolutionize healthcare and medical devices, and space research. With the advent of nanotechnology and advancements related to carbon nanotubes, field emitters are demonstrating highly enhanced performance and novel applications. Next-generation emitters need ultra-high emission current density, high brightness, excellent stability and reproducible performance. Novel design considerations and application of new materials can lead to achievement of these capabilities. This article presents an overview of recent developments in this field and their effects on improved performance of field emitters. These advancements are demonstrated to hold great potential for application in next-generation field emission devices.

  5. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-01-01

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  6. Application of field blanks in odour emission research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogink, Nico W.M.; Klarenbeek, Johannes V.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands field blanks are mandatory when sampling odour emission. Field blanks are matrices that have negligible or unmeasurable amounts of the substance of interest. They are used to document possible contamination during sampling, transport and storage of samples. Although field

  7. Field determination of biomass burning emission ratios and factors via open-path FTIR spectroscopy and fire radiative power assessment: headfire, backfire and residual smouldering combustion in African savannahs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Wooster

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning emissions factors are vital to quantifying trace gas release from vegetation fires. Here we evaluate emissions factors for a series of savannah fires in Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa using ground-based open path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and an IR source separated by 150–250 m distance. Molecular abundances along the extended open path are retrieved using a spectral forward model coupled to a non-linear least squares fitting approach. We demonstrate derivation of trace gas column amounts for horizontal paths transecting the width of the advected plume, and find for example that CO mixing ratio changes of ~0.01 μmol mol−1 [10 ppbv] can be detected across the relatively long optical paths used here. Though FTIR spectroscopy can detect dozens of different chemical species present in vegetation fire smoke, we focus our analysis on five key combustion products released preferentially during the pyrolysis (CH2O, flaming (CO2 and smoldering (CO, CH4, NH3 processes. We demonstrate that well constrained emissions ratios for these gases to both CO2 and CO can be derived for the backfire, headfire and residual smouldering combustion (RSC stages of these savannah fires, from which stage-specific emission factors can then be calculated. Headfires and backfires often show similar emission ratios and emission factors, but those of the RSC stage can differ substantially. The timing of each fire stage was identified via airborne optical and thermal IR imagery and ground-observer reports, with the airborne IR imagery also used to derive estimates of fire radiative energy (FRE, allowing the relative amount of fuel burned in each stage to be calculated and "fire averaged" emission ratios and emission factors to be determined. These "fire averaged" metrics are dominated by the headfire contribution, since the FRE data indicate that the vast majority

  8. Negative ion emission at field electron emission from amorphous (alpha-C:H) carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Bernatskij, D P; Ivanov-Omskij, V I; Pavlov, V G; Zvonareva, T K

    2001-01-01

    The study on the electrons field emission from the plane cathode surface on the basis of the amorphous carbon film (alpha-C:H) is carried out. The methodology, making it possible to accomplish simultaneously the registration of the emission currents and visually observe the distribution of the emission centers on the plane emitter surface is developed. The analysis of the oscillograms indicated that apart from the proper electron constituent the negative ions of hydrogen (H sup - and H sub 2 sup -), carbon (C sup -) and hydrocarbon (CH sub n sup -) are observed. The ions emission is connected with the processes of formation and degradation of the local emission centers

  9. Fundamental properties of field emission-driven direct current microdischarges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumbach, Paul; Go, David B.

    2012-01-01

    For half a century, it has been known that the onset of field emission in direct current microdischarges with gap sizes less than 10 μm can lead to breakdown at applied voltages far less than predicted by Paschen's law. It is still unclear how field emission affects other fundamental plasma properties at this scale. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to predict basic scaling laws for fundamental properties including ion density, electric field due to space charge, and current-voltage relations in the pre-breakdown regime. Computational results are compared with approximate analytic solutions. It is shown that field emission provides an abundance of cathode electrons, which in turn create large ion concentrations through ionizing collisions well before Paschen's criterion for breakdown is met. Breakdown due to ion-enhanced field emission occurs when the electric field due to space charge becomes comparable to the applied electric field. Simple scaling analysis of the 1D Poisson equation demonstrates that an ion density of n + ≈ 0.1V A ε 0 /qd 2 is necessary to significantly distort the electric field. Defining breakdown in terms of this critical ion density leads analytically to a simple, effective secondary emission coefficient γ ′ of the same mathematical form initially suggested by Boyle and Kisliuk [Phys. Rev. 97, 255 (1955)].

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management: a review of field-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Justine J; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-02-01

    Livestock manure management accounts for almost 10% of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture globally, and contributes an equal proportion to the US methane emission inventory. Current emissions inventories use emissions factors determined from small-scale laboratory experiments that have not been compared to field-scale measurements. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 modeling approach. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (368 ± 193 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)), more than three times that from enteric fermentation (~120 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)). Corrals and solid manure piles were large sources of nitrous oxide (1.5 ± 0.8 and 1.1 ± 0.7 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1), respectively). Nitrous oxide emissions from anaerobic lagoons (0.9 ± 0.5 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) and barns (10 ± 6 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) were unexpectedly large. Modeled methane emissions underestimated field measurement means for most manure management practices. Modeled nitrous oxide emissions underestimated field measurement means for anaerobic lagoons and manure piles, but overestimated emissions from slurry storage. Revised emissions factors nearly doubled slurry CH4 emissions for Europe and increased N2O emissions from solid piles and lagoons in the United States by an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that current greenhouse gas emission factors generally underestimate emissions from dairy manure and highlight liquid manure systems as promising target areas for greenhouse gas mitigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Edge field emission of large-area single layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleshch, Victor I., E-mail: klesch@polly.phys.msu.ru [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Bandurin, Denis A. [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Orekhov, Anton S. [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, RAS, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Purcell, Stephen T. [ILM, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS, UMR 5586, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Obraztsov, Alexander N. [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu 80101 (Finland)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Stable field emission was observed from the edge of large-area graphene on quartz. • A strong hysteresis in current–voltage characteristics was observed. • The hysteresis was explained by mechanical peeling of graphene edge from substrate. • Reversible peeling of graphene edge may be used in microelectromechanical systems. - Abstract: Field electron emission from the edges of large-area (∼1 cm × 1 cm) graphene films deposited onto quartz wafers was studied. The graphene was previously grown by chemical vapour deposition on copper. An extreme enhancement of electrostatic field at the edge of the films with macroscopically large lateral dimensions and with single atom thickness was achieved. This resulted in the creation of a blade type electron emitter, providing stable field emission at low-voltage with linear current density up to 0.5 mA/cm. A strong hysteresis in current–voltage characteristics and a step-like increase of the emission current during voltage ramp up were observed. These effects were explained by the local mechanical peeling of the graphene edge from the quartz substrate by the ponderomotive force during the field emission process. Specific field emission phenomena exhibited in the experimental study are explained by a unique combination of structural, electronic and mechanical properties of graphene. Various potential applications ranging from linear electron beam sources to microelectromechanical systems are discussed.

  12. Field electron emission from pencil-drawn cold cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiangtao; Yang, Bingjun; Liu, Xiahui; Yang, Juan; Yan, Xingbin, E-mail: xbyan@licp.cas.cn [Laboratory of Clean Energy Chemistry and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-05-09

    Field electron emitters with flat, curved, and linear profiles are fabricated on flexible copy papers by direct pencil-drawing method. This one-step method is free of many restricted conditions such as high-temperature, high vacuum, organic solvents, and multistep. The cold cathodes display good field emission performance and achieve high emission current density of 78 mA/cm{sup 2} at an electric field of 3.73 V/μm. The approach proposed here would bring a rapid, low-cost, and eco-friendly route to fabricate but not limited to flexible field emitter devices.

  13. Field emission properties of the graphenated carbon nanotube electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, H., E-mail: hudson.zanin@bristol.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotônica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N. 400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Ceragioli, H.J.; Peterlevitz, A.C.; Baranauskas, Vitor [Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotônica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N. 400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Marciano, F.R.; Lobo, A.O. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology/Institute of Research and Development at UNIVAP, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, CEP 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile method to prepare graphenated carbon nanotubes (g-CNTs). • The electric field emission behaviour of g-CNTs was studied. • g-CNTs show better emission current stability than non-graphenated CNTs. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide-coated carbon nanotubes (RGO-CNT) electrodes have been prepared by hot filament chemical vapour deposition system in one-step growth process. We studied RGO-CNT electrodes behaviour as cold cathode in field emission test. Our results show that RGO-CNT retain the low threshold voltage typical of CNTs, but with greatly improved emission current stability. The field emission enhancement value is significantly higher than that expected being caused by geometric effect (height divided by the radius of nanotube). This suggested that the field emission of this hybrid structure is not only from a single tip, but eventually it is from several tips with contribution of graphene nanosheets at CNT's walls. This phenomenon explains why the graphenated carbon nanotubes do not burn out as quickly as CNT does until emission ceases completely. These preliminaries results make nanocarbon materials good candidates for applications as electron sources for several devices.

  14. Electrophoretic deposition and field emission properties of patterned carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haifeng; Song Hang; Li Zhiming; Yuan Guang; Jin Yixin

    2005-01-01

    Patterned carbon nanotubes on silicon substrates were obtained using electrophoretic method. The carbon nanotubes migrated towards the patterned silicon electrode in the electrophoresis suspension under the applied voltage. The carbon nanotubes arrays adhered well on the silicon substrates. The surface images of carbon nanotubes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The field emission properties of the patterned carbon nanotubes were tested in a diode structure under a vacuum pressure below 5 x 10 -4 Pa. The measured emission area was about 1.0 mm 2 . The emission current density up to 30 mA/cm 2 at an electric field of 8 V/μm has been obtained. The deposition of patterned carbon nanotubes by electrophoresis is an alternative method to prepare field emission arrays

  15. Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusa, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Echternkamp, K. E.; Herink, G.; Ropers, C. [4th Physical Institute – Solids and Nanostructures, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ashihara, S., E-mail: ashihara@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    We demonstrate strong-field photoelectron emission from gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared optical pulses. The maximum photoelectron yield is reached at the localized surface plasmon resonance, indicating that the photoemission is governed by the resonantly-enhanced optical near-field. The wavelength- and field-dependent photoemission yield allows for a noninvasive determination of local field enhancements, and we obtain intensity enhancement factors close to 1300, in good agreement with finite-difference time domain computations.

  16. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, 38 ZheDa Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Jun [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Tongji University, 4800 Caoan Road, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  17. Methane emission from wetland rice fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    1996-01-01


    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Wetland rice fields are an important source of methane, accounting for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic

  18. The influence of magnetic fields on absorption and emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong

    2016-10-01

    Spectroscopic observations play essential roles in astrophysics. They are crucial for determining important physical parameters, providing information about the composition of various objects in the universe, as well as depicting motions in the universe. However, spectroscopic studies often do not consider the influence of magnetic fields. In this paper, we explore the influence of magnetic fields on the spectroscopic observations arising from Ground State Alignment (GSA). Synthetic spectra are generated to show the measurable changes of the spectra due to GSA. The influences of atomic alignment on absorption from DLAs, emission from H II Regions, submillimeter fine-structure lines from star forming regions are presented as examples to illustrate the effect in diffuse gas. Furthermore, we demonstrate the influence of atomic alignment on physical parameters derived from spectral line ratios, such as the alpha-to-iron ratio([X/Fe]), interstellar temperature, and ionization rate. Results in our paper show that due to GSA, magnetic fields will affect the spectra of diffuse gas with high signal-to-noise(S/N) ratio under the condition that photon-excitation is much more efficient than thermal collision.

  19. Emission Spectrum Property of Modulated Atom-Field Coupling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yun-Feng; Feng Jian; Li Yue-Ke

    2013-01-01

    The emission spectrum of a two-level atom interacting with a single mode radiation field in the case of periodic oscillation coupling coefficient is investigated. A general expression for the emission spectrum is derived. The numerical results for the initial field in pure number stare are calculated. It is found that the effect of the coupling coefficient modulation on the spectral structure is very obvious in the case of a low modulation frequency and larger amplitude when the initial field is vacuum, which is potentially useful for exploring a modulated light source. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Resonant tunnelling from nanometre-scale silicon field emission cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.; Markwitz, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report the field emission properties of self-assembled silicon nanostructures formed on an n-type silicon (100) substrate by electron beam annealing. The nanostructures are square based, with an average height of 8 nm and are distributed randomly over the entire substrate surface. Following conditioning, the silicon nanostructure field emission characteristics become stable and reproducible with electron emission occurring for fields as low as 3 Vμm-1. At higher fields, a superimposed on a background current well described by conventional Fowler-Nordheim theory. These current peaks are understood to result from enhanced tunnelling through resonant states formed at the substrate-nanostructure and nanostructure-vacuum interface. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs

  1. Decomposing Air Pollutant Emissions in Asia: Determinants and Projections

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaj, P.; Amann, M.

    2018-01-01

    High levels of air pollution pose an urgent social and public health challenge in many Asian regions. This study evaluates the role of key factors that determined the changes in emission levels in China, India and Japan over the past 25 years. While emissions of air pollutants have been declining in Japan since the 1990s, China and India have experienced a rapid growth in pollution levels in recent years. Around 2005, control measures for sulfur emissions started to deliver expected reduction...

  2. Field Emission of ITO-Coated Vertically Aligned Nanowire Array.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changhwa

    2010-04-29

    An indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated, and the field emission characteristics of the nanowire array are investigated. An array of vertically aligned nanowires is considered an ideal structure for a field emitter because of its parallel orientation to the applied electric field. In this letter, a vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated by modified conventional UV lithography and coated with 0.1-μm-thick ITO. The turn-on electric field intensity is about 2.0 V/μm, and the field enhancement factor, β, is approximately 3,078 when the gap for field emission is 0.6 μm, as measured with a nanomanipulator in a scanning electron microscope.

  3. Field Emission of ITO-Coated Vertically Aligned Nanowire Array.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changhwa; Lee, Seokwoo; Lee, Seung S

    2010-01-01

    An indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated, and the field emission characteristics of the nanowire array are investigated. An array of vertically aligned nanowires is considered an ideal structure for a field emitter because of its parallel orientation to the applied electric field. In this letter, a vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated by modified conventional UV lithography and coated with 0.1-μm-thick ITO. The turn-on electric field intensity is about 2.0 V/μm, and the field enhancement factor, β, is approximately 3,078 when the gap for field emission is 0.6 μm, as measured with a nanomanipulator in a scanning electron microscope.

  4. Influence of local field on spontaneous light emission by nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Ole; Lozovski, V.; Iezhokin, I.

    2009-01-01

    moment of transition that takes local-field effects into account. The effective dipole moment depends on the particle shape and size. Therefore, dipole radiation depends on those parameters too. The direction patterns of light emission by cubic particles have been calculated. The particles have been......A self-consistent approach based on the local-field concept has been proposed to calculate the direction patterns of light emission by nanoparticles with various shapes. The main idea of the method consists in constructing self-consistent equations for the electromagnetic field at any point...... of the system. The solution of the equations brings about relationships between the local field at an arbitrary point in the system and the external long-wave field via the local-field factor. The latter connects the initial moment of optical dipole transition per system volume unit and the effective dipole...

  5. Temperature and emissivity determination of liquid steel S235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schöpp, H; Kozakov, R; Gött, G; Uhrlandt, D; Sperl, A; Wilhelm, G

    2012-01-01

    Temperature determination of liquid metals is difficult but a necessary tool for improving materials and processes such as arc welding in the metal-working industry. A method to determine the surface temperature of the weld pool is described. A TIG welding process and absolute calibrated optical emission spectroscopy are used. This method is combined with high-speed photography. 2D temperature profiles are obtained. The emissivity of the radiating surface has an important influence on the temperature determination. A temperature dependent emissivity for liquid steel is given for the spectral region between 650 and 850 nm. (paper)

  6. Temperature and emissivity determination of liquid steel S235

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpp, H.; Sperl, A.; Kozakov, R.; Gött, G.; Uhrlandt, D.; Wilhelm, G.

    2012-06-01

    Temperature determination of liquid metals is difficult but a necessary tool for improving materials and processes such as arc welding in the metal-working industry. A method to determine the surface temperature of the weld pool is described. A TIG welding process and absolute calibrated optical emission spectroscopy are used. This method is combined with high-speed photography. 2D temperature profiles are obtained. The emissivity of the radiating surface has an important influence on the temperature determination. A temperature dependent emissivity for liquid steel is given for the spectral region between 650 and 850 nm.

  7. Optics and design of the fringe field monochromator for a Schottky field emission gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mook, H.W.; Kruit, P.

    1999-01-01

    For the improvement of high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy a new electron source monochromator, based on the Wien filter principle, is presented. In the fringe field monochromator the electric and magnetic filter fields are tightly enclosed by field clamps to satisfy the Wien condition, E=vB. The whole monochromator including the 150 nm energy selection slits (Nanoslits) is positioned in the gun area. Its total length is only 42 mm. Using electron trajectory simulation through the filter fields the dispersion and aberrations are determined. The parasitic astigmatism of the gun lens needs to be corrected using an electrostatic quadrupole field incorporated in the filter. Estimations of the influence of filter electrode misalignment show that at least six filter electrodes must be used to loosen the alignment demands sufficiently. Using theoretical estimations of the Coulomb interaction the final energy resolution, beam brightness and current are predicted. For a Schottky field emission electron gun with typical brightness of 10 8 A/sr m 2 V the monochromator is expected to produce a 50 meV 1 nA beam with a brightness of 10 7

  8. Simulating emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene after soil fumigation under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R; Ashworth, D J

    2018-04-15

    Soil fumigation is an important agricultural practice used to produce many vegetable and fruit crops. However, fumigating soil can lead to atmospheric emissions which can increase risks to human and environmental health. A complete understanding of the transport, fate, and emissions of fumigants as impacted by soil and environmental processes is needed to mitigate atmospheric emissions. Five large-scale field experiments were conducted to measure emission rates for 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), a soil fumigant commonly used in California. Numerical simulations of these experiments were conducted in predictive mode (i.e., no calibration) to determine if simulation could be used as a substitute for field experimentation to obtain information needed by regulators. The results show that the magnitude of the volatilization rate and the total emissions could be adequately predicted for these experiments, with the exception of a scenario where the field was periodically irrigated after fumigation. In addition, the timing of the daily peak 1,3-D emissions was not accurately predicted for these experiments due to the peak emission rates occurring during the night or early-morning hours. This study revealed that more comprehensive mathematical models (or adjustments to existing models) are needed to fully describe emissions of soil fumigants from field soils under typical agronomic conditions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Process system and method for fabricating submicron field emission cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.

    1998-01-01

    A process method and system for making field emission cathodes exists. The deposition source divergence is controlled to produce field emission cathodes with height-to-base aspect ratios that are uniform over large substrate surface areas while using very short source-to-substrate distances. The rate of hole closure is controlled from the cone source. The substrate surface is coated in well defined increments. The deposition source is apertured to coat pixel areas on the substrate. The entire substrate is coated using a manipulator to incrementally move the whole substrate surface past the deposition source. Either collimated sputtering or evaporative deposition sources can be used. The position of the aperture and its size and shape are used to control the field emission cathode size and shape.

  10. Field emission study of MWCNT/conducting polymer nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvi, M.A., E-mail: maalvee@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Ghamdi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Husain, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2014-12-01

    MWCNTs/Polypyrrole nanocomposites were synthesized by solution mixing method. These synthesized nanocomposites were studied carefully by Raman Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements. The field emission study of MWCNTs/Polypyrrole nanocomposites were performed in diode arrangement under vacuum of the order of 10{sup −5} Torr. The emission current under exploration depends on applied voltage. The prepared nanocomposites depict low turn-on field at 1.4 V/μm that reaches to a maximum emission current density 0.020 mA/cm{sup 2} at 2.4 V/µm, which is calculated from the graph of current density (J) against the applied electric field (E) and from Fowler–Nordheim (F–N) plot.

  11. Enhanced field emission from carbon nanotubes by hydrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, C.Y.; Bai, X.D.; Wang, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    The field emission capability of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been improved by hydrogen plasma treatment, and the enhanced emission mechanism has been studied systematically using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, and transmission electron microscopy. The hydrogen concentration in the samples increases with increasing plasma treatment duration. A C δ- -H δ+ dipole layer may form on CNTs' surface and a high density of defects results from the plasma treatment, which is likely to make the external surface of CNTs more active to emit electrons after treatment. In addition, the sharp edge of CNTs' top, after removal of the catalyst particles, may increase the local electronic field more effectively. The present study suggests that hydrogen plasma treatment is a useful method for improving the field electron emission property of CNTs

  12. High-Performance Field Emission from a Carbonized Cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Seok; Lee, Hak Jun; Yoo, Jae Man; Kim, Taewoo; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2017-12-20

    To broaden the range of application of electron beams, low-power field emitters are needed that are miniature and light. Here, we introduce carbonized cork as a material for field emitters. The light natural cork becomes a graphitic honeycomb upon carbonization, with the honeycomb cell walls 100-200 nm thick and the aspect ratio larger than 100, providing an ideal structure for the field electron emission. Compared to nanocarbon field emitters, the cork emitter produces a high current density and long-term stability with a low turn-on field. The nature of the cork material makes it quite simple to fabricate the emitter. Furthermore, any desired shape of the emitter tailored for the final application can easily be prepared for point, line, or planar emission.

  13. Field-emission from quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Gong, Xiwen; Sabatini, Randy P; Liu, Min; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Sutherland, Brandon R; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Xu, Jixian; Pang, Yuangjie; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sinton, David; Sargent, Edward

    2017-03-24

    Quantum dot and well architectures are attractive for infrared optoelectronics, and have led to the realization of compelling light sensors. However, they require well-defined passivated interfaces and rapid charge transport, and this has restricted their efficient implementation to costly vacuum-epitaxially grown semiconductors. Here we report solution-processed, sensitive infrared field-emission photodetectors. Using quantum-dots-in-perovskite, we demonstrate the extraction of photocarriers via field emission, followed by the recirculation of photogenerated carriers. We use in operando ultrafast transient spectroscopy to sense bias-dependent photoemission and recapture in field-emission devices. The resultant photodiodes exploit the superior electronic transport properties of organometal halide perovskites, the quantum-size-tuned absorption of the colloidal quantum dots and their matched interface. These field-emission quantum-dot-in-perovskite photodiodes extend the perovskite response into the short-wavelength infrared and achieve measured specific detectivities that exceed 10 12 Jones. The results pave the way towards novel functional photonic devices with applications in photovoltaics and light emission.

  14. [Research on the method of copper converting process determination based on emission spectrum analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-xin; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Si, Fu-qi; Dou, Ke; Wang, Feng-ping; Huang, Shu-hua; Fang, Wu; Wang, Wei-qiang; Huang, Yong-feng

    2012-05-01

    A method of copper converting process determination based on PbO/PbS emission spectrum analysis was described. According to the known emission spectrum of gas molecules, the existence of PbO and PbS was confirmed in the measured spectrum. Through the field experiment it was determined that the main emission spectrum of the slag stage was from PbS, and the main emission spectrum of the copper stage was from PbO. The relative changes in PbO/PbS emission spectrum provide the method of copper converting process determination. Through using the relative intensity in PbO/PbS emission spectrum the copper smelting process can be divided into two different stages, i.e., the slag stage (S phase) and the copper stage (B phase). In a complete copper smelting cycle, a receiving telescope of appropriate view angle aiming at the converter flame, after noise filtering on the PbO/PbS emission spectrum, the process determination agrees with the actual production. Both the theory and experiment prove that the method of copper converting process determination based on emission spectrum analysis is feasible.

  15. CYANOBACTERIA FOR MITIGATING METHANE EMISSION FROM SUBMERGED PADDY FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upasana Mishra; Shalini Anand [Department of Environmental Studies, Inderprastha Engineering College, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad (India)

    2008-09-30

    Atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas with high absorption potential for infrared radiation, is responsible for one forth of the total anticipated warming. It is forming a major part of green house gases, next after carbon dioxide. Its concentration has been increasing alarmingly on an average at the rate of one percent per year. Atmospheric methane, originating mainly from biogenic sources such as paddy fields, natural wetlands and landfills, accounts for 15-20% of the world's total anthropogenic methane emission. With intensification of rice cultivation in coming future, methane emissions from paddy fields are anticipated to increase. India's share in world's rice production is next after to China and likewise total methane emission from paddy fields also. Methane oxidation through planktophytes, particularly microalgae which are autotrophic and abundant in rice rhizospheres, hold promise in controlling methane emission from submerged paddy fields. The present study is focused on the role of nitrogen fixing, heterocystous cyanobacteria and Azolla (a water fern harboring a cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae) as biological sink for headspace concentration of methane in flooded soils. In this laboratory study, soil samples containing five potent nitrogen fixer cyanobacterial strains from paddy fields, were examined for their methane reducing potential. Soil sample without cyanobacterial strain was tested and taken as control. Anabaena sp. was found most effective in inhibiting methane concentration by 5-6 folds over the control. Moist soil cores treated with chemical nitrogen, urea, in combination with cyanobacteria mixture, Azolla microphylla or cyanobacteria mixture plus Azolla microphylla exhibited significance reduction in the headspace concentration of methane than the soil cores treated with urea alone. Contrary to other reports, this study also demonstrates that methane oxidation in soil core samples from paddy fields was stimulated by

  16. Determination of Coronal Magnetic Fields from Vector Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Zoran

    1997-01-01

    During the course of the present contract we developed an 'evolutionary technique' for the determination of force-free coronal magnetic fields from vector magnetograph observations. The method can successfully generate nonlinear force- free fields (with non-constant-a) that match vector magnetograms. We demonstrated that it is possible to determine coronal magnetic fields from photospheric measurements, and we applied it to vector magnetograms of active regions. We have also studied theoretical models of coronal fields that lead to disruptions. Specifically, we have demonstrated that the determination of force-free fields from exact boundary data is a well-posed mathematical problem, by verifying that the computed coronal field agrees with an analytic force-free field when boundary data for the analytic field are used; demonstrated that it is possible to determine active-region coronal magnetic fields from photospheric measurements, by computing the coronal field above active region 5747 on 20 October 1989, AR6919 on 15 November 1991, and AR7260 on 18 August 1992, from data taken with the Stokes Polarimeter at Mees Solar Observatory, University of Hawaii; started to analyze active region 7201 on 19 June 1992 using measurements made with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter at NSO/Sac Peak; investigated the effects of imperfections in the photospheric data on the computed coronal magnetic field; documented the coronal field structure of AR5747 and compared it to the morphology of footpoint emission in a flare, showing that the 'high- pressure' H-alpha footpoints are connected by coronal field lines; shown that the variation of magnetic field strength along current-carrying field lines is significantly different from the variation in a potential field, and that the resulting near-constant area of elementary flux tubes is consistent with observations; begun to develop realistic models of coronal fields which can be used to study flare trigger mechanisms; demonstrated that

  17. Field emission from vertically aligned few-layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malesevic, Alexander; Kemps, Raymond; Vanhulsel, Annick; Chowdhury, Manish Pal; Volodin, Alexander; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The electric field emission behavior of vertically aligned few-layer graphene was studied in a parallel plate-type setup. Few-layer graphene was synthesized in the absence of any metallic catalyst by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with gas mixtures of methane and hydrogen. The deposit consists of nanostructures that are several micrometers wide, highly crystalline stacks of four to six atomic layers of graphene, aligned vertically to the substrate surface in a high density network. The few-layer graphene is found to be a good field emitter, characterized by turn-on fields as low as 1 V/μm and field amplification factors up to several thousands. We observe a clear dependence of the few-layer graphene field emission behavior on the synthesis parameters: Hydrogen is identified as an efficient etchant to improve field emission, and samples grown on titanium show lower turn-on field values and higher amplification factors when compared to samples grown on silicon

  18. Field electron emission from dense array of microneedles of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, F.; Aoyagi, M.; Kitai, T.; Ishikawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    Characteristics of field electron emission from the dense array of microneedles of tungsten prepared on a 10-μm tungsten filament were measured at an environmental pressure of approx.1 x 10 -8 Torr (1.33 x 10 -6 Pa). Electron emission was not uniform over the filament surface, but the variation of emission current with applied voltage explicitly obeyed the Fowler-Nordheim relationship. At an emission current of approx.10 -4 A, a vacuum arc was induced that led to a permanent change in current-voltage characteristic. Current fluctuation was dependent on emitter temperature and applied voltage, and the lowest fluctuation of about 4% was routinely obtained at approx.550 K and at applied voltages several percent lower than the arc-inducing voltage. Macroscopic current density amounted to approx.20-80 mA/cm 2 at the best stability

  19. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knápek, Alexandr; Sobola, D.; Tománek, P.; Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 395, FEB 15 (2017), s. 157-161 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : field emission * HOPG * scanning electron microscopy * scanning near-field optical microscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Nano-processes (applications on nano-scale) Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  20. Probe-Hole Field Emission Microscope System Controlled by Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunming; Zeng, Haishan

    1991-09-01

    A probe-hole field emission microscope system, controlled by an Apple II computer, has been developed and operated successfully for measuring the work function of a single crystal plane. The work functions on the clean W(100) and W(111) planes are measured to be 4.67 eV and 4.45 eV, respectively.

  1. Development of Field-Emission Electron Gun from Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hozumi, Y

    2004-01-01

    Aiming to use a narrow energy-spread electron beam easily and low costly on injector electron guns, we have been tested field emission cathodes of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Experiments for these three years brought us important suggestions and a few rules of thumb. Now at last, anode current of 3.0 [A/cm2

  2. Focus-variation image reconstruction in field-emission TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coene, W.M.J.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.; Op de Beeck, M.; Van Dyck, D.; Van Zwet, E.J.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Bailey, G.W.; Rieder, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a field emission gun (FEG) in high resolution TEM (HRTEM) improves the information limit much below the point resolution. In the area between point and information resolution of the FEG-TEM, image interpretation is complicated by the lens aberrations and focus effects. Different

  3. Field determination of bacterial disappearance in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    1970-01-01

    The article presents two approaches to field determination of disappearance of viable, fecal bacteria after discharge with sewage into a marine environment. The first approach is based on simultaneous sampling for bacterial counting and monitoring of dilution using a conservative tracer, which is...

  4. Field-emission from parabolic tips: Current distributions, the net current, and effective emission area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debabrata

    2018-04-01

    Field emission from nano-structured emitters primarily takes place from the tips. Using recent results on the variation of the enhancement factor around the apex [Biswas et al., Ultramicroscopy 185, 1-4 (2018)], analytical expressions for the surface distribution of net emitted electrons, as well as the total and normal energy distributions are derived in terms of the apex radius Ra and the local electric field at the apex Ea. Formulae for the net emitted current and effective emission area in terms of these quantities are also obtained.

  5. Field emission properties of ZnO nanosheet arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, Kusha Kumar; Rout, Chandra Sekhar; Khare, Ruchita; More, Mahendra A.; Chakravarty, Disha; Late, Dattatray J.; Thapa, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    Electron emission properties of electrodeposited ZnO nanosheet arrays grown on Indium tin oxide coated glass substrates have been studied. Influence of oxygen vacancies on electronic structures and field emission properties of ZnO nanosheets are investigated using density functional theory. The oxygen vacancies produce unshared d electrons which form an impurity energy state; this causes shifting of Fermi level towards the vacuum, and so the barrier energy for electron extraction reduces. The ZnO nanosheet arrays exhibit a low turn-on field of 2.4 V/μm at 0.1 μA/cm 2 and current density of 50.1 μA/cm 2 at an applied field of 6.4 V/μm with field enhancement factor, β = 5812 and good field emission current stability. The nanosheet arrays grown by a facile electrodeposition process have great potential as robust high performance vertical structure electron emitters for future flat panel displays and vacuum electronic device applications

  6. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) Facility in BTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cik Rohaida Che Hak; Foo, C.T.; Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman

    2015-01-01

    Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) provides ultra-high resolution imaging at low accelerating voltages and small working distances. The GeminisSEM 500, a new FESEM imaging facility will be installed soon in MTEC, BTI. It provides resolution of the images is as low as 0.6 nm at 15 kV and 1.2 nm at 1 kV, allowing examination of the top surface of nano powders, nano film and nano fiber in the wide range of applications such as mineralogy, ceramics, polymer, metallurgy, electronic devices, chemistry, physics and life sciences. This system is equipped with several detectors to detect various signals such as secondary electrons (SE) detector for topographic information and back-scattered electrons (BSE) detector for materials composition contrast. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with detector energy resolution of < 129 eV and detection limit in the range of 1000-3000 ppm coupled with FE-SEM is used to determine the chemical composition of micro-features including boron (B) to uranium (U). Wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (WDS) which has detector resolution of 2-20 eV and detection limit of 30-300 ppm coupled with FE-SEM is used to detect elements that cannot be resolved with EDS. The ultra-high resolution imaging combined with the high sensitivity WDS helps to resolve the thorium and rare earth elemental analysis. (author)

  7. Novel field emission SEM column with beam deceleration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiruše, Jaroslav; Havelka, Miloslav; Lopour, Filip

    2014-11-15

    A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed that features Beam Deceleration Mode, high-probe current and ultra-fast scanning. New detection system in the column is introduced to detect true secondary electron signal. The resolution power at low energy was doubled for conventional SEM optics and moderately improved for immersion optics. Application examples at low landing energies include change of contrast, imaging of non-conductive samples and thin layers. - Highlights: • A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed. • Implemented beam deceleration improves the SEM resolution at 1 keV two times. • New column maintains high analytical potential and wide field of view. • Detectors integrated in the column allow gaining true SE and BE signal separately. • Performance of the column is demonstrated on low energy applications.

  8. Novel field emission SEM column with beam deceleration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiruše, Jaroslav; Havelka, Miloslav; Lopour, Filip

    2014-01-01

    A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed that features Beam Deceleration Mode, high-probe current and ultra-fast scanning. New detection system in the column is introduced to detect true secondary electron signal. The resolution power at low energy was doubled for conventional SEM optics and moderately improved for immersion optics. Application examples at low landing energies include change of contrast, imaging of non-conductive samples and thin layers. - Highlights: • A novel field-emission SEM column has been developed. • Implemented beam deceleration improves the SEM resolution at 1 keV two times. • New column maintains high analytical potential and wide field of view. • Detectors integrated in the column allow gaining true SE and BE signal separately. • Performance of the column is demonstrated on low energy applications

  9. Laser-assisted electron emission from gated field-emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, H; Yokoo, K; Mimura, H; Shimawaki, H; Hosono, A

    2002-01-01

    Enhancement of electron emission by illumination of gated field-emitters was studied using a 100 mW cw YAG laser at a wavelength of 532 nm, intensities up to 10 sup 7 W/m sup 2 and mechanically chopped with a rise time of 4 mu s. When shining an array of 640 silicon emitters, the emission current responded quickly to on-off of the laser. The increase of the emission current was proportional to the basic emission current at low gate voltages, but it was saturated at approx 3 mu A as the basic current approached 100 mu A with the increase of gate voltage. The emission increase was proportional to the square root of laser power at low gate voltages and to the laser power at elevated gate voltages. For 1- and 3-tip silicon emitters, the rise and fall of the current due to on-off of the laser showed a significant time lag. The magnitude of emission increase was independent of the position of laser spot on the emitter base and reached 2 mu A at a basic current of 5 mu A without showing signs of saturation. The mech...

  10. Field emission from a new type of electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of field emission electron source has been developed. In this paper, the construction, characteristics and behaviour of tungsten micropoint emitters coated with a sub-micron layer of hydrocarbon using a TEM with poor ( ∼ 1 0 -3 torr) vacuum conditions are described. The hydrocarbon coating has been verified using the X-Ray energy dispersive analysis technique of a SEM. The technical capabilities and potential of the new type of electron source are compared with those of other comparable composite micropoint field emitters and other types of electron sources currently in use. The emission properties presented here include I-V characteristics, emission images and electron energy spectra of this type of composite micropoint emitters. The effect on the behaviour and characteristics of baking the coated emitters at temperatures ranging between 140 0 C and 350 0 C is also studied. The behaviour of the emitter has been interpreted in terms of a field-induced hot-electron emission mechanism associated with metal-insulator-vacuum (M-I-V) regime

  11. Emissions from Prescribed Burning of Agricultural Fields in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide...

  12. Discrete space charge affected field emission: Flat and hemisphere emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Kevin L., E-mail: kevin.jensen@nrl.navy.mil [Code 6854, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Shiffler, Donald A.; Tang, Wilkin [Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Rittersdorf, Ian M. [Code 6770, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lebowitz, Joel L. [Department of Mathematics and Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Harris, John R. [U.S. Navy Reserve, New Orleans, Louisiana 70143 (United States); Lau, Y. Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Petillo, John J. [Leidos, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821 (United States); Luginsland, John W. [Physics and Electronics Directorate, AFOSR, Arlington, Virginia 22203 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Models of space-charge affected thermal-field emission from protrusions, able to incorporate the effects of both surface roughness and elongated field emitter structures in beam optics codes, are desirable but difficult. The models proposed here treat the meso-scale diode region separate from the micro-scale regions characteristic of the emission sites. The consequences of discrete emission events are given for both one-dimensional (sheets of charge) and three dimensional (rings of charge) models: in the former, results converge to steady state conditions found by theory (e.g., Rokhlenko et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014904 (2010)]) but show oscillatory structure as they do. Surface roughness or geometric features are handled using a ring of charge model, from which the image charges are found and used to modify the apex field and emitted current. The roughness model is shown to have additional constraints related to the discrete nature of electron charge. The ability of a unit cell model to treat field emitter structures and incorporate surface roughness effects inside a beam optics code is assessed.

  13. On the field determination of effective porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javandel, I.

    1989-03-01

    Effective porosity of geologic materials is a very important parameter for estimating groundwater travel time and modeling contaminant transport in hydrologic systems. Determination of a representative effective porosity for nonideal systems is a problem still challenging hydrogeologists. In this paper, some of the conventional field geophysical and hydrological methods for estimating effective porosity of geologic materials are reviewed. The limitations and uncertainties associated with each method are discussed. 30 refs., 8 figs

  14. 134Cs emission probabilities determination by gamma spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, M. C. M.; Poledna, R.; Delgado, J. U.; Silva, R. L.; Araujo, M. T. F.; da Silva, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    The National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN) of Rio de Janeiro performed primary and secondary standardization of different radionuclides reaching satisfactory uncertainties. A solution of 134Cs radionuclide was purchased from commercial supplier to emission probabilities determination of some of its energies. 134Cs is a beta gamma emitter with 754 days of half-life. This radionuclide is used as standard in environmental, water and food control. It is also important to germanium detector calibration. The gamma emission probabilities (Pγ) were determined mainly for some energies of the 134Cs by efficiency curve method and the Pγ absolute uncertainties obtained were below 1% (k=1).

  15. A statistical model for field emission in superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H.; Green, K.; Jost, W.; Wright, B.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical model is used to account for several features of performance of an ensemble of superconducting cavities. The input parameters are: the number of emitters/area, a distribution function for emitter β values, a distribution function for emissive areas, and a processing threshold. The power deposited by emitters is calculated from the field emission current and electron impact energy. The model can successfully account for the fraction of tests that reach the maximum field Epk in an ensemble of cavities, for eg, 1-cells at sign 3 GHz or 5-cells at sign 1.5 GHz. The model is used to predict the level of power needed to successfully process cavities of various surface areas with high pulsed power processing (HPP)

  16. Continuous measurements of N2O emissions from arable fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallman, Magdalena; Lammirato, Carlo; Rütting, Tobias; Delin, Sofia; Weslien, Per; Klemedtsson, Leif

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture represents 59 % of the anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, according to the IPCC (Ciais et al. 2013). N2O emissions are typically irregular and vary widely in time and space, which makes it difficult to get a good representation of the emissions (Henault et al. 2012), particularly if measurements have low frequency and/or cover only a short time period. Manual measurements are, for practical reasons, often short-term and low-frequent, or restricted to periods where emissions are expected to be high, e.g. after fertilizing. However, the nature of N2O emissions, being largely unpredictable, calls for continuous or near-continuous measurements over long time periods. So far, rather few long-term, high resolution measurements of N2O emissions from arable fields are reported; among them are Flessa et al. (2002) and Senapati et al. (2016). In this study, we have a two-year data set (2015-2017) with hourly measurements from ten automatic chambers, covering unfertilized controls as well as different nitrogen fertilizer treatments. Grain was produced on the field, and effects of tillage, harvest and other cropping measures were covered. What we can see from the experiment is that (a) the unfertilized control plots seem to follow the same emission pattern as the fertilized plots, at a level similar to the standard mineral fertilized plots (120 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and (b) freeze/thaw emissions are comparable in size to emissions after fertilizing. These two findings imply that the importance of fertilizing to the overall N2O emissions from arable soils may be smaller than previously expected. References: Ciais, P., C. Sabine, G. Bala, L. Bopp, V. Brovkin, J. Canadell et al. 2013: Carbon and Other Biogeochemical Cycles. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung et

  17. Simulation and fabrication of carbon nanotubes field emission pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Kaiyou; Chen Ting; Yan Bingyong; Lin Yangkui; Xu Dong; Sun Zhuo; Cai Bingchu

    2006-01-01

    A novel field emission pressure sensor has been achieved utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the electron source. The sensor consists of the anode sensing film fabricated by wet etching process and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) cathode in the micro-vacuum chamber. MWNTs on the silicon substrate were grown by thermal CVD. The prototype pressure sensor has a measured sensitivity of about 0.17-0.77 nA/Pa (101-550 KPa). The work shows the potential use of CNTs-based field-emitter in microsensors, such as accelerometers and tactile sensors

  18. Characterization of radiofrequency field emissions from smart meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert; Mezei, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    This study presents measurement data that describe radiofrequency emission levels and patterns from smart meters (rated nominally at 1 W) currently deployed in Pacific Gas and Electric Company's service territory in northern California. The smart meters in our investigation could not be set to operate continuously and required a Field Service Unit to induce short periods of emitted fields. To obtain peak field data under both laboratory and ambient conditions, a spectrum analyzer scanned across the 83 transmitting channels between 902 and 928 MHz used by the smart meter on a random frequency-hopping basis. To obtain data describing temporal emission patterns, the analyzer operated in scope mode. Duty cycle was estimated using transmit data acquired by the system operator from over 88,000 m. Instantaneous peak fields at 0.3 m in front of the meters were no more than 15% of the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) exposure limit for the general public, and 99.9% of the meters operated with a duty cycle of 1.12% or less during the sampling period. In a sample of measurements in six single-detached residences equipped with individual smart meters, no interior measurement of peak field exceeded 1% of the FCC's general public exposure limit.

  19. Determination of some toxic gaseous emissions at Ama Industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of some toxic gaseous emissions at Ama Industrial Complex, Enugu, south eastern Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... A study of some gases emitted from three industries at Ama industrial complex, Nigeria, was carried out ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. N2O Emission from energy crop fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, B.J.; Nyholm Joergensen, R.

    1996-03-01

    The interest in N 2 O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N 2 O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO 2 . The contribution of N 2 O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N 2 O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N 2 O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N 2 O flux from a Miscanthus 'Giganteus' (M. 'Giganteus') and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N 2 O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N 2 O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N 2 O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N 2 O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N 2 O ha -1 yr -1 . This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO 2 ha -1 yr -1 compared to a total CO 2 reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO 2 ha -1 yr -1 using the energy crops as substitution for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N 2 O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the CO 2 reduction per unit dry matter. Following the guidelines for good agricultural practice concerning the

  1. Enhanced field emission behavior of layered MoSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryawanshi, Sachin R; Pawbake, Amit S; Jadkar, Sandesh R; More, Mahendra A; Pawar, Mahendra S; Late, Dattatray J

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report one step facile chemical vapor deposition method for synthesis of single-layer MoSe 2 nanosheets with average lateral dimension ∼60 μm on 300 nm SiO 2 /Si and n-type silicon substrates and field emission investigation of MoSe 2 /Si at the base pressure of ∼1 × 10 −8 mbar. The morphological and structural analyses of the as-deposited single-layer MoSe 2 nanosheets were carried out using an optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the values of turn-on and threshold fields required to extract an emission current densities of 1 and 10 μA cm −2 , are found to be ∼1.9 and ∼2.3 V μm −1 , respectively. Interestingly, the MoSe 2 nanosheet emitter delivers maximum field emission current density of ∼1.5 mA cm −2 at a relatively lower applied electric field of ∼3.9 V μm −1 . The long term operational current stability recorded at the preset values of 35 μA over 3 hr duration and is found to be very good. The observed results demonstrates that the layered MoSe 2 nanosheet based field emitter can open up many opportunities for their potential application as an electron source in flat panel display, transmission electron microscope, and x-ray generation. Thus, the facile one step synthesis approach and robust nature of single-layer MoSe 2 nanosheets emitter can provide prospects for the future development of practical electron sources. (paper)

  2. Field determination of biomass burning emission ratios and factors via open-path FTIR spectroscopy and fire radiative power assessment: headfire, backfire and residual smouldering combustion in African savannahs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wooster, MJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning emissions factors are vital to quantifying trace gases releases from vegetation fires. Here the authors evaluate emissions factors for a series of savannah fires in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa using ground-based open...

  3. Optical Emissions of Sprite Streamers in Weak Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.; Pasko, V. P.

    2004-12-01

    Sprites commonly consist of large numbers of needle-shaped filaments of ionization [e.g., Gerken and Inan, JASTP, 65, 567, 2003] and typically initiate at altitudes 70-75 km in a form of upward and downward propagating streamers [Stanley et al., GRL, 26, 3201, 1999; Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., GRL, 27, 3829, 2000; McHarg et al., JGR, 107, 1364, 2002; Moudry et al., JASTP, 65, 509, 2003]. The strong electric fields E exceeding the conventional breakdown threshold field Ek are needed for initiation of sprite streamers from single electron avalanches and recent modeling studies indicate that streamers propagating in fields E>Ek experience strong acceleration and expansion in good agreement with the above cited observations [Liu and Pasko, JGR, 109, A04301, 2004]. The initiated streamers are capable of propagating in fields substantially lower than Ek [Allen and Ghaffar, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 28, 331, 1995] and it is expected that a significant part of sprite optical output comes from regions with EEk). Additionally, the values of electric fields inside of the streamer channel are always well below Ek and since the excitation coefficients for optical emissions are very sensitive to the driving electric field magnitude most of the optical luminosity of streamers in this case arises from streamer tips, indicating that observed streamer filaments in many cases may be produced by time averaging of optical luminosity coming from localized regions around streamer tips as streamers move through an instrument's field of view. We will discuss pressure dependent differences of optical emissions at different sprite altitudes, and important similarities between observed sprite streamers and recent time resolved (van Veldhuizen et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 30, 162, 2002; Yi and Williams, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., 35, 205, 2002].

  4. Investigation of field emission properties of laser irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Mahreen; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid

    2018-01-01

    Nd:YAG laser irradiation of Tungsten (W) has been performed in air at atmospheric pressure for four laser fluences ranging from 130 to 500 J/cm 2 . Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the formation of micro and nanoscale surface features including cones, grains, mounds and pores. Field emission (FE) studies have been performed in a planar diode configuration under ultra-high vacuum conditions by recording I-V characteristics and plotting corresponding electric field (E) versus emission current density (J). The Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots are found to be linear confirming the quantum mechanical tunneling phenomena for the structured targets. The irradiated samples at different fluences exhibit a turn-on field, field enhancement factor β and a maximum current density ranging from 5 to 8.5 V/μm, 1300 to 3490 and 107 to 350 μA/cm 2 , respectively. The difference in the FE properties is attributed to the variation in the nature and density of the grown structures at different fluences. (orig.)

  5. Field measurement program to determine far field plume dilution parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.C.; Carter, H.H.; Miyasaki, M.T.

    1974-01-01

    A description of the techniques used to obtain measurements of temperature, salinity, tidal velocity and tracer concentration required to determine the far field dilution in a shallow estuary is presented. The study was done to characterize the physical hydrography of the Bush River, a tributary estuary of the Chesapeake Bay, which is a possible recipient of the thermal discharge from a proposed power plant consisting of two 850 MWe nuclear generating units. Measurements of temperature and salinity along the axis of the estuary during periods of high and low fresh water inflow were obtained for use in the development of a one-dimensional-segmented transient state model of the estuary. Computer concentrations from the model compared favorably with measured dye concentrations for the same periods of high and low freshwater inflow

  6. Electronic field emission models beyond the Fowler-Nordheim one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepetit, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    We propose several quantum mechanical models to describe electronic field emission from first principles. These models allow us to correlate quantitatively the electronic emission current with the electrode surface details at the atomic scale. They all rely on electronic potential energy surfaces obtained from three dimensional density functional theory calculations. They differ by the various quantum mechanical methods (exact or perturbative, time dependent or time independent), which are used to describe tunneling through the electronic potential energy barrier. Comparison of these models between them and with the standard Fowler-Nordheim one in the context of one dimensional tunneling allows us to assess the impact on the accuracy of the computed current of the approximations made in each model. Among these methods, the time dependent perturbative one provides a well-balanced trade-off between accuracy and computational cost.

  7. Essays on the Determinants of Energy Related CO2 Emissions =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor Manuel Ferreira

    Overall, amongst the most mentioned factors for Greenhouse Gases (GHG) growth are the economic growth and the energy demand growth. To assess the determinants GHG emissions, this thesis proposed and developed a new analysis which links the emissions intensity to its main driving factors. In the first essay, we used the 'complete decomposition' technique to examine CO2 emissions intensity and its components, considering 36 economic sectors and the 1996-2009 periods in Portugal. The industry (in particular 5 industrial sectors) is contributing largely to the effects of variation of CO2 emissions intensity. We concluded, among others, the emissions intensity reacts more significantly to shocks in the weight of fossil fuels in total energy consumption compared to shocks in other variables. In the second essay, we conducted an analysis for 16 industrial sectors (Group A) and for the group of the 5 most polluting manufacturing sectors (Group B) based on the convergence examination for emissions intensity and its main drivers, as well as on an econometric analysis. We concluded that there is sigma convergence for all the effects with exception to the fossil fuel intensity, while gamma convergence was verified for all the effects, with exception of CO2 emissions by fossil fuel and fossil fuel intensity in Group B. From the econometric approach we concluded that the considered variables have a significant importance in explaining CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions intensity. In the third essay, the Tourism Industry in Portugal over 1996-2009 period was examined, specifically two groups of subsectors that affect the impacts on CO2 emissions intensity. The generalized variance decomposition and the impulse response functions pointed to sectors that affect tourism more directly, i. e. a bidirectional causality between the intensity of emissions and energy intensity. The effect of intensity of emissions is positive on energy intensity, and the effect of energy intensity on

  8. Field test of available methods to measure remotely SOx and NOx emissions from ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani Lööv, J. M.; Alfoldy, B.; Gast, L. F. L.; Hjorth, J.; Lagler, F.; Mellqvist, J.; Beecken, J.; Berg, N.; Duyzer, J.; Westrate, H.; Swart, D. P. J.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Prata, A. J.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Borowiak, A.

    2014-08-01

    Methods for the determination of ship fuel sulphur content and NOx emission factors based on remote measurements have been compared in the harbour of Rotterdam and compared to direct stack emission measurements on the ferry Stena Hollandica. The methods were selected based on a review of the available literature on ship emission measurements. They were either optical (LIDAR, Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS), UV camera), combined with model-based estimates of fuel consumption, or based on the so called "sniffer" principle, where SO2 or NOx emission factors are determined from simultaneous measurement of the increase of CO2 and SO2 or NOx concentrations in the plume of the ship compared to the background. The measurements were performed from stations at land, from a boat and from a helicopter. Mobile measurement platforms were found to have important advantages compared to the land-based ones because they allow optimizing the sampling conditions and sampling from ships on the open sea. Although optical methods can provide reliable results it was found that at the state of the art level, the "sniffer" approach is the most convenient technique for determining both SO2 and NOx emission factors remotely. The average random error on the determination of SO2 emission factors comparing two identical instrumental set-ups was 6%. However, it was found that apparently minor differences in the instrumental characteristics, such as response time, could cause significant differences between the emission factors determined. Direct stack measurements showed that about 14% of the fuel sulphur content was not emitted as SO2. This was supported by the remote measurements and is in agreement with the results of other field studies.

  9. Field test of available methods to measure remotely SO2 and NOx emissions from ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani Lööv, J. M.; Alfoldy, B.; Beecken, J.; Berg, N.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Duyzer, J.; Gast, L. F. L.; Hjorth, J.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Lagler, F.; Mellqvist, J.; Prata, F.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Westrate, H.; Swart, D. P. J.; Borowiak, A.

    2013-11-01

    Methods for the determination of ship fuel sulphur content and NOx emission factors from remote measurements have been compared in the harbour of Rotterdam and compared to direct stack emission measurements on the ferry Stena Hollandica. The methods were selected based on a review of the available literature on ship emission measurements. They were either optical (LIDAR, DOAS, UV camera), combined with model based estimates of fuel consumption, or based on the so called "sniffer" principle, where SO2 or NOx emission factors are determined from simultaneous measurement of the increase of CO2 and SO2 or NOx concentrations in the plume of the ship compared to the background. The measurements were performed from stations at land, from a boat, and from a helicopter. Mobile measurement platforms were found to have important advantages compared to the landbased ones because they allow to optimize the sampling conditions and to sample from ships on the open sea. Although optical methods can provide reliable results, it was found that at the state of the art, the "sniffer" approach is the most convenient technique for determining both SO2 and NOx emission factors remotely. The average random error on the determination of SO2 emission factors comparing two identical instrumental set-ups was 6%. However, it was found that apparently minor differences in the instrumental characteristics, such as response time, could cause significant differences between the emission factors determined. Direct stack measurements showed that about 14% of the fuel sulphur content was not emitted as SO2. This was supported by the remote measurements and is in agreement with the results of other field studies.

  10. Heavy metal analysis in soils and vegetation for assessing emission fields near tunnel ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peer, T.

    1992-01-01

    In the environment of the ventilation system of the Tauern and Katschberg tunnels, lead, cadmium, zinc and copper were determined in soil and vegetation samples in order to determine the emission fields. Thalli of Pseudevernia furfuracea in addition were used as active monitors. The surface-level exhaust portals produce relatively small atmospheric pollution fields. Via the detached exhaust tower at Urbanalm/Mosermandl (2.000 msm), a long-distance transport: Lead concentrations in soils are above average as far away as 1.5 kms of distance. The solubility of heavy metals increases in the order Pb [de

  11. Effects of organic matter application on methane emission from paddy fields adopting organic farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Nungkat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study that was aimed to determine the effect of the use of organic manure and azolla on methane emission on paddy field of organic systems was conducted on paddy fields in the Gempol Village, Sambirejo District of Sragen Regency, Indonesia. The experimental design performed for this study was a completely randomized block design consisting of three factors; the factor I was rice cultivars (Mira-1; Mentik Wangi; Merah Putih; factor II was dose of organic manure (0 t/ha and 10 t/ha and factor III was Azolla inoculums dose (0 t/ha and 2 t/ha. Gas sampling was conducted 3 times in one growing season when the rice plants reached ages of 38, 66 and 90 days after planting. The results showed that there was no correlation between the uses of organic fertilizers for rice production on methane emission. The increase of methane emission was very much influenced by the redox potential. Methane emission from Mira-1 field was higher than that from Mentik Wangi and Merah Putih fields. Emission of methane gas from Mira-1 field ranged from -509.82 to 791.34 kg CH4/ha; that from Wangi ranged from -756.77 to d 547.50 kg CH4/ha and that from Merah Putih ranged from -399.63 to 459.94 kg CH4/ha. Application of 10 t organic manure /ha and 2 t azolla/ha in Mentik Wangi reduced methane emissions with a high rice production compared to Merah Putih and Mira-1.

  12. Soliton emission stimulated by sound wave or external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malomed, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Langmuir soliton interaction with ion-acoustic wave results in soliton radiative decay at the expence of emission by the soliton of linear langmuir waves. Intensity of this radiation in the ''subsonic'' regime as well as the rate of energy transfer from acoustic waves to langmuir ones and soliton decay rate are calculated. Three cases are considered: monochromatic acoustic wave, nonmonochromatic wave packet with a wide spectrum, random acoustic field, for which results appear to be qualitatively different. A related problem, concerning the radiation generation by soliton under external electromagnetic wave effect is also considered. Dissipation effect on radiation is investigated

  13. Performance of a carbon nanotube field emission electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; King, Todd T.; Bis, Rachael A.; Jones, Hollis H.; Herrero, Federico; Lynch, Bernard A.; Roman, Patrick; Mahaffy, Paul

    2007-04-01

    A cold cathode field emission electron gun (e-gun) based on a patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) film has been fabricated for use in a miniaturized reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOF MS), with future applications in other charged particle spectrometers, and performance of the CNT e-gun has been evaluated. A thermionic electron gun has also been fabricated and evaluated in parallel and its performance is used as a benchmark in the evaluation of our CNT e-gun. Implications for future improvements and integration into the RTOF MS are discussed.

  14. {sup 134}Cs emission probabilities determination by gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: candida@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DINOR/CNEN), Riode Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Poledna, R.; Delgado, J.U.; Silva, R.L.; Araujo, M.T.; Silva, C.J. da [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN) of Rio de Janeiro performed primary and secondary standardization of different radionuclides reaching satisfactory uncertainties. A solution of {sup 134}Cs radionuclide was purchased from commercial supplier to emission probabilities determination of some of its energies. {sup 134}Cs is a beta gamma emitter with 754 days of half-life. This radionuclide is used as standard in environmental, water and food control. It is also important to germanium detector calibration.The gamma emission probabilities (Pγ) were determined mainly for some energies of the {sup 134}Cs by efficiency curve method and the Pγ absolute uncertainties obtained were below 1% (k=1). (author)

  15. Lithium determination in whole blood by flame atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Khalid, N.; Nasimullah; Iqbal, M.Z.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of lithium in whole blood using Flame atomic emission spectrometry is described. No sample preparation was required apart from dilution with 0.02 N HNO/sub 3/. The reliability of the method was determined by analyzing Standard Reference Material (SRM) under identical experimental conditions and comparing the determined lithium concentration with the reported value. These were in good agreement with each other. The determined range of lithium in the whole blood of fifty-six healthy adult volunteers (28 males and 28 females) were 13.1 - 47.8 mg L-1. The determined average concentration of lithium in whole blood was compared with the reported values of other countries. The data was statistically analyzed with respect to sex and different age groups. (author)

  16. Silicon-based metallic micro grid for electron field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaehong; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Kim, Jung-Il; Kim, Geun-Ju; Heo, Duchang; Shin, Dong Hoon; Sun, Yuning; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2012-01-01

    A micro-scale metal grid based on a silicon frame for application to electron field emission devices is introduced and experimentally demonstrated. A silicon lattice containing aperture holes with an area of 80 × 80 µm 2 and a thickness of 10 µm is precisely manufactured by dry etching the silicon on one side of a double-polished silicon wafer and by wet etching the opposite side. Because a silicon lattice is more rigid than a pure metal lattice, a thin layer of Au/Ti deposited on the silicon lattice for voltage application can be more resistant to the geometric stress caused by the applied electric field. The micro-fabrication process, the images of the fabricated grid with 88% geometric transparency and the surface profile measurement after thermal feasibility testing up to 700 °C are presented. (paper)

  17. Graphene enhanced field emission from InP nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemmo, L; Di Bartolomeo, A; Giubileo, F; Luongo, G; Passacantando, M; Niu, G; Hatami, F; Skibitzki, O; Schroeder, T

    2017-12-08

    We report the observation of field emission (FE) from InP nanocrystals (NCs) epitaxially grown on an array of p-Si nanotips. We prove that FE can be enhanced by covering the InP NCs with graphene. The measurements are performed inside a scanning electron microscope chamber with a nano-controlled W-thread used as an anode. We analyze the FE by Fowler-Nordheim theory and find that the field enhancement factor increases monotonically with the spacing between the anode and the cathode. We also show that InP/p-Si junction has a rectifying behavior, while graphene on InP creates an ohmic contact. Understanding the fundamentals of such nanojunctions is key for applications in nanoelectronics.

  18. Thermionic field emission in gold nitride Schottky nanodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulos-Antonakakis, N.; Sarantopoulou, E.; Kollia, Z.; Samardžija, Z.; Kobe, S.; Cefalas, A. C.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the thermionic field emission and charge transport properties of gold nitride nanodomains grown by pulsed laser deposition with a molecular fluorine laser at 157 nm. The nanodomains are sandwiched between the metallic tip of a conductive atomic force microscope and a thin gold layer forming thus a metal-semiconductor-metal junction. Although the limited existing data in the literature indicate that gold nitride was synthesized previously with low efficiency, poor stability, and metallic character; in this work, it is shown that gold nitride nanodomains exhibit semiconducting behavior and the metal-semiconductor-metal contact can be modeled with the back-to-back Schottky barrier model. From the experimental I-V curves, the main charge carrier transport process is found to be thermionic field emission via electron tunneling. The rectifying, near symmetric and asymmetric current response of nanocontacts is related to the effective contact area of the gold nitride nanodomains with the metals. A lower limit for the majority charge carriers concentration at the boundaries of nanodomains is also established using the full depletion approximation, as nanodomains with thickness as low as 6 nm were found to be conductive. Current rectification and charge memory effects are also observed in "quite small" conductive nanodomains (6-10 nm) due to stored charges. Indeed, charges near the surface are identified as inversion domains in the phase shift mapping performed with electrostatic force microscopy and are attributed to charge trapping at the boundaries of the nanodomains.

  19. N{sub 2}O Emission from energy crop fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, B.J. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Section of Soil, Water and Plant Nutrition (Denmark); Nyholm Joergensen, R. [Research Centre Foulum, The Danish Inst. of Plant and Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science (Denmark)

    1996-03-01

    The interest in N{sub 2}O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N{sub 2}O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO{sub 2}. The contribution of N{sub 2}O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N{sub 2}O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N{sub 2}O flux from a Miscanthus `Giganteus` (M. `Giganteus`) and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N{sub 2}O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N{sub 2}O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N{sub 2}O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N{sub 2}O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} compared to a total CO{sub 2} reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} using the energy crops as substituion for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N{sub 2}O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the CO{sub 2} reduction

  20. N{sub 2}O Emission from energy crop fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, B.J. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Section of Soil, Water and Plant Nutrition (Denmark); Nyholm Joergensen, R. [Research Centre Foulum, The Danish Inst. of Plant and Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science (Denmark)

    1996-03-01

    The interest in N{sub 2}O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N{sub 2}O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO{sub 2}. The contribution of N{sub 2}O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N{sub 2}O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N{sub 2}O flux from a Miscanthus 'Giganteus' (M. 'Giganteus') and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N{sub 2}O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N{sub 2}O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N{sub 2}O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N{sub 2}O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} compared to a total CO{sub 2} reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} using the energy crops as substitution for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N{sub 2}O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the

  1. Architectured Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers: photoenhanced field emission study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warule, Sambhaji S.; Kashid, Ranjit V.; Shinde, Deodatta R. [University of Pune, Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics (India); Chaudhari, Nilima S.; Kale, Bharat B., E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Information Technology, Government of India (India); More, Mahendra A., E-mail: mam@physics.unipune.ac.in [University of Pune, Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics (India)

    2012-06-15

    In the present investigation, we demonstrate a facile hydrothermal/solvothermal route to fabricate elegant Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers in large scale with highly oriented (001) surfaces. The synthesis route was observed to radically determine the overall morphology of the resultant product. Under hydrothermal conditions (12 h), formation of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} flowers on nickel foil composed with the self-assembled tapered nanorods were obtained. Whereas after prolonged reaction time (24 h), formation of ultra long micro belts were observed. Interestingly, the architectured Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} flowers obtained by solvothermal route are seen to be composed with self assembled nanorods and it was also observed that the synthesis duration influences their shape, size, and areal density. Finding of such unique nanostructures on nickel foil arose by hydrothermal route exemplify a prominent photoenhanced field emission upon visible light illumination, which is attributed to the photoconductivity of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}. It is noteworthy that the field emission studies reveal low turn-on field of {approx}1.04 V/{mu}m, required to draw an emission current density of {approx}0.1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, which is found to be lower than the earlier reports. The average emission current is observed to be stable over the duration of 3 h. In addition, field emission behavior of a single Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} flower (pasted on a tungsten microtip) has also been investigated. The high sensitivity and fast response of photoenhanced emission current switching indicate the Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers as a promising candidate for micro/nano-optoelectronic devices.Graphical abstract.

  2. High Performance Clocks and Gravity Field Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J.; Dirkx, D.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Lion, G.; Panet, I.; Petit, G.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Time measured by an ideal clock crucially depends on the gravitational potential and velocity of the clock according to general relativity. Technological advances in manufacturing high-precision atomic clocks have rapidly improved their accuracy and stability over the last decade that approached the level of 10^{-18}. This notable achievement along with the direct sensitivity of clocks to the strength of the gravitational field make them practically important for various geodetic applications that are addressed in the present paper. Based on a fully relativistic description of the background gravitational physics, we discuss the impact of those highly-precise clocks on the realization of reference frames and time scales used in geodesy. We discuss the current definitions of basic geodetic concepts and come to the conclusion that the advances in clocks and other metrological technologies will soon require the re-definition of time scales or, at least, clarification to ensure their continuity and consistent use in practice. The relative frequency shift between two clocks is directly related to the difference in the values of the gravity potential at the points of clock's localization. According to general relativity the relative accuracy of clocks in 10^{-18} is equivalent to measuring the gravitational red shift effect between two clocks with the height difference amounting to 1 cm. This makes the clocks an indispensable tool in high-precision geodesy in addition to laser ranging and space geodetic techniques. We show how clock measurements can provide geopotential numbers for the realization of gravity-field-related height systems and can resolve discrepancies in classically-determined height systems as well as between national height systems. Another application of clocks is the direct use of observed potential differences for the improved recovery of regional gravity field solutions. Finally, clock measurements for space-borne gravimetry are analyzed along with

  3. Silicon microelectronic field-emissive devices for advanced display technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J. D.

    1993-03-01

    Field-emission displays (FED's) offer the potential advantages of high luminous efficiency, low power consumption, and low cost compared to AMLCD or CRT technologies. An LLNL team has developed silicon-point field emitters for vacuum triode structures and has also used thin-film processing techniques to demonstrate planar edge-emitter configurations. LLNL is interested in contributing its experience in this and other FED-related technologies to collaborations for commercial FED development. At LLNL, FED development is supported by computational capabilities in charge transport and surface/interface modeling in order to develop smaller, low-work-function field emitters using a variety of materials and coatings. Thin-film processing, microfabrication, and diagnostic/test labs permit experimental exploration of emitter and resistor structures. High field standoff technology is an area of long-standing expertise that guides development of low-cost spacers for FEDS. Vacuum sealing facilities are available to complete the FED production engineering process. Drivers constitute a significant fraction of the cost of any flat-panel display. LLNL has an advanced packaging group that can provide chip-on-glass technologies and three-dimensional interconnect generation permitting driver placement on either the front or the back of the display substrate.

  4. Two-photon cooperative emission in the presence of athermal electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enaki, N.A.; Mihalache, D.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of cooperative spontaneous two-photon emission of an extended radiators system and the influence of the external thermal electromagnetic field on the spontaneous emission rate, in such a system, are investigated. It is concluded that, in an external electromagnetic field, the two-photon cooperative emission rate increases significantly. The importance of this effect on the emission of gamma rays from inverted long-lived isomers triggered by X-ray thermal fields, is emphasized

  5. Diurnal variation of methane emission from a paddy field in Brazilian Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Aparecida de Lima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the diurnal variation of methane (CH4 emission in a flooded-irrigated rice field at different stages of the plant development under tropical climate in three growing seasons, in order to determine the most appropriate time for gas sampling in the Brazilian Southeast region. It aimed also to verify correlations between CH4 flux and air, water and soil temperatures, and solar radiation. The CH4 emissions were measured every 3-hour interval on specific days in different development stages of the flooded rice in the Experiment Station of the Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios (APTA, Pólo Regional Vale do Paraíba, at Pindamonhangaba, State of São Paulo (22°55’ S, 45°30’ W, Brazil. Different CH4 emission rates were observed among the plant growth stages and also among the growing seasons. The CH4 emission showed high correlation with the soil temperature at 2cm depth. At this depth, the CH4 emission activation energy in response to soil temperature was higher in the stage R2. Emission peaks were observed at afternoon, while lower fluxes were recorded at the early morning. The most appropriate local time for gas sampling was estimated at 12:11:15a.m.±01:14:16 and 09:05:49p.m.±01:29:04.

  6. Black carbon cookstove emissions: A field assessment of 19 stove/fuel combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Charity; Delapena, Samantha; Prasad, Rajendra; L'Orange, Christian; Alexander, Donee; Johnson, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from household cookstoves consuming solid fuel produce approximately 25 percent of total anthropogenic BC emissions. The short atmospheric lifetime of BC means that reducing BC emissions would result in a faster climate response than mitigating CO2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases. This study presents the results of optical BC measurements of two new cookstove emissions field assessments and 17 archived cookstove datasets. BC was determined from attenuation of 880 nm light, which is strongly absorbed by BC, and linearly related between 1 and 125 attenuation units. A relationship was experimentally determined correlating BC mass deposition on quartz filters determined via thermal optical analysis (TOA) and on PTFE and quartz filters using transmissometry, yielding an attenuation cross-section (σATN) for both filter media types. σATN relates TOA measurements to optical measurements on PTFE and quartz (σATN(PTFE) = 13.7 cm-2 μg, R2 = 0.87, σATN(Quartz) = 15.6 cm-2 μg, R2 = 0.87). These filter-specific σATN, optical measurements of archived filters were used to determine BC emission factors and the fraction of particulate matter (PM) in the form of black carbon (BC/PM). The 19 stoves measured fell into five stove classes; simple wood, rocket, advanced biomass, simple charcoal, and advanced charcoal. Advanced biomass stoves include forced- and natural-draft gasifiers which use wood or biomass pellets as fuel. Of these classes, the simple wood and rocket stoves demonstrated the highest median BC emission factors, ranging from 0.051 to 0.14 g MJ-1. The lowest BC emission factors were seen in charcoal stoves, which corresponds to the generally low PM emission factors observed during charcoal combustion, ranging from 0.0084 to 0.014 g MJ-1. The advanced biomass stoves generally showed an improvement in BC emissions factors compared to simple wood and rocket stoves, ranging from 0.0031 to 0.071 g MJ-1. BC/PM ratios were highest for the

  7. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm2, which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics.

  8. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangyu, E-mail: chenxiangyu@binn.cas.cn, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Jiang, Tao [Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei, E-mail: chenxiangyu@binn.cas.cn, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2015-09-14

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm{sup 2}, which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics.

  9. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm 2 , which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics

  10. Realization and field emission of CdSe nano-tetrapods with different arm lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lijuan; Pang Qi; Yang Shihe; Ge Weikun; Wang Jiannong

    2009-01-01

    The arms of CdSe nano-tetrapods can be greatly elongated with the core diameters and arm width unchanged by multiple injections. Room-temperature absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of tetrapods with different arm lengths show that these tetrapods have almost the same core size, which is consistent with the high resolution TEM results. Field emission characteristics show that the onset field required drawing a current density of ∼0.1 μAcm -2 from CdSe nano-tetrapods with different arm lengths are 22 Vμm -1 , 9 Vμm -1 , and 4 Vμm -1 , respectively, and the field enhancement factors are determined to be about 218, 554, and 946, respectively. Results show that the longer is the arm of the tetrapods, the lower the turn-on field and the higher the field enhancement factor.

  11. Realization and field emission of CdSe nano-tetrapods with different arm lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lijuan, E-mail: ljzhao@dhu.edu.c [Applied Physics Department, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Physics Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Pang Qi [Physics Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Yang Shihe [Chemistry Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Ge Weikun; Wang Jiannong [Physics Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2009-08-10

    The arms of CdSe nano-tetrapods can be greatly elongated with the core diameters and arm width unchanged by multiple injections. Room-temperature absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of tetrapods with different arm lengths show that these tetrapods have almost the same core size, which is consistent with the high resolution TEM results. Field emission characteristics show that the onset field required drawing a current density of approx0.1 muAcm{sup -2} from CdSe nano-tetrapods with different arm lengths are 22 Vmum{sup -1}, 9 Vmum{sup -1}, and 4 Vmum{sup -1}, respectively, and the field enhancement factors are determined to be about 218, 554, and 946, respectively. Results show that the longer is the arm of the tetrapods, the lower the turn-on field and the higher the field enhancement factor.

  12. Vacuum field energy and spontaneous emission in anomalously dispersive cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, Douglas H.; Di Rosa, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Anomalously dispersive cavities, particularly white-light cavities, may have larger bandwidth to finesse ratios than their normally dispersive counterparts. Partly for this reason, they have been proposed for use in laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO)-like gravity-wave detectors and in ring-laser gyroscopes. In this paper we analyze the quantum noise associated with anomalously dispersive cavity modes. The vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode is proportional to the cavity-averaged group velocity of that mode. For anomalously dispersive cavities with group index values between 1 and 0, this means that the total vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode must exceed (ℎ/2π)ω/2. For white-light cavities in particular, the group index approaches zero and the vacuum field energy of a particular spatial mode may be significantly enhanced. We predict enhanced spontaneous emission rates into anomalously dispersive cavity modes and broadened laser linewidths when the linewidth of intracavity emitters is broader than the cavity linewidth.

  13. New results on RF and DC field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H.; Kirchgessner, J.; Moffat, D.; Noer, R.; Rubin, D.; Sears, J.; Shu, Q.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews progress in RF and DC field emission since the last workshop held two years ago at Argonne National Laboratory. Through better characterization, progress has been made towards improved understanding of FE in cavities. Through development of new cures, gains have made towards higher fields. Through better rinsing procedures low-frequency (500 and 350 MHz) cavities regularly reach surface electric fields of 20 MV/m. Processing times are substantially reduced. Through heat treatment at 1350degC high frequency (1500 MHz) cavities have reached 53 MV/m, and 3000 MHz cavities have reached 70 MV/m. The state of the art in Epk is described first. Then, benefits of high temperature treatment are discussed, focusing on highest temperature (1300-1350degC) treatment, intermediate heat treatments, and heat treatment without final methanol rinsing. He processing, heat treatment of 3-GHz cavitie, general inferences concerning emitter properties, influence of condensed gases, and sources of emitters are also addressed. Finally, lessons to be learned from copper cavities and high power processing is pointed out and discussed. (N.K.)

  14. Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Emission from Relativistic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Fishman, G. Jerry; Hartmann, D. H.

    2006-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), supernova remnants, and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration' is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different spectral properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations of relativistic jets and try to make a connection with observations.

  15. Photometric and emission-spectrometric determination of boron in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierig, D.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the photometric determination of boron in unalloyed and alloyed steels is described, in which Curcumine is used as reagent. A separation of boron is not necessary. Limit of detection: 0.0003% B. The decomposition of boron nitride in the steel is achieved by heating the whole sample in fuming sulphuric acid/phosphoric acid. For the emission spectrometric investigation of solid steel samples and for the spectrochemical analysis of solutions with plasma excitation working parameters are given and possibilities of interferences are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  16. Performance of a field emission gun TEM/STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.W.; Bentley, J.

    1979-01-01

    First experimental results on a Phillips EM 400 TEM/STEM fitted with a field-emission electron gun and objective twin lens are given here. Operation of the FEG is reliable up to maximum design voltage (120 kV). Highest resolution achieved in TEM was 1.9 A fringe. A wide variety of diffraction modes were demonstrated, ranging from CBDP from a small area (approx. 10 A dia) in STEM mode to SAD with angular resolution of 8 μrad in TEM mode. The EDS sensitivity is very high. STEM imaging performance to the highest magnifications examined (200 kx) is good. Work is in progress to evaluate the limits of STEM performance

  17. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Wang

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ∼140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ∼140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ∼140 MV

  18. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2002-09-18

    Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ~140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ~140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ~140 MV/m. To

  19. Interface control: A modified rooting technique for enhancing field emission from multiwall carbon nanotube based bulk emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahiri, Indranil [Nanomaterials and Device Lab, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Choi, Wonbong, E-mail: choiw@fiu.edu [Nanomaterials and Device Lab, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have raised hopes that these materials might find wide application as cold cathodes in various electron sources. The excellent field emission properties shown by CNT-based field emitters has further stimulated this expectation. However, efficient performance of a practical field emitter, which comprises a large number of randomly or regularly oriented CNTs, is restricted primarily due to poor junctions formed between CNTs and substrates. This study is aimed at enhancing the junction performance by way of a modified 'rooting' technique-interface control. In this process, the interface between CNTs and substrate has been tailored with different metals in an attempt to improve the CNT-substrate junction performance. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized on different interface-controlled substrates, i.e. Cu, Al, W, Si and low-temperature co-fired ceramic. All the samples produced mat-type, randomly oriented MWCNT structures. Among the four different substrates studied, MWCNT-based field emitters on Cu substrate demonstrated the best field emission response, in terms of low turn-on field, high emission current, good field enhancement factor and excellent stability in long-term operation. Emitter structures and their field emission behavior were correlated and it was shown that interface control, as an advanced 'rooting' process, plays an important role in determining the emission response from a bulk field emitter.

  20. Interface control: A modified rooting technique for enhancing field emission from multiwall carbon nanotube based bulk emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Indranil; Choi, Wonbong

    2011-01-01

    The unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have raised hopes that these materials might find wide application as cold cathodes in various electron sources. The excellent field emission properties shown by CNT-based field emitters has further stimulated this expectation. However, efficient performance of a practical field emitter, which comprises a large number of randomly or regularly oriented CNTs, is restricted primarily due to poor junctions formed between CNTs and substrates. This study is aimed at enhancing the junction performance by way of a modified 'rooting' technique-interface control. In this process, the interface between CNTs and substrate has been tailored with different metals in an attempt to improve the CNT-substrate junction performance. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized on different interface-controlled substrates, i.e. Cu, Al, W, Si and low-temperature co-fired ceramic. All the samples produced mat-type, randomly oriented MWCNT structures. Among the four different substrates studied, MWCNT-based field emitters on Cu substrate demonstrated the best field emission response, in terms of low turn-on field, high emission current, good field enhancement factor and excellent stability in long-term operation. Emitter structures and their field emission behavior were correlated and it was shown that interface control, as an advanced 'rooting' process, plays an important role in determining the emission response from a bulk field emitter.

  1. Numerical determination of the magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo-Petravic, G.; Boozer, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    The structure of a magnetic field is determined by a one-degree of freedom, time-dependent Hamiltonian. This Hamiltonian is evaluated for a given field in a perturbed action-angle form. The location and the size of magnetic islands in the given field are determined from Hamiltonian perturbation theory and from an ordinary Poincare plot of the field line trajectories

  2. Oil palm and the emission of greenhouse gasses- from field measurements in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Niharika; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Giller, Ken E.; Magid, Jakob; van de Ven, Gerrie; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Palm oil from the oil palm (Elaeis guianensis) has in recent years become the world's most important vegetable oil. The increasing demand for palm oil has led to expansion of oil palm plantations, which has caused environmental controversies associated with carbon losses and the use of large amounts of mineral fertilizers. Efforts to increase sustainability of oil palm cultivation, include recycling of oil-mill residues and pruning's, but with this comes increased potential for methane emission from the plantations. Until now no field-based data on greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm plantations have been reported. Here for the first time we present data from a long term (360 days) field trial in Bah Lias Research Station, North Sumatra, Indonesia on greenhouse gas emissions from an oil palm plantation with various treatments of recycled oil palm waste products, fertilizers and simulated rainfall. The first experiment was conducted over a full year (dry + wet season) with mineral fertilizer treatments including urea and ammonium sulphate, and organic fertilizer treatments constituting: empty fruit bunches (EFB), enriched mulch (EFB + palm oil mill effluent (POME) ) and pruned oil palm fronds (OPF). Treatment doses represent the current management in Indonesian plantations and the higher doses that are expected in the imminent future. For the organic treatments several methods of application (applied in inter-rows, piles, patches or bands) were evaluated. The second experiment investigated effects of soil water saturation on GHG emissions through adding 25 mm simulated rainfall per day for 21 days. Each palm tree received 1 kg of N fertilizer as urea or ammonium sulphate and enriched mulch. The gas fluxes in the fields was measured by a large static-chamber (1.8 m x 1.2 m) method and CH4 and N2O concentrations were determined using gas chromatographs. We found that emissions were significantly affected by the type and dose of mineral fertilizers. Application of

  3. Field investigation to assess nutrient emission from paddy field to surface water in river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Kanami; Aichi, Masaatsu; Zessner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    In order to maintain good river environment, it is remarkably important to understand and to control nutrient behavior such as Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Our former research dealing with nutrient emission analysis in the Tone River basin area in Japan, in addition to urban and industrial waste water, nutrient emission from agricultural activity is dominant pollution source into the river system. Japanese style agriculture produces large amount of rice and paddy field occupies large areas in Japanese river basin areas. While paddy field can deteriorate river water quality by outflow of fertilizer, it is also suggested that paddy field has water purification function. As we carried out investigation in the Tone River Basin area, data were obtained which dissolved nitrogen concentration is lower in discharging water from paddy field than inflowing water into the field. Regarding to nutrient emission impact from paddy field, sufficient data are required to discuss quantitatively seasonal change of material behavior including flooding season and dry season, difference of climate condition, soil type, and rice species, to evaluate year round comprehensive impact from paddy field to the river system. In this research, field survey in paddy field and data collection relating rice production were carried out as a preliminary investigation to assess how Japanese style paddy field contributes year round on surface water quality. Study sites are three paddy fields located in upper reach of the Tone River basin area. The fields are flooded from June to September. In 2014, field investigations were carried out three times in flooding period and twice in dry period. To understand characteristics of each paddy field and seasonal tendency accompanying weather of agricultural event, short term investigations were conducted and we prepare for further long term investigation. Each study site has irrigation water inflow and outflow. Two sites have tile drainage system under the field and

  4. Field emission from patterned SnO2 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongsheng; Yu Ke; Li Guodong; Peng Deyan; Zhang Qiuxiang; Hu Hongmei; Xu Feng; Bai Wei; Ouyang Shixi; Zhu Ziqiang

    2006-01-01

    A simple and reliable method has been developed for synthesizing finely patterned tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanostructure arrays on silicon substrates. A patterned Au catalyst film was prepared on the silicon wafer by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and photolithographic patterning processes. The patterned SnO 2 nanostructures arrays, a unit area is of ∼500 μm x 200 μm, were synthesized via vapor phase transport method. The surface morphology and composition of the as-synthesized SnO 2 nanostructures were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanism of formation of SnO 2 nanostructures was also discussed. The measurement of field emission (FE) revealed that the as-synthesized SnO 2 nanorods, nanowires and nanoparticles arrays have a lower turn-on field of 2.6, 3.2 and 3.9 V/μm, respectively, at the current density of 0.1 μA/cm 2 . This approach must have a wide variety of applications such as fabrications of micro-optical components and micropatterned oxide thin films used in FE-based flat panel displays, sensor arrays and so on

  5. Velocity field measurement in micro-bubble emission boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Daisuke; Saito, Yasushi; Natazuka, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Liquid inlet behavior to a heat surface in micro-bubble emission boiling (MEB) was investigated by flow measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Subcooled pool boiling experiments under atmospheric pressure were carried out using a heat surface with a diameter of 10 mm. An upper end of a heater block made of copper was used as the heat surface. Working fluid was the deionized water and the subcooling was varied from 40 K to 70 K. Three K-type thermocouples were installed in the copper block to measure the temperature gradient, and the heat flux and wall superheat were estimated from these temperature data to make a boiling curve. The flow visualization around the heat surface was carried out using a high-speed video camera and a light sheet. The microbubbles generated in the MEB were used as tracer particles and the velocity field was obtained by PIV analysis of the acquired image sequence. As a result, the higher heat fluxes than the critical heat flux could be obtained in the MEB region. In addition, the distribution characteristics of the velocity in MEB region were studied using the PIV results and the location of the stagnation point in the velocity fields was discussed. (author)

  6. Determining Original Inventory Amount of Radioactive Substances from Unmonitored Radionuclide Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.T.; Blunt, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to determine the air emissions inventory of the Savannah River Site. To satisfy regulatory requirements, a new equation has been developed to determine original inventory amounts from unmonitored radionuclide emissions

  7. Density functional theory for field emission from carbon nano-structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhibing, E-mail: stslzb@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Electron field emission is understood as a quantum mechanical many-body problem in which an electronic quasi-particle of the emitter is converted into an electron in vacuum. Fundamental concepts of field emission, such as the field enhancement factor, work-function, edge barrier and emission current density, will be investigated, using carbon nanotubes and graphene as examples. A multi-scale algorithm basing on density functional theory is introduced. We will argue that such a first principle approach is necessary and appropriate for field emission of nano-structures, not only for a more accurate quantitative description, but, more importantly, for deeper insight into field emission. - Highlights: • Applications of DFT to electron field emission of nano-structures are reviewed. • Fundamental concepts of field emission are re-visited with emphasis on the many-body effects. • New insights to field emission of nano-structures are obtained by multi-scale DFT calculations. • It is shown that the exchange–correlation effect on the emission barrier is significant. • Spontaneous symmetry breaking in field emission of CNT has been predicted.

  8. Air pollutant emissions from rice straw open field burning in India, Thailand and the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Butchaiah; Bonnet, Sebastien; Menke, Christoph; Garivait, Savitri

    2009-01-01

    Rice is a widely grown crop in Asia. China (30%) and India (21%) contribute to about half of the world's total rice production. In this study, three major rice-producing countries in Asia are considered, India, Thailand and the Philippines (the later two contributing 4% and 2% of the world's rice production). Rice straw is one of the main field based residues produced along with this commodity and its applications vary widely in the region. Although rice production practises vary from one country to another, open burning of straw is a common practice in these countries. In this study, an approach was followed aiming at (a) determining the quantity of rice straw being subject to open field burning in those countries, (b) congregating pollutant specific emissions factors for rice straw burning, and (c) quantifying the resulting air pollutant emissions. Uncertainties in the results obtained as compared to a global approach are also discussed. - This research work contributes to enhance scientific knowledge for estimating air pollutant emissions from open burning of crop residues and improve emission results accuracy.

  9. As-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse possessing exotic field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnia, Lucky; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Palnitkar, Umesh; Satyam, P. V.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Koratkar, Nikhil A.; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2018-06-01

    The present study aims to demonstrate the application of sugarcane bagasse as an excellent field emitter. Field emission property of as-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (p-SBg) before and after the plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been observed that electronic nature of p-SBg transformed from semiconducting to metallic after plasma treatment. Maximum current and turn-on field defined at 10 μA/cm2 was found to be 800 μA/cm2 and 2.2 V/μm for as-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (p-SBg) and 25 μA/cm2 and 8.4 V/μm for H2-plasma treated p-SBg. These values are found to be better than the reported values for graphene and activated carbon. In this report, pyrolysis of bagasse has been carried in a thermal chemical vapor deposition (Th-CVD) system in inert argon atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to study the structure of both pre and post plasma-treated p-SBg bagasse's sample. HRTEM study reveals that carbonaceous structures such as 3D-nanographene oxide (3D-NGO), graphite nanodots (GNDs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and carbon onions are present in both pre-treated and plasma-treated p-SBg. Hence, we envision that the performed study will be a forwarding step to facilitate the application of p-SBg in display devices.

  10. Determination of trace elements in maifanite by outer cover electrode atomic emission spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianqiang; LU Yiqiang; JIANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    Maifanite is a nature medicinal stone used in many fields for long time. The research on it showed that there are many trace elements in maifanite. In this paper, 36 trace elements in maifanite were determined by outer cover electrode atomic emission spectrometry, and the determination conditions were studied systematically. The results show that the concentrafions of elements, which are beneficial to human health, are higher, and the elements harmful to people health such as As, Cd, Hg, Cr, and Pb are tiny in maifanite. The precision and the accuracy were also discussed.

  11. Field emission from optimized structure of carbon nanotube field emitter array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouhan, V.; Noguchi, T.; Kato, S.

    2016-01-01

    The authors report a detail study on the emission properties of field emitter array (FEA) of micro-circular emitters of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The FEAs were fabricated on patterned substrates prepared with an array of circular titanium (Ti) islands on titanium nitride coated tantalum substrates. CNTs were rooted into these Ti islands to prepare an array of circular emitters. The circular emitters were prepared in different diameters and pitches in order to optimize their structure for acquiring a high emission current. The pitch was varied from 0 to 600 μm, while a diameter of circular emitters was kept constant to be 50 μm in order to optimize a pitch. For diameter optimization, a diameter was changed from 50 to 200 μm while keeping a constant edge-to-edge distance of 150 μm between the circular emitters. The FEA with a diameter of 50 μm and a pitch of 120 μm was found to be the best to achieve an emission current of 47 mA corresponding to an effective current density of 30.5 A/cm"2 at 7 V/μm. The excellent emission current was attributed to good quality of CNT rooting into the substrate and optimized FEA structure, which provided a high electric field on a whole circular emitter of 50 μm and the best combination of the strong edge effect and CNT coverage. The experimental results were confirmed with computer simulation.

  12. Field emission from optimized structure of carbon nanotube field emitter array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouhan, V., E-mail: vchouhan@post.kek.jp, E-mail: vijaychouhan84@gmail.com [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Noguchi, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kato, S. [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-04-07

    The authors report a detail study on the emission properties of field emitter array (FEA) of micro-circular emitters of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The FEAs were fabricated on patterned substrates prepared with an array of circular titanium (Ti) islands on titanium nitride coated tantalum substrates. CNTs were rooted into these Ti islands to prepare an array of circular emitters. The circular emitters were prepared in different diameters and pitches in order to optimize their structure for acquiring a high emission current. The pitch was varied from 0 to 600 μm, while a diameter of circular emitters was kept constant to be 50 μm in order to optimize a pitch. For diameter optimization, a diameter was changed from 50 to 200 μm while keeping a constant edge-to-edge distance of 150 μm between the circular emitters. The FEA with a diameter of 50 μm and a pitch of 120 μm was found to be the best to achieve an emission current of 47 mA corresponding to an effective current density of 30.5 A/cm{sup 2} at 7 V/μm. The excellent emission current was attributed to good quality of CNT rooting into the substrate and optimized FEA structure, which provided a high electric field on a whole circular emitter of 50 μm and the best combination of the strong edge effect and CNT coverage. The experimental results were confirmed with computer simulation.

  13. Experimental Development of Low-emittance Field-emission Electron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueangaranwong, A. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator & Detector Development; Buzzard, C. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Divan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Korampally, V. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Piot, P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator & Detector Development; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-10-10

    Field emission electron sources are capable of extreme brightness when excited by static or time-dependent electro- magnetic fields. We are currently developing a cathode test stand operating in DC mode with possibility to trigger the emission using ultra-short (~ 100-fs) laser pulses. This contribution describes the status of an experiment to investigate field-emission using cathodes under development at NIU in collaboration with the Argonne’s Center for Nanoscale Materials.

  14. Determination of the attenuation map in emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    2002-01-01

    Reliable attenuation correction methods for quantitative emission computed tomography (ECT) require accurate delineation of the body contour and often necessitate knowledge of internal anatomical structure. Two broad classes of methods have been used to calculate the attenuation map referred to as "transmissionless" and transmission-based attenuation correction techniques. While calculated attenuation correction belonging to the first class of methods is appropriate for brain studies, more adequate methods must be performed in clinical applications where the attenuation coefficient distribution is not known a priori, and for areas of inhomogeneous attenuation such as the chest. Measured attenuation correction overcomes this problem and utilizes different approaches to determine this map including transmission scanning, segmented magnetic resonance images or appropriately scaled X-ray CT scans acquired either independently on separate or simultaneously on multimodality imaging systems. Combination of data acqu...

  15. Plasma-induced field emission study of carbon nanotube cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the plasma-induced field emission (PFE properties of a large area carbon nanotube (CNT cathode on a 2 MeV linear induction accelerator injector is presented. Experimental results show that the cathode is able to emit intense electron beams. Intense electron beams of 14.9–127.8  A/cm^{2} are obtained from the cathode. The CNT cathode desorbs gases from the CNTs during the PFE process. The fast cathode plasma expansion affects the diode perveance. The amount of outgassing is estimated to be 0.06–0.49  Pa·L, and the ratio of outgassing and electron are roughly calculated to be within the range of 170–350 atoms per electron. The effect of the outgassing is analyzed, and the outgassing mass spectrum of the CNT cathode has been studied during the PFE. There is a significant desorption of CO_{2}, N_{2}(CO, and H_{2} gases, which plays an important role during the PFE process. All the experiments demonstrate that the outgassing plays an important role in the formation of the cathode plasma. Moreover, the characteristic turn-on time of the CNT cathode was measured to be 39 ns.

  16. Comparison of ammonia emissions determined using different sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic, flow-through flux chambers are sometimes used to estimate ammonia emissions from livestock operations; however, ammonia emissions from the surfaces are affected by many factors which can be affected by the chamber. Ammonia emissions estimated using environmental flow-through chambers may be...

  17. The ALFAM2 database on ammonia emission from field-applied manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Pacholski, Andreas; Bittman, Shabtai; Burchill, William; Bussink, Wim; Chantigny, Martin; Carozzi, Marco; Génermont, Sophie; Häni, Christoph; Hansen, Martin N.; Huijsmans, Jan; Hunt, Derek; Kupper, Thomas; Lanigan, Gary; Loubet, Benjamin; Misselbrook, Tom; Meisinger, John J.; Neftel, Albrecht; Nyord, Tavs; Pedersen, Simon V.; Sintermann, Jörg; Thompson, Rodney B.; Vermeulen, Bert; Voylokov, Polina; Williams, John R.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2018-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from animal manure contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation, and the loss of reactive nitrogen (N) from agricultural systems. Estimates of NH3 emission are necessary for national inventories and nutrient management, and NH3 emission from field-applied manure has

  18. Electron field emission characteristics of graphene/carbon nanotubes hybrid field emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Leifeng; He, Hong; Yu, Hua; Cao, Yiqi; Lei, Da; Menggen, QiQiGe; Wu, Chaoxing; Hu, Liqin

    2014-01-01

    The graphene (GP) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) hybrid nanostructure emitter was constructed by a larger scale electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The field emission (FE) performance of the hybrid emitter is greatly improved compared with that of only GP or MCNTs emitter. The low turn-on electric field (EF), the low threshold EF and the reliability FE properties are obtained from the hybrid emitter. The better FE properties result from the improved electrical properties. For further enhancement FE of hybrids, Ag Nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated on the hybrids and FE characteristics were also studied. These studies indicate that we can use the hybrid nanostructure to improve conductivity and contact resistance, which results in enhancement of the FE properties

  19. Penetration length-dependent hot electrons in the field emission from ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yicong; Song, Xiaomeng; Li, Zhibing; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of field emission, whether or not hot electrons can form in the semiconductor emitters under a surface penetration field is of great concern, which will provide not only a comprehensive physical picture of field emission from semiconductor but also guidance on how to improve device performance. However, apart from some theoretical work, its experimental evidence has not been reported yet. In this article, the field penetration length-dependent hot electrons were observed in the field emission of ZnO nanowires through the in-situ study of its electrical and field emission characteristic before and after NH3 plasma treatment in an ultrahigh vacuum system. After the treatment, most of the nanowires have an increased carrier density but reduced field emission current. The raised carrier density was caused by the increased content of oxygen vacancies, while the degraded field emission current was attributed to the lower kinetic energy of hot electrons caused by the shorter penetration length. All of these results suggest that the field emission properties of ZnO nanowires can be optimized by modifying their carrier density to balance both the kinetic energy of field induced hot electrons and the limitation of saturated current under a given field.

  20. New perspectives in vacuum high voltage insulation. I. The transition to field emission

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, W T

    1998-01-01

    Vacuum high-voltage insulation has been investigated for many years. Typically, electrical breakdown occurs between two broad-area electrodes at electric fields 100-1000 times lower than the breakdown field (about 5000 MV/m) between a well-prepared point cathode and a broad-area anode. Explanations of the large differences remain unsatisfactory, usually evoking field emission from small projections on the cathode that are subject to higher peak fields. The field emission then produces secondary effects that lead to breakdown. This article provides a significant resolution to this long standing problem. Field emission is not present at all fields, but typically starts after some process occurs at the cathode surface. Three effects have been identified that produce the transition to field emission: work function changes; mechanical changes produced by the strong electrical forces on the electrode surfaces; and gas desorption from the anode with sufficient density to support an avalanche discharge. Material adso...

  1. Field Measurements of PCB emissions from Building Surfaces Using a New Portable Emission Test Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Haven, Rune; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure PCB-emission rates from indoor surfaces on-site in contaminated buildings using a newly developed portable emission test cell. Emission rates were measured from six different surfaces; three untreated surfaces and three remediated surfaces in a contaminated...

  2. THE EFFECT OF RICE CULTIVARS ON METHANE EMISSION FROM IRRIGATED RICE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Setyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice plants have been reported to affect methane (CH4 emission from rice fields. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of rice cultivars on CH4 emission from flooded rice and to develop crop management strategies with low emitting rice cultivars while sustaining high yield. The four rice cultivars studied were Memberamo, Cisadane, IR64, and Way Apoburu. The CH4 emissions were determined in the wet season of 2001/2002 (November-February using an automated closed chamber technique in an irrigated field condition. Farmyard manure at the rate of 5 t ha-1 was given to the plots to ensure carbon was not limited. Root weight, root length, biomass, and number of tillers were determined at 17, 36, and 57 days after transplanting (DAT. The results showed that the mean CH4 emission was highest in the plot planted with Cisadane (94.8 kg CH4 ha-1, and the lowest with IR64 (37.7 kg CH4 ha-1. The plots treated with emberamo and Way Apoburu resulted an intermediate CH4 emission at the average of 61.1 and 58.9 kg CH4 ha-1, respectively. There was no significant difference in yield between the cultivars tested. The yield of Memberamo, Cisadane, IR64, and Way Apoburu were 5.882, 5.764, 5.873 and 6.065 t ha-1, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences in the root weight and root length among cultivars. However, Cisadane gave the highest dry matter weight (222 g hill-1 at 57 DAT compared to the other cultivars (175-190 g hill-1. Plant tillers did not show significant differences between the cultivars. Regression analysis showed that CH4 flux was significantly related with root weight, root length, aboveground biomass, and number of plant tillers. This finding shows that the use of selected cultivars, such as IR64, can potentially lower CH4 emission without scarifying yield.

  3. Near-field emission profiling of tropical forest and Cerrado fires in Brazil during SAMBBA 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Amy K.; Morgan, William T.; O'Shea, Sebastian; Bauguitte, Stéphane; Allan, James D.; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Flynn, Michael J.; Liu, Dantong; Lee, James; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim M.; Longo, Karla M.; Artaxo, Paulo E.; Coe, Hugh

    2018-04-01

    We profile trace gas and particulate emissions from near-field airborne measurements of discrete smoke plumes in Brazil during the 2012 biomass burning season. The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) Project conducted during September and October 2012 sampled across two distinct fire regimes prevalent in the Amazon Basin. Combined measurements from a Compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) and a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) are reported for the first time in a tropical biomass burning environment. Emissions from a mostly smouldering tropical forest wildfire in Rondônia state and numerous smaller flaming Cerrado fires in Tocantins state are presented. While the Cerrado fires appear to be representative of typical fire conditions in the existing literature, the tropical forest wildfire likely represents a more extreme example of biomass burning with a bias towards mostly smouldering emissions. We determined fire-integrated modified combustion efficiencies, emission ratios and emission factors for trace gas and particulate components for these two fire types, alongside aerosol microphysical properties. Seven times more black carbon was emitted from the Cerrado fires per unit of fuel combustion (EFBC of 0.13 ± 0.04 g kg-1) compared to the tropical forest fire (EFBC of 0.019 ± 0.006 g kg-1), and more than 6 times the amount of organic aerosol was emitted from the tropical forest fire per unit of fuel combustion (EFOM of 8.00 ± 2.53 g kg-1, EFOC of 5.00 ± 1.58 g kg-1) compared to the Cerrado fires (EFOM of 1.31 ± 0.42 g kg-1, EFOC of 0.82 ± 0.26 g kg-1). Particulate-phase species emitted from the fires sampled are generally lower than those reported in previous studies and in emission inventories, which is likely a combination of differences in fire combustion efficiency and fuel mixture, along with different measurement techniques. Previous modelling studies focussed on the biomass burning season in tropical South

  4. Field emission electric propulsion thruster modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwyst, Anton Sivaram

    Electric propulsion allows space rockets a much greater range of capabilities with mass efficiencies that are 1.3 to 30 times greater than chemical propulsion. Field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) thrusters provide a specific design that possesses extremely high efficiency and small impulse bits. Depending on mass flow rate, these thrusters can emit both ions and droplets. To date, fundamental experimental work has been limited in FEEP. In particular, detailed individual droplet mechanics have yet to be understood. In this thesis, theoretical and computational investigations are conducted to examine the physical characteristics associated with droplet dynamics relevant to FEEP applications. Both asymptotic analysis and numerical simulations, based on a new approach combining level set and boundary element methods, were used to simulate 2D-planar and 2D-axisymmetric probability density functions of the droplets produced for a given geometry and electrode potential. The combined algorithm allows the simulation of electrostatically-driven liquids up to and after detachment. Second order accuracy in space is achieved using a volume of fluid correction. The simulations indicate that in general, (i) lowering surface tension, viscosity, and potential, or (ii) enlarging electrode rings, and needle tips reduce operational mass efficiency. Among these factors, surface tension and electrostatic potential have the largest impact. A probability density function for the mass to charge ratio (MTCR) of detached droplets is computed, with a peak around 4,000 atoms per electron. High impedance surfaces, strong electric fields, and large liquid surface tension result in a lower MTCR ratio, which governs FEEP droplet evolution via the charge on detached droplets and their corresponding acceleration. Due to the slow mass flow along a FEEP needle, viscosity is of less importance in altering the droplet velocities. The width of the needle, the composition of the propellant, the

  5. The impact of capacitor bank inrush current on field emission current in vacuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koochack-Zadeh, M.; Hinrichsen, V.; Smeets, R.P.P.; Lawall, A.

    2010-01-01

    Field emission current measurements during the recovery voltage are investigated to understand the origin of restrikes in vacuum interrupters in case of the interruption of capacitive loads. Measurement and analysis of very small field emission currents (0.01 - 1 mA) from the current zero crossing

  6. Virtual radiation fields for ALARA determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    As computing power has increased, so too has the ability to model and simulate complex systems and processes. In addition, virtual reality technology has made it possible to visualize and understand many complex scientific and engineering problems. For this reason, a virtual dosimetry program called Virtual Radiation Fields (VRF) is developed to model radiation dose rate and cumulative dose to a receptor operating in a virtual radiation environment. With the design and testing of many facilities and products taking place in the virtual world, this program facilitates the concurrent consideration of radiological concerns during the design process. Three-dimensional (3D) graphical presentation of the radiation environment is made possible through the use of IGRIP, a graphical modeling program developed by Deneb Robotics, Inc. The VRF simulation program was designed to model and display a virtual dosimeter. As a demonstration of the program's capability, the Hanford tank, C-106, was modeled to predict radiation doses to robotic equipment used to remove radioactive waste from the tank. To validate VRF dose predictions, comparison was made with reported values for tank C-106, which showed agreement to within 0.5%. Graphical information is presented regarding the 3D dose rate variation inside the tank. Cumulative dose predictions were made for the cleanup operations of tank C-106. A four-dimensional dose rate map generated by VRF was used to model the dose rate not only in 3D space but also as a function of the amount of waste remaining in the tank. This allowed VRF to predict dose rate at any stage in the waste removal process for an accurate simulation of the radiological conditions throughout the tank cleanup procedure

  7. Virtual radiation fields for ALARA determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, T.W.

    1995-12-31

    As computing power has increased, so too has the ability to model and simulate complex systems and processes. In addition, virtual reality technology has made it possible to visualize and understand many complex scientific and engineering problems. For this reason, a virtual dosimetry program called Virtual Radiation Fields (VRF) is developed to model radiation dose rate and cumulative dose to a receptor operating in a virtual radiation environment. With the design and testing of many facilities and products taking place in the virtual world, this program facilitates the concurrent consideration of radiological concerns during the design process. Three-dimensional (3D) graphical presentation of the radiation environment is made possible through the use of IGRIP, a graphical modeling program developed by Deneb Robotics, Inc. The VRF simulation program was designed to model and display a virtual dosimeter. As a demonstration of the program`s capability, the Hanford tank, C-106, was modeled to predict radiation doses to robotic equipment used to remove radioactive waste from the tank. To validate VRF dose predictions, comparison was made with reported values for tank C-106, which showed agreement to within 0.5%. Graphical information is presented regarding the 3D dose rate variation inside the tank. Cumulative dose predictions were made for the cleanup operations of tank C-106. A four-dimensional dose rate map generated by VRF was used to model the dose rate not only in 3D space but also as a function of the amount of waste remaining in the tank. This allowed VRF to predict dose rate at any stage in the waste removal process for an accurate simulation of the radiological conditions throughout the tank cleanup procedure.

  8. Analysis of the Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Emission from Laptop Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodić Darko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the problem of magnetic field emission produced by the laptop computers. Although, the magnetic field is spread over the entire frequency spectrum, the most dangerous part of it to the laptop users is the frequency range from 50 to 500 Hz, commonly called the extremely low frequency magnetic field. In this frequency region the magnetic field is characterized by high peak values. To examine the influence of laptop’s magnetic field emission in the office, a specific experiment is proposed. It includes the measurement of the magnetic field at six laptop’s positions, which are in close contact to its user. The results obtained from ten different laptop computers show the extremely high emission at some positions, which are dependent on the power dissipation or bad ergonomics. Eventually, the experiment extracts these dangerous positions of magnetic field emission and suggests possible solutions.

  9. Density functional theory for field emission from carbon nano-structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhibing

    2015-12-01

    Electron field emission is understood as a quantum mechanical many-body problem in which an electronic quasi-particle of the emitter is converted into an electron in vacuum. Fundamental concepts of field emission, such as the field enhancement factor, work-function, edge barrier and emission current density, will be investigated, using carbon nanotubes and graphene as examples. A multi-scale algorithm basing on density functional theory is introduced. We will argue that such a first principle approach is necessary and appropriate for field emission of nano-structures, not only for a more accurate quantitative description, but, more importantly, for deeper insight into field emission. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of electronic field emission from large surfaces under static operating conditions and hyper-frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, M.

    1997-09-01

    The enhanced electronic field emission from large area metallic surfaces lowers performances of industrial devices that have to sustain high electric field under vacuum. Despite of numerous investigations in the past, the mechanisms of such an emission have never been well clarified. Recently, research in our laboratory has pointed out the importance played by conducting sites (particles and protrusions). A refined geometrical model, called superposed protrusions model has been proposed to explain the enhanced emission by local field enhancement. As a logical continuation, the present work aims at testing this model and, in the same time, investigating the means to suppress the emission where it is undesirable. Thus, we have showed: the cause of current fluctuations in a continuous field regime (DC), the identity of emission characteristics (β, A e ) in both radiofrequency (RF) and DC regimes, the effectiveness of a thermal treatment by extern high density electronic bombardment, the effectiveness of a mechanical treatment by high pressure rinsing with ultra pure water, the mechanisms and limits of an in situ RF processing. Furthermore, the electronic emission from insulating particles has also been studied concurrently with a spectral analysis of the associated luminous emission. Finally, the refined geometrical model for conducting sites is reinforced while another model is proposed for some insulating sites. Several emission suppressing treatments has been explored and validated. At last, the characteristic of a RF pulsed field emitted electron beam has been checked for the first time as a possible application of such a field emission. (author)

  11. Investigations of Flare Gas Emissions in Taq Taq Oil Field on the Surrounding Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar A. Ali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by oil takes many different forms; one of the most damaging sources is simply the combustion of oil products, such as a well flare burn-off. This paper presents the results of a survey of the agriculture lands around the Taq Taq Oil Production Company. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential contamination caused by the gas emissions from the well flares. Taq Taq field is located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, 60 km north of the giant Kirkuk oil field, 85 km south-east of Erbil and 120 km north-west of Suleimani. Samples of soil were collected from several locations around the site and analyzed to determine the content of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAH present. A gas chromatography linked to a mass spectrometry (GCMS machine was used for these measurements. The PAH contamination at each location of soil was determined and the 16-PAHs, as listed in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA documentation were investigated. The average content of total PAH in all samples of the agricultural soil was 0.654 mg·kg-1 with the concentrations ranging from 0.310 to 0.869 mg·kg-1. It was found that the PAH concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the TTOPCO oil field, indicating that pollution was evident, the area close to the field being more affected by the gas pollution.

  12. The field emission properties from the pristine/B-doped graphene–C{sub 70} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaoju; Wang, Yan; Yang, Ping, E-mail: yangpingdm@ujs.edu.cn

    2017-06-28

    The aim of this paper is to implement a theoretical prediction and evaluation on the quality of graphene–C{sub 70} composite as cathode material. The pristine graphene–C{sub 70} composite and the B-doped graphene–C{sub 70} composites were constructed to investigate their field emission properties. The results suggest that the work function (WF) and ionization potential (IP) of the composites decrease with the increasing electric field. It implies that the electron emission becomes more and more easy. Under the field, the molecular orbital energy levels close to the vacuum level and their energy gap also has a declining trend. It means a good trend for improving the field emission properties of the composites. The above mentioned results show that the composites have the advanced capacity for electron emission and the potential for cathode material. It makes us believe that the composites will be the good field emission electron sources in the electronic device fabrication and the investigation can give a theoretical guidance for the corresponding experiments and may develop the application of fullerene for field emission. - Highlights: • We implement a theoretical prediction on graphene–C{sub 70} composite as cathode materials. • We detect the work function of the composite decrease with increasing electric field. • The ionization potential of the composites decrease with increasing electric field. • We find the molecular orbital energy level close to the vacuum level under the field. • The composites have the advanced capacity for electron emission as cathode material.

  13. THERMIONIC EMISSION ENHANCEMENT FROM CESIUM COATED RHENIUM IN ELECTRIC FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Steese, J. G.; Zollweg, R. J.

    1963-04-15

    The plasma-anode technique was used to observe anomalously high thermionic emission from a rhenium surface with small cesium coverage, where the work function of the composite surface is greater than the ionization potential of cesium. Data suggest that emission enhancement is caused by increased cesium coverage because of cesiumion trapping near the emitter surface under the influence of an ion-rich sheath. (auth)

  14. The Adaptation Law for emissions trading. Part 2. A level playing field for emissions trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, S.

    2010-01-01

    To supplement, clarify and simplify the regulations for emission trading, the Amendment Act emission trading II was submitted to the Dutch Lower Chamber end of 2009. This article discusses the pending bill and comments on a number of remarkable stipulations that may be important to the market parties. First a brief overview is provided of the basic principles of emission trading and the players in the CO2 market. [nl

  15. Fabrication of graphene and ZnO nanocones hybrid structure for transparent field emission device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulkifli, Zurita [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Mara (Malaysia); Shinde, Sachin M.; Suguira, Takatoshi [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: Fabrication of a transparent field emission device with chemical vapor deposited graphene and zinc oxide nanocones showing low turn-on field due to locally enhance electric field. - Highlights: • Demonstrated transparent field emission device with CVD graphene and ZnO nanocones. • Graphene film was coated on carbon doped ZnO nanocone prepared by ion irradiation. • Low turn-on field for the graphene/C:ZnO nanocones hybrid structure is achieved. • Graphene/C:ZnO heterostructure is promising for transparent field emission devices. - Abstract: Fabrication of a transparent and high performance electron emission device is the key challenge for suitable display applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of a transparent and efficient field emission device integrating large-area chemical vapor deposited graphene and carbon doped zinc oxide (C:ZnO) nanocones. The ZnO nanocones were obtained with ion irradiation process at room temperature, over which the graphene film was transferred without destroying nanocone tips. Significant enhancement in field emission properties were observed with the transferred graphene film on C:ZnO nanocones. The threshold field for hybrid and pristine C:ZnO nanocones film at current density of 1 μA/cm{sup 2} was obtained as 4.3 V/μm and 6.5 V/μm, respectively. The enhanced field emission properties with low turn-on field for the graphene/C:ZnO nanocones can be attributed to locally enhance electric field. Our finding shows that a graphene/C:ZnO hybridized structure is very promising to fabricate field emission devices without compromising with high transparency.

  16. Study of electrons photoemitted from field emission tips. Progress report, July 1, 1979-March 1, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenberger, R.

    1980-02-01

    Photo-induced field emission is a technique which studies electrons that have been photoemitted from a field emission tip. This new experimental method promises to combine the proven utility of both field emission and photoemission for investigating the electronic states near a metal surface. The primary objective of the research being performed is to investigate photo-induced field emitted electrons using a tuneable cw dye laser. To fully exploit this continuously tuneable photon source, a differential energy analyzer is being constructed to allow energy resolved measurements of the photo-field emitted electrons. This report describes the progress made in implementing experiments on photo-induced field emission from July 1979 to March 1980

  17. Electron field emission from screen-printed graphene/DWCNT composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Pan, Rong; Chen, Yiwei; Piao, Xianqin; Qian, Min; Feng, Tao; Sun, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The field emission performance improved significantly when adding graphene into DWCNTs as the emission material. ► We set up a model of pure DWCNT films and graphene/DWCNT composite films. ► We discussed the contact barrier between emission films and electric substrates by considering the Fermi energies of silver, DWCNT and graphene. - Abstract: The electron field emission properties of graphene/double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) composite films prepared by screen printing have been systematically studied. Comparing with the pure DWCNT films and pure graphene films, a significant enhancement of electron emission performance of the composite films are observed, such as lower turn-on field, higher emission current density, higher field enhancement factor, and long-term stability. The optimized composite films with 20% weight ratio of graphene show the best electron emission performance with a low turn-on field of 0.62 V μm −1 (at 1 μA cm −2 ) and a high field enhancement factor β of 13,000. A model of the graphene/DWCNT composite films is proposed, which indicate that a certain amount of graphene will contribute the electron transmission in the silver substrate/composite films interface and in the interior of composite films, and finally improve the electron emission performance of the graphene/DWCNT composite films.

  18. Field emission of carbon quantum dots synthesized from a single organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiahui; Yang, Bingjun; Yang, Juan; Yu, Shengxue; Chen, Jiangtao

    2016-11-04

    In this paper, a facile synthesis of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and its field emission performance are reported. The CQDs are prepared from a single N, N-dimethylformamide acting as carbon and nitrogen-doping sources simultaneously. The CQDs are investigated by photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The CQDs have an average size of 3 nm and are doped with N atoms. CQD dispersion shows strong fluorescence under UV illumination. For the first time, the field emission behavior of CQDs coated on Si substrate is studied. As a candidate of cold cathode, the CQDs display good field emission performance. The CQD emitter reaches the current density of 1.1 mA cm(-2) at 7.0 V μm(-1) and exhibits good long-term emission stability, suggesting promising application in field emission devices.

  19. Construction and characterization of the fringe field monochromator for a field emission gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook; Kruit

    2000-04-01

    Although some microscopes have shown stabilities sufficient to attain below 0.1 eV spectral resolution in high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, the intrinsic energy width of the high brightness source (0.3-0.6 eV) has been limiting the resolution. To lower the energy width of the source to 50 meV without unnecessary loss of brightness, a monochromator has been designed consisting of a short (4 mm) fringe field Wien filter and a 150 nm energy selection slit (nanoslit) both to be incorporated in the gun area of the microscope. A prototype has been built and tested in an ultra-high-vacuum setup (10(-9) mbar). The monochromator, operating on a Schottky field emission gun, showed stable and reproducible operation. The nanoslits did not contaminate and the structure remained stable. By measuring the current through the slit structure a direct image of the beam in the monochromator could be attained and the monochromator could be aligned without the use of a microscope. Good dispersed imaging conditions were found indicating an ultimate resolution of 55 meV. A Mark II fringe field monochromator (FFM) was designed and constructed compatible with the cold tungsten field emitter of the VG scanning transmission microscope. The monochromator was incorporated in the gun area of the microscope at IBM T.J. Watson research center, New York. The monochromator was aligned on 100 kV and the energy distribution measured using the monochromator displayed a below 50 meV filtering capability. The retarding Wien filter spectrometer was used to show a 61 meV EELS system resolution. The FFM is shown to be a monochromator which can be aligned without the use of the electron microscope. This makes it directly applicable for scanning transmission microscopy and low-voltage scanning electron microscopy, where it can lower the resolution loss which is caused by chromatic blur of the spot.

  20. Method of synthesizing small-diameter carbon nanotubes with electron field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie (Inventor); Du, Chunsheng (Inventor); Qian, Cheng (Inventor); Gao, Bo (Inventor); Qiu, Qi (Inventor); Zhou, Otto Z. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube material having an outer diameter less than 10 nm and a number of walls less than ten are disclosed. Also disclosed are an electron field emission device including a substrate, an optionally layer of adhesion-promoting layer, and a layer of electron field emission material. The electron field emission material includes a carbon nanotube having a number of concentric graphene shells per tube of from two to ten, an outer diameter from 2 to 8 nm, and a nanotube length greater than 0.1 microns. One method to fabricate carbon nanotubes includes the steps of (a) producing a catalyst containing Fe and Mo supported on MgO powder, (b) using a mixture of hydrogen and carbon containing gas as precursors, and (c) heating the catalyst to a temperature above 950.degree. C. to produce a carbon nanotube. Another method of fabricating an electron field emission cathode includes the steps of (a) synthesizing electron field emission materials containing carbon nanotubes with a number of concentric graphene shells per tube from two to ten, an outer diameter of from 2 to 8 nm, and a length greater than 0.1 microns, (b) dispersing the electron field emission material in a suitable solvent, (c) depositing the electron field emission materials onto a substrate, and (d) annealing the substrate.

  1. Creating a level playing field? The concentration and centralisation of emissions in the European Union Emissions Trading System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    This article questions the assumption that carbon markets create a level playing field by exploring the relationship between the organisation of capital and the organisation of emissions in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). It constructs a database by matching installations and owners to reveal that a relatively small number of large-scale coal-fired power stations, owned by a very small group of states and corporations, are responsible for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. The findings are analysed by considering how technological dependence on coal together with the corporate institutional form combine to support the socio-spatial concentration and centralisation of capital and emissions. Case studies of the consolidation of the seven largest polluting owners from Europe's coal-dependent electricity sector and the carbon trading strategies of the two largest polluters, RWE and E.ON, then assess the impacts of energy liberalisation and emissions trading policies. The article concludes that EU energy and climate policies are pulling in different directions by clustering responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and diffusing responsibility to address climate change. The uneven distribution of emissions within the EU ETS makes an alternative policy approach that directly targets the biggest corporate and state polluters both feasible and necessary. - Highlights: • 20 ultimate owners are responsible for one-half of 2005–12 EU ETS emissions. • 83 installations are responsible for one-third of 2005–12 EU ETS emissions. • Focus on technological dependence on coal and the corporate institutional form. • Energy liberalisation policy has consolidated responsibility for emissions. • Carbon markets have diffused responsibility for addressing climate change.

  2. Leakage and field emission in side-gate graphene field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bartolomeo, A., E-mail: dibant@sa.infn.it; Iemmo, L.; Romeo, F.; Cucolo, A. M. [Physics Department “E.R. Caianiello,” University of Salerno, via G. Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); CNR-SPIN Salerno, via G. Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Giubileo, F. [CNR-SPIN Salerno, via G. Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Russo, S.; Unal, S. [Physics Department, University of Exeter, Stocker Road 6, Exeter, Devon EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Passacantando, M.; Grossi, V. [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    We fabricate planar graphene field-effect transistors with self-aligned side-gate at 100 nm from the 500 nm wide graphene conductive channel, using a single lithographic step. We demonstrate side-gating below 1 V with conductance modulation of 35% and transconductance up to 0.5 mS/mm at 10 mV drain bias. We measure the planar leakage along the SiO{sub 2}/vacuum gate dielectric over a wide voltage range, reporting rapidly growing current above 15 V. We unveil the microscopic mechanisms driving the leakage, as Frenkel-Poole transport through SiO{sub 2} up to the activation of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling in vacuum, which becomes dominant at higher voltages. We report a field-emission current density as high as 1 μA/μm between graphene flakes. These findings are important for the miniaturization of atomically thin devices.

  3. First image from a combined positron emission tomography and field-cycled MRI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindseil, Geron A; Gilbert, Kyle M; Scholl, Timothy J; Handler, William B; Chronik, Blaine A

    2011-07-01

    Combining positron emission tomography and MRI modalities typically requires using either conventional MRI with a MR-compatible positron emission tomography system or a modified MR system with conventional positron emission tomography. A feature of field-cycled MRI is that all magnetic fields can be turned off rapidly, enabling the use of conventional positron emission tomography detectors based on photomultiplier tubes. In this demonstration, two photomultiplier tube-based positron emission tomography detectors were integrated with a field-cycled MRI system (0.3 T/4 MHz) by placing them into a 9-cm axial gap. A positron emission tomography-MRI phantom consisting of a triangular arrangement of positron-emitting point sources embedded in an onion was imaged in a repeating interleaved sequence of ∼1 sec MRI then 1 sec positron emission tomography. The first multimodality images from the combined positron emission tomography and field-cycled MRI system show no additional artifacts due to interaction between the systems and demonstrate the potential of this approach to combining positron emission tomography and MRI. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Spectroscopic determination of the magnetic field distribution in a gas-puff Z-pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorian, L; Davara, G; Kroupp, E; Maron, Y [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics

    1997-12-31

    The time dependent radial distribution of the magnetic field in a gas-puff Z-pinch plasma has been determined by observing the Zeeman effect on emission lines, allowed for by polarization spectroscopy and high accuracy line-profile measurements. A modeling scheme, based on a 1-D magnetic diffusion equation, is used to fit the experimental data. The plasma conductivity inferred from the field distribution was found to be consistent with the Spitzer conductivity. The current density distribution and the time dependent plasma region in which the entire circuit current flows were determined. (author). 3 figs., 6 refs.

  5. Methane emission from a paddy field with pre-germinated system in Brazilian Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M. A.; Luiz, A. J. B.; Villela, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Methane is a major gas of greenhouse effect from agricultural activities, and the flooded paddy field is one of its sources. Methane production in the soil, under this cultivation, varies over the cropping season, due to plant physiological changes, climatic conditions, crop handling and local soil conditions, factors that, together, influence methane emissions and their amplitudes. Local measurements of CH4 emissions are essential for the improvement of national and regional gas emission inventories. Most part of the studies has been carried out in temperate and subtropical climate regions. This study aimed to determine the accumulated CH4 emission from a rice field with two different rice varieties under tropical climate. The CH4 emission assessments were held in the experimental area maintained by APTA (Agricultural Technology State Agency) in Pindamonhangaba, State of São Paulo (22°55' S, 45°30' W), Brazil, in two growing seasons (2013/4 and 2014/5). The soil is a Gleysol with clayey or loamy-clayey texture. The experiment had two varieties (IAC-105 and Epagri-106) in four blocks using pre-germinated system under continuously flooding management with addition of urea (80 kg N ha-1) as fertilizer. Gas efflux determination used the chamber-based method. The chambers (60 x 60 cm) of aluminum and insulating material were composed by permanent anchors, extensors and lids equipped with temperature sensor, fans and septum for sampling. The gas was sampled each five minutes till 25 minutes by using 60 mL BD plastic syringes and transferred to evacuated 12 mL LABCO vials. Gas sampling occurred once to twice a week and samples were analyzed using a Shimadzu GC-2014 gas chromatograph. Seasonal CH4 flux has varied from 3.1 to 11.8 g CH4 m-2. We have carried out a similar experiment in 2015/6 and 2016/2017 seasons and further analysis of all data will be done for assessment of the relation gas flux/productivity.

  6. Testing the near field/far field model performance for prediction of particulate matter emissions in a paint factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, A.J.; Jensen, A.C.Ø.; Levin, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    A Near Field/Far Field (NF/FF) model is a well-accepted tool for precautionary exposure assessment but its capability to estimate particulate matter (PM) concentrations is not well studied. The main concern is related to emission source characterization which is not as well defined for PM emitters...

  7. Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution of thin-sample field-emission electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yugo; Hamada, Kotaro; Urano, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The minimum detection limit and spatial resolution for a thinned semiconductor sample were determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) using a Schottky field emission (FE) electron gun and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the FE-EPMA results with those obtained using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with scanning transmission electron microscopy, confirmed that FE-EPMA is largely superior in terms of detection sensitivity. Thin-sample FE-EPMA is demonstrated as a very effective method for high resolution, high sensitivity analysis in a laboratory environment because a high probe current and high signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved. - Highlights: • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution determined for FE-EPMA. • Detection sensitivity of FE-EPMA greatly superior to that of STEM-EDX. • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution controllable by probe current

  8. Electron field emission from sp -induced insulating to metallic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. MS received 20 ... emissions of amorphous carbon films have been investigated. The observed ... water followed by acetone was positioned at the centre of first zone ..... clusters islands, surface geometry, and internal structures of the films.

  9. Experimental study on the luminous radiation associated to the field emission of samples submitted to high RF fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maissa, S.; Junquera, T.; Fouaidy, M.; Le Goff, A.; Luong, M.; Tan, J.; Bonin, B.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    Nowadays the accelerating gradient of the RF cavities is limited by the strong field emission (FE) of electrons stemming from the metallic walls. Previous experiments evidenced luminous radiations associated with electron emission on cathodes subjected to intense DC electric field. These observations led these authors to propose new theoretical models of the field emission phenomenon. The presented experimental study extends these previous DC works to the RF case. A special copper RF cavity has been developed equipped with an optical window and a removable sample. It has been designed for measuring both electron current and luminous radiation emitted by the sample, subjected to maximum RF electric field. The optical apparatus attached to the cavity permits to characterize the radiation in terms of intensity, glowing duration and spectral distribution. The results concerning different niobium or copper samples, whom top was either scratched or intentionally contaminated with metallic or dielectric particles are summarized. (author)

  10. Experimental study on the luminous radiation associated to the field emission of samples submitted to high RF fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maissa, S.; Junquera, T.; Fouaidy, M.; Le Goff, A.; Luong, M.; Tan, J.; Bonin, B.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    The accelerating gradient of the RF cavities is limited by the strong field emission (FE) of electrons stemming from the metallic walls. Previous experiments evidenced luminous radiations associated with electron emission of cathodes subjected to intense DC electric field. These observations invoked the proposal of new theoretical models of the field emission phenomenon. This experimental study extends the previous DC works to the RF case. A special copper RF cavity has been developed equipped with an optical window and a removable sample. It has been designed for measuring both electron current and luminous radiation emitted by the sample, subjected to maximum RF electric field. The optical apparatus attached to the cavity permits to characterize the radiation in terms of intensity, glowing duration and spectral distribution. The results concerning different niobium or copper samples, whom top was either scratched or intentionally contaminated with metallic or dielectric particles are summarized. (author)

  11. Comparative use of different emission measurement approaches to determine methane emissions from a biogas plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinelt, Torsten; Delre, Antonio; Westerkamp, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6 and 2.1%) from team to team, depending on the number of measured emission points, operational state during the measurements and the measurement method applied. Taking the operational conditions into account, the deviation between different approaches and teams could......A sustainable anaerobic biowaste treatment has to mitigate methane emissions from the entire biogas production chain, but the exact quantification of these emissions remains a challenge. This study presents a comparative measurement campaign carried out with on-site and ground-based remote sensing...... measurement approaches conducted by six measuring teams at a Swedish biowaste treatment plant. The measured emissions showed high variations, amongst others caused by different periods of measurement performance in connection with varying operational states of the plant. The overall methane emissions measured...

  12. Increased field-emission site density from regrown carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Gupta, S.; Liang, M.; Nemanich, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Electron field-emission properties of as-grown, etched, and regrown carbon nanotube thin films were investigated. The aligned carbon nanotube films were deposited by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. The surface of the as-grown film contained a carbon nanotube mat of amorphous carbon and entangled nanotubes with some tubes protruding from the surface. Hydrogen plasma etching resulted in the removal of the surface layer, and regrowth on the etched surface displayed the formation of a new carbon nanotube mat. The emission site density and the current-voltage dependence of the field emission from all of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that the as-grown sample had a few strong emission spots and a relatively high emission current density (∼20 μA/cm 2 at 1 V/μm), while the regrown sample exhibited a significantly increased emission site density

  13. Impacts of nationally determined contributions on 2030 global greenhouse gas emissions: uncertainty analysis and distribution of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Hélène; Boucher, Olivier; Guivarch, Céline; Le Treut, Hervé; Criqui, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), submitted by Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change before and after the 21st Conference of Parties, summarize domestic objectives for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions for the 2025-2030 time horizon. In the absence, for now, of detailed guidelines for the format of NDCs, ancillary data are needed to interpret some NDCs and project GHG emissions in 2030. Here, we provide an analysis of uncertainty sources and their impacts on 2030 global GHG emissions based on the sole and full achievement of the NDCs. We estimate that NDCs project into 56.8-66.5 Gt CO2eq yr-1 emissions in 2030 (90% confidence interval), which is higher than previous estimates, and with a larger uncertainty range. Despite these uncertainties, NDCs robustly shift GHG emissions towards emerging and developing countries and reduce international inequalities in per capita GHG emissions. Finally, we stress that current NDCs imply larger emissions reduction rates after 2030 than during the 2010-2030 period if long-term temperature goals are to be fulfilled. Our results highlight four requirements for the forthcoming ‘climate regime’: a clearer framework regarding future NDCs’ design, an increasing participation of emerging and developing countries in the global mitigation effort, an ambitious update mechanism in order to avoid hardly feasible decarbonization rates after 2030 and an anticipation of steep decreases in global emissions after 2030.

  14. Effects of ZnO Quantum Dots Decoration on the Field Emission Behavior of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Zhou, Xiongtu; Lin, Zhixian; Guo, Tailiang; Zhang, Yongai; Zeng, Yongzhi

    2016-11-23

    ZnO quantum dots (QDs) have been decorated on graphene deposited on patterned Ag electrodes as a field emission cathode by a solution process. Effects of ZnO QDs on the field emission behavior of graphene are studied by experiment and first-principles calculations. The results indicate that the attachment of ZnO QDs with a C atom leads to the enhancement of electron emission from graphene, which is mainly attributed to the reduction of the work function and ionization potential, and the increase of the Fermi level of graphene after the decoration. A change in the local density distribution and the density of states near the Fermi level may also account for this behavior. Our study may help to develop new field emission composites and expand ZnO QDs in applications for electron emission devices as well.

  15. Magnetic Field Emissions for Ferrite and Non-Ferrite Geometries for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing magnetic field emissions to surroundings is one of the most challenging design criteria for wireless power transfer to vehicles. In this paper, concept of division of the emissions into three zones (primary, secondary, and combined zone) in the vertical direction is introduced. For geo......Minimizing magnetic field emissions to surroundings is one of the most challenging design criteria for wireless power transfer to vehicles. In this paper, concept of division of the emissions into three zones (primary, secondary, and combined zone) in the vertical direction is introduced...... for vertical separation between the coils in range of 100-180 mm. It is observed that lower vertical separation results in higher overlapping of the zones and the coils behave as they are effectively placed close to center of air gap. The analysis in this work provides a better understanding of the space...... profile of magnetic field emissions (with and without ferrite) for wireless power transfer to vehicles....

  16. Development of a high brightness ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a laser-driven cold field emission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdellier, F; Caruso, G M; Weber, S; Kociak, M; Arbouet, A

    2018-03-01

    We report on the development of an ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a cold field emission source which can operate in either DC or ultrafast mode. Electron emission from a tungsten nanotip is triggered by femtosecond laser pulses which are tightly focused by optical components integrated inside a cold field emission source close to the cathode. The properties of the electron probe (brightness, angular current density, stability) are quantitatively determined. The measured brightness is the largest reported so far for UTEMs. Examples of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy using ultrashort electron pulses are given. Finally, the potential of this instrument is illustrated by performing electron holography in the off-axis configuration using ultrashort electron pulses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electric field strength determination in filamentary DBDs by CARS-based four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Patrick; Kettlitz, Manfred; Brandenburg, Ronny; Hoeft, Hans; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    The electric field strength is a basic parameter of non-thermal plasmas. Therefore, a profound knowledge of the electric field distribution is crucial. In this contribution a four wave mixing technique based on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is used to measure electric field strengths in filamentary dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs). The discharges are operated with a pulsed voltage in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Small amounts hydrogen (10 vol%) are admixed as tracer gas to evaluate the electric field strength in the 1 mm discharge gap. Absolute values of the electric field strength are determined by calibration of the CARS setup with high voltage amplitudes below the ignition threshold of the arrangement. Alteration of the electric field strength has been observed during the internal polarity reversal and the breakdown process. In this case the major advantage over emission based methods is that this technique can be used independently from emission, e.g. in the pre-phase and in between two consecutive, opposite discharge pulses where no emission occurs at all. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Forschergruppe FOR 1123 and Sonderforschungsbereich TRR 24 ``Fundamentals of complex plasmas''.

  18. High performance bulk metallic glass/carbon nanotube composite cathodes for electron field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman; Gibson, Mark A.; East, Daniel; Simon, George P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the preparation of new nanocomposites based on a combination of bulk metallic glass and carbon nanotubes for electron field emission applications. The use of bulk metallic glass as the matrix ensures high electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and ease of processing, whilst the well dispersed carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient electron emitters. These advantages, alongside excellent electron emission properties, make these composites one of the best reported options for electron emission applications to date.

  19. High performance bulk metallic glass/carbon nanotube composite cathodes for electron field emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gibson, Mark A. [Process Science and Engineering, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Clayton, Vic 3168 (Australia); East, Daniel; Simon, George P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2011-11-07

    We report the preparation of new nanocomposites based on a combination of bulk metallic glass and carbon nanotubes for electron field emission applications. The use of bulk metallic glass as the matrix ensures high electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and ease of processing, whilst the well dispersed carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient electron emitters. These advantages, alongside excellent electron emission properties, make these composites one of the best reported options for electron emission applications to date.

  20. Tunneling emission of electrons from semiconductors' valence bands in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalganov, V. D.; Mileshkina, N. V.; Ostroumova, E. V.

    2006-01-01

    Tunneling emission currents of electrons from semiconductors to vacuum (needle-shaped GaAs photodetectors) and to a metal (silicon metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes with a tunneling-transparent insulator layer) are studied in high and ultrahigh electric fields. It is shown that, in semiconductors with the n-type conductivity, the major contribution to the emission current is made by the tunneling emission of electrons from the valence band of the semiconductor, rather than from the conduction band

  1. Facile solution synthesis of hexagonal Alq3 nanorods and their field emission properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin-Song; Ji, Heng-Xing; Cao, An-Min; Huang, Zheng-Xi; Zhang, Yang; Wan, Li-Jun; Xia, An-Dong; Yu, Da-Peng; Meng, Xiang-Min; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2007-08-07

    A facile self-assembly growth route assisted by surfactant has been developed to synthesize tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq(3)) nanorods with regular hexagonal shape and good crystallinity, which exhibit field-emission characteristics with a very low turn-on field of ca. 3.1 V microm(-1) and a high field-enhancement factor of ca. 1300.

  2. Comparative use of different emission measurement approaches to determine methane emissions from a biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinelt, Torsten; Delre, Antonio; Westerkamp, Tanja; Holmgren, Magnus A; Liebetrau, Jan; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    A sustainable anaerobic biowaste treatment has to mitigate methane emissions from the entire biogas production chain, but the exact quantification of these emissions remains a challenge. This study presents a comparative measurement campaign carried out with on-site and ground-based remote sensing measurement approaches conducted by six measuring teams at a Swedish biowaste treatment plant. The measured emissions showed high variations, amongst others caused by different periods of measurement performance in connection with varying operational states of the plant. The overall methane emissions measured by ground-based remote sensing varied from 5 to 25kgh -1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6-3.0% of upgraded methane produced), depending on operating conditions and the measurement method applied. Overall methane emissions measured by the on-site measuring approaches varied between 5 and 17kgh -1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6 and 2.1%) from team to team, depending on the number of measured emission points, operational state during the measurements and the measurement method applied. Taking the operational conditions into account, the deviation between different approaches and teams could be explained, in that the two largest methane-emitting sources, contributing about 90% of the entire site's emissions, were found to be the open digestate storage tank and a pressure release valve on the compressor station. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Multi-field electron emission pattern of 2D emitter: Illustrated with graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ma; Li, Zhibing

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of laser-assisted multi-field electron emission of two-dimensional emitters is investigated theoretically. The process is basically a cold field electron emission but having more controllable components: a uniform electric field controls the emission potential barrier, a magnetic field controls the quantum states of the emitter, while an optical field controls electron populations of specified quantum states. It provides a highly orientational vacuum electron line source whose divergence angle over the beam plane is inversely proportional to square root of the emitter height. Calculations are carried out for graphene with the armchair emission edge, as a concrete example. The rate equation incorporating the optical excitation, phonon scattering, and thermal relaxation is solved in the quasi-equilibrium approximation for electron population in the bands. The far-field emission patterns, that inherit the features of the Landau bands, are obtained. It is found that the optical field generates a characteristic structure at one wing of the emission pattern.

  4. Improved field emission performance of carbon nanotube by introducing copper metallic particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yiren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To improve the field emission performance of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, a simple and low-cost method was adopted in this article. We introduced copper particles for decorating the CNTs so as to form copper particle-CNT composites. The composites were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition technique which produced copper metallic particles localized on the outer wall of CNTs and deposited them onto indium tin oxide (ITO electrode. The results showed that the conductivity increased from 10-5 to 4 × 10-5 S while the turn-on field was reduced from 3.4 to 2.2 V/μm. Moreover, the field emission current tended to be undiminished after continuous emission for 24 h. The reasons were summarized that introducing copper metallic particles to decorate CNTs could increase the surface roughness of the CNTs which was beneficial to field emission, restrain field emission current from saturating when the applied electric field was above the critical field. In addition, it could also improve the electrical contact by increasing the contact area between CNT and ITO electrode that was beneficial to the electron transport and avoided instable electron emission caused by thermal injury of CNTs.

  5. Study of Thermal-Field Emission Properties and Investigation of Temperature dependent Noise in the Emission Current form vertical Carbon nanotube emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Kolekar, Sadhu; Patole, Shashikant P.; Patil, Sumati; Yoo, J.B.; Dharmadhikari, C.V.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated temperature dependent field electron emission characteristics of vertical carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The generalized expression for electron emission from well defined cathode surface is given by Millikan and Lauritsen [1

  6. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture – an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rees

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot-based experiments. Arable experiments were conducted at Beano in Italy, El Encin in Spain, Foulum in Denmark, Logården in Sweden, Maulde in Belgium, Paulinenaue in Germany, and Tulloch in the UK. Grassland experiments were conducted at Crichton, Nafferton and Peaknaze in the UK, Gödöllö in Hungary, Rzecin in Poland, Zarnekow in Germany and Theix in France. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at each site over a period of at least two years using static chambers. Emissions varied widely between sites and as a result of manipulation treatments. Average site emissions (throughout the study period varied between 0.04 and 21.21 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1, with the largest fluxes and variability associated with the grassland sites. Total nitrogen addition was found to be the single most important determinant of emissions, accounting for 15% of the variance (using linear regression in the data from the arable sites (p 2O emissions within sites that occurred as a result of manipulation treatments was greater than that resulting from site-to-site and year-to-year variation, highlighting the importance of management interventions in contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation.

  7. Ultrafast electron field emission from gold resonant antennas studied by two terahertz pulse experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary form only given. Ultrafast electron field emission from gold resonant antennas induced by strong terahertz (THz) transient is investigated using two THz pulse experiments. It is shown that UV emission from nitrogen plasma generated by liberated electrons is a good indication of the local...

  8. “Comprehensive emission measurements from prescribed burning in Florida: field and laboratory, aerial and ground”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simultaneous aerial- and ground-based emission sampling was conducted during prescribed burns at Eglin Air Force Base in November 2012 on a short grass/shrub field and a pine forest. Cumulative emission samples for volatile organic comounds, elemental carbon, organic carbon, ch...

  9. Comprehensive emission measurements from prescribed burning in Florida: field and laboratory, aerial and ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simultaneous aerial- and ground-based emission sampling was conducted during prescribed burns at Eglin Air Force Base in November 2012 on a short grass/shrub field and a pine forest. Cumulative emission samples for volatile organic compounds, elemental carbon, organic carbon, c...

  10. Effect of a microwave field on the cascade arc light emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerasimov, N.T.; Rosado, R.J.; Schram, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of a pulsed microwave field on the integral light emission from the argon plasma of a DC atmospheric-pressure cascade arc is investigated experimentally. An intensive light pulse and oscillations of light emission at frequencies of the order of 10 kHz are observed. The shape and amplitude

  11. Enhanced performance of thermal-assisted electron field emission based on barium oxide nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yunkang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Institute of technology, Nanjing, 211167 (China); Chen, Jing, E-mail: chenjingmoon@gmail.com [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China); Zhang, Yuning; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei; Di, Yunsong [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China); Zhang, Zichen, E-mail: zz241@ime.ac.cn [Integrated system for Laser applications Group, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100029, Beijing (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A possible mechanism for thermal-assisted electric field was demonstrated. • A new path for the architecture of the novel nanomaterial and methodology for its potential application in the field emission device area was provided. • The turn-on field, the threshold field and the field emission current density were largely related to the temperature of the cathode. • The relationship between the work function of emitter material and the temperature of emitter was found. - Abstract: In this paper, thermal-assisted field emission properties of barium oxide (BaO) nanowire synthesized by a chemical bath deposition method were investigated. The morphology and composition of BaO nanowire were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) respectively. The turn-on field, threshold field and the emission current density could be affected relatively due to the thermal-assisted effect when the electric field was applied, in the meanwhile, the turn-on field for BaO nanowire was measured to be decreased from 1.12 V/μm to 0.66 V/μm when the temperature was raised from 293 K to 593 K, whereas for the threshold field was found to decrease from 3.64 V/μm to 2.12 V/μm. The improved performance was demonstrated due to the reduced work function of the BaO nanowire as the agitation temperature increasing, leading to the higher probability of electrons tunneling through the energy barrier and enhancement of the field emission properties of BaO emitters.

  12. Enhanced performance of thermal-assisted electron field emission based on barium oxide nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Yunkang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Yuning; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei; Di, Yunsong; Zhang, Zichen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A possible mechanism for thermal-assisted electric field was demonstrated. • A new path for the architecture of the novel nanomaterial and methodology for its potential application in the field emission device area was provided. • The turn-on field, the threshold field and the field emission current density were largely related to the temperature of the cathode. • The relationship between the work function of emitter material and the temperature of emitter was found. - Abstract: In this paper, thermal-assisted field emission properties of barium oxide (BaO) nanowire synthesized by a chemical bath deposition method were investigated. The morphology and composition of BaO nanowire were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) respectively. The turn-on field, threshold field and the emission current density could be affected relatively due to the thermal-assisted effect when the electric field was applied, in the meanwhile, the turn-on field for BaO nanowire was measured to be decreased from 1.12 V/μm to 0.66 V/μm when the temperature was raised from 293 K to 593 K, whereas for the threshold field was found to decrease from 3.64 V/μm to 2.12 V/μm. The improved performance was demonstrated due to the reduced work function of the BaO nanowire as the agitation temperature increasing, leading to the higher probability of electrons tunneling through the energy barrier and enhancement of the field emission properties of BaO emitters.

  13. Emission and distribution of phosphine in paddy fields and its relationship with greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyi; Niu, Xiaojun; An, Shaorong; Sheng, Hong; Tang, Zhenghua; Yang, Zhiquan; Gu, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    Phosphine (PH 3 ), as a gaseous phosphide, plays an important role in the phosphorus cycle in ecosystems. In this study, the emission and distribution of phosphine, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) in paddy fields were investigated to speculate the future potential impacts of enhanced greenhouse effect on phosphorus cycle involved in phosphine by the method of Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. During the whole period of rice growth, there was a significant positive correlation between CO 2 emission flux and PH 3 emission flux (r=0.592, p=0.026, n=14). Similarly, a significant positive correlation of emission flux was also observed between CH 4 and PH 3 (r=0.563, p=0.036, n=14). The linear regression relationship was determined as [PH 3 ] flux =0.007[CO 2 ] flux +0.063[CH 4 ] flux -4.638. No significant differences were observed for all values of matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), soil carbon dioxide (SCO 2 ), and soil methane (SCH 4 ) in paddy soils. However, there was a significant positive correlation between MBP and SCO 2 at heading, flowering and ripening stage. The correlation coefficients were 0.909, 0.890 and 0.827, respectively. In vertical distribution, MBP had the analogical variation trend with SCO 2 and SCH 4 . Through Pearson correlation analysis and multiple stepwise linear regression analysis, pH, redox potential (Eh), total phosphorus (TP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) were identified as the principal factors affecting MBP levels, with correlative rankings of Eh>pH>TP>ACP. The multiple stepwise regression model ([MBP]=0.456∗[ACP]+0.235∗[TP]-1.458∗[Eh]-36.547∗[pH]+352.298) was obtained. The findings in this study hold great reference values to the global biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining the emissivity of pig skin for accurate infrared thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dennis D.; Clausen, Sønnik; Mercer, James B.

    2014-01-01

    for the ear base (p euthanasia) tended to be lower (p = 0.06) compared with the emissivity of the skin areas when perfused with blood. The results of this study confirm that it is valid to use the human skin...

  15. Determination of Serum Lithium by Flame Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nafissy

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithum can be de termined both by atomic absorption spectroscopy andflame emission spectroscopy. We have used the later method with a Zeiss Model pMQlI spectro photometer fitt ed with ante-chamber atomizer and a potensiome rric line recorder. Accurate ana lysis for the clement was acco mplished due to a sophisracared measuring instrument.

  16. Normal spectral emissivity measurement of molten copper using an electromagnetic levitator superimposed with a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Ryo; Inoue, Takamitsu; Baba, Yuya; Sugioka, Ken-ichi; Kubo, Masaki; Tsukada, Takao; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The normal spectral emissivity of molten copper was determined in the wavelength range of 780–920 nm and in the temperature range of 1288–1678 K, by directly measuring the radiance emitted by an electromagnetically levitated molten copper droplet under a static magnetic field of 1.5 T. The spectrometer for radiance measurement was calibrated using the relation between the theoretical blackbody radiance from Planck's law and the light intensity of a quasi-blackbody radiation source measured using a spectrometer at a given temperature. As a result, the normal spectral emissivity of molten copper was determined as 0.075 ± 0.011 at a wavelength of 807 nm, and it was found that its temperature dependence is negligible in the entire measurement temperature range tested. In addition, the results of the normal spectral emissivity and its wavelength dependence were discussed, in comparison with those obtained using the Drude free-electron model. (paper)

  17. 40 CFR 63.9322 - How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the emission... Cells/Stands Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.9322 How do I determine the emission... efficiency measurement must consist of three test runs. Each test run must be at least 3 hours in duration or...

  18. 30 CFR 72.503 - Determination of emissions; filter maintenance; definition of “introduced”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the piece of diesel-powered equipment in question. (c) In lieu of the laboratory tests required by... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of emissions; filter maintenance...-Underground Areas of Underground Coal Mines § 72.503 Determination of emissions; filter maintenance...

  19. TAURUS observations of the emission-line velocity field of Centaurus A (NGC 5128)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.; Atherton, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    Using TAURUS - an Imaging Fabry Perot system in conjunction with the IPCS on the AAT, the authors have studied the velocity field of the Hα emission line at a spatial resolution of 1.7'' over the dark lane structure of Centaurus A. The derived velocity field is quite symmetrical and strongly suggests that the emission line material is orbiting the elliptical component, as a warped disc. (orig.)

  20. Room temperature Coulomb blockade mediated field emission via self-assembled gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fei [College of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Fang, Jingyue, E-mail: fjynudt@aliyun.com [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Chang, Shengli; Qin, Shiqiao; Zhang, Xueao [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Xu, Hui, E-mail: cmpxhg@csu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2017-02-05

    Coulomb blockade mediated field-emission current was observed in single-electron tunneling devices based on self-assembled gold nanoparticles at 300 K. According to Raichev's theoretical model, by fixing a proper geometric distribution of source, island and drain, the transfer characteristics can be well explained through a combination of Coulomb blockade and field emission. Coulomb blockade and field emission alternately happen in our self-assembled devices. The Coulomb island size derived from the experimental data is in good agreement with the average size of the gold nanoparticles used in the device. The integrated tunneling can be adjusted via a gate electrode. - Highlights: • The phenomenon of single-electron field emission in a transistor setting using self-assembled gold nanoparticles was investigated. • The transfer characteristics can be well explained by the model that is a combination of Coulomb blockage and field emission. • This transport mechanism is novel and may be used in many applications in field emission devices.

  1. Stability of field emission current from porous n-GaAs(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondare, V. N.; Naddaf, M.; Bhise, A. B.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Joag, D. S.; Mandale, A. B.; Sainkar, S. R.

    2002-02-01

    Field electron emission from porous GaAs has been investigated. The emitter was prepared by anodic etching of n-GaAs (110) in 0.1 M HCl solution. The as-etched porous GaAs shows nonlinear Fowler-Nordheim (FN) characteristics, with a low onset voltage. The emitter, after operating for 6 h at the residual gas pressure of 1×10-8 mbar, shows a linear FN characteristics with a relatively high onset voltage and poor field emission current stability as compared to the as-etched emitter. The change in the behavior was attributed to the residual gas ion bombardment during field electron emission. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigations were carried out on as-etched sample and the one which was studied for field emission. The studies indicate that the as-etched surface contains As2O3 and the surface after field electron emission for about 6 h becomes gallium rich. The presence of As2O3 seems to be a desirable feature for the stable field emission current.

  2. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal, E-mail: zainabh@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  3. Reducing field emission in the superconducting rf cavities for the next generation of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Q.S.; Hartung, W.; Leibovich, A.; Kirchgessner, J.; Moffat, D.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Sears, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on field emission, which is an obstacle to reaching the higher fields called for in future applications of superconducting radio frequency cavities to particle accelerators. The authors used heat treatment up to 1500 degrees C in an ultra-high vacuum furnace, along with processing of cavities and temperature mapping, to suppress field emission and analyze emitter properties. In 27 tests of 1-cell 1500 MHz fired accelerating cavities, on the average the accelerating field E acc increased to 24 MV/m (H pk = 1250 Oe) from 13 MV/m with chemical treatment alone; the highest E acc reached was 30.5 MV/m

  4. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the outlet THC.../outlet Concentration Option § 63.3555 How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control... section to determine either the outlet THC emissions or add-on control device emission destruction or...

  5. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Suck Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes.

  6. Spacecraft attitude determination using the earth's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, David G.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented by which the attitude of a low-Earth orbiting spacecraft may be determined using a vector magnetometer, a digital Sun sensor, and a mathematical model of the Earth's magnetic field. The method is currently being implemented for the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft (as a backup for the failing star trackers) as a way to determine roll gyro drift.

  7. Interstellar Magnetic Fields and Polarimetry of Dust Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic fields are an important ingredient in the stormy cosmos. Magnetic fields: (1) are intimately involved with winds from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and stars (2) create at least some of the structures observed in the ISM (3) modulate the formation of clouds, cores, and stars within a turbulent medium (4) may be dynamically important in protostellar accretion disks (5) smooth weak shocks (C-shocks).

  8. Low-macroscopic field emission from silicon-incorporated diamond-like carbon film synthesized by dc PECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Sk.F.; Mitra, M.K.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon-incorporated diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) films were deposited via dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), on glass and alumina substrates at a substrate temperature 300 deg. C. The precursor gas used was acetylene and for Si incorporation, tetraethyl orthosilicate dissolved in methanol was used. Si atomic percentage in the films was varied from 0% to 19.3% as measured from energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The binding energies of C 1s, Si 2s and Si 2p were determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. We have observed low-macroscopic field electron emission from Si-DLC thin films deposited on glass substrates. The emission properties have been studied for a fixed anode-sample separation of 80 μm for different Si atomic percentages in the films. The turn-on field was also found to vary from 16.19 to 3.61 V/μm for a fixed anode-sample separation of 80 μm with a variation of silicon atomic percentage in the films 0% to 19.3%. The turn-on field and approximate work function are calculated and we have tried to explain the emission mechanism there from. It was found that the turn-on field and effective emission barrier were reduced by Si incorporation than undoped DLC

  9. Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission in Relativistic Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ken-IchiI.; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G.

    2004-01-01

    Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (m) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient parallel magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. New simulations with an ambient perpendicular magnetic field show the strong interaction between the relativistic jet and the magnetic fields. The magnetic fields are piled up by the jet and the jet electrons are bent, which creates currents and displacement currents. At the nonlinear stage, the magnetic fields are reversed by the current and the reconnection may take place. Due to these dynamics the jet and ambient electron are strongly accelerated in both parallel and perpendicular directions.

  10. Evaluation of field emission properties from multiple-stacked Si quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Daichi; Makihara, Katsunori; Ohta, Akio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-stacked Si quantum dots (QDs) with ultrathin SiO 2 interlayers were formed on ultrathin SiO 2 layers by repeating a process sequence consisting of the formation of Si-QDs by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using a SiH 4 gas and the surface oxidation and subsequent surface modification by remote hydrogen and oxygen plasmas, respectively. To clarify the electron emission mechanism from multiple-stacked Si-QDs covered with an ultrathin Au top electrode, the energy distribution of the emitted electrons and its electric field dependence was measured using a hemispherical electron energy analyzer in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system under DC bias application to the multiple-stacked Si-QD structure. At − 6 V and over, the energy distributions reached a peak at ~ 2.5 eV with a tail toward the higher energy side. While the electron emission intensity was increased exponentially with an increase in the applied DC bias, there was no significant increase in the emission peak energy. The observed emission characteristics can be interpreted in terms of field emissions from the second and/or third topmost Si-QDs resulting from the electric concentration there. - Highlights: • Electron field emission from 6-fold stack of Si-QDs has been evaluated. • AFM measurements show the local electron emission from individual Si-QDs. • Impact of applied bias on the electron emission energy distribution was investigated.

  11. Field emission properties of ring-shaped Si ridges with DLC coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommesberger, Christian; Ławrowski, Robert; Langer, Christoph; Mecani, Mirgen; Huang, Yifeng; She, Juncong; Schreiner, Rupert

    2017-05-01

    We report on the fabrication and the emission characterization of single ring-shaped Si ridges with a coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC). The reactive ion etching and the subsequent inductively coupled plasma step were adjusted to realize ring-shaped Si ridges with a height of 7.5 μm respectively 15 μm and an apex radius of 20 - 25 nm. The samples were coated with a DLC layer (thickness ≈ 2 - 5 nm) by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition system in order to lower the work function of the emitter and to improve the field emission characteristics. The field emission characterizations were done in diode configuration with cathode and anode separated by a 50 μm thick mica spacer. A higher emission current was carried out for the ring-shaped Si ridge in comparison to the point-shaped Si tips due to the increased emission area. The highest emission current of 0.22 μA at 1000 V was measured on a DLC-coated sample with the highest aspect ratio. No degradation of the emission current was observed in the plateau regime during a measurement period of 6 h. Finally, no decreasing performance of the field emission properties was found due to changes in the geometry or destructions.

  12. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from paddy fields in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shang-Shyng; Lai, Chao-Ming; Chang, Hsiu-Lan; Chang, Ed-Huan; Wei, Chia-Bei

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the greenhouse gases emissions from paddy fields, methane and nitrous oxide emissions were estimated with the local measurement and the IPCC method during 1990-2006 in Taiwan. Annual methane emission ranged from 9001 to 14,980 ton in the first crop season for 135,314-242,298 ha of paddy fields, and it was between 16,412 and 35,208 ton for 101,710-211,968 ha in the second crop season with the local measurement for intermittent irrigation. The value ranged from 31,122 to 55,729 ton of methane emission in the first crop season, and it was between 29,493 and 61,471 ton in the second crop season with the IPCC guideline for continuous flooding. Annual nitrous oxide emission from paddy fields was between 371 and 728 ton in the first crop season, and the value ranged from 163 to 365 ton in the second crop season with the local measurement. Methane emission from paddy fields in Taiwan for intermittent irrigation was only 26.72-28.92%, 55.65-57.32% and 41.19-43.10% with the IPCC guidelines for continuous flooding and mean temperature of transplanting stage in the first crop, the second crop and total paddy fields, respectively. The values were 53.44-57.84%, 111.29-114.55% and 82.38-86.20% with the IPCC guidelines for single aeration and mean temperature of transplanting stage, respectively; and the values were 133.60-144.61%, 282.56-286.62% and 205.96-215.49% with the IPCC guidelines for multiple aeration and mean temperature of transplanting stage, respectively. Intermittent irrigation in paddy fields reduces methane emission significantly; appropriate application of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation in paddy fields also decreases nitrous oxide emission. (author)

  13. Beam Dynamics Simulations of Optically-Enhanced Field Emission from Structured Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, A. [Northern Illinois U.; Grote, D. [LLNL, Livermore; Mihalcea, D. [Northern Illinois U.; Piot, P. [Fermilab; Vay, J.-L. [LBNL, Berkeley

    2014-01-01

    Structured cathodes - cathodes with a segmented emission surface - are finding an increasing number of applications and can be combined with a variety of emission mechanisms, including photoemission and field emission. These cathodes have been used to enhance the quantum efficiency of metallic cathodes when operated as plasmonic cathodes, have produced high-current electron bunches though field emission from multiple tips, and can be used to form beams with transverse segmentations necessary for improving the performance of accelerator-based light sources. In this report we present recent progress towards the development of finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell simulations using the emission process in structured cathodes based on the WARP framework. The simulations give further insight on the localized source of the emitted electrons which could be used for additional high-fidelity start-to-end simulations of electron accelerators that employ this type of electron source.

  14. HARD X-RAY EMISSION DURING FLARES AND PHOTOSPHERIC FIELD CHANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtseva, O.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Martínez-Oliveros, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    We study the correlation between abrupt permanent changes of magnetic field during X-class flares observed by the Global Oscillation Network Group and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instruments, and the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed by RHESSI, to relate the photospheric field changes to the coronal restructuring and investigate the origin of the field changes. We find that spatially the early RHESSI emission corresponds well to locations of the strong field changes. The field changes occur predominantly in the regions of strong magnetic field near the polarity inversion line (PIL). The later RHESSI emission does not correspond to significant field changes as the flare footpoints are moving away from the PIL. Most of the field changes start before or around the start time of the detectable HXR signal, and they end at about the same time or later than the detectable HXR flare emission. Some of the field changes propagate with speed close to that of the HXR footpoint at a later phase of the flare. The propagation of the field changes often takes place after the strongest peak in the HXR signal when the footpoints start moving away from the PIL, i.e., the field changes follow the same trajectory as the HXR footpoint, but at an earlier time. Thus, the field changes and HXR emission are spatio-temporally related but not co-spatial nor simultaneous. We also find that in the strongest X-class flares the amplitudes of the field changes peak a few minutes earlier than the peak of the HXR signal. We briefly discuss this observed time delay in terms of the formation of current sheets during eruptions

  15. Nitrogen plasma formation through terahertz-induced ultrafast electron field emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy and electron diffraction techniques rely on electron sources. Those sources require strong electric fields to extract electrons from metals, either by the photoelectric effect, driven by multiphoton absorption of strong laser fields, or in the static field emission regime....... Terahertz (THz) radiation, commonly understood to be nonionizing due to its low photon energy, is here shown to produce electron field emission. We demonstrate that a carrier-envelope phase-stable single-cycle optical field at THz frequencies interacting with a metallic microantenna can generate...... and accelerate ultrashort and ultrabright electron bunches into free space, and we use these electrons to excite and ionize ambient nitrogen molecules near the antenna. The associated UV emission from the gas forms a novel THz wave detector, which, in contrast with conventional photon-counting or heat...

  16. Optimization study of direct morphology observation by cold field emission SEM without gold coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Fu, Cheng; Xue, Zhigang

    2018-06-01

    Gold coating is a general operation that is generally applied on non-conductive or low conductive materials, during which the morphology of the materials can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, fatal deficiencies in the materials can result in irreversible distortion and damage. The present study directly characterized different low conductive materials such as hydroxyapatite, modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fiber, and zinc oxide nanopillar by cold field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) without a gold coating. According to the characteristics of the low conductive materials, various test conditions, such as different working signal modes, accelerating voltages, electron beam spots, and working distances, were characterized to determine the best morphological observations of each sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nano-Filament Field Emission Cathode Development Final Report CRADA No. TSB-0731-93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, Tony [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fahlen, Ted [Candescent Technologies Corporation, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2018-01-17

    At the time the CRADA was established, Silicon Video Corporation, of Cupertino, CA was a one-year-old rapidly growing start-up company. SVC was developing flat panel displays (FPDs) to replace Cathode Ray Terminals (CRTs) for personal computers, work stations and televisions. They planned to base their products on low cost and energy efficient field emission technology. It was universally recognized that the display was both the dominant cost item and differentiating feature of many products such as laptop computers and hand-held electronics and that control of the display technology through U.S. sources was essential to success in these markets. The purpose of this CRADA project was to determine if electrochemical planarization would be a viable, inexpensive alternative to current optical polishing techniques for planarizing the surface of a ceramic backplate of a thin film display.

  18. Distribution of Phytophthora spp. in Field Soils Determined by Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S A; Madden, L V; Schmitthenner, A F

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT Populations of Phytophthora spp. were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in field soils used for pepper and soybean production in Ohio. Soybean fields were sampled extensively (64 fields, n = 6 samples per field over 2 years) and intensively (4 fields, n = 64 samples per field in 1 year) to assess heterogeneity of P. sojae populations. Four pepper fields (n = 64), three of which had a history of Phytophthora blight (caused by P. capsici), also were sampled intensively during a 6-month period. Mean (m), variance (v), and measures of aggregation (e.g., variance-to-mean ratio [v/m]) of immunoassay values, translated to Phytophthora antigen units (PAU), were related to the disease history in each of the pepper and soybean fields. Mean PAU values for fields in which Phytophthora root rot (soybean) or blight (pepper) had been moderate to severe were higher than in fields in which disease incidence had been low or not observed. A detection threshold value of 11.3 PAU was calculated with values for 64 samples from one pepper field, all of which tested negative for Phytophthora by bioassay and ELISA. Seven of the eight intensively sampled fields contained at least some detectable Phytophthora propagules, with the percentage of positive samples ranging from 1.6 to 73.4. Mean PAU values ranged from 1 to 84 (extensive soybean field sampling), 6 to 24 (intensive soybean field sampling), and 4 to 30 (intensive pepper field sampling); however, variances ranged from 0 to 7,774 (extensive sampling), 30 to 848 (intensive soybean field sampling), and 5 to 2,401 (intensive pepper field sampling). Heterogeneity of PAU was high in most individual soybean and pepper fields, with values of v/m greater than 1, and log(v) increasing with log(m), with a slope of about 2.0. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients were not significant, indicating there was no relationship of PAU values in neighboring sampling units (i.e., field locations) of the intensively sampled

  19. Emission characteristics in solution-processed asymmetric white alternating current field-induced polymer electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Xia, Yingdong; Smith, Gregory M.; Gu, Yu; Yang, Chuluo; Carroll, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the emission characteristics of a blue fluorophor poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) combined with a red emitting dye: Bis(2-methyl-dibenzo[f,h]quinoxaline)(acetylacetonate)iridium (III) [Ir(MDQ)2(acac)], are examined in two different asymmetric white alternating current field-induced polymer electroluminescent (FIPEL) device structures. The first is a top-contact device in which the triplet transfer is observed resulting in the concentration-dependence of the emission similar to the standard organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structure. The second is a bottom-contact device which, however, exhibits concentration-independence of emission. Specifically, both dye emission and polymer emission are found for the concentrations as high as 10% by weight of the dye in the emitter. We attribute this to the significant different carrier injection characteristics of the two FIPEL devices. Our results suggest a simple and easy way to realize high-quality white emission.

  20. Distinction between the Poole-Frenkel and tunneling models of electric-field-stimulated carrier emission from deep levels in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganichev, S. D.; Ziemann, E.; Prettl, W.; Yassievich, I. N.; Istratov, A. A.; Weber, E. R.

    2000-01-01

    The enhancement of the emission rate of charge carriers from deep-level defects in electric field is routinely used to determine the charge state of the defects. However, only a limited number of defects can be satisfactorily described by the Poole-Frenkel theory. An electric field dependence different from that expected from the Poole-Frenkel theory has been repeatedly reported in the literature, and no unambiguous identification of the charge state of the defect could be made. In this article, the electric field dependencies of emission of carriers from DX centers in Al x Ga 1-x As:Te, Cu pairs in silicon, and Ge:Hg have been studied applying static and terahertz electric fields, and analyzed by using the models of Poole-Frenkel and phonon assisted tunneling. It is shown that phonon assisted tunneling and Poole-Frenkel emission are two competitive mechanisms of enhancement of emission of carriers, and their relative contribution is determined by the charge state of the defect and by the electric-field strength. At high-electric field strengths carrier emission is dominated by tunneling independently of the charge state of the impurity. For neutral impurities, where Poole-Frenkel lowering of the emission barrier does not occur, the phonon assisted tunneling model describes well the experimental data also in the low-field region. For charged impurities the transition from phonon assisted tunneling at high fields to Poole-Frenkel effect at low fields can be traced back. It is suggested that the Poole-Frenkel and tunneling models can be distinguished by plotting logarithm of the emission rate against the square root or against the square of the electric field, respectively. This analysis enables one to unambiguously determine the charge state of a deep-level defect. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. Testing climate-smart irrigation strategies to reduce methane emissions from rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Approximately 11% of the global 308 Tg CH4 anthropogenic emissions are currently attributed to rice cultivation. In this study, the impact of water conservation practices on rice field CH4 emissions was evaluated in Arkansas, the leading state in US rice cultivation. While conserving water, the Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) irrigation practice can also reduce CH4 emissions through the deliberate, periodic introduction of aerobic conditions. Seasonal CH4emissions from a pair of adjacent, production-sized rice fields were estimated and compared during the 2015 to 2017 growing seasons using the eddy covariance method on each field. The fields were alternately treated with continuous flood (CF) and AWD irrigation. In 2015, the seasonal cumulative carbon losses by CH4 emission were 30.3 ± 6.3 and 141.9 ± 8.6 kg CH4-C ha-1 for the AWD and CF treatments, respectively. Data from 2016 and 2017 will be analyzed and shown within this presentation; an initial view demonstrates consistent findings to 2015. When accounting for differences in field conditions and soils, the AWD practice is attributable to a 36-51% reduction in seasonal emissions. The substantial decrease in CH4 emissions by AWD supports previous chamber-based research and offers strong evidence for the efficacy of AWD in reducing CH4 emissions in Arkansas rice production. The AWD practice has enabled the sale of credits for carbon offsets trading and this new market could encourage CH4 emissions reductions on a national scale. These eddy covariance towers are being placed into a regional perspective including crop and forest land in the three states comprising the Mississippi Delta: Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

  2. Enhancement of field emission and photoluminescence properties of graphene-SnO2 composite nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jijun; Yan, Xingbin; Li, Jun; Shen, Baoshou; Yang, Juan; Chen, Jiangtao; Xue, Qunji

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the SnO(2) nanostructures and graphene-SnO(2) (G-SnO(2)) composite nanostructures were prepared on n-Si (100) substrates by electrophoretic deposition and magnetron sputtering techniques. The field emission of SnO(2) nanostructures is improved largely by depositing graphene buffer layer, and the field emission of G-SnO(2) composite nanostructures can also further be improved by decreasing sputtering time of Sn nanoparticles to 5 min. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the SnO(2) nanostructures revealed multipeaks, which are consistent with previous reports except for a new peak at 422 nm. Intensity of six emission peaks increased after depositing graphene buffer layer. Our results indicated that graphene can also be used as buffer layer acting as interface modification to simultaneity improve the field emission and PL properties of SnO(2) nanostructures effectively.

  3. Effect of Electric Field in the Stabilized Premixed Flame on Combustion Process Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Krickis

    2017-10-01

    The effect of the AC and DC electrical field on combustion processes has been investigated by various researchers. The results of these experiments do not always correlate, due to different experiment conditions and experiment equipment variations. The observed effects of the electrical field impact on the combustion process depends on the applied voltage polarity, flame speed and combustion physics. During the experiment was defined that starting from 1000 V the ionic wind takes the effect on emissions in flue gases, flame shape and combustion instabilities. Simulation combustion process in hermetically sealed chamber with excess oxygen amount 3 % in flue gases showed that the positive effect of electrical field on emissions lies in region from 30 to 400 V. In aforementioned voltage range carbon monoxide emissions were reduced by 6 % and at the same time the nitrogen oxide emissions were increased by 3.5 %.

  4. Water-molecular emission from cavitation bubbles affected by electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang-Bok; Choi, Pak-Kon

    2018-04-01

    Orange emission was observed during multibubble sonoluminescence at 1 MHz in water saturated with noble gas. The emission arose in the vicinity of the peeled ground electrode of a piezoceramic transducer exposed to water, suggesting that cavitation bubbles were affected by the electric fields that leaked from the transducer. The spectrum of the emission exhibited a broad component whose intensity increased towards the near-infrared region with peaks at 713 and 813 nm. The spectral shape was independent of the saturation gas of He, Ne, or Kr. The broad component was attributed to the superposition of lines due to vibration-rotation transitions of water molecules, each of which was broadened by the high pressure and electric fields at bubble collapse. An emission mechanism based on charge induction by electric fields and the charged droplet model is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Near-field emission profiling of tropical forest and Cerrado fires in Brazil during SAMBBA 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Hodgson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We profile trace gas and particulate emissions from near-field airborne measurements of discrete smoke plumes in Brazil during the 2012 biomass burning season. The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA Project conducted during September and October 2012 sampled across two distinct fire regimes prevalent in the Amazon Basin. Combined measurements from a Compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS and a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2 are reported for the first time in a tropical biomass burning environment. Emissions from a mostly smouldering tropical forest wildfire in Rondônia state and numerous smaller flaming Cerrado fires in Tocantins state are presented. While the Cerrado fires appear to be representative of typical fire conditions in the existing literature, the tropical forest wildfire likely represents a more extreme example of biomass burning with a bias towards mostly smouldering emissions. We determined fire-integrated modified combustion efficiencies, emission ratios and emission factors for trace gas and particulate components for these two fire types, alongside aerosol microphysical properties. Seven times more black carbon was emitted from the Cerrado fires per unit of fuel combustion (EFBC of 0.13 ± 0.04 g kg−1 compared to the tropical forest fire (EFBC of 0.019 ± 0.006 g kg−1, and more than 6 times the amount of organic aerosol was emitted from the tropical forest fire per unit of fuel combustion (EFOM of 8.00 ± 2.53 g kg−1, EFOC of 5.00 ± 1.58 g kg−1 compared to the Cerrado fires (EFOM of 1.31 ± 0.42 g kg−1, EFOC of 0.82 ± 0.26 g kg−1. Particulate-phase species emitted from the fires sampled are generally lower than those reported in previous studies and in emission inventories, which is likely a combination of differences in fire combustion efficiency and fuel mixture, along with different measurement techniques. Previous

  6. Effect of synthesis parameters on morphology of polyaniline (PANI) and field emission investigation of PANI nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankar, Prashant K.; More, Mahendra A., E-mail: mam@physics.unipune.ac.in [Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India); Patil, Sandip S. [Department of Physics, Modern College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Shivajinagar, Pune-411005. India (India)

    2015-06-24

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanostructures have been synthesized by simple chemical oxidation route at different monomer concentration along with variation in synthesis temperature. The effect of variation of synthesis parameters has been revealed using different characterization techniques. The structural and morphological characterization of the synthesized PANI nanostructures was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), whereas Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has been used to reveal the chemical properties. With the variation in the synthesis temperature and monomer concentration, various morphologies characterized by formation of PANI nanoparticles, nanofibres, nanotubes and nanospheres, are revealed from the SEM analysis. The FTIR analysis reveals the formation of conducting state of PANI under prevailing experimental conditions. The field emission investigation of the conducting PANI nanotubes was performed in all metal UHV system at base pressure of 1x10{sup −8} mbar. The turn on field required to draw emission of 1 nA current was observed to be ∼ 2.2 V/μm and threshold field (corresponding to emission current density of 1 µA/cm2) was found to be 3.2 V/μm. The emission current was observed to be stable for more than three hours at a preset value 1 µA. The simple synthesis route and good field emission characteristics indicate potential of PANI nanofibres as a promising emitter for field emission based micro/nano devices.

  7. Electric field distribution and current emission in a miniaturized geometrical diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinpu; Wong, Patrick Y.; Yang, Penglu; Lau, Y. Y.; Tang, W.; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    We study the electric field distribution and current emission in a miniaturized geometrical diode. Using Schwarz-Christoffel transformation, we calculate exactly the electric field inside a finite vacuum cathode-anode (A-K) gap with a single trapezoid protrusion on one of the electrode surfaces. It is found that there is a strong field enhancement on both electrodes near the protrusion, when the ratio of the A-K gap distance to the protrusion height d /h spot checked against COMSOL simulations. We calculate the effective field enhancement factor for the field emission current, by integrating the local Fowler-Nordheim current density along the electrode surfaces. We systematically examine the electric field enhancement and the current rectification of the miniaturized geometrical diode for various geometric dimensions and applied electric fields.

  8. Methods of Temperature and Emission Measure Determination of Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtain, J. W.; Schmelz, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.

    2002-05-01

    Recent observational results from both SOHO-EIT and TRACE indicate that coronal loops are isothermal along their length (axially). These results are obtained from a narrowband filter ratio method that assumes that the plasma is isothermal along the line of sight (radially). However, these temperatures vary greatly from those derived from differential emission measure (DEM) curves produced from spectral lines recorded by SOHO-CDS. The DEM results indicate that the loops are neither axially nor radially isothermal. This discrepancy was investigated by Schmelz et al. (2001). They chose pairs of iron lines from the same CDS data set to mimic the EIT and TRACE loop results. Ratios of different lines gave different temperatures, indicating that the plasma was not radially isothermal. In addition the results indicated that the loop was axially isothermal, even though the DEM analysis of the same data showed this result to be false. Here we have analyzed the EIT data for the CDS loop published by Schmelz et al. (2001). We took the ratios of the 171-to-195 and 195-to-284 filter data, and made temperature maps of the loop. The results indicate that the loop is axially isothermal, but different temperatures were found for each pair of filters. Both ratio techniques force the resultant temperature to lie within the range where the response functions (for filters) or the emissivity functions (for lines) overlap; isothermal loops are therefore a byproduct of the analysis. This conclusion strengthens support for the idea that temperature and emission measure results from filter ratio methods may be misleading or even drastically wrong. This research was funded in part by the NASA/TRACE MODA grant for Montana State University. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NASA grant NAG5-9783.

  9. Determination numbers of ionized atoms from emission and absorption lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh Azimi, A.; Shokouhi, N.

    2002-01-01

    Saha, M., (1920) estimated that salter chromosphere is not only due to radiation from neutral atoms, but from ionized atoms. The failure to observe these stellar lines in the laboratory was attributed to internal temperature and pressure about 10* E + 6 K 10* E-7 atm. In this research we found that emission lines of ionized atoms (like Cs) could be measured in laboratory condition, (about 10* E-3 atm and 2000 K) by using Graphite France Atomic Absorption with injection 124 u g C sel. We calculated the numbers of ionized atoms from Bottzman law. We also measured these numbers from area under the energy-time curve

  10. Field test of available methods to measure remotely SOx and NOx emissions from ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balzani Lööv, J.M.; Alfoldy, B.; Gast, L.F.L.; Hjorth, J.; Lagler, F.; Mellqvist, J.; Beecken, J.; Berg, N.; Duyzer, J.; Westrate, H.; Swart, D.P.J.; Berkhout, A.J.C.; Jalkanen, J.P.; Prata, A.J.; Van Der Hoff, G.R.; Borowiak, A.

    2014-01-01

    Methods for the determination of ship fuel sulphur content and NOx emission factors based on remote measurements have been compared in the harbour of Rotterdam and compared to direct stack emission measurements on the ferry Stena Hollandica. The methods were selected based on a review of the

  11. Comparison of two models for phonon assisted tunneling field enhanced emission from defects in Ge measured by DLTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienaar, J., E-mail: jac_pienaar@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Meyer, W.E.; Auret, F.D.; Coelho, S.M.M. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to measure the field enhanced emission rate from a defect introduced in n-type Ge. The defect was introduced through low energy ({+-}80 eV) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching using Ar. The defect, named EP{sub 0.31}, had an energy level 0.31 eV below the conduction band. Models of Pons and Makram-Ebeid (1979) and Ganichev and Prettl (1997) , which describe emission due to phonon assisted tunneling, were fitted to the observed electric field dependence of the emission rate. The model of Pons and Makram-Ebeid fitted the measured emission rate more accurately than Ganichev and Prettl. However the model of Ganichev and Prettl has only two parameters, while the model of Pons and Makram-Ebeid has four. Both models showed a transition in the dominant emission mechanism from a weak electron-phonon coupling below 152.5 K to a strong electron-phonon coupling above 155 K. After the application of a {chi}{sup 2} goodness of fit test, it was determined that the model of Pons and Makram-Ebeid describes the data well, while that of Ganichev and Prettl does not.

  12. Measurement of The Magnetic Field in a Spherical Torus Plasma via Electron Bernstein Wave Emission Harmonic Overlap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Munsat, T.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of the magnetic field in a spherical torus by observation of harmonic overlap frequencies in the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) spectrum has been previously suggested [V.F. Shevchenko, Plasma Phys. Reports 26 (2000) 1000]. EBW mode conversion to X-mode radiation has been studied in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade spherical torus, [T. Jones, Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, 1995] with emission measured at blackbody levels [B. Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) article no. 165001]. Sharp transitions in the thermally emitted EBW spectrum have been observed for the first two harmonic overlaps. These transition frequencies are determined by the magnetic field and electron density at the mode conversion layer in accordance with hot-plasma wave theory. Prospects of extending this measurement to higher harmonics, necessary in order to determine the magnetic field profile, and high beta equilibria are discussed for this proposed magnetic field diagnostic

  13. Improved field emission from indium decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreekanth, M.; Ghosh, S., E-mail: santanu1@physics.iitd.ernet.in; Biswas, P.; Kumar, S.; Srivastava, P.

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Improved field emission properties have been achieved for Indium (In) decorated MWCNTs and are shown using the schematic of field emission set up with In/CNT cathode, and a plot of J-E characteristics for pristine and In decorated CNTs. - Highlights: • Field emission (FE) properties have been studied for the first time from Indium (In) decorated MWCNT films. • Observed increased density of states near the Fermi level for In decorated films. • Superior field emission properties have been achieved for In decorated CNT films. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films were grown using thermal chemical vapor deposition (T-CVD) process and were decorated with indium metal particles by thermal evaporation technique. The In metal particles are found to get oxidized. The In decorated films show 250% enhancement in the FE current density, lower turn-on and threshold fields, and better temporal stability as compared to their undecorated counterpart. This improvement in field emission properties is primarily attributed to increased density of states near the Fermi level. The presence of O 2p states along with a small contribution from In 5s states results in the enhancement of density of states in the vicinity of the Fermi level.

  14. Field penetration induced charge redistribution effects on the field emission properties of carbon nanotubes - a first-principle study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-W.; Lee, M.-H.; Clark, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of field penetration induced charge redistribution on the field emission properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied by the first-principle calculations. It is found that the carbon nanotube becomes polarized under external electric field leading to a charge redistribution. The resulting band bending induced by field penetration into the nanotube tip surface can further reduce the effective workfunction of the carbon nanotubes. The magnitude of the redistributed charge ΔQ is found to be nearly linear to the applied external field strength. In addition, we found that the capped (9, 0) zigzag nanotube demonstrates better field emission properties than the capped (5, 5) armchair nanotube due to the fact that the charge redistribution of π electrons along the zigzag-like tube axis is easier than for the armchair-like tube. The density of states (DOS) of the capped region of the nanotube is found to be enhanced with a value 30% higher than that of the sidewall part for the capped (5, 5) nanotube and 40% for the capped (9, 0) nanotube under an electric field of 0.33 V/A. Such enhancements of the DOS at the carbon nanotube tip show that electrons near the Fermi level will emit more easily due to the change of the surface band structure resulting from the field penetration in a high field

  15. Enhanced field emission of ZnO nanoneedle arrays via solution etching at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Huanming; Qin, Zhiwei; Wang, Zaide

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanoneedle arrays (ZnO nns) were synthesized by a facile two-step solution-phase method based on the etching of pre-synthesized ZnO nanowire arrays (ZnO nws) with flat ends at room temperature. Field emission measurement results showed that the turn-on electronic fields of ZnO nns and nws wer...

  16. Field emission from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, N.; van Druten, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Individual multiwalled carbon nanotube field emitters were prepared in a scanning electron microscope. The angular current density, energy spectra, and the emission stability of the field-emitted electrons were measured. An estimate of the electron source brightness was extracted from the

  17. Human brain wave activity during exposure to radiofrequency field emissions from mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Costa, H.; Cosic, I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an effect of mobile phone electromagnetic field emissions on the human electroencephalograph (EEG). EEG recordings from ten awake subjects were taken during exposure to radiofrequency (RF) emissions from a mobile phone positioned behind the head. Two experimental trials were conducted. In the first trial, RF exposures were generated by a GSM mobile phone with the speaker disabled and configured to transmit at full-radiated power. During the second trial, exposures were generated by a non-modified GSM mobile phone in active standby mode. For each trial, subjects were exposed in five minute intervals to a randomized, interrupted sequence of five active and five sham exposures. The experiment was conducted under single-blind conditions. The average EEG band power in active exposure recordings was compared to corresponding sham recordings. Statistical tests indicated significant difference in the full-power mode trial within the EEG alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-32 Hz) bands. A subsequent statistical analysis of median spectral power in discrete EEG rhythms revealed significant differences in 7 of the 32 distinct frequencies overall. In conclusion, the results of this study lend support to EEG effects from mobile phones activated in talk-mode. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  18. Determination of radioactive emission origins based on analyses of isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devell, L.

    1987-01-01

    The nature of radioactivity emissions can be determined through gamma spectroscopy of air samples with good precision, which means that the type of source of the emission may be found, e.g. nuclear weapons test, of nuclear power plant accident. Combined with information on wind trajectories it is normally possible to recognize time and area for the emission. In this preliminary study, the knowledge of and preparedness for such measurements are described. (L.E.)

  19. Study of Thermal-Field Emission Properties and Investigation of Temperature dependent Noise in the Emission Current form vertical Carbon nanotube emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Kolekar, Sadhu

    2017-05-05

    We have investigated temperature dependent field electron emission characteristics of vertical carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The generalized expression for electron emission from well defined cathode surface is given by Millikan and Lauritsen [1] for the combination of temperature and electric field effect. The same expression has been used to explain the electron emission characteristics from vertical CNT emitters. Furthermore, this has been applied to explain the electron emission for different temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1500 K. The real-time field electron emission images at room temperature and 1500 K are recorded by using Charge Coupled Device (CCD), in order to understand the effect of temperature on electron emission spots in image morphology (as indicated by ring like structures) and electron emission spot intensity of the emitters. Moreover, the field electron emission images can be used to calculate the total number of emitters per cm2 for electron emission. The calculated number of emitters per cm2 is 4.5x107 and, the actual number emitters per cm2 present for electron emission calculated from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data is 1.2x1012. The measured Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristics obey the Folwer-Nordheim (F-N) type behavior. The fluctuations in the emission current are recorded at different temperatures and, temperature dependence of power spectral density obeys power law relation s(f)=I2/f2 with that of emission current and frequency.

  20. Developing Automatic Water Table Control System for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, C.; Fauzan, M. I.; Satyanto, K. S.; Budi, I. S.; Masaru, M.

    2018-05-01

    Water table in rice fields play important role to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Continuous flooding by maintenance water table 2-5 cm above soil surface is not effective and release more GHG emissions. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as alternative rice farming apply intermittent irrigation by maintaining lower water table is proven can reduce GHG emissions reducing productivity significantly. The objectives of this study were to develop automatic water table control system for SRI application and then evaluate the performances. The control system was developed based on fuzzy logic algorithms using the mini PC of Raspberry Pi. Based on laboratory and field tests, the developed system was working well as indicated by lower MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) values. MAPE values for simulation and field tests were 16.88% and 15.80%, respectively. This system can save irrigation water up to 42.54% without reducing productivity significantly when compared to manual irrigation systems.

  1. An assessment of the land surface emissivity in the 8 - 12 micrometer window determined from ASTER and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmugge, T.; Hulley, G.; Hook, S.

    2009-04-01

    can be determined. The TES algorithm has been validated with field measurements using a multi-spectral radiometer having similar bands to ASTER. The ASTER data have now been used to produce a seasonal gridded database of the emissivity for North America and the results compared to laboratory measured emissivities of in-situ rock/sand samples collected at ten validation sites in the Western USA during 2008. The directional hemispherical reflectance of the in-situ samples are measured in the laboratory using a Nicolet Fourier Transform Interferometer (FTIR), converted to emissivity using Kirchoff's law, and convolving to the appropriate sensor spectral response functions. This ASTER database, termed the North American ASTER Land Surface Emissivity Database (NAALSED), was validated using the laboratory results from these ten sites to within 0.015 (1.5%) in emissivity. MODIS has 3 channels in this waveband with 1km spatial resolution and almost daily global coverage. The MODIS data are composited to 5 km resolution and day night pairs of observations are used to derive the emissivities. These results have been validated using the ASTER emissivities over selected test areas.

  2. Emission Characteristics of Gas-Fired Boilers based on Category-Specific Emission Factor from Field Measurements in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itahashi, S.; Yan, X.; Song, G.; Yan, J.; Xue, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Gas-fired boilers will become the main stationary sources of NOx in Beijing. However, the knowledge of gas-fired boilers in Beijing is limited. In the present study, the emission characteristics of NOx, SO2, and CO from gas-fired boilers in Beijing were established using category-specific emission factors (EFs) from field measurements. In order to obtain category-specific EFs, boilers were classified through influence analysis. Factors such as combustion mode, boiler type, and installed capacity were considered critical for establishing EFs because they play significant roles in pollutant formation. The EFs for NOx, CO, and SO2 ranged from 1.42-6.86 g m-3, 0.05-0.67 g m-3 and 0.03-0.48 g m-3. The emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO for gas-fired boilers in Beijing were 11121 t, 468 t, and 222 t in 2014, respectively. The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with a resolution of 1 km × 1 km, and the results indicated that top emitters were in central Beijing. The uncertainties were quantified using a Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicated high uncertainties in CO (-157% to 154%) and SO2 (-127% to 182%) emissions, and relatively low uncertainties (-34% to 34%) in NOx emission. Furthermore, approximately 61.2% and 96.8% of the monitored chamber combustion boilers (CCBs) met the standard limits for NOx and SO2, respectively. Concerning NOx, low-NOx burners and NOx emission control measures are urgently needed for implementing of stricter standards. Adopting terminal control measures is unnecessary for SO2, although its concentration occasionally exceeds standard limits, because reduction of its concentration can be achieved thorough control of the sulfur content of natural gas at a stable low level. Furthermore, the atmospheric combustion boilers (ACBs) should be substituted with CCBs, because ACBs have a higher emission despite lower gross installed capacity. The results of this study will enable in understanding and controlling emissions from gas

  3. [Determination of electric field distribution in dielectric barrier surface glow discharge by spectroscopic method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-chen; Jia, Peng-ying; Liu, Zhi-hui; Li, Li-chun; Dong, Li-fang

    2008-12-01

    In the present paper, stable glow discharges were obtained in air at low pressure with a dielectric barrier surface discharge device. Light emission from the discharge was detected by photomultiplier tubes and the research results show that the light signal exhibited one discharge pulse per half cycle of the applied voltage. The light pulses were asymmetric between the positive half cycle and the negative one of the applied voltage. The images of the glow surface discharge were processed by Photoshop software and the results indicate that the emission intensity remained almost constant for different places with the same distance from the powered electrode, while the emission intensity decreased with the distance from the powered electrode increasing. In dielectric barrier discharge, net electric field is determined by the applied voltage and the wall charges accumulated on the dielectric layer during the discharge, and consequently, it is important to obtain information about the net electric field distribution. For this purpose, optical emission spectroscopy method was used. The distribution of the net electric field can be deduced from the intensity ratio of spectral line 391.4 nm emitted from the first negative system of N2+ (B 2sigma u+ -->X 2sigma g+) to 337.1 nm emitted from the second positive system of N2 (C 3IIu-B 3IIg). The research results show that the electric field near the powered electric field is higher than at the edge of the discharge. These experimental results are very important for numerical study and industrial application of the surface discharge.

  4. Self-Determination and Goal Orientation in Track and Field

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Ngien-Siong; Khoo, Selina; Low, Wah-Yun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender, age group and locality differences in adolescent athletes? self-determination motivation and goal orientations in track and field. It also examined the relationship between the self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. A total of 632 (349 boys, 283 girls) adolescent athletes (aged 13?18 years) completed the Sports Motivation Scale and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences between gender on intrin...

  5. Water-processed carbon nanotube/graphene hybrids with enhanced field emission properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Meng; Xu, Peng; Wang, Xu; Wu, Huizhen; Wang, Miao; Song, Yenan; Li, Zhenhua; Zhao, Pei; Shang, Xuefu

    2015-01-01

    Integrating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene into hybrid structures provides a novel approach to three dimensional (3D) materials with advantageous properties. Here we present a water-processing method to create integrated CNT/graphene hybrids and test their field emission properties. With an optimized mass ratio of CNTs to graphene, the hybrid shows a significantly enhanced field emission performance, such as turn-on electric field of 0.79 V/μm, threshold electric field of 1.05 V/μm, maximum current density of 0.1 mA/cm 2 , and field enhancement factor of ∼1.3 × 10 4 . The optimized mass ratio for field emission emphasizes the importance of both CNTs and graphene in the hybrid. We also hypothesize a possible mechanism for this enhanced field emission performance from the CNT/graphene hybrid. During the solution treatment, graphene oxide behaves as surfactant sheets for CNTs to form a well dispersed solution, which leads to a better organized 3D structure with more conducting channels for electron transport

  6. Water-processed carbon nanotube/graphene hybrids with enhanced field emission properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Meng; Xu, Peng; Wang, Xu; Wu, Huizhen; Wang, Miao, E-mail: peizhao@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: miaowang@css.zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Song, Yenan; Li, Zhenhua; Zhao, Pei, E-mail: peizhao@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: miaowang@css.zju.edu.cn [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Shang, Xuefu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Integrating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene into hybrid structures provides a novel approach to three dimensional (3D) materials with advantageous properties. Here we present a water-processing method to create integrated CNT/graphene hybrids and test their field emission properties. With an optimized mass ratio of CNTs to graphene, the hybrid shows a significantly enhanced field emission performance, such as turn-on electric field of 0.79 V/μm, threshold electric field of 1.05 V/μm, maximum current density of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, and field enhancement factor of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 4}. The optimized mass ratio for field emission emphasizes the importance of both CNTs and graphene in the hybrid. We also hypothesize a possible mechanism for this enhanced field emission performance from the CNT/graphene hybrid. During the solution treatment, graphene oxide behaves as surfactant sheets for CNTs to form a well dispersed solution, which leads to a better organized 3D structure with more conducting channels for electron transport.

  7. Excellent field emission properties of vertically oriented CuO nanowire films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Feng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oriented CuO nanowire films were synthesized on a large scale using simple method of direct heating copper grids in air. The field emission properties of the sample can be enhanced by improving the aspect ratio of the nanowires just through a facile method of controlling the synthesis conditions. Although the density of the nanowires is large enough, the screen effect is not an important factor in this field emission process because few nanowires sticking out above the rest. Benefiting from the unique geometrical and structural features, the CuO nanowire samples show excellent field emission (FE properties. The FE measurements of CuO nanowire films illustrate that the sample synthesized at 500 °C for 8 h has a comparatively low turn-on field of 0.68 V/μm, a low threshold field of 1.1 V/μm, and a large field enhancement factor β of 16782 (a record high value for CuO nanostructures, to the best of our knowledge, indicating that the samples are promising candidates for field emission applications.

  8. Low Emittance Gun Project based on Field Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ganter, Romain; Dehler, M; Gobrecht, Jens; Gough, Chris; Ingold, Gerhard; Leemann, Simon C; Shing-Bruce-Li, Kevin; Paraliev, Martin; Pedrozzi, Marco; Raguin, Jean Yves; Rivkin, Leonid; Schlott, Volker; Sehr, Harald; Streun, Andreas; Wrulich, Albin F; Zelenika, Sasa

    2004-01-01

    The design of an electron gun capable of producing beam emittance one order of magnitude lower than current technology would reduce considerably the cost and size of a free electron laser emitting at 0.1nm. Field emitter arrays (FEAs) including a gate and a focusing layer are an attractive technology for such high brightness sources. Electrons are extracted from micrometric tips thanks to voltage pulses between gate and tips. The focusing layer should then reduce the initial divergence of each emitted beamlets. This FEA will be inserted in a high gradient diode configuration coupled with a radiofrequency structure. In the diode part very high electric field pulses (several hundreds of MV/m) will limit the degradation of emittance due to space charge effect. This first acceleration will be obtained with high voltage pulses (typically a megavolt in a few hundred of nanoseconds) synchronized with the low voltage pulses applied to the FEA (typically one hundred of volts in one nanosecond at frequency below kilohe...

  9. Enhanced field emission properties of vertically aligned double-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guohai; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Cheol Jin; Iwasaki, Takayuki; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Vertically aligned double-walled carbon nanotube (VA-DWCNT) arrays were synthesized by point-arc microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on Cr/n-Si and SiO 2 /n-Si substrates. The outer tube diameters of VA-DWCNTs are in the range of 2.5-3.8 nm, and the average interlayer spacing is approximately 0.42 nm. The field emission properties of these VA-DWCNTs were studied. It was found that a VA-DWCNT array grown on a Cr/n-Si substrate had better field emission properties as compared with a VA-DWCNT array grown on a SiO 2 /n-Si substrate and randomly oriented DWCNTs, showing a turn-on field of about 0.85 V μm -1 at the emission current density of 0.1 μA cm -2 and a threshold field of 1.67 V μm -1 at the emission current density of 1.0 mA cm -2 . The better field emission performance of the VA-DWCNT array was mainly attributed to the vertical alignment of DWCNTs on the Cr/n-Si substrate and the low contact resistance between CNTs and the Cr/n-Si substrate

  10. Emitter spacing effects on field emission properties of laser-treated single-walled carbon nanotube buckypapers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yiwen; Miao, Hsin-Yuan; Zhang Mei; Liang, Richard; Zhang, Chuck; Wang, Ben [High-Performance Materials Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Lin, Ryan Jiyao, E-mail: kenymiao@thu.edu.tw, E-mail: mzhang@eng.fsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters on buckypaper were activated by laser treatment and their field emission properties were investigated. The pristine buckypapers and CNT emitters' height, diameter, and spacing were characterized through optical analysis. The emitter spacing directly impacted the emission results when the laser power and treatment times were fixed. The increasing emitter density increased the enhanced field emission current and luminance. However, a continuous and excessive increase of emitter density with spacing reduction generated the screening effect. As a result, the extended screening effect from the smaller spacing eventually crippled the field emission effectiveness. Luminance intensity and uniformity of field emission suggest that the highly effective buckypaper will have a density of 2500 emission spots cm{sup -2}, which presents an effective field enhancement factor of 3721 and a moderated screening effect of 0.005. Proper laser treatment is an effective post-treatment process for optimizing field emission, luminance, and durability performance for buckypaper cold cathodes.

  11. Field emission studies of silver nanoparticles synthesized by electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Vishwas; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Bhise, A.B.; Poddar, Pankaj; Joag, D.S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Field emission has been studied for silver nanoparticles (25-200 nm), deposited within a cylindrical silver target in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Particle size distribution was controlled by optimum biasing voltages between the chamber and the target. Presence of non-oxidized silver was confirmed from the X-Ray diffraction analysis; however, thin protective layer of oxide was identified from the selective area electron diffraction pattern obtained with transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were seen to exhibit hilly pointed like structures when viewed under the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The emissive properties of these particles were investigated by field emission microscopy. It is found that this technique of deposition is ideal for formation of nanoparticles films on different substrate geometries with size controllability as well as its application to emission devices.

  12. Combinatorial Quantum Field Theory and Gluing Formula for Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reshetikhin, N.; Vertman, B.

    2015-01-01

    We define the combinatorial Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator and establish a gluing formula for determinants of discrete Laplacians using a combinatorial Gaussian quantum field theory. In case of a diagonal inner product on cochains we provide an explicit local expression for the discrete

  13. Determinants Of Job Satisfaction Of Field Extension Workers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factor analysis was used to isolate the determinants of job satisfaction of field extension workers in Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme. Data was collected from 42 randomly selected respondents with the aid of structured questionnaire. Findings of the study showed that majority (about 58%) of the ...

  14. Parameter determination in a groundwater field polluted by radioactive pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidauruk, P.; Barokah A; Syafalni; Wibagiyo

    1998-01-01

    The determination of source location and the corresponding parameters in a contaminated groundwater is very important. To be able to predict the distribution of radioactive contaminant in a contaminated field, the knowledge about the source location and the corresponding parameters is a necessity. The model developed in this paper is based on the fact that the relation between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is linear. The contaminant transport parameters as well as the a straight line. In other words, the parameters and the source location are determined in a such way that the linear correlation coefficient between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is optimized. The developed model is tested with a synthetic data with a satisfactory results. The synthetic data is generated such that can represent the real field. The synthetic data are generated because the real field data is not available. (authors)

  15. Modification of C60/C70+Pd film structure under electric field influence during electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwosz, E.; Dluzewski, P.; Kozlowski, M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the modification of structure of C 60 /C 70 +Pd films during cold electron emission from these films. Films were obtained by vacuum thermal deposition from two sources and were characterised before and after electron emission measurements by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Films were composed of nanocrystalline Pd objects dispersed in carbon/fullerenes matrix. I-V characteristics for electron emission were obtained in diode geometry with additionally applied voltage along the film surface. The modification of film structure occurred under applied electric field and the grouping of Pd nano crystals into bigger objects was observed

  16. Nanometer-scale discernment of field emission from tungsten surface with single carbon monoxide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Soichiro; Suwa, Yuji; Katagiri, Souichi

    2017-12-01

    Unusual quantized beam fluctuations were found in the emission current from a cold-field emitter (CFE) operating in an extremely high vacuum of 10-10 Pa. To clarify the microscopic mechanism behind these fluctuations, we developed a new calculation method to evaluate the field emission from a heterogeneous surface under a strong electric field of 4 × 109 V/m by using the local potential distribution obtained by a first-principles calculation, instead of by using the work function. As a result of the first-principles calculations of a single molecule adsorbed on a tungsten surface, we found that dissociative adsorption of a carbon monoxide (CO) molecule enhances the emission current by changing the potential barrier in the area surrounding the C and O adatoms when these two atoms are placed at their most stable positions. It is also found that the migration of the O atom from the most stable position reduces the emission current. These types of enhancement and reduction of the emission current quantitatively explain the observed quantized fluctuations of the CFE emission current.

  17. Determination of OB/OD/SF Emission Factors Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A presentation to the Demilitarization Symposium. This proposal will present the methods of tethered aerostat and unmanned aerial system for collection of plume samples and determination of emission factors form open burning, open detonation, and static firing for weapon demilita...

  18. Determination of the power of multielement aerosol composition emission from distant industrial sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, S.A.; Kutsenogij, K.P.; Chankina, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    The results from the monitoring of the temporal variability of the multielement composition of atmospheric aerosols are presented. They are used to determine the emission power of a series of elements from distant sources.

  19. Field emission from ZnS nanorods synthesized by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Maiti, U. N.; Jana, S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2006-11-01

    The field emission property of zinc sulphides nanorods synthesized in the thin film form on Si substrates has been studied. It is seen that ZnS nanorod thin films showed good field emission properties with a low-macroscopic turn-on field (2.9-6.3 V/μm). ZnS nanorods were synthesized by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a polycrystalline prefabricated ZnS target at a relatively higher pressure (10 -1 mbar) and at a lower substrate temperature (233-273 K) without using any catalyst. Transmission electron microscopic image showed the formation of ZnS nanorods with high aspect ratio (>60). The field emission data were analysed using Fowler-Nordhiem theory and the nearly straight-line nature of the F-N plots confirmed cold field emission of electrons. It was also found that the turn-on field decreased with the decrease of nanorod's diameters. The optical properties of the ZnS nanorods were also studied. From the measurements of transmittance of the films deposited on glass substrates, the direct allowed bandgap values have been calculated and they were in the range 3.83-4.03 eV. The thickness of the films was ˜600 nm.

  20. Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: Determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Yagmur Meltem; Yaman, Baris; Koca, Husnu; Dasdemir, Okan; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Odabasi, Mustafa; Elbir, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO 2 ) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 μmol/m 2 s PAR and 30 °C temperature for isoprene and 30 °C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 μg/g h was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 μg/g h. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and

  1. Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: Determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Yagmur Meltem; Yaman, Baris; Koca, Husnu; Dasdemir, Okan; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Tolunay, Doganay [Department of Soil Science and Ecology, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, Bahcekoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Odabasi, Mustafa [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Elbir, Tolga, E-mail: tolga.elbir@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-08-15

    Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO{sub 2}) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 μmol/m{sup 2} s PAR and 30 °C temperature for isoprene and 30 °C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 μg/g h was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 μg/g h. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta

  2. Field emission and high voltage cleaning of particulate contaminants on extended metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, J.; Bonin, B.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    The vacuum insulation properties of extended metallic surfaces depends strongly on their cleanliness. The usual technique to reduce electronic field emission from such surfaces consists in exposing them to very high electric fields during limited periods of time. This kind of processing also reduces the occurrence of vacuum breakdown. The processing of the surface is generally believed to be due to a thermomechanical destruction of the emitting sites, initiated by the emission itself. Comparison of the electric forces vs adherence forces which act on dust particles lying on the surface shows that the processing could also be due simply to the mechanical removal of the dust particles, with a subsequent reduction of field emission from the contaminated surface. (author)

  3. Synthesis, property and field-emission behaviour of amorphous polypyrrole nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hongliang; Zhang Lan; Shen Jiaoyan; Chen Zhaojia; Shi Gaoquan; Zhang Binglin

    2006-01-01

    Polypyrrole nanowires have been electrosynthesized by direct oxidation of 0.1 mol l -1 pyrrole in a medium of 75% isopropyl alcohol + 20% boron trifluoride diethyl etherate + 5% poly (ethylene glycol) (by volume) using porous alumina membranes as the templates. The as-prepared nanowires had a smooth surface and uniform diameter and were arranged in an orderly manner in a high density. The conductivity of a single nanowire was measured by the four-electrode technique to be 23.4 S cm -1 at room temperature. The field emission devices based on the nanowire array were fabricated and their operations were explored. The experimental results indicated that the field emission characteristics of the devices fitted well to the Fowler-Nordheim model of emission. The turn-on electric field was only 1.2 V μm -1 and the current density reached 200 μA cm -2 at 2.6 V μm -1

  4. Structural origination of charge transfer complex nanostructures: Excellent candidate for field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Shreyasi; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide strategies for amalgamating rationally controlled one-dimensional organic nanowires are of fundamental importance for their applications in flexible, cheaper and lighter electronics. In this work we have fabricated large-area, ordered CuTCNQ (copper-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) nano architecture arrays over flexible conducting substrate and discussed the rational growth and integration of nanostructures. Here we adopted the organic solid phase reaction (VLS) technique for the growth of organic hierarchies and investigated how field emission properties changes by tuning the nanostructures morphology i.e., by varying length, diameter, alignment and orientation over flexible substrate. The CuTCNQ nanowires with optimized geometry exhibit excellent high field emission performance with low turn-on and threshold field values. The result strongly indicate that CuTCNQ nanowires on flexible carbon cloth substrate are promising candidates for constructing cold cathode based emission display devices, vacuum nanoelectronics, and etc.

  5. Nanocrystalline silicon as the light emitting material of a field emission display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, A; Sola, F; Resto, O; Fonseca, L F; Gonzalez-BerrIos, A; Jesus, J De; Morell, G

    2008-01-01

    A nanocrystalline Si-based paste was successfully tested as the light emitting material in a field emission display test device that employed a film of carbon nanofibers as the electron source. Stable emission in the 550-850 nm range was obtained at 16 V μm -1 . This relatively low field required for intense cathodoluminescence (CL) from the PSi paste may lead to longer term reliability of both the electron emitting and the light emitting materials, and to lower power consumption. Here we describe the synthesis, characterization, and analyses of the light emitting nanostructured Si paste and the electron emitting C nanofibers used for building the device, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The corresponding spectra and field emission curves are also shown and discussed

  6. Structural origination of charge transfer complex nanostructures: Excellent candidate for field emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Shreyasi; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar [Thin Films and Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Worldwide strategies for amalgamating rationally controlled one-dimensional organic nanowires are of fundamental importance for their applications in flexible, cheaper and lighter electronics. In this work we have fabricated large-area, ordered CuTCNQ (copper-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) nano architecture arrays over flexible conducting substrate and discussed the rational growth and integration of nanostructures. Here we adopted the organic solid phase reaction (VLS) technique for the growth of organic hierarchies and investigated how field emission properties changes by tuning the nanostructures morphology i.e., by varying length, diameter, alignment and orientation over flexible substrate. The CuTCNQ nanowires with optimized geometry exhibit excellent high field emission performance with low turn-on and threshold field values. The result strongly indicate that CuTCNQ nanowires on flexible carbon cloth substrate are promising candidates for constructing cold cathode based emission display devices, vacuum nanoelectronics, and etc.

  7. Initiation of vacuum breakdown and failure mechanism of the carbon nanotube during thermal field emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Cai; Lie, Liu; Jin-Chuan, Ju; Xue-Long, Zhao; Hong-Yu, Zhou; Xiao, Wang

    2016-04-01

    The carbon nanotube (CNT)-based materials can be used as vacuum device cathodes. Owing to the excellent field emission properties of CNT, it has great potentials in the applications of an explosive field emission cathode. The falling off of CNT from the substrate, which frequently appears in experiments, restricts its application. In addition, the onset time of vacuum breakdown limits the performance of the high-power explosive-emission-cathode-based diode. In this paper, the characteristics of the CNT, electric field strength, contact resistance and the kind of substrate material are varied to study the parameter effects on the onset time of vacuum breakdown and failure mechanism of the CNT by using the finite element method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11305263 and 61401484).

  8. Determination of the saturation magnetization, anisotropy field, mean field interaction, and switching field distribution for nanocrystalline hard magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, R. William

    2005-01-01

    For a uniaxial nanocrystalline magnetic material, the determination of the saturation magnetization, M s , requires measurements of the magnetization at fields which exceed the anisotropy field. For a typical RE-Tm compound, where RE=rare earth and Tm=transition metal, this may require fields above 7 T if the approach to saturation law is used. However for an isotropic material composed of a random distribution of non-interacting uniaxial grains, both M s and the anisotropy filed, H a , may be determined by fitting the Stoner-Wohlfarth (SW) model (Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. 240 (1948) 599) to the reversible part of the demagnetization curve in the first quadrant. Furthermore, using the mean field interaction model of Callen, Liu and Cullen [2], a quantitative measure of the interaction strength for interacting particles may be determined. In conjunction with an analytical fit to the first quadrant demagnetization curve of the SW model, this allows M s , H a and the mean field interaction constant of a nanocrystalline magnet to be determined from measurements below 5 T. Furthermore, comparison of the model solution for the reversible magnetization with experimental data in the 2nd and 3rd quadrants allows the accurate determination of the switching field distribution. In many cases the hysteresis loop may be accurately described by a normal distribution of switching fields

  9. Experimental and theoretical study on field emission properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhou, Wei-Man; Liu, Wei-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Li

    2015-05-01

    Field emission properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated experimentally and theoretically. CNTs are in situ decorated with ZnO NPs during the growth process by chemical vapor deposition using a carbon source from the iron phthalocyanine pyrolysis. The experimental field emission test shows that the ZnO NP decoration significantly improves the emission current from 50 μA to 275 μA at 550 V and the reduced threshold voltage from 450 V to 350 V. The field emission mechanism of ZnO NPs on CNTs is theoretically studied by the density functional theory (DFT) combined with the Penn-Plummer method. The ZnO NPs reconstruct the ZnO-CNT structure and pull down the surface barrier of the entire emitter system to 0.49 eV so as to reduce the threshold electric field. The simulation results suggest that the presence of ZnO NPs would increase the LDOS near the Fermi level and increase the emission current. The calculation results are consistent with the experiment results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91123018, 61172040, and 61172041) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014JM7277).

  10. Experimental and theoretical study on field emission properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Zhou Wei-Man; Liu Wei-Hua; Wang Xiao-Li

    2015-01-01

    Field emission properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated experimentally and theoretically. CNTs are in situ decorated with ZnO NPs during the growth process by chemical vapor deposition using a carbon source from the iron phthalocyanine pyrolysis. The experimental field emission test shows that the ZnO NP decoration significantly improves the emission current from 50 μA to 275 μA at 550 V and the reduced threshold voltage from 450 V to 350 V. The field emission mechanism of ZnO NPs on CNTs is theoretically studied by the density functional theory (DFT) combined with the Penn–Plummer method. The ZnO NPs reconstruct the ZnO–CNT structure and pull down the surface barrier of the entire emitter system to 0.49 eV so as to reduce the threshold electric field. The simulation results suggest that the presence of ZnO NPs would increase the LDOS near the Fermi level and increase the emission current. The calculation results are consistent with the experiment results. (paper)

  11. Optical and field emission properties of layer-structure GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhen [Science School, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); School of automation and Information Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Li, Enling, E-mail: Lienling@xaut.edu.cn [Science School, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Shi, Wei; Ma, Deming [Science School, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The layer-structure GaN nanowires with hexagonal-shaped cross-sections are produced via a process based on the CVD method. • The diameter of the layer-structure GaN nanowire gradually decreases from ∼500 nm to ∼200 nm along the wire axis. • The layer-structure GaN nanowire film possesses good field emission property. - Abstract: A layer-structure gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires, grown on Pt-coated n-type Si (1 1 1) substrate, have been synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The results show: (1) SEM indicates that the geometry structure is layer-structure. HRTEM indicates that GaN nanowire’s preferential growth direction is along [0 0 1] direction. (2) The room temperature PL emission spectrum of the layer-structure GaN nanowires has a peak at 375 nm, which proves that GaN nanowires have potential application in light-emitting nano-devices. (3) Field-emission measurements show that the layer-structure GaN nanowires film has a low turn-on field of 4.39 V/μm (at room temperature), which is sufficient for electron emission devices, field emission displays and vacuum nano-electronic devices. The growth mechanism for GaN nanowires has also been discussed briefly.

  12. Comparative field evaluation of vehicle cruise speed and acceleration level impacts on hot stabilized emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shawarby, Ihab; Ahn, Kyoungho; Rakha, Hesham

    2005-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are two fold. First, the paper evaluates the impact of vehicle cruise speed and acceleration levels on vehicle fuel-consumption and emission rates using field data gathered under real-world driving conditions. Second, it validates the VT-Micro model for the modeling of real-world conditions. Specifically, an on-board emission-measurement device was used to collect emissions of oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide using a light-duty test vehicle. The analysis demonstrates that vehicle fuel-consumption and emission rates per-unit distance are optimum in the range of 60-90 km/h, with considerable increase outside this optimum range. The study demonstrates that as the level of aggressiveness for acceleration maneuvers increases, the fuel-consumption and emission rates per maneuver decrease because the vehicle spends less time accelerating. However, when emissions are gathered over a sufficiently long fixed distance, fuel-consumption and mobile-source emission rates per-unit distance increase as the level of acceleration increases because of the history effects that accompany rich-mode engine operations. In addition, the paper demonstrates the validity of the VT-Micro framework for modeling steady-state vehicle fuel-consumption and emission behavior. Finally, the research demonstrates that the VT-Micro framework requires further refinement to capture non-steady-state history behavior when the engine operates in rich mode. (Author)

  13. Self-calibrating magnetic field diagnostics in beam emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voslamber, D.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic field diagnostics in tokamaks using the motional Stark effect in fast neutral beams have been based on two kinds of polarimetry which we call ''static'' and ''dynamic.'' A detailed analysis shows that static polarimetry presents a number of advantages over dynamic polarimetry, provided it is made complete in the sense that a sufficient number of polarization analyzers are installed and different parts of the spectrum are explored to yield full information on the set of unknowns inherent in the problem. A detailed scheme of complete static polarimetry is proposed, including the case where an in-vessel mirror with changing characteristics (coating by impurities) is placed in front of the optical detection system. The main merit of this scheme relies on the fact that it is self-calibrating with respect to both the characteristics of the mirror and the transmission of the different polarization channels, the latter item implying that it is uniquely based on relative measurements of spectra. Further advantages are a greater flexibility with regard to different kinds of diagnostics and the circumstance that the technical equipment is less involved. The above scheme is based on a detection system of moderate etendue exploiting a large spectral domain, which is the regime where static polarimetry usually operates. It is also possible, however, to work with large etendue and a small spectral domain, such as commonly adopted in dynamic polarimetry. Using such a regime, static polarimetry loses the advantages mentioned above but gains, as a new advantage, the benefit of a comparatively lower level of photon noise. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  14. Assesment of PM2.5 emission from corn stover burning determining in chamber combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidawati; Lestari, P.; Sofyan, A.

    2018-04-01

    Chamber measurement were conducted to determine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) emission from open burning of corn straw at Garut District, West Java. The of this study is to estimate the concentration of PM2.5 for two types of corn (corncobs and cornstover) for five varieties (Bisma, P29, NK, Bisma, NW). Corn residues were collected and then burned in the chamber combustion. The chamber was designed to simulate the burning in the field, which was observed in the field experiment that meteorological condition was calm wind. The samples were collected using a minivol air sampler. The assessment results of PM2.5 concentrations (mg/m3) from open burning experiment in the chamber for five varieties of corn cobs (Bisma, P29, NK, Bisi, NW) was 9.187; 2.843; 7.409; 3.781; 1.895 respectively. Concentration for corn stover burn was 2.060; 5.283; 4.048; 5.306 and 5.697 respectively. Fluctuations in the value of concentration among these varieties reflect variations in combustion conditions (combustion efficiency) and other parameters including water content, biomass conditions and the meteorological conditions. The combustion efficiency (MCE) of the combustion chamber simulation of corncobs ia lower than the MCE of corn stover, that the concentration PM2.5 more emitted from the burning of corn stover. The results of this study presented provide useful information for the development of local emission factors for PM2.5 from open burning of corn stover in Indonesia.

  15. A stochastic phase-field model determined from molecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    von Schwerin, Erik; Szepessy, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of dendritic growth of a crystal in an undercooled melt is determined by macroscopic diffusion-convection of heat and by capillary forces acting on the nanometer scale of the solid-liquid interface width. Its modelling is useful for instance in processing techniques based on casting. The phase-field method is widely used to study evolution of such microstructural phase transformations on a continuum level; it couples the energy equation to a phenomenological Allen-Cahn/Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling the dynamics of an order parameter determining the solid and liquid phases, including also stochastic fluctuations to obtain the qualitatively correct result of dendritic side branching. This work presents a method to determine stochastic phase-field models from atomistic formulations by coarse-graining molecular dynamics. It has three steps: (1) a precise quantitative atomistic definition of the phase-field variable, based on the local potential energy; (2) derivation of its coarse-grained dynamics model, from microscopic Smoluchowski molecular dynamics (that is Brownian or over damped Langevin dynamics); and (3) numerical computation of the coarse-grained model functions. The coarse-grained model approximates Gibbs ensemble averages of the atomistic phase-field, by choosing coarse-grained drift and diffusion functions that minimize the approximation error of observables in this ensemble average. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2010.

  16. A stochastic phase-field model determined from molecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    von Schwerin, Erik

    2010-03-17

    The dynamics of dendritic growth of a crystal in an undercooled melt is determined by macroscopic diffusion-convection of heat and by capillary forces acting on the nanometer scale of the solid-liquid interface width. Its modelling is useful for instance in processing techniques based on casting. The phase-field method is widely used to study evolution of such microstructural phase transformations on a continuum level; it couples the energy equation to a phenomenological Allen-Cahn/Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling the dynamics of an order parameter determining the solid and liquid phases, including also stochastic fluctuations to obtain the qualitatively correct result of dendritic side branching. This work presents a method to determine stochastic phase-field models from atomistic formulations by coarse-graining molecular dynamics. It has three steps: (1) a precise quantitative atomistic definition of the phase-field variable, based on the local potential energy; (2) derivation of its coarse-grained dynamics model, from microscopic Smoluchowski molecular dynamics (that is Brownian or over damped Langevin dynamics); and (3) numerical computation of the coarse-grained model functions. The coarse-grained model approximates Gibbs ensemble averages of the atomistic phase-field, by choosing coarse-grained drift and diffusion functions that minimize the approximation error of observables in this ensemble average. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2010.

  17. Electron Bernstein wave emission from an overdense reversed field pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Anderson, J.K.; Biewer, T.M.; Craig, D.; Forest, C.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Blackbody levels of emission in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies have been observed from an overdense (ω pe ∼3ω ce ) Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed field pinch plasma, a result of electrostatic electron Bernstein waves emitted from the core and mode converted into electromagnetic waves at the extreme plasma edge. Comparison of the measured radiation temperature with profiles measured by Thomson scattering indicates that the mode conversion efficiency can be as high as ∼75%. Emission is preferentially in the X-mode polarization, and is strongly dependent upon the density and magnetic field profiles at the mode conversion point

  18. Determination of halogens by flame emission of metal halogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrion, G.; Marquardt, D.; Stoecker, B.

    1979-01-01

    The A-B systems InF, InCl, InBr, and InI have been excited by laminar H 2 -N 2 flames in order to dermine individual halogens or their mixtures qualitatively or quantitatively. In optimizing the fuel gas composition two different behavior patterns have been found for band intensities, which are correlated with binding energies of InX (X = halogen). The low temperature of the flame leads to complicated matrix effects which first of all result from effects on excitation and from competitive reactions. In general, cations cause a decreased intensity. Therefore, salts have to be converted into hydrohalide acids by ion exchange. Qualitative determinations of individual halogens are possible at a 500 to 50,000fold excess of the others, whereas quantitative determinations can be performed at a 100 to 5,000fold excess in 10 -4 molar solutions with errors of 2 to 10 per cent. (author)

  19. Determination of near field excavation disturbance in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, R.; Hughes, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The computerized dilatometer system has rapidly and economically provided deformation moduli of low and high modulus rock, determined the extent of excavation disturbance surrounding an underground opening and located open fracture within a rock mass. Results from both test sites indicate that the moduli obtained were influenced by the in situ tangential stress field. It has been shown that the near field excavation disturbance is kept to a minimum through the use of careful excavation techniques such as the tunnel boring machine. In turn, the in situ tangential stress levels and deformation moduli are maximized while the corresponding permeability is minimized

  20. Estimation of Emissions from Sugarcane Field Burning in Thailand Using Bottom-Up Country-Specific Activity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Sornpoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Open burning in sugarcane fields is recognized as a major source of air pollution. However, the assessment of its emission intensity in many regions of the world still lacks information, especially regarding country-specific activity data including biomass fuel load and combustion factor. A site survey was conducted covering 13 sugarcane plantations subject to different farm management practices and climatic conditions. The results showed that pre-harvest and post-harvest burnings are the two main practices followed in Thailand. In 2012, the total production of sugarcane biomass fuel, i.e., dead, dry and fresh leaves, amounted to 10.15 million tonnes, which is equivalent to a fuel density of 0.79 kg∙m−2. The average combustion factor for the pre-harvest and post-harvest burning systems was determined to be 0.64 and 0.83, respectively. Emissions from sugarcane field burning were estimated using the bottom-up country-specific values from the site survey of this study and the results compared with those obtained using default values from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. The comparison showed that the use of default values lead to underestimating the overall emissions by up to 30% as emissions from post-harvest burning are not accounted for, but it is the second most common practice followed in Thailand.

  1. A model to relate wind tunnel measurements to open field odorant emissions from liquid area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucernoni, F.; Capelli, L.; Busini, V.; Sironi, S.

    2017-05-01

    Waste Water Treatment Plants are known to have significant emissions of several pollutants and odorants causing nuisance to the near-living population. One of the purposes of the present work is to study a suitable model to evaluate odour emissions from liquid passive area sources. First, the models describing volatilization under a forced convection regime inside a wind tunnel device, which is the sampling device that typically used for sampling on liquid area sources, were investigated. In order to relate the fluid dynamic conditions inside the hood to the open field and inside the hood a thorough study of the models capable of describing the volatilization phenomena of the odorous compounds from liquid pools was performed and several different models were evaluated for the open field emission. By means of experimental tests involving pure liquid acetone and pure liquid butanone, it was verified that the model more suitable to describe precisely the volatilization inside the sampling hood is the model for the emission from a single flat plate in forced convection and laminar regime, with a fluid dynamic boundary layer fully developed and a mass transfer boundary layer not fully developed. The proportionality coefficient for the model was re-evaluated in order to account for the specific characteristics of the adopted wind tunnel device, and then the model was related with the selected model for the open field thereby computing the wind speed at 10 m that would cause the same emission that is estimated from the wind tunnel measurement furthermore, the field of application of the proposed model was clearly defined for the considered models during the project, discussing the two different kinds of compounds commonly found in emissive liquid pools or liquid spills, i.e. gas phase controlled and liquid phase controlled compounds. Lastly, a discussion is presented comparing the presented approach for emission rates recalculation in the field, with other approaches

  2. Enhancement of electron field emission of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by nitrogen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.B. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, 69 Hongguang Rd, Lijiatuo, Banan District, Chongqing 400054 (China); Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Cheng, Q.J. [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Chen, X. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ostrikov, K., E-mail: kostya.ostrikov@csiro.au [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-09-22

    Highlights: > A new and custom-designed bias-enhanced hot-filament chemical vapor deposition system is developed to synthesize vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. > The carbon nanotubes are later treated with nitrogen plasmas. > The electron field emission characteristics of the carbon nanotubes are significantly improved after the nitrogen plasma treatment. > A new physical mechanism is proposed to interpret the improvement of the field emission characteristics. - Abstract: The electron field emission (EFE) characteristics from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) without and with treatment by the nitrogen plasma are investigated. The VACNTs with the plasma treatment showed a significant improvement in the EFE property compared to the untreated VACNTs. The morphological, structural, and compositional properties of the VACNTs are extensively examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is shown that the significant EFE improvement of the VACNTs after the nitrogen plasma treatment is closely related to the variation of the morphological and structural properties of the VACNTs. The high current density (299.6 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) achieved at a low applied field (3.50 V/{mu}m) suggests that the VACNTs after nitrogen plasma treatment can serve as effective electron field emission sources for numerous applications.

  3. Enhancement of electron field emission of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by nitrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.B.; Cheng, Q.J.; Chen, X.; Ostrikov, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new and custom-designed bias-enhanced hot-filament chemical vapor deposition system is developed to synthesize vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. → The carbon nanotubes are later treated with nitrogen plasmas. → The electron field emission characteristics of the carbon nanotubes are significantly improved after the nitrogen plasma treatment. → A new physical mechanism is proposed to interpret the improvement of the field emission characteristics. - Abstract: The electron field emission (EFE) characteristics from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) without and with treatment by the nitrogen plasma are investigated. The VACNTs with the plasma treatment showed a significant improvement in the EFE property compared to the untreated VACNTs. The morphological, structural, and compositional properties of the VACNTs are extensively examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is shown that the significant EFE improvement of the VACNTs after the nitrogen plasma treatment is closely related to the variation of the morphological and structural properties of the VACNTs. The high current density (299.6 μA/cm 2 ) achieved at a low applied field (3.50 V/μm) suggests that the VACNTs after nitrogen plasma treatment can serve as effective electron field emission sources for numerous applications.

  4. Mitigating nitrous oxide emissions from tea field soil using bioaugmentation with a Trichoderma viride biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengjun; Fu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Shuanglong; Bai, Zhihui; Xiao, Runlin; Li, Yong; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Land-use conversion from woodlands to tea fields in subtropical areas of central China leads to increased nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, partly due to increased nitrogen fertilizer use. A field investigation of N2O using a static closed chamber-gas chromatography revealed that the average N2O fluxes in tea fields with 225 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) fertilizer application were 9.4 ± 6.2 times higher than those of woodlands. Accordingly, it is urgent to develop practices for mitigating N2O emissions from tea fields. By liquid-state fermentation of sweet potato starch wastewater and solid-state fermentation of paddy straw with application of Trichoderma viride, we provided the tea plantation with biofertilizer containing 2.4 t C ha(-1) and 58.7 kg N ha(-1). Compared to use of synthetic N fertilizer, use of biofertilizer at 225 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) significantly reduced N2O emissions by 33.3%-71.8% and increased the tea yield by 16.2%-62.2%. Therefore, the process of bioconversion/bioaugmentation tested in this study was found to be a cost-effective and feasible approach to reducing N2O emissions and can be considered the best management practice for tea fields.

  5. The Field Emission Characteristics of Titanium-Doped Nano-Diamonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan-Ning; ZHANG Zhi-Yong; ZHANG Fu-Chun; DONG Jun-Tang; ZHAO Wu; ZHAI Chun-Xue; ZHANG Wei-Hu

    2012-01-01

    An electrophoresis solution,prepared in a specific ratio of titanium (Ti)-doped nano-diamond,is dispersed by ultrasound and the nano-diamond coating is then deposited on a polished Ti substrate by electrophoresis.After high-temperature vacuum annealing,the appearance of the surface and the microstructures of the coating are observed by a metallomicroscope,scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.The field emission characteristics and luminescence features are also tested,and the mechanism of the field emission characteristics of the Ti-doped nano-diamond is analyzed.The experimental results show that under the same conditions,the diamond-coated surface (by deposition) is more uniform after doping with 5 mg of Ti powder.Compared with the undoped nano-diamond cathode,the turn-on fields decline from 6.95 to 5.95 V/μm.When the electric field strength is 13.80 V/μm,the field emission current density increases to 130.00 μA/cm2.Under the applied fields,the emission current is stable and the luminescence is at its best,while the field emission characteristics of the 10 mg Ti-doped coating become worse,as does the luminescence.The reason for this could be that an excessive amount of TiC is generated on the surface of the coating.%An electrophoresis solution, prepared in a speciGc ratio of titanium (Ti)-doped nano-diamond, is dispersed by ultrasound and the nano-diamond coating is then deposited on a polished Ti substrate by electrophoresis. After high-temperature vacuum annealing, the appearance of the surface and the microstructures of the coating are observed by a metallomicroscope, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The field emission characteristics and luminescence features are also tested, and the mechanism of the field emission characteristics of the Ti-doped nano-diamond is analyzed. The experimental results show that under the same conditions, the diamond-coated surface (by deposition) is more uniform after doping with 5 mg of Ti

  6. Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Emission from Relativistic Jets and Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizunno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission from shocks in order to understand the observed emission from relativistic jets and supernova remnants. The investigation involves the study of collisionless shocks, where the Weibel instability is responsible for particle acceleration as well as magnetic field generation. A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (RPIC) code has been used to investigate the shock processes in electron-positron plasmas. The evolution of theWeibe1 instability and its associated magnetic field generation and particle acceleration are studied with two different jet velocities (0 = 2,5 - slow, fast) corresponding to either outflows in supernova remnants or relativistic jets, such as those found in AGNs and microquasars. Slow jets have intrinsically different structures in both the generated magnetic fields and the accelerated particle spectrum. In particular, the jet head has a very weak magnetic field and the ambient electrons are strongly accelerated and dragged by the jet particles. The simulation results exhibit jitter radiation from inhomogeneous magnetic fields, generated by the Weibel instability, which has different spectral properties than standard synchrotron emission in a homogeneous magnetic field.

  7. [Effects of diurnal warming on soil N2O emission in soybean field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng-Hua; Zhou, Ying-Ping; Cui, Hai-Ling; Chen, Shu-Tao; Xiao, Qi-Tao; Liu, Yan

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the impact of experimental warming on N2O emission from soil of soybean field, outdoor experiments with simulating diurnal warming were conducted, and static dark chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure N2O emission fluxes. Results indicated that: the diurnal warming did not change the seasonal pattern of N2O emissions from soil. In the whole growing season, comparing to the control treatment (CK), the warming treatment (T) significantly enhanced the N2O flux and the cumulative amount of N2O by 17.31% (P = 0.019), and 20.27% (P = 0.005), respectively. The significant correlations were found between soil N2O emission and soil temperature, moisture. The temperature sensitivity values of soil N2O emission under CK and T treatments were 3.75 and 4.10, respectively. In whole growing stage, T treatment significantly increased the crop aboveground and total biomass, the nitrate reductase activity, and total nitrogen in leaves, while significantly decreased NO3(-) -N content in leaves. T treatment significantly increased soil NO3(-) -N content, but had no significant effect on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents. The results of this study suggested that diurnal warming enhanced N2O emission from soil in soybean field.

  8. Closed string emission from unstable D-brane with background electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagami, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    We study the closed string emission from an unstable Dp-brane with constant background electric field in bosonic string theory. The average total number density and the average total energy density of emitted closed strings are explicitly calculated in the presence of electric field. It is explicitly shown that the energy density in the UV region becomes finite whenever the background electric field is switched on. The energy density converted into closed strings in the presence of electric field is negligibly small compared with the D-brane tension in the weak string coupling limit. (author)

  9. Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from fields fertilized with digestate from an agricultural biogas plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubaszek, Robert; Wysocka-Czubaszek, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Digestate from biogas plants can play important role in agriculture by providing nutrients, improving soil structure and reducing the use of mineral fertilizers. Still, less is known about greenhouse gas emissions from soil during and after digestate application. The aim of the study was to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from a field which was fertilized with digestate. The gas fluxes were measured with the eddy covariance system. Each day, the eddy covariance system was installed in various places of the field, depending on the dominant wind direction, so that each time the results were obtained from an area where the digestate was distributed. The results showed the relatively low impact of the studied gases emissions on total greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Maximum values of the CO2 and CH4 fluxes, 79.62 and 3.049 µmol s-1 m-2, respectively, were observed during digestate spreading on the surface of the field. On the same day, the digestate was mixed with the topsoil layer using a disc harrow. This resulted in increased CO2 emissions the following day. Intense mineralization of digestate, observed after fertilization may not give the expected effects in terms of protection and enrichment of soil organic matter.

  10. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The impact of exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities on animal and human health has been a long-standing concern in western Canada. This technical summary presented highlights of the 17 major research appendices of a study examining associations between emissions and important reproductive parameters in beef cattle, including pregnancy rates, frequencies of abortions and stillbirths, and the risk of death among young calves. The effect of exposure to emissions on the respiratory, immune and nervous systems of calves and yearlings was also evaluated. The study was an epidemiological investigation that drew on large blocks of data collected from privately owned cow-calf operations, laboratory analyses of biological samples and samplers from air monitors. Mixed effect regression models were used to investigate whether measures of reproductive, immunological, and pathology outcomes were associated with emissions from the petroleum industry. Appropriate statistical adjustments were made to correct for multiple comparisons following standard statistical practice. An overview of the methods used to analyze the data was presented, as well as an examination of the methods of epidemiology in determining a causal effect, and the limitations of a single study in determining causation with certainty. Information on water quality testing and feeding management and forage testing was provided. 15 tabs., 26 figs.

  11. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The impact of exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities on animal and human health has been a long-standing concern in western Canada. This technical summary presented highlights of the 17 major research appendices of a study examining associations between emissions and important reproductive parameters in beef cattle, including pregnancy rates, frequencies of abortions and stillbirths, and the risk of death among young calves. The effect of exposure to emissions on the respiratory, immune and nervous systems of calves and yearlings was also evaluated. The study was an epidemiological investigation that drew on large blocks of data collected from privately owned cow-calf operations, laboratory analyses of biological samples and samplers from air monitors. Mixed effect regression models were used to investigate whether measures of reproductive, immunological, and pathology outcomes were associated with emissions from the petroleum industry. Appropriate statistical adjustments were made to correct for multiple comparisons following standard statistical practice. An overview of the methods used to analyze the data was presented, as well as an examination of the methods of epidemiology in determining a causal effect, and the limitations of a single study in determining causation with certainty. Information on water quality testing and feeding management and forage testing was provided. 15 tabs., 26 figs

  12. The Field Emission Properties of Graphene Aggregates Films Deposited on Fe-Cr-Ni alloy Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanling Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The graphene aggregates films were fabricated directly on Fe-Cr-Ni alloy substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system (MPCVD. The source gas was a mixture of H2 and CH4 with flow rates of 100 sccm and 12 sccm, respectively. The micro- and nanostructures of the samples were characterized by Raman scattering spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transparent electron microscopy (TEM. The field emission properties of the films were measured using a diode structure in a vacuum chamber. The turn-on field was about 1.0 V/m. The current density of 2.1 mA/cm2 at electric field of 2.4 V/m was obtained.

  13. Morphology-control of VO2 (B) nanostructures in hydrothermal synthesis and their field emission properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Haihong; Yu Ke; Zhang Zhengli; Zhu Ziqiang

    2011-01-01

    VO 2 (B) nanostructures were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal process using V 2 O 5 as source material and oxalic acid as reductant. Three nanostructures of nanorods, nanocarambolas and nanobundles were found existing in the products, and a continuous changing of morphology was found in the synthesis process, during which the proportion of these three types of nanostructures can be adjusted by altering the concentrations of oxalic acid. The microstructures were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopies, respectively. FE properties measurement of these three types of nanostructures showed that the nanobundles have the best field emission performance with a turn-on field of ∼1.4 V/μm and a threshold field of ∼5.38 V/μm. These characteristics make VO 2 (B) nanostructures a competitive cathode material in field emission devices.

  14. SURFACE FILMS TO SUPPRESS FIELD EMISSION IN HIGH-POWER MICROWAVE COMPONENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay l

    2014-02-07

    Results are reported on attempts to reduce the RF breakdown probability on copper accelerator structures by applying thin surface films that could suppress field emission of electrons. Techniques for application and testing of copper samples with films of metals with work functions higher than copper are described, principally for application of platinum films, since platinum has the second highest work function of any metal. Techniques for application of insulating films are also described, since these can suppress field emission and damage on account of dielectric shielding of fields at the copper surface, and on account of the greater hardness of insulating films, as compared with copper. In particular, application of zirconium oxide films on high-field portions of a 11.424 GHz SLAC cavity structure for breakdown tests are described.

  15. Combined effect of nitrogen doping and nanosteps on microcrystalline diamond films for improvement of field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengui, U.A.; Campos, R.A.; Alves, K.A.; Antunes, E.F.; Hamanaka, M.H.M.O.; Corat, E.J.; Baldan, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot filament chemical vapor deposition using methane, hydrogen and a solution of urea in methanol produced nitrogen-doped diamond films. • Diamonds had the grain morphology changed for long growth time (28 h), and the nitrogen doping were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. • Field emission characterization shows a decrease up to 70% in threshold field, related to reference diamond layer. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped microcrystalline diamond (N-MCD) films were grown on Si substrates using a hot filament reactor with methanol solution of urea as N source. Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond were used to obtain continuous and uniform films. Simultaneous changes in grains morphology and work function of diamond by nitrogen doping decreased the threshold field and the angular coefficient of Fowler–Nordhein plots. The field emission properties of our N-MCD films are comparable to carbon nanotube films

  16. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes over vertically aligned silicon nanowire bundles for achieving uniform field emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yung-Jr; Huang, Yung-Jui; Chang, Hsuan-Chen; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Lee, San-Liang

    2014-01-01

    A fabrication strategy is proposed to enable precise coverage of as-grown carbon nanotube (CNT) mats atop vertically aligned silicon nanowire (VA-SiNW) bundles in order to realize a uniform bundle array of CNT-SiNW heterojunctions over a large sample area. No obvious electrical degradation of as-fabricated SiNWs is observed according to the measured current-voltage characteristic of a two-terminal single-nanowire device. Bundle arrangement of CNT-SiNW heterojunctions is optimized to relax the electrostatic screening effect and to maximize the field enhancement factor. As a result, superior field emission performance and relatively stable emission current over 12 h is obtained. A bright and uniform fluorescent radiation is observed from CNT-SiNW-based field emitters regardless of its bundle periodicity, verifying the existence of high-density and efficient field emitters on the proposed CNT-SiNW bundle arrays.

  17. Field emission properties of low-density carbon nanotubes prepared on anodic aluminum-oxide template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Soo-Hwan [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Hong [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-15

    Anodic aluminum-oxide (AAO) templates were fabricated by two-step anodizing an Al film. After the Co catalyst had been electrochemically deposited onto the bottom of the AAO template, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by using catalytic pyrolysis of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at 650 .deg. C. Overgrowth of CNTs with low density on the AAO templates was observed. The field-emission measurements on the samples showed a turn-on field of 2.17 V/mum and a field enhancement factor of 5700. The emission pattern on a phosphor screen was quite homogeneous over the area at a relatively low electric field.

  18. Field emission response from multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown on electrochemically engineered copper foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Amit Kumar; Jain, Vaibhav [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Saini, Krishna [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Centre of Excellence: Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Lahiri, Indranil, E-mail: indrafmt@iitr.ac.in [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Centre of Excellence: Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2017-02-01

    Exciting properties of carbon nanotube has proven it to be a promising candidate for field emission applications, if its processing cost can be reduced effectively. In this research, a new electrochemical technique is proposed for growing carbon nanotubes in selective areas by thermal chemical vapour deposition. In this process, electrochemical processing is used to create localized pits and deposition of catalysts, which act as roots to support growth and alignment of the CNTs on copper substrate. CNTs grown thus were characterized and studied using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy, elucidating presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). These CNT emitters have comparatively lower turn-on field and higher field enhancement factor. - Highlights: • Electrochemical pitting for localized carbon nanotube growth is proposed. • Electrochemical pitting method shows patterning effect on the substrate. • Size and density of pits depend on voltage, pH and temperature. • CNTs thus grown shows good field emission response.

  19. Combined effect of nitrogen doping and nanosteps on microcrystalline diamond films for improvement of field emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengui, U.A., E-mail: ursulamengui@gmail.com [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Campos, R.A.; Alves, K.A.; Antunes, E.F. [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Hamanaka, M.H.M.O. [Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer, Divisão de Superfícies de Interação e Displays, Rodovia D. Pedro I (SP 65) km 143.6, CP 6162, CEP 13089-500, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Corat, E.J.; Baldan, M.R. [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Hot filament chemical vapor deposition using methane, hydrogen and a solution of urea in methanol produced nitrogen-doped diamond films. • Diamonds had the grain morphology changed for long growth time (28 h), and the nitrogen doping were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. • Field emission characterization shows a decrease up to 70% in threshold field, related to reference diamond layer. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped microcrystalline diamond (N-MCD) films were grown on Si substrates using a hot filament reactor with methanol solution of urea as N source. Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond were used to obtain continuous and uniform films. Simultaneous changes in grains morphology and work function of diamond by nitrogen doping decreased the threshold field and the angular coefficient of Fowler–Nordhein plots. The field emission properties of our N-MCD films are comparable to carbon nanotube films.

  20. Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Yagmur Meltem; Yaman, Baris; Koca, Husnu; Dasdemir, Okan; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Odabasi, Mustafa; Elbir, Tolga

    2014-08-15

    Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO2) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 μmol/m(2)s PAR and 30 °C temperature for isoprene and 30 °C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 μg/gh was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 μg/gh. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and beta

  1. Design and fabrication of carbon nanotube field-emission cathode with coaxial gate and ballast resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yonghai; Yeow, John T W; Jaffray, David A

    2013-10-25

    A low density vertically aligned carbon nanotube-based field-emission cathode with a ballast resistor and coaxial gate is designed and fabricated. The ballast resistor can overcome the non-uniformity of the local field-enhancement factor at the emitter apex. The self-aligned fabrication process of the coaxial gate can avoid the effects of emitter tip misalignment and height non-uniformity. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Thermal field emission observation of single-crystal LaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, H.; Harada, K.; Shimizu, R.

    1990-01-01

    TFE (thermal field emission) properties of LaB 6 left-angle 100 right-angle and left-angle 310 right-angle single crystals were investigated by emission pattern observation. It was found that field evaporation with the tip temperature held at ∼1500 degree C is very useful to get a clean pattern of fourfold symmetry. Each of four bright spots in the clean pattern was presumed to correspond to left-angle 310 right-angle emission. It is proposed, as the most appropriate operating condition, to use the left-angle 310 right-angle LaB 6 tip at a temperature ∼1000 degree C in vacuum of 10 -9 Torr region, promising a new TF emitter of high brightness and stability for practical use

  3. Electric field enhancement of electron emission rates from Z1/2 centers in 4H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evwaraye, A. O.; Smith, S. R.; Mitchel, W. C.; Farlow, G. C.

    2009-01-01

    Z 1/2 defect centers were produced by irradiating 4H-SiC bulk samples with 1 MeV electrons at room temperature. The emission rate dependence on the electric field in the depletion region was measured using deep level transient spectroscopy and double-correlation deep level transient spectroscopy. It is found that the Z 1/2 defect level shows a strong electric field dependence with activation energy decreasing from E c -0.72 eV at zero field to E c -0.47 eV at 6.91x10 5 V/cm. The phonon assisted tunneling model of Karpus and Perel [Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1376 (1986)] completely describes the experimental data. This model describes the dependence of the emission rate on electric field F as e n (F)=e no exp(F 2 /F c 2 ), where F c is the characteristic field that depends on the phonon assisted tunneling time τ 2 . The values of F c and τ 2 were determined and the analysis of the data leads to the suggestion that Z 1/2 may be a substitutional point defect.

  4. Computerized emission transaxial tomography and determination of local brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Alavi, A.; Reivich, M.; Edwards, R.Q.; Fenton, C.A.; Zimmerman, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of regional function in the brain would be of great value for the detection and localization of a wide variety of diseases and for assessment of patients under treatment. The management of patients would be greatly improved with a day-to-day knowledge of the status of blood flow, blood volume, metabolism, permeability, brain swelling, and other functions on a local basis throughout the brain. In the past this kind of information has not been available. Instead, function has usually been examined only for the organ as a whole and regional information has been restricted to morphology as determined by radiographic or radionuclide imaging studies. Three-dimensional radionuclide reconstruction imaging will become more important in the study of the brain, providing accurate measurement of radionuclide concentration within functional structural units of the brain. Measurement of local function with three-dimensional resolution throughout the brain and without the necessity for intracarotid injection of indicator could therefore provide a significant advance over presently available methods

  5. Synthesis and atmospheric pressure field emission operation of W18O49 nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten oxide W18O49 nanorods with diameters of 15−20 nm were grown on tungsten thin films exposed to ethene and nitrogen at 700 °C at atmospheric pressure. It was found that tungsten carbide formation enhances nucleation and growth of nanorods. Atmospheric pressure field emission measurements in

  6. Optimization of field emission properties of carbon nanotubes by Taguchi method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, J.-H.; Chang, C.-C.; Chen, S.-L.; Lu, D.-S.; Kung, C.-Y.; Huang, F.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to evaluate the field emission property of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) prepared by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. Nickel layer of 5 nm in thickness on 20-nm thickness titanium nitride film was transformed into discrete islands after hydrogen plasma pretreatment. CNTs were then grown up on Ni-coated areas by MPCVD. Through the practice of Taguchi method, superior CNT films with very low emission onset electric field, about 0.7 V/μm (at J = 10 μA/cm 2 ), are attained without post-deposition treatment. It is found that microwave power has the most important influence on the field emission characteristics of CNT films. The increase of methane flow ratio will downgrade the degree of graphitization of CNT and thus its field emission characteristics. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis reveal that CNT growth by MPCVD is based on tip-growth mechanism. TEM micrographs validate the hollow, bamboo-like structure of the multi-walled CNTs

  7. Field emission characteristics of ZnO nanoneedle array cell under ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woong; Jeong, Min-Chang; Kim, Min Jun; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2007-01-01

    Field emission (FE) behaviours of ZnO nanoneedle array under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation have been investigated. UV irradiation noticeably stabilized the FE behaviours. Modifications in the tunnelling barrier height and effective aspect ratio due to the oxygen-related surface species, which can be desorbed by UV irradiation, are supposed to be responsible for these observations

  8. A Platform to Optimize the Field Emission Properties of Carbon Nanotube Based Fibers (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    characterization of key metrics , such as effective field enhancement factor and emission area. It is imperative to address issues relating to whether...important are the effects of Coulomb repulsion between adjacent emitting CNTs on the FE characteristics? When do space-charge effects become important and

  9. Enhancement on field emission characteristics of pulsed laser deposited diamondlike carbon films using Au precoatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, F.Y.; Sun, C.Y.; Cheng, H.F.; Lin, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    Using Au precoatings has been observed to significantly enhance the field emission properties of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films deposited on Si substrates. The electron emission can be turned on at a low field as 7 V/μm and a large emission current density as 2000 μA/cm 2 can be obtained at 20 V/μm applied field. However, preannealing the Au-coated Si substrates at 500 degree C for 30 min is necessary to achieve such a performance. Microscopic examination on surface and cross-sectional morphologies of the DLC/Au/Si films using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, in conjunction with the elemental depth profile examination of these films using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, indicated that substantial interdiffusion between DLC, Au, and Si layers has occurred. Such kind of reaction is proposed to lower the resistance for electrons to transport across the interfaces and, thereafter, enhances the field emission properties of the DLC/Au/Si films. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. A vertex including emission of spin fields for an arbitrary bc system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, P.; Madsen, R.A.; Roland, K.

    1990-01-01

    We construct the (N+2M) Point Vertex involving the emission of N Neveu-Schwarz and 2M Ramond states for a bosonic and fermionic bc system with a bockground charge Q. From it one can compute correlation functions on the sphere involving any number of spin fields. We show in detail that the vertex satisfies overlap conditions. (orig.)

  11. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) as an approach for nanoparticle detection inside cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havrdová, M.; Poláková, K.; Skopalík, J.; Vůjtek, M.; Mokdad, A.; Homolková, M.; Tuček, J.; Nebesářová, Jana; Zbořil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, DEC 2014 (2014), s. 149-154 ISSN 0968-4328 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Field emission scanning electronmicroscopy (FE-SEM) * Stem cells * Iron oxide nanoparticles * Cellular morphology * Endosomes * Cell uptake Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2014

  12. Characteristics of a single photon emission tomography system with a wide field gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathonnat, F.; Soussaline, F.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Kellershohn, C.

    1979-01-01

    This text summarizes a work study describing the imagery possibilities of a single photon emission tomography system composed of a conventional wide field gamma camera, connected to a computer. The encouraging results achieved on the various phantoms studied suggest a significant development of this technique in clinical work in Nuclear Medicine Departments [fr

  13. Field emission characteristics of a small number of carbon fiber emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkin W. Tang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experiment that studies the emission characteristics of small number of field emitters. The experiment consists of nine carbon fibers in a square configuration. Experimental results show that the emission characteristics depend strongly on the separation between each emitter, providing evidence of the electric field screening effects. Our results indicate that as the separation between the emitters decreases, the emission current for a given voltage also decreases. The authors compare the experimental results to four carbon fiber emitters in a linear and square configurations as well as to two carbon fiber emitters in a paired array. Voltage-current traces show that the turn-on voltage is always larger for the nine carbon fiber emitters as compared to the two and four emitters in linear configurations, and approximately identical to the four emitters in a square configuration. The observations and analysis reported here, based on Fowler-Nordheim field emission theory, suggest the electric field screening effect depends critically on the number of emitters, the separation between them, and their overall geometric configuration.

  14. The determination of light elements in heavy matrix using proton induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenets, V.V.; Omel'nik, A.P.; Shchur, A.A.; Chernov, A.E.; Usikov, N.P.; Zats, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    In this report the possibility of determination of light impurities in heavy matrixes is studied using proton induced X-Ray emission. The wide-band X-ray emission filter made from pyrolytic graphite was used in spectrometric scheme of experiment. The results of studying of filter features in energy range of X-ray emission from 4 to 12 keV were presented. The possibilities were examined of application of pyrolytic graphite filter to modify the X-rays spectrum for determination of iron, using characteristic emission of K-series, and hafnium, using L-series, in substances on base of zirconium (glasses, alloys etc.). It was shown, that the using of similar filter allows to reach the significant improving of metrological characteristics of analysis of mentioned impurities: the limits of detection of iron and hafnium were lowered single-order of magnitude. (authors)

  15. Determination of heavy metals in solid emission and immission samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, M.; Novak, F. [EGU Prague, PLC, Bichovice, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Both flame and electrothermal methods of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) have been applied to the determination of Al, As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, TI, Se, V and Zn in emission and emission (deposition) samples decomposed in open PTFE test-tubes by individual fuming-off hydrofluoric, perchloroic and nitric acid. An alternative hydride technique was also used for As and Se determination and Hg was determined using a self-contained AAS analyzer. A graphite platform proved good to overcome non-spectral interferences in AAS-ETA. Methods developed were verified by reference materials (inc. NBS 1633a).

  16. Examining Determinants of CO2 Emissions in 73 Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues concerning which factors that influence carbon dioxide emission, and which administrative measures should be imposed to reduce carbon emission in Chinese cities, have been on the agenda in cities’ policy-making. Yet little literature has studied this topic from the city level. This paper first measures CO2 emission of 73 Chinese cities. We find heterogeneity embedded in the cross-city distribution of CO2 emission per capita and a nonlinear structure in the relationship between carbon emission and GDP per capita. To describe such multimodality and examine the determinants of CO2 emission in these cities, this article applies a linear mixed effect model covering the quadratic term of GDP per capita to extend the stochastic impact by regression on population, affluence, and technology (STIRPAT model. The empirical results demonstrate that population size, secondary industry proportion, energy consumption structure, urbanization level and economic level have generally shown a positive influence on CO2 emissions in Chinese cities. However, the urbanization level is of no significance. The phenomenon of the environmental Kuznets curve varies across Chinese cities, according to which three city groups are formed. Specific policy recommendations are given to each city group in light of their unique influencing modes on carbon emissions.

  17. Analysis of determination modalities concerning the exposure and emission limits values of chemical and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.

    2002-08-01

    This document presents the generic approach adopted by various organizations for the determination of the public exposure limits values to chemical and radioactive substances and for the determination of limits values of chemical products emissions by some installations. (A.L.B.)

  18. 40 CFR 63.4361 - How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the emission capture... and Other Textiles Performance Testing and Monitoring Requirements § 63.4361 How do I determine the... measurement must consist of three test runs. Each test run must be at least 3 hours duration or the length of...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Determination of CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., CO2 emissions from sorbent used in a wet flue gas desulfurization control system, fluidized bed boiler... Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and... Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Laboratory Samples of Coal and Coke...

  20. Automated installation for atomic emission determination of gold, silver and platinum group metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayakina, S.B.; Anoshin, G.N.; Gerasimov, P.A.; Smirnov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    An automated installation for the direct atomic emission determination of silver, gold and platinum-group metals (Ru) in geological and geochemical materials with software for automated data acquisition and handling is designed and developed. The installation consists of a DFS-458 diffraction spectrograph, a MAES-10 multichannel analyzer of emission spectra, and a dual-jet plasmatron. A library of spectral lines of almost all elements excited in the dual-jet plasmatron is complied [ru

  1. Integral emission factors for methane determined using urban flux measurements and local-scale inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Johnson, Mark; Molodovskaya, Marina; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Crawford, Ben; Giometto, Marco; van der Laan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    The most important long-lived greenhouse gas (LLGHG) emitted during combustion of fuels is carbon dioxide (CO2), however also traces of the LLGHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are released, the quantities of which depend largely on the conditions of the combustion process. Emission factors determine the mass of LLGHGs emitted per energy used (or kilometre driven for cars) and are key inputs for bottom-up emission modelling. Emission factors for CH4 are typically determined in the laboratory or on a test stand for a given combustion system using a small number of samples (vehicles, furnaces), yet associated with larger uncertainties when scaled to entire fleets. We propose an alternative, different approach - Can integrated emission factors be independently determined using direct micrometeorological flux measurements over an urban surface? If so, do emission factors determined from flux measurements (top-down) agree with up-scaled emission factors of relevant combustion systems (heating, vehicles) in the source area of the flux measurement? Direct flux measurements of CH4 were carried out between February and May, 2012 over a relatively densely populated, urban surface in Vancouver, Canada by means of eddy covariance (EC). The EC-system consisted of an ultrasonic anemometer (CSAT-3, Campbell Scientific Inc.) and two open-path infrared gas analyzers (Li7500 and Li7700, Licor Inc.) on a tower at 30m above the surface. The source area of the EC system is characterised by a relative homogeneous morphometry (5.3m average building height), but spatially and temporally varying emission sources, including two major intersecting arterial roads (70.000 cars drive through the 50% source area per day) and seasonal heating in predominantly single-family houses (natural gas). An inverse dispersion model (turbulent source area model), validated against large eddy simulations (LES) of the urban roughness sublayer, allows the determination of the spatial area that

  2. Methane emission from naturally ventilated livestock buildings can be determined from gas concentration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, B; Zhang, Guoqiang; Madsen, J

    2012-01-01

    Determination of emission of contaminant gases as ammonia, methane, or laughing gas from natural ventilated livestock buildings with large opening is a challenge due to the large variations in gas concentration and air velocity in the openings. The close relation between calculated animal heat pr...... to investigate the influence of feed composition on methane emission in a relative large number of operating cattle buildings and consequently it can support a development towards reduced greenhouse gas emission from cattle production.......Determination of emission of contaminant gases as ammonia, methane, or laughing gas from natural ventilated livestock buildings with large opening is a challenge due to the large variations in gas concentration and air velocity in the openings. The close relation between calculated animal heat...... ventilated, 150 milking cow building. The results showed that the methane emission can be determined with much higher precision than ammonia or laughing gas emissions, and, for methane, relatively precise estimations can be based on measure periods as short as 3 h. This result makes it feasible...

  3. Determination of key parameters of vector multifractal vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J. M.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.

    2017-12-01

    For too long time, multifractal analyses and simulations have been restricted to scalar-valued fields (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2017a,b). For instance, the wind velocity multifractality has been mostly analysed in terms of scalar structure functions and with the scalar energy flux. This restriction has had the unfortunate consequences that multifractals were applicable to their full extent in geophysics, whereas it has inspired them. Indeed a key question in geophysics is the complexity of the interactions between various fields or they components. Nevertheless, sophisticated methods have been developed to determine the key parameters of scalar valued fields. In this communication, we first present the vector extensions of the universal multifractal analysis techniques to multifractals whose generator belong to a Levy-Clifford algebra (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2015). We point out further extensions noting the increased complexity. For instance, the (scalar) index of multifractality becomes a matrice. Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2015) `Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra', Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 25(12), p. 123127. doi: 10.1063/1.4937364. Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2017) `An Introduction to Multifractals and Scale Symmetry Groups', in Ghanbarian, B. and Hunt, A. (eds) Fractals: Concepts and Applications in Geosciences. CRC Press, p. (in press). Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2017b) `Pandora Box of Multifractals: Barely Open ?', in Tsonis, A. A. (ed.) 30 Years of Nonlinear Dynamics in Geophysics. Berlin: Springer, p. (in press).

  4. Low temperature synthesis and field emission characteristics of single to few layered graphene grown using PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avshish; Khan, Sunny; Zulfequar, M.; Harsh; Husain, Mushahid, E-mail: mush_reslab@rediffmail.com

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by PECVD system at a low temperature of 600 °C. • From different characterization techniques, the presence of single and few layered graphene was confirmed. • X-ray diffraction pattern of the graphene showed single crystalline nature of the film. • The as-grown graphene films were observed extremely good field emitters with long term emission current stability. - Abstract: In this work, high-quality graphene has successfully been synthesized on copper (Cu) coated Silicon (Si) substrate at very large-area by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. This method is low cost and highly effective for synthesizing graphene relatively at low temperature of 600 °C. Electron microscopy images have shown that surface morphology of the grown samples is quite uniform consisting of single layered graphene (SLG) to few layered graphene (FLG). Raman spectra reveal that graphene has been grown with high-quality having negligible defects and the observation of G and G' peaks is also an indicative of stokes phonon energy shift caused due to laser excitation. Scanning probe microscopy image also depicts the synthesis of single to few layered graphene. The field emission characteristics of as-grown graphene samples were studied in a planar diode configuration at room temperature. The graphene samples were observed to be a good field emitter having low turn-on field, higher field amplification factor and long term emission current stability.

  5. High-performance field emission device utilizing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes-based pillar architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Kedawat, Garima; Gangwar, Amit Kumar; Nagpal, Kanika; Kashyap, Pradeep Kumar; Srivastava, Shubhda; Singh, Satbir; Kumar, Pawan; Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; Seo, Deok Min; Tripathi, Prashant; More, Mahendra A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Late, Dattatray J.

    2018-01-01

    The vertical aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based pillar architectures were created on laminated silicon oxide/silicon (SiO2/Si) wafer substrate at 775 °C by using water-assisted chemical vapor deposition under low pressure process condition. The lamination was carried out by aluminum (Al, 10.0 nm thickness) as a barrier layer and iron (Fe, 1.5 nm thickness) as a catalyst precursor layer sequentially on a silicon wafer substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that synthesized CNTs are vertically aligned and uniformly distributed with a high density. The CNTs have approximately 2-30 walls with an inner diameter of 3-8 nm. Raman spectrum analysis shows G-band at 1580 cm-1 and D-band at 1340 cm-1. The G-band is higher than D-band, which indicates that CNTs are highly graphitized. The field emission analysis of the CNTs revealed high field emission current density (4mA/cm2 at 1.2V/μm), low turn-on field (0.6 V/μm) and field enhancement factor (6917) with better stability and longer lifetime. Emitter morphology resulting in improved promising field emission performances, which is a crucial factor for the fabrication of pillared shaped vertical aligned CNTs bundles as practical electron sources.

  6. High-performance field emission device utilizing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes-based pillar architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs-based pillar architectures were created on laminated silicon oxide/silicon (SiO2/Si wafer substrate at 775 °C by using water-assisted chemical vapor deposition under low pressure process condition. The lamination was carried out by aluminum (Al, 10.0 nm thickness as a barrier layer and iron (Fe, 1.5 nm thickness as a catalyst precursor layer sequentially on a silicon wafer substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images show that synthesized CNTs are vertically aligned and uniformly distributed with a high density. The CNTs have approximately 2–30 walls with an inner diameter of 3–8 nm. Raman spectrum analysis shows G-band at 1580 cm−1 and D-band at 1340 cm−1. The G-band is higher than D-band, which indicates that CNTs are highly graphitized. The field emission analysis of the CNTs revealed high field emission current density (4mA/cm2 at 1.2V/μm, low turn-on field (0.6 V/μm and field enhancement factor (6917 with better stability and longer lifetime. Emitter morphology resulting in improved promising field emission performances, which is a crucial factor for the fabrication of pillared shaped vertical aligned CNTs bundles as practical electron sources.

  7. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2013-11-15

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission.

  8. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FROM FARADAY ROTATION MEASURES OF DIFFUSE POLARIZED EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, S. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; McConnell, D. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Haverkorn, M. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Beck, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wolleben, M. [Square Kilometre Array South Africa, The Park, Pinelands 7405 (South Africa); Stanimirovic, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Dickey, J. M. [Physics Department, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Staveley-Smith, L., E-mail: mao@astro.wisc.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2012-11-01

    We present a study of the magnetic field of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), carried out using diffuse polarized synchrotron emission data at 1.4 GHz acquired at the Parkes Radio Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The observed diffuse polarized emission is likely to originate above the LMC disk on the near side of the galaxy. Consistent negative rotation measures (RMs) derived from the diffuse emission indicate that the line-of-sight magnetic field in the LMC's near-side halo is directed coherently away from us. In combination with RMs of extragalactic sources that lie behind the galaxy, we show that the LMC's large-scale magnetic field is likely to be of quadrupolar geometry, consistent with the prediction of dynamo theory. On smaller scales, we identify two brightly polarized filaments southeast of the LMC, associated with neutral hydrogen arms. The filaments' magnetic field potentially aligns with the direction toward the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We suggest that tidal interactions between the SMC and the LMC in the past 10{sup 9} years are likely to have shaped the magnetic field in these filaments.

  9. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2013-01-01

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission

  10. Development of remote controlled type field-emission type scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Ryo; Nishino, Yasuharu; Mita, Naoaki; Nakata, Masahito; Harada, Katsuya; Nozawa, Yukio; Amano, Hidetoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-10-01

    The extending burn-up of Light Water Reactor Fuels has been promoted to reduce costs of the power generation and amount of waste mass. Information about the fuel behavior under high burn-up operation is needed to assess safety of the high burn-up fuels. Microstructures formed in high burn-up fuel pellets and Zircaloy tubes influence on their integrity. The fundamental information about morphology, sizes, and element compositions in those microstructures is necessary to estimate the formation mechanism and change in the properties of the fuels. The Field Emission type Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), which is effective for observation of very small area, i.e., nano-size structures, has been hence installed at the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) in JAERI. FE-SEM is designed for the remote handling type to use high radioactive materials and has equipments to keep the safety for operators. The Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) with a radiation-shielding collimator has been also equipped on FE-SEM to determine element compositions in the structures. Characterization tests were carried out using Zircaloy cladding tubes with oxide films and hydrides of confirm machine performance. In the results of the tests, high-resolution images with a magnification of 30,000 were obtained. Those results show that the apparatus maintains the original high performance with standard type. (author)

  11. Method to characterize inorganic particulates in lung tissue biopsies using field emission scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, Heather; Breit, George N.; Strand, Matthew; Pillers, Renee M.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Todorov, Todor I.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Wolf, Ruth E.; Robinson, Maura; Parr, Jane; Miller, Robert J.; Groshong, Steve; Green, Francis; Rose, Cecile

    2018-01-01

    Humans accumulate large numbers of inorganic particles in their lungs over a lifetime. Whether this causes or contributes to debilitating disease over a normal lifespan depends on the type and concentration of the particles. We developed and tested a protocol for in situ characterization of the types and distribution of inorganic particles in biopsied lung tissue from three human groups using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Many distinct particle types were recognized among the 13 000 particles analyzed. Silica, feldspars, clays, titanium dioxides, iron oxides and phosphates were the most common constituents in all samples. Particles were classified into three general groups: endogenous, which form naturally in the body; exogenic particles, natural earth materials; and anthropogenic particles, attributed to industrial sources. These in situ results were compared with those using conventional sodium hypochlorite tissue digestion and particle filtration. With the exception of clays and phosphates, the relative abundances of most common particle types were similar in both approaches. Nonetheless, the digestion/filtration method was determined to alter the texture and relative abundances of some particle types. SEM/EDS analysis of digestion filters could be automated in contrast to the more time intensive in situ analyses.

  12. Field emission from carbon nanotube bundle arrays grown on self-aligned ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chun; Fang Guojia; Yuan Longyan; Liu Nishuang; Ai Lei; Xiang Qi; Zhao Dongshan; Pan Chunxu; Zhao Xingzhong

    2007-01-01

    The field emission (FE) properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle arrays grown on vertically self-aligned ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) are reported. The ZNRs were first synthesized on ZnO-seed-coated Si substrate by the vapour phase transport method, and then the radically grown CNTs were grown directly on the surface of the ZNRs from ethanol flames. The CNT/ZNR composite showed a turn-on field of 1.5 V μm -1 (at 0.1 μA cm -2 ), a threshold field of 4.5 V μm -1 (at 1 mA cm -2 ) and a stable emission current with fluctuations of 5%, demonstrating significantly enhanced FE of ZNRs due to the low work function and high aspect ratio of the CNTs, and large surface-to-volume ratio of the underlying ZNRs

  13. Field-emission properties of transparent tungsten oxide nano-urchins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Hyung [Kyungpook National University, Nano-applied Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The field-emission properties of transparent tungsten oxide nano-urchin (NU) films deposited on conducting glass substrates were examined. The novel crystalline tungsten oxide NUs consisted of nanowires added to a spherical shell. The WO{sub 2.72} NUs showed better field-emission properties than the WO{sub 3} NUs with a low turn-on field of approximately 5.8 V/{mu}m and a current density as high as 1.3 mA/cm{sup 2} at 7.2 V/mm. The WO{sub x} NUs films could be used in FE applications using a large-area glass substrate without the need for a catalyst and a mechanical rubbing or lift-up process. These results have implications for the enhancement of FE properties by further tuning the WO{sub x} phases. (orig.)

  14. Particle-in-cell modeling of the nanosecond field emission driven discharge in pressurized hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levko, Dmitry; Yatom, Shurik; Krasik, Yakov E.

    2018-02-01

    The high-voltage field-emission driven nanosecond discharge in pressurized hydrogen is studied using the one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collision model. It is obtained that the main part of the field-emitted electrons becomes runaway in the thin cathode sheath. These runaway electrons propagate the entire cathode-anode gap, creating rather dense (˜1012 cm-3) seeding plasma electrons. In addition, these electrons initiate a streamer propagating through this background plasma with a speed ˜30% of the speed of light. Such a high streamer speed allows the self-acceleration mechanism of runaway electrons present between the streamer head and the anode to be realized. As a consequence, the energy of runaway electrons exceeds the cathode-anode gap voltage. In addition, the influence of the field emission switching-off time is analyzed. It is obtained that this time significantly influences the discharge dynamics.

  15. Tasks tolerating application of analogue methods for determining acoustic emission source co-ordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyukhov, V.I.; Vakar, K.B.; Makarov, V.I.; Ovchinnikov, N.I.; Perevezentsev, V.N.; Rzhevkin, V.R.; Shemyakin, V.V.; Yakovlev, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Described are cases of coordinate detection of the acoustic emission (AE) sources during AE-testing of power reactors using analog systems. Five testing variants of design linear elements are considered and fields of their practical application to welded joint testing are pointed out. Described is the method of coordinate detection based on ''multibeam'' effect

  16. Field-emission liquid-metal ion source and triode ion gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, M.; Kawakatsu, H.

    1981-01-01

    A pointed-filament-type field-emission liquid-metal ion source is designed and employed as a gold ion source. By adding a crossbar across a hairpin bend, the amount of the gold adhering on the filament is increased. The lifetime is estimated to be over 200 h at 10-mA emission current. The emission current increases with increasing extraction voltage up to a saturation value which is ascribed to a limitation of the supply of liquid gold to the needle apex. The value of current density per unit solid angle is 30 mA/sr at a total current of 30 mA, which is of the same order as that obtained from a gallium ion source previously reported. Emission current fluctuations of a few tens of percent of the dc component are observed. In order to regulate the emission current and suppress current fluctuations, a bias electrode in addition to a counterelectrode is placed close to the needle apex. With such a triode structure, the emission current is regulated by a bias voltage of several hundred volts and stabilized to within 1% by means of feedback to the bias voltage of a current monitor output

  17. Scalar boson emission by electrons in the Weinberg-Salam theory under a constant electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, V.N.; Studenikin, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration of processes with the assistance of virtual and real Higgs scalar neutral σ-bosons in the presence of a constant external crossed electromagnetic field is conducted. In the second order of the perturbation theory in the Weinberg-Jalam model corresponding contribution into mass lepton operator in this base probability dependence of σ-boson emission and radiation field σ-bosn effects on the crossed field parameter is investigated: x=√(eFsub(μν)psup(ν)sup(2)/msup(3)

  18. Field electron emission improvement of ZnO nanorod arrays after Ar plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chun; Fang Guojia; Yuan Longyan; Liu Nishuang; Li Jun; Li Dejie; Zhao Xingzhong

    2007-01-01

    Vertically well-aligned single crystal ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized and enhanced field electron emission was achieved after radio-frequency (rf) Ar plasma treatment. With Ar plasma treatment for 30 min, flat tops of the as-grown ZnO nanorods have been etched into sharp tips without damaging ZnO nanorod geometrical morphologies and crystallinity. After the Ar ion bombardment, the emission current density increases from 2 to 20 μA cm -2 at 9.0 V μm -1 with a decrease in turn-on voltage from 7.1 to 4.8 V μm -1 at a current density of 1 μA cm -2 , which demonstrates that the field emission of the as-grown ZnO nanorods has been efficiently enhanced. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results, in conjunction with the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence observation, are used to investigate the mechanisms of the field emission enhancement. It is believed that the enhancements can be mainly attributed to the sharpening of rod tops, and the decrease of electrostatic screening effect

  19. Field Emission of Wet Transferred Suspended Graphene Fabricated on Interdigitated Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji; Wang, Qilong; Tao, Zhi; Qi, Zhiyang; Zhai, Yusheng; Wu, Shengqi; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei

    2016-02-10

    Suspended graphene (SG) membranes could enable strain-engineering of ballistic Dirac fermion transport and eliminate the extrinsic bulk disorder by annealing. When freely suspended without contact to any substrates, graphene could be considered as the ultimate two-dimensional (2D) morphology, leading to special field characteristics with the 2D geometrical effect and effectively utilized as an outstanding structure to explore the fundamental electronic or optoelectronic mechanism. In this paper, we report field emission characterization on an individual suspended few-layer graphene. A controllable wet transfer method is used to obtain the continuous and suspended graphene membrane on interdigitated gold electrodes. This suspended structure displays an overall field emission from the entirely surface, except for the variation in the emitting positions, acquiring a better enhancement than the exfoliated graphene on the conventional flat substrate. We also observe the transition process from space charge flow at low bias to the Fowler-Nordheim theory at high current emission regime. It could enable theoretical and experimental investigation of the typical electron emission properties of the 2D regime. Numerical simulations are also carried out to study the electrical properties of the suspended structure. Further improvement on the fabrication would realize low disorder, high quality, and large-scale suspended graphene devices.

  20. Long term continuous field survey to assess nutrient emission impact from irrigated paddy field into river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Kanami; Aichi, Masaatsu; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    In order to achieve good river environment, it is very important to understand and to control nutrient behavior such as Nitrogen and Phosphorus. As we could reduce impact from urban and industrial activities by wastewater treatment, pollution from point sources are likely to be controlled. Besides them, nutrient emission from agricultural activity is dominant pollution source into the river system. In many countries in Asia and Africa, rice is widely cultivated and paddy field covers large areas. In Japan 54% of its arable land is occupied with irrigated paddy field. While paddy field can deteriorate river water quality due to fertilization, it is also suggested that paddy field can purify water. We carried out field survey in middle reach of the Tone River Basin with focus on a paddy field IM. The objectives of the research are 1) understanding of water and nutrient balance in paddy field, 2) data collection for assessing nutrient emission. Field survey was conducted from June 2015 to October 2016 covering two flooding seasons in summer. In our measurement, all input and output were measured regarding water, N and P to quantify water and nutrient balance in the paddy field. By measuring water quality and flow rate of inflow, outflow, infiltrating water, ground water and flooding water, we tried to quantitatively understand water, N and P cycle in a paddy field including seasonal trends, and changes accompanied with rainy events and agricultural activities like fertilization. Concerning water balance, infiltration rate was estimated by following equation. Infiltration=Irrigation water + Precipitation - Evapotranspiration -Outflow We estimated mean daily water balance during flooding season. Infiltration is 11.9mm/day in our estimation for summer in 2015. Daily water reduction depth (WRD) is sum of Evapotranspiration and Infiltration. WRD is 21.5mm/day in IM and agrees with average value in previous research. Regarding nutrient balance, we estimated an annual N and

  1. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Devices for Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radauscher, Erich Justin

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for electron field emission (FE) cathodes in integrated FE devices. These nanostructured carbon materials possess exceptional properties and their synthesis can be thoroughly controlled. Their integration into advanced electronic devices, including not only FE cathodes, but sensors, energy storage devices, and circuit components, has seen rapid growth in recent years. The results of the studies presented here demonstrate that the CNT field emitter is an excellent candidate for next generation vacuum microelectronics and related electron emission devices in several advanced applications. The work presented in this study addresses determining factors that currently confine the performance and application of CNT-FE devices. Characterization studies and improvements to the FE properties of CNTs, along with Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) design and fabrication, were utilized in achieving these goals. Important performance limiting parameters, including emitter lifetime and failure from poor substrate adhesion, are examined. The compatibility and integration of CNT emitters with the governing MEMS substrate (i.e., polycrystalline silicon), and its impact on these performance limiting parameters, are reported. CNT growth mechanisms and kinetics were investigated and compared to silicon (100) to improve the design of CNT emitter integrated MEMS based electronic devices, specifically in vacuum microelectronic device (VMD) applications. Improved growth allowed for design and development of novel cold-cathode FE devices utilizing CNT field emitters. A chemical ionization (CI) source based on a CNT-FE electron source was developed and evaluated in a commercial desktop mass spectrometer for explosives trace detection. This work demonstrated the first reported use of a CNT-based ion source capable of collecting CI mass spectra. The CNT-FE source demonstrated low power requirements, pulsing

  2. A power system design and analysis of carbon nano-tubes field emission displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong C.; Yao, W. C.

    2006-01-01

    In new generation Flat Panel Displays(FPD), a lot of design methods are being deployed, including OLED, PDP, TFT-LCD, Back Projection and Field Emission Display(FED) etc. These new generation FPDs have their respective pluses and minuses. Each has its selling points and market attractions. But among them, FED principles are most close to that of CRT displays. Not only FEDs are advantageous in their good degree of saturation of color, but also they have excellent contrast, luminance and electricity consumption etc. It has been considered as the main products of future generation FPDs. Japan and countries all over the world are successively proposing and launching related FED products in the fields. This will not only drive the FEDs into a wave of new trends, but also it will be able to replace most of the current FPD products within a short time. In this paper, based on these solid trends, we are determined to put into our resources and efforts to perform research on these important FEDs technologies and products, particularly in Carbon Nano-Tubes FEDs(CNT-FED). Our research group has already performed research on CNT-FED subjects for almost three years. During the course of our research, we have run into a lot of issues and problems. We have made every effort to overcome some of them. This paper performs comparative analysis of three power option for small size (4-inch) CNT-FEDs to drive the FED effects such as the direct current power, pulsed power and sinusoidal power respectively. This paper performs comparative analysis of three power options for small sized CNT-FEDs. It was concluded that the pulsed power option will produce the best results overall among the three power options. It is felt that these data presented can then be referenced and used to design a power system circuit to get an optimum design for better luminance and least power consumption for small sized commercial CNT-FED products.

  3. METHANE EMISSION FROM PADDY FIELDS AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT WATER REGIMES IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihasto Setyanto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of methane (CH4 in the atmosphere is increasing at 1% per annum and rice fields are one of the sources that contribute to about 10-15% of the atmospheric CH4. One of the options to reduce greenhouse gas emission from rice fields is probably through water management. A field study was conducted to investigate the effects of water management practices on CH4 emission from rice field plots on a silty sand Aeric Tropaquept soil at Research Station for Agricultural Environment Preservation, Jakenan, Central Java, Indonesia, during the dry season of March to June 2002. Four water regimes tested were: (1 5 cm continuous flooding (CF, (2 0-1 cm continuous flooding (ST, (3 intermittent irrigation (IR where plots received continuously 5 cm of flooding with two times of draining at 15-20 and 25-30 days after transplanting (DAT, and (4 pulse irrigation (PI where plots were watered until 5 cm level and left to dry by itself until the water table reached 30 cm beneath soil surface then watered again. The total CH4 emissions of the four water treatments were 254, 185, 136 and 96 kg CH4 ha-1 for CF, ST, IR and PI, respectively. Methane emission increased during the early growing season, which coincided with the low redox potential of -100 to -150 mV in all treatments. Dry matter weight of straw and filled grain among the water treatments did not show significant differences. Likewise, total grain yield at 14% moisture content was not significantly different among treatments. However, this result should be carefully interpreted because the rice plants in all water treatments were infested by stem borer, which reduced the total grain yield of IR64 between 11% and 16%. This study suggests that intermittent and pulse irrigation practices will be important not only for water use efficiency, but also for CH4 emission reduction.

  4. Transition from Fowler-Nordheim field emission to space charge limited current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Verboncoeur, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    The Fowler-Nordheim law gives the current density extracted from a surface under strong fields, by treating the emission of electrons from a metal-vacuum interface in the presence of an electric field normal to the surface as a quantum mechanical tunneling process. Child's law predicts the maximum transmitted current density by considering the space charge effect. When the electric field becomes high enough, the emitted current density will be limited by Child's law. This work analyzes the transition of the transmitted current density from the Fowler-Nordheim law to Child's law space charge limit using a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code. Also studied is the response of the emission model to strong electric fields near the transition point. We find the transition without geometrical effort is smooth and much slower than reported previously [J. P. Barbour, W. W. Dolan, J. K. Trolan, E. E. Martin, and W. P. Dyke, Phys. Rev. 92, 45 (1953)]. We analyze the effects of geometric field enhancement and work function on the transition. Using our previous model for effective field enhancement [Y. Feng and J. P. Verboncoeur, Phys. Plasmas 12, 103301 (2005)], we find the geometric effect dominates, and enhancement β>10 can accelerate the approach to the space charge limit at practical electric field. A damped oscillation near the local plasma frequency is observed in the transient system response

  5. Determination of Summertime VOC Emission Rates from Produced Water Ponds in the Uintah Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. S.; Woods, C.; Lyman, S.

    2013-12-01

    The observance of excess ozone concentrations in Utah's Uintah Basin over past several years has prompted several investigations into the extent and causes of the elevated ozone. Among these is the assessment of potential emissions of reactive VOCs. Evaporation ponds, used a remediation technique for treatment of contaminated production and other waters, are one potential source of significant VOC emissions and is estimated that there are around 160 such ponds within the Uintah Basin's oil and gas production areas. In June 2012 VOC emission rates for several reactive VOCs were derived for an evaporation facility consisting of a small inlet pond (≈0.03 acres) and two larger, serial ponds (≈4.3 acres each). The emission rates were determined over three sampling periods using an inverse modeling approach. Under this methodology, ambient VOC concentrations are determined at several downwind locations through whole-air collection into SUMMA canisters, followed by GC/MS quantification and compared with predicted concentrations using an EPA-approved dispersion model, AERMOD. The presumed emission rates used within the model were then adjusted until the modeled concentrations approach the observed concentrations. The derived emission rates for the individual VOCs were on the order of 10-3 g/s/m2 from the inlet pond and 10-6 g/s/m2 from the larger ponds. The emissions from the 1st pond in series after the inlet pond were about 3-4x the emissions from the 2nd pond. These combined emission rates are about an order of magnitude those reported for a single study in Colorado (Thoma, 2009). It should be noted, however, that the variability about each of the VOC emission rates was significant (often ×100% at the 95% confidence interval). Extrapolating these emission rates to the estimated total areas of all the evaporation ponds within Basin resulted in calculated Basin-wide VOC emissions 292,835 tons/yr. However, Bar-Ilan et al. (2009) estimated 2012 VOC oil and gas related

  6. Self-Determination and Goal Orientation in Track and Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ngien-Siong; Khoo, Selina; Low, Wah-Yun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender, age group and locality differences in adolescent athletes’ self-determination motivation and goal orientations in track and field. It also examined the relationship between the self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. A total of 632 (349 boys, 283 girls) adolescent athletes (aged 13–18 years) completed the Sports Motivation Scale and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences between gender on intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation (t(630) = 4.10, p motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation and ego orientation. A significant difference was found between age groups on task orientation (t(630) = 1.94, p motivation. Task orientation was related to intrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p extrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p motivation (r = 0.30, p extrinsic motivation (r = 0.36, p motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation accounted for 30.5% of the variances in task orientation. PMID:23486244

  7. Self-determination and goal orientation in track and field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ngien-Siong; Khoo, Selina; Low, Wah-Yun

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated gender, age group and locality differences in adolescent athletes' self-determination motivation and goal orientations in track and field. It also examined the relationship between the self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. A total of 632 (349 boys, 283 girls) adolescent athletes (aged 13-18 years) completed the Sports Motivation Scale and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences between gender on intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation (t(630) = 4.10, p amotivation and ego orientation. A significant difference was found between age groups on task orientation (t(630) = 1.94, p amotivation (r = 0.10, p amotivation accounted for 30.5% of the variances in task orientation.

  8. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Andrade Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess their environmental impact. Nevertheless, the official Brazilian emissions inventory does not presently include the contribution from pre-harvest sugarcane burning. In this context, this work aims to determine sugarcane straw burning emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm in the laboratory. Excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons, and PM2.5 were measured, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average estimated values for emission factors (g kg−1 of burned dry biomass were 1,303 ± 218 for CO2, 65 ± 14 for CO, 1.5 ± 0.4 for NOX, 16 ± 6 for UHC, and 2.6 ± 1.6 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and therefore improve the results of air quality models.

  9. X-ray emission spectroscopic determination of iron in a polyurethane encapsulant curing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.M.; Kling, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a procedure for determining the iron content in a polyurethane encapsulant curing agent by x-ray emission spectroscopy. Standards were prepared by adding ferric acetyl acetonate to a curing agent of identical composition to that being analyzed, but containing no iron. Results show that x-ray emission spectroscopy is feasible for determination of iron in the 30 to 50 ppM range. This range could probably be extended by the preparation of additional standards. Precision of the method is approximately 1.2 ppM at the 99 percent confidence level

  10. Investigating of the Field Emission Performance on Nano-Apex Carbon Fiber and Tungsten Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Marwan S.; Alnawasreh, Shadi; Madanat, Mazen A.; Al-Rabadi, Anas N.

    2015-10-01

    Field electron emission measurements have been performed on carbon-based and tungsten microemitters. Several samples of both types of emitters with different apex radii have been obtained employing electrolytic etching techniques using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with different molarities depending on the material used. A suitable, home-built, field electron microscope (FEM) with 10 mm tip to screen separation distance was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. Measurements were carried out under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions with base pressure of 10-9 mbar. The current-voltage characteristics (I-V) presented as Fowler-Nordheim (FN) type plots, and field electron emission images have been recorded. In this work, initial comparison of the field electron emission performance of these micro and nanoemitters has been carried out, with the aim of obtaining a reliable, stable and long life powerful electron source. We compare the apex radii measured from the micrographs obtained from the SEM images to those extracted from the FN-type _I-V_plots for carbon fibers and tungsten tips.

  11. Investigating of the Field Emission Performance on Nano-Apex Carbon Fiber and Tungsten Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Marwan S; Alnawasreh, Shadi; Al-Rabadi, Anas N; Madanat, Mazen A

    2015-01-01

    Field electron emission measurements have been performed on carbon-based and tungsten microemitters. Several samples of both types of emitters with different apex radii have been obtained employing electrolytic etching techniques using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with different molarities depending on the material used. A suitable, home-built, field electron microscope (FEM) with 10 mm tip to screen separation distance was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. Measurements were carried out under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions with base pressure of 10 -9 mbar. The current-voltage characteristics (I-V) presented as Fowler-Nordheim (FN) type plots, and field electron emission images have been recorded. In this work, initial comparison of the field electron emission performance of these micro and nanoemitters has been carried out, with the aim of obtaining a reliable, stable and long life powerful electron source. We compare the apex radii measured from the micrographs obtained from the SEM images to those extracted from the FN-type -I-V-plots for carbon fibers and tungsten tips. (paper)

  12. Oxygen plasma assisted end-opening and field emission enhancement in vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, A.; Roy, S.S.; Hazra, K.S.; Wadhwa, S.; Ray, S.C.; Mitra, S.K.; Misra, D.S.; McLaughlin, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We showed Ar/O 2 plasma can be effective for the end opening of aligned CNTs. ► The field emission property was dramatically enhanced after plasma modification. ► Microstructures were clearly understood by Raman and SEM analysis. ► Surface wet-ability at various functionalised conditions was studied. - Abstract: This paper highlights the changes in micro-structural and field emission properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) via oxygen plasma treatment. We find that exposure of very low power oxygen plasma (6 W) at 13.56 MHz for 15–20 min, opens the tip of vertically aligned CNTs. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images were used to identify the quality and micro-structural changes of the nanotube morphology and surfaces. Raman spectra showed that the numbers of defects were increased throughout the oxygen plasma treatment process. In addition, the hydrophobic nature of the VACNTs is altered significantly and the contact angle decreases drastically from 110° to 40°. It was observed that the electron field emission (EFE) characteristics are significantly enhanced. The turn-on electric field (ETOE) of CNTs decreased from ∼0.80 V μm −1 (untreated) to ∼0.60 V μm −1 (oxygen treated). We believe that the open ended VACNTs would be immensely valuable for applications such as micro/nanofluidic based filtering elements and display devices.

  13. Emission of massive scalar fields by a higher-dimensional rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanti, P.; Pappas, N.

    2010-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the emission of massive scalar fields by a higher-dimensional, simply rotating black hole both in the bulk and on the brane. We derive approximate, analytic results as well as exact numerical ones for the absorption probability, and demonstrate that the two sets agree very well in the low and intermediate-energy regime for scalar fields with mass m Φ ≤1 TeV in the bulk and m Φ ≤0.5 TeV on the brane. The numerical values of the absorption probability are then used to derive the Hawking radiation power emission spectra in terms of the number of extra dimensions, angular-momentum of the black hole and mass of the emitted field. We compute the total emissivities in the bulk and on the brane, and demonstrate that, although the brane channel remains the dominant one, the bulk-over-brane energy ratio is considerably increased (up to 34%) when the mass of the emitted field is taken into account.

  14. Effect of sequential surface irrigations on field-scale emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R; Knuteson, J; Ernst, F F; Zheng, W; Wang, Q

    2008-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted to measure subsurface movement and volatilization of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) after shank injection to an agricultural soil. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of sprinkler irrigation on the emissions of 1,3-D to the atmosphere and is based on recent research that has shown that saturating the soil pore space reduces gas-phase diffusion and leads to reduced volatilization rates. Aerodynamic, integrated horizontal flux, and theoretical profile shape methods were used to estimate fumigant volatilization rates and total emission losses. These methods provide estimates of the volatilization rate based on measurements of wind speed, temperature, and 1,3-D concentration in the atmosphere. The volatilization rate was measured continuously for 16 days, and the daily peak volatilization rates for the three methods ranged from 18 to 60 microg m(-2) s(-1). The total 13-D mass entering the atmosphere was approximately 44-68 kg ha(-1), or 10-15% of the applied active ingredient This represents approximately 30-50% reduction in the total emission losses compared to conventional fumigant applications in field and field-plot studies. Significant reduction in volatilization of 1,3-D was observed when five surface irrigations were applied to the field, one immediately after fumigation followed by daily irrigations.

  15. Effect of an alternating electric field on the polluting emission from propane flame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukradiga, I.; Turlajs, D.; Purmals, M.; Barmina, I.; Zake, M.

    2001-12-01

    The experimental investigations of the AC field effect on the propane combustion and processes that cause the formation of polluting emissions (NO_x, CO, CO_2) are performed. The AC-enhanced variations of the temperature and composition of polluting emissions are studied for the fuel-rich and fuel-lean conditions of the flame core. The results show that the AC field-enhanced mixing of the fuel-rich core with the surrounding air coflow enhances the propane combustion with increase in the mass fraction of NO_x and CO_2 in the products. The reverse field effect on the composition of polluting emissions is observed under the fuel-lean conditions in the flame core. The field-enhanced CO_2 destruction is registered when the applied voltage increase. The destruction of CO_2 leads to a correlating increase in the mass fraction of CO in the products and enhances the process of NO_x formation within the limit of the fuel lean and low temperature combustion. Figs 11, Refs 18.

  16. Acoustic emission measurements during impacts tests for determining ductile fracture data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.

    2000-09-01

    The document reports work for further development of methods and tests to obtain better information on the crack initiation toughness (J id ) under impact loading conditions, by acoustic emission measurements. The applicability of the acoustic emission tests for the given purpose was proven by instrumented Charpy tests using modified ISO-V specimens. The physical crack initiation toughness served as the reference value for reliable evaluation of the characteristic data obtained. This reference value is derived from the crack resistance curve determined by the multi-specimen cleavage fracture method combined with data from measurements of the stretching zone width. Verification of the acoustic emission-defined initiation value included a variety of tests, as e.g. additional dynamic single-specimen methods (L-COD, magnetic emission), and supplementary tests (D3PB, pendulum impact testing machine). The test materials are various steels with different strength/toughness properties. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Determining the phonon energy of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by scanning tunneling microscope light emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Yoichi; Michimata, Junichi; Watanabe, Shota; Katano, Satoshi; Inaoka, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) light emission spectra of isolated single Ag nanoparticles lying on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The STM light emission spectra exhibited two types of spectral structures (step-like and periodic). Comparisons of the observed structures and theoretical predictions indicate that the phonon energy of the ZO mode of HOPG [M. Mohr et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 035439 (2007)] can be determined from the energy difference between the cutoff of STM light emission and the step in the former structure, and from the period of the latter structure. Since the role of the Ag nanoparticles does not depend on the substrate materials, this method will enable the phonon energies of various materials to be measured by STM light emission spectroscopy. The spatial resolution is comparable to the lateral size of the individual Ag nanoparticles (that is, a few nm).

  18. Continuous Emission Spectrum Measurement for Electron Temperature Determination in Low-Temperature Collisional Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiuyan; Li Hong; Chen Zhipeng; Xie Jinlin; Liu Wandong

    2011-01-01

    Continuous emission spectrum measurement is applied for the inconvenient diagnostics of low-temperature collisional plasmas. According to the physical mechanism of continuous emission, a simplified model is presented to analyze the spectrum in low temperature plasma. The validity of this model is discussed in a wide range of discharge parameters, including electron temperature and ionization degree. Through the simplified model, the continuous emission spectrum in a collisional argon internal inductively coupled plasma is experimentally measured to determine the electron temperature distribution for different gas pressures and radio-frequency powers. The inverse Abel transform is also applied for a better spatially resoluted results. Meanwhile, the result of the continuous emission spectrum measurement is compared to that of the electrostatic double probes, which indicates the effectiveness of this method. (low temperature plasma)

  19. Simultaneous field measurements of biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iris Cofman; Levine, Joel S.

    1987-01-01

    Seasonal and diurnal emissions of NO and N2O from agricultural sites in Jamestown, Virginia and Boulder, Colorado are estimated in terms of soil temperature; percent moisture; and exchangeable nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium concentrations. The techniques and procedures used to analyze the soil parameters are described. The spatial and temporal variability of the NO and N2O emissions is studied. A correlation between NO fluxes in the Virginia sample and nitrate concentration, temperature, and percent moisture is detected, and NO fluxes for the Colorado site correspond with temperature and moisture. It is observed that the N2O emissions are only present when percent moisture approaches or exceeds the field capacity of the soil. The data suggest that NO is produced primarily by nitrification in aerobic soils, and N2O is formed by denitrification in anaerobic soils.

  20. Plasma-induced field emission and plasma expansion of carbon nanotube cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qingliang; Zhang Yue; Qi Junjie; Huang Yunhua; Xia Liansheng; Gao Zhanjun; Gu Yousong

    2007-01-01

    High intensity electron emission cathodes based on carbon nanotube films have been successfully fabricated. An investigation of the explosive field emission properties of the carbon nanotube cathode in a double-pulse mode was presented and a high emission current density of 245 A cm -2 was obtained. The formation of the cathode plasma layer was proved and the production process of the electron beams from the cathode was explained. The time and space resolution of the electron beams flow from the cathode was investigated. The plasma expanded at a velocity of ∼8.17 cm μs -1 towards the anode and influenced on the intensity and distribution of electron beams obviously. The formation of cathode plasma had no preferential position and the local enhancement of electron beams was random. This carbon nanotube cathode appears to be suitable for high-power microwave device applications

  1. Ground-Based Remote Sensing and Imaging of Volcanic Gases and Quantitative Determination of Multi-Species Emission Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Platt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical structure and the spatial evolution of volcanic plumes are of great interest since they influence the Earth’s atmospheric composition and the climate. Equally important is the monitoring of the abundance and emission patterns of volcanic gases, which gives insight into processes in the Earth’s interior that are difficult to access otherwise. Here, we review spectroscopic approaches (from ultra-violet to thermal infra-red to determine multi-species emissions and to quantify gas fluxes. Particular attention is given to the emerging field of plume imaging and quantitative image interpretation. Here UV SO2 cameras paved the way but several other promising techniques are under study and development. We also give a brief summary of a series of initial applications of fast imaging techniques for volcanological research.

  2. A comparative study of field-emission from different one dimensional carbon nanostructures synthesized via thermal CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, A.; Banerjee, D.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Different one dimensional (1D) carbon nanostructures, such as carbon nanonoodles (CNNs), carbon nanospikes (CNSs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized via thermal chemical vapour deposition (TCVD) technique. The different 1D morphologies were synthesized by varying the substrate material and the deposition conditions. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). FESEM and TEM images showed that the diameters of the CNNs and CNTs were ∼40 nm while the diameters of the CNSs were around 100 nm. Field emission studies of the as-prepared samples showed that CNSs to be a better field emitter than CNNs, whereas CNTs are the best among the three producing large emission current. The variation of field emission properties with inter-electrode distance has been studied in detail. Also the time dependent field emission studies of all the nanostructures have been carried out.

  3. HIGH-CURRENT COLD CATHODE FIELD EMISSION ARRAY FOR ELECTRON LENS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2012-12-28

    During Phase I, the following goals were achieved: (1) design and fabrication of a novel, nano-dimensional CNT field emitter assembly for high current density application, with high durability; (2) fabrication of a ceramic based micro channel plate (MCP) and characterization of its secondary electron emission; and (3) characterizing the CNT/MCP cathode for high field emission and durability. As a result of these achievements, a relatively high current density of ~ 1.2 A/cm2 from a CNT cathode and single channel MCP were measured. The emission current was also extremely stable with a peak-to-peak variation of only 1.8%. The emission current could be further enhanced to meet requirements for electron lens applications by increasing the number of MCP channels. A calculation for maximum possible current density with a 1200 channel/cm2 MCP, placed over a cathode with 1200 uniformly functioning CNTs, would be ~1.46 kA/cm2, neglecting space charge limitations. Clearly this level of emission is far greater than what is needed for the electron lens application, but it does offer a highly comforting margin to account for sub-standard emitters and/or to allow the lesser challenge of building a cathode with fewer channels/cm2. A satisfactory goal for the electron lens application would be a controllable emission of 2-4 mA per channel in an ensemble of 800-1200 uniformly-functioning channels/cm2, and a cathode with overall area of about 1 cm2.

  4. DETERMINATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN OXIDES, AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS BY ALKALINE PERMANGANATE SAMPLING AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A manual 24-h integrated method for determining SO2, NOx, and CO2 in emissions from electric utility plants was developed and field tested downstream from an SO2 control system. Samples were collected in alkaline potassium permanganate solution contained in restricted-orifice imp...

  5. Solar wind charge exchange emission in the Chandra deep field north

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Wargelin, Bradford J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koutroumpa, Dimitra [LATMOS/IPSL, CNRS, Université Versailles Saint Quentin, 11 Boulevard d' Alembert, F-78280, Guyancourt (France)

    2013-12-10

    The diffuse soft X-ray background comes from distant galaxies, from hot Galactic gas, and from within the solar system. The latter emission arises from charge exchange between highly charged solar wind ions and neutral gas. This so-called solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission is spatially and temporally variable and interferes with our measurements of more distant cosmic emission while also providing important information on the nature of the solar wind-interstellar medium interaction. We present the results of our analysis of eight Chandra observations of the Chandra Deep Field North (CDFN) with the goal of measuring the cosmic and SWCX contributions to the X-ray background. Our modeling of both geocoronal and heliospheric SWCX emission is the most detailed for any observation to date. After allowing for ∼30% uncertainty in the SWCX emission and subtracting it from the observational data, we estimate that the flux of cosmic background for the CDFN in the O VII Kα, Kβ, and O VIII Lyα lines totals 5.8 ± 1.1 photons s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} sr{sup –1} (or LU). Heliospheric SWCX emission varied for each observation due to differences in solar wind conditions and the line of sight through the solar system, but was typically about half as strong as the cosmic background (i.e., one-third of the total) in those lines. The modeled geocoronal emission was 0.82 LU in one observation but averaged only 0.15 LU in the others. Our measurement of the cosmic background is lower than but marginally consistent with previous estimates based on XMM-Newton data.

  6. Solar wind charge exchange emission in the Chandra deep field north

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Wargelin, Bradford J.; Koutroumpa, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    The diffuse soft X-ray background comes from distant galaxies, from hot Galactic gas, and from within the solar system. The latter emission arises from charge exchange between highly charged solar wind ions and neutral gas. This so-called solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission is spatially and temporally variable and interferes with our measurements of more distant cosmic emission while also providing important information on the nature of the solar wind-interstellar medium interaction. We present the results of our analysis of eight Chandra observations of the Chandra Deep Field North (CDFN) with the goal of measuring the cosmic and SWCX contributions to the X-ray background. Our modeling of both geocoronal and heliospheric SWCX emission is the most detailed for any observation to date. After allowing for ∼30% uncertainty in the SWCX emission and subtracting it from the observational data, we estimate that the flux of cosmic background for the CDFN in the O VII Kα, Kβ, and O VIII Lyα lines totals 5.8 ± 1.1 photons s –1 cm –2 sr –1 (or LU). Heliospheric SWCX emission varied for each observation due to differences in solar wind conditions and the line of sight through the solar system, but was typically about half as strong as the cosmic background (i.e., one-third of the total) in those lines. The modeled geocoronal emission was 0.82 LU in one observation but averaged only 0.15 LU in the others. Our measurement of the cosmic background is lower than but marginally consistent with previous estimates based on XMM-Newton data.

  7. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of Mn doped zinc silicate nanophosphors for green and yellow field emissions displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omri, K.; Alyamani, A.; Mir, L. El

    2018-02-01

    Mn2+-doped Zn2SiO4 (ZSM2+) was synthesized by a facile sol-gel technique. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques. Under UV excitation, spectra showed that the α-ZSM2+ phosphor exhibited a strong green emission around 525 nm and reached the highest luminescence intensity with the Mn doping concentration of 5 at.%. However, for the β-ZSM2+ phase, an interesting yellow emission band centered at 575 nm of Mn2+ at the Zn2+ tetrahedral sites was observed. In addition, an unusual red shift with increasing Mn2+ content was also found and attributed to an exchange interaction between Mn2+. Both PL and CL spectra exhibit an intense green and yellow emission centered at 525 and 573 nm, respectively, due to the 4T1 (4G)-6A1 (6S) transition of Mn2+. Furthermore, these results indicated that the Mn2+-doped zinc silicate phosphors may have potential applications in green and yellow emissions displays like field emission displays (FEDs).

  8. Hydrochlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The emissions of three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFC-22 (CHClF2, HCFC-141b (CH3CCl2F and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2 and three hydrofluorocarbons, HFC-23 (CHF3, HFC-134a (CH2FCF3 and HFC-152a (CH3CHF2 from four East Asian countries and the Taiwan region for the year 2008 are determined by inverse modeling. The inverse modeling is based on in-situ measurements of these halocarbons at the Japanese stations Cape Ochi-ishi and Hateruma, the Chinese station Shangdianzi and the South Korean station Gosan. For every station and every 3 h, 20-day backward calculations were made with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model output, the measurement data, bottom-up emission information and corresponding uncertainties were fed into an inversion algorithm to determine the regional emission fluxes. The model captures the observed variation of halocarbon mixing ratios very well for the two Japanese stations but has difficulties explaining the large observed variability at Shangdianzi, which is partly caused by small-scale transport from Beijing that is not adequately captured by the model. Based on HFC-23 measurements, the inversion algorithm could successfully identify the locations of factories known to produce HCFC-22 and emit HFC-23 as an unintentional byproduct. This lends substantial credibility to the inversion method. We report national emissions for China, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, as well as emissions for the Taiwan region. Halocarbon emissions in China are much larger than the emissions in the other countries together and contribute a substantial fraction to the global emissions. Our estimates of Chinese emissions for the year 2008 are 65.3±6.6 kt/yr for HCFC-22 (17% of global emissions extrapolated from Montzka et al., 2009, 12.1±1.6 kt/yr for HCFC-141b (22%, 7.3±0.7 kt/yr for HCFC-142b (17%, 6.2±0.7 kt/yr for HFC

  9. Effect of aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions on near field plume aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1997-12-31

    Based on estimated exit plane sulfur speciation, a two dimensional, axisymmetric flow field model with coupled gas phase oxidation kinetics and aerosol nucleation and growth dynamics is used to evaluate the effect of fuel sulfur oxidation in the engine on the formation and growth of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols in the near field plume. The conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid in the engine is predicted to significantly increase the number density and surface area density of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols and the chemical activation of exhaust soot particulates. This analysis indicates the need for experimental measurements of exhaust SO{sub x} emissions to fully assess the atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions. (author) 18 refs.; Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters

  10. Enhanced field emission from PbTiO{sub 3} nanodots prepared by phase separation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jinna; Luo Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Weng Wenjian, E-mail: wengwj@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheng Kui; Du Piyi; Shen Ge; Han Gaorong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Uniformly distributed PbTiO{sub 3} nanodots were successfully prepared by phase separation approach. A precursor sol film was first spin-coated on Si wafer and then spontaneously separated into two distinct phases owing to the Marangoni instability. PT nanodots with tailorable size and density were obtained after further heat treatment. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that these nanodots showed a perovskite structure. An excellent room temperature field emission property of PbTiO{sub 3} nanodots was observed: the minimum turn-on voltage was about 5.3 V/{mu}m; while the emission current density reached about 270 {mu}A cm{sup -2} at an applied field of about 9.25 V/{mu}m.

  11. Effect of aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions on near field plume aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Miake-Lye, R C; Anderson, M R; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1998-12-31

    Based on estimated exit plane sulfur speciation, a two dimensional, axisymmetric flow field model with coupled gas phase oxidation kinetics and aerosol nucleation and growth dynamics is used to evaluate the effect of fuel sulfur oxidation in the engine on the formation and growth of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols in the near field plume. The conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid in the engine is predicted to significantly increase the number density and surface area density of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols and the chemical activation of exhaust soot particulates. This analysis indicates the need for experimental measurements of exhaust SO{sub x} emissions to fully assess the atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions. (author) 18 refs.; Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters

  12. Theoretical modeling of the plasma-assisted catalytic growth and field emission properties of graphene sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Gupta, Neha

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical modeling for the catalyst-assisted growth of graphene sheet in the presence of plasma has been investigated. It is observed that the plasma parameters can strongly affect the growth and field emission properties of graphene sheet. The model developed accounts for the charging rate of the graphene sheet; number density of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms; various elementary processes on the surface of the catalyst nanoparticle; surface diffusion and accretion of ions; and formation of carbon-clusters and large graphene islands. In our investigation, it is found that the thickness of the graphene sheet decreases with the plasma parameters, number density of hydrogen ions and RF power, and consequently, the field emission of electrons from the graphene sheet surface increases. The time evolution of the height of graphene sheet with ion density and sticking coefficient of carbon species has also been examined. Some of our theoretical results are in compliance with the experimental observations

  13. Development of a Cryogenic Radiation Detector for Mapping Radio Frequency Superconducting Cavity Field Emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Dotson, Danny W

    2005-01-01

    There is a relationship between field emissions in a Super Conducting RF cavity and the production of radiation (mostly X-rays). External (room temperature) detectors are shielded from the onset of low energy X-rays by the vacuum and cryogenic stainless steel module walls. An internal measuring system for mapping field emissions would assist scientists and engineers in perfecting surface deposition and acid washing module surfaces. Two measurement systems are undergoing cryogenic testing at JLab. One is an active CsI photodiode array and the second is an X-ray film camera. The CsI array has operated sucessfully in a cavity in liquid Helium but saturated at higher power due to scattering in the cavity. A shield with an aperature similar to the X-ray film detector is being designed for the next series of tests which will be completed before PAC-05.

  14. Fluxon induced surface resistance and field emission in niobium films at 1.5 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Cristoforo; Darriulat, Pierre; Peck, M A; Valente, A M; Van't Hof, C A

    2001-01-01

    The surface resistance of superconducting niobium films induced by the presence of trapped magnetic flux, presumably in the form of a pinned fluxon lattice, is shown to be modified by the presence of a field emitting impurity or defect. The modification takes the form of an additional surface resistance proportional to the density of the fluxon lattice and increasing linearly with the amplitude of the microwave above a threshold significantly lower than the field emission threshold. Such an effect, a precursor of electron emission, is observed for the first time in a study using radiofrequency cavities operating at their fundamental 1.5 GHz frequency. The measured properties of the additional surface resistance severely constrain possible explanations of the observed effect. (23 refs).

  15. Field electron emission characteristics of chemical vapour deposition diamond films with controlled sp2 phase concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.; Yang, Q.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.

    2008-01-01

    Diamond films were synthesized in a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor. The microstructure and surface morphology of deposited films were characterized by Raman spectroscope and scanning electron microscope. The sp 2 phase concentration in diamond films was varied and its effect on the field electron emission (FEE) properties was investigated. Diamond films deposited under higher methane concentration exhibit better FEE property including lower turn-on electric field and larger emission current. The predominating factor modifying the FEE property is presumed to be the increase of sp 2 phase concentration. The influence of bias voltage on the FEE property of diamond films is not monotonic. Postgrowth acid treatment reduces the sp 2 phase content in diamond films without changing diamond grain sizes. The corresponding FEE property was degraded

  16. PestLCI - a model for estimating field emissions of pesticides in agricultural LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2006-01-01

    of a product or service is a specific element of LCA termed life cycle inventory (LCI). Estimation of chemical emissions in agricultural LCA is typically based on standard emission factors which at best are determined by a few physical-chemical substance properties and the use scenario of the chemical compound...... to the different environmental compartments. It estimates the fractions of the applied quantity which is emitted to the air, surface water, and groundwater compartment based on information which will normally be available to the model user about: type and time of application, crop species and development stage...... for other regions of the world. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Determination of the ion thermal diffusivity from neutron emission profiles in decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, M.; Adam, J.M.; Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van

    1992-01-01

    Spatial profiles of neutron emission are routinely obtained at the Joint European Torus (JET) from line-integrated emissivities measured with a multi-channel instrument. It is shown that the manner in which the emission profiles relax following termination of strong heating with Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) permits the local thermal diffusivity (χ i ) to be obtained with an accuracy of about 20%. The radial profiles of χ i for small minor radius (r/a 2 /s for H-mode plasmas with plasma current I p = 3.1 MA and toroidal field B T = 2.3T. The experimental value of χ i is smallest for Z eff = 2.2 and increases weakly with increasing Z eff . The experimental results disagree by two orders of magnitude with predictions from an ion temperature gradient driven turbulence model. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  18. Active vacuum brazing of CNT films to metal substrates for superior electron field emission performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longtin, Rémi; Sanchez-Valencia, Juan Ramon; Shorubalko, Ivan; Furrer, Roman; Hack, Erwin; Elsener, Hansrudolf; Gröning, Oliver; Greenwood, Paul; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Teo, Kenneth; Leinenbach, Christian; Gröning, Pierangelo

    2015-02-01

    The joining of macroscopic films of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to titanium substrates is demonstrated by active vacuum brazing at 820 °C with a Ag-Cu-Ti alloy and at 880 °C with a Cu-Sn-Ti-Zr alloy. The brazing methodology was elaborated in order to enable the production of highly electrically and thermally conductive CNT/metal substrate contacts. The interfacial electrical resistances of the joints were measured to be as low as 0.35 Ω. The improved interfacial transport properties in the brazed films lead to superior electron field-emission properties when compared to the as-grown films. An emission current of 150 μA was drawn from the brazed nanotubes at an applied electric field of 0.6 V μm-1. The improvement in electron field-emission is mainly attributed to the reduction of the contact resistance between the nanotubes and the substrate. The joints have high re-melting temperatures up to the solidus temperatures of the alloys; far greater than what is achievable with standard solders, thus expanding the application potential of CNT films to high-current and high-power applications where substantial frictional or resistive heating is expected.

  19. Bremsstrahlung emission coefficient of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pangborn, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The leading (electron-ion, dipole) contribution to the bremsstrahlung spectrum of a Maxwellian plasma in a constant, uniform magnetic field is calculated. The plasma is assumed infinite and fully ionized. A simpler, more direct derivation of Kirchoff's Law for anisotropic media is presented. The plasma dispersion relation is then found using previously obtained expressions for the conductivity tensor (accurate to first order in collisional effects). From the dispersion the collisional damping, assumed small, is obtained and by means of Kirchoff's Law an expression for the bremsstrahlung emission coefficient is written. No terms of order (kappa 2 lambda 2 0 ) or higher are included. For wave frequencies large compared with the plasma and electron cyclotron frequencies (ω 2 much greater than ω 2 rho, ω 2 much greater than Ω 3 ) an expansion of the exact result is given accurate to fourth order in Ω/ω and ω rho/ω. The result is found to disagree with previous high frequency expressions. Analysis of the exact expression reveals that for certain frequencies and directions of propagation the emission spectrum exhibits a resonance quality. The results are presented in such fashion that for various magnetic field strengths the frequency of the resonant emission at arbitrary angle relative to the field is easily obtained. These phenomena arise due to the influence of the magnetic fieldon the dielectric properties of the plasma and not because of its effect on the binary collision process. A physical explanation of the results is presented

  20. Development of a cryogenic radiation detector for mapping radio frequency superconducting cavity field emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny Dotson; John Mammosser

    2005-05-01

    Field emissions in a super conducting helium cooled RF cavity and the production of radiation (mostly X-Rays) have been measured externally on cryomodules at Jefferson Lab since 1991. External measurements are limited to radiation energies above 100 keV due to shielding of the stainless steel cryogenic body. To measure the onset of and to map field emissions from a superconducting cavity requires the detecting instrument be inside the shield and within the liquid Helium. Two possible measurement systems are undergoing testing at JLab. A CsI detector array set on photodiodes and an X-Ray film camera with a fixed aperture. Several devices were tested in the cell with liquid Helium without success. The lone survivor, a CsI array, worked but saturated at high power levels due to backscatter. The array was encased in a lead shield with a slit opening set to measure the radiation emitted directly from the cell eliminating a large portion of the backscatter. This is a work in progress and te sting should be complete before the PAC 05. The second system being tested is passive. It is a shielded box with an aperture to expose radiation diagnostic film located inside to direct radiation from the cell. Developing a technique for mapping field emissions in cryogenic cells will assist scientists and engineers in pinpointing any surface imperfections for examination.

  1. Effect of the local morphology in the field emission properties of conducting polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Assis, T A; Borondo, F; Benito, R M; Losada, J C; Andrade, R F S; Miranda, J G V; De Souza, Nara C; De Castilho, C M C; De B Mota, F

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present systematic theoretical evidence of a relationship between the point local roughness exponent (PLRE) (which quantifies the heterogeneity of an irregular surface) and the cold field emission properties (indicated by the local current density and the macroscopic current density) of real polyaniline (PANI) surfaces, considered nowadays as very good candidates in the design of field emission devices. The latter are obtained from atomic force microscopy data. The electric field and potential are calculated in a region bounded by the rough PANI surface and a distant plane, both boundaries held at distinct potential values. We numerically solve Laplace’s equation subject to appropriate Dirichlet’s condition. Our results show that local roughness reveals the presence of specific sharp emitting spots with a smooth geometry, which are the main ones responsible (but not the only) for the emission efficiency of such surfaces for larger deposition times. Moreover, we have found, with a proper choice of a scale interval encompassing the experimentally measurable average grain length, a highly structured dependence of local current density on PLRE, considering different ticks of PANI surfaces. (paper)

  2. Influence of heat treatment on field emission characteristics of boron nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weiqing; Gu Guangrui; Li Yingai; He Zhi; Feng Wei; Liu Lihua; Zhao Chunhong; Zhao Yongnian

    2005-01-01

    Boron nitride (BN) nanometer thin films are synthesized on Si (1 0 0) substrates by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Then the film surfaces are treated in the case of the base pressure below 5 x 10 -4 Pa and the temperature of 800 and 1000 deg. C, respectively. And the films are studied by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), atomic force microscopic (AFM) and field emission characteristics at different annealing temperature. The results show that the surface heat treatment makes no apparent influence on the surface morphology of the BN films. The transformations of the sample emission characteristics have to do with the surface negative electron affinity (NEA) of the films possibly. The threshold electric fields are lower for BN samples without heat-treating than the treated films, which possibly ascribed to the surface negative electron affinity effect. A threshold field of 8 V/μm and the emission current of 80 μA are obtained. The surface NEA is still presence at the heat treatment temperature of 800 deg. C and disappeared at temperature of 1000 deg. C

  3. Laser annealed HWCVD and PECVD thin silicon films. Electron field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, K.A.; Shaikh, M.Z.; Lyttle, G.; Anthony, S.; Fan, Y.C.; Persheyev, S.K.; Rose, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Electron Field Emission (FE) properties of various laser annealed thin silicon films on different substrates were investigated. HWCVD microcrystalline and PECVD amorphous silicon films were irradiated with Nd : YAG and XeCl Excimer lasers at varying energy densities. Encouraging FE results were mainly from XeCl Excimer laser processed PECVD and HWCVD films on metal backplanes. FE measurements were complemented by the study of film surface morphology. Geometric field enhancement factors from surface measurements and Fowler-Nordheim Theory (FNT) were compared. FE properties of the films were also found to be particularly influenced by the backplane material

  4. Chirped Auger electron emission due to field-assisted post-collision interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonitz M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the Auger decay in the temporal domain by applying a terahertz streaking light field. Xenon and krypton atoms were studied by implementing the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH as well as a source of high-order harmonic radiation combined with terahertz pulses from an optical rectification source. The observed linewidth asymmetries in the streaked spectra suggest a chirped Auger electron emission which is understood in terms of field-assisted post-collision interaction. The experimentally obtained results agree well with model calculations.

  5. Polarized X-Ray Emission from Magnetized Neutron Stars: Signature of Strong-Field Vacuum Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dong; Ho, Wynn C.

    2003-08-01

    In the atmospheric plasma of a strongly magnetized neutron star, vacuum polarization can induce a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein type resonance across which an x-ray photon may (depending on its energy) convert from one mode into the other, with significant changes in opacities and polarizations. We show that this vacuum resonance effect gives rise to a unique energy-dependent polarization signature in the surface emission from neutron stars. The detection of polarized x rays from neutron stars can provide a direct probe of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and constrain the neutron star magnetic field and geometry.

  6. Polarized x-ray emission from magnetized neutron stars: signature of strong-field vacuum polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dong; Ho, Wynn C G

    2003-08-15

    In the atmospheric plasma of a strongly magnetized neutron star, vacuum polarization can induce a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein type resonance across which an x-ray photon may (depending on its energy) convert from one mode into the other, with significant changes in opacities and polarizations. We show that this vacuum resonance effect gives rise to a unique energy-dependent polarization signature in the surface emission from neutron stars. The detection of polarized x rays from neutron stars can provide a direct probe of strong-field quantum electrodynamics and constrain the neutron star magnetic field and geometry.

  7. Solar magnetic field studies using the 12 micron emission lines. I - Quiet sun time series and sunspot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Boyle, Robert J.; Jennings, Donald E.; Wiedemann, Gunter

    1988-01-01

    The use of the extremely Zeeman-sensitive IR emission line Mg I, at 12.32 microns, to study solar magnetic fields. Time series observations of the line in the quiet sun were obtained in order to determine the response time of the line to the five-minute oscillations. Based upon the velocity amplitude and average period measured in the line, it is concluded that it is formed in the temperature minimum region. The magnetic structure of sunspots is investigated by stepping a small field of view in linear 'slices' through the spots. The region of penumbral line formation does not show the Evershed outflow common in photospheric lines. The line intensity is a factor of two greater in sunspot penumbrae than in the photosphere, and at the limb the penumbral emission begins to depart from optical thinness, the line source function increasing with height. For a spot near disk center, the radial decrease in absolute magnetic field strength is steeper than the generally accepted dependence.

  8. Proposal for new climate agreements: Economic growth determines the emission quota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Long-term obligations to curb the emission of climate gases involve economic uncertainty because it is difficult to determine the cost of future reductions. This may be the principle reason why the USA and the developing countries are reluctant to accept binding demands on their emissions of climate gases. For example, the commitments of the Kyoto Protocol were agreed upon more than ten years before they shall be put to force. Over such a long time span it is impossible to predict the development of the economy as well as the gas emissions. Usually economical development leads to increased gas emission. If a country commits itself to a quantified limit on its emission, and the economical development turns out to be much faster than predicted, then living up to the commitments may be very expensive. The same is true if the economic growth occurs in the polluting sectors to a larger degree than expected. Many heads of state thus fear that binding emission targets may restrain economic growth

  9. Cold excitation and determination of hydrogen sulfide by dielectric barrier discharge molecular emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongchen; Jiang, Jie; Li, Na

    2015-11-01

    A low-temperature microplasma generated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was used as a radiation source for the excitation of hydrogen sulfide and its determination by molecular emission spectrometry (MES). The excitation/emission chamber was enclosed to eliminate spectral interference from ambient air. The spectral emission lines of hydrogen sulfide were clearly discriminated from the background spectrum, and the emission line at 365.06 nm was selected for parameter optimization and quantitative analysis. The S(2-) ions in aqueous samples were reacted with acid to generate hydrogen sulfide and then determined. The experimental parameters affecting the determination of hydrogen sulfide and S(2-) were optimized. The limits of detection were 1.4 mg m(-3) for H2S and 11.2 mg L(-1) for S(2-). The repeatability of the method was satisfactory, as the RSD values were 2.3% for H2S and 1.8% for S(2-). The enclosed DBD-MES system was demonstrated to be a useful tool for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in gas samples and S(2-) in aqueous samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of rare earth elements in aluminum by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanti, H.S.; Barnes, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy is evaluated for the determination of 14 rare earth elements in aluminum. Spectral line interference, limit of detection, and background equivalent concentration values are evaluated, and quantitative recovery is obtained from aluminum samples spiked with rare earth elements. The procedure is simple and suitable for routine process control analysis. 20 references, 5 tables

  11. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  12. Mobile sensing of point-source fugitive methane emissions using Bayesian inference: the determination of the likelihood function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Albertson, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Natural gas is considered as a bridge fuel towards clean energy due to its potential lower greenhouse gas emission comparing with other fossil fuels. Despite numerous efforts, an efficient and cost-effective approach to monitor fugitive methane emissions along the natural gas production-supply chain has not been developed yet. Recently, mobile methane measurement has been introduced which applies a Bayesian approach to probabilistically infer methane emission rates and update estimates recursively when new measurements become available. However, the likelihood function, especially the error term which determines the shape of the estimate uncertainty, is not rigorously defined and evaluated with field data. To address this issue, we performed a series of near-source (using a specialized vehicle mounted with fast response methane analyzers and a GPS unit. Methane concentrations were measured at two different heights along mobile traversals downwind of the sources, and concurrent wind and temperature data are recorded by nearby 3-D sonic anemometers. With known methane release rates, the measurements were used to determine the functional form and the parameterization of the likelihood function in the Bayesian inference scheme under different meteorological conditions.

  13. Dipmeter paleocurrent determination in the Provincia Field, Middle Magdalena Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubiano, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    For the determination of the paleocurrent directions in the Provinica Field, were took 2664 measurements of the dip meter logs were taken to make the statistical analyses of the Formations that are between Umir and the Real Group (Maastrichtian and Miocene age). The paleocurrent directions are defined based on statistics analyses, as the average (in azimuth) and its consistency ratio (CR). The paleocurrent directions are principally to the northeast for the Umir und the Lower Real Formations; to the east for the Lisama, Esmeraldas, Mugrosa, Colorado and Middle Real Formations, and in the southeast for the Upper Real Formation. In general, there were observed important changes in the paleocurrent directions between the Umir-Lisama, Lisama-Emeralds, Colorado - Real and between the medium and the upper part of the Real Group. These changes in the paleocurrent directions suggest being associated to tectonic events that involved this area

  14. All-optical signatures of strong-field QED in the vacuum emission picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix; Kohlfürst, Christian

    2018-02-01

    We study all-optical signatures of the effective nonlinear couplings among electromagnetic fields in the quantum vacuum, using the collision of two focused high-intensity laser pulses as an example. The experimental signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearities are encoded in signal photons, whose kinematic and polarization properties differ from the photons constituting the macroscopic laser fields. We implement an efficient numerical algorithm allowing for the theoretical investigation of such signatures in realistic field configurations accessible in experiment. This algorithm is based on a vacuum emission scheme and can readily be adapted to the collision of more laser beams or further involved field configurations. We solve the case of two colliding pulses in full 3 +1 -dimensional spacetime and identify experimental geometries and parameter regimes with improved signal-to-noise ratios.

  15. Determining mineralogical variations of aeolian deposits using thermal infrared emissivity and linear deconvolution methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Hooper, Donald M.; Solano, Federico; Mars, John C.

    2018-01-01

    We apply linear deconvolution methods to derive mineral and glass proportions for eight field sample training sites at seven dune fields: (1) Algodones, California; (2) Big Dune, Nevada; (3) Bruneau, Idaho; (4) Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Alaska; (5) Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado; (6) Sunset Crater, Arizona; and (7) White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. These dune fields were chosen because they represent a wide range of mineral grain mixtures and allow us to gauge a better understanding of both compositional and sorting effects within terrestrial and extraterrestrial dune systems. We also use actual ASTER TIR emissivity imagery to map the spatial distribution of these minerals throughout the seven dune fields and evaluate the effects of degraded spectral resolution on the accuracy of mineral abundances retrieved. Our results show that hyperspectral data convolutions of our laboratory emissivity spectra outperformed multispectral data convolutions of the same data with respect to the mineral, glass and lithic abundances derived. Both the number and wavelength position of spectral bands greatly impacts the accuracy of linear deconvolution retrieval of feldspar proportions (e.g. K-feldspar vs. plagioclase) especially, as well as the detection of certain mafic and carbonate minerals. In particular, ASTER mapping results show that several of the dune sites display patterns such that less dense minerals typically have higher abundances near the center of the active and most evolved dunes in the field, while more dense minerals and glasses appear to be more abundant along the margins of the active dune fields.

  16. Determining mineralogical variations of aeolian deposits using thermal infrared emissivity and linear deconvolution methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Hooper, Donald M.; Solano, Federico; Mars, John C.

    2018-02-01

    We apply linear deconvolution methods to derive mineral and glass proportions for eight field sample training sites at seven dune fields: (1) Algodones, California; (2) Big Dune, Nevada; (3) Bruneau, Idaho; (4) Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Alaska; (5) Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado; (6) Sunset Crater, Arizona; and (7) White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. These dune fields were chosen because they represent a wide range of mineral grain mixtures and allow us to gauge a better understanding of both compositional and sorting effects within terrestrial and extraterrestrial dune systems. We also use actual ASTER TIR emissivity imagery to map the spatial distribution of these minerals throughout the seven dune fields and evaluate the effects of degraded spectral resolution on the accuracy of mineral abundances retrieved. Our results show that hyperspectral data convolutions of our laboratory emissivity spectra outperformed multispectral data convolutions of the same data with respect to the mineral, glass and lithic abundances derived. Both the number and wavelength position of spectral bands greatly impacts the accuracy of linear deconvolution retrieval of feldspar proportions (e.g. K-feldspar vs. plagioclase) especially, as well as the detection of certain mafic and carbonate minerals. In particular, ASTER mapping results show that several of the dune sites display patterns such that less dense minerals typically have higher abundances near the center of the active and most evolved dunes in the field, while more dense minerals and glasses appear to be more abundant along the margins of the active dune fields.

  17. Investigation of Electron Transport Across Vertically Grown CNTs Using Combination of Proximity Field Emission Microscopy and Scanning Probe Image Processing Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Kolekar, Sadhu

    2018-02-26

    Field emission from nanostructured films is known to be dominated by only small number of localized spots which varies with the voltage, electric field and heat treatment. It is important to develop processing methods which will produce stable and uniform emitting sites. In this paper we report a novel approach which involves analysis of Proximity Field Emission Microscopic (PFEM) images using Scanning Probe Image Processing technique. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube emitters have been deposited on tungsten foil by water assisted chemical vapor deposition. Prior to the field electron emission studies, these films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). AFM images of the samples show bristle like structure, the size of bristle varying from 80 to 300 nm. The topography images were found to exhibit strong correlation with current images. Current–Voltage (I–V) measurements both from Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Conducting-AFM mode suggest that electron transport mechanism in imaging vertically grown CNTs is ballistic rather than usual tunneling or field emission with a junction resistance of ~10 kΩ. It was found that I–V curves for field emission mode in PFEM geometry vary initially with number of I–V cycles until reproducible I–V curves are obtained. Even for reasonably stable I–V behavior the number of spots was found to increase with the voltage leading to a modified Fowler–Nordheim (F–N) behavior. A plot of ln(I/V3) versus 1/V was found to be linear. Current versus time data exhibit large fluctuation with the power spectral density obeying 1/f2 law. It is suggested that an analogue of F–N equation of the form ln(I/Vα) versus 1/V may be used for the analysis of field emission data, where α may depend on nanostructure configuration and can be determined from the dependence of emitting spots on the voltage.Graphical Abstract

  18. Investigation of Electron Transport Across Vertically Grown CNTs Using Combination of Proximity Field Emission Microscopy and Scanning Probe Image Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Sadhu; Patole, Shashikant P.; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Dharmadhikari, Chandrakant V.

    2018-03-01

    Field emission from nanostructured films is known to be dominated by only small number of localized spots which varies with the voltage, electric field and heat treatment. It is important to develop processing methods which will produce stable and uniform emitting sites. In this paper we report a novel approach which involves analysis of Proximity Field Emission Microscopic (PFEM) images using Scanning Probe Image Processing technique. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube emitters have been deposited on tungsten foil by water assisted chemical vapor deposition. Prior to the field electron emission studies, these films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). AFM images of the samples show bristle like structure, the size of bristle varying from 80 to 300 nm. The topography images were found to exhibit strong correlation with current images. Current-Voltage (I-V) measurements both from Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Conducting-AFM mode suggest that electron transport mechanism in imaging vertically grown CNTs is ballistic rather than usual tunneling or field emission with a junction resistance of 10 kΩ. It was found that I-V curves for field emission mode in PFEM geometry vary initially with number of I-V cycles until reproducible I-V curves are obtained. Even for reasonably stable I-V behavior the number of spots was found to increase with the voltage leading to a modified Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) behavior. A plot of ln(I/V3) versus 1/V was found to be linear. Current versus time data exhibit large fluctuation with the power spectral density obeying 1/f2 law. It is suggested that an analogue of F-N equation of the form ln(I/Vα) versus 1/V may be used for the analysis of field emission data, where α may depend on nanostructure configuration and can be determined from the dependence of emitting spots on the voltage.

  19. Flame emission spectrometry using atomic absorption apparatus. I. Determination of Sr in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, S.; Yoshimura, E.; Hamachi, M.; Haraguchi, H.; Dokiya, Y.; Fuwa, K.

    1976-01-01

    Flame emission determination of Sr in seawater was studied using an ordinary atomic absorption apparatus. The analytical line 4607 A was used with a background correction at 4616 A. The ionization was negligible in an air acetylene flame with seawater, and the interference of H 2 SO 4 was eliminated using the higher part of the flame. Sr concentration of seawater of Tokyo Bay and Sagami Bay has been determined

  20. Direct atomic-emission determination of tungsten in molybdenum oxide in dc arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotareva, N.I.; Grazhulene, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    A method of direct atomic-emission determination of tungsten impurity in molybdenum trioxide of high purity in dc arc is presented. Chemically active additives of elementary sulfur and gallium oxide are used to optimize W evaporation rate and residence time in the arc plasma. The procedure is easy to use and provides the limit of W determination at a level of 2x10 -4 wt. % [ru

  1. Tunable field emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires coated with varied thickness of lanthanum boride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C.X.; Li, Y.F.; Chen, Jun; Deng, S.Z.; Xu, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Lanthanum boride (LaB x ) thin films with various thicknesses were deposited on ZnO nanowire arrays by electron beam evaporation. Field emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires show close dependence on LaB x coating thickness. The turn-on field increases with increasing LaB x coating thickness from 10 nm to 50 nm. The observed phenomena were explained by a model that the tunneling at ZnO/LaB x interface dominates the emission process. - Highlights: ► Coating thickness dependence of field emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires was observed from LaB x coated ZnO nanowires. ► More stable field emission was observed from ZnO nanowires with LaB x coating. ► A model was proposed that the tunneling at ZnO/LaB x interface dominates the emission process

  2. Effect of fertilizer nitrogen management on N2O emissions in commercial corn fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebarth, B.J.; Rochette, P.; Burton, D.L.; Price, M.

    2008-01-01

    Corn crops receive higher fertilizer nitrogen (N) application rates than many other crops. Pre-sidedress soil nitrate tests (PSNT) are used to determine how much fertilizer N is applied at the sidedress of corn crops, and can provide an opportunity to reduce fertilizer N application rates and delay the timing of fertilizer N applications which contribute to nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions into the atmosphere. This study examined how the rate and time of fertilizer N application influence N 2 O emissions in corn crops grown in alluvial soils in Atlantic Canada. Starter fertilizer was applied at 45 and 59 kg N per hectare (ha) in 2004 and 2005. Treatments included the application of 75 or 150 kg N per ha banded at a sidedress, and 150 kg N per ha broadcast at the emergence of the crops. Soil mineral N content was measured using a soil core method. Cumulative N 2 O emissions were calculated using a linear interpolation method between sampling dates. Results showed that delays in fertilizer application to the sidedress, and reductions in fertilizer N application reduced nitrate (NO 3 ) intensity but had no impact on cumulative N 2 O emissions. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand controls on denitrification and N 2 O emissions. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  3. The Breakdown Mechanisms In Electrical Discharges: The Role Of The Field Emission Effect In Direct Current Discharges In Micro gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radmilovic-Radjenovic, M.; Radjenovic, B.; Bojarov, A.; Klas, M.; Matejcik, S.

    2013-01-01

    This review represents an attempt to sum up the current state of the research in the field of breakdown phenomena in electrical discharges. The paper provides facts and theories concerning different classes of direct current, radio and microwave frequency discharges, in vacuum, in the gas and in liquids, without and in the presence of the magnetic fields. The emphasize was made on the field emission effects and on the fundamental aspects of the breakdown phenomena in micro discharges via discussions and analysis of the experimental, theoretical and simulation results. It was found that the Paschen's law is not applicable for the micron gap sizes, when deviations from the standard scaling law become evident and modified Paschen curve should be used. The explanation of the deviations from the Paschen law was attributed to the secondary electron emission enhanced by the strong field generated in micro gaps. The experiments were carried out in order to establish scaling law in micro gaps. The volt-ampere characteristics were also recorded and compared with the theoretical predictions based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. The importance of the enhancement factor and the space charge on results was also considered. On the basis of the experimental breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields in micro gaps have been estimated for different gases which can be served as input data in modeling. The effective yields allow analytically produce modified Paschen curves that predicts the deviations from the Paschen law observed in the experiments. In addition, we present results of computer simulations using a Particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC/MCC) code with the secondary emission model in order to include the field emission enhanced secondary electron production in micro gaps. The agreement between simulation and experimental results suggest that computer simulations can be used to improve understanding of the plasma physics as an alternative to analytical

  4. Determination of Turbine Blade Life from Engine Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2013-01-01

    It is probable that no two engine companies determine the life of their engines or their components in the same way or apply the same experience and safety factors to their designs. Knowing the failure mode that is most likely to occur minimizes the amount of uncertainty and simplifies failure and life analysis. Available data regarding failure mode for aircraft engine blades, while favoring low-cycle, thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) as the controlling mode of failure, are not definitive. Sixteen high-pressure turbine (HPT) T-1 blade sets were removed from commercial aircraft engines that had been commercially flown by a single airline and inspected for damage. Each set contained 82 blades. The damage was cataloged into three categories related to their mode of failure: (1) TMF, (2) Oxidation/erosion (O/E), and (3) Other. From these field data, the turbine blade life was determined as well as the lives related to individual blade failure modes using Johnson-Weibull analysis. A simplified formula for calculating turbine blade life and reliability was formulated. The L10 blade life was calculated to be 2427 cycles (11 077 hr). The resulting blade life attributed to O/E equaled that attributed to TMF. The category that contributed most to blade failure was Other. If there were no blade failures attributed to O/E and TMF, the overall blade L(sub 10) life would increase approximately 11 to 17 percent.

  5. Laboratory and field measurements of enantiomeric monoterpene emissions as a function of chemotype, light and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Staudt, M.; Bourgeois, I.; Williams, J.

    2014-03-01

    Plants emit significant amounts of monoterpenes into the earth's atmosphere, where they react rapidly to form a multitude of gas phase species and particles. Many monoterpenes exist in mirror-image forms or enantiomers. In this study the enantiomeric monoterpene profile for several representative plants (Quercus ilex L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Pinus halepensis Mill.) was investigated as a function of chemotype, light and temperature both in the laboratory and in the field. Analysis of enantiomeric monoterpenes from 19 Quercus ilex individuals from Southern France and Spain revealed four regiospecific chemotypes (genetically fixed emission patterns). In agreement with previous work, only Quercus ilex emissions increased strongly with light. However, for all three plant species no consistent enantiomeric variation was observed as a function of light, and the enantiomeric ratio of α-pinene was found to vary by less than 20% from 100 and 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR (photosynthetically active radiation). The rate of monoterpene emission increased with temperature from all three plant species, but little variation in the enantiomeric distribution of α-pinene was observed with temperature. There was more enantiomeric variability between individuals of the same species than could be induced by either light or temperature. Field measurements of α-pinene enantiomer mixing ratios in the air, taken at a Quercus ilex forest in Southern France, and several other previously reported field enantiomeric ratio diel cycle profiles are compared. All show smoothly varying diel cycles (some positive and some negative) even over changing wind directions. This is surprising in comparison with variations of enantiomeric emission patterns shown by individuals of the same species.

  6. Emission probability determination of {sup 133}Ba by the sum-peak method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.L. da; Almeida, M.C.M. de; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Araujo, M.T.F.; Trindade, O.L.; Veras, E.V. de; Santos, A.; Rangel, J.; Ferreira Filho, A.L., E-mail: ronaldo@ird.gov.br, E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The National Laboratory of Metrology Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN) has several measurement methods in order to ensure low uncertainties about the results. Through gamma spectrometry analysis by sum-peak absolute method they were performed the standardization of {sup 133}Ba activity and your emission probability determination of different energies with reduced uncertainties. The advantages of radionuclides calibrations by absolute method are accuracy, low uncertainties and is not necessary the use of radionuclides reference standards. {sup 133}Ba is used in research laboratories on calibration detectors in different work areas. The uncertainties for the activity and for the emission probability results are lower than 1%. (author)

  7. Field mapping measurements to determine spatial and field dependence of critical current density in YBCO tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclerc, J.; Berger, K.; Douine, B.; Lévêque, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for characterizing superconducting tapes from field mapping is presented. • A new and efficient field mapping apparatus has been setup. • This method allows the spatial characterization of superconducting tapes. • The critical current density is obtained as a function of the flux density. • This method has been experimentally tested on an YBCO tape. -- Abstract: In this paper a measurement method that allows the determination of the critical current density of superconducting tape from field mapping measurements is presented. This contact-free method allows obtaining characteristics of the superconductor as a function of the position and of the applied flux density. With some modifications, this technique can be used for reel-to-reel measurements. The determination of the critical current density is based on an inverse calculation. This involves calculating the current distribution in the tape from magnetic measurements. An YBaCuO tape has been characterized at 77 K. A defect in this superconductor has been identified. Various tests were carried out to check the efficiency of the method. The inverse calculation was tested theoretically and experimentally. Comparison with a transport current measurement was also performed

  8. CO2 diffuse emission from maar lake: An example in Changbai volcanic field, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutao; Guo, Zhengfu; Liu, Jiaqi; Du, Jianguo

    2018-01-01

    Numerous maars and monogenetic volcanic cones are distributed in northeast China, which are related to westward deep subduction of the Pacific Ocean lithosphere, comprising a significant part of the "Pacific Ring of Fire". It is well known that diffuse CO2 emissions from monogenetic volcanoes, including wet (e.g., maar lake) and dry degassing systems (e.g., soil diffuse emission, fault degassing, etc.), may contribute to budget of globally nature-derived greenhouse gases. However, their relationship between wet (e.g., maar lake) and concomitant dry degassing systems (e.g., soil diffuse emission, fault degassing, etc.) related to monogenetic volcanic field is poorly understood. Yuanchi maar, one of the typical monogenetic volcanic systems, is located on the eastern flank of Tianchi caldera in Changbai volcanic field of northeast China, which displays all of three forms of CO2 degassing including the maar lake, soil micro-seepage and fault degassing. Measurements of efflux of CO2 diffusion from the Yuanchi maar system (YMS) indicate that the average values of CO2 emissions from soil micro-seepage, fault degassing and water-air interface diffusion are 24.3 ± 23.3 g m- 2 d- 1, 39.2 ± 22.4 g m- 2 d- 1 and 2.4 ± 1.1 g m- 2 d- 1, respectively. The minimum output of CO2 diffuse emission from the YMS to the atmosphere is about 176.1 ± 88.3 ton/yr, of which 80.4% results from the dry degassing system. Degassing from the fault contributes to the most of CO2 emissions in all of the three forms of degassing in the YMS. Contributions of mantle, crust, air and organic CO2 to the soil gas are 0.01-0.10%, 10-20%, 32-36% and 48-54%, respectively, which are quantitatively constrained by a He-C isotope coupling calculation model. We propose that CO2 exsolves from the upper mantle melting beneath the Tianchi caldera, which migrates to the crustal magma chamber and further transports to the surface of YMS along the deep fault system. During the transportation processes, the emission

  9. Field-scale operation of methane biofiltration systems to mitigate point source methane emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettiarachchi, Vijayamala C.; Hettiaratchi, Patrick J.; Mehrotra, Anil K.; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Methane biofiltration (MBF) is a novel low-cost technique for reducing low volume point source emissions of methane (CH 4 ). MBF uses a granular medium, such as soil or compost, to support the growth of methanotrophic bacteria responsible for converting CH 4 to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O). A field research program was undertaken to evaluate the potential to treat low volume point source engineered CH 4 emissions using an MBF at a natural gas monitoring station. A new comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model was developed incorporating advection-diffusive flow of gas, biological reactions and heat and moisture flow. The one-dimensional version of this model was used as a guiding tool for designing and operating the MBF. The long-term monitoring results of the field MBF are also presented. The field MBF operated with no control of precipitation, evaporation, and temperature, provided more than 80% of CH 4 oxidation throughout spring, summer, and fall seasons. The numerical model was able to predict the CH 4 oxidation behavior of the field MBF with high accuracy. The numerical model simulations are presented for estimating CH 4 oxidation efficiencies under various operating conditions, including different filter bed depths and CH 4 flux rates. The field observations as well as numerical model simulations indicated that the long-term performance of MBFs is strongly dependent on environmental factors, such as ambient temperature and precipitation. - Highlights: → One-dimensional version of the model was used as a guiding tool for designing and operating the MBF. → Mathematical model predicted CH 4 oxidation behaviors of the field MBF with high accuracy i.e. (> 80 %). → Performance of MBF is dependent on ambient temperature and precipitation. - The developed numerical model simulations and field observations for estimating CH 4 oxidation efficiencies under various operating conditions indicate that the long-term performance of MBFs is strongly

  10. Effectively Improved Field Emission Properties of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Graphenes Composite Field Emitter by Covering on the Si Pyramidal Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Leifeng; Yu, Hua; Zhong, Jiasong

    2015-01-01

    The composite nanostructure emitter of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphenes was deposited on pyramidal silicon substrate by the simple larger scale electrophoretic deposition process. The field emission (FE) properties of the composite/pyramidal Si device were greatly improved compared...

  11. Reduction of field emission in superconducting cavities with high power pulsed RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.; Crawford, C.; Kirchgessner, J.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Schmueser, P.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic study is presented of the effects of pulsed high power RF processing (HPP) as a method of reducing field emission (FE) in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities to reach higher accelerating gradients for future particle accelerators. The processing apparatus was built to provide up to 150 kW peak RF power to 3 GHz cavities, for pulse lengths from 200 μs to 1 ms. Single-cell and nine-cell cavities were tested extensively. The thermal conductivity of the niobium for these cavities was made as high as possible to ensure stability against thermal breakdown of superconductivity. HPP proves to be a highly successful method of reducing FE loading in nine-cell SRF cavities. Attainable continuous wave (CW) fields increase by as much as 80% from their pre-HPP limits. The CW accelerating field achieved with nine-cell cavities improved from 8-15 MV/m with HPP to 14-20 MV/m. The benefits are stable with subsequent exposure to dust-free air. More importantly, HPP also proves effective against new field emission subsequently introduced by cold and warm vacuum ''accidents'' which admitted ''dirty'' air into the cavities. Clear correlations are obtained linking FE reduction with the maximum surface electric field attained during processing. In single cells the maximums reached were E peak =72 MV/m and H peak =1660 Oe. Thermal breakdown, initiated by accompanying high surface magnetic fields is the dominant limitation on the attainable fields for pulsed processing, as well as for final CW and long pulse operation. To prove that the surface magnetic field rather than the surface electric fields is the limitation to HPP effectiveness, a special two-cell cavity with a reduced magnetic to electric field ratio is successfully tested. During HPP, pulsed fields reach E peak =113 MV/m (H peak =1600 Oe) and subsequent CW low power measurement reached E peak =100 MV/m, the highest CW field ever measured in a superconducting accelerator cavity. ((orig.))

  12. Effect of Secondary Electron Emission on Electron Cross-Field Current in E×B Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yevgeny Raitses, Igor D. Kaganovich, Alexander Khrabrov, Dmytro Sydorenko, Nathaniel J. Fisch and Andrei Smolyakov

    2011-02-10

    This paper reviews and discusses recent experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of plasma-wall interaction in a weakly collisional magnetized plasma bounded with channel walls made from different materials. A lowpressure ExB plasma discharge of the Hall thruster was used to characterize the electron current across the magnetic field and its dependence on the applied voltage and electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel wall. The presence of a depleted, anisotropic electron energy distribution function with beams of secondary electrons was predicted to explain the enhancement of the electron cross-field current observed in experiments. Without the SEE, the electron crossfield transport can be reduced from anomalously high to nearly classical collisional level. The suppression of SEE was achieved using an engineered carbon velvet material for the channel walls. Both theoretically and experimentally, it is shown that the electron emission from the walls can limit the maximum achievable electric field in the magnetized plasma. With nonemitting walls, the maximum electric field in the thruster can approach a fundamental limit for a quasineutral plasma.

  13. Effect of Secondary Electron Emission on Electron Cross-Field Current in E x B Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Khrabrov, Alexander; Sydorenko, Dmytro; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Smolyakov, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses recent experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of plasma-wall interaction in a weakly collisional magnetized plasma bounded with channel walls made from different materials. A lowpressure ExB plasma discharge of the Hall thruster was used to characterize the electron current across the magnetic field and its dependence on the applied voltage and electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel wall. The presence of a depleted, anisotropic electron energy distribution function with beams of secondary electrons was predicted to explain the enhancement of the electron cross-field current observed in experiments. Without the SEE, the electron crossfield transport can be reduced from anomalously high to nearly classical collisional level. The suppression of SEE was achieved using an engineered carbon velvet material for the channel walls. Both theoretically and experimentally, it is shown that the electron emission from the walls can limit the maximum achievable electric field in the magnetized plasma. With nonemitting walls, the maximum electric field in the thruster can approach a fundamental limit for a quasineutral plasma.

  14. Synthesis of carbon nanofibres from waste chicken fat for field electron emission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriani, A.B.; Dalila, A.R.; Mohamed, A.; Isa, I.M.; Kamari, A.; Hashim, N.; Soga, T.; Tanemura, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste chicken fat is used as a starting material to produce CNFs via TCVD method. • High heating rate applied resulted in aggregation of catalyst particles. • Aggregated catalyst produced sea urchin-like CNFs with amorphous nature. • The as-grown CNFs presented a potential for field electron emission applications. - Abstract: Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) with sea urchin-like morphology were synthesised from waste chicken fat precursor via catalytic thermal chemical vapour deposition method at 750 °C. The CNFs showed amorphous structures under high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction examination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the core of the sea urchin-like CNFs was composed of Fe 3 C formed within the first 20 min of synthesis time. The growth of amorphous CNFs from agglomerated Fe 3 C particles was favourable due to the high heating rate applied during the synthesis. Field electron emission examination of the CNFs indicated turn-on and threshold field values of 5.4 and 6.6 V μm −1 at current density of 1 and 10 μA cm −2 , respectively. This study demonstrates that waste chicken fat, a low-cost and readily available resource, can be used as an inexpensive carbon source for the production of CNFs with a potential application in field electron emitters

  15. Synthesis of carbon nanofibres from waste chicken fat for field electron emission applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriani, A.B., E-mail: absuriani@yahoo.com [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Dalila, A.R. [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Mohamed, A.; Isa, I.M.; Kamari, A.; Hashim, N. [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Soga, T.; Tanemura, M. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Waste chicken fat is used as a starting material to produce CNFs via TCVD method. • High heating rate applied resulted in aggregation of catalyst particles. • Aggregated catalyst produced sea urchin-like CNFs with amorphous nature. • The as-grown CNFs presented a potential for field electron emission applications. - Abstract: Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) with sea urchin-like morphology were synthesised from waste chicken fat precursor via catalytic thermal chemical vapour deposition method at 750 °C. The CNFs showed amorphous structures under high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction examination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the core of the sea urchin-like CNFs was composed of Fe{sub 3}C formed within the first 20 min of synthesis time. The growth of amorphous CNFs from agglomerated Fe{sub 3}C particles was favourable due to the high heating rate applied during the synthesis. Field electron emission examination of the CNFs indicated turn-on and threshold field values of 5.4 and 6.6 V μm{sup −1} at current density of 1 and 10 μA cm{sup −2}, respectively. This study demonstrates that waste chicken fat, a low-cost and readily available resource, can be used as an inexpensive carbon source for the production of CNFs with a potential application in field electron emitters.

  16. A Study of the Determinants of Emissions Unit Allowance Price in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Maydybura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 the European Union (EU began the first phase of the largest and most ambitious emissions trading system (EU ETS ever attempted, which then applied to all members of the EU. In its second phase whichbegan in 2008 the EU ETS now applies to all 27 members of the EU together with Norway, Iceland and Lichtenstein, the members of the European Economic Area (EEA which are not members of the Union. Inthe first phase of the EU ETS permits to emit carbon into the atmosphere known as European Union Allowances (EUA were traded in a market where the price rose to €30 and eventually fell to well below 10 Euro cents as the imperfections of the market became obvious. In the second phase which began in 2008 the price has fluctuated between €30 and €8. EUA are traded in a manner which is similar to the trading of financial instruments and a range of derivatives has developed with the total value of the market now above €120b, a growing market dominated by a few large players.This paper reports some results of an empirical investigation into the factors which appear to drive the carbon price and the key determinants of the price of an EUA. Over the last decade a number of environmental products have been developed alongside the EUA, including Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs, Renewable Energy Certificates and White Certificates (energy efficiency credits and markets have developed for a range of these environmental products. A better understanding of the determinants of these markets willhelp regulators manage these new markets and this paper aims to enhance our knowledge of the market.

  17. Utilization of atomic emission spectroscopy methods for determination of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubova, J.; Polakovicova, J.; Medved, J.; Stresko, V.

    1997-01-01

    The authors elaborated and applied procedures for rare earth elements (REE) determination using optical emission spectrograph with D.C arc excitation and ICP atomic emission spectrometry.Some of these analytical method are described. The proposed procedure was applied for the analysis of different types of geological materials from several Slovak localities. The results the REE determination were used for e.g. investigation of REE distribution in volcanic rocks, rhyolite tuffs with uranium-molybdenum mineralization, sandstones with heavy minerals accumulations, phosphatic sandstones, granites, quartz-carbonate veins and in the meteorite found in the locality Rumanova. The REE contents were determined in 19 mineral water sources and the results obtained by the both mentioned methods compared. The total REE contents in the analysed mineral water samples were between 2 · 10 -7 and 3 · 10 -5 g dm -3

  18. Factors that determine the emission of gaseous and particle pollutants for the combustion of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobadilla Edgar; Gomez Elias; Ramirez Beatriz

    1997-01-01

    The effect of physical-chemical, kinetic, estequiometric factors and of the mixture conditions on the emissions of five main classes of pollutants produced by the combustion equipments is analyzed. The emissions of monoxide of carbon (CO) are ruled by temperature and the proportion air - fuel. The production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is determined by operation conditions (mainly temperature) and the composition of the fuel. The oxides of sulfur (SOx) are highly influenced by the temperature; in general, the formation of SO2 is faster than the oxidation of SO3. The temperature and the degree of homogenization of the mixture are decisive in the formation of organic volatile compounds. The emission of soot and fine ashes depends basically on the temperature, ratio air - fuel and conditions of homogenization of the mixture

  19. Effect of Substrate Morphology on Growth and Field Emission Properties of Carbon Nanotube Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vikram

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCarbon nanotube (CNT films were grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process on four types of Si substrates: (i mirror polished, (ii catalyst patterned, (iii mechanically polished having pits of varying size and shape, and (iv electrochemically etched. Iron thin film was used as catalytic material and acetylene and ammonia as the precursors. Morphological and structural characteristics of the films were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopes, respectively. CNT films of different morphology such as vertically aligned, randomly oriented flowers, or honey-comb like, depending on the morphology of the Si substrates, were obtained. CNTs had sharp tip and bamboo-like internal structure irrespective of growth morphology of the films. Comparative field emission measurements showed that patterned CNT films and that with randomly oriented morphology had superior emission characteristics with threshold field as low as ~2.0 V/μm. The defective (bamboo-structure structures of CNTs have been suggested for the enhanced emission performance of randomly oriented nanotube samples.

  20. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes/diamond double-layered structure for improved field electron emission stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L., E-mail: qiaoqin.yang@mail.usask.ca; Yang, Q.; Zhang, C.; Li, Y.S.

    2013-12-31

    A double-layered nanostructure consisting of a layer of vertically aligned Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and a layer of diamond beneath has been synthesized on silicon substrate by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition. The synthesis was achieved by first depositing a layer of diamond on silicon and then depositing a top layer of vertically aligned CNTs by applying a negative bias on the substrate holder. The growth of CNTs was catalyzed by a thin layer of spin-coated iron nitride. The surface morphology and structure of the CNTs/diamond double-layered structure were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrum, and Raman Spectroscopy. Their field electron emission (FEE) properties were measured by KEITHLEY 237 high voltage measurement unit, showing much higher FEE current stability than single layered CNTs. - Highlights: • A new double-layered nanostructure consisting of a layer of vertically aligned CNTs and a layer of diamond beneath has been synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. • This double-layered structure exhibits superior field electron emission stability. • The improvement of emission stability is due to the combination of the unique properties of diamond and CNTs.

  1. Oxygen plasma assisted end-opening and field emission enhancement in vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, A. [NIBEC, School of Engineering, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Roy, S.S., E-mail: sinharoy@ualberta.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6T 2G8 (Canada); Hazra, K.S. [Department of Physics, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); Wadhwa, S. [NIBEC, School of Engineering, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Ray, S.C. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mitra, S.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6T 2G8 (Canada); Misra, D.S. [Department of Physics, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); McLaughlin, J.A. [NIBEC, School of Engineering, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed Ar/O{sub 2} plasma can be effective for the end opening of aligned CNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The field emission property was dramatically enhanced after plasma modification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures were clearly understood by Raman and SEM analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface wet-ability at various functionalised conditions was studied. - Abstract: This paper highlights the changes in micro-structural and field emission properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) via oxygen plasma treatment. We find that exposure of very low power oxygen plasma (6 W) at 13.56 MHz for 15-20 min, opens the tip of vertically aligned CNTs. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images were used to identify the quality and micro-structural changes of the nanotube morphology and surfaces. Raman spectra showed that the numbers of defects were increased throughout the oxygen plasma treatment process. In addition, the hydrophobic nature of the VACNTs is altered significantly and the contact angle decreases drastically from 110 Degree-Sign to 40 Degree-Sign . It was observed that the electron field emission (EFE) characteristics are significantly enhanced. The turn-on electric field (ETOE) of CNTs decreased from {approx}0.80 V {mu}m{sup -1} (untreated) to {approx}0.60 V {mu}m{sup -1} (oxygen treated). We believe that the open ended VACNTs would be immensely valuable for applications such as micro/nanofluidic based filtering elements and display devices.

  2. Field monoterpene emission of Mediterranean oak (Quercus ilex) in the central Iberian Peninsula measured by enclosure and micrometeorological techniques: Observation of drought stress effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, J.; NúñEz, L.; Pujadas, M.; PéRez-Pastor, R.; Bermejo, V.; GarcíA-Alonso, S.; Elvira, S.

    2005-02-01

    An experimental characterization of biogenic emission from Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia in a forest near Madrid, Spain, was carried out in the early autumn of the years 2000-2003. A dynamic branch enclosure technique was implemented to determine the monoterpene emission rates of this evergreen oak species during the 2000 and 2001 campaigns. Major compounds emitted during both measurement periods were limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, and myrcene. In the 2000 field campaign the light- and temperature-dependent model of [1993] did not fit the data due to drastic reductions of emission rates (and leaf gas exchange related parameters) observed at high air temperature and low air humidity (high water vapor pressure deficit). This plant physiological activity depletion and the subsequent emission reduction were attributed to severe water soil deficit conditions, as precipitation was very scarce during the growing season. In contrast, during the 2001 field campaign, neither emission nor physiological activity showed strong decreases in hot days. A good fit of experimental data to Guenther model was achieved in this field campaign (r2 = 0.90), and linear regression gave a standard emission factor (ES) of 14.0 μg gdw-1 h-1 (gdw is grams dry weight). Soil moisture was presumably higher than during the 2000 campaign due to recent rain events. With the purpose of documenting the drought stress effect at canopy level, monoterpene oak fluxes were measured by the modified Bowen ratio micrometeorological technique throughout the 2001 field campaign and in the late summer of 2002 and 2003. The measured emission by both techniques showed a reasonably good correlation, although micrometeorological fluxes were, in general, lower than upscaled branch emission rates. According to Guenther's parameterization, standard emission fluxes (FS) of 0.30 μg m-2 s-1 (r2 = 0.61) and 0.28 μg m-2 s-1 (r2 = 0.67) were derived for the 2001 and 2002 field campaigns, respectively. However

  3. Determination of spatial resolution of positron emission tomograph of clear PET-XPAD3/CT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaya D, H.; Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, 150003 Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Morel, C. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, ImXgam Group, 13009 Marseille (France); Castro, H. F. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Physics Department, Carrera 45 No. 26-85, Bogota (Colombia)

    2016-10-15

    Based on the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (Nema), using the Amine software to construction of sinograms and using a radioactive source {sup 22}Na that emitting positrons were made calculations for determine spatial resolution of ring array system of phoswich detectors of positron emission tomograph included in the Clear PET-XPAD3/CT prototype for small animals made in the laboratories of CCPM and whose project is led by the research group ImXgam. The radioactive source {sup 22}Na approximately 9 MBq of activity, with spherical shape and diameter of 0.57 mm immersed in a plexiglas disc was located at the geometric center of tomographic system with a Field of View (Fov) of 35 mm in the axial and transverse directions. Displacements of radioactive source were performed on the three cartesian axes and was rebuilt a sinogram for each axis. The shape of sinogram allow describe the correct position and the maximum efficiency of each detector. Subsequently, was carried out a scanning in each one of three spatial axes taking an enough distance covering the dimensions of radioactive source, were recorded data for each one of phoswich detector crystals which are aligned in the axis of movement. The process was repeated for other axes and then was offsetting the radioactive source with respect to the Fov and were calculated FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) and FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maximum) values and performing statistics of these values with parabolic fitting, the latter setting allows to obtain parameters of spatial resolution of system. (Author)

  4. Determination of spatial resolution of positron emission tomograph of clear PET-XPAD3/CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaya D, H.; Martinez O, S. A.; Morel, C.; Castro, H. F.

    2016-10-01

    Based on the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (Nema), using the Amine software to construction of sinograms and using a radioactive source "2"2Na that emitting positrons were made calculations for determine spatial resolution of ring array system of phoswich detectors of positron emission tomograph included in the Clear PET-XPAD3/CT prototype for small animals made in the laboratories of CCPM and whose project is led by the research group ImXgam. The radioactive source "2"2Na approximately 9 MBq of activity, with spherical shape and diameter of 0.57 mm immersed in a plexiglas disc was located at the geometric center of tomographic system with a Field of View (Fov) of 35 mm in the axial and transverse directions. Displacements of radioactive source were performed on the three cartesian axes and was rebuilt a sinogram for each axis. The shape of sinogram allow describe the correct position and the maximum efficiency of each detector. Subsequently, was carried out a scanning in each one of three spatial axes taking an enough distance covering the dimensions of radioactive source, were recorded data for each one of phoswich detector crystals which are aligned in the axis of movement. The process was repeated for other axes and then was offsetting the radioactive source with respect to the Fov and were calculated FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) and FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maximum) values and performing statistics of these values with parabolic fitting, the latter setting allows to obtain parameters of spatial resolution of system. (Author)

  5. Examples of electromagnetic field (50-100 kHz) emissions from smart meters in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeaekkoenen, R.; Lundstroem, M.; Mustaparta, J.; Korpinen, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to collect example measurements of electromagnetic field exposure via smart meters for cable-transmitted (50-100 kHz) signal emissions in a meter room in Finland. We measured different smart meters and different concentrators. The magnetic fields in various situations on the meter surface ranged from 0.1-2.2 μT. The measured values were less than 10% of the ICNIRP reference level (RL) for the public (27 μT for those frequencies). When the typical spectator distance is considered, the ratio is even smaller: less than 1% of the RL. The electric fields (EFs) were between 0.2 and 2.5 V m -1 (RL 83 V m -1 for the public). In comparing the measured EF values with the RLs, the values are less than 3%. Based on our measurements, there is no need to improve the sheltering of the meters from the public. (authors)

  6. Fabrication and field emission study of novel rod-shaped diamond-like carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Deepak; Makarov, Vladimir I; Saxena, Puja; Weiner, Brad R; Morell, Gerardo; Gonzalez-BerrIos, Adolfo; Scott, James F

    2010-01-01

    Novel sp 3 rich diamond-like carbon nanorod films were fabricated by a hot filament chemical vapour deposition technique. The results are indicative of a bottom-up synthesis process, which results in a hierarchical structure that consists of microscale papillae comprising numerous nanorods. The papillae have diameters ranging from 2 to 4 μm and the nanorods have diameters in the 35-45 nm range. A growth mechanism based on the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism is proposed that accounts for the morphological aspects at the microscale and nanoscale. Investigation of field emission properties of fabricated nanorods reveals a low turn-on field of about 4.9 V μm -1 at 1 nA and a high field-enhancement factor.

  7. Options and potentials to mitigate N2O emissions from wheat and maize fields in China: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Upland croplands are the main source of N2O emission. Mitigation of N2O emissions from upland croplands will greatly contribute to an overall reduction of greenhouse gases from agriculture. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the mitigation options and potential of N2O emissions from wheat and maize fields in China. Results showed that application of inhibitors in wheat and maize fields reduced36‒46% of the N2O emissions with an increase in crop yield. Cutting the application rates of nitrogen fertilizers by no more than 30% could reduce N2O emissions by 10‒18%without crop yield loss. Applications of slow (controlled-) release fertilizer fertilizers and incorporations of crop residues can significantly mitigate N2O emission from wheat fields, but this mitigation is not statistically significant in maize fields. The gross N2O emission could be reduced by 9.3‒13.9Gg N2O-N per wheat season and 10.5‒23.2 Gg N2O-N per maize season when different mitigation options are put into practices. The mitigation potential (MP) in wheat cultivation is particularly notable for Henan, Shandong, Hebei and Anhui Province, contributing 53% to the total MP in wheat fields. Heilongjiang, Jilin, Shandong, Hebei and Henan Province showed high MP in maize cultivation, accounting for approximately 50% of the total MP in maize fields.

  8. Determination of the electric field strength of filamentary DBDs by CARS-based four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, P.; Kettlitz, M.; Brandenburg, R.; Höft, H.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2016-10-01

    It is demonstrated that a four-wave mixing technique based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) can determine the electric field strength of a pulsed-driven filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) of 1 mm gap, using hydrogen as a tracer medium in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The measurements are presented for a hydrogen admixture of 10%, but even 5% H2 admixture delivers sufficient infrared signals. The lasers do not affect the discharge by photoionization or by other radiation-induced processes. The absolute values of the electric field strength can be determined by the calibration of the CARS setup with high voltage amplitudes below the ignition threshold of the arrangement. This procedure also enables the determination of the applied breakdown voltage. The alteration of the electric field is observed during the internal polarity reversal and the breakdown process. One advantage of the CARS technique over emission-based methods is that it can be used independently of emission, e.g. in the pre-phase and in between two consecutive discharges, where no emission occurs at all.

  9. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, A.; Nakatani, N.; Tsuboi, N.; Nakane, K.; Sakurai, N.; Nakagawa, N.; Sakugawa, H.

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20degC. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (Clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO 2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NO x or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed. (Author)

  10. Determination of trace amounts of cerium in paint by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of Ce in paint by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is described, and the detection limit of ICP-OES of 0.0004 ppM is compared with that of other methods. The effects of the major elemental components of paint, Si, Pb, Cr, and Na on the ICP-OES determination of Ce were studied. The interference of 400 ppM of the other ions on the determination of 10 ppM Ce was small (0 to 3% error). The method is applicable to the range of 0.2 to 700 ppM Ce

  11. Electric field determination in streamer discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaventura, Z; Bourdon, A; Celestin, S; Pasko, V P

    2011-01-01

    The electric field in streamer discharges in air can be easily determined by the ratio of luminous intensities emitted by N 2 (C 3 Π u ) and N 2 + (B 2 Σ u + ) if the steady-state assumption of the emitting states is fully justified. At ground pressure, the steady-state condition is not fulfilled and it is demonstrated that its direct use to determine the local and instantaneous peak electric field in the streamer head may overestimate this field by a factor of 2. However, when spatial and time-integrated optical emissions (OEs) are considered, the reported results show that it is possible to formulate a correction factor in the framework of the steady-state approximation and to accurately determine the peak electric field in an air discharge at atmospheric pressure. A correction factor is defined as Γ = E s /E e , where E e is the estimated electric field and E s is the true peak electric field in the streamer head. It is shown that this correction stems from (i) the shift between the location of the peak electric field and the maximum excitation rate for N 2 (C 3 Π u ) and N 2 + (B 2 Σ u + ) as proposed by Naidis (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 057401) and (ii) from the cylindrical geometry of the streamers as stated by Celestin and Pasko (2010 Geophys. Res. Lett. 37 L07804). For instantaneous OEs integrated over the whole radiating plasma volume, a correction factor of Γ ∼ 1.4 has to be used. For time-integrated OEs, the reported results show that the ratio of intensities can be used to derive the electric field in discharges if the time of integration is sufficiently long (i.e. at least longer than the longest characteristic lifetime of excited species) to have the time to collect all the light from the emitting zones of the streamer. For OEs recorded using slits (i.e. a window with a small width but a sufficiently large radial extension to contain the total radial extension of the discharge) the calculated correction factor is Γ ∼ 1.4. As for OEs observed

  12. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer P., I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180 C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristic products of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  13. Control of spontaneous emission from a microwave-field-driven four-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Duo, E-mail: zhangduo10@gmail.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Li, Jiahua, E-mail: huajia_li@163.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ding, Chunling; Yang, Xiaoxue [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-05-21

    The spontaneous emission properties of a microwave-field-driven four-level atom embedded in anisotropic double-band photonic crystals (PCs) are investigated. We discuss the influences of the band-edge positions, Rabi frequency and detuning of the microwave field on the emission spectrum. It is found that several interesting features such as spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line suppression, spectral-line overlap, and multi-peak structures can be observed in the spectra. The proposed scheme can be achieved by use of a microwave-coupled field into hyperfine levels in rubidium atom confined in a photonic crystal. These theoretical investigations may provide more degrees of freedom to manipulate the atomic spontaneous emission. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous emission properties of an atom embedded in PCs are investigated. ► Spectral-line enhancement, suppression and overlapping are observed. ► The results provide more degrees of freedom to control atomic spontaneous emission.

  14. Control of spontaneous emission from a microwave-field-driven four-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Duo; Li, Jiahua; Ding, Chunling; Yang, Xiaoxue

    2012-01-01

    The spontaneous emission properties of a microwave-field-driven four-level atom embedded in anisotropic double-band photonic crystals (PCs) are investigated. We discuss the influences of the band-edge positions, Rabi frequency and detuning of the microwave field on the emission spectrum. It is found that several interesting features such as spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line suppression, spectral-line overlap, and multi-peak structures can be observed in the spectra. The proposed scheme can be achieved by use of a microwave-coupled field into hyperfine levels in rubidium atom confined in a photonic crystal. These theoretical investigations may provide more degrees of freedom to manipulate the atomic spontaneous emission. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous emission properties of an atom embedded in PCs are investigated. ► Spectral-line enhancement, suppression and overlapping are observed. ► The results provide more degrees of freedom to control atomic spontaneous emission.

  15. Nitrous oxide emission from highland winter wheat field after long-term fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. R. Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is an important greenhouse gas. N2O emissions from soils vary with fertilization and cropping practices. The response of N2O emission to fertilization of agricultural soils plays an important role in global N2O emission. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal pattern of N2O fluxes and the annual N2O emissions from a rain-fed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. field in the Loess Plateau of China. A static flux chamber method was used to measure soil N2O fluxes from 2006 to 2008. The study included 5 treatments with 3 replications in a randomized complete block design. Prior to initiating N2O measurements the treatments had received the same fertilization for 22 years. The fertilizer treatments were unfertilized control (CK, manure (M, nitrogen (N, nitrogen + phosphorus (NP, and nitrogen + phosphorus + manure (NPM. Soil N2O fluxes in the highland winter wheat field were highly variable temporally and thus were fertilization dependent. The highest fluxes occurred in the warmer and wetter seasons. Relative to CK, m slightly increased N2O flux while N, NP and NPM treatments significantly increased N2O fluxes. The fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux occurred mainly in the first 30 days after fertilization. The increases were smaller in the relatively warm and dry year than in the cold and wet year. Combining phosphorous and/or manure with mineral N fertilizer partly offset the nitrogen fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux. N2O fluxes at the seedling stage were mainly controlled by nitrogen fertilization, while fluxes at other plant growth stages were influenced by plant and environmental conditions. The cumulative N2O emissions were always higher in the fertilized treatments than in the non-fertilized treatment (CK. Mineral and manure

  16. Determination of Absorbed Dose in Large 60-Co Fields Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrsak, H.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation in radiotherapy has selective impact on ill and healthy tissue. During the therapy the healthy tissue receives certain amount of dose. Therefore dose calculations in outer radiotherapy must be accurate because too high doses produce damage in healthy tissue and too low doses cannot ensure efficient treatment of cancer cells. A requirement on accuracy in the dose calculations has lead to improvement of detectors, and development of absolute and relative dosimetry. Determination of the dose distribution with use of computer is based on data provided by the relative dosimetry. This paper compares the percentage depth doses in cubic water phantoms of various dimensions with percentage depth doses calculated with use of Mayneord factor from the experimental depth doses measured in water phantom of large dimension. Depth doses in water phantoms were calculated by the model of empirical dosimetrical functions. The calculations were based on the assumption that large 6 0C o photon field exceeds the phantom's limits. The experimental basis for dose calculations by the model of empirical dosimetrical functions were exposure doses measured in air and dose reduction factors because of finite phantom dimensions. Calculations were performed by fortran 90 software. It was found that the deviation of dosimetric model was small in comparison to the experimental data. (author)

  17. Multiobjective optimization model of intersection signal timing considering emissions based on field data: A case study of Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Weibin; Chen, Xumei; Yu, Lei; Gong, Huibo

    2018-04-18

    Most existing signal timing models are aimed to minimize the total delay and stops at intersections, without considering environmental factors. This paper analyzes the trade-off between vehicle emissions and traffic efficiencies on the basis of field data. First, considering the different operating modes of cruising, acceleration, deceleration, and idling, field data of emissions and Global Positioning System (GPS) are collected to estimate emission rates for heavy-duty and light-duty vehicles. Second, multiobjective signal timing optimization model is established based on a genetic algorithm to minimize delay, stops, and emissions. Finally, a case study is conducted in Beijing. Nine scenarios are designed considering different weights of emission and traffic efficiency. The results compared with those using Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 2010 show that signal timing optimized by the model proposed in this paper can decrease vehicles delay and emissions more significantly. The optimization model can be applied in different cities, which provides supports for eco-signal design and development. Vehicle emissions are heavily at signal intersections in urban area. The multiobjective signal timing optimization model is proposed considering the trade-off between vehicle emissions and traffic efficiencies on the basis of field data. The results indicate that signal timing optimized by the model proposed in this paper can decrease vehicle emissions and delays more significantly. The optimization model can be applied in different cities, which provides supports for eco-signal design and development.

  18. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS BY VECTOR TOMOGRAPHY OF THE CORONAL EMISSION LINE POLARIZATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramar, M.; Lin, H.; Tomczyk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first direct “observation” of the global-scale, 3D coronal magnetic fields of Carrington Rotation (CR) Cycle 2112 using vector tomographic inversion techniques. The vector tomographic inversion uses measurements of the Fe xiii 10747 Å Hanle effect polarization signals by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) and 3D coronal density and temperature derived from scalar tomographic inversion of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) coronal emission lines (CELs) intensity images as inputs to derive a coronal magnetic field model that best reproduces the observed polarization signals. While independent verifications of the vector tomography results cannot be performed, we compared the tomography inverted coronal magnetic fields with those constructed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations based on observed photospheric magnetic fields of CR 2112 and 2113. We found that the MHD model for CR 2112 is qualitatively consistent with the tomography inverted result for most of the reconstruction domain except for several regions. Particularly, for one of the most noticeable regions, we found that the MHD simulation for CR 2113 predicted a model that more closely resembles the vector tomography inverted magnetic fields. In another case, our tomographic reconstruction predicted an open magnetic field at a region where a coronal hole can be seen directly from a STEREO-B/EUVI image. We discuss the utilities and limitations of the tomographic inversion technique, and present ideas for future developments

  19. Aphid wing induction and ecological costs of alarm pheromone emission under field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hatano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, (Homoptera: Aphididae releases the volatile sesquiterpene (E-beta-farnesene (EBF when attacked by a predator, triggering escape responses in the aphid colony. Recently, it was shown that this alarm pheromone also mediates the production of the winged dispersal morph under laboratory conditions. The present work tested the wing-inducing effect of EBF under field conditions. Aphid colonies were exposed to two treatments (control and EBF and tested in two different environmental conditions (field and laboratory. As in previous experiments aphids produced higher proportion of winged morphs among their offspring when exposed to EBF in the laboratory but even under field conditions the proportion of winged offspring was higher after EBF application (6.84+/-0.98% compared to the hexane control (1.54+/-0.25%. In the field, the proportion of adult aphids found on the plant at the end of the experiment was lower in the EBF treatment (58.1+/-5.5% than in the control (66.9+/-4.6%, in contrast to the climate chamber test where the numbers of adult aphids found on the plant at the end of the experiment were, in both treatments, similar to the numbers put on the plant initially. Our results show that the role of EBF in aphid wing induction is also apparent under field conditions and they may indicate a potential cost of EBF emission. They also emphasize the importance of investigating the ecological role of induced defences under field conditions.

  20. Methods of developing an emission cataster for low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, E.; Frohn, O.; Koffke, K.; Dunker, J.; Plotzke, O.

    1996-01-01

    In the common environment each individual is exposed to a large variety of power frequency or extremely low frequency (EFL) electric and magnetic fields. Traditionally these fields have been thought to be harmless but recent scientific studies reveal, however, that at least effects do exists. Therefore father investigations have to be carried out in order to obtain a greater data base. As a major point new ways have to be established that allow an effective collection of an relevant data concerning the exposition m this fields. In our contribution for the first time methods that consider simultaneously an major field emittants in the ramp of 0-500 Hz spread over the area as great as a town district. These methods have been developed and successfully tested in the district Buch/Karow of Berlin during the research study 'emission cataster of electric and magnetic field exposure in Berlin -a comparative study in selected public areas'. In this study the following field sources have been taken to consideration: i) 110-kV, 220-kV, 380-kV transmission lines, ii) 110-kV power transmission cables, iii) relay station Karow, iv) 10-kV medium voltage level, v) 1-kV distribution level, vi) power stations, vii) railway, viii) urban railway. (author)

  1. Extreme ultraviolet emission and confinement of tin plasmas in the presence of a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Amitava, E-mail: roy@fzu.cz, E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in [School of Nuclear Engineering and Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment(CMUXE), Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); HiLASE Project, Department of Diode-pumped Lasers, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Murtaza Hassan, Syed; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hassanein, Ahmed [School of Nuclear Engineering and Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment(CMUXE), Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas [HiLASE Project, Department of Diode-pumped Lasers, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-15

    We investigated the role of a guiding magnetic field on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and ion emission from a laser produced Sn plasma for various laser pulse duration and intensity. For producing plasmas, planar slabs of pure Sn were irradiated with 1064 nm, Nd:YAG laser pulses with varying pulse duration (5–15 ns) and intensity. A magnetic trap was fabricated with the use of two neodymium permanent magnets which provided a magnetic field strength ∼0.5 T along the plume expansion direction. Our results indicate that the EUV conversion efficiency do not depend significantly on applied axial magnetic field. Faraday Cup ion analysis of Sn plasma show that the ion flux reduces by a factor of ∼5 with the application of an axial magnetic field. It was found that the plasma plume expand in the lateral direction with peak velocity measured to be ∼1.2 cm/μs and reduced to ∼0.75 cm/μs with the application of an axial magnetic field. The plume expansion features recorded using fast photography in the presence and absence of 0.5 T axial magnetic field are simulated using particle-in-cell code. Our simulation results qualitatively predict the plasma behavior.

  2. Genetic parameters of methane emissions determined using portable accumulation chambers in lambs and ewes grazing pasture and genetic correlations with emissions determined in respiration chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, A; Hickey, S M; Rowe, S J; Janssen, P H; Shackell, G; Elmes, S; Bain, W E; Wing, J; Greer, G J; Bryson, B; MacLean, S; Dodds, K G; Pinares-Patiño, C S; Young, E A; Knowler, K; Pickering, N K; McEwan, J C

    2018-05-07

    Methane (CH4) emission traits were previously found to be heritable and repeatable in sheep fed alfalfa pellets in respiration chambers (RC). More rapid screening methods are, however, required to increase genetic progress and to provide a cost effective method to the farming industry for maintaining the generation of breeding values in the future. The objective of the current study was to determine CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using several one-hour portable accumulation chamber (PAC) measurements from lambs and again as ewes, while grazing ryegrass based pasture. Many animals with PAC measurements were also measured in RC while fed alfalfa pellets at 2.0 × maintenance metabolizable energy requirements (MEm). Heritability estimates from mixed models for CH4 and CO2 production (g/d) were 0.19 and 0.16, respectively, when measured using PAC with lambs; 0.20 and 0.27, respectively, when measured using PAC with ewes; and 0.23 and 0.34, respectively, when measured using RC with lambs. For measured gas traits, repeatabilities of measurements collected 14 days apart ranged from 0.33 to 0.55 for PAC (combined lambs and ewes) and were greater at 0.65 to 0.76 for the same traits measured using RC. Genetic correlations (rg) between PAC in lambs and ewes were 0.99 for CH4, 0.93 for CH4+CO2 and 0.85 for CH4/(CH4+CO2), suggesting CH4 emissions in lambs and ewes are the same trait. Genetic correlations between PAC and RC measurements were lower, at 0.62 to 0.67 for CH4 and 0.41 to 0.42 for CH4+CO2, likely reflecting different environmental conditions associated with the protocols used with the two measurement methods. The CH4/(CH4+CO2) ratio was the most similar genetic trait measured using PAC (both lambs and ewes, 63 and 66% selection efficiency, respectively) compared with CH4 yield (g/kg DMI) measured using RC. These results suggest that PAC measurements have considerable value as a rapid low cost method to estimate breeding values for CH4 emissions in sheep.

  3. Study of field induced hot-electron emission using the composite microemitters with varying dielectric layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, M.S.

    1987-07-01

    The analysis of the measurements obtained from the of field emission of electrons from composite metal-insulator (M-I) micropoint cathodes, using the combination of a high resolution electron spectrometer and a field emission microscope, has been presented. Results obtained describe the reversible current-voltage characteristic, emission images and electron energy distribution measurements of both thin and the optimum thick coatings. The observed effects, e.g. the threshold switch-on phenomena and the field-dependence of the F.W.H.M. and energy shift of the electron spectra have been identified in terms of a field-induced hot-electron emission (FIHEE) mechanism resulting from field penetration in the insulating film where conducting channels are formed. The theoretical implications accounts for the channels field intensification mechanism and the conduction properties with applied field, and the F.W.H.M. dependence on electron temperature. The control of the emission process at low fields by the M-I contact junction and at high fields by the bulk properties of the insulator have also been accounted for. These experimental and theoretical findings have been shown to be consistent with recently published data on M-I microstructures on broad-area (BA) high-voltage electrodes. (author). 18 refs, 6 figs

  4. Magnetic Field Emission Comparison at Different Quality Factors with Series-Parallel Compensation Network for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    to the surroundings also increase with increase in the quality factor. In this paper, first analytical expressions are developed for comparing magnetic emissions at different quality factors. Theoretical and simulation (Comsol) results show comparatively lower increase for the magnetic field emissions to the linear...

  5. Field Emission Property of Double-walled Carbon Nanotubes Related to Purification and Transmittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, KiTae; Jang, HyunChul; Hong, Wanshick; Park, Kyoungwan; Sok, Junghyun; Lyu, SeungChul; Lee, Hansung; Lee, Naesung; Han, Moonsup; Park, Yunsun

    2011-01-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with high purity were produced by the catalytic decomposition of tetrahydrofuran (THF) using a Fe-Mo/MgO catalyst at 800°C. The as-synthesized DWCNTs typically have catalytic impurities and amorphous carbon, which were removed by a two-step purification process consisting of acid treatment and oxidation. In the acid treatment, metallic catalysts were removed in HCl at room temperature for 5 hr with magnetic stirring. Subsequently, the oxidation, using air at 380°C for 5 hr in the a vertical-type furnace, was used to remove the amorphous carbon particles. The DWCNT suspension was prepared by dispersing the purified DWCNTs in the aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solution with horn-type sonication. This was then air-sprayed on ITO glass to fabricate DWCNT field emitters. The field emission properties of DWCNT films related to transmittance were studied. This study provides the possibility of the application of large-area transparent CNT field emission cathodes.

  6. Sub-microanalysis of solid samples with near-field enhanced atomic emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Liang, Zhisen; Meng, Yifan; Wang, Tongtong; Hang, Wei; Huang, Benli

    2018-03-01

    A novel approach, which we have chosen to name it as near-field enhanced atomic emission spectroscopy (NFE-AES), was proposed by introducing a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) system into a laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS). The near-field enhancement of a laser-illuminated tip was utilized to improve the lateral resolution tremendously. Using the hybrid arrangement, pure metal tablets were analyzed to verify the performance of NFE-AES both in atmosphere and in vacuum. Due to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the incident electromagnetic field is enhanced and confined at the apex of tip, resulting in sub-micron scale ablation and elemental emission signal. We discovered that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the spectral resolution obtained in vacuum condition are better than those acquired in atmospheric condition. The quantitative capability of NFE-AES was demonstrated by analyzing Al and Pb in Cu matrix, respectively. Submicron-sized ablation craters were achieved by performing NFE-AES on a Si wafer with an Al film, and the spectroscopic information from a crater of 650 nm diameter was successfully obtained. Due to its advantage of high lateral resolution, NFE-AES imaging of micro-patterned Al lines on an integrated circuit of a SIM card was demonstrated with a sub-micron lateral resolution. These results reveal the potential of the NFE-AES technique in sub-microanalysis of solids, opening an opportunity to map chemical composition at sub-micron scale.

  7. Acoustic emission in a superconductor (Nb-Ti) during magnetic field and current sweep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Harehiko

    1980-01-01

    Though superconducting magnets are indispensable in the fields of nuclear fusion, MHD power generation, high energy technology, and the trains using magnetic levitation, the safety of the magnets used for those fields is required to be fully investigated because their accumulating energy reaches up to several GJ. For this purpose, the improvement of monitoring techniques is extremely important to grasp exactly the magnetization of such large energy magnets. Although the detection of the terminal voltage of the magnets has been mainly used so far, the purpose has not yet been fulfilled because various phenomena appear in the form of noises in the terminal voltage. The authors have found the monitoring method using acoustic emission in a system completely independent from voltage observation. From this viewpoint, the experiments have been performed aiming at the generation of acoustic emission in conjunction with magnetization out of the fine structure of super-conductors, taking notice of the emitted sound frequency ranging over several hundred kHz. The results and investigation revealed that the superconductor itself emitted ultrasonic sound. It was found that the observation of this acoustic power intensity was able to monitor not only the magnetization of superconductors but also its current sweep. Since the motion of the magnetic flux is converted into the signal of acoustic field, this measuring method is less affected by noise disturbance from electromagnetic systems, and is expected to be useful for the researches on analyzing superconductor characteristics. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture - an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, R M; Agustin, J; Alberti, G

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot-based experime......Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot...

  9. Energy flux determines magnetic field strength of planets and stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulrich R; Holzwarth, Volkmar; Reiners, Ansgar

    2009-01-08

    The magnetic fields of Earth and Jupiter, along with those of rapidly rotating, low-mass stars, are generated by convection-driven dynamos that may operate similarly (the slowly rotating Sun generates its field through a different dynamo mechanism). The field strengths of planets and stars vary over three orders of magnitude, but the critical factor causing that variation has hitherto been unclear. Here we report an extension of a scaling law derived from geodynamo models to rapidly rotating stars that have strong density stratification. The unifying principle in the scaling law is that the energy flux available for generating the magnetic field sets the field strength. Our scaling law fits the observed field strengths of Earth, Jupiter, young contracting stars and rapidly rotating low-mass stars, despite vast differences in the physical conditions of the objects. We predict that the field strengths of rapidly rotating brown dwarfs and massive extrasolar planets are high enough to make them observable.

  10. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelliher, F.M.; Cox, N.; Weerden, T.J. van der; Klein, C.A.M. de; Luo, J.; Cameron, K.C.; Di, H.J.; Giltrap, D.; Rys, G.

    2014-01-01

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. -- Highlights: • Nitrous oxide emission factors (EFs) for pastoral soils measured in 185 field trials. • For lowland, the mean (±standard error) urea nitrogen fertiliser EF was 0.5 ± 0.1%. • For lowland, mean dairy cattle urine and dung EFs were 1.2 and 0.2%, respectively. • For lowland, mean sheep urine and dung EFs were 0.6 and 0.1%, respectively. • For pastoral soils in terrain with slopes >12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. -- From 185 field trials, mean nitrous oxide emission factors for pastoral soils were 0.1% for sheep dung up to 1.2% for dairy cattle urine, while that for urea fertiliser was 0.5%

  11. Particle induced X-ray emission and complementary nuclear methods for trace element determination; Plenary lecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, S A.E. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1992-03-01

    In this review the state-of-the-art of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methods for the determination of trace elements is described. The developmental work has mostly been carried out in nuclear physics laboratories, where accelerators are available, but now the increased interest has led to the establishment of other dedicated PIXE facilities. The reason for this interest is the versatility, high sensitivity and multi-element capability of PIXE analysis. A further very important advantage is that PIXE can be combined with the microbeam technique, which makes elemental mapping with a spatial resolution of about 1 {mu}m possible. As a technique, PIXE can also be combined with other nuclear reactions such as elastic scattering and particle-induced gamma emission, so that light elements can be determined. The usefulness of PIXE is illustrated by a number of typical applications in biology, medicine, geology, air pollution research, archaeology and the arts. (author).

  12. Emission spectrochemical determination of boron in steels with pulse height distribution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Minao; Sato, Shoki; Fushida, Hiroshi; Narita, Masanao

    1983-01-01

    The method for rapid determination of total, acid soluble and insoluble boron was established by using emission spectrochemical apparatus equipped with pulse height distribution analyzer. By using the analyzer, emission intensity can be expressed as different level intensity of pulse height distribution. It was made clear that soluble and insoluble boron had different contribution degree to each intensity and that this contribution degree varied at different pre-spark. Therefore, it is necessary for accurate determination of boron that this contribution degree should be corrected by using two intensities, of which contribution degrees are different. It was found on this two intensities method that total and soluble boron corresponded well to 50 % intensities at zero pre-spark and at 2000 pre-spark and that insoluble boron corresponded well to 70 % intensity at zero pre-spark and 50 % intensity at 2000 pre-spark. (author)

  13. Relativistic quantum dynamics in strong fields: Photon emission from heavy, few-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Stoehlker, T.

    2005-03-01

    Recent progress in the study of the photon emission from highly-charged heavy ions is reviewed. These investigations show that high-Z ions provide a unique tool for improving the understanding of the electron-electron and electron-photon interaction in the presence of strong fields. Apart from the bound-state transitions, which are accurately described in the framework of quantum electrodynamics, much information has been obtained also from the radiative capture of (quasi-) free electrons by high-Z ions. Many features in the observed spectra hereby confirm the inherently relativistic behavior of even the simplest compound quantum systems in nature. (orig.)

  14. Effect of magnetic field-aligned currents on VLF emissions in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.H.

    1988-01-01

    The dispersion relation for the electromagnetic electron cyclotron waves in the presence of magnetic field-aligned currents has been obtained. The kinetic distribution of electrons for the main body of plasma with a temperature anisotropy and a loss cone distribution have been considered. In general, it has been seen that the current moving along the direction of resonant electrons reduce the growth rate. This effect has been analysed in the case of magnetospheric plasma to suggest possible correlations between the Birkeland currents and the emissions of very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic waves. (author). 19 refs

  15. Image reconstruction using three-dimensional compound Gauss-Markov random field in emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shuichi; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Saito, Tsuneo

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new reconstruction algorithm based on MAP (maximum a posteriori probability) estimation principle for emission tomography. To improve noise suppression properties of the conventional ML-EM (maximum likelihood expectation maximization) algorithm, direct three-dimensional reconstruction that utilizes intensity correlations between adjacent transaxial slices is introduced. Moreover, to avoid oversmoothing of edges, a priori knowledge of RI (radioisotope) distribution is represented by using a doubly-stochastic image model called the compound Gauss-Markov random field. The a posteriori probability is maximized by using the iterative GEM (generalized EM) algorithm. Computer simulation results are shown to demonstrate validity of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Tttt of... - Leather Finishing HAP Emission Limits for Determining the Allowable HAP Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Leather Finishing HAP Emission Limits for Determining the Allowable HAP Loss 1 Table 1 to Subpart TTTT of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Finishing HAP Emission Limits for Determining the Allowable HAP Loss As required in §§ 63.5305 and 63.5340(b...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Tttt of... - Leather Finishing HAP Emission Limits for Determining the Allowable HAP Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Leather Finishing HAP Emission Limits for Determining the Allowable HAP Loss 2 Table 2 to Subpart TTTT of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Finishing HAP Emission Limits for Determining the Allowable HAP Loss As required in § 63.5450, you must meet...

  18. Determination of plasma Z-pinch effect by intrinsic stimulated emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.T.; Liang, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The plasma Z-pinch behavior has been observed in a relatively small-bore diameter tube and low bank voltage discharge system. The instant of the occurrence of the laser line at 4880 A coincides with the plasma pinch time calculated by using a one-fluid snow-plow model. A determination of plasma pinch parameters by measuring the intrinsic stimulated emission of the ions is described

  19. Relaxing the electrostatic screening effect by patterning vertically-aligned silicon nanowire arrays into bundles for field emission application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Yung-Jr, E-mail: yungjrhung@gmail.com [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-sen University, No. 70, Lienhai Rd., Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, San-Liang [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Beng, Looi Choon [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Chang, Hsuan-Chen [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yung-Jui [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Kuei-Yi; Huang, Ying-Sheng [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-04-01

    Top-down fabrication strategies are proposed and demonstrated to realize arrays of vertically-aligned silicon nanowire bundles and bundle arrays of carbon nanotube–silicon nanowire (CNT–SiNW) heterojunctions, aiming for releasing the electrostatic screening effect and improving the field emission characteristics. The trade-off between the reduction in the electrostatic screening effect and the decrease of emission sites leads to an optimal SiNW bundle arrangement which enables the lowest turn-on electric field of 1.4 V/μm and highest emission current density of 191 μA/cm{sup 2} among all testing SiNW samples. Benefiting from the superior thermal and electrical properties of CNTs and the flexible patterning technologies available for SiNWs, bundle arrays of CNT–SiNW heterojunctions show improved and highly-uniform field emission with a lower turn-on electric field of 0.9 V/μm and higher emission current density of 5.86 mA/cm{sup 2}. The application of these materials and their corresponding fabrication approaches is not limited to the field emission but can be used for a variety of emerging fields like nanoelectronics, lithium-ion batteries, and solar cells. - Highlights: • Aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) bundle arrays are realized with top-down methods. • Growing carbon nanotubes atop SiNW bundle arrays enable uniform field emission. • A turn-on field of 0.9 V/μm and an emission current of > 5 mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved.

  20. Field emission study from an array of hierarchical micro protrusions on stainless steel surface generated by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.K., E-mail: anilks@barc.gov.in [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; More, M.A. [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai, 40085 (India); Sinha, Sucharita [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Array of self assembled micro-protrusions have been generated on stainless steel surfaces by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation. • Density of the formed micro-protrusions is ∼5.6 × 105 protrusions/cm{sup 2}. • Laser treated surface is mainly composed of iron oxide and cementite phases. • Micro-structured sample has shown good field emission properties – low turn on field, high field enhancement factor and stable emission current. - Abstract: This paper reports our results on femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser induced surface micro/nano structuring of stainless steel 304 (SS 304) samples and their characterization in terms of surface morphology, formed material phases on laser irradiation and field emission studies. Our investigations reveal that nearly uniform and dense array of hierarchical micro-protrusions (density: ∼5.6 × 10{sup 5} protrusions/cm{sup 2}) is formed upon laser treatment. Typical tip diameters of the generated protrusions are in the range of 2–5 μm and these protrusions are covered with submicron sized features. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis of the laser irradiated sample surface has shown formation mainly of iron oxides and cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) phases in the treated region. These laser micro-structured samples have shown good field emission properties such as low turn on field (∼4.1 V/μm), high macroscopic field enhancement factor (1830) and stable field emission current under ultra high vacuum conditions.