WorldWideScience

Sample records for field east-central estonia

  1. Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Estonian Country Case Study concentrated on the energy sector. Estonia is in the process of intensive transition from a centrally planned to a market economy. The reforming of the whole economy, included the energy sector, is underway at present in Estonia, therefore the current situation is permanently changing. This in its turn complicates the overall characterisation of the situation and makes it difficult to have well founded basis for furhter forecasts and projections. However, the main lines of further development have been worked out in the governmental document `Long Term Development Plan for the Estonian Fuel and Energy Sector`, which was adopted by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in February 1998. The Estonian Country Case Study team has managed with the complicated task to analyse the most probable GHG mitigation options to be used for the period up till 2035. MARKAL and MARKAL-MACRO models were used to build up the energy system development scenarios and to analyse various GHG mitigation options. Two main scenarios, respectively with low and high GDP growth rates, were assumed for the present analysis. Also the impact of carbon tax on the choice of possible energy generation scenarios was studied with the help of the model. The results have been discussed in the context of future socio-economic and political restrictions. Special attention was paid to the problems and prospects of using Estonian main energy resource - oil shale - for the production of electricity. New combustion technologies developed in Estonia allow reducing CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, which makes them highly important in the process of following the binding agreements of international treaties on pollution abatement. The technological mitigation options of GHG emissions have been handled thoroughly, as they are of great interest for Estonia following the requirements of the Kyoto conference. Additionally, renewable energy sources were discussed more thoroughly

  2. IDENTITIES AND CONCEPTIONS OF BORDER AREA POPULATIONS IN EAST-CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EAST EUROPE – THEMATIC ASPECTS AND QUESTIONS OF AN ACTUAL RESEARCH FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried HELLER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will be structured as follows: Firstly, it will be described what is to be understood by the term ‘identity’. After that, this article will explore the significance of the topic ‘identities of population’ regarding the political, social, economic and cultural developments in the border areas of East-Central and South-East Europe. Because identities are not essentially but constructed phenomena, the next chapter will deal with the role of conceptions of the border area populations for the building of identity. The then following remarks on categories of border areas shall suggest that a great variety of border areas needs to be considered if one is occupied with the subject of this article. From these explanations the article’s relation to application will be derived, and groups of questions as well as detailed questions will be developed.

  3. Financing environmental policy in East Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van der Weij, E.

    1998-01-01

    The transition in East Central Europe created a general optimism which was reflected in a belief that a solution to the environmental problems faced by these countries would be found. There were great expectations regarding the blessings of the market economy, which would diminish state-guided waste

  4. Conceptual and analytical modeling of fracture zone aquifers in hard rock. Implications of pumping tests in the Pohjukansalo well field, east-central Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveinen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Fracture zones with an interconnected network of open fractures can conduct significant groundwater flow and as in the case of the Pohjukansalo well field in Leppaevirta, can yield sufficiently for small-scale municipal water supply. Glaciofluvial deposits comprising major aquifers commonly overlay fracture zones that can contribute to the water balance directly or indirectly by providing hydraulic interconnections between different formations. Fracture zones and fractures can also transport contaminants in a poorly predictable way. Consequently, hydrogeological research of fracture zones is important for the management and protection of soil aquifers in Finland. Hydraulic properties of aquifers are estimated in situ by well test analyses based on analytical models. Most analytical models rely on the concepts of radial flow and horizontal slab aquifer. In Paper 1, pump test responses of fracture zones in the Pohjukansalo well field were characterised based on alternative analytical models developed for channelled flow cases. In Paper 2, the tests were analysed based on the generalised radial flow (GRF) model and a concept of a fracture network possessing fractional flow dimension due to limited connectivity compared to ideal 2- or 3- dimensional systems. The analysis provides estimates of hydraulic properties in terms of parameters that do not have concrete meaning when the flow dimension of the aquifer has fractional values. Concrete estimates of hydraulic parameters were produced by making simplified assumptions and by using the composite model developed in Paper 3. In addition to estimates of hydraulic parameters, analysis of hydraulic tests provides qualitative information that is useful when the hydraulic connections in the fracture system are not well known. However, attention should be paid to the frequency of drawdown measurements-particularly for the application of derivative curves. In groundwater studies, analytical models have been also used to estimate

  5. Making Distinctions on Autonomous Cultural Field: the Case of Small-scale Alternative Music Festival Organisers in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Mäe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give a sense of the activities of small-scale cultural practitioners in Estonia. Whereas Western societies experienced the powerful emergence of youth (subcultures and DIY ideology, as well as self-organised low scale cultural production in the 1960s, in Estonia all of these practices are relatively new and born over the last decades. This article discusses the Eastern European specifics of (subcultural production. The main concepts of this study are fields in cultural production and symbolic capital according to Pierre Bourdieu, with consideration of the recent elaborations in the field of (subcultural studies. Interpreting the interests, motives and attitudes that are the basis for the activities of the promoters, this paper addresses the subjects of mainstream/underground, independent/commercial and high culture/subculture, thereby contributing to the relevant discussion in subculture studies.The empirical part of the paper relies mainly on in-depth interviews conducted by the first author (2009, while the interviews conducted by the second author (2010 are supported by fieldwork on club cultures 2002-2003. The data have been analysed and systematised by qualitative data analysis methods, with the help of NVivo research software.While subcultures usually create symbolic boundaries using their distinctive style, music and ideological practices, according to this study, promoters tend to create ‘independent brands’ for the purposes of participation in the small-scale cultural field. These independent brands involve a mix of the promoters’ taste in music, which is communicated through the ‘brand’ to significant others (music critics, lay audience and friends, and constitute an important means for creating symbolic capital.

  6. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  7. Country report: Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2015-12-01

    The situation of women in education, work, and research in Estonia is relatively good. Nevertheless, science (especially engineering) remains a male-dominated field. The total number of female scientists and engineers in the workforce is about two-thirds that of males. Moreover, the gender imbalance in the researcher population increases with age. Significant pay-gap and power imbalances between the genders remain both in Estonian society in general and in the fields of science and technology. In many practical situations, behavior of both men and women is still guided by gender stereotypes.

  8. Hydropower in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raesaar, Peeter

    1997-01-01

    Long life practice has proved that small hydropower is not a beaten track in the global energy field. Before the Second World War small hydropower was rather well developed in Estonia as well. Being neglected during the years of Soviet occupation, it is rather important to help it to regain its position in the Estonian energy system once again. Our hydropower potential is not big, but it has got a good established position as an energy saving measure. By now we have some good examples of restored hydropower stations on commercial basis to be optimistic about the future

  9. Different Aspects of Regional Development in East-Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÁL SZABÓ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore and analyze the main characteristics of East-Central Europe’s spatial structure, including its changes during the recent years. In many territorial researches, there is an intention to define different types of regions and to establish territorial regularities, create models, etc. In this case, we analysed the regions of East-Central Europe based on their comprehensive socio-economic data and described the most important characteristics of the spatial structure of this macroregion from different perspectives. Some results show that the social and economic core areas are highly separated from each other and the development “image” of East-Central Europe has remained the same viewing from the aspects of bigger, homogenous areas, but became more mosaic with the appearance of some separated and improving regions, strengthening the model of the “Bunch of Grapes”, not the "Boomerang". Other results show that it is difficult to create a spatial structure model for this macroregion, because the results may depend on the viewpoints.

  10. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  11. Towards sustainable Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtvee, Valdur

    1997-01-01

    Since 1989 the Estonian Green Movement has had a working group on energy issues. This group has tried to influence the energy policy in Estonia towards sustainable development. But the process has been hard. Five years have passed since Estonia has started with taking on its shoulders international environmental obligations. Unfortunately, Estonia is one of the last countries in Europe still to join the obligation on transboundary pollution. A master plan on energy is now prepared in Estonia within the framework of PHARE programme, involving quite a few high level specialists from various institutions in Estonia and assisted by foreign specialists. But the energy sector has not been open to public discussion in Estonia up to now. It's very important not to lose from sight the environmental problems in connection with energy sector development plans. The Estonian Green Movement together with its umbrella organization, the Friends of the Earth Europe, have worked out a new energy strategy for Estonia, based on the concept of environmental space. This concept has been used by some countries already on working out the strategy for their economic progress. The limit values for a set of basic mineral resources and local fuels of Estonia have been calculated on the basis of environmental space and economic targets set for the year 2010

  12. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortino, S.E. [Texaco Inc., White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  13. Mesoscale surface equivalent temperature (T E) for East Central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Keri; Mahmood, Rezaul; Goodrich, Gregory; Pielke, Roger A.; Durkee, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate near surface mesoscale equivalent temperatures (T E) in Kentucky (located in east central USA) and potential land cover influences. T E is a measure of the moist enthalpy composed of the dry bulb temperature, T, and absolute humidity. Kentucky presents a unique opportunity to perform a study of this kind because of the observational infrastructure provided by the Kentucky Mesonet (www.kymesonet.org). This network maintains 69 research-grade, in-situ weather and climate observing stations across the Commonwealth. Equivalent temperatures were calculated utilizing high-quality observations from 33 of these stations. In addition, the Kentucky Mesonet offers higher spatial and temporal resolution than previous research on this topic. As expected, the differences (T E - T) were greatest in the summer (smallest in the winter), with an average of 35 °C (5 °C). In general, the differences were found to be the largest in the western climate division. This is attributed to agricultural land use and poorly drained land. These differences are smaller during periods of drought, signifying less influence of moisture.

  14. Dorset and Thule divergence from East Central Asian roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, E D; Jones, G

    1998-06-01

    The history of the immigration of East Asians to America during the last glacial period remains controversial. In an attempt to add critical data to this problem, a large sample of whole teeth derived from Southeast Asian, Mongolian, Thule, Western Inuit, and pre-Inca (Huari) people was quantified (N = 4,507 teeth from 495 individuals; approximately 30 variables per tooth). Multivariate analysis helped establish that all Native Americans were likely derived from one ancient, extinct population that resided in the region of Mongolia (east Central Asia), and that Mongolians and Southeast Asians are two independent groups. A controversial and enigmatic Central Canadian Arctic "Thule culture Inuit" group on Southampton Island that survived until 1902 was identified as a relic, mainly Paleoeskimo Dorset community. Surprisingly, there was little, or no, indication of Dorset-to-Thule gene flow. Cumulatively, the data suggest that a small population of Paleoindian founders remained resident in Beringia, may have blocked further immigration, and were the antecedents to the Thule/Inuit. With the confluence of the Arctic and Pacific oceans at the breakup of Beringia, the resulting increased availability of marine animal food sources allowed this population to increase in size and expand throughout the eastern Arctic.

  15. Environmental performance reviews. Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This review of Estonia is the first environmental performance review (EPR) carried out under the auspices of the ECE Committee on Environmental Policy. This pilot ECE study builds, inter alia, on the experience gained in the preparation of pilot environmental performance reviews of Poland and Bulgaria, which were carried out in 1994-1995 by OECD in cooperation with ECE. The report focuses on capacity building; air, water, waste, and nature management; the integration of environmental and economic policies both generally and more specifically within the energy sector; and cooperation of Estonia with the international community. The review examines the current situation, recent and likely future trends, pressures, policy responses and their effectiveness. The principal conclusions and recommendations for improving Estonia's environmental performance are brought together in the concluding chapter.

  16. The lowering of sea surface temperature in the east central Arabian sea associated with a cyclone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    An analysis of thermal Structure in the East Central Arabian Sea associated with a moderate cyclone is presented. The heat storage and the heat budget components have been computed. Under the influence of the cyclone the Sea Surface Temperature (SST...

  17. Gas development plan - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The total supply of natural gas to Estonia is provided by the Russian company ''Lentransgas'', a 10 year contract is under negotiation. The gas transmission system is physically a part of the transmission network in the Baltic region which previously operated as an integral part of the USSR gas transmission system. The potential market is too small to justify investment in an alternative pipeline from the North Sea. The general reduction in purchasing power in the former COMECON countries has resulted in a decreased industrial production in Estonia and lead to a steep decline in natural gas consumption in all sectors except households. The Danish firm ''Dansk Olie og Naturgas A/S'' has been requested to assist the Estonian company ''AS Eesti Gaas J.S.C.'' in preparing a gas development plan for Estonia. Phase 1 of this plan aims to provide a detailed description of the status of the existing situation under the headings of gas supply and demand, transmission and distribution, economy and organization. The most important problems related to the current transition of the Estonian gas sector towards operation under market conditions are addressed, focussing on gas supply and market conditions, flow control and metering. The general organization of the gas sector in Estonia is described and possible models for future organization are discussed. Some recommendations are given and areas in need of further investigation are identified. (AB)

  18. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  19. Hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer in east-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Spechler, Rick M.; McGurk, Brian E.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the relation of the Lower Floridan aquifer to the framework of the Floridan aquifer system were evaluated during a 6-year (1995-2001) study. The study area, a 7,500 square-mile area of east-central Florida, is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a carbonate-rock aquifer system composed of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer, is the major source of water supply to east-central Florida. The Upper Floridan aquifer provides much of the water required to meet the current (2002) demand; however, the Lower Floridan aquifer is being used increasingly as a source of freshwater, particularly for municipal needs. For this reason, a better understanding of the aquifer is needed. The Lower Floridan aquifer is present throughout east-central Florida. The aquifer is composed of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite, and is characterized by abundant fractured dolomite zones and solution cavities. The altitude of the top of the Lower Floridan aquifer ranges from less than 600 feet below sea level in the northern part of the study area to more than 1,600 feet below sea level in the southwestern part. Thickness of the unit ranges from about 910 to 1,180 feet. The top of the Lower Floridan aquifer generally is marked by an increase in formation resistivity and by an increase in the occurrence of fractures and solution cavities within the carbonates. Also, a noticeable increase in borehole flow often marks the top of the unit. The bottom of the Lower Floridan aquifer is based on the first occurrence of evaporites. Ground-water in the Lower Floridan aquifer generally moves in a southwest-to-northeast direction across the study area. In September 1998, the altitude of the potentiometric

  20. National innovation system dynamics in East Central Europe, the Baltic Countries and Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    Here, the structure and dynamics of national innovation systems are explored to produce a comprehensive picture of the current, as well as the past, performance of the countries of East Central Europe, the Baltic Countries and Russia vis-à-vis their competiveness and innovative capability....... The results highlight the importance of political and economic freedom, science and education for promoting innovation. According to the principal component analyses, the best performing countries, in terms of their national innovation systems, of the East Central Europe and the Baltic Countries have...

  1. Social Participation and Health among Ageing People in East-Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Alexandra; Prémusz, Viktória; Füge, Kata; Figler, Mária; Lampek, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the health of the ageing population of East-Central Europe. Data derived from the 6th round of the European Social Survey. The aim of our research was to examine the most important factors that determine ageing people's health status. We paid particular attention to the social ties of our target group.

  2. California avocados in Florida? Finding the perfect avocado for production in East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a high-value fruit where most U.S. consumption is supplied using imported product. Cultivars with good fruit quality and horticultural traits may provide a useful alternative crop in east-central Florida and possibly in other locations throughout the state. A port...

  3. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  4. Goodbye, Internationalism! On the Anti-Multicultural Left in East-Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feinberg, Joseph Grim

    -, June 8 (2017), s. 1-7 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Internationalism * immigration * history of the left Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://politicalcritique.org/cee/2017/goodbye-internationalism-on-the-anti-multicultural-left-in-east-central-europe/

  5. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  6. Rahvusooper taastas Estonia balli traditsiooni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Aastavahetusballi operetikavast "Suudluste valss", USA koreograaf-lavastaja Russell Adamsoni dzhässikavast "Black and White" Rahvusooperis Estonia. Kontserdisaalis mängivad tantsuks Rahvusooperi sümfooniaorkester Andres Mustoneni juhatusel ja ansambel Modern Fox

  7. Rabarocki eelsoojendus. Meeleolukas kevadkontsert Estonias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    13. ja 14. juunil Järvakandis toimuva Rabarocki warm-up peost klubis Rockstars ja esimesest ETV saatest Rabarocki triloogiast 24. mail. Kevadkontserdist "Feeling Good" 26. mail Estonia kontserdisaalis

  8. The Migration Crisis from the East-Central European Perspective: Challenges for Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Podgórzańska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the common denominator of involvement of the EastCentral Europe in the international arena, and above all, the premise determining community of interest expressed in the European Union is the migration crisis. Despite the different circumstances of activity in the context of the migration crisis, states in the region express similar opinions on the consequences of immigration for security in the region. Above all, they emphasise the implications of immigration for the internal security of states. Given the complex nature of migration, this article focuses on the phenomenon of immigration in the EU, determining the causes of the escalation of the influx of immigrants and, above all, identifying the consequences for the security of states of East-Central Europe.

  9. Buffer or Highway: Cyclical Patterns of Security Development in East Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    serves to illuminate better current roles and prospects not clarified by comprehensive, authoritative international policy documents, as well as to...fervent aspiration to create and fortify the new nations whom we regarded, with maternal instinct, as the justification of our sufferings and of our... authoritarianism , it is simply too fantastic to consider the possibility of regimes in East Central Europe, willfully and without coercion, concluding

  10. Depositional environments of Late Triassic lake, east-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, P.M. (Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The Redonda Member of the Chinle Formation represents deposition in a large, polymictic lake during the Late Triassic (Norian) in east-central New Mexico. This study documents and defines an extensive lacustrine system situated in western Pangaea which was influenced by both tectonic and climatic events. Areal extent of the lake may have been as much as 5,000 km{sup 2}.

  11. Color variations within glacial till, east-central North Dakota--A preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T.E.; Baker, Claud H.

    1966-01-01

    Color variations (orange zones within buff-colored till) in drift in east-central North Dakota are believed to represent two tills of separate origin. Mean size, standard deviation, and number and type of pebbles show greater difference between the two tills than do skewness, kurtosis, and partial chemical analyses. Probably blocks of older till were moved by the last glacier crossing the area and were redeposited in a matrix of younger till.

  12. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskinazi, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Tavoulareas, E.S. [Energy Technologies Enterprises Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  13. Towards unification of terrestrial gravity data sets in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmann, Artu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gravity data in Estonia have been collected by different institutions over many decades. This study assesses the suitability of available gravity data for ensuring a 1 cm geoid modelling accuracy over Estonia and in the Baltic Sea region in general. The main focus of this study is on the determination and elimination of discrepancies between three nationwide datasets. It was detected that one tested historic gravity dataset contained inadmissible systematic biases with respect to other tested datasets. Possible ways of gravity data improvement are discussed. More specifically, new field observation campaigns and aspects of using their outcomes in subsequent regional geoid modelling are suggested.

  14. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  15. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  16. Short-term variability of surface heat budget of the east central Arabian Sea during November, 1992

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, B.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, L.V.G.

    The analysis of surface meteorological data collected from the east central Arabian Sea during 10-28 November, 1992 revealed considerable variability in the meteorological parameters and heat budget components on both daily and diurnal time scales...

  17. Estonia: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  18. Mantle dynamics and Cretaceous magmatism in east-central China: Insight from teleseismic tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoming; Zhang, Guibin; Zhao, Dapeng; Lü, Qingtian; Li, Hongyi; Li, Xinfu

    2015-11-01

    Both the rich mineralization in the Lower Yangtze Block (LYB) and the post-collisional mafic rocks in the Dabie Orogen (DBO) are closely related to the Cretaceous magmatism in east-central China. Various geodynamic models have been proposed for explaining the mechanism of the Cretaceous magmatism, but these models are controversial and even contradictory with each other, especially on the mechanism of adakites. A unified geodynamic model is required for explaining the magmatism in east-central China, in particular, the spatial and temporal correlations of magmatic activity in the DBO and that in the LYB. For this purpose, we apply teleseismic tomography to study P-wave velocity structure down to 800 km depth beneath east-central China. A modified multiple-channel cross-correlation method is used to collect 28,805 high-quality P-wave arrival-time data from seismograms of distant earthquakes recorded by permanent seismic stations and our temporary stations in the study region. To remove the influence of crustal heterogeneity on the mantle tomography, we used the CRUST1.0 model to correct the teleseismic relative residuals. Our tomography revealed distinct high-velocity (high-V) anomalies beneath the DBO and two flanks of the LYB, and low-velocity (low-V) anomalies above the high-V zones. Combining our tomographic images with previous geological, geochemical and geophysical results, we infer that these high-V and low-V anomalies reflect the detached lithosphere and upwelling asthenospheric materials, respectively, which are associated with the Late Mesozoic dynamic process and the Cretaceous magmatism. We propose a double-slab subduction model that a ridge subduction yielded the adakitic rocks in the LYB during 150-135 Ma and the subsequent Pacific Plate subduction played a crucial role in not only the formation of igneous rocks in the LYB but also remelting of the subducted South China Block beneath the DBO during 135-101 Ma.

  19. 137Cs in forest ecosystems in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jueri; Martin, Ljudmilla; Paern, Henn; Vilde, Raimolt

    1996-01-01

    Full text: In the recently published 'Europe's Environment' (1995) one can find the map on 1 37C s cumulative deposition in Europe after the Chernobyl accident (source: De Corte et al., 1990). On this map most of the Eastern Europe including Baltic Sea region is practically uncovered. In this reason we decided to present data on accumulation of 1 37C s in the forest ecosystems in Estonia. Field sampling for current study has been conducted in 1986 - 1994. 1 37C s concentrations were measured in different compartments of model trees, ground vegetation layers, debris and topsoil. The amount of 1 37C s varied from 1.9 kBq/m 2 in continental Estonia to 28.8 kBq/m 2 in north-eastern Ne part of Estonia. The results obtained correspond to data presented in Wahlstroem et al., (1992) for Finland. According to the 'Europe's Environment' criteria northeastern Estonia belongs to the third cumulative deposition zone (10 to 32 kBq/m 2 ). In Estonia the total deposition of 1 37C s varies in the range from practically zero to 3.9 kBq/m 2 . The calculations of Realo et al. (1994) back to May 1, 1986 gave figures from 0 to 21 kBq/m 2 . In macro lichens Cetraria, Cladina, Cladonia the rapid changes in 1 37C s concentrations were observed: 0.06 - 0.18 kBq/kg in 1982-85, 0.93 - 6.23 kBq/kg in 1986-87, 0.27 -4.26 kBq/kg in 1988-89, 0.05 - 1.46 kBq/kg in 1990-91 and, finally, 0.03 - 0.46 kBq/kg in 1993-94. At the end of the observation period average value of the 1 37C s concentrations was the same as maximum before the CRA and decline of the concentrations was 4 times during six years. Average concentrations of 1 3 7 C s in two common forest mosses Pleurozium shreberi and Hylocomium splendens was 0.43 kBq/kg of dry matter and in forest debris 0.38 kBq/kg. In 1986 the highest concentration in mushrooms - 16.6 kBq/kg was found in Lactarius sp. (Martin, L., et al., 1991). In 1991 samples of 41 different mushroom species from 63 sample sites mostly in Scots pine stands were analyzed. The

  20. Lichens of neglected habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Motiejūnaitē

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Situation of lichens of aquatic and transient habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands is discussed basing on example of several selected species: Leptogium biatorinum, Sarcosagium campestre, Steinia geophana, Verrucaria aquatilis, V. hydrela, V. praetermissa, V. xyloxena. Both habitat types are generally very much neglected in the region and all species show large spatial gaps in recording, which makes it difficult to judge both about their true distribution limits and spreading dynamics. On the other hand, targeted search through the suitable habitats and abundance of such indicate that many of these lichens are probably not uncommon in the region.

  1. "Plantas con madre": plants that teach and guide in the shamanic initiation process in the East-Central Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, X; Clavo, Z M; Jovel, E M; Pardo-de-Santayana, M

    2011-04-12

    We present and discuss a particular group of plants used by a diversity of healers in the initiation process and apprenticeship of traditional medicine, as practiced by Amazonian societies in East-Central Peru. Often, these plants are locally called plantas con madre (plants with a mother), and are thought to guide initiates in the process of seeking sacred knowledge, learning about plant usage, and understanding traditional medicine practices. We illustrate the diversity of plants used in the apprenticeship and practice of traditional medicine, and nurture the discussion to better understand the terminology used by Indigenous healers to describe plant uses and their practices. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2008 with the participation of 29 curanderos (healers; 23 men, 6 women), 3 apprentices and 4 herbalists. The participants belonged to four ethnic groups: 17 Mestizos, 15 Shipibo-Konibo, 1 Ashaninka, and 1 Matsiguenga; a Spanish apprentice and an Italian herbalist were also included in the study. The field data were collected using semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and the witnessing of numerous healing sessions. Oral informed consent was obtained from each participant. We identified 55 plant species belonging to 26 botanical families, which are used in initiation processes and apprenticeships of traditional medicine. This group of plants is administered under strict conditions during training and healing sessions called dietas (shamanic diets), with the supervision of one or more maestros curanderos (master healers). We observed that during the shamanic diets, maestros curanderos administered plants depending on the teachings or tools he/she was passing on, and were based on a particular sequence during the initiation process: (I) purification and cleansing species; (II) sensitivity and intuition; (III) strengthening; and (IV) protection and defence. Traditional healers continue to be a primary source of health care for the majority

  2. Transit traverse in Missouri, 1900-1937. Part 3, East-central Missouri, 1903-37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staack, John George

    1940-01-01

    This bulletin, which for convenience is to be published in eight parts, contains the results of all transit traverse* done In Missouri through 1937 by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, including those heretofore published. (See page X.) Each of the parts deals with one of eight sections into which the State has been divided for this purpose and which have been designated northeastern, northwestern, southeastern, southwestern, central, east-central, south-central, and west-central Missouri. In each part descriptions of the points for which geodetic positions have been determined are listed according to the quadrangles in which the points occur. Results of transit traverse other than that done by the Geological Survey have not been included.East-central Missouri, as the term is used in this bulletin and as the subject of part 3 of the bulletin, is that section of the State lying between latitudes 38°00' and 39°15' and east of longitude 92°00'.

  3. Translating Czernowitz: The “Non-Place” of East Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Morris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The historian Karl Schlögel’s proclamation that Czernowitz is a “real place” and not just a literary topos serves as the point of departure, and the point of contention, for this essay. This essay examines the rhetorical and textual recreations of Czernowitz as “place” on contemporary maps of Jewish mourning and, specifically, in the work of the Czernowitz-born poet Rose Ausländer. Czernowitz poses an interesting problem for contemporary literary and cultural theory that seeks to map the fault lines between literary text, cultural and historical memory, and geographical and textual sites of memory. This legendary Jewish city, once a part of the Habsburg empire and now in Ukraine, is present as a textual site of memory, as the locus—even the embodiment—of the absence of Jewish culture in east Central Europe. This essay examines the literary and cultural meanings of Czernowitz, the layers of repetition and echo in the evocation of Czernowitz as place within the “non-place” of east Central Europe. In doing so, it sets out to define several new “tasks” for the literary “translation” of a place whose contours and boundaries have shifted in time, a place that is both heavily remembered and, at the same time, forgotten.

  4. The Image of the East-Central European in Rose Tremain’s The Road Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harasztos Ágnes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Rose Tremain’s The Road Home, the culture clash of the British and the East-Central European is portrayed through a complex symbolism centred on images of food, consumption and waste. This literary representation may shed light on British literary auto-images, as well as hetero-images of the Eastern European immigrant. The novel’s presentation of this culture shock is defined by the cultural historical and economic circumstances of the parties. Food and material provide the symbolic sphere where the relationship between Britain and East-Central Europe is characterized in terms of capitalist worldview as opposed to a post-communist existence. William Shakespeare’s Hamlet is the most important intertext for Tremain’s novel. Hamlet is obsessed with the vulnerability of material in light of the spiritual value attached to it in the form of human soul. Stephen Greenblatt’s ideas on food, waste and the Christian belief in divine existence residing in material objects - ideas that originate in early modern times - shed light on the motif of material and food in The Road Home. Seen through the symbolism of food and the idea of differing values being attached to matter, the narrative identity of Lev, the protagonist of Tremain’s work, experiences drastic change due to his encounter with the capitalist, British ‘other’.

  5. Uranium in early proterozoic phosphate-rich metasedimentary rocks of east-central Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSwiggen, P.L.; Morey, G.B.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Exploration for unconformity-type uranium deposits in the late 1970s in east-central Minnesota led to the discovery of several uranium-bearing phosphorite occurrences in rocks of early Proterozoic age. In this report the authors use the term phosphorite for a rock or specimen that contains substantial sedimentary apatite (Altschuler et al., 1958). The deposits in Minnesota are especially interesting because of their high uranium content but low metamorphic grade. These occurrences characteristically contain 0.025 to 0.085 percent U and locally as much as 0.157 percent U (Ullmer, 1981), whereas typical primary marine phosphorites have uranium contents of 0.005 to 0.02 percent U (Altschuler et al., 1958). The presence of uranium in a marine phosphorite generally is explained by either the replacement of calcium in the apatite crystal structure or the adsorption of uranium in admixed organic matter and cryptocrystalline apatite. In east-central Minnesota the uranium is closely associated with the finely crystalline apatite, but the uranium has also been involved in several episodes of remobilization and redeposition. Thus, even though the phosphorite deposits are an interesting geologic phenomenon in themselves, they also are important as a possible source for epigenetic uranium deposits that may occur in the area

  6. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  7. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  8. First PET scans in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    First PET scans in Estonia were performed on 25th November 2002 in North Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn. Six patients with melanoma underwent scanning with FDG. This event was a result of thorough extensive preparations first started in 2000 during the European Association of Nuclear Medicine congress in Paris. During the congress first contacts were made with providers of mobile PET units. At the same time negotiations were begun with potential FDG suppliers. For the introduction of PET in Estonia mobile truckmounted scanning technology was chosen due to low level of initial investments. Of particular importance was also availability of maintenance personnel from the device providers. A significant prerequisite was potential availability of FDG from the neighbourhood - Finland and Sweden. The latter avoided the necessity for investments into local cyclotrons and local FDG production. For the first scanning experience the dedicated truckmounted PET-camera Accel, Siemens was brought by the International Hospital Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The device arrived by ferry from Stockholm to Tallinn harbour at 10 o'clock in the morning and left by ferry for Helsinki at 23 o'clock. The team-on-truck consisted of one technician for device operation, two drivers and two company representatives. North Estonia Regional Hospital provided three additional technicians for patient preparation and FDG injection, one nuclear medicine doctor and one specialist of biomedical engineering and medical physics. The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, Helsinki, Finland. The shipments were made by air. This was possible due to small distance between Tallinn and Helsinki of approximately 80 km due to the regular flight connections between the two cities. The FDG was shipped in two lots with a time interval of 4 hours. The patient selection was based on clinical and histopathology data. In all six patients the exam was justified for detailied staging and

  9. Gold deposit styles and placer gold characterisation in northern and east-central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitfield, Peter E. J; Styles, Michael T.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Key, Roger M.; Bauer,; Ralison, A

    2009-01-01

    Microchemical characterisation of bedrock and placer gold grains from six gold districts within the Archaean domains and intervening Neoproterozoic Anaboriana-Manampotsy belt of northern and east-central Madagascar show few opaque inclusions (e.g pyrrhotite, Bi tellurides) but wide range of Ag contents (40wt%). Some districts exhibit multiple source populations of grains. The ‘greenstone belt’ terranes have an orogenic gold signature locally with an intrusion-related to epithermal overprint. Proterozoic metasediments with felsic to ultramafic bodies yield dominantly intrusion-related gold. A high proportion of secondary gold (<0.5wt% Ag) is related to recycling of paleoplacers and erosion of post-Gondwana planation surfaces and indicates that some mesothermal gold systems were already partially to wholly removed by erosion by the PermoTriassic.

  10. Financial Participation of Employees in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eamets, Raul; Mygind, Niels; Spitsa, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Presently, legal regulation of participation of employees - financial participation as well as participation in decision-making - is not well developed in Estonia. On the one hand, it is due to the fact that no tradition of employee participation could have been formed after Estonia became...

  11. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  12. The Kidnapping of Wroclaw´s Dwarves: The Symbolic Politics of Neoliberalism in Urban East-Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2013), s. 743-756 ISSN 0888-3254 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Wroclaw * neoliberalism * dwarves * place marketing * memory * urban anthropology * action research * East Central Europe * Poland Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.225, year: 2013

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartzite cobbles from the Tapada do Montinho archaeological site (east-central Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew S.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2012-01-01

    The burial age of an alluvially deposited cobble pavement at the Tapada do Montinho archaeological site (east-central Portugal) is investigated using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Measurements on the cobbles (quartzite clasts) were carried out on intact slices and large aliquots...

  14. Summer cooling in the east central Arabian Sea - a process of dynamic response to the southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Sastry, J.S.

    The cooling of the east central Arabian Sea during summer monsoon season is examined using data sets of MONEX '79 and MONSOON '77 programmes. These studies have revealed that downward transfer of heat due to the mixing of warm surface and cold sub...

  15. Monitoring unrest in a large silicic caldera, the long Valley-inyo craters volcanic complex in east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D. P.

    1984-06-01

    Recent patterns of geologic unrest in long Valley caldera in east-central California emphasize that this large, silicic volcanic system and the adjacent, geologically youthful Inyo-Mono Craters volcanic chain are still active and capable of producing locally hazardous volcanic eruptions. A series of four magnitude -6 earthquakes in May 1980 called attention to this current episode of unrest, and subsequent activity has included numerous earthquake swarms in the south moat of the caldera accompanied by inflation of the resurgent dome by more than 50 cm over the last five years. The seismicity associated with this unrest is currently monitored by a network of 31 telemetered seismic stations with an automatic processing system that yelds hypocentral locations and earthquake magnitudes in near-real time. Deformation of the ground is monitored by a) a series of overlapping trilateration networks that provide coverage ranging from annual measurements of regional deformation to daily measurements of deformation local to the active, southern section of the caldera, b) a regional network of level lines surveyed annually, c) a regional network of precise gravity stations occupied annually, d) local, L-shaped level figures surveyed every few months, and e) a network of fourteen borehole tiltmeter clusters (two instruments in each cluster) and a borehole dilatometer, the telemetered signals from which provide continuous data on deformation rates. Additional telemetered data provide continuous information on fluctuations in the local magnetic field, hydrogen gas emission rates at three sites, and water level and temperatures in three wells. Continuous data on disharge rates and temperatures from hot springs and fumaroles are collected by several on-site recorders within the caldera, and samples for liquid and gas chemistry are collected several times per year from selected hot springs and fumaroles.

  16. Anisotropy tomography beneath east-central China and its geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G.; Zhang, G.

    2017-12-01

    The east-central China primary consists of the southeastern part of the North China Block (NCB), the Middle-Lower Yangtze Block (MLYB), the northern part of Cathaysia Block (CB) and the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu Orogen (QDSO) (Fig. 1). Previous studies have suggested that both the rich mineralization in MLYB and the ultra-high pressure metamorphic belts in QDSO are closely to the Cretaceous magmatism in the east-central China. For discussing the geodynamic process, we have used the teleseismic tomography to study the 3D P-wave velocity structure down to 800 km deep and proposed a double-slab subduction model. In the present study, we introduce another two parameters representing the azimuthal anisotropy based on the isotropy tomography. Compared with the SKS method, the anisotropy tomography can provide the velocity anisotropy structure in different depths. The new anisotropy results show that (1) high-velocity (high-V) anomalies exist beneath the Middle Yangtze Block (MYB) from 200 km to 700 km depths and beneath the Lower Yangtze Block from 500 km to 700 km depths, and (2) low-velocity (low-V) anomalies exist beneath the Lower Yangtze Block from 50 km to 200 km depths and beneath the CB from 300 km to 700 km depths, respectively, and (3) the fast directions of P-wave velocity at 50-100 km depths are chaotic, however they show some regular changes from 200 km to 600 km depths. At 200-km deep, the fast direction of the low-V beneath the LYB is nearly E-W-trending. With the depth increasing, the fast directions of the low-V beneath the CB from 300 km to 600 km depths change to NEE-trending. In other side, the fast directions of eastern part of the high-V beneath the MYB, close to the low-V beneath the CB, denote NW-trending from 300 km to 600 depths. Combing with previous studies, we explain the high-V and the low-V, mentioned above, as the ancient Yangtze Craton and the upwelling asthenospheric materials, respectively. In addition, the NE-trending fast directions in the

  17. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure and deformation in east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Yang, X.; Ouyang, L.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    We conduct a non-linear joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersions to obtain the crustal and upper mantle velocity structure in east-central China. In the meanwhile, the lithosphere and upper mantle deformation beneath east-central China is also evaluated with teleseismic shear wave splitting measurements. The resulting velocity model reveals that to the east of the North-South Gravity Lineament, the crust and the lithosphere are significantly thinned. Furthermore, three extensive crustal/lithospheric thinning sub-regions are clearly identified within the study area. This indicates that the modification of the crust and lithosphere in central-eastern China is non-uniform due to the heterogeneity of the lithospheric strength. Extensive crustal and lithospheric thinning could occur in some weak zones such as the basin-range junction belts and large faults. The structure beneath the Dabie orogenic belt is complex due to the collision between the North and South China Blocks during the Late Paleozoic-Triassic. The Dabie orogenic belt is generally delineated by a thick crust with a mid-crust low-velocity zone and a two-directional convergence in the lithospheric scale. Obvious velocity contrast exhibits in the crust and upper mantle at both sides of the Tanlu fault, which suggests the deep penetration of this lithospheric-scale fault. Most of our splitting measurements show nearly E-W trending fast polarization direction which is slightly deviating from the direction of plate motion. The similar present-day lithosphere structure and upper mantle deformation may imply that the eastern NCC and the eastern SCB were dominated by a common dynamic process after late Mesozoic, i.e., the westward subduction of Pacific plate and the retreat of the subduction plate. The westward subduction of the Philippine plate and the long-range effects of the collision between the Indian plate and Eurasia plate during Cenozoic may have also contributed to the present

  18. Does Institutional Trust in East Central Europe Differ from Western Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Boda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to Western European countries, the new democracies of East Central Europe (ECE demonstrate substantially lower levels of institutional trust. Some authors consider this phenomenon as a consequence of the transition process and raise concerns about the public approval and legitimacy of ECE political systems and institutions. Based on the datasets of the European Social Survey (ESS, in this paper we aim to address this issue by shedding light on the possible differences between old and new European democracies regarding the origins and patterns of institutional trust. We especially focus on the micro-level foundations of institutional trust and through a quantitative analysis of the 2010 ESS dataset we find that, overall, similarly to Western Europe, institutional trust in ECE is positively associated with success in social and economic life. We also find that relative to westerners, ECE citizens demonstrate comparable degrees of “materialistic trust” as income levels and trust in institutions are similarly associated with each other across these countries even after controlling for several socio-economic characteristics. In addition, the citizens of new European democracies seem to be equally ready to formulate separate evaluative attitudes towards specific institutions. Our findings suggest that in order to explain the persistently low levels of trust in ECE a greater emphasis should be devoted to how people perceive institutional performance when they formulate their trust judgements towards specific institutions.

  19. Detailed geochemical survey for east-central Minnesota, geology and geochemistry of selected uranium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morey, G.B.; Lively, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a detailed geochemical survey of approximately 6820 km 2 in parts of Aitkin, Carlton, Kanabec, and Pine Counties, east-central Minnesota are reported. Geochemical data are presented for 883 groundwater samples and 200 bedrock samples. Although all of the groundwaters in the study area have similar major-element concentrations and therefore presumably a common ancestry, small differences in the minor-element concentrations serve to characterize various aquifers, both in the Quaternary deposits and in the bedrock. All of the aquifers locally yield waters having statistically anomalous concentrations of uranium or radon, but these anomalies are spatially coincident only in a few places and particularly in three geologic environments considered favorable for uranium mineralization. These include the following: (1) Thomson Formation near the unconformably overlying Fond du Lac Formation, (2) Hinckley Sandstone near a major fault system, and (3) Denham Formation near the unconformity with the McGrath Gneiss, particularly where these rocks are faulted and overlain by the Fond du Lac Formation. One additional uranium environment characterized by thin laminae of uraniferous apatite was located in the Thomson Formation during outcrop reconnaissance and sampling. The coincidence of this and other anomalously high uranium values in the bedrock with specific uranium and radon anomalies in the groundwater confirms the usefulness of the hydrogeochemical data to uranium exploration in this glaciated terrane

  20. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickle, D.G.; Jones, C.A.; Gallagher, G.L.; Young, P.; Dubyk, W.S.

    1977-10-01

    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource

  1. High-resolution sequence stratigraphy and continental environmental evolution: An example from east-central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilinson, Elisa; Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Spalletti, Luis A.

    2013-10-01

    The aims of this contribution is to establish a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic scheme for the continental deposits that constitute the Punta San Andrés Alloformation (Plio-Pleistocene) in east-central Argentina, to analyze the basin fill evolution and to identify and assess the role that extrinsic factors such as climate and sea-level oscillations played during evolution of the unit. For the high-resolution sequence stratigraphical study of the Punta San Andrés Alloformation, high- and low-accommodation system tracts were defined mainly on the basis of the architectural elements present in the succession, also taking into account the relative degree of channel and floodplain deposits. Discontinuities and the nature of depositional systems generated during variations in accommodation helped identify two fourth-order high-accommodation system tracts and two fourth-order low-accommodation system tracts. At a third-order scale, the Punta San Andrés Alloformation may be interpreted as the progradation of continental depositional systems, characterized by a braided system in the proximal areas, and a low-sinuosity, single-channel system in the distal areas, defined by a high rate of sediment supply and discharge peaks which periodically flooded the plains and generated high aggradation rates during the late Pliocene and lower Pleistocene.

  2. Results of the radiological survey at 88 East Central Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ037)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1989-06-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 88 East Central Avenue Maywood, New Jersey (MJ037), was conducted during 1988. Results of the survey indicated radioactivity in the range of normal background for the northern New Jersey area. Radiological assessments of soil samples from the site demonstrate no radionuclide concentrations in excess of DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Nonlinear regression and ARIMA models for precipitation chemistry in East Central Florida from 1978 to 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, David M.; Madsen, Brooks C.

    2005-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of precipitation in East Central Florida has occurred since 1978 at a sampling site located on the University of Central Florida (UCF) campus. Monthly volume-weighted average (VWA) concentration for several major analytes that are present in precipitation samples was calculated from samples collected daily. Monthly VWA concentration and wet deposition of H + , NH 4 + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , NO 3 - , Cl - and SO 4 2- were evaluated by a nonlinear regression (NLR) model that considered 10-year data (from 1978 to 1987) and 20-year data (from 1978 to 1997). Little change in the NLR parameter estimates was indicated among the 10-year and 20-year evaluations except for general decreases in the predicted trends from the 10-year to the 20-year fits. Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models with linear trend were considered as an alternative to the NLR models for these data. The NLR and ARIMA model forecasts for 1998 were compared to the actual 1998 data. For monthly VWA concentration values, the two models gave similar results. For the wet deposition values, the ARIMA models performed considerably better. - Autoregressive integrated moving average models of precipitation data are an improvement over nonlinear models for the prediction of precipitation chemistry composition

  4. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF AIR TEMPERATURE IN EAST CENTRAL ANATOLIA OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Bilgili

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature is an essential component of the factors used in landscape planning. At similar topographic conditions, vegetation may show considerable differences depending on air temperature and precipitation. In large areas, measuring temperature is a cost and time-consuming work. Therefore, prediction of climate variables at unmeasured sites at an acceptable accuracy is very important in regional resource planning. In addition, use a more proper prediction method is crucial since many different prediction techniques yield different performance in different landscape and geographical conditions. We compared inverse distance weighted (IDW, ordinary kriging (OK, and ordinary cokriging (OCK to predict air temperature at unmeasured sites in Malatya region (East Central Anatolia of Turkey. Malatya region is the most important apricot production area of Turkey and air temperature is the most important factor determining the apricot growing zones in this region. We used mean monthly temperatures from 1975 to 2010 measured at 28 sites in the study area and predicted temperature with IDW, OC, and OCK techniques, mapped temperature in the region, and tested the reliability of these maps. The OCK with elevation as an auxiliary variable occurred the best procedure to predict temperature against the criteria of model efficiency and relative root mean squared error.

  5. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  6. Sakslased kiidavad Estonia huku filmi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Eestisse filmi toomisega tegelev produtsent Mati Sepping peab sakslaste kommentaare filmile headeks

  7. Jutta Rabe teeb Estonia hukust uue filmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Eile alustas Saksa ajakirjanik Jutta Rabe oma filmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Peale Rabe on stsenaristid veel saksa advokaat Henning Witte ja rootslane Kaj Holmberg

  8. Erastaja varjas osalusi Rail Estonias / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Päevalehe andmeil on Eesti Raudtee erastamiskonkursi võitnud Rail Estonia suurim aktsionär John Orrison. Vt. samas "Töötasid koos Bushi kabinetis". Väidetavalt salgab J. Orrison Tony Massei tundmise maha

  9. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Strauss

    Full Text Available We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26, found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7-12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval. An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1-9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26's isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo's inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death.

  10. The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, André; Oliveira, Rodrigo Elias; Bernardo, Danilo V; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; Jaouen, Klervia; Hubbe, Mark; Black, Sue; Wilkinson, Caroline; Richards, Michael Phillip; Araujo, Astolfo G M; Kipnis, Renato; Neves, Walter Alves

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World (Burial 26), found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in 2007. Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as 11.7-12.7 cal kyBP (95.4% interval). An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9.1-9.4 cal kyBP (95.4% interval) for Burial 26. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra. The right hand was amputated and laid over the left side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the chin and the left hand was amputated and laid over the right side of the face with distal phalanges pointing to the forehead. Strontium analysis comparing Burial 26's isotopic signature to other specimens from Lapa do Santo suggests this was a local member of the group. Therefore, we suggest a ritualized decapitation instead of trophy-taking, testifying for the sophistication of mortuary rituals among hunter-gatherers in the Americas during the early Archaic period. In the apparent absence of wealth goods or elaborated architecture, Lapa do Santo's inhabitants seemed to use the human body to express their cosmological principles regarding death.

  11. Modeling riverine nitrate export from an East-Central Illinois watershed using SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; McIsaac, G F; David, M B; Louwers, C A L

    2007-01-01

    Reliable water quality models are needed to forecast the water quality consequences of different agricultural nutrient management scenarios. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), version 2000, was applied to simulate streamflow, riverine nitrate (NO(3)) export, crop yield, and watershed nitrogen (N) budgets in the upper Embarras River (UER) watershed in east-central Illinois, which has extensive maize-soybean cultivation, large N fertilizer input, and extensive tile drainage. During the calibration (1994-2002) and validation (1985-1993) periods, SWAT simulated monthly and annual stream flows with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients (E) ranging from 0.67 to 0.94 and R(2) from 0.75 to 0.95. For monthly and annual NO(3) loads, E ranged from -0.16 to 0.45 and R(2) from 0.36 to 0.74. Annual maize and soybean yields were simulated with relative errors ranging from -10 to 6%. The model was then used to predict the changes in NO(3) output with N fertilizer application rates 10 to 50% lower than original application rates in UER. The calibrated SWAT predicted a 10 to 43% decrease in NO(3) export from UER and a 6 to 38% reduction in maize yield in response to the reduction in N fertilizer. The SWAT model markedly overestimated NO(3) export during major wet periods. Moreover, SWAT estimated soybean N fixation rates considerably greater than literature values, and some simulated changes in the N cycle in response to fertilizer reduction seemed to be unrealistic. Improving these aspects of SWAT could lead to more reliable predictions in the water quality outcomes of nutrient management practices in tile-drained watersheds.

  12. SBAS Analysis of Induced Ground Surface Deformation from Wastewater Injection in East Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Loesch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The state of Oklahoma has experienced a dramatic increase in the amount of measurable seismic activities over the last decade. The needs of a petroleum-driven world have led to increased production utilizing various technologies to reach energy reserves locked in tight formations and stimulate end-of-life wells, creating significant amounts of undesirable wastewater ultimately injected underground for disposal. Using Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data, we performed a differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR technique referred to as the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS-based analysis over east central Oklahoma to identify ground surface deformation with respect to the location of wastewater injection wells for the period of December 2006 to January 2011. Our results show broad spatial correlation between SBAS-derived deformation and the locations of injection wells. We also observed significant uplift over Cushing, Oklahoma, the largest above ground crude oil storage facility in the world, and a key hub of the Keystone Pipeline. This finding has significant implications for the oil and gas industry due to its close proximity to the zones of increased seismicity attributed to wastewater injection. Results southeast of Drumright, Oklahoma represent an excellent example of the potential of InSAR, identifying a fault bordered by an area of subduction to the west and uplift to the east. This differentiated movement along the fault may help explain the lack of any seismic activity in this area, despite the large number of wells and high volume of fluid injected.

  13. Climate change studies in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallaste, Tiit; Kuldna, Piret

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of papers was compiled on the basis of research papers written by Estonian scientists during the United Nations Environment Programme and Global Environment Facility initiated climate change programme Country Case Study on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations Assessments. The Estonian country case study was finally approved by UNEP/GEF in February 1996, practical work started in September. The priorities for Estonia in the study of global climate change impacts and adaptation have been in the following areas of interest: agriculture, water resources, forestry, the Baltic Sea and Estonian coast, also historical climate and socioeconomic background together with the biggest producer of greenhouse gases, the energy sector. Those areas have been studied more carefully during the one and half year period of the project

  14. University courses on radiation protection in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realo, Enn

    1999-01-01

    A brief overview is given on the educational courses containing topics in the field of radiation protection in the Tallinn Technical University and in the University of Tartu, Estonia. It follows from the analysis that at present there is no complete system for education or training of experts in the field. At the same time a significant deficit in specialists and experts is one of the major barriers in the development of an efficient radiation protection infrastructure in this country. A comparison of the course topics to the syllabus for the training of qualified experts recommended by EC and by IAEA demonstrates the items, which need a further development and an expanded coverage in the existing or in future courses. These items involve, e.g., operational radiation protection and its organisation, waste management, transport, quality assurance, etc. Upgrading of courses for the missing theoretical items is not difficult, but it is not sufficient. The largest void lies in the weakness / absence of an adequate basis for practical work or exercises for students. The examples of co-operation and help provided for the existing courses, especially by the Nordic countries, are encouraging. (au)

  15. Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Järg 2001 nr. 1 lk. 25-31, nr. 2 lk. 41-47, nr. 3 lk. 29-37, 2002 nr. 1 lk. 16-23, nr. 2 lk. 39-47, nr. 3 lk. 25-33, 2003 nr. 1 lk. 23-31, nr. 2 lk. 33-41, nr. 3 lk. 31-39, 2004 nr. 1 lk. 31-39, nr. 2 lk. 35-41; 2005 nr. 1 lk. 37-44, nr. 2 lk. 43-51, nr. 3 lk. 23-27. Ülevaade Eesti peamistest majandusnäitajatest. Lisa: Tabel majandusnäitajatega

  16. Sajand hiljem. Mida Noor-Eesti tegi ja mida ta ei teinud. A Century Later: What Young Estonia Did – and What it Did Not Do

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Hasselblatt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the position of Young Estonia (Noor-Eesti in four different fields of influence: 1. What is the position of the Young Estonia movement in literary history, i.e. in the different monographs and articles on Estonian literature? What position is given to the movement by the writer(s of the various sketches on Estonian literature between 1908 and 2007, and how important are the writers of the group in the eyes of literary historians? 2. How is the movement represented in the collective (public memory of Estonia, e.g. do we find members of the movement on stamps or banknotes or in street names? 3. How do people in Estonia remember the literary production of the members of the group: what are the most important texts people read today, and how are these texts linked to the Young Estonia movement? 4. Finally, how is the movement represented outside Estonia, i.e. in the reception of Estonian literature abroad? Which texts have been translated, which authors are well-known abroad? In answering these questions the author concludes that the Young Estonia movement was much less important than has been assumed with respect to the production of literature, i.e. yielding literary texts that have been recognized and read up till the present. Rather, the lasting importance of Young Estonia has been in the organization of literary life.

  17. Evolution of the east-central San Jose del Cabo basin, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTeague, M. S.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Schwennicke, T.; Ingle, J. C.; Cortes Martinez, M.

    2006-12-01

    The San Jose del Cabo basin at the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula records the early tectonic evolution of the west side of the Gulf of California. This study focused on the east central margin of the basin. The basal La Calera Formation unconformably overlies Cretaceous granite and consists of conglomerate, pebbly sandstone and conglomerate, and sandstone deposited in alluvial fans and fan-deltas. Deposition of the La Calera Formation was from ca. 9-14 Ma. The lower member of the Trinidad Formation was deposited beginning ca. 9-13 Ma and consists of sandstone, mudstone, and shelly mudstone deposited in nearshore and estuarine environments. These age estimates are based on sedimentation rates and foraminifera and coccoliths from the NN 11A nannozone (7.4 8.6 Ma, GTS 2004). The middle member of the Trinidad Formation consists of deeper water mudstones deposited by turbidity currents and suspension settling in a shelf to slope and conglomerates deposited by submarine debris flows on the shelf. The basin began earlier than previously thought. The oldest marine rocks are ca.9-13 Ma, while sedimentation on the east side began at ca. 9-14 Ma, synchronous with estimates of initiation of offset on the San Jose del Cabo fault. The Zapote fault is a down-to-the-east normal and sinistral-oblique fault that exposes a wedge of granite and older strata in the footwall to the west. The fault was active during sedimentation in the late Miocene and possibly later. The fault divides the study area into an eastern hanging wall subbasin and western footwall subbasin. The eastern subbasin formed an embayment in the eastern margin of the Cabo basin. A regional flooding surface (ca. 8 Ma) can be correlated across the fault that marks a major marine incursion. Depositional systems evolved rapidly from coarse-grained terrestrial systems to fine-grained marine and estuarine systems. The Cabo basin provides an excellent analogue for comparison with offshore basins, which are

  18. Geologic map of the Big Delta B-2 quadrangle, east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Roberts, Paul; Smith, Moira; Gamble, Bruce M.; Henning, Mitchell W.; Gough, Larry P.; Morath, Laurie C.

    2003-01-01

    New 1:63,360-scale geologic mapping of the Big Delta B-2 quadrangle provides important data on the structural setting and age of geologic units, as well as on the timing of gold mineralization plutonism within the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska. Gold exploration has remained active throughout the region in response to the discovery of the Pogo gold deposit, which lies within the northwestern part of the quadrangle near the south bank of the Goodpaster River. Geologic mapping and associated geochronological and geochemical studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management, provide baseline data to help understand the regional geologic framework. Teck Cominco Limited geologists have provided the geologic mapping for the area that overlies the Pogo gold deposit as well as logistical support, which has lead to a much improved and informative product. The Yukon-Tanana Upland lies within the Tintina province in Alaska and consists of Paleozoic and possibly older(?) supracrustal rocks intruded by Paleozoic (Devonian to Mississippian) and Cretaceous plutons. The oldest rocks in the Big Delta B-2 quadrangle are Paleozoic gneisses of both plutonic and sedimentary origin. Paleozoic deformation, potentially associated with plutonism, was obscured by intense Mesozoic deformation and metamorphism. At least some of the rocks in the quadrangle underwent tectonism during the Middle Jurassic (about 188 Ma), and were subsequently deformed in an Early Cretaceous contractional event between about 130 and 116 Ma. New U-Pb SHRIMP data presented here on zircons from the Paleozoic biotite gneisses record inherited cores that range from 363 Ma to about 2,130 Ma and have rims of euhedral Early Cretaceous metamorphic overgrowths (116 +/- 4 Ma), interpreted to record recrystallization during Cretaceous west-northwest-directed thrusting and folding. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of monazite from a Paleozoic

  19. Paul Pinna avab Estonia Talveaias omanimelise baari / Christel Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karits, Christel, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia sajanda sünnipäeva puhul etendub 12. ja 13. septembril Estonia Talveaias lavastus "Paul Pinnat otsimas". Tekst on 95% osas Paul Pinna ja Karl August Hindrey sulest, dramatiseeris ja lavastas Heidi Sarapuu

  20. Estonia--Going Home Again: Returning to the Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedak-Kari, Maria

    This paper provides background on The National Library of Estonia (NLE), discusses a fellowship project for developing the National Library, and presents the impressions of the author, an Estonian American, who traveled to Estonia. The NLE looks to the West for automation, information, and institutional modeling. The NLE is Estonia's equivalent of…

  1. Development and problems of radioactive waste management infrastructure in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnik, H.; Realo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Estonia is one of a few countries where the establishment of radiation protection and radioactive waste management infrastructure started only recently, soon after regaining independence in the beginning of 1990's. Both legislative and regulatory infrastructure had to be built from scratch, in parallel with the beginning of urgent activities and practices to manage waste streams inherited from the past. Despite significant deficiency of local expertise and specialists in the field, the main objectives of the establishment were set up: to enforce national legislation basing on contemporary international principles, criteria, requirements and to implement structures and procedures for an efficient regulation of radiation safety issues, including practices involving radioactive waste management and decommissioning

  2. Ühe (suure kultuurinarratiivi saatus: Noor-Eesti. The Fate of a (Great Cultural Narrative: Young-Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Veidemann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This focus of this article is the fate of the cultural narrative that has most influenced Estonian culture of the 20th century – Young Estonia. The point of departure for the analysis is Tiit Hennoste’s 2005 essay ”Young Estonia – An Unfinished Project for Self-Colonization”, which I interpret as the interruption of Young Estonia’s ”great narrative”. Hennoste’s demythologizing approach should be regarded in the context of postmodernism (or of postcolonial treatments of literature and art. I argue that the fact that Young Estonia’s models for cultural movements were located in Europe did not automatically lead to the assimilation of 20th century Estonia (literary culture. Neither did they engage in an automatic copying of European culture; their activities might better be regarded as a process of intertexual enrichment. In what follows, the fate of the narrative of Young Estonia will be traced both in terms of the literary field of Soviet Estonia in the 1950s and 1960s, and in exile. I claim that renewed awareness of the narrative of Young Estonia can be traced to the publication of a collection of Gustav Suits’ Poems in 1959, edited and with an afterword by Endel Sõgel. If one lowers the volume on the vulgar Soviet ideologization in Sõgel’s text, key words that characterize the Young Estonia canon remain in place undisturbed: innovativeness, intellectual greatness, turning point, the social nature of art and literature, consonance of the aesthetic and the ethical. Sõgel’s framing of Young Estonia stands in contrast to its apologetic treatment in the postwar Estonian diaspora. On the one hand, this line of interpretation follows the basic outlines of a critical narrative that developed in the 1920s; on the other, since most of Young Estonia’s authors and followers among the Estonian literary elite had gone into exile in 1944, diaspora interpretations represent a definite literary-political position. In the 1960s a

  3. Estonia 2013: Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    One of the fastest-growing economies in the OECD, Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive. The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions. The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states. The strengthening of the Baltic electricity market and its timely integration with the Nordic market, as well as the establishment of a regional gas market, are therefore key priorities for Estonia. Following its accession to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2010, Estonia applied for International Energy Agency (IEA) membership in 2011. This review of Estonia’s energy policies is part of the IEA accession process. It analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It is intended to guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  4. Ordovician timescale in Estonia: recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Olle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Over 150 years of progress in the Ordovician geology and stratigraphy of Estonia has resulted in one of the most precise Ordovician timescales in the world. In this paper, an up-to-date version of the Ordovician timescale of Estonia is provided. Recent developments in graptolite, chitinozoan, and conodont biostratigraphy, and the correlation with the global standard are briefly commented upon. Application of the regional subseries rank is discussed and two new names are proposed: “Vinni” for the upper subseries of the Viru Series, and “Atla” for the upper subseries of the Harju Series.

  5. Estonia: In and Out of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trasberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian economic developments during the first decade of 21st century. Estonia provided in that period a clear-cut example of the classical business cycle with an extreme bubble-burst sequence of economic activities. The author analyses the reasons on such a volatile economic growth pattern and explains economic cycle management particularities in Estonia. In the frames of macroeconomic developments will be analyzed monetary and fiscal policies. The author argues, that Estonia’s fiscal policy has been always pro-cyclical, what has deepened country’s macroeconomic volatility. The paper also analyses critically the government activities and policies during the recent crisis

  6. Rahvusooper Estonia interjööride renoveerimine = Renovation of the Estonia National Opera House interiors

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2006. a. lõpetati Rahvusooperi Estonia publikuruumide renoveerimine. Sisearhitektid Juta Lember ja Aulo Padar. Siseviimistluse ja laemaali (E. Okas, E. Kits, R. Sagrits) restaureerimine ja konserveerimine: KAR Grupp. Akustik Linda Madalik. 8 värv. vaadet

  7. Using Flow Regime Lightning and Sounding Climatologies to Initialize Gridded Lightning Threat Forecasts for East Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Short, David; Volkmer, Matthew; Sharp, David; Spratt, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Each morning, the forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) produce an experimental cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning threat index map for their county warning area (CWA) that is posted to their web site (httl://www.srh.weather.gov/mlb/ghwo/lightning.shtml) . Given the hazardous nature of lightning in East Central Florida, especially during the warm season months of May September, these maps help users factor the threat of lightning, relative to their location, into their daily plans. The maps are color-coded in five levels from Very Low to Extreme, with threat level definitions based on the probability of lightning occurrence and the expected amount of CG activity. On a day in which thunderstorms are expected, there are typically two or more threat levels depicted spatially across the CWA. The locations of relative lightning threat maxima and minima often depend on the position and orientation of the low-level ridge axis, forecast propagation and interaction of sea/lake/outflow boundaries, expected evolution of moisture and stability fields, and other factors that can influence the spatial distribution of thunderstorms over the CWA. The lightning threat index maps are issued for the 24-hour period beginning at 1200 UTC each day with a grid resolution of 5 km x 5 km. Product preparation is performed on the AWIPS Graphical Forecast Editor (GFE), which is the standard NWS platform for graphical editing. Until recently, the forecasters created each map manually, starting with a blank map. To improve efficiency of the forecast process, NWS MLB requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) create gridded warm season lightning climatologies that could be used as first-guess inputs to initialize lightning threat index maps. The gridded values requested included CG strike densities and frequency of occurrence stratified by synoptic-scale flow regime. The intent was to improve consistency between forecasters while allowing them to focus on the

  8. Family doctors' involvement with families in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lember Margus

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family doctors should care for individuals in the context of their family. Family has a powerful influence on health and illness and family interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes for a variety of health problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the Estonian family doctors' (FD attitudes to the patients' family-related issues in their work: to explore the degree of FDs involvement in family matters, their preparedness for management of family-related issues and their self-assessment of the ability to manage different family-related problems. Methods A random sample (n = 236 of all FDs in Estonia was investigated using a postal questionnaire. Altogether 151 FDs responded to the questionnaire (response rate 64%, while five of them were excluded as they did not actually work as FDs. Results Of the respondents, 90% thought that in managing the health problems of patients FDs should communicate and cooperate with family members. Although most of the family doctors agreed that modifying of the health damaging risk factors (smoking, alcohol and drug abuse of their patients and families is their task, one third of them felt that dealing with these problems is ineffective, or perceived themselves as poorly prepared or having too little time for such activities. Of the respondents, 58% (n = 83 were of the opinion that they could modify also relationship problems. Conclusions Estonian family doctors are favourably disposed to involvement in family-related problems, however, they need some additional training, especially in the field of relationship management.

  9. Characterization and Evaluation of Acid Rain in East Central Florida from 1978 to 1995 and Evaluation of Some Chromatographic/Spectroscopic Results from Leachate Samples from CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1996-01-01

    The results of monitoring the chemical composition of rain in east-central Florida have shown that the rain is moderately acid. The measured acidity of rain is less than that observed in other regions of the U. S., however, it does suggest that the level of acidity is substantial. The annual chemical composition of rain at UCF and at KSC has shown moderate variability. Extreme daily and monthly variations are observed, however these variations are not addressed here. The total ionic composition of rain collected at FL99 is greater than that for rain collected at UCF, however this can be accounted for by site proximity to the ocean with the accompanying marine influence. Difference in acidity data collected from the UCF and FL99 sites which are separated by 50 km may be due in part to the differences that have been observed between laboratory and field pH measurements. Trend assessment for precipitation composition requires evaluation of data that covers some minimum time period. In fact, the subdivision of the multi-year UCF record into individual 10 year records as described above can lead to the conclusion that a significant increase, a significant decrease or no trend exists for acidity depending upon the time period chosen for evaluation. Trend evaluation has also been accomplished by linear and nonlinear regression analysis using monthly volume weighted average concentrations and deposition using the UCF data set and some of the Florida NADP data set.

  10. SMEs in Estonia : Achievements and Worries

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Phare toetusel ja Eesti Väikeettevõtete Assotsiatsiooni abil läbi viidud uurimusest "The State of Small Business in Estonia" (väikeettevõtted Eestis). Tabelid ja diagrammid. Eesti väikeettevõtete probleemid, osalemine eksport/import tegevuses, peamised probleemid pangalaenude taotlemisel

  11. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T. [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L. [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P. [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  12. Estonia purjetab filmiturule / Jüri Laulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laulik, Jüri, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  13. Friends of Estonia discuss next move

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    1. juulil 2011 avas Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves Riigikogu konverentsikeskuses Eesti sõprade kokkutuleku raames korraldatava sümpoosioni “Quo vadis, Estonia?”, kus ütles, et Eesti järgmine eesmärk on riiklike ja ühiskondlike struktuuride tugevdamisele keskendumine

  14. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  15. "Gerontiuse unenägu" Estonias / Igor Garšnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2010-01-01

    2. aprillil Estonia kontserdisaalis toimunud Edward Elgari oratooriumi "Gerontiuse unenägu" ettekandest, esitasid: ERSO, Estonia ooperikoor, Estonia poistekoor, kammerkoor Voces Musicales, Helen Lokuta, Bernhard Gärtner, Priit Volmer, dirigent Carlos Spiereri

  16. Results of exploratory drill hole UE7nS East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.L.; Ramspott, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Exploratory hole UE7nS was drilled to a depth of 672.1 m in East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, as part of a program sponsored by the Nuclear Monitoring Office (NMO) of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The purpose of the program is to determine the geologic and geophysical characteristics of selected locations that have demonstrated anomalous seismic signals. The purpose for drilling UE7nS was to provide the aforementioned data for emplacement site U7n. This report presents lithologic and stratigraphic descriptions, geophysical logs, physical properties, and water table measurements. An analysis of these data has been made and a set of recommended values is presented

  17. Cyclic platform dolomites and platform-to-basin transition of Jefferson Formation (Frasnian), southwest Montana and east-central Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorobek, S.L.

    1987-08-01

    The Jefferson Formation (Frasnian) in southwestern Montana consists of cyclic sequences of shallow marine platformal dolomites that grade westward into slope/basinal facies in east-central Idaho. Regional sedimentologic characteristics of slope facies in Idaho indicate that the Jefferson platform resembled a distally steepened ramp. Slope facies consist of slope laminites with local small scale slumps and slope breccias. Shallow water platform-derived clasts are lacking in the slope breccias. Individual shallowing upward platform cycles are 25 m to < 1 m thick and consists of, in descending order: local solution-collapse breccia caps; cryptalgal dolomudstone; rare ooid dolograinstone; thin-bedded Amphipora dolowackestone; coarsely crystalline dolostones with abundant lenticular to domal stromatoporoids; and basal thin-bedded, fine-grained, shale dolostones with closely spaced hard-grounds that grade upward into burrow-homogenized, irregularly bedded dolostones.

  18. Results of exploratory drill hole UE7nS East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.L.; Ramspott, L.D.

    1981-03-02

    Exploratory hole UE7nS was drilled to a depth of 672.1 m in East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, as part of a program sponsored by the Nuclear Monitoring Office (NMO) of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The purpose of the program is to determine the geologic and geophysical characteristics of selected locations that have demonstrated anomalous seismic signals. The purpose for drilling UE7nS was to provide the aforementioned data for emplacement site U7n. This report presents lithologic and stratigraphic descriptions, geophysical logs, physical properties, and water table measurements. An analysis of these data has been made and a set of recommended values is presented.

  19. Characteristics of the trace elements and arsenic, iodine and bromine species in snow in east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunchuan; Yang, Chao; Ma, Jin; Yin, Meixue

    2018-02-01

    Fifty-five snow samples were collected from 11 cities in east-central China. These sampling sites cover the areas with the most snowfall in 2014, there were only two snowfalls from June 2013 to May 2014 in east-central China. Twenty-three trace elements in the filtered snow samples were measured with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis of the results show that the total concentrations of elements in the samples from different cities are in the order of SJZ > LZ > XA > ZZ > GD > NJ > QD > JX > WH > HZ > LA, which are closely related to the levels of AQI, PM2.5 and PM10 in these cities, and their correlation coefficients are 0.93, 0.76 and 0.93. The concentration of elements in snow samples is highly correlated with air pollution and reflects the magnitude of the local atmospheric deposition. The concentrations of Fe, Al, Zn, Ba, and P are over 10.0 μg/L, the concentrations of Mn, Cu, Pb, As, Br and I are between 1.0 μg/L to 10.0 μg/L, the concentrations of V, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Mo, Cd and Sb are less than 1.0 μg/L in snow samples in east-central China, and Rh, Pd, Pt, Hg were not detected. Iodine and bromine species in all samples and arsenic species (As(III), As(V), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethyl arsenic (MMA)) in some samples were separated and measured successfully by HPLC-ICP-MS. The majority of arsenic in the snow samples is inorganic arsenic, and the concentration of As(III) (0.104-1.400 μg/L) is higher than that of As(V) (0.012-0.180 μg/L), while methyl arsenicals, such as DMA and MMA, were almost not detected. The concentration of I- (Br-) is much higher than that of IO3- (BrO3-). The mean concentration of soluble organic iodine (SOI) (1.64 μg/L) is higher than that of I- (1.27 μg/L), however the concentration of Br- (5.58 μg/L) is higher than that of soluble organic bromine (SOBr) (2.90 μg/L). The data presented here shows that SOI is the most abundant species and the majority of the total bromine is

  20. K-Ar age of molybdenum mineralization in the east-central Kitakami Mountains, northern Honshu, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Shunso; Shibata, Ken; Uchiumi, Shigeru

    1989-01-01

    Three K-Ar ages were determined on rocks and minerals from the mineralized areas in the east-central part of the Kitakami Cretaceous granitic terrain, where a Paleogene mineralization age was reported recently on molybdenite by the Re-Os method. The present result showed an early Cretaceous age of 114±4 Ma for the same molybdenite deposit. A rather large discrepancy was found between the Re-Os ages for molybdenite and the K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages for silicate minerals from the same ore deposits of Mesozoic-Cenozoic ages in the Circum-Pacific region, indicating that the Re-Os method needs further examination. (author)

  1. The first case of lymphogranuloma venereum in a woman in East-Central Europe and its multiple co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzlova, Katerina; Rob, Filip; Zakoucka, Hana; Kubatova, Andrea; Secnikova, Zuzana; Krasova, Martina; Bohac, Petr; Hercogova, Jana

    2018-01-01

    We are reporting the first case of lymphogranuloma venereum in women in East-Central Europe. A 22-year-old heterosexual woman attended our department of venereology. She complained about a burning sensation in the urethra and vaginal discharge. Many tests were performed, and lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis, genital herpes, genital warts, and hepatitis C were diagnosed. Lymphogranuloma venereum was originally endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but since 2003, outbreaks of this infection have been reported in North America, Europe, and Australia in men who have sex with men (MSM) community. To date, all cases of lymphogranuloma venereum in the Czech Republic appeared in men, predominantly in HIV-positive MSM. There are not many evidences about lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in women in developed countries. This report underlines the need for awareness of lymphogranuloma venereum in women among gynecologists, venereologists, and other physicians not only in Western Europe, but across all European countries.

  2. Architecture and evolution of an Early Permian carbonate complex on a tectonically active island in east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Magginetti, Robert T.; Stone, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The newly named Upland Valley Limestone represents a carbonate complex that developed on and adjacent to a tectonically active island in east-central California during a brief interval of Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. This lithologically unique, relatively thin limestone unit lies within a thick sequence of predominantly siliciclastic rocks and is characterized by its high concentration of crinoidal debris, pronounced lateral changes in thickness and lithofacies, and a largely endemic fusulinid fauna. Most outcrops represent a carbonate platform and debris derived from it and shed downslope, but another group of outcrops represents one or possibly more isolated carbonate buildups that developed offshore from the platform. Tectonic activity in the area occurred before, probably during, and after deposition of this short-lived carbonate complex.

  3. “Coloniality of power” in East Central Europe: external penetration as internal force in post-socialist Hungarian politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Gagyi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Joining a series of analyses of effects of othering, orientalism, or coloniality in East Central Europe, the paper asks how long-term structural-ideological effects of global hierarchies, as reflected in post-colonial contexts by the term “coloniality of power,” can be conceptualized for East Central Europe. In a case study of political polarization in post-socialist Hungary,it examines the effects of global integration,  claiming that two dominant economic-political blocks formed along a division of vertical alliances related to integration with either Western or national capital. From those positions, they developed divergent political ideologies of development: modernization through Western integration, versus the protection of “national” wealth from Western capital and its local allies. While both propagated capitalist integration, they each needed to develop ideologies that appealed to electorates suffering the costs of integration. One framing of developmentalist emancipation promised Western modernity through rejection of popular, backward characteristics of the country, including nationalism. The other promised advancement in the global hierarchy through overcoming internal and external enemies of national development. These two, mutually reinforcing ideological positions, which I call“democratic antipopulism” and “antidemocratic populism,” denied the contradiction between elites’ and workers’ interest and perpetuated existing global hierarchies. Within the wider debate over cross-contextual applications of the notion of “coloniality of power,” and of emancipative efforts born from the “colonial wound,” the paper emphasizes the significance of the structural conditions, positions and alliances within which experiences of global domination are born and mobilized.

  4. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonets Ruth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on

  5. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väli, Marika; Lang, Katrin; Soonets, Ruth; Talumäe, Marika; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2007-07-17

    In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0-14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001-2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths) and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths) of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality from external causes in 0-14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on circumstances around death is needed to enable establishing the intent of death.

  6. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väli, Marika; Lang, Katrin; Soonets, Ruth; Talumäe, Marika; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths) and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths) of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on circumstances around death is

  7. New data about the climate of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaagus, Jaak

    1999-01-01

    During last 100-150 years global climate has changed significantly. Climate warming has also observed in Estonia. The aim of this paper is to analyse how different are old climate normals calculated for 1881-1880 from present-day normals (1966-1998). The new normals are calculated for monthly and annual mean air temperature at 22 stations in Estonia. Mean monthly and annual precipitation totals and snow cover duration are found at 69 stations and observation sites. Significant differences were determined between the old and new averages. As a rule, air temperature has increased while 0.4 deg C in case of annual values. Snow cover duration has decreased during this century. Its new normals are lower by 5-10 days, what is a direct consequence of climate warming

  8. Kunstiakadeemia kolib ajutiselt Estonia puiesteele / Mari Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Mari

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia on 2010. a. alguseks vanadest ruumidest kolinud hoonesse aadressil Estonia pst. 7. Rüütelkonna hoones leidis endale ajutise kodu vabade kunstide teaduskonna enamik erialasid. Veebruari algul toimuvast tühjendamispeost. EKA uue maja arhitektuurikonkursi võitis Taani arhitektuuribüroodes Sea ja Effekt valminud töö "Art Plaza". Uue hoone ehitus algab aprillis, valmimistähtajaks on 2012. a. kevad

  9. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupo Mändla; Sven-Erik Enno; Mait Sepp

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer month...

  10. Valmis film parvlaev Estonia katastroofist / Imre Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Imre

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal on valminud poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsent ja esialgse stsenaariumi autor koosHenning Wittega on Jutta Rabe, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  11. Detergent zeolite complex "Ceosil", Tallinn, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department, together with the "Birac", Zvornik Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite production, using waste flotation sand and hydrates. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, production plant in Tallinn, Estonia was constructed, with a capacity of 100,000 t/y from 1989. to 1993. This plant became the biggest producer of detergent zeolite in the world.Several goals we...

  12. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  13. Application of spherical fly-ash particles to study spatial deposition of atmospheric pollutants in northen-eastern Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliksaar, T.

    2000-01-01

    Spherical fly-ash particles, emitted to the atmosphere in the high-temperature combustion process of fossil fuels, were found in considerable amounts in analysed snow samples of north-eastern Estonia. Spatial deposition of particles in snow cover is compared with the results of surface sediment samples of lakes. The results from snow characterise well the distribution of pollution sources and the distance from the main power plants in north eastern Estonia. Variations in particle deposition of closely situated snow samples were found to be negligible. Fly-ash particle influxes in snow samples correlate well with modelled maximum concentration fields of flyash in the near-surface air layer. (author)

  14. Natural and drought scenarios in an east central Amazon forest: Fidelity of the Community Land Model 3.5 with three biogeochemical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Koichi; Zeng, Xubin; Christoffersen, Bradley J.; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Saleska, Scott R.; Brando, Paulo M.

    2011-03-01

    Recent development of general circulation models involves biogeochemical cycles: flows of carbon and other chemical species that circulate through the Earth system. Such models are valuable tools for future projections of climate, but still bear large uncertainties in the model simulations. One of the regions with especially high uncertainty is the Amazon forest where large-scale dieback associated with the changing climate is predicted by several models. In order to better understand the capability and weakness of global-scale land-biogeochemical models in simulating a tropical ecosystem under the present day as well as significantly drier climates, we analyzed the off-line simulations for an east central Amazon forest by the Community Land Model version 3.5 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and its three independent biogeochemical submodels (CASA', CN, and DGVM). Intense field measurements carried out under Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, including forest response to drought from a throughfall exclusion experiment, are utilized to evaluate the whole spectrum of biogeophysical and biogeochemical aspects of the models. Our analysis shows reasonable correspondence in momentum and energy turbulent fluxes, but it highlights three processes that are not in agreement with observations: (1) inconsistent seasonality in carbon fluxes, (2) biased biomass size and allocation, and (3) overestimation of vegetation stress to short-term drought but underestimation of biomass loss from long-term drought. Without resolving these issues the modeled feedbacks from the biosphere in future climate projections would be questionable. We suggest possible directions for model improvements and also emphasize the necessity of more studies using a variety of in situ data for both driving and evaluating land-biogeochemical models.

  15. Risk factors associated with the presence of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies from east-central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobino, A; Bulacio Cagnolo, N; Merke, J; Orellano, E; Bertozzi, E; Masciangelo, G; Pietronave, H; Salto, C; Signorini, M

    2014-08-01

    Varroa destructor is considered one of the major threats for worldwide apiculture. Damage caused by varroa mite includes body weight loss, malformation and weakening of the bees. It was also suggested as the main cause associated with colony winter mortality and as an important vector for several honey bee viruses. Little is known about multiple factors and their interaction affecting V. destructor prevalence in apiaries from South America. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with V. destructor prevalence in east-central Argentina. Parasitic mite infestation level and colony strength measures were evaluated in 63 apiaries distributed in 4 different regions in east-central Argentina in a cross sectional study. Data regarding management practices in each apiary were collected by means of a questionnaire. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was constructed to associate management variables with the risk of achieving mite infestation higher than 3%. Colonies owned by beekeepers who indicated that they did not monitor colonies after mite treatment (OR=2.305; 95% CI: 0.944-5.629) nor disinfect hives woodenware material (OR=2.722; 95% CI: 1.380-5.565) were associated with an increased risk of presenting high intensity infestation with V. destructor (>3%). On the other hand, beekeepers who reported replacing more than 50% of the queens in their operation (OR=0.305; 95% CI: 0.107-0.872), feeding colonies protein substitute containing natural pollen (OR=0.348; 95% CI: 0.129-0.941) and feeding colonies High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) (OR=0.108; 95% CI: 0.032-0.364), had colonies that were less likely to have V. destructor infestations above 3%, than beekeepers who did not report using these management practices. Further research should be conducted considering that certain management practices were associated to mite infestation level in order to improve the sanitary condition in the colonies. Epidemiological studies provide key information to

  16. Youth negotiation and performance of masculine identities in rural Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trell, Elen; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores key shared places and practices through which young men in rural Estonia perform and construct masculine identities. Whereas powerful images of rural places and rural masculinity exist and are reproduced in public discourse in Estonia, not much is known about how masculinities

  17. Ekspert välistab Estonia lepingust taganemise / Aivar Pau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pau, Aivar

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli rahvusvahelise õiguse õppetooli hoidja Lauri Mälksoo peab mõeldamatuks Eesti ühepoolset otsust loobuda riikidevahelisest hauarahulepingust ja tõsta Estonia vrakk merepõhjast üles. Riigikogu erikomisjoni esimees Margus Leivo on algatanud Estonia vraki ülestõstmiseks internetis allkirjade kogumise kampaania

  18. Environmental priority action programme for Leningrad, Leningrad Region, Karelia and Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Finnish Government has drawn up a plan of action concerning co-operation in the near future with Eastern European countries. Go-operation in the field of environmental protection occupies a central position in the plan. In connection with the plan, an Environmental Review and Priority Action Programme for Leningrad, Leningrad region, Karelia and Estonia has been made to determine the main environmental problems and the main measures to reduce them

  19. UPPER TRIASSIC (NORIAN-RHAETIAN HYPERCALCIFIED SPONGES FROM THE LUT BLOCK, EAST CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH AMIRHASSANKHANI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the hypercalcified sponges in reefal deposits of the Nayband Formation in Lut Block, the Garm Ab section near the village of Mehran Kushk, located about 20 km northeast of Ferdows city, was sampled. Eight horizons of reefal limestone beds are exposed in this section. The most important reef builders are hypercalcified sponges with some representatives of hexactinellids, scleractinian corals and other reef organisms. The field and lab-observations on rock units, sedimentary facies and faunal assemblages indicate the middle Norian-Rhaetian as the age of the reef horizons. Twenty-three sponge taxa, including 15 of the chambered sphinctozoans, 2 of hexactinellids sponges and 8 non-chambered inozoan were identified. The majority of recognized sponges are reported from the Nayband Formation from the other localities in central Iran. One new species identified as Cryptocoelia maxima n. sp. was recovered and is described here.

  20. Land-Cover Change in the East Central Texas Plains, 1973-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2009-01-01

    ancillary data such as census statistics and published literature are used. The sample block data are then incorporated into statistical analyses to generate an overall change matrix for the ecoregion. For example, the scalar statistics can show the spatial extent of change per cover type with time, as well as the land-cover transformations from one land-cover type to another type occurring with time. Field data of the sample blocks include direct measurements of land cover, particularly ground-survey data collected for training and validation of image classifications (Loveland and others, 2002). The field experience allows for additional observations of the character and condition of the landscape, assistance in sample block interpretation, ground truthing of Landsat imagery, and helps determine the driving forces of change identified in an ecoregion. Management and maintenance of field data, beyond initial use for training and validation of image classifications, is important as improved methods for image classification are developed, and as present-day data become part of the historical legacy for which studies of land-cover change in the future will depend (Loveland and others, 2002). The results illustrate that there is no single profile of land-cover change; instead, there is significant geographic variability that results from land uses within ecoregions continuously adapting to the resource potential created by various environmental, technological, and socioeconomic factors.

  1. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The East-Central Florida Transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into ET, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5,000 milligrams

  2. Simulated effects of surface coal mining and agriculture on dissolved solids in the Redwater River, east-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved solids concentrations in five reaches of the Redwater River in east-central Montana were simulated to evaluate the effects of surface coal mining and agriculture. A mass-balance model of streamflow and dissolved solids load developed for the Tongue River in southeastern Montana was modified and applied to the Redwater River. Mined acreages, dissolved solids concentrations in mined spoils, and irrigated acreage can be varied in the model to study relative changes in the dissolved solids concentration in consecutive reaches of the river. Because of extreme variability and a limited amount of data, the model was not consecutively validated. Simulated mean and median monthly mean streamflows and consistently larger than those calculated from streamflow records. Simulated mean and median monthly mean dissolved solids loads also are consistently larger than regression-derived values. These discrepancies probably result from extremely variable streamflow, overestimates of streamflow from ungaged tributaries, and weak correlations between streamflow and dissolved solids concentrations. The largest increases in simulated dissolved solids concentrations from mining and agriculture occur from September through January because of smaller streamflows and dissolved solids loads. Different combinations of agriculture and mining under mean flow conditions resulted in cumulative percentage increases of dissolved solids concentrations of less than 5% for mining and less than 2% for agriculture. (USGS)

  3. Country policy profile - Estonia. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Estonia, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in premium tariff. In addition, investment supports are available for specific types of renewable energy production technologies. To encourage the use of renewable energy sources for heating, investment supports are made available for the construction of CHP plants, as well as for private consumers. In transport, the use of renewable energies is currently mainly encouraged through a support scheme to promote the purchasing of electric cars that use power produced from renewable energy sources (RES Legal Europe, 2014)

  4. Country policy profile - Estonia. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Estonia, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in premium tariff. In addition, investment supports are available for specific types of renewable energy production technologies. To encourage the use of renewable energy sources for heating, investment supports are made available for the construction of CHP plants, as well as for private consumers. In transport, the use of renewable energies is currently mainly encouraged through a support scheme to promote the purchasing of electric cars that use power produced from renewable energy sources (RES Legal Europe, 2014)

  5. Reproductive biology knowledge, and behaviour of teenagers in East, Central and Southern Africa: the Zimbabwe case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbizvo, M T; Kasule, J; Gupta, V; Rusakaniko, S; Gumbo, J; Kinoti, S N; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W; Sebina-Zziwa; Mwateba, R; Padayachy, J

    1995-11-01

    Sexuality in the teenager is often complicated by unplanned/unwanted pregnancy, abortion and the risks of STDs including AIDS. There is therefore a need for improved understanding of factors affecting adolescent sexuality and the implementation of programmes designed to improve their knowledge, risk awareness and subsequent behavioural outcomes. A multicentre study of reproductive health knowledge and behaviour followed by a health education intervention was undertaken amongst teenagers in selected countries of East, Central and Southern Africa. Reported here are findings at baseline derived from the Zimbabwe component on reproductive biology knowledge and behavior. A self-administered questionnaire was used among 1 689 adolescent pupils drawn from rural, urban, co-education, single sex, boarding and day secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Correct knowledge on reproductive biology as measured by the meaning and interpretation of menstruation and wet dreams varied by school from 68 pc to 86 pc, with a significant trend (p < 0,01) based on level of education at baseline. The reported mean age at which menarche took place was 13,5 years +/- 1,3 (mean +/- SD). First coitus was reported to have taken place at the mean age of 12 years for boys and 13,6 years for girls. Seventeen pc of the adolescent pupils reported that they were sexually experienced and 33,2 had relationships. There were misconceptions reported on menstruation with 23 pc reporting that it was an illness. Peers, followed by magazines were the first sources of information on various aspects of reproductive biology, both of which might not provide the correct first information. Among pupils reporting that they were sexually experienced, the largest proportion (56 pc) had unprotected sex. The findings point to the need for targeting the adolescent pupils for information on reproductive biology and increased awareness on the risks of pregnancy, STDs and HIV.

  6. The Late Cretaceous Middle Fork caldera, its resurgent intrusion, and enduring landscape stability in east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Dissected caldera structures expose thick intracaldera tuff and, uncommonly, cogenetic shallow plutons, while remnants of correlative outflow tuffs deposited on the pre-eruption ground surface record elements of ancient landscapes. The Middle Fork caldera encompasses a 10 km × 20 km area of rhyolite welded tuff and granite porphyry in east-central Alaska, ∼100 km west of the Yukon border. Intracaldera tuff is at least 850 m thick. The K-feldspar megacrystic granite porphyry is exposed over much of a 7 km × 12 km area having 650 m of relief within the western part of the caldera fill. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe with reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) analyses of zircon from intracaldera tuff, granite porphyry, and outflow tuff yield U-Pb ages of 70.0 ± 1.2, 69.7 ± 1.2, and 71.1 ± 0.5 Ma (95% confidence), respectively. An aeromagnetic survey indicates that the tuff is reversely magnetized, and, therefore, that the caldera-forming eruption occurred in the C31r geomagnetic polarity chron. The tuff and porphyry have arc geochemical signatures and a limited range in SiO2 of 69 to 72 wt%. Although their phenocrysts differ in size and abundance, similar quartz + K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite mineralogy, whole-rock geochemistry, and analytically indistinguishable ages indicate that the tuff and porphyry were comagmatic. Resorption of phenocrysts in tuff and porphyry suggests that these magmas formed by thermal rejuvenation of near-solidus or solidified crystal mush. A rare magmatic enclave (54% SiO2, arc geochemical signature) in the porphyry may be similar to parental magma and provides evidence of mafic magma and thermal input.

  7. Soils and late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Cottonwood River basin, east-central Kansas: Implications for archaeological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, J.M.; Mandel, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of landscape evolution strongly influence the temporal and spatial patterns of the archaeological record in drainage systems. In this geoarchaeological investigation we took a basin-wide approach in assessing the soil stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and geochronology of alluvial deposits and associated buried soils in the Cottonwood River basin of east-central Kansas. Patterns of landscape evolution emerge when stratigraphic sequences and radiocarbon chronologies are compared by stream size and landform type. In the valleys of high-order streams (???4th order) the Younger Dryas Chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr B.P.) was characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by pedogenesis, resulting in the development of organic-rich cumulic soils. Between ca. 10,000 and 4900 14C yr B.P., aggradation punctuated by soil formation was the dominant process in those valleys. Alluvial fans formed on the margins of high-order stream valleys during the early and middle Holocene (ca. 9000-5000 14C yr B.P.) and continued to develop slowly until ca. 3000-2000 14C yr B.P. The late-Holocene record of high-order streams is characterized by episodes of entrenchment, rapid aggradation, and slow aggradation punctuated by soil development. By contrast, the early and middle Holocene (ca. 10,000-5000 14C yr B.P.) was a period of net erosion in the valleys of low-order streams. However, during the late Holocene small valleys became zones of net sediment storage. Consideration of the effects of these patterns of landscape evolution on the archaeological record is crucial for accurately interpreting that record and searching for buried archaeological deposits dating to specific cultural periods. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

  8. Bionomics of Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) in Relation to Malaria Transmission in East-Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S S; Gunasekaran, K; Krishnamoorthy, N; Vanamail, P; Mathivanan, A; Manonmani, A; Jambulingam, P

    2017-07-01

    The southern districts of Odisha State in east-central India have been highly endemic for falciparum malaria for many decades. However, there is no adequate information on the abundance of the vector species or their bionomics in relation to space and time in these districts. Therefore, a study was carried out on the entomological aspects of malaria transmission to generate such information. Collections of mosquitoes were made once during each of the three seasons in 128 villages selected from eight districts. Villages within the foot-hill ecotype had a significantly greater abundance of Anopheles fluviatilis James s. l., whereas the abundance of Anopheles culicifacies Giles s. l. was significantly greater in the plain ecotype. The abundance of An. fluviatilis was maximum during the cold season, whereas An. culicifacies abundance was highest during summer and rainy seasons. The maximum likelihood estimation of the malaria infection rate in An. fluviatilis was 1.78%, 6.05%, and 2.6% in Ganjam, Kalahandi, and Rayagada districts, respectively. The infection rate of An. culicifacies was 1.39% only in Kandhamal district; infected females were not detected elsewhere. Concurrently, the annual malaria parasite incidence (MPI) was significantly higher in hill-top (17.6) and foot-hill (14.4) villages compared to plain villages (4.1). The districts with more villages in hill-top and foot-hill ecotypes also had a greater abundance of An. fluviatilis, the major malaria vector, and exhibited a higher incidence of malaria than villages within the plain ecotype, where An. culicifacies was the most abundant vector. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Geologic Map and Engineering Properties of the Surficial Deposits of the Tok Area, East-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    The Tok area 1:100,000-scale map, through which the Alaska Highway runs, is in east-central Alaska about 160 km west of the Yukon border. The surficial geologic mapping in the map area is in support of the 'Geologic Mapping in support of land, resources, and hazards issues in Alaska' Project of the USGS National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. The Tok map area contains parts of three physiographic provinces, the Alaska Range, the Yukon-Tanana Upland, and the Northway-Tanana Lowland. The high, rugged, glaciated landscape of the eastern Alaska Range dominates the southwestern map area. The highest peak, an unnamed summit at the head of Cathedral Rapids Creek No. 2, rises to 2166 m. The gently rolling hills of the Yukon-Tanana Upland, in the northern map area, rise to about 1000 m. The Northway-Tanana Lowland contains the valley of the westerly flowing Tanana River. Elevations along the floor of the lowland generally range between 470 and 520 m. The dominant feature within the map is the Tok fan, which occupies about 20 percent of the map area. This large (450 km2), nearly featureless fan contains a high percentage of volcanic clasts derived from outside the present-day drainage of the Tok River. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 26 different surficial units consisting of man-made, alluvial, colluvial, eolian, lacustrine, organic, glaciofluvial, glacial, and periglacial deposits. The accompanying table provides information concerning the various units including their properties, characteristics, resource potential, and associated hazards in this area of the upper Tanana valley.

  10. Thermography of network in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The overall objective of environmental energy sector programmes is to reduce dependency on unsafe nuclear power stations and also to reduce the environmental impact of the energy sector by means of improved energy efficiency, increased use of cleaner technology and cleaner energy sources. In order to ensure sustainability during the reorganisation of the energy sector, support must be provided for organisational development as well as for training and education. The programmes cover both suppliers and consumers. This paper concludes that IR thermography is an excellent performance control method for district heating networks: A biannual or annual inspection gives a good impression of the general condition of the network; Digging costs will be reduced through precise location of any defects; It will be easier to decide the exact timing of any repairs or renovation, leading to improved purchase options; If sudden water losses occur, IR technology can be applied for quick location; It is essential that operators receive very thorough training, and that close attention is paid to qualifications and references when selecting operators. Resources must be made available for individual training in the field, Where trainee operators are given responsibility for completing their own assignments under the supervisoon of experienced operators. (EG)

  11. Isolation and molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus from the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India: evidence of an East, Central, and South African genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, N; Chaaithanya, I K; Senthil, G S; Shriram, A N; Bhattacharya, D; Jeevabharathi, G S; Sudeep, A B; Pradeepkumar, N; Vijayachari, P

    2011-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. In 2006, CHIKV infection struck the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, with an attack rate of 60%. There were more than 10 cases with acute flaccid paralysis simulating the Guillian Barre Syndrome. The majority of the patients presented severe joint pain. The cause for such an explosive nature of the outbreak with increased morbidity was not known. The isolation of CHIKV was attempted and succeeded from nine subjects presenting clinical symptoms of Chikungunya fever. The cDNA of all the isolates was sequenced for partial E1 and nsP1 genes. Sequences were aligned based on the double locus sequence typing concept. The phylogenetic analysis shows that sequences of Andaman isolates grouped with the East, Central, and South African genotype of virus isolates from India, Sri Lanka, and Réunion. The genetic distance between Andaman isolates and the Réunion isolates was very small. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the origin of the isolates responsible for the first ever confirmed CHIKV outbreak in these islands to be the East, Central, and South African genotype. In this manuscript, we discuss the involvement of the East, Central, and South African strain with the Chikungunya fever outbreak in this archipelago and double locus sequence typing as a first time approach.

  12. Mõnitav kõverpeegel Estonia hukust / Heino Levald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levald, Heino, 1930-

    2003-01-01

    Saksa poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku : stsenarist, produtsent Jutta Rabe : režissöör Reuben Leder. Mereakadeemia professori hinnang filmi sõnumile

  13. Uudised : Rossini "Wilhelm Tell" Estonias. Cavalli ooper Amsterdamis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Gioachino Rossini ooperi "Wilhelm Tell" kontsertettekandest 18. ja 20. dets. Rahvusooper Estonias (peaosas Rauno Elp, külalisesinejaks Mario Zeffiri). Itaalia barokihelilooja Francesco Cavalli ooperi "Ercole amante" lavastamisest Madalmaade Ooperis Amsterdamis (lavastaja David Alden, esietendus 11. jaanuaril)

  14. Estonia film venitab saladuste loori / Heiki Suurkask, Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Esilinastuse ja filmi ümber toimuvast. Lisatud lühiintervjuu Riina Kionkaga, Eesti suursaadikuga Saksamaal

  15. Kuulus Ralf Langbacka lavastab Estonias Verdi "Othello" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia 8. septembril 2005 Rocca al Mares asuvas Coral Clubi spordikeskuses esietenduvast ooperist "Othello", etendus valmib koostöös Tampere Ooperiga. 7. aprillil Tampere Talos toimuvast esietendusest

  16. Henning Witte : Estonia-film tuleb / Villem Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Villem, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et "Estonia" uppus maffiavandenõu tõttu. Stsenaristideks on Juta Rabe, Henning Witte ja Kaj Holmberg. Ka : Nädal nr. 47, lk. 5

  17. Saksa kirjandus Noor-Eesti ajal. Young Estonia and German Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Lukas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Impelled by a desire to free themselves from the German influence that had dominated the development of Estonian literature, and from the one-sided relation of cultural dependence that had lasted several hundred years, the Young Estonia movement sought to modernize Estonian literature through borrowing from other European literatures, in particular from French, Scandinavian, and Finnish. This article seeks to clarify the relative importance and selection criteria of translations from German literature for the literary field of the Young Estonia era. Further, I seek to elucidate Young Estonia’s contribution to the renewal of these selection criteria in the first, but more importantly the second decade of the 20th century. The long list of translations from German to Estonian at the beginning of the century speaks of the ”light Muse” of German family newspapers, with an admixture of the following: naturalist light fiction with a social theme and social drama; the historical novel (great favourite of the era of historicism, trendy fiction for both feminine and masculine audiences, and an overwhelming proportion of ”Heimatskunst” (literature of local colour. In the first and second decade of the new century, new names appear on the Estonian literary scene that signal a change in taste. For example, naturalist authors (Kretzer, Hauptmann, Halbe, Dehmel crop up sporadically amidst texts meant for leisure reading. Although the first translations of Nietzsche only appeared in 1901, already in 1902 critics had reason to speak of ”Nietzsche in Estonian literature”. 1910 marked the breakthrough of Viennese modernism in the Estonian literary field (Schnitzler, Altenberg, Bahr. Under the influential protection of the Young Estonians (Suits, Kallas, and published by the Young Estonia Publishing House, Baltic German novellawriter Eduard Keyserling enters the Estonian literary scene. Though ”mass consumption” literature from Germany continued

  18. Effects of pollution from oil shale mining in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallner, L.; Sepp, K.

    1993-01-01

    The largest commercially exploited oil shale deposit in the world is in northeast Estonia. The accumulation of solid residues by oil shale mines and processing plants has resulted in numerous dumps and ash hills, which are polluting the environment. The groundwater and streams are highly polluted by sulphates, phenols and oil products. A dump hill of radioactive wastes poses a serious threat to the Baltic Sea. Local people suffer from diseases more often than in other regions of Estonia. (author)

  19. Imaging Crustal Structure of East Central United States using receiver function and implications for the accretion of juvenile crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S.; Levander, A.

    2017-12-01

    Almost half of the North American continental plate is formed by the juvenile terrane accretion between 1.8-1.0 Ga, therefore, the suturing process of juvenile crust in East Central United States, not receiving as much attention probably due to low station coverage before the deployment of US transportable array, is of great importance to better understand the evolution of North American Plate. The Yavapai province is formed by the accretion of juvenile crust during 1.8-1.7 Ga. The northeastern part of Yavapai province is accreted to the Superior province along the Spirit Lake Tectonic Zone (SLTZ). During the period of 1.7-1.6 Ga, the Mazatzal Province, bounded the south of Yavapai Province, was added to Laurentia. The previous research mainly focuses on the southwestern Yavapai-Mazatzal boundary (Karlstrom et.al 2002, Magnani et.al 2004) but less in the northeastern area that we are interested in. The Granite-Rhyolite province is the product of the suturing event of juvenile arc crust reoccurring along the southeast margin of Laurentia between 1.55-1.35 Ga, which has been proved by the Nd model age (Whitmeyer et.al 2007). Here we will select the Mw>=5.5 teleseismic events with epicenter distance between 35 and 90 recorded by 300 available seismic stations in our study region. The receiver functions will be calculated by the water-level deconvolution in frequency domain (Langston 1979) and iterative deconvolution in time domain (Ligorria et.al 1999). The common conversion point (CCP) stacking method will then be applied to the receiver functions to create the 3-D image volume by imaging the conversion points in space from the time domain signals (Levander and Miller 2012). The preliminary results show that the accretion process of the tectonic provinces may have different models. The profiles of CCP image volume will inform us the seismic evidence to model the suturing process of juvenile Yavapai, Mozatzal and Granite-Rhyolite crust, hence providing great

  20. Hydrochemistry of the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer, East-Central Illinois: indicators of recharge and ground-water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Cartwright, K.; Liu, Chao-Li

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual model of the ground-water flow and recharge to the Mahomet Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MVA), east-central Illinois, was developed using major ion chemistry and isotope geochemistry. The MVA is a 'basal' fill in the east-west trending buried bedrock valley composed of clean, permeable sand and gravel to thicknesses of up to 61 m. It is covered by a thick sequence of glacial till containing thinner bodies of interbedded sand and gravel. Ground water from the MVA was found to be characterized by clearly defined geochemical regions with three distinct ground-water types. A fourth ground-water type was found at the confluence of the MVA and the Mackinaw Bedrock Valley Aquifer (MAK) to the west. Ground water in the Onarga Valley, a northeastern tributary of the MVA, is of two types, a mixed cation-SO42- type and a mixed cation-HCO3- type. The ground water is enriched in Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- which appears to be the result of an upward hydraulic gradient and interaction of deeper ground water with oxidized pyritic coals and shale. We suggest that recharge to the Onarga Valley and overlying aquifers is 100% from bedrock (leakage) and lateral flow from the MVA to the south. The central MVA (south of the Onarga Valley) is composed of relatively dilute ground water of a mixed cation-HCO3- type, with low total dissolved solids, and very low concentrations of Cl- and SO42-. Stratigraphic relationships of overlying aquifers and ground-water chemistry of these and the MVA suggest recharge to this region of the MVA (predominantly in Champaign County) is relatively rapid and primarily from the surface. Midway along the westerly flow path of the MVA (western MVA), ground water is a mixed cation-HCO3- type with relatively high Cl-, where Cl- increases abruptly by one to ??? two orders of magnitude. Data suggest that the increase in Cl- is the result of leakage of saline ground water from bedrock into the MVA. Mass-balance calculations indicate that approximately 9.5% of

  1. Technical assistance for EBRD-PMU, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The EBRD Energy Sector Emergency Loan to Estonia has resulted in numerous benefits for the Estonian Energy Sector and the Estonian Society and the locals as well as the end users have developed themselves tremendously during the project. The substantial economic, environmental and energy saving effects of the loan project have been: Energy savings and improved energy efficiency in the electricity grid, the district heating networks, the district heating consumer installations, the energy production plants in terms of rehabilitated or converted boilers and burners, industrial consumer installations. The energy efficiency improvements have resulted in energy savings between 5% and 30%; Conversion of boilers from expensive imported heavy fuel oil to indigenous fuels such as peat and wood. The results are higher supply security, improved boiler efficiency, reduced emissions and reduced operation and maintenance costs; Rehabilitated district heating networks resulted in reduced heat and water losses, improved operation of installations and reduced maintenance costs; Rehabilitated electricity grids with fewer break-downs, reduced maintenance costs and improved energy efficiency as results; Improved operation of the larger energy utilities resulting in lower operational costs, improved dispatch of the energy systems and speedier actions in case of break-downs. The economic indicators, pay-back time and Internal Rate of Return show that a large number of the projects have had a substantial impact on the Estonian economy and that the projects have been sound investments. The recommendations for the local completion of the work in Estonia are: The Juri boiler plant should be carefully attended to by the PMU and the Estonian authorities. (Abstract Truncated)

  2. Fault-controlled CO2 leakage from natural reservoirs in the Colorado Plateau, East-Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Na-Hyun; Han, Weon Shik; Watson, Z. T.; Graham, Jack P.; Kim, Kue-Young

    2014-10-01

    The study investigated a natural analogue for soil CO2 fluxes where CO2 has naturally leaked on the Colorado Plateau, East-Central Utah in order to identify various factors that control CO2 leakage and to understand regional-scale CO2 leakage processes in fault systems. The total 332 and 140 measurements of soil CO2 flux were made at 287 and 129 sites in the Little Grand Wash (LGW) and Salt Wash (SW) fault zones, respectively. Measurement sites for CO2 flux involved not only conspicuous CO2 degassing features (e.g., CO2-driven springs/geysers) but also linear features (e.g., joints/fractures and areas of diffusive leakage around a fault damage zone). CO2 flux anomalies were mostly observed along the fault traces. Specifically, CO2 flux anomalies were focused in the northern footwall of the both LGW and SW faults, supporting the existence of north-plunging anticlinal CO2 trap against south-dipping faults as well as higher probability of the north major fault traces as conduits. Anomalous CO2 fluxes also appeared in active travertines adjacent to CO2-driven cold springs and geysers (e.g., 36,259 g m-2 d-1 at Crystal Geyser), ancient travertines (e.g., 5,917 g m-2 d-1), joint zones in sandstone (e.g., 120 g m-2 d-1), and brine discharge zones (e.g., 5,515 g m-2 d-1). These observations indicate that CO2 has escaped through those pathways and that CO2 leakage from these fault zones does not correspond to point source leakage. The magnitude of CO2 flux is progressively reduced from north (i.e. the LGW fault zone, ∼36,259 g m-2 d-1) to south (i.e. the SW fault zone, ∼1,428 g m-2 d-1) despite new inputs of CO2 and CO2-saturated brine to the northerly SW fault from depth. This discrepancy in CO2 flux is most likely resulting from the differences in fault zone architecture and associated permeability structure. CO2-rich fluids from the LGW fault zone may become depleted with respect to CO2 during lateral transport, resulting in an additional decrease in CO2 fluxes

  3. Relations between groundwater levels and anthropogenic and meteorological stressors at selected sites in east-central Florida, 1995-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louis C.

    2010-01-01

    Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to define the relations of water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) and surficial aquifer system (SAS) to anthropogenic and meteorological stressors between 1995 and 2007 at two monitoring well sites (Charlotte Street and Lake Oliver) in east-central Florida. Anthropogenic stressors of interest included municipal and agricultural groundwater withdrawals, and application of reclaimed-water to rapid-infiltration basins (source of aquifer recharge). Meteorological stressors included precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Overall, anthropogenic and meteorological stressors accounted for about 40 to 89 percent of the variance in UFA and SAS groundwater levels and water-level changes. While mean monthly water levels were better correlated with monthly stressor values, changes in UFA and SAS water levels were better correlated with changes in stressor values. Water levels and water-level changes were influenced by system persistence as the moving-averaged values of both stressor types, which accounted for the influence of the previous month(s) conditions, consistently yielded higher adjusted coefficients of determination (R2 adj) values than did single monthly values. While monthly water-level changes tend to be influenced equally with both stressors across the hydrologically averaged 13-year period, changes were more influenced by one stressor or the other seasonally and during extended wet and dry periods. Seasonally, UFA water-level changes tended to be more influenced by anthropogenic stressors than by meteorological stressors, while changes in SAS water levels tended to be more influenced by meteorological stressors. During extended dry periods (12 months or greater), changes in UFA water levels at Charlotte Street were more affected by anthropogenic stressors than by meteorological stressors, while changes in SAS levels were more affected by meteorological stressors. At Lake Oliver, changes in both

  4. Sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability, John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas, 1964-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information, bottom-sediment coring, and historical streamgage information was used to investigate sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability for John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas. Ongoing sedimentation is reducing the ability of the reservoir to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited between 1964 and 2009 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was 1.46 billion cubic feet and 55.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 41 percent of the conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Water-storage capacity in the conservation pool has been lost to sedimentation at a rate of about 1 percent annually. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1964 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 1.24 billion pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the reservoir basin was estimated to be 411,000 pounds per square mile per year Information from sediment cores shows that throughout the history of John Redmond Reservoir, total nitrogen concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform indicating consistent nitrogen inputs to the reservoir. Total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were more variable than total nitrogen indicating the possibility of changing phosphorus inputs to the reservoir. As the principal limiting factor for primary production in most freshwater environments, phosphorus is of particular importance because increased inputs can contribute to accelerated reservoir eutrophication and the production of algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of the reservoir were estimated to be 2,350,000 pounds per year and 1,030,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual

  5. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaupo Mändla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer months. The number of thunder days was largest when the centres of southern cyclones passed a measuring station at a distance less than 500 km. The number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes related to southern cyclones was larger than that of any other thunder events. The results of our study demonstrate that the intensity of thunderstorms related to southern cyclones is higher than that of other thunderstorms. Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and the frequency of southern cyclones, also between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and days of other thunder events.

  6. Middle and Late Holocene hunter-gatherers in East Central Europe: changing paradigms of the ‘non-Neolithic’ way of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Nowak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available According to traditional views, the main reason for ‘demesolithisation’ in East Central Europe was the spread of the Neolithic oecumene, particularly from c. 4000 BC. Simultaneously, the disintegrated Late Mesolithic world gradually underwent typological unification, and finally reached the stage that is sometimes described as pre-Neolithic. However, we definitely have to bear in mind that as a matter of fact we deal only with the ‘history’ of archaeological artefacts that are treated as typical attributes of hunter-gatherers. The analyses of chronological, technological, settlement, economic, and social data referring to foragers of East Central Europe demonstrate that the quantitative decrease and changes of their archaeological attributes in the fifth, fourth, and third millennia were not connected with a profound reorientation of their spatial and ideological existence. It was rather a continuation of previous patterns, even though territories settled by farming societies were steadily growing in size. The final disappearance of Central European hunter-gatherers – but only in a strictly typological dimension – took place in the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age.

  7. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabrilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  8. Should Estonia have a nuclear power station?(Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, T.

    1992-01-01

    In developing countries the problem of energy supply can be of paramount importance. Estonia, however, being the small country of a small nation, has to take into account special considerations before deciding on the possible introduction of nuclear electricity. Should another disaster like that of Chernobyl take place on Estonian territory, the whole nation might perish. Therefore, those scientists who place national interests above all have been active looking for alternative sources of energy. The present paper discusses the situation in Northern Europe and draws the readers' attention to the still unsolved problem of nuclear waste disposal. The paper emphasises the fact that the Fifth Estonian Conference on Ecology regarded nuclear energy as entirely unacceptable for Estonia and declared its full support for the decision taken by the Estonian Government not to consider the application of nuclear power in Estonia before the year 2000. (author). 8 figs

  9. Assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and precipitation change on the surficial aquifer in the low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier islands, east-central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Hall, Carlton R.

    2016-11-01

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented using the SEAWAT code to quantify the spatial variation of water-table depth and salinity of the surficial aquifer in Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral Island in east-central Florida (USA) under steady-state 2010 hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The developed model is referred to as the `reference' model and calibrated against field-measured groundwater levels and a map of land use and land cover. Then, five prediction/projection models are developed based on modification of the boundary conditions of the calibrated `reference' model to quantify climate change impacts under various scenarios of sea-level rise and precipitation change projected to 2050. Model results indicate that west Merritt Island will encounter lowland inundation and saltwater intrusion due to its low elevation and flat topography, while climate change impacts on Cape Canaveral Island and east Merritt Island are not significant. The SEAWAT models developed for this study are useful and effective tools for water resources management, land use planning, and climate-change adaptation decision-making in these and other low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier island systems.

  10. Domestic fuel consumption in Estonia (The first half of 1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1993-01-01

    According to the data of the Estonian Statistics Department the consumption of fuels in Estonia over the period of January-June 1993 was a follows: coal 77,053 t, oil shale 7,981,840 t, fuel peat 127,376 t, peat briquette 42,041 t, firewood 154,511 solid metres, wood chip 55,648 solid metres. The consumption of fuel peat (chiefly for producing briquette) was more considerable in the town of Kohtla-Jaerve and in the districts of Paernu and Tartu where Estonia's major peat-briquette plants are located. The share of peat in the other industries has been less significant. (author)

  11. Radio synovectomy: First results in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; Samarina, G.; Poksi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In Estonia first radiosynovectomy (RSE) was carried out in 2001 at Tallinn Central Hospital, which has remained the only institution in North Estonia performing these procedures. Purpose of this study was to analyze the results and the clinical experience gained during the period of September 2001 January 2005. We performed RSE in 10 knee joints of 7 patients. Our patient population consisted of 3 males and 4 females (mean age 34, range 16-48). There were 6 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic synovitis and 1 patient with haemophilia (HE) who had one episode of haemarthrosis eight month prior to RSE. In RA the duration of the disease was ranging from 2 month to 20 years. All RA patients were resistant to anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants and intraarticular steroid therapy. Prior to RSE, conventional rheumatologic evaluation and MRI scan were carried out, revealing the thickness of synovia of 2-5 mm, and minimal or no cartilage damage. In our HE patient chronic hypertrophic synovitis associated with haemarthrosis did not respond to haematological treatment: replacement of the missing clotting factor, intermittent steroids, immobilization, physical therapy. According to MRI, the thickness of synovia was patchy, 5-26 mm, the cartilage damage was absent. For RSE, intraarticular injection of radiocolloid was carried out in aseptic conditions and under local anesthesia. Treated joints were immobilized for 2 days. In 5 out of 6 RA patients the injection was performed once, in one RA patient four times. In order to minimize local inflammation and lymphatic clearance glucocorticoids were administered together with radioisotope agents. In three patients (2 with RA and 1 with HE) 27 mCi of 166-Ho-FHMA was injected, and in remaining four patients with RA - 4-6 mCi of 90-Y radiocolloid was used. All joints with Ho-FHMA were checked for radiocolloid leakage by subsequent gamma camera imaging. Treatment response was evaluated from 2 to 6 month

  12. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  13. Estonia taastusravikeskuse termid : Sääse 7, Pärnu = Baths at SPA Estonia : Sääse 7, Pärnu / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Estonia taastusravikeskuse basseini- ja vesiravikompleksist, mille arhitektid ning sisearhitektid on Edda Soolep ja Jüri Soolep (Archimedium OÜ). Žürii hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  14. Country Branding and Country Image: Insights, Challenges and Prospects. The Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Same Siiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaining understanding about customers ’mindset and information on their experiences is a precondition for the formulation of an effective country branding strategy. What potential tourists might learn and how they can be made to feel about a place can help small and not very well-known countries compete with bigger and more popular tourist destinations. The article focuses on the effectiveness of Brand Estonia and claims that it is still a challenge, despite the existence of an ongoing strategy. It also favors the revision of the brand identity selection and the promotion of Estonian brand, and supports a customer-based approach for their assessment. Documentary and empirical evidence show that the image of Estonia among its most important target audiences in the field of tourism does not match the Estonian brand identity. The gap in-between was evidenced by the results and content analysis of 24 in-depth interviews made with a selected group of people well acquainted with the country as well as some branding experts. This article contributes to the existing case study literature with findings that also manifest opportunities to strengthen the country brand, if its formulation develops a realistic brand identity and its promotion is based on accurate, unique and appealing ideas. It proposes academic support to innovative or alternative concepts for the country branding, and comments on applications of this study to more specific fields and further research.

  15. The Lower Triassic Sorkh Shale Formation of the Tabas Block, east central Iran: Succesion of a failed-rift basin at the Paleotethys margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasemi, Y.; Ghomashi, M.; Amin-Rasouli, H.; Kheradmand, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Triassic Sorkh Shale Formation is a dominantly red colored marginal marine succession deposited in the north-south trending Tabas Basin of east central Iran. It is correlated with the unconformity-bounded lower limestone member of the Elika Formation of the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. The Sorkh Shale is bounded by the pre-Triassic and post-Lower Triassic interregional unconformities and consists mainly of carbonates, sandstones, and evaporites with shale being a minor constituent. Detailed facies analysis of the Sorkh Shale Formation resulted in recognition of several genetically linked peritidal facies that are grouped into restricted subtidal, carbonate tidal flat, siliciclastic tidal flat, coastal plain and continental evaporite facies associations. These were deposited in a low energy, storm-dominated inner-ramp setting with a very gentle slope that fringed the Tabas Block of east central Iran and passed northward (present-day coordinates) into deeper water facies of the Paleotethys passive margin of northern Cimmerian Continent. Numerous carbonate storm beds containing well-rounded intraclasts, ooids and bioclasts of mixed fauna are present in the Sorkh Shale Formation of the northern Tabas Basin. The constituents of the storm beds are absent in the fair weather peritidal facies of the Sorkh Shale Formation, but are present throughout the lower limestone member of the Elika Formation. The Tabas Block, a part of the Cimmerian continent in east central Iran, is a rift basin that developed during Early Ordovician-Silurian Paleotethys rifting. Facies and sequence stratigraphic analyses of the Sorkh Shale Formation has revealed additional evidence supporting the Tabas Block as a failed rift basin related to the Paleotethys passive margin. Absence of constituents of the storm beds in the fair weather peritidal facies of the Sorkh Shale Formation, presence of the constituents of the storm beds in the fair weather facies of the Elika Formation (the

  16. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S.; Eensaar, A. [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1995-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  17. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  18. Saksa press käsitleb Estonia huku filmi blufina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe, Kaj Holmberg ja Birgit Stein, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Filmi vaieldavast konteptsioonist ja vastukajadest Saksa ajakirjanduses. Ka Eesti suursaadiku Riina Kionka arvamus

  19. Estonia hukk jõuab suvel kinodesse / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Nädal tagasi alustati Berliinis poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow

  20. A 13th-century kettlehat from Kodasoo, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäll, Jaak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest surviving helmet from Estonia is a 13th-century kettlehat found near village of Kodasoo in northern Estonia. Three samples from different parts of the kettlehat were investigated in a metallographic study. The raw material of the Kodasoo kettlehat was a slag-rich iron of heterogeneous carbon content. It was improved by folding and forge-welding it at least three times, resulting in layered structure with more uniformly distributed carbon content.

    El casco más antiguo encontrado en Estonia es un «chapel de fer» del siglo XIII que proviene de cerca de la aldea de Kodasoo, en el Norte de Estonia. Tres muestras de diversas partes del casco fueron investigadas mediante un estudio metalográfico. El material original del casco de Kodasoo era un hierro de contenido de carbono heterogéneo y con abundantes inclusiones de escoria. Se intentó mejorar su calidad mediante forja, doblándolo y soldándolo a la calda por lo menos tres veces, dando como resultado una estructura estratificada, con el contenido de carbono distribuido más uniformemente.

  1. Elegantne ja värske Rahvusooper Estonia / Maris Takk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Takk, Maris

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia publikuruumide renoveerimine. Sisearhitektid Juta Lember ja Aulo Padar, SAB Lember & Padar. Arhitektuurse projekti autor Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss). Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2005. a. ajaloolise interjööri preemia. J. Lemberist ja A. Padarist, nende tähtsamad tööd, autasud. Ill.: plaan, 16 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  2. Cryptosporidiosis - an occupational risk and a disregarded zoonosis in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Ståhl, Marie; Lassen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Findings Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered t...

  3. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S; Eensaar, A [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1996-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  4. The composition of surrogate and illegal alcohol products in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Szucs, Sándor; Adány, Róza; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To identify the composition of illegal and surrogate alcohol products consumed in Estonia. The initial source of information was a series of visits made in August 2005 to a soup kitchen in central Tartu, Estonia. Individuals were asked for brief details of their personal circumstances, what they normally drank, and in addition they were asked to bring samples of the substances they usually consumed. In other cases, the substances identified were purchased by the investigators or from informal contacts in north-eastern part of Estonia, an area that is well known for illegal alcohol consumption. Samples were tested for chemical contents. We identified a range of alcohol-containing substances that are consumed, although, not intended for consumption. These comprised medicinal products, aftershaves, illegally produced spirits, and fire-lighting fuel. The medicinal compounds contained, on average, 67% ethanol by volume; the aftershaves contained slightly less. Both were typically pure, with a few containing detectable quantities of isoamyl alcohol. The illegally produced alcohol contained, on average, 43% ethanol by volume, ranging from 32 to 53%. However, many also contained detectable quantities of long chain alcohols. These substances are half the price or less of commercial vodka, with fire lighting fuels especially inexpensive. There is in Estonia a range of alcohol-containing substances easily available at low cost. Some contain substantially higher concentrations of ethanol than commercial spirits and others also contain toxic long chain alcohols.

  5. Estonia juubelihooaeg tuleb tavalisest sisukam / Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Hille, 1941-2014

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia 100. hooaja etendustest: G. Verdi "Othello", G. Puccini ooper "Tosca", Rene Eespere ooper "Gurmaanid-2", P. Mascagni "Talupoja au", R. Leoncavallo "Pajatsid", W. A. Mozarti ooper "Don Giovanni" ja ooperi "La clemenza di Tito" kontsertettekanne, Tiit Härmi ballett "Kameeliadaam", Ludvig Minkuse ballett "Don Quijote". Osavõtust Dalhalla ooperifestivalist Rootsis Puccini ooperiga "Tosca" ja Cannito/Schiavoni balletiga "Cassandra"

  6. Estonia näitas uut logo / Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Ooperiteatri uue logo autor on Kristjan Kirsfeldt. Liis Kolle lavastab G. Rossini ooperi "Sinjoor Bruschino ehk Poeg juhuse tahtel", kunstnikud Liina Keevallik ja Reili Evart. 2. juunil Rahvusooperis etendunud rahvusooperi näiteringi "Welcome to Estonia" Neeme Kuninga kirjutatud ja lavastatud muusikalist "Minu veetlev Eedi".

  7. Economically viable and environment-friendly hydro energy in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saks, Ants; Velner, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Hydro energy has been in oblivion in Estonia for about 30 years now. During the 1960s, most of Estonia's small hydropower plants were closed down, just as it was done in the whole Soviet Union. As the only larger hydro plant, the 125 MW plant in Narva, was situated on the Russian side of the Narva River, there were only two or three small hydro plants left. Even those were exploited at low capacity and mainly for heating the buildings. It was not until the 1990s that a number of enthusiasts started to re-establish the hydro plants by reconstructing old installations. The pre-feasibility study 'Hydropower in Estonia' proposed by Estonian and Swedish experts, showed that the restoration of the hydropower plants and watermills is economically feasible and technically possible if advanced technology is used. Hydropower as an alternative ('green') energy source should be used in the best technical-economical way. The first pilot plant in Estonia, the 200 kW Kamari plant was constructed in 1998 with compact-propeller units, in co-operation with Waterpumps WP Oy and ABB. Today, ten new plants have been constructed or are under construction. Hydropower plants/watermills should be reconstructed in accordance with the legislative acts on environment protection

  8. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, Russell G.; Evans, Karl V.; Kunk, Michael J.; Pillers, Renee M.

    2011-01-01

    The Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) ore deposits of the Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, have previously been classified as Besshi-type VMS, sedex, and IOCG deposits within an intact stratigraphic section. New studies indicate that, across the district, mineralization was introduced into the country rocks as a series of structurally controlled vein and alteration systems. Quartz-rich and biotite-rich veins (and alteration zones) and minor albite and siderite veinlets maintain consistent order and sulfide mineral associations across the district. Both early and late quartz veins contain chalcopyrite and pyrite, whereas intermediate-stage tourmaline-biotite veins host the cobaltite. Barren early and late albite and late carbonate (generally siderite) form veins or are included in the quartz veins. REE minerals, principally monazite, allanite, and xenotime, are associated with both tourmaline-biotite and late quartz veins. The veins are in mineralized intervals along axial planar cleavage, intrafolial foliation, and shears.

  9. One Country, Two Polarised Audiences: Estonia and the Deficiency of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Jõesaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that until recent times, the Estonian media policy has mainly been interpreted as an economic issue and it did not account for the strategic need to build a comprehensive media field to serve all groups in society. This has happened despite the fact the Estonian media policy is in line with the European Union (EU media policy, which should ensure freedom of information, diversity of opinion and media pluralism. Findings of the Estonian case study show that despite these noble aims, Estonia has two radically different information fields: one for Estonian speaking audiences and one for Russian speakers. Events in Ukraine have added to the democratic media policy paradigm a question of national security. Now it is a challenge for the policy makers to unite polarised media fields and how to minimise the impact of Russian propaganda. On the EU level, one supportive measure could be a revision of the Audiovisual Media Service Directive.

  10. Perceived Status and National Belonging: The Case of Russian Speakers in Finland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Anna Renvik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of research on disadvantaged minority group members, the research field on the ramifications of low group status is largely split between more material and psychological lines of explanation. There is also a lack of research on how subjectively perceived socio-economic status and discrimination cumulatively affect the sense of national belonging of ethnic minority group members. This survey study was conducted among Russian-speaking immigrants in Finland ('N' = 316 and Estonia ('N' = 501. The results in Estonia showed that for national identification to be high, both indicators of subjective group status had to be perceived as relatively high. In Finland, there was no interaction between the two indicators of subjectively perceived low group status. The study shows how perceptions of cumulative disadvantage may provoke a backlash in the form of immigrants’ psychological distancing from the national ingroup. The findings are discussed in relation to the pervasiveness of low status in different intergroup contexts and minority group members’ perceived investments to society.

  11. Communication of 20 October 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Estonia to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Estonia's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale of 20 October 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Estonia providing information about the nuclear policies and practices of the Republic of Estonia. In light of the wish expressed in the Note Verbale, its text is attached hereto

  12. Estonia katastroofis hukkunute omaste seisukohad ja palve seoses USA presidendi George W. Bushi visiidiga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Estonia protsessiühingu esimehe Helje Kaskeli ja Estonia Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu esimehe Ülo Veide pöördumises president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poole tuuakse esile katastroofis hukkunute omaste seisukohad. Ilmunud ka: Kesknädal 29. nov. 2006, lk. 4-5, pealk.: Ilves, avita! Estonia katastroofis hukkunute omaste palvekiri Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele; Vaba Eesti Sõna 30. nov. 2006, lk. 3, 10, pealk.: Avalik kiri Eesti Vabariigi presidendile Toomas H. Ilvesele

  13. Kohtumisel Bushiga tuleks tõstatada ka Estonia huku teema / Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar

    2006-01-01

    Parvlaeval Estonia hukkunute omaste ühendused avaldasid oma pöördumises Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele soovi, et president arutaks kohtumisel USA presidendi George W. Bushiga USA julgeolekuagentuuri NSA käsutuses olevate laevahukku puudutavate salastatud dokumentide üleandmist Eestile. Pöördumisele on alla kirjutanud Estonia Litigation Associationi esimees Helje Kaskel ja Estonia Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu (EHVM) juht Ülo Veide

  14. Database Design for the Evaluation of On-shore and Off-Shore Storm Characteristics over East Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Amy A.; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Brown, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from multiple sources is needed to investigate lightning characteristics over differing terrain (on-shore vs. off-shore) by comparing natural cloud-to-ground lightning behavior differences depending on the characteristics of attachment mediums. The KSC Lightning Research Database (KLRD) was created to reduce manual data entry time and aid research by combining information from various data sources into a single record for each unique lightning event of interest. The KLRD uses automatic data handling functions to import data from a lightning detection network and identify and record lighting events of interest. Additional automatic functions import data from the NASA Buoy 41009 (located approximately 20 miles off the coast) and the KSC Electric Field Mill network, then match these electric field mill values to the corresponding lightning events. The KLRD calculates distances between each lightning event and the various electric field mills, aids in identifying the location type for each stroke (i.e., on-shore vs. off-shore, etc.), provides statistics on the number of strokes per flash, and produces customizable reports for quick retrieval and logical display of data. Data from February 2014 to date covers 48 unique storm dates with 2295 flashes containing 5700 strokes, of which 2612 are off-shore and 1003 are on-shore. The number of strokes per flash ranges from 1 to 22. The ratio of single to subsequent stroke flashes is 1.29 for off-shore strokes and 2.19 for on-shore strokes.

  15. Rahmaninov ja Saint-Saens Estonia kontserdisaalis / Tiina Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Tiina, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    18. novembril Estonia kontserdisaalis toimuvast Sergei Rahmaninovi Klaverikontsert nr 2 ja "Kellad" ettekandest ja 29. novembril Toimuvast Camille Saint-Saensi ooperi "Simson ja Delila" kontsertettekandest

  16. Sajandi sündmus : Estonia teater jõudis Financial Timesi / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Maailmakuulus majandusleht Financial Times avaldas 4. jaanuaril ajakirjanik George Loomis'e artikli, mis kajastab Rahvusooperis Estonia 14. detsembril 2001 esietendunud Carl Orffi ooperit "Tark naine"

  17. Berliner Zeitung annab Estonia-filmile hävitava hinnangu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Filmi vaieldavast konteptsioonist ja vastukaja Saksa ajakirjanduses

  18. Building up the radiation protection infrastructure in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lust, Merle; Muru, Karin

    2008-01-01

    This paper will provide a timeline overview of the of radiation protection infrastructure following the 1999 declaration of independence. In Estonia, an independent competent authority was inaugurated in 1996 and the first Radiation Act was approved by Parliament the following year, in 1997. This paper will address several important factors and the means which promoted development. International cooperation was and remains an essential factor worthy of discussion. For example participation in International Atomic Energy Agency technical co-operation programme and co-operation with neighbouring countries greatly facilitated greatly the development. Political choices and the long term goal of accession to the European Union had great importance to the process also. Today, the Republic of Estonia is member of European Union and has built up a well functioning radiation protection system according the international standards and requirements. This paper is intended to share the experience and to facilitate the learning process. (author)

  19. The tourism image of Estonia in Spain: a formulative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katlin Savva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an environment, where information flow is freer than ever. Nowadays everyone has access to global news and can make their own conclu-sions based on the perceived image. Therefore, the role of perception and image is becoming more important for different countries to attract visitors and in-vestors. Tourism is a way of selling the image of a country and the reputation and word of mouth generated from tourism activities are priceless to the image of a destination. This paper analyzes the case of Estonia, which is an emerging tourism market and quite new and unknown for Spain. The authors try to accent the importance of direct promotion, through a survey carried out to 341 Spanish people in Madrid. The result from this quantitative and formulative research method is that Estonia has to promote its tourism image better if the country wants to attract the Spanish tourist.

  20. The preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbri, T.; Aasmann, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains the situation of legislation, practical border-control and equipment of different relevant authorities dealing with the control of radioactive materials in Estonia. The overview of legislation concerning radiation and radiation protection is given. The roles of Estonian Customs Authority, Estonian border Guard, National Rescue Board and Police Authority in the preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are shown. The incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are listed. Also the most important border-crossing points and the types of equipment used there are shown. Finally the problems of controlling the borders in Estonia and the future plans in order to make the controlling system more efficient are discussed. (author)

  1. PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE OF ESTONIA IN A GROWTH ACCOUNTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien MOLNAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the economic growth tendencies in Estonia and other formal post-socialist countries and the interaction between productivity growth and their determinants after the transition decades. So this paper is structured as follows. Firstly we will introduce an alternative growth accounting method to determine the components of productivity growth based on this concept. In Section we will also provide our empirical results in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Hungary compared to the EU-15 countries between 1990 and 2011 how TFP (Total Factor Productivity, Physical and Labour Capital Accumulation can contribute to (increase or decrease economic performance of each country. Finally, we can conclude that the relationship between labour and output growth per capita has obviously and temporarily changed after the mid-1990s, which could be determined by the increasing role of such socio-economic factors as technological changes, capital accumulation and demographical fluctuations etc.

  2. Some problems of oil shale retorting in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1994-01-01

    Oil shale in Estonia will be competitive in the long term as a primary resource for power generating. The price of energy of Estonian oil shale is at present approximately 4 times lower than of coal. The price of electricity is anticipated to grow up to EEK 1.0/kWh in year 2020. The electricity price EEK 0.2/kWh at present in Estonia does not include capital costs needed for refurbishing of Estonian oil-shale-consuming power stations between the years 2000-2010. While all the prices and calculations of the enterprise are presented with no inflation adjustment, the other operation costs of oil shale retorting are anticipated for the prognosed period to remain at the present level: power consumption kWh 280/t crude oils and other operation costs (excluding labour, raw material and power consumption) EEK 100/t of oil

  3. Energy from Waste and Biomass - ALTENER Conference held in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Inge

    1999-01-01

    On November 9-10, 1998 ALTENER Conference Energy from Waste and Biomass took place in the hotel Pirita, Tallinn, Estonia. The Conference was organized by the Swedish National Energy Administration in co-operation with the FEMOPET Estonia and the South Jutland University Centre, Biomass Institute (Denmark). The main topics of the Conference were: collecting biogas from landfall, biogas from municipal sewage treatment, biogas from animal manure, waste heat, biomass from the pulp industry and the sawmill, biomass from forestry, biomass for local and district heating. More than 200 delegates from 14 countries participated in this event. A poster exhibition and two study tours to Paeaeskuela Landfill Plant and Jueri Boiler House were organised too. (author)

  4. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisso, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  5. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisso, Mark [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tallin (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  6. Estonia ujub Saksamaa kinodesse / Andres Laasik, Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja. Põhjamaades on filmi linastamine kahtluse all

  7. How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Gurvitsh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia During recent decades, more and more attention has been paid to business ethics. There seems to be an increasing interest in the non-financial aspects of business. Stakeholders all over the world express their concern about embedding the principles of professional and business ethics into companies’ everyday activities. The main subject of this research is business ethics and the purpose is to find out the im-portance of professional and business ethics and determine its place in the modern business world as seen by Estonian business students and practitioners. To achieve the goals, the authors conducted a survey among Estonian graduate and undergraduate accounting and business students at Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian business practitioners. 587 responses were collected in the process. This infor-mation was compiled and analyzed based on status, gender, age, and specialization. The survey revealed that in Estonia people are familiar with business ethics; however, it is not of great interest to them. The results also indicate that professional and business ethics merit more attention and should be included as a required course in the curriculum of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. In general, business ethics in Estonia was not ranked as “high”, which was also the case for both professional ethics at the work-place/university and also the importance and necessity of ethics in the modern business world.

  8. Settlement patterns, GIS, remote sensing, and the late prehistory of the Black Prairie in east central Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jay K.

    1991-01-01

    Data recovered as the result of a recent field project designed to test a model of the distribution of protohistoric settlement in an unusual physiographic zone in eastern Mississippi are examined using GIS based techniques to manipulate soil and stream distance information. Significant patterning is derived. The generally thin soils and uniform substratum of the Black Prairie in combination with a distinctive settlement pattern offer a promising opportunity for the search for site specific characteristics within airborne imagery. Landsat TM data provide information on modern ground cover which is used as a mask to select areas in which a multivariate search for archaeological site signatures within a TIMS image is most likely to prove fruitful.

  9. Seasonal use of conservation reserve program lands by white-tailed deer in east-central South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jeffrey H.; Jenkins, Kurt J.

    1993-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP_, a provision of the 1985 Food Security Act, subsidizes landowners to take highly erodible lands out of cultivation and seed them to perennial cover for 10years. In eastern South Dakota, 0.5 million ha were enrolled in the CRP from 1985 to 1990 (Agric. Stabilization and Conserv. Serv., Brookings, S.D., unpubl. Data), which represents the largest change in conservation land-use practices in the region since the 1956 Soil Bank Program (Goetz 1987).Although the CRP is anticipated to produce substantial benefits for some wildlife species, particularly ground-nesting birds, its significance to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northern Great Plains agricultural region is poorly understood. Higgins et al. (1987) speculated that proliferation of CRP grasslands may provide a missing habitat component in intensively managed farmland, thereby enhancing several species of wildlife, including white-tailed deer. Deer managers in the region have expressed concerns that improved cover associated with DRP plantings on private land could attract deer and reduce hunter success rates or lead to increased depredation of adjacent croplands or stored winter forages (L. Rice, S.D. Dep. Game, Fish, and Parks, Rapid City, pers. comm., 1989). Our objectives were to describe variation in deer use of CRP lands by season, diel period, and deer activity class as a means of assessing seasonal importance of CRP fields to white-tailed deer in agricultural Midwest.

  10. Genesis and continuity of quaternary sand and gravel in glacigenic sediment at a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in east-central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troost, K.G.; Curry, B. Brandon

    1991-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety has characterized the Martinsville Alternative Site (MAS) for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The MAS is located in east-central Illinois approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) north of the city of Martinsville. Geologic investigation of the 5.5-km2 (1380-acre) site revealed a sequence of chiefly Illinoian glacigenic sediments from 6 to 60 m (20-200 ft) thick overlying two major bedrock valleys carved in Pennsylvanian strata. Relatively permeable buried units include basal, preglacial alluvium; a complex of intraglacial and subglacial sediment; englacial deposits; and supraglacial fluvial deposits. Postglacial alluvium underlies stream valleys on and adjacent to the site. In most areas, the buried sand units are confined by low-permeability till, lacustrine sediment, colluvium, and loess. The distribution and thickness of the most extensive and continuous buried sand units have been modified considerably by subglacial erosion, and their distributions have been influenced by the buried bedrock valleys. The most continuous of the various sand units were deposited as preglacial and postglacial alluvium and are the uppermost and lowermost stratigraphic units at the alternative site. Sand units that were deposited in englacial or ice-marginal environments are less continuous. Aquifer pumping tests, potentiometric head data, and groundwater geochemistry analyses indicate minimal interaction of groundwater across localized interconnections of the permeable units. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  11. Groundwater and surface-water interaction and effects of pumping in a complex glacial-sediment aquifer, phase 2, east-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack R.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Carlson, Carl S.

    2015-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Framingham, Massachusetts, has investigated the potential of proposed groundwater withdrawals at the Birch Road well site to affect nearby surface water bodies and wetlands, including Lake Cochituate, the Sudbury River, and the Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in east-central Massachusetts. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey developed a Phase 1 numerical groundwater model of a complex glacial-sediment aquifer to synthesize hydrogeologic information and simulate potential future pumping scenarios. The model was developed with MODFLOW-NWT, an updated version of a standard USGS numerical groundwater flow modeling program that improves solution of unconfined groundwater flow problems. The groundwater model and investigations of the aquifer improved understanding of groundwater–surface-water interaction and the effects of groundwater withdrawals on surface-water bodies and wetlands in the study area. The initial work also revealed a need for additional information and model refinements to better understand this complex aquifer system.

  12. Assessing sea-level rise impact on saltwater intrusion into the root zone of a geo-typical area in coastal east-central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Medeiros, Stephen C; Hagen, Scott C; Hall, Carlton R

    2018-07-15

    Saltwater intrusion (SWI) into root zone in low-lying coastal areas can affect the survival and spatial distribution of various vegetation species by altering plant communities and the wildlife habitats they support. In this study, a baseline model was developed based on FEMWATER to simulate the monthly variation of root zone salinity of a geo-typical area located at the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island Complex (CCBIC) of coastal east-central Florida (USA) in 2010. Based on the developed and calibrated baseline model, three diagnostic FEMWATER models were developed to predict the extent of SWI into root zone by modifying the boundary values representing the rising sea level based on various sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios projected for 2080. The simulation results indicated that the extent of SWI would be insignificant if SLR is either low (23.4cm) or intermediate (59.0cm), but would be significant if SLR is high (119.5cm) in that infiltration/diffusion of overtopping seawater in coastal low-lying areas can greatly increase root zone salinity level, since the sand dunes may fail to prevent the landward migration of seawater because the waves of the rising sea level can reach and pass over the crest under high (119.5cm) SLR scenario. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Refining the structural framework of the Khimti Khola region, east-central Nepal Himalaya, using quartz textures and c-axis fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kyle P.

    2018-02-01

    New quartz texture and c-axis fabric data from across the Paleoproterozoic Ulleri-Phaplu-Melung orthogneiss in the Khimti Khola region of east central Nepal provide new constraints on the internal structural framework of the Himalaya that help shed light on the convergence accommodation processes active in the upper portion of the crust during orogenesis. These data outline a strain history that varies across the unit. Deformation near the base of the unit occurred at ∼605 (±50) °C with evidence of significant static recrystallization and recovery preserved in quartz, whereas deformation near the top of the unit occurred at ∼540 (±50) ˚C with quartz characterized by dynamic recrystallization mechanisms. The strength of the quartz c-axis fabrics follows a similar spatial pattern, with those from near the top of the unit recording stronger fabrics than those measured from lower in the unit. Together, these data are interpreted to indicate strain localization, possibly at progressively lower temperature, near the top of the Ulleri-Phaplu-Melung orthogneiss. This interpretation is consistent with cooling ages that indicate the upper boundary of the unit coincides with an out-of-sequence shear zone. This study not only provides a structural characterization of the shear zone, helping to refine the kinematic framework of this portion of the Himalaya, but also confirms the utility of fabric strength analysis in deciphering strain localization within pervasively deformed rocks.

  14. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  15. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A.

    1995-01-01

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  16. The need and possible options for the use of renewable energy in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdikes, M.; Kivistik, J.

    2002-01-01

    The decrease in fossil fuel and the environmental problems arising from their burning force the mankind to change the structure of energy production. In the Estonian primary energy balance of renewable natural resources wood and peat are on the first place with the percentage of ca 11%. Wind, water and solar energy have not up till now been widely used in Estonia. The foundation of a wind plant and the construction of bioenergy boiler plants are promising from the financial point of view. For the feedstock of bioenergy production, waste from logging and timber industry, energy fast-growing trees and grasses, bulrush and biogas produced by fermentation of organic matter, could be used. One of the options is to produce energy field crops - rape and turnip rape. The authors hope that this paper will emphasise the importance of conducting more extensive research of renewable energy resources and the introduction of such projects. (author)

  17. Organization and implementation of a national programme of regulatory control of sources in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, I.

    1998-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation and radioactive material in fields such as medicine, industry, teaching and research is constantly increasing. Consequently, any country using ionizing radiation and radioactive material in these applications must ensure that they are used safely. In order to achieve this goal a country must establish appropriate national infrastructure related to radiation protection and safety. This requires appropriate regulatory mechanism together with an enforcement ability. The national infrastructure adopted in a country will depend on the actual needs of the country, the size and the complexity of the regulated practices and sources, as well as on the regulatory tradition in the country. The national infrastructure in Estonia comprises of three main components: legislation, regulatory authority, resources. (author)

  18. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V; Kundel, H; Raetsep, A [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  19. Peralkaline- and calc-alkaline-hosted volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Bonnifield District, East-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Foley, Nora K.; Slack, John E.; Koenig, Alan E.; Oscarson, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag-Au deposits of the Bonnifield mining district formed during Late Devonian-Early Mississippian magmatism along the western edge of Laurentia. The largest deposits, Dry Creek and WTF, have a combined resource of 5.7 million tonnes at 10% Zn, 4% Pb, 0.3% Cu, 300 grams per tonne (g/t) Ag, and 1.6 g/t Au. These polymetallic deposits are hosted in high field strength element (HFSE)- and rare-earth element (REE)-rich peralkaline (pantelleritic) metarhyolite, and interlayered pyritic argillite and mudstone of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist Formation. Mystic Creek metarhyolite and alkali basalt (Chute Creek Member) constitute a bimodal pair that formed in an extensional environment. A synvolcanic peralkaline quartz porphyry containing veins of fluorite, sphalerite, pyrite, and quartz intrudes the central footwall at Dry Creek. The Anderson Mountain deposit, located ~32 km to the southwest, occurs within calc-alkaline felsic to intermediate-composition metavolcanic rocks and associated graphitic argillite of the Wood River assemblage. Felsic metavolcanic rocks there have only slightly elevated HFSEs and REEs. The association of abundant graphitic and siliceous argillite with the felsic volcanic rocks together with low Cu contents in the Bonnifield deposits suggests classification as a siliciclastic-felsic type of VMS deposit. Bonnifield massive sulfides and host rocks were metamorphosed and deformed under greenschist-facies conditions in the Mesozoic. Primary depositional textures, generally uncommon, consist of framboids, framboidal aggregates, and spongy masses of pyrite. Sphalerite, the predominant base metal sulfide, encloses early pyrite framboids. Galena and chalcopyrite accompanied early pyrite formation but primarily formed late in the paragenetic sequence. Silver-rich tetrahedrite is a minor late phase at the Dry Creek deposit. Gold and Ag are present in low to moderate amounts in pyrite from all of

  20. Uudised : Estonia maja renoveerimisest. EMNi juhatuse tegevusest. Meredith Monki kontsert Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    7. märtsil kiitis rahvusooperi Estonia nõukogu heaks Estonia teatri- ja kontserdimaja renoveerimistööde tehnilise projekti. EMNi juhatuse koosolekul 27. veebr. arutati E. Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumi perspektiive, muusikahariduse probleeme ja EMNi töösuundi. 20. märtsil esineb Tallinnas Sakala keskuses M. Monk

  1. Rahvusooperi Estonia 99. hooaeg algab nädala pärast / Christel Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karits, Christel, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Muusikaturu korraldamisest 18. sept. Estonia teatrihoone taga ajaloolisel turuplatsil. Katri Kaasik-Aaslavi ja Vaino Vahingu näidendi "Teatriromanss" (muusika arranzheerija ja pianist Olav Ehala) esietendusest Estonia kammersaalis 22. oktoobril. Giuseppe Verdi ooperi "Aida" etendamisest Rocca al Mare Onistar Tennisekeskuses 8.-10., 12.-17. oktoobril

  2. The Affective Dimension of Religion and Personal Happiness among Students in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Elken, Ahto; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 150 students in Estonia (119 from a secular university and 31 from a Lutheran theological institute) completed the Oxford Happiness Measure and the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data show no significant correlation between these two variables; thus the findings challenge the generalizability to Estonia of the…

  3. Tosca Mikiveri mälestuseks. Estonia Turupäev 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Lavastaja Mikk Mikiveri 70. sünniaastapäeva tähistamisest Giacomo Puccini ooperi "Tosca" esietendusega 4. sept. Tartus Vanemuise väikeses majas. Rahvusooper Estonia 102. hooaja uuslavastuste tutvustamisest 9. sept. Tallinnas Estonia maja taga ajaloolisel turuplatsil

  4. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  5. Using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Climatologies to Initialize Gridded Lightning Threat Forecasts for East Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winnie; Sharp, David; Spratt, Scott; Volkmer, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Each morning, the forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourn, FL (NWS MLB) produce an experimental cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning threat index map for their county warning area (CWA) that is posted to their web site (http://www.srh.weather.gov/mlb/ghwo/lightning.shtml) . Given the hazardous nature of lightning in central Florida, especially during the warm season months of May-September, these maps help users factor the threat of lightning, relative to their location, into their daily plans. The maps are color-coded in five levels from Very Low to Extreme, with threat level definitions based on the probability of lightning occurrence and the expected amount of CG activity. On a day in which thunderstorms are expected, there are typically two or more threat levels depicted spatially across the CWA. The locations of relative lightning threat maxima and minima often depend on the position and orientation of the low-level ridge axis, forecast propagation and interaction of sea/lake/outflow boundaries, expected evolution of moisture and stability fields, and other factors that can influence the spatial distribution of thunderstorms over the CWA. The lightning threat index maps are issued for the 24-hour period beginning at 1200 UTC (0700 AM EST) each day with a grid resolution of 5 km x 5 km. Product preparation is performed on the AWIPS Graphical Forecast Editor (GFE), which is the standard NWS platform for graphical editing. Currently, the forecasters create each map manually, starting with a blank map. To improve efficiency of the forecast process, NWS MLB requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) create gridded warm season lightning climatologies that could be used as first-guess inputs to initialize lightning threat index maps. The gridded values requested included CG strike densities and frequency of occurrence stratified by synoptic-scale flow regime. The intent is to increase consistency between forecasters while enabling them to focus on

  6. Valge Laeva hukk : Estonia katastroof meie peas = The wreck of the White ship : on the catastrophe of the Estonia / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    "Estonia" katasroofist ja meedia osast selle kajastamisel, Juhan Leinbergist ja maltsvetlusest ning "valge laeva" kui priiuse laeva ja lootuse kujundist Eesti kultuuris ning selle tähendusest eestlaste teadvuses

  7. Vessel-Source Pollution and Coastal State Jurisdiction in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea : National Report of Estonia / Hannes Veinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinla, Hannes, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Laevadelt lähtuv merereostus ja kaldariigi jurisdiktsioon Balti mere kaguosas : Eesti. - Lisatud: Estonia : Economic Zone Act of Estonia : 28 January 1993 : Annex I, lk. 121-124 ; Estonia : State Borders Act of Estonia : 30 June 1994 : Annex II, lk. 125-138

  8. Relations between well-field pumping and induced canal leakage in east-central Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Katherine; Antolino, Dominick J.; Turtora, Michael; Adam Foster,

    2015-08-26

    An extensive canal and water management system exists in south Florida to prevent flooding, replenish groundwater, and impede saltwater intrusion. The unconfined Biscayne aquifer, which underlies southeast Florida and provides water for millions of residents, interacts with the canal system. The Biscayne aquifer is composed of a highly transmissive karst limestone; therefore, canal stage and flow may be affected by production well pumping, especially in locations where production wells and canals are in proximity.

  9. Modeling the Effects of Storm Surge from Hurricane Jeanne on Saltwater Intrusion into the Surficial Aquifer, East-Central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Hall, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Saltwater intrusion (SWI) that has been widely recognized as a detrimental issue causing the deterioration of coastal aquifer water quality and degradation of coastal ecosystems. While it is widely recognized that SWI is exacerbated worldwide due to global sea-level rise, we show that increased SWI from tropical cyclones under climate change is also a concern. In the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island Complex (CCBIC) located in east-central Florida, the salinity level of the surficial aquifer is of great importance to maintain a bio-diverse ecosystem and to support the survival of various vegetation species. Climate change induced SWI into the surficial aquifer can lead to reduction of freshwater storage and alteration of the distribution and productivity of vegetation communities. In this study, a three-dimensional variable-density SEAWAT model is developed and calibrated to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of salinity level in the surficial aquifer of CCBIC. We link the SEAWAT model to surge model data to examine the effects of storm surge from Hurricane Jeanne. Simulation results indicate that the surficial aquifer salinity level increases significantly right after the occurrence of storm surge because of high aquifer permeability and rapid infiltration and diffusion of the overtopping saltwater, while the surficial aquifer salinity level begins to decrease after the fresh groundwater recharge from the storm's rainfall. The tropical storm precipitation generates an effective hydraulic barrier further impeding SWI and providing seaward freshwater discharge for saltwater dilution and flushing. To counteract the catastrophic effects of storm surge, this natural remediation process may take at least 15-20 years or even several decades. These simulation results contribute to ongoing research focusing on forecasting regional vegetation community responses to climate change, and are expected to provide a useful reference for climate change adaptation planning

  10. Influence of Trap Height and Bait Type on Abundance and Species Diversity of Cerambycid Beetles Captured in Forests of East-Central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeelk, Thomas C; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-08-01

    We assessed how height of panel traps above the forest floor, and the type of trap bait used, influenced the abundance and diversity of cerambycid beetles caught in forested areas of east-central Illinois. Panel traps were suspended from branches of hardwood trees at three heights above the ground: understory (∼1.5 m), lower canopy (∼6 m), and midcanopy (∼12 m). Traps were baited with either a multispecies blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones or a fermenting bait mixture. Traps captured a total of 848 beetles of 50 species in the cerambycid subfamilies Cerambycinae, Lamiinae, Lepturinae, and Parandrinae, and one species in the closely related family Disteniidae. The species caught in highest numbers was the cerambycine Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), represented by 349 specimens. The 17 most abundant species (mean ± 1 SD: 45 ± 80 specimens per species) included 12 cerambycine and five lamiine species. Of these most abundant species, 13 (77%) were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone blend. Only the cerambycine Eburia quadrigeminata (Say) was attracted by the fermenting bait. Three species were captured primarily in understory traps, and another five species primarily in midcanopy traps. Variation among cerambycid species in their vertical distribution in forests accounted for similar overall abundances and species richness across trap height treatments. These findings suggest that trapping surveys of native communities of cerambycids, and quarantine surveillance for newly introduced exotic species, would be optimized by including a variety of trap baits and distributing traps across vertical strata of forests. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Trace-element geochemistry of metabasaltic rocks from the Yukon-Tanana Upland and implications for the origin of tectonic assemblages in east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Cooper, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    We present major- and trace- element geochemical data for 27 amphibolites and six greenstones from three structural packages in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska: the Lake George assemblage (LG) of Devono-Mississippian augen gneiss, quartz-mica schist, quartzite, and amphibolite; the Taylor Mountain assemblage (TM) of mafic schist and gneiss, marble, quartzite, and metachert; and the Seventymile terrane of greenstone, serpentinized peridotite, and Mississippian to Late Triassic metasedimentary rocks. Most LG amphibolites have relatively high Nb, TiO2, Zr, and light rare earth element contents, indicative of an alkalic to tholeiitic, within-plate basalt origin. The within-plate affinities of the LG amphibolites suggest that their basaltic parent magmas developed in an extensional setting and support a correlation of these metamorphosed continental-margin rocks with less metamorphosed counterparts across the Tintina fault in the Selwyn Basin of the Canadian Cordillera. TM amphibolites have a tholeiitic or calc-alkalic composition, low normalized abundances of Nb and Ta relative to Th and La, and Ti/V values of the proximity of the arc and marginal basin to continental crust. The arc geochemistry of TM amphibolites is consistent with a model in which the TM assemblage includes arc rocks generated above a west-dipping subduction zone outboard of the North American continental margin in mid-Paleozoic through Triassic time. The ocean-floor or within-plate basalt geochemistry of the Seventymile greenstones supports the correlation of the Seventymile terrane with the Slide Mountain terrane in Canada and the hypothesis that these oceanic rocks originated in a basin between the continental margin and an arc to the west.

  12. Underdog or bulldog: introducing biogas technologies in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, Antti; Reinsoo, Kadri [University of Tartu, Department of Geography, Tartu (Estonia); Oja, Ahto [Monus Minek Ltd, Aeaesmaee (Estonia); Varzinskas, Visvaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-12-15

    The production and use of biogas, along with corresponding sector-specific activities and technologies, is a relatively new subject in Estonia. This paper gives an instructive overview of main barriers behind the development incentives, policy support and technological innovation in terms of emerging market for biogas. The article examines the complexity of market-related, political, technological and social obstacles for introduction biogas technologies. There is a major gap between resource potential, technological capacity and practice in Estonia. About 2 % of the theoretical potential of biogas is being used, totalling around 11 million Nm{sup 3}, based primarily on landfill biogas. First, political setting for biogas innovation is still vague, however, consolidated and enhanced since 2010 to compete with other renewables and mainstream energy technologies. The article underlines the statement that the reason why Estonian biogas production has not followed the path of growth and technology transfer is the low renewable electricity feed-in tariff. However, there are many other legal and engineering factors that have held back biogas applications and sector development in general. Stakeholders have established the Estonian Biogas Association, increasing sector's visibility, targeted lobby to support policy-making, technological and social innovation and professional networking. Though getting the biogas sector to succeed demands a comprehensive approach and involvement of more actors in demand side including local leaders and consumers, both enthusiasm and scepticism should be informed by a sound understanding of framework conditions and complexities for path-breaking transformations in energy systems. To promote biogas production, profitable and technologically feasible showcases should demonstrate benefits and issues to the target group and stakeholders. Instead agricultural and CHP development mode, the priority of using biogas in Estonia could be seen as

  13. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  14. Historical survey of nuclear non-proliferation in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalmann, I.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview about the project initiated in co-operation between the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (ERPC) to carry out a historical survey of the nuclear activities taken place in the territory of Estonia after the World War II. The main purpose of the project was to create transparency in the State's nuclear related past and to submit the results of the conducted historical survey as a volunteer supplement to the Additional Protocol declaration. (author)

  15. Closed nuclear facilities in Estonia: developments and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realo, E.; Realo, K.

    2000-01-01

    At present Estonia has no operating nuclear or a radioactive material production facility. As a legacy of the past the country has become responsible for the decommissioning of two large nuclear cycle facilities of the former USSR. Besides limited funding, major problems arise from deficiencies in legislation, expertise, training and research. International co-operation has been of immense importance to overcome the problems, to establish the national radiation protection and radioactive waste management infrastructure and to launch decommissioning and remediation activities. An overview is given on the status and problems. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  16. Estonia hukk jõuab kinolinale / Anari Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Anari

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastub 2. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teevad kaasa Rein Oja ja väikeses rollis Urmas Alenderi lesk Helje Kaskel. Kõlab ka U. Alenderi laul

  17. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P traffic accidents was disclosed under alternative model specifications. For instance, the regression model with ARIMA (0, 1, 1)(0, 1, 1) errors revealed that a 1-unit increase in the tax rate is associated with a 1.6% decrease in the level of accidents per 100,000 population involving drunk motor vehicle drivers. No similar association was found in the cases of counterfactual models for non-alcohol-related traffic accidents. This article indicates that the level of alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  18. The social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia in 2006. Using a prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, both direct and indirect costs were considered, including tangible costs associated with health care, criminal justice, rescue services, damage to property, premature mortality, incarceration, incapability of working due to illnesses, and lower labor productivity. The results show that alcohol misuse cost Estonia more than EUR 200 million in 2006. The costs involved are estimated to represent 1.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP), which is relatively high in comparison with many other countries. In addition, the state receives less receipts from the alcohol excise tax than the costs that it incurs as a consequence of alcohol misuse, which points to the existence of economic inefficiency with respect to the alcohol market. The results of this study suggest that there is definitely a need for further cost-benefit analysis to reach a conclusion regarding the possible utility of government intervention. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. 137Cs in soil profiles in NE Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lust, M.; Realo, K.; Realo, E.

    2002-01-01

    Radiocaesium contamination in soil was produced by two fallout's: a global fallout caused by nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere (1950s to 1970s) and a regional one - during/after the Chernobyl accident (1986). The area] distribution of the 137 CS fallout after the 1986 accident was extremely uneven in Estonia. Our previous studies showed that about 60% of its total deposition with the countrywide mean of 2 kBq m -2 occurred predominantly in the north-eastern part of Estonia. In this region the maximum deposition approached the values of 40 kBq m -2 . This is the reason why soil profiles in this region have been of interest. We have also determined the 137 Cs activity concentrations as a function of soil depth during 1991-2000. Attempts have been made to model the found depth-distributions of radiocaesium concentration and to find the possible time-dependent behaviour of these distributions in soil. The migration of radiocaesium into soil is dependent on several factors: soil properties, vegetation, mode of deposition, etc. For this reason, averaged distribution parameters for both total and Chernobyl 137 Cs have been used for deriving general trends of the migration processes. (au)

  20. Design of accounting curriculum: The case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alver Lehte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization sets new requirements for the professional qualification of accountants and auditors. In the business world globalized investment market demands consistent high quality financial information across borders; investors are looking for a global accounting profession to provide it. There is more pressure on accounting professionals to expand and enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities beyond what they are currently likely to possess. Providers of accounting education must take into account the changed world and create contemporary curricula. In Estonia the change from a command to a market economy has inevitably influenced not only the accounting framework but also the entire system of accounting education. It is clear that without a design of accounting curricula it is practically impossible to fulfill requirements of nowadays high quality financial information. Tallinn University of Technology (TUT holds on the advanced level of accounting education the leading position in Estonia. The accounting curriculum (on the graduate level as well as undergraduate level is the most popular among all curricula at the Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration of TUT. It is a joint system, which consists of undergraduate and graduate degree programs. Small sub specializations: for example in financial accounting, managerial cost accounting, taxation and auditing become evident while interpreting the graduate and undergraduate programs as one united system. The paper explains a new model of accounting curriculum developed at TUT as well as its educational philosophy and principles of designing. It also describes conditions required for development and continuous improvement of competitive curriculum.

  1. Product environmental footprint of strawberries: Case studies in Estonia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soode-Schimonsky, Eveli; Richter, Klaus; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2017-12-01

    The environmental impacts of strawberries have been assessed in several studies. However, these studies either present dissimilar results or only focus on single impact categories without offering a comprehensive overview of environmental impacts. We applied the product environmental footprint (PEF) methodology to broadly indicate the environmental impacts of various strawberry production systems in Germany and Estonia by 15 impact categories. Data for the 7 case studies were gathered from two farms with organic and two farms with conventional open field production systems in Estonia and from one farm with conventional open field and one farm with a polytunnel and greenhouse production system in Germany. The greenhouse production system had the highest environmental impact with a PEF of 0.0040. In the field organic production systems, the PEF was 0.0029 and 0.0028. The field conventional production systems resulted in a PEF of 0.0008, 0.0009 and 0.0002. Polytunnel PEF was 0.0006. Human toxicity cancer effects, particulate matter and human toxicity non-cancer effects resulted in the highest impact across all analysed production systems. The main contributors were electricity for cooling, heating the greenhouse and the use of agricultural machinery including fuel burning. While production stage contributed 85% of the total impact in the greenhouse, also other life cycle stages were important contributors: pre-chain resulted in 71% and 90% of impact in conventional and polytunnels, respectively, and cooling was 47% in one organic system. Environmental impact from strawberry cooling can be reduced by more efficient use of the cooling room, increasing the strawberry yield or switching from oil shale electricity to other energy sources. Greenhouse heating is the overall impact hotspot even if it based on renewable resources. A ranking of production systems based on the environmental impact is possible only if all relevant impacts are included. Future studies should aim

  2. Melting of subducted continental crust: Geochemical evidence from Mesozoic granitoids in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Chen, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Syn-collisional and postcollisional granitoids are common in collisional orogens, and they were primarily produced by partial melting of subducted continental crust. This is exemplified by Mesozoic granitoids from the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in east-central China. These granitoids were emplaced in small volumes in the Late Triassic (200-206 Ma) and the Late Jurassic (146-167 Ma) but massively in the Early Cretaceous (111-143 Ma). Nevertheless, all of them exhibit arc-like trace element distribution patterns and are enriched in Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions, indicating their origination from the ancient continental crust. They commonly contain relict zircons with Neoproterozoic and Triassic U-Pb ages, respectively, consistent with the protolith and metamorphic ages for ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metaigneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt. Some granitoids show low zircon δ18O values, and SIMS in-situ O isotope analysis reveals that the relict zircons with Neoproterozoic and Triassic U-Pb ages also commonly exhibit low δ18O values. Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages and low δ18O values are the two diagnostic features that distinguish the subducted South China Block from the obducted North China Block. Thus, the magma source of these Mesozoic granitoids has a genetic link to the subducted continental crust of the South China Block. On the other hand, these granitoids contain relict zircons with Paleoproterozoic and Archean U-Pb ages, which are present in both the South and North China Blocks. Taken together, the Mesozoic granitoids in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its hanging wall have their magma sources that are predominated by the continental crust of the South China Block with minor contributions from the continental crust of the North China Block. The Triassic continental collision between the South and North China Blocks brought the continental crust into the thickened orogen, where they underwent the three episodes of partial melting in the Late Triassic, Late

  3. Cross-sectional description of nursing and midwifery pre-service education accreditation in east, central, and southern Africa in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Carey F; Gross, Jessica M; Verani, Andre R; Nkowane, Annette M; Wheeler, Erica L; Lipato, Thokozire J; Kelley, Maureen A

    2017-07-24

    In 2013, the World Health Organization issued guidelines, Transforming and Scaling Up Health Professional Education and Training, to improve the quality and relevance of health professional pre-service education. Central to these guidelines was establishing and strengthening education accreditation systems. To establish what current accreditation systems were for nursing and midwifery education and highlight areas for strengthening these systems, a study was undertaken to document the pre-service accreditation policies, approaches, and practices in 16 African countries relative to the 2013 WHO guidelines. This study utilized a cross-sectional group survey with a standardized questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of approximately 70 nursing and midwifery leaders from 16 countries in east, central, and southern Africa. Each national delegation completed one survey together, representing the responses for their country. Almost all countries in this study (15; 94%) mandated pre-service nursing education accreditation However, there was wide variation in who was responsible for accrediting programs. The percent of active programs accredited decreased by program level from 80% for doctorate programs to 62% for masters nursing to 50% for degree nursing to 35% for diploma nursing programs. The majority of countries indicated that accreditation processes were transparent (i.e., included stakeholder engagement (81%), self-assessment (100%), evaluation feedback (94%), and public disclosure (63%)) and that the processes were evaluated on a routine basis (69%). Over half of the countries (nine; 56%) reported limited financial resources as a barrier to increasing accreditation activities, and seven countries (44%) noted limited materials and technical expertise. In line with the 2013 WHO guidelines, there was a strong legal mandate for nursing education accreditation as compared to the global average of 50%. Accreditation levels were low in the programs that produce

  4. Inferences on the hydrothermal system beneath the resurgent dome in Long Valley Caldera, east-central California, USA, from recent pumping tests and geochemical sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Sorey, Michael L.; Roeloffs, Evelyn; Galloway, Devin L.; Howle, James F.; Jacobson, Ronald

    2003-10-01

    Quaternary volcanic unrest has provided heat for episodic hydrothermal circulation in the Long Valley caldera, including the present-day hydrothermal system, which has been active over the past 40 kyr. The most recent period of crustal unrest in this region of east-central California began around 1980 and has included periods of intense seismicity and ground deformation. Uplift totaling more than 0.7 m has been centered on the caldera's resurgent dome, and is best modeled by a near-vertical ellipsoidal source centered at depths of 6-7 km. Modeling of both deformation and microgravity data now suggests that (1) there are two inflation sources beneath the caldera, a shallower source 7-10 km beneath the resurgent dome and a deeper source ˜15 km beneath the caldera's south moat and (2) the shallower source may contain components of magmatic brine and gas. The Long Valley Exploration Well (LVEW), completed in 1998 on the resurgent dome, penetrates to a depth of 3 km directly above this shallower source, but bottoms in a zone of 100°C fluid with zero vertical thermal gradient. Although these results preclude extrapolations of temperatures at depths below 3 km, other information obtained from flow tests and fluid sampling at this well indicates the presence of magmatic volatiles and fault-related permeability within the metamorphic basement rocks underlying the volcanic fill. In this paper, we present recently acquired data from LVEW and compare them with information from other drill holes and thermal springs in Long Valley to delineate the likely flow paths and fluid system properties under the resurgent dome. Additional information from mineralogical assemblages in core obtained from fracture zones in LVEW documents a previous period of more vigorous and energetic fluid circulation beneath the resurgent dome. Although this system apparently died off as a result of mineral deposition and cooling (and/or deepening) of magmatic heat sources, flow testing and tidal

  5. Relations between continuous real-time turbidity data and discrete suspended-sediment concentration samples in the Neosho and Cottonwood Rivers, east-central Kansas, 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.

    2014-01-01

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the primary sources of inflow to the John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Sedimentation rate in the John Redmond Reservoir was estimated as 743 acre-feet per year for 1964–2006. This estimated sedimentation rate is more than 80 percent larger than the projected design sedimentation rate of 404 acre-feet per year, and resulted in a loss of 40 percent of the conservation pool since its construction in 1964. To reduce sediment input into the reservoir, the Kansas Water Office implemented stream bank stabilization techniques along an 8.3 mile reach of the Neosho River during 2010 through 2011. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office and funded in part through the Kansas State Water Plan Fund, operated continuous real-time water-quality monitors upstream and downstream from stream bank stabilization efforts before, during, and after construction. Continuously measured water-quality properties include streamflow, specific conductance, water temperature, and turbidity. Discrete sediment samples were collected from June 2009 through September 2012 and analyzed for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), percentage of sediments less than 63 micrometers (sand-fine break), and loss of material on ignition (analogous to amount of organic matter). Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely measured SSC samples, and turbidity or streamflow to estimate continuously SSC. Continuous water-quality monitors represented between 96 and 99 percent of the cross-sectional variability for turbidity, and had slopes between 0.91 and 0.98. Because consistent bias was not observed, values from continuous water-quality monitors were considered representative of stream conditions. On average, turbidity-based SSC models explained 96 percent of the variance in SSC. Streamflow-based regressions explained 53 to 60 percent of the variance. Mean squared

  6. Analyses of Water-Level Differentials and Variations in Recharge between the Surficial and Upper Floridan Aquifers in East-Central and Northeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louis C.

    2007-01-01

    Continuous (daily) water-level data collected at 29 monitoring-well cluster sites were analyzed to document variations in recharge between the surficial (SAS) and Floridan (FAS) aquifer systems in east-central and northeast Florida. According to Darcy's law, changes in the water-level differentials (differentials) between these systems are proportional to changes in the vertical flux of water between them. Variations in FAS recharge rates are of interest to water-resource managers because changes in these rates affect sensitive water resources subject to minimum flow and water-level restrictions, such as the amount of water discharged from springs and changes in lake and wetland water levels. Mean daily differentials between 2000-2004 ranged from less than 1 foot at a site in east-central Florida to more than 114 feet at a site in northeast Florida. Sites with greater mean differentials exhibited lower percentage-based ranges in fluctuations than did sites with lower mean differentials. When averaged for all sites, differentials (and thus Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) recharge rates) decreased by about 18 percent per site between 2000-2004. This pattern can be associated with reductions in ground-water withdrawals from the UFA that occurred after 2000 as the peninsula emerged from a 3-year drought. Monthly differentials exhibited a well-defined seasonal pattern in which UFA recharge rates were greatest during the dry spring months (8 percent above the 5-year daily mean in May) and least during the wetter summer/early fall months (4 percent below the 5-year daily mean in October). In contrast, differentials exceeded the 5-year daily mean in all but 2 months of 2000, indicative of relatively high ground-water withdrawals throughout the year. On average, the UFA received about 6 percent more recharge at the project sites in 2000 than between 2000-2004. No statistically significant correlations were detected between monthly differentials and precipitation at 27 of the

  7. Saaremaa lad brings FBI conference to Estonia / Kalle Laanet ; interv. Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanet, Kalle, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema õpinguid FBI akadeemias, Tallinnas toimuvat FBI konverentsi ning Eesti sisejulgeolekut. Lisa: Estonian Police statistics; Registered crimes in Estonia; From police officer to minister; What happened in April?

  8. Estonia - üks tõeline eestimaine spaa / Dagmar Reinolt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinolt, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Heaoluspaa võtmes renoveeritud Estonia Spa Hotelsi ühest kompleksist. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti arhitektid: Raivo Kotov, Indrek Mikk. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti sisearhitektid: Raili Paling, Liis Lindvere, Kadri Kaldam, Kärt Loopalu. Valmimisaasta: 2015

  9. Reasons for internal migration in Estonia 1989-2000 / Mare Ainsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ainsaar, Mare

    2004-01-01

    Autor tutvustab oma uurimust "Reasons for move: a study on trends and reasons of internal migration with particular interest in Estonia 1989-2000" (Turku University, 2004) Eesti elanikkonna migratsioonist ja selle põhjustest. Skeemid

  10. Estonia juhti kahtlustatakse ettevõtte varade omastamises / Ester Vilgats, Eno-Gerrit Link, Teet Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Ester

    2008-01-01

    Endine Pärnu linnapea, taastusravikeskuse Estonia pikaaegne juht Vello Järvesalu peeti kinni kahtlustatuna ettevõtte varade omastamises suures ulatuses. Kommenteerivad: Mart Viisitamm, Jane Mets ja Ahti Kõo

  11. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipality in Estonia, chapter nine, gives data related to general economic assumptions for financial and economic calculations, fuel consumption, financing, prices, fuel consumption. (ARW)

  12. Hip-hop ja ooper kohtuvad Estonias / Marko Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemägi, Marko

    2006-01-01

    10. juunil Rahvusooperis Estonia etenduvast Mozarti ooperi "Cosi fan tutte" tänapäevasest versioonist, mis valmis Inglismaa Glyndebounre'i festivali, Saksamaa komische operi ja Soome Rahvusooperi koostöös, lavastaja Clare Whistler

  13. Estonia ballett üle seitsme aasta taas Pärnus / Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia balleti kunstiline juht Toomas Edur Estonia balletitrupist ja 20. veebruaril toimuvast kolmest lühiballetist koosnevast balletiõhtust Pärnu kontserdimajas. Esitatakse Bohuslav Martinu "Enne öö saabumist" (koreograaf Nils Christe), Arnold Schönbergi "Pelléas ja Mélisande" (koreograaf Tiit Härm), Robert Schumanni "Teine sümfoonia" (koreograaf Uwe Scholz)

  14. Japanese tourists in Finland, Estonia and Latvia – a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Suvanto, Hannele; Sudakova, Lea; Kattai, Kaili; Grīnberga-Zālīte, Gunta; Bulderberga, Zane

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of this literature survey, it can be concluded that the following points are especially interesting from the perspective of rural tourism in Finland, Estonia and Latvia. Characteristics of Japanese tourists Most spend a lot of money but have a short time to spend it. Men have especially short holidays, staying around three nights. The location of Finland is crucial (airport in Helsinki and stopovers) and proximity to Estonia and Latvia convenient. Travel is mainly...

  15. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume II. The Baltics. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    acquired wide popularity (and probably snob appeal ). Kafka, Ionesco and Dostoyevsky were available to Soviet Estonians earlier than to the Russian reading...Estonia . chided as snob appeal ). Of Estonia’s 757 general schools, 556 (i.e. 71) use Estonian, 90 use Russian and 60 are mixed. 2 The same applies to...novels whicr combine literary quality with national appeal ro 2 ’), collective farm realism at its best (M. Traatl), realisti> lezcription of city life

  16. Radiological accidents/incidents with caesium-137 in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisoo, M.

    1998-01-01

    A report is provided of an accident and an incident involving radioactive sources in Estonia. In the 1994 occurrence, looters of a depository of radioactive waste manipulated a source containing 137 Cs and received dangerous doses of radiation. One of the persons involved died, others suffered minor burns. Another event, which occurred in early 1995, did not have a tragic outcome: an abandoned 137 Cs source was found in the vicinity of the highway linking Tallinn and Narva and was disposed of safely. Both these accidents draw attention to the potential dangers caused by the insufficient survey of the territory, radiation protection structures not yet fully operable, and the lack of equipment and know-how. The lessons to be drawn from these events are considered on the basis of the chronologies and factual data. The report contains concise descriptions of the accidents, a medical overview of the fate of the injured persons and the lessons learned from these accidents. (author)

  17. "Estonia" müsteerium / Jüri Liim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liim, Jüri

    2001-01-01

    Järgneb 26. okt., 2.,9.,16.,23.,30. nov., 7.,14. dets. ; 2002, 4.,11.,18.,25. jaan., 1.,8.,15.,22. veebr., 1.,8.,15.,22. märts, 5.,12.,26. aprill, 3.,10.,17.,24.,31. mai, 7.,14.,28. juuni, 5.,12.,19.,26. juuli, 2.,9.,16.,23. aug., 6.,13.,20.,27. sept., 4.,11.,25. okt., 1.,8.,15.,22.,29. nov., 13.,20. dets. ; 10.,17.,24., 31. jaan., 2003, 14. veebr., 7.,28. märts, 4.,11.,25. apr., 16.,23. mai, 6.,27. juuni, 11.,18. juuli. Reisilaev "Estonia" mõistatuslikust hukust

  18. On eco-efficiency and sustainable development in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randla, T.; Kurissoo, T.; Vilu, R.

    2002-01-01

    The basic idea of sustainable development is a firm understanding that all resources, renewable as well as non-renewable, are limited. Human activities should not exceed the buffering capacity of the earth's ecosystems and the replenishment potential of material cycles. Use of non-renewable, mainly mineral, resources should be kept at the minimum possible level, postponing the depletion of resources as far as possible. Concepts of environmental space and dematerialisation lie at the foundation of the practical launching of sustainable development. Analysis of regional sustainability and ecological efficiency of energy production, the balance of CO 2 , water, etc. were analysed for Estonia and Ida-Virumaa, north-eastern region of the country. The analysis carried out should be considered as a first step in the development and implementation of a national 'green' accounting system and environmental tax system based on the concept of environmental space. (author)

  19. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION IN ESTONIA AND SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mesner Andolšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis is to make a comparison of HRM practices among New Member States (especially Estonia and Slovenia and how these practices help to create the conditions to develop a knowledge organization. In the paper, the systemic and logical analysis of knowledge management concept and its relations with HRM was used. For empirical research a simple exploratory analysis statistical technique was used on Cranet (the Cranfield Network on Comparative Human Resource Management data on HRM practices across countries was used. Major findings allow stating that two important prerequisites for knowledge organization are met and they are successfully implemented through HRM practices especially in organizations in one country. The empirical research findings showed the trends in global economy and the ability of organizations in the New Member States to adapt through institutionally developed HRM practices.

  20. Retrospective Analysis of Lophodermium seditiosum Epidemics in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANSO, MÄRT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The needle trace method (NTM, created and developed by the Finnish forest pathologists prof. T. Kurkela, dr. R. Jalkanen and T. Aalto during the last decade of the XX century, has been already used by several researchers of different countries for retrospective analysis of needle diseases (Hypodermella sulcigena, by R. Jalkanen et al. in Finland or herbivorous insect pests of Scots pine (Diprion pini, by T. Kurkela et al. in Finland; Bupalus piniaria, by H. Armour et al. in Scotland, but as well of pests of Sitka spruce (Gilpinia hercyniae, by D.T. Williams et al. in England. Scots pine in forest nurseries and young plantations of Estonia is often but irregularly suffering from the epidemics of the needle cast fungus Lophodermium seditiosum. Current environmental regulations exclude from the regulatory (control measures all the others except of well-argued prophylactic systems, built up on reliable prognoses. The last is inconceivable without the availability of a reliable, as well, and long-lasting retrospective time-series of L. seditiosum epidemics, which, as it is known from the last half of the XX century, are occupying large forest areas, usually not least than a half of (the small Estonia. An appropriate time-series would be useful, as well, for the more basic understanding of the accelerated mortality processes during the stand formation in early pole-age Scots pine plantations. Methodological principles of the use of NTM in an appropriate investigation together with the preliminary results of our research work, looking back for more than a century, are introduced and discussed in this investigation.

  1. Assessment of abandoned agricultural land resource for bio-energy production in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukk, Liia; Astover, Alar; Roostalu, Hugo; Suuster, Elsa; Noormets, Merrit; Sepp, Kalev (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tartu (Estonia)); Muiste, Peeter (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Tartu (Estonia))

    2010-03-15

    The current study locates and quantifies abandoned agricultural areas using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and evaluates the suitability of abandoned fields for bio-energy production in Tartumaa (Tartu County) in Estonia. Soils of abandoned areas are generally of low quality and thereby limited suitability for crop production; as a result soil-crop suitability analyses could form the basis of knowledge-based bio-energy planning. The study estimated suitable areas for bio-energy production using willow (Salix sp), grey alder [Alnus incana (L.) Moench], hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.Populus tremula L.), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and Caucasian goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.) in separate plantations. A combined land-use strategy is also presented as these crops are partially suitable to the same areas. Reed canary grass and grey alder have the highest energy potentials and each would re-use more than 80% of the available abandoned agricultural land. Energy grasses and short-rotation forestry in combined land-use strategy represents the opportunity of covering approximately a quarter of county's annual energy demand. The study estimates only agronomic potential, so further bio-energy analysis should take into account technical and economic limitations. Developed framework supports knowledge-based decision-making processes from field to regional scale to achieve sustainable bio-energy production

  2. Petrography and geochemistry of selected lignite beds in the Gibbons Creek mine (Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Paleocene) of east-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Pontolillo, James

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of two lignite beds (3500 and 4500 beds, Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Eocene) that are mined at the Gibbons Creek mine in east-central Texas. The purpose of the study was to identify the relations among sample ash yield, coal petrography, and trace-element concentrations in lignite and adjoining rock layers of the Gibbons Creek mine. Particular interest was given to the distribution of 12 environmentally sensitive trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U) that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Eleven lignite, floor, and rock parting samples were collected from incremental channel samples of the 3500 and 4500 beds that were exposed in a highwall of pit A3 at the Gibbons Creek mine. Short proximate and ultimate and forms of sulfur analyses were performed on all lignite samples, and lignite and rock samples were analyzed for 60 major, minor and trace elements. Representative splits of all lignite samples were ground and cast into pellets, and polished for petrographic analyses in blue-light fluorescence and reflected white light to determine liptinite, inertinite, and huminite maceral group percentages. The following observations summarize our results and conclusions about the geochemistry, petrography, and sedimentology of the 3500 and 4500 beds of the Gibbons Creek lignite deposit: (1) Weighted average dry (db) ash yield for the two beds is 29.7%, average total sulfur content is 2.6%, and average calorific value is 7832 Btu (18.22 MJ/kg). Ash yields are greatest in the lower bench (59.33% db) of the 3500 bed and in the upper bench of the 4500 bed (74.61% db). (2) For lignite samples (on a whole-coal basis), the distributions of two of the HAPs (Pb and Sb) are positively related to ash yield, probably indicating an inorganic affinity for these elements. By using cluster analysis we

  3. Dose-rate mapping and search of radioactive sources in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylaetalo, S.; Karvonen, J.; Ilander, T.; Honkamaa, T.; Toivonen, H.

    1996-12-01

    The Estonian Ministry of Environment and the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) agreed in 1995 on a radiation mapping project in Estonia. The country was searched to find potential man-made radioactive sources. Another goal of the project was to produce a background dose-rate map over the whole country. The measurements provided an excellent opportunity to test new in-field measuring systems that are useful in a nuclear disaster. The basic idea was to monitor road sides, cities, domestic waste storage places and former military or rocket bases from a moving vehicle by measuring gamma spectrum and dose rate. The measurements were carried out using vehicle installed systems consisting of a pressurised ionisation chamber (PIC) in 1995 and a combination of a scintillation spectrometer (NaI(TI)) and Geiger-Mueller-counter (GM) in 1996. All systems utilised GPS-satellite navigation signals to relate the measured dose rates and gamma-spectra to current geographical location. The data were recorded for further computer analysis. The dose rate varied usually between 0.03-0.17 μSv/h in the whole country, excluding a few nuclear material storage places (in Saku and in Sillamae). Enhanced dose rates of natural origin (0.17-0.5 μSv/h) were measured near granite statues, buildings and bridges. No radioactive sources were found on road sides or in towns or villages. (orig.) (14 refs.)

  4. Parteilisest tsensuurist Nõukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Kreegipuu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws. One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them

  5. Container transport direct call – logistic solution to container transport via Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tolli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Container transport in the world grows up to 12 % every year. Chinese container transport contributes majority of container flows in international container transport. Many world seaports compete for Chinese container flows and make eff orts to get investments and direct calls from China to their ports. Estonia has a possibility to decrease its large dependence and risks due to the transit of oil and oil products and coal with the help of container flows from China. In addition to a favorable geographical location Estonia has several other important arguments, like suffi cient land in the harbours for developing a container terminal to launch extensive container transport transit from China. Port of St. Petersburg, container transport port closest to Estonia by the Baltic Sea, is overloaded. Estonia can compete for container flows directed to Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan and Kaluga. Construction of an international high-tech container terminal in Port of Tallinn serves as one important precondition for directing Russian transit container flows through Estonia. Such a container terminal could service also larger vessels and container flows from China. Container lines and container terminals operating as alliances are jointly able to substantially increase container flows through countries.

  6. Radiocarbon dating in the quarternary geology and archaeology of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilves, Eh.; Liiva, A.; Punning, Ya.M.

    1974-01-01

    Work of the Tartusk radiocarbon laboratory for the last 15 years is presented. Methodological problems of the radiocarbon method are discussed. The geochemistry of carbon isotopes, principles of radiocarbon dating, and areas of its application are considered. Methods of recording natural radiocarbon and materials used for radiocarbon dating are discussed. Preliminary treatment of the samples and synthesis of the radioactive carbon carrier are presented. The preparation of the counter compound in the form of a liquid scintillator from the synthesized natural radiocarbon carrier is described. The scintillator efficiencies of different scintillators are compared. Data are given on the development of criteria for selecting the photoelectron multiplier. Construction of alumina cuvettes used for scintillation counting is described. It is noted that, in the counter apparatus system, amplitude analyzers with two differential discriminators are used, which allows directing the recording of activity to two 14 C regions. The results of using the radiocarbon method for different aspects of natural science and archeology are considered. Problems of geology of the late Pleistocene and the Pre-Baltic Holocene are considered: base of the mid-Valdaisk Karukyulask interglacier, history of deterioration of the final glacial mantle, development of a drainage system and late glacier, development and paleography of the Holocene, and others. New material on the chronology of primeval cultures in the Estonia region and on growth of meteoric craters are presented

  7. District heating rehabilitation project. Viljandi - Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Viljandi Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system, and thereby to support the positive development of the district heating system in Viljandi to a more energy efficient and rational system and to achieve a significantly decrease in the pollution from the production of heat energy in Viljandi. The project has also included technical assistance to Viljandi DH company, in order to make them capable of operation and maintaining of the new substations, and also training of the local operational staff for operation of the complete district heating system. Viljandi is a county and is centrally located in Estonia, which makes Viljandi very suitable as recipient for a demonstration project. One important objective was the projects significantly positive environmental impact in reduction of the generated emissions of CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 , as the project includes installation of more efficient energy systems and supply of heat from the 2 existing district heating plants (both are partly fired with wood chips) instead of heating by very old and worn-out coal fired boilers and inexpedient designed substations with the present operational conditions. (EG)

  8. Women in Physics in Estonia: Many Duties, One Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2009-04-01

    In Estonia, women and men have equal legal rights. Women are expected to earn their living like men—and unlike men, to be the main (often the only) caregiver for the children. In the family women do most of the unpaid work, spending twice the amount of time on household duties as men. Laws about public preschool child care and child support obligations for noncustodial parents exist, but these laws are not always realized in practice. A generous policy of benefits for children under 1.5 years provides some relief for mothers. It is a challenge to balance a woman's traditional load of unpaid duties with the high demands of a science career. As in many other countries, with every step up the academic ladder the underrepresentation of women in science becomes more evident. Physics and engineering are perceived as male areas and women active in these areas are often treated as exceptions. Most obstacles met by women in science are difficult to recognize and neutralize because they are deeply informal. Activities for "gender and science" that exceed the limits of sociological study have no long tradition here and are yet finding their place in Estonian society.

  9. Partnership dynamics among migrants and their descendants in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005 and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997, and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.

  10. Remediation of an oily leachate pond in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2005-12-01

    Until recent years, waste oil and oil-contaminated waters commonly ended up in landfills. At some dump sites, ponds of oily liquids and leachate were formed. To remediate such ponds, an interdisciplinary approach is now required, keeping costs at an affordable level, particularly in countries with changing economies. From 1974 to 1993, liquid oily wastes taken to the Laguja landfill, in Estonia, were disposed of in a pond with a surface area of 9800 m2. It was estimated that the pond contained 4500-6000 m3 of oily water and 3500 m3 of oil-containing bottom sediments. This study aimed at developing an environmentally sound and cost-effective method for remediation of the oily liquids, leachate and contaminated underlying sediment material, to meet the existing legal demands. It was concluded that treatment of contaminated water is well established and the procedures carried out to meet the regulatory demands achieved satisfactory results. However, regarding treatment of sediments it was concluded that legal and technological aspects, as well as monitoring procedures are not fully established and are usually underestimated. Laboratory investigations can provide valuable information in decision-making, and contribute to effective full-scale remediation planning.

  11. District heating rehabilitation project. Viljandi - Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Viljandi Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system, and thereby to support the positive development of the district heating system in Viljandi to a more energy efficient and rational system and to achieve a significantly decrease in the pollution from the production of heat energy in Viljandi. The project has also included technical assistance to Viljandi DH company, in order to make them capable of operation and maintaining of the new substations, and also training of the local operational staff for operation of the complete district heating system. Viljandi is a county and is centrally located in Estonia, which makes Viljandi very suitable as recipient for a demonstration project. One important objective was the projects significantly positive environmental impact in reduction of the generated emissions of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, as the project includes installation of more efficient energy systems and supply of heat from the 2 existing district heating plants (both are partly fired with wood chips) instead of heating by very old and worn-out coal fired boilers and inexpedient designed substations with the present operational conditions. (EG)

  12. On the lower boundary of the Floian Stage in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helje Pärnaste

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The lower boundary of the Second Stage of the Lower Ordovician Series, the Floian Stage, is defined by the first appearance of the graptolite Tetragraptus approximatus. In the stratotype section of Diabasbrottet at Hunneberg, southern Sweden, the boundary falls within the Megistaspis planilimbata trilobite Zone and within the Oelandodus elongatus–Acodus deltatus deltatus conodont Subzone of the Paroistodus proteus Zone, and within the Hunneberg Regional Stage. Graptolites, including the index species T. approximatus, are missing in the terrigenous sediment of Estonia. The earliest trilobites are poorly preserved in this terrigenous succession. They represent an interval older than the Megalaspides dalecarlicus Zone but probably younger than the M. planilimbata Zone, and are correlative to the Prioniodus elegans conodont Zone. Thus the lower boundary of the Second Stage can be detected using mainly conodonts. In accordance with conodont occurrence, the base of the Floian (i.e. somewhat higher than the base of the O. elongatus–A. d. deltatus Subzone falls within the Joa Member of the Leetse Formation. Probable levels have been suggested in some localities. Thus the lower part of the Leetse Formation belongs to the Tremadoc Stage, and to the Hunneberg Regional Stage.

  13. Hazardous substances in the aquatic environment of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to regulate the management of European surface water bodies. Directive 2008/105/EC, which establishes the environmental quality standards of priority substances and certain other pollutants, the content of which in the surface water should be monitored, has been transposed by the Estonian Ministry of Environment 9 September 2010 Regulation No. 49. Sampled hazardous substances were selected primarily based on their toxicity, as well as their lifetime in environment and ability to accumulate in living organisms (bioaccumulation). The contents of hazardous substances and their groups determined from Estonian surface waters remained below the limits of quantifications of used analysis methods in most cases. However, the content of some heavy metals, mono- and dibasic phenols in the surface water/waste water and sewage sludge/bottom sediments can still reach the delicate levels in the Estonian oil shale region in particular. Among new substances analysed in Estonia historically first time in 2010, amounts of organotin compounds in sediments and some alkylphenols, their ethoxylates and phthalates were found in various sample matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-01-01

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  15. Conodont dating of some Telychian (Silurian sections in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Männik, Peep

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several Telychian–Sheinwoodian strata exposed in Estonia are precisely dated using conodont biostratigraphy. The beds in the Valgu-1 section correspond to the uppermost Distomodus staurognathoides and Pterospathodus eopennatus ssp. n. 1 zones. In the Valgu-2 and Valgu-3 sections only the P. eopennatus ssp. n. 1 Zone is exposed. The strata in the Velise-Kõrgekalda section correspond to the Lower subzone of the P. amorphognathoides angulatus Zone. Marlstones in the Jädivere section are assigned to the P. a. lennarti Zone. In the Avaste section part of the P. a. lithuanicus Zone is exposed. On the Saastna Peninsula two stratigraphical intervals, the lower corresponding to the Upper subzone of the P. a. amorphognathoides Zone and the upper to the Upper Kockelella ranuliformis Zone, crop out along the shoreline. In Saastna the exposed strata are separated by a covered interval corresponding to five conodont zones, from the Lower Pseudooneotodus bicornis Zone to the Lower K. ranuliformis Zone.

  16. Predictors and consequences of job insecurity: Comparison of Slovakia and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ištoňová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Job insecurity is a significant current social issue in many European countries. Slovakia and Estonia significantly differ in the prevalence of job insecurity. The main aim of the present study was to compare Slovakia and Estonia in regard to job insecurity by looking at socio-demographic, job and organisational predictors and individual and social consequences based on ESS round five data. The secondary aim was to examine relationships between job insecurity and its predictors as well as job insecurity and its consequences. The analysis covered employed people with unlimited or limited contracts, working 40-50 hours per week, within the age range of 20-60. The results suggested significant differences in the predictors of job insecurity for Slovakia and Estonia. However, the individual, social and economic consequences of job insecurity were similar for both countries. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of job insecurity predictors and consequences in the European region.

  17. Different Labelling of Obstructive Airway Diseases in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallasaho, Paula; Meren, Mari; Raukas-Kivioja, Aet; Roenmark, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Large differences in prevalence of asthma have been reported between westernised countries and the former Eastern European countries, and still no consensus about the reasons for the differences exists. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic labelling of obstructive airway diseases, comparing subjects with respiratory symptoms and the diagnoses obtained in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden. A postal questionnaire was sent to population-based random samples, and 44,483 (76%) answers were obtained from the 58,661 invited in 1996. Among men, current smoking was most common in Estonia, 60%, followed by Finland, 39%, and Sweden, 28%. In all three countries, 30% of women were current smokers. Most respiratory symptoms including wheezing were most common in Estonia, also among non-smokers. The prevalence of asthma was 2.0% and chronic bronchitis 10.7% in Estonia, while the opposite was found in Sweden with an asthma prevalence of 7.8% and a chronic bronchitis prevalence of 3.1%. The pattern in Finland was similar to that of Sweden. The same differences between the three countries were found also among young subjects. The total proportion of diagnosed obstructive lung diseases in subjects with respiratory symptoms was similar, but the diagnosis of asthma was considerably more common in Finland and Sweden. Chronic bronchitis was favoured in Estonia, also among young adults irrespectively of what symptoms were present. In a multivariate model with correction for confounders, the risk (OR) for having a diagnosis of asthma was 5.65 (95% CI: 4.86-6.56) when living in Sweden, and 3.51 (95% CI: 3.00-4.12) in Finland, whereas risk for chronic bronchitis was 0.28 (0.25-0.31) and 0.22 (0.19-0.25), respectively, compared to Estonia. The study indicates differences in diagnostic practices of obstructive lung diseases between the three countries

  18. Overview of the electricity market of Estonia and the plausibility of nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtveer, M.; Tkaczyk, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia is a small country in Northern Europe, with electrical energy production dependent mostly on oil shale. The local supply of oil shale has given Estonia its energetic independence but it also presents great challenges: it is waste-intensive and causes massive emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It also causes damage to the landscape and to the health of the population living near the mining and energy producing area. Due to the above mentioned problems the use of nuclear power has been taken into consideration, but the debate is at its beginning and the need for further analyses is great

  19. Estonia in the system of global climate change. Publication 4/1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punning, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia is among the countries who signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) at the UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The FCCC calls on its parties to inventory national sources, to reduction in greenhouse gases and to development of projects responding to climate change. In 1994, an Estonian Country Study Project was initiated within the U.S. Country Studies Program. The Estonian Country Study Project is comprehensive, covering all sectors and directions of activity in Estonia that might impact climate change or be influenced by Global Climate Change. This book contains a collection of papers, covering the aims of the Estonian Country Study Project

  20. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Sillamae (Estonia) were identified as being inefficiency of the heat and power production plant, which has a very low capacity, lack of means for consumers to control their energy consumption due to the existing constant flow system, pollution from heat and power production based on oil shale, water and heat losses from the network and unclear agreements between the Silmet factory and Sillamae municipality. The available capital for funding is limited. It was investigated where in the system investments would have the greatest effect. A scenario where heat is supplied from individual gas-fired boilers was calculated. A financially viable scenario would be to change from cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) based on oil shale to either individual natural gas supply or peat-fueled heat production. The Sillamae municipality and the Estonian government should agree on a solution for Sillamae. There will be a cash flow problem if the project is implemented. This can be partly solved by introducing a longer loan period. it is expected that there will be no substantial changes in the consumers` heat demand in the `do nothing`scenario, and in other scenarios ca. 520 Tj/p.a. from the Solmet factory, 530 Tj/p.a. from the town and 260 Tj/p.a. as heat losses, totaling 1310 Tj/p.a.. In another scenario - the introduction of natural gas - the town`s heat demand will be 530 Tj/p.a. and there will be no heat losses. More detailed studies of environmental impacts should be undertaken. (ARW)

  1. Status and management of noble crayfish Astacus astacus in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paaver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Noble crayfish Astacus astacus (L. is an indigenous and the only crayfish species in Estonia. It is potentially endangered by invasion of alien species, diseases and habitat deterioration but does not have legal protected status and is fished only for recreational purpose. Crayfish Working Group of Ministry of Environment and Department of Aquaculture of the Estonian University of Life Sciences have developed crayfish conservation and management plan. Since 1994 standardized test fishing with traps (which catch only crayfish over 7 cm TL has been carried out and database of these fishings shows, that crayfish is dwelling in more than 255 sites in the lakes, rivers, streams, artificial reservoirs. In 52% of monitored sites populations are weak, catch per trap night is below 1 specimen. Exceptionally rich is the stock on the island Saaremaa, where in 59% of populations catch per trap night is over 4 and can reach 50. Licensed recreational catch is allowed in regions, where monitoring data show good status of crayfish stock. It is not allowed to sell the crayfish caught on recreational license. Crayfishing season is limited with August, size limit in recreational fishery is 11 cm TL. There are 10 operating crayfish farms and 15 are under construction. The farms produce yearly around 1000 kg of commercial size crayfish for export to Finland. Over 200000 juveniles are produced for restocking yearly. Restocking projects e.g. restoration of populations, which have been lost because of plague have been successful. The main threat factor is crayfish plague. In 2006–2007 it destroyed the stock of crayfish farms of companies Veteko, Pähkla, Astacus and wild population of Põduste river on the island Saaremaa.

  2. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Sillamae (Estonia) were identified as being inefficiency of the heat and power production plant, which has a very low capacity, lack of means for consumers to control their energy consumption due to the existing constant flow system, pollution from heat and power production based on oil shale, water and heat losses from the network and unclear agreements between the Silmet factory and Sillamae municipality. The available capital for funding is limited. It was investigated where in the system investments would have the greatest effect. A scenario where heat is supplied from individual gas-fired boilers was calculated. A financially viable scenario would be to change from cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) based on oil shale to either individual natural gas supply or peat-fueled heat production. The Sillamae municipality and the Estonian government should agree on a solution for Sillamae. There will be a cash flow problem if the project is implemented. This can be partly solved by introducing a longer loan period. it is expected that there will be no substantial changes in the consumers' heat demand in the 'do nothing'scenario, and in other scenarios ca. 520 Tj/p.a. from the Solmet factory, 530 Tj/p.a. from the town and 260 Tj/p.a. as heat losses, totaling 1310 Tj/p.a.. In another scenario - the introduction of natural gas - the town's heat demand will be 530 Tj/p.a. and there will be no heat losses. More detailed studies of environmental impacts should be undertaken

  3. Remediation and decommissioning of radioactive waste facilities in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnik, H.; Realo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear training facility at Paldiski was constructed in the early 1960's by the former USSR Navy. The hull sections of Delta and Echo class submarines each housing a full-sized ship reactor were installed in the main building of the site for training of navy personnel in safe operation of the submarine nuclear reactor systems. The first reactor was commissioned in 1968 and the second in 1982, while both was shut down in 1989. After Estonia's reproclamation of independence in 1991 the responsibility for the clean up and decommissioning of the Paldiski site became a subject of negotiations between Russia and Estonia. As the result Estonia took the ownership and control of the site in September 1995. Before the take over the Russian authorities defuelled the reactors and transported the spent fuel to Russia, dismantled the hull sections not related with reactor systems, seal-welded the hull sections housing the reactor vessels with their primary circuitry and enclosed those in reinforced concrete sarcophagi. The auxiliary facilities and radioactive waste were left intact. Main goals of the Conceptual Decommissioning Plan for the Paldiski facilities, developed under the auspices of the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (Pier, a group established at the request of the Estonian government to advise local authorities to maintain the decommissioning and waste management at Paldiski) were defined as following: Establishing the waste management system and a long term monitored interim storage, corresponding to internationally accepted safety standards and capable to condition, receive and store all the waste generated during decommissioning of the facility; Reductions of the extent of radiologically controlled areas as much as possible, in order to minimise maintenance requirements. To achieve these goals the following main tasks were addressed in the short and medium term site management action plans: Rearrangement of site for the needs of

  4. BOOKSELLER AS A CULTURAL AGENT: BOOK TRADE IN ESTONIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantson, Signe

    2006-12-01

    . Altogether 263 bookshops were founded in the second half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century and 283 persons became bookshop owners (at least for some years. These figures allow to conclude that book trade was a popular sphere of activity. The most intensive was foundation of bookshops during 1898–1904. Legally it was not difficult to get a permission to open a bookshop but only few shops (31% operated more than ten years; most often was that small shops operated up to five years. Trading with books did not guarantee sufficient income and the bookshop owners were often engaged in other spheres, mainly in book production and publishing. Majority of the Estonian origin bookshop owners derived from the peasant families and made up the first generation in book trade business. The newcomers had not enough education nor experience in the field. The most important achievement can be seen in the fact that bookshops were opened in all over Estonia that guaranteed dissemination of Estonian language books to all stratums of the society.

  5. Restructuring of manufacture under global financial and economic crisis: The case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilvits Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was not possible for Estonia only by raising the technological level of enterprises and increasing so-called technical productivity to catch up in terms of productivity with the developed industrial countries. The structure of Estonian manufacture was out-of-date and required cardinal and fast changes toward greater value added. Every time a crisis hits, it brings about new breakthroughs in science and technology; promotes fundamental changes that take place in a relatively short period of time; gives birth to new industries; forms new growth points in the economy. The crisis has had a far-reaching impact on the world economy and has brought challenges and opportunities to all countries and all fields. In addition to big difficulties, the crisis provided for Estonian manufacture also an exceptionally good chance for change and development. The crisis had a purifying and disciplining effect, enabled to eliminate from the manufacture wrong investments and inefficient enterprises. Assets were redistributed from passive economic agents to active ones and in favour of those who had capital for growth financing. After the crisis the structure of Estonian manufacturing is more effective than before: 1 technological level higher; 2 organization of work more perfect; 3 value added and productivity higher; 4 position of value chain better; 5 maybe also the value chain itself new and better. But there are fewer jobs in the new structure of manufacturing than before the crisis. Economic, social, regional etc. stratification has increased. The influence of crisis is not over yet and there is still a risk of some setback in future. There may also arise new problems and old problems may grow sharper.

  6. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Rahivere peat bog, eastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Plado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current case study presents results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR profiling at one of the Saadjärve drumlin field interstitial troughs, the Rahivere bog, eastern Estonia. The study was conducted in order to identify the bog morphology, and the thickness and geometry of the peat body. The method was also used to describe the applicability of GPR in the evaluation of the peat deposit reserve as the Rahivere bog belongs among the officially registered peat reserves. Fourteen GPR profiles, ~ 100 m apart and oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the depression, covering the bog and its surrounding areas, were acquired. In order to verify the radar image interpretation as well as to evaluate the velocity of electromagnetic waves in peat, a common source configuration was utilized and thirteen boreholes were drilled on the GPR profiles. A mean value of 0.036 m ns–1 corresponding to relative dielectric permittivity of 69.7 was used for the time–depth conversion. Radar images reveal major reflection from the peat–soil interface up to a depth of about 4 m, whereas drillings showed a maximum thickness of 4.5 m of peat. Minor reflections appear from the upper peat and mineral soil. According to the borehole data, undecomposed peat is underlain by decomposed one, but identifying them by GPR is complicated. Mineral soil consists of glaciolimnic silty sand in the peripheral areas of the trough, overlain by limnic clay in the central part. The calculated peat volumes (1 200 000 m3 were found to exceed the earlier estimation (979 000 m3 that was based solely on drilling data. Ground-penetrating radar, as a method that allows mapping horizontal continuity of the sub-peat interface in a non-destructive way, was found to provide detailed information for evaluating peat depth and extent.

  7. Estonia teater - helikindel ja sinine = Estonian National Opera - soundproof and blue / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia maja teatritiiva interjööri renoveerimine. Sisekujundus: Juta Lember (kavandas ka uued valgustid), Aulo Padar (SAB Lember & Padar). Arhitekt Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss OÜ). Restaureerimistööd: KAR-Grupp. Projekt ja valmis 2005. Ill.: 8 värv. sisevaadet

  8. Increasing ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia after the collapse of the Soviet Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinsalu, Mall; Vågerö, Denny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2004-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examined the change in ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia 1989-2000. DESIGN: Two unlinked cross sectional census based analyses were compared. Total and cause specific mortality was analysed for ethnic Estonians and Russians. The absolute differences in mortality

  9. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child"…

  10. Film Estonia katastroofist jääb tegelikkusest kaugele / Kristjan Jaak Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Kristjan Jaak

    2001-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastroofifilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et parvlaev "Estonia" uputati. Stsenaristiks on saksa teleajakirjanik Jutta Rabe, kes koos advokaat Kaj Holmbergiga lõi selleks puhuks stuudio Top Story. Peaosalisi mängivad Greta Scacchi (41) ja Jürgen Prochnow (60)

  11. Estonia huku filmi eesmärk : alustada tuleb uut uurimist / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Saksamaa toimuvad poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtted. Film mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Filmivõtetest räägib assistent Helje Kaskel

  12. Galeriiühendus Eesti Panga kvartalisse = Connecting Gallery to the Bank of Estonia Block

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    2003. a. veebruaris toimunud kutsutud arhitektuurikonkursi, mille eesmärgiks oli parandada Eesti Panga kvartali funktsionaalsust Estonia puiestee ja Sakala tänava poolsete osade vahel, töö. Projekterija: AB Urban Mark OÜ. Autorid: Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae. Konstruktsioonid: Inseneribüroo Peipman OÜ

  13. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  14. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  15. Welcome to Estonia märk on kaotanud oma sära / Kadi Heinsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinsalu, Kadi, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus loodab parandada Welcome to Estonia märgi mainet. Märki kasutavad ettevõtjad ei näe märgist olulist kasu toodete müügil. Kommenteerivad Evelin Int-Lambot, Leena Murd ja Olaf Merisalu

  16. Climatic trends in Estonia during the period of instrumental observations and climate scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaagus, J.

    1996-01-01

    Weather conditions in Estonia are quite variable. Long-term periodical fluctuations have been observed in meteorological values. At the same time, the climate change during the last 100-150 years is marked. As a general tendency, the climate has become more maritime. Air pressure is characterized by an increasing trend in spring and summer, and by a decreasing trend in autumn and winter. Mean air temperature has increased, particularly over the colder half of the year. Precipitation area totals have risen, most of all in autumn and winter. Snow cover duration has decreased significantly. General circulation model-based climate change scenarios expect a general increase in air temperature in Estonia with warming in winter more significant than that in summer. Moreover, they indicate an increase in precipitation, but the results of the individual models are quite variable. The transient scenario shows that the main increase in precipitation will not occur during next decades, but only at the end of the transient period, around 2070. It can be stated that observed tendencies of climate change in Estonia concur with expected changes caused by global warming. According to the long-term fluctuations of meteorological values in Estonia, changes different from general trends can take place during the next decade. An increase in mean air pressure, sunshine duration and snow cover duration, as well as a decrease in mean air temperature and precipitation is expected in the following years

  17. University Studies as a Side Job: Causes and Consequences of Massive Student Employment in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerkens, Maarja; Magi, Eve; Lill, Liis

    2011-01-01

    Student employment is increasingly common in many countries. Compared to earlier decades, not only more students work but they also work longer hours. Among European countries Estonia is one of the clear "leaders" in student employment. This study uses survey data from 2,496 students in Estonian public and private universities to examine…

  18. Restrictions to Pharmacy Ownership and Vertical Integration in Estonia-Perception of Different Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Marit; Volmer, Daisy

    2016-04-19

    From 2020, the ownership of community pharmacies in Estonia will be limited to the pharmacy profession, and the vertical integration of wholesale companies and community pharmacies will not be allowed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of different stakeholders in primary healthcare toward the new regulations of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. A qualitative electronic survey was distributed to the main stakeholders in primary healthcare and higher education institutions providing pharmacy education ( n = 40) in May 2015. For data analysis, the systematic text condensation method was used. The study participants described two opposing positions regarding the development of community pharmacies in the future. Reform supporters emphasized increased professional independence and more healthcare-oriented operation of community pharmacies. Reform opponents argued against these ideas as community pharmacists do not have sufficient practical experience and finances to ensure sustainable development of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Based on the current perception of all respondents, the future operation of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia is unclear and there is urgent need for implementation criteria for the new regulations.

  19. The recertification of the professional accounting qualification in Estonia: the requirements and quality of CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidi Kallaste

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The recertification of the professional accounting qualification in Estonia: the requirements and quality of CPD As the purpose of a professional qualification should be to ensure quality to employers/customers, appro-priate requirements for professional training should not be too low. On the other hand, too high require-ments for the amount of training would lead to the situation where maintaining the level is expensive and if the labour market does not consider having a professional certificate necessary, recertification will be discarded. The purpose of the research was to identify the factors that influence an accountant’s decision whether to recertify his/her professional qualification or not. The conditions of recertification were ana-lysed and compared to other countries as were the requirements set up for auditors. The results of the survey revealed that in Estonia the decision not to recertify one’s professional qualification was mainly due to not having fulfilled the required number of qualification hours or not having certificates proving one’s participation in qualification training sessions. At the same time, compared to other countries, the requirements in Estonia are very low. So that the increase in the amount of training would not hinder recertification, alternative solutions for Estonia are proposed in the article.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) hunted for human consumption in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remes, Noora; Kärssin, Age; Must, Kärt

    2018-01-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii are common in many host species, including wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Our nationwide study aimed to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence and its geographical distribution, and to evaluate plausible risk factors for se...

  1. Estonia vormelitel täitus juba pool sajandit / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    November tehnika ajaloos: 50 aastat möödus Estonia-1 esimesest võistlusstardist Leningradis Nevski ringrajal. 85 aastat tagasi sai Jacob Schick patendi elektrilisele habemeajamismasinale. 60 aastat tagasi konstrueeris Auguste Piccard batüskaafi. 10 aastat tagasi sai 77aastasest USA senaatorist John Glennist maailma vanim astronaut

  2. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  3. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional identity by…

  4. Digoxin: use pattern in Estonia and bioavailability of the local market leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pähkla, R; Irs, A; Oselin, K; Rootslane, L

    1999-10-01

    In comparison with neighbouring Scandinavian countries, the use of digoxin in Estonia is high. The present study was carried out to determine the use pattern of digoxin in Estonia and bioavailability of the local market leader preparation in comparison with Lanoxin. Drug use data were evaluated from the annual reports of wholesale companies. For the bioequivalence study, a single-blind cross-over randomised two-way single-dose comparative bioavailability study was performed using 14 healthy volunteers. Digoxin concentrations in serum samples and urine were measured by chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay. The use of digoxin in Estonia has increased by 35% during the period 1994-97. The steady market leader was the local generic drug. No statistically significant differences were found in any pharmacokinetic parameter between the generic preparation and Lanoxin. All parameters showed considerable variability. The total amount of drug excreted was the parameter with lowest inter- individual variation. The present study indicates that the generic digoxin preparation studied is bioequivalent to Lanoxin. The increasing use of digoxin in Estonia is not caused by low bioavailability of the local market leader but by therapeutic traditions.

  5. Prevalence of Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, K; Ounap, K; Zordania, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blo...... prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700....

  6. [Johan Eellend. Cultivating the Rural Citizen : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia] / Kersti Lust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lust, Kersti, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Eellend, Johan. Cultivating the Rural Citizien : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia. Stockholm : Stockholm Universty, 2007. Eesti agraarideoloogia kujunemist ja olemust käsitlevast dissertatsioonist. Tegemist on Eesti ühiskondliku mõtte voolude ja nende mõjuulatuse tavapärasest erineva nägemusega

  7. Costs, health effects and cost-effectiveness of alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian

  8. Technical-economic parameters of the new oil shale mining-chemical complex in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmiv, I.; Fraiman, J.

    2006-01-01

    The history of oil shale mining in Estonia has reached its century mark. Three oil shale branches have been formed and have been working on the basis of Estonian oil shale deposits: the mining industry (underground and surface extraction), the power industry (heat and electric energy generation), and the chemical industry (gas and synthetic oils). The authors attempted to summarize the experience of the activities of these branches and to make into a whole the results of their research developments in the past years, as well as to form a notion about perspectives of oil shale in Estonia. Variants of the mining-chemical oil shale complex production and trade patterns differed from used ones. Mining methods, thermal processing of oil shale, and solid, liquid, and gas waste recovery have been studied, analyzed, and worked out up to the present. Setting up a flexible trade structure within the framework of that complex is considered the main economic mechanism capable of balancing production costs of such a complex with its earnings, which could respond properly to any, even peak, fluctuations of the market for final products processed from oil shale. Data of the working 'Estonia' oil shale mine were used as the basis of the analysis and practical conclusions. Information on the mine being projected in the region of Ojamaa in the northeast of Estonia was taken as the data of the worthwhile supplier. Oil shale processing chemical complex is considered in two structural alternatives: in technological chain with the 'Estonia' mine (the first variant), and the projected mine of a new technical level (the second variant). (author)

  9. A feasibility study of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash utilisation in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Hakan; Frey, Ruedi; Voronova, Viktoria; Koroljova, Arina

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alternative environmental management options for the utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash (FA), which is generated at Iru Power Plant where MSW is incinerated in Estonia. To determine sustainable and economically feasible environmental management options for MSW incineration FA in Estonia, CO 2 sequestration with a further carbonation process was examined. A partial Cost & Benefit Analysis has been conducted to compare the carbonation process to the current situation. Two carbonation options were developed. Option 1 is to use carbonated FA in any other processes based on the waste-to-product principle. Option 2 is to send carbonated FA to the non-hazardous landfill in Tallinn, Estonia. Important parameters, such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Break Even Point (BEP), have been calculated for carbonation options and the current case. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been conducted to examine its robustness. The results showed that the best option is carbonation Option 1 with NPV of 9,209,662 EUR, IRR of 43%, BCR of 2.63 and BEP between 2018 and 2019. Both Options 1 and 2 constitute more sustainable and environmentally friendly management options compared to the current situation. It can be concluded that this preliminary feasibility study showed that running a carbonation plant may be profitable and sustainable for Estonia. Currently, there is no treatment technology for MSW incineration FA in Estonia and FA is sent to a neighbouring country for further utilisation. This is the first study to demonstrate FA management options with economic and environmental benefits.

  10. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  11. Armastus kui vale(m) : Mari Vihmandi ooperi "Armastuse valem" lavastusest Estonias / Ester Võsu ja Kristel Pappel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Võsu, Ester, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Argentiina kirjaniku Esther Vilari romaani "Nina Glucksteini matemaatika" ainetel valminud Mari Vihmandi ooperist "Armastuse valem", libreto Maimu Berg, lavastaja Liis Kolle, tantsu- ja liikumisseaded Ana Mondini. Esietendus 17. oktoobril 2008 Rahvusooperis Estonia

  12. [Anu Mai Kõll. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kõll, Anu Mai. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia (Historical studies in Eastern Europe and Eurasia, 2). Central European University Press. Budapest and New York 2013

  13. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter 7 of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi (Estonia) present technical data on production units, also with regard to new facilities. (ARW)

  14. [Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940)]/ Svetlana Bogojavlenska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bogojavlenska, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940). (Erfurter Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des orthdoxen Christentums, Bd. 6). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  15. Archive of digital boomer subbottom data collected during USGS cruise 05FGS01 offshore east-central Florida, July 17-29, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Wiese, Dana S.; Phelps, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    In July of 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey (FGS), conducted a geophysical survey of the Atlantic Ocean offshore of Florida's east coast from Flagler Beach to Daytona Beach. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer subbottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The USGS Saint Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 05FGS01 tells us the data were collected in 2005 for cooperative work with the FGS and the data were collected during the first field activity for that project in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. The boomer subbottom processing system consists of an acoustic energy source that is made up of capacitors charged to a high voltage and discharged through a transducer in the water. The transducer is towed on a sled floating on the water surface and when discharged emits a short acoustic pulse, or shot, which propagates through the water column and shallow stratrigraphy below. The acoustic energy is reflected at density boundaries (such as the seafloor or sediment layers beneath the seafloor), detected by the receiver (a hydrophone streamer), and recorded by a PC-based seismic acquisition system. This process is repeated at timed intervals (for example, 0.5 s) and recorded for specific intervals of time (for example, 100 ms). In this way, a two-dimensional (2-D) vertical image of

  16. Archive of digital boomer seismic reflection data collected offshore east-central Florida during USGS cruise 00FGS01, July 14-22, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subino, Janice A.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Wiese, Dana S.; Calderon, Karynna; Phelps, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    In July of 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey (FGS), conducted a geophysical survey of the Atlantic Ocean offshore Florida's east coast from Brevard County to northern Martin County. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) information, digital and handwritten Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. A filtered and gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital image of each seismic profile is also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of all acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU) (Cohen and Stockwell, 2005). Example SU processing scripts and USGS Software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 00FGS01 tells us the data were collected in 2000 for cooperative work with the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) and the data were collected during the first field activity for that study in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. The boomer plate is an acoustic energy source that consists of capacitors charged to a high voltage and discharged through a transducer in the water. The transducer is towed on a sled floating on the water surface and when discharged, emits a short acoustic pulse, or shot, which propagates through the water, sediment column, or rock beneath. The acoustic energy is reflected

  17. Airborne radiometric anomalies caused by late kinematic granite rocks in the Molson Lake-Red Sucker Lake area, east-central Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.; Schledewitz, D.C.P.; Soonawala, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    Geological mapping with simultaneous ground gamma ray spectrometer surveys in an area with a chain of airborne radiometric anomalies of greater than 2 ppm eU indicate uranium enrichment in late kinematic pink leucogranitic rocks including granites, alaskites, and syenites which form dykes, stocks and small plutons in a batholithic tonalite - granodiorite complex. Field geolocial evidence suggests that the potassium-rich rocks were formed by hydrothermal solutions and that at least some of them are metasomatic replacement bodies. Results of geophysical grid survey over a pronounced anomaly indicate that it is caused by a significant volume of leucogranitic rocks with an unusually high background concentration of uranium averaging 25 ppm eU. The uranium seems to be associated with hematite which coats mineral grains and fills small fractures

  18. The effects of political and economic transitions on health and safety in Estonia: an Estonian-Swedish comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, T; Andersson, R; Hörte, L G

    1998-11-01

    A general and dramatic deterioration of health in Estonia during the transition period 1990-1994 was analysed using Sweden as a comparative example. Though there were diverging trends between Estonia and Sweden in the leading cause of death, cardiovascular diseases, the gap in mortality from injury had increased most rapidly. While the injury mortality rate slightly decreased in Sweden from 1990 to 1994, it almost doubled in Estonia. In 1994, the total injury death rate for men was about 6 times higher in Estonia than in Sweden. The death rates for some types of injuries, such as alcohol intoxication and homicide, were many tenfolds higher in Estonia than in Sweden. Injury contributed the most to the widening health gap between the countries, especially in males. The mechanisms of this sudden health deterioration remain to be fully explained. It could be hypothesised that behind the traditional behavioural risk factors, the influence of socio-political factors related to economic and political reconstruction is present. A widespread risk-taking and unhealthy behaviour among Estonians can likely be partly explained as a way of coping with the distress created by the new demands of transition society. An important challenge on the way to improvement is creating the political will among policy-makers to confront the tremendous problems of controlling the factors in society that affect the population's health in Estonia.

  19. Microfacies, Depositional environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of Upper Carboniferous- Lower Permian rocks from Ozbak-Kuh region (Zaladou Section, East Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zaladou section is located in Ozbak-Kuh mountains in the nourthen part of Tabas block and consist of shale, limy sandstone, limestone and dolomite. Continous relationship of Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian deposits, is quite evident in Zaladou section. The lower boundry of this section is located on the Absheni formation of Sardar Group with disconformity surface, and upper boundry’s is covered by disconformity surface and bauxite horizon of Bagh-e-Vang formation. According to the lithological Characters and microscopic studies, tidal flat, lagoon, bar, tidal inlet and open marine sub-environment are identified for Zaladou section. Results of this study show that Zaladou section was deposited in silisiclastic-carbonate mix homoclinal ramp in late Carboniferous and in carbonate homoclinal ramp in early Permian. Field study, microfacies and analysis through the sequence led to recognition of main sequence surface, such as: sequence boundry, maximum flooding surface, marine flooding surface, system tracts and two depositional sequences.

  20. Fault-controlled advective, diffusive, and eruptive CO 2 leakage from natural reservoirs in the Colorado Plateau, East-Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Na-Hyun

    This study investigated a natural analogue for CO2 leakage near Green River, Utah, aiming to understand the influence of various factors on CO2 leakage and to reliably predict underground CO2 behavior after injection for geologic CO2 sequestration. Advective, diffusive, and eruptive characteristics of CO2 leakage were assessed via a soil CO2 flux survey and numerical modeling. The field results show anomalous CO2 fluxes (> 10 g m-2 d-1 ) along the faults, particularly adjacent to CO2-driven cold springs and geysers (e.g., 36,259 g m-2 d-1 at Crystal Geyser), ancient travertines (e.g., 5,917 g m-2 d-1), joint zones in sandstone (e.g., 120 g m-2 d-1), and brine discharge zones (e.g., 5,515 g m-2 d-1). Combined with similar isotopic ratios of gas and progressive evolution of brine chemistry at springs and geysers, a gradual decrease of soil CO2 flux from the Little Grand Wash (LGW; ~36,259 g m -2 d-1) to Salt Wash (SW; ~1,428 g m-2 d-1) fault zones reveals the same CO2 origin and potential southward transport of CO2 over 10-20 km. The numerical simulations exhibit lateral transport of free CO2 and CO2-rich brine from the LGW to SW fault zones through the regional aquifers (e.g., Entrada, Navajo, Kayenta, Wingate, White Rim). CO2 travels predominantly as an aqueous phase (XCO2=~0.045) as previously suggested, giving rise to the convective instability that further accelerates CO2 dissolution. While the buoyant free CO2 always tends to ascend, a fraction of dense CO2-rich brine flows laterally into the aquifer and mixes with the formation fluids during upward migration along the fault. The fault always enhances advective CO2 transport regardless of its permeability (k). However, only low-k fault prevents unconditional upright migration of CO2 and induces fault-parallel movement, feeding the northern aquifers with more CO2. Low-k fault also impedes lateral southward fluid flow from the northern aquifers, developing anticlinal CO2 traps at shallow depths (<300 m). The

  1. Joint implementation demo project between Denmark and Estonia - Phase 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This project is meant to contribute to form the basis of co-operation between Denmark and Estonia as regards Joint Implementation (JI) and thus gather experience in preparation for practical use of JI. A number of questions can be raised for discussion within this project: What is the scope for JI? What is the role of the host country government? Will JI survive the emerging Emission Trading? The project report gives a status of the present situation within the area of JI both internationally and in Estonia, including a resume of the Estonian National Climate Programme. Furthermore, a stakeholder analysis is presented, along with an illustration of the effect of Joint Implementation in the various energy sectors. (BA)

  2. The Path to and Lessons from the Economic Crisis in Estonia: Employee Compensation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe Estonia’s economic development strategy in the Baltic Sea region primarily from the perspective of labour costs as a factor in international competitiveness. Estonia’s position in the international division of economic activities will be explored based on expert assessments in the context of a study of theoretical literature about labour compensation as a factor in international competitiveness. The differences between the impact of the economic boom and crisis periods on the level and dynamics of employee compensation (labour related expenditures, and gross and net salary in Estonia at the national level will be empirically analysed. An empirical analysis will also be performed to describe the changes in the structure of economic activities (NACE-classification in Estonia

  3. Cost of Capital in Price-regulated Companies: the Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Sander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of price-regulated companies it is the role of appropriate government agencies to introduce clear, internally consistent, theoretically sound, and unambiguous methodology for finding the regulative cost of capital. The aim of the paper is to describe and analyze the cost of capital estimation methodology for regulated companies in Estonia and discuss some issues arising in applying this methodology. The current paper focuses on two topical issues associated with the estimation of regulative cost of capital in Estonia: estimation of market risk premium and inclusion of currency risk premium into the cost of capital. Current turmoil in financial markets has increased investors’ risk aversion as well as level of risks.

  4. Labour market adjustments in Estonia during the 2008/2011 crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine LEVASSEUR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available his article provides an assessment of labour market adjustments occurring in Estonia during the 2008/2011 crisis. The strategy of internal devaluation succeeded in shrinking the real (hourly unit labour costs by 25 % per year in 2010 and 2011, thus helping Estonian enterprises gain international competitiveness. The whole gamut of tools available in terms of flexibility was used, at least in the worst time of the financial crisis: massive lay-offs, reduced working time and wage cuts. In 2011, Estonia stood as one of the most dynamic EU countries to recover with exports growth. On the social side, however, the track record is not positive: the purchasing power of workers has been reduced and unemployment still remains strong and persistent despite economic recovery.

  5. Research Policies Rewarding Quantity: Estonia and Ukraine. Kvantiteeti tasustav teaduspoliitika: Eesti ja Ukraina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ukrainski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is resting on the theoretical model of Braun (2003 describing the delegation modes for public funding of research in the principal-agent framework. It aims to show by using the conceptualisation of utility functions of principal and agents on the various levels, how different motivations for producing different kinds of research outputs emerge for researchers and universities or public research organisations in Estonia and Ukraine. The article attempts to offer one explanation to why in some quantitative research output indicators both countries perform very well compared to much lower levels of innovation system indicators otherwise. Estonia is rewarding publications and Ukraine is rewarding utility model applications throughout different levels of the system.

  6. The origin of barium in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system, North Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrik, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the barium occurrence and its origin is made on the basis of the groundwater chemistry study. High Ba content has been detected in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in the coastal vicinity of the Gulf of Finland in Estonia and St Petersburg. The dissolution of Ba from witherite as the primary source was derived from the analysis of the aqueous solution equilibrium with Ba-related minerals. It is reflected in the chemical composition of groundwater and influenced by the galenite–calcite–fluorite polymetallic mineralization in Vendian sandstones. The dissolution and re-deposition of carbonates and baryte are confirmed by mineral saturation states for an aqueous solution and distribution of other species in the groundwater of the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in North Estonia.

  7. E-Participation in the Legislative Process Lessons from Estonia for Enhancing Democratic Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Glencross

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the success of an innovative national e-participation project in Estonia. To carry out this task, the paper combines quantitative (aggregate user data, content analysis via tagging and qualitative (individual user survey and interviews with public officials data analysis. The analysis is conducted with two principal research objectives in mind. Firstly, to explain how e-participation has fared in Estonia, both in terms of citizen mobilization and government responses. The second goal is to evaluate a series of procedural and technological changes for enhancing e-participation. The Estonian case provides ample lessons for ensuring that e-participation in practice can better meet the expectations of users and government officials alike.

  8. Historical Survey of Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Estonia, 1946-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maremaee, Ello; Tankler, Hain; Putnik, Henno; Maalmann, Iige

    2003-12-01

    The report presents a historical survey on two of the nuclear facilities under the IAEA safeguards in Estonia - Sillamaee Uranium Extraction Factory and the Paldiski Submarine Training Centre. These facilities were a Soviet legacy and shall be decommissioned and it is only through a close international co-operation and technical assistance that it would be possible to solve all the problems arising at these facilities. The historical survey represents the best available information the authors were able to give on the nuclear facilities, which have functioned on the territory of Estonia. The historical survey was a joint co-operation initiative by the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The historical survey will be presented to the IAEA as a volunteer supplement to the State Declaration according to the Additional Protocol (author)

  9. Spatial Planning in Estonia – From A Socialist to Inclusive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mart HIOB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning in Eastern Europe has gone through major changes during the years after the Soviet occupation ended around 1990. New planning standards were eagerly accepted but the practice was often carried out in a socialist manner. This article gives an overview of planning law and practice in Estonia during the transition period. The example presented is a district in Tartu, the second largest city of 100,000 inhabitants. The article analyses different master planning documents covering the whole district and compares both their process of compilation and their content to former Soviet era plans. The conclusion is that the transition from socialist to inclusive planning in Estonia has taken at least two decades, and the process is still not fi nished. This shows that the legal framework alone is not suffi cient to transform planning practice – a new ideology has to be accepted by the specialist as well as the politicians and the general public.

  10. Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

    2006-04-01

    Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland.

  11. Commented list of rare and protected vascular plants of inland water bodies of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Mäemets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This presented overview of rare and protected hydrophytes, emergent plants and hygrophytes of inland water bodies of Estonia includes 60 species. In the commented list are indicated their position in the state protection categories I–III (last version in 2014, and under the Red List of Estonia (last version in 2008; marked are Natura 2000 species of the European Union. Most typical habitats for these rare species are: I. soft-water oligotrophic and semidystrophic lakes; II. mesotrophic lakes with Najas (Caulinia flexilis and Potamogeton rutilus; III. alkaline fens and wet meadows; IV. brackish or freshwater coastal lagoons; V. undamaged river stretches; VI. open shallow littoral of the largest lakes of Peipsi (Pskovsko-Chudskoe and of Võrtsjärv. Main threats of these habitats are briefly concerned, as well as the problem of conservation value of hybrids, based on the example of Sparganium species.

  12. Business environments versus corporate survival in Estonia and Poland in 2001–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Gołębiowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate longevity is - in essence - determined by a company's intrinsic competitive advantage (sometimes dubbed a "moat" as well as exogenous factors: from business doing ease - to broader, macroeconomic and strategic factors. In this study, we have endeavoured to compare the business environments and corporate sectors of two recent entrants into the European Union: Estonia and Poland. Overall, Estonia, thanks to greater resolve in post-communist liberal transition, has consistently ensured a superior corporate governance framework. Surprisingly, it is the macroeconomic and strategic steadiness that led to higher corporate survival in Poland. The global economic crisis of 2007-2009 is expected to further back this claim, as the patterns of macroeconomic growth for both countries are set to widen.

  13. Uudised : "Eesti väärtorelid" 3. Verdi festival Estonias. Leedu ooper 80 / Tiina Mattisen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mattisen, Tiina

    2001-01-01

    6. jaan. esitleti Jaani kirikus sarja "Eesti väärtorelid" kolmandat CDd, mis jäädvustab A. Terkmanni 1913.a valminud oreli kõla. G. Verdi 100. surma-aastapäevale pühendatud Verdi festivalist Rahvusooperis Estonia 19.-27. jaan. Leedu Rahvuslik Ooperi- ja Balletiteater tähistas leedu ooperikunsti 80. sünnipäeva 30. dets. galakontserdiga, Estoniat esindas M. Palm

  14. Decline in alcohol consumption in Estonia: combined effects of strengthened alcohol policy and economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Jarno

    2011-01-01

    To describe alcohol policy changes in parallel to consumption changes in 2005-2010 in Estonia, where alcohol consumption is among the highest in Europe. Review of pertinent legislation and literature. Alcohol consumption decreased since 2008, while alcohol excise tax, sales time restrictions and ad bans have increased since 2005. An economic downturn started in 2008. The precise roles of policy changes and the economic downturn in the decline of alcohol consumption, and whether the decrease will be sustained, are still unclear.

  15. Cruziana traces from the Late Silurian (Pridoli carbonate shelf of Saaremaa, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Late Pridoli Cruziana traces have recently been found in carbonate shelf sediments of the Ohesaare Formation on Saaremaa Island, Estonia. Cruziana isp. is interpreted here as a locomotory trace (repichnia of an arthropod, possibly a trilobite. Cruziana traces previously known from the Silurian of Baltica differ from Cruziana isp., indicating that the diversity of Cruziana traces in the late Silurian of Baltica was higher than previously thought.

  16. Estonia hukk jõuab Eesti kinodesse sügisel / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal peatselt esilinastuv poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena, jõuab Eestis siinse levitaja Mati Seppingu sõnul linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist on kapten Arvo Kallase rollis Rein Oja

  17. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  18. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

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    Ene Indermitte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.

  19. The Phenomenon of Trust in Flat Owners’ Collective Renovation Strategies in Estonia

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    Liis Ojamäe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobilising fl at owners into renovating residential blocks in post-socialist countries has been a complicated process. Evidence from Estonia shows that the success of collective renewal strategies depends not only on economic issues but also on ways investments are organised and, signifi cantly, the relationship of trust between diff erent actors. The paper aims at conceptualising the issue of institutional trust upon the experience of urban housing renewal in Estonia. It is contended that trust is crucial for the joint decision-making in a block as well as for facilitating negotiations between fl at owners’ associations, local municipalities and market actors. The paper draws on three qualitative studies conducted in Estonia during the 2000s, which allow asserting that trust towards new strategies of housing renewal can be achieved and maintained by ‘best practices’, which by concentrating expert knowledge also denote direct communication between experts and fl at owners. While it is important to raise the residents’ technical knowledgeability, it is indispensable to develop abilities to manage and communicate the renovation process between diff erent parties. The public sector is conceived to be a central actor in sustaining trust between actors who have no previous positive experience from collective residential strategies

  20. 25 Years of Change in Management Control Systems and Business Education in Estonia

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    Ülle Pärl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last 25 years, the Estonian economy has transitioned from a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented, globally open, highly competitive economy. Although during these years there has been fast growth and Estonians could tell a lot of success stories, research shows that management practices are still less advanced compared to those in enterprises from developed countries. Increased competition, openness and innovation increased the significance of more sophisticated management control systems (MCS. Researchers accentuate the role of managers and their education and training in using and developing more sophisticated MCS in companies. The objective of the current paper is to better understand how changes in the business environment, managerial training and education are connected to developments in MCS in Estonia. This article provides an overview of the statistics and studies completed in Estonia over the last 25 years. As this study shows, the last decade has brought a different level of internationalization and development in the business environment and business education. The problems associated with developments in MCS , using cloud technology, business education and managerial training are the same in Estonia as in developed countries. To develop the business and economic environment in the country, Estonian entrepreneurs need high-level data processing, analytical and financial education, and practical training courses.

  1. The origin and distribution of HAPs elements in relation to maceral composition of the A1 lignite bed (Paleocene, Calvert Bluff Formation, Wilcox Group), Calvert mine area, east-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Sharon S.; Warwick, Peter D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Pontolillo, James

    1997-01-01

    The origin and distribution of twelve potentially Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs; As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U) identified in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments were examined in relation to the maceral composition of the A1 bed (Paleocene, Calvert Bluff Formation, Wilcox Group) of the Calvert mine in east-central Texas. The 3.2 m-thick A1 bed was divided into nine incremental channel samples (7 lignite samples and 2 shaley coal samples) on the basis of megascopic characteristics. Results indicate that As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb, and U are strongly correlated with ash yield and are enriched in the shaley coal samples. We infer that these elements are associated with inorganic constituents in the coal bed and may be derived from a penecontemporaneous stream channel located several kilometers southeast of the mining block. Of the HAPs elements studied, Mn and Hg are the most poorly correlated to ash yield. We infer an organic association for Mn; Hg may be associated with pyrite. The rest of the trace elements (Be, Co, and Se) are weakly correlated with ash yield. Further analytical work is necessary to determine the mode of occurrence for these elements. Overall, concentrations of the HAPs elements are generally similar to or less than those reported in previous studies of lignites of the Wilcox Group, east-central region, Texas. Petrographic analysis indicates the following ranges in composition for the seven lignite samples: liptinites (5–8%), huminites (88–95%), and inertinites (trace amounts to 7%). Samples from the middle portion of the A1 bed contain abundant crypto-eugelinite compared to the rest of the samples; this relationship suggests that the degradation of plant material was an important process during the development of the peat mire. With the exception of Hg and Mn, relatively low levels of the HAPs elements studied are found in the samples containing abundant crypto-eugelinite. We infer that the peat-forming environment for this

  2. The state-church relations in Estonia during the years 1944 - 1953

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    Nepochatova Marina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article features an analysis of the nature and dynamic of church-state relations in Estonia during the first years following its integration into the USSR. In 1944 the religious situation in the republic was characterized by a number of distinctive attributes. The local population, which had lived prior to the accession of the Baltics to the USSR in 1944 in an atmosphere of relative religious freedom, presented the Soviet authorities with a new phenomenon that would have to be reckoned with. The Plenipotentiaries for Estonia appointed by the Council on ROC Affairs at the USSR Council of Ministers were able to convince their superiors of the need to tread carefully in light of the local specifics. The article deals with an analysis of the distinctive features of the Estonian Orthodox Church. As a secondary denomination in the region, it felt the powerful influence of Lutheran customs and rites. The ethnic heterogeneity of the fold and pronounced language barrier determined the choice of candidacy for the ruling eparchy. The Estonian diocese was rather well endowed with cathedrals, meaning that the main problem of church life in the USSR since the easing of persecution in 1944-1947 - the opening of new parishes - was not an issue in Estonia. On the whole, the church-state relations that dominated the republic in 1944-1947 were quite stable, just as they were around the country; moreover, they were typified by a cautious policy on the part of the Soviet authorities. In 1948-1949 the situation began to deteriorate across the country and Estonia was no exception. The difference was in the methods used: in Estonia, the decision was made to fight the Church and its clergy primarily through collectivization, which was actively pursued in the Baltics beginning in the early 1950s. Collectivization left rural parishes and their clergy in dire straits, and religious life in the countryside began to wane. Yet, the arrival from the central regions

  3. Characterizing a complex aquifer system using geophysics, hydrodynamics and geochemistry: A new distribution of Miocene aquifers in the Zéramdine and Mahdia-Jébéniana blocks (east-central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaal, Fethi; Bédir, Mourad; Tarhouni, Jamila; Gacha, Ayadi Ben; Leduc, Christian

    2011-06-01

    The Zéramdine and Mahdia-Jébéniana blocks are located in the Sahel region in east-central Tunisia. Active tectonics have divided the region into numerous sub-units, as result of multiple phases of distension and compression. The Miocene fluvio-deltaic sediment sandy layers have aquiferous capacities but their hydraulic properties are still unknown, due to the lack of investigation wells. This study proposes a new description of the regional hydrogeology of Miocene deposits. Seismic-reflection and wireline logging of petroleum and water wells were used to understand the structure and the geometry of the Miocene reservoirs. The groundwater flow and its relationship to the sedimentary and tectonic context were then identified by studying piezometry and hydrochemistry. Two Miocene deep aquifer systems were identified: (1) Zéramdine-Béni Hassen to the north and (2) Jébéniana-Ksour Essef to the south. These aquifers are separated by the Mahdia graben. Other major tectonic structures, such as the Zéramdine fault corridor, the Moknine graben, and the El-Jem half-graben represent lateral boundaries for these aquifers. Other deeper sandy and clayey-sandy reservoirs were also identified in the area. Their repartition, thickness and depth vary from one block to other. Hydrodynamics of the deep aquifers seems to be controlled by geological structures. Two independent compartments were identified: in the northern block groundwater flows from West to East and from Northwest to Southeast, while in the southern block it flows from Northwest to Southeast. Geochemical facies are of two types: Na-Ca-Cl-SO 4 for the Zéramdine-Béni Hassen deep aquifer and Na-Cl for the Jébéniana-Ksour Essef deep aquifer. The hydrodynamic and geochemical results confirm the sharing of the Miocene sediments into two aquifers.

  4. Geochemistry, petrography, and zircon U-Pb geochronology of Paleozoic metaigneous rocks in the Mount Veta area of east-central Alaska: implications for the evolution of the westernmost part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Day, Warren C.; Aleinikoff, John N.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of new mapping, whole-rock major, minor, and trace-element geochemistry, and petrography for metaigneous rocks from the Mount Veta area in the westernmost part of the allochthonous Yukon–Tanana terrane (YTT) in east-central Alaska. These rocks include tonalitic mylonite gneiss and mafic metaigneous rocks from the Chicken metamorphic complex and the Nasina and Fortymile River assemblages. Whole-rock trace-element data from the tonalitic gneiss, whose igneous protolith was dated by SHRIMP U–Pb zircon geochronology at 332.6 ± 5.6 Ma, indicate derivation from tholeiitic arc basalt. Whole-rock analyses of the mafic rocks suggest that greenschist-facies rocks from the Chicken metamorphic complex, a mafic metavolcanic rock from the Nasina assemblage, and an amphibolite from the Fortymile River assemblage formed as island-arc tholeiite in a back-arc setting; another Nasina assemblage greenschist has MORB geochemical characteristics, and another mafic metaigneous rock from the Fortymile River assemblage has geochemical characteristics of calc-alkaline basalt. Our geochemical results imply derivation in an arc and back-arc spreading region within the allochthonous YTT crustal fragment, as previously proposed for correlative units in other parts of the terrane. We also describe the petrography and geochemistry of a newly discovered tectonic lens of Alpine-type metaharzburgite. The metaharzburgite is interpreted to be a sliver of lithospheric mantle from beneath the Seventymile ocean basin or from sub-continental mantle lithosphere of the allochthonous YTT or the western margin of Laurentia that was tectonically emplaced within crustal rocks during closure of the Seventymile ocean basin and subsequently displaced and fragmented by faults.

  5. Water vapor δ17O measurements using an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer and seasonal variation in 17O-excess of precipitation in the east-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, C.; Wang, L.; Novick, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    High-precision triple oxygen isotope analysis can be used to improve our understanding of multiple hydrological and meteorological processes. Recent studies focus on understanding 17O-excess variation of tropical storms, high-latitude snow and ice-core as well as spatial distribution of meteoric water (tap water). The temporal scale of 17O-excess variation in middle-latitude precipitation is needed to better understand which processes control on the 17O-excess variations. This study focused on assessing how the accuracy and precision of vapor δ17O laser spectroscopy measurements depend on vapor concentration, delta range, and averaging-time. Meanwhile, we presented 17O-excess data from two-year, event based precipitation sampling in the east-central United States. A Triple Water Vapor Isotope Analyzer (T-WVIA) was used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of δ2H, δ18O and δ17O measurements. GISP and SLAP2 from IAEA and four working standards were used to evaluate the sensitivity in the three factors. Overall, the accuracy and precision of all isotope measurements were sensitive to concentration, with higher accuracy and precision generally observed under moderate vapor concentrations (i.e., 10000-15000 ppm) for all isotopes. Precision was also sensitive to the range of delta values, though the effect was not as large when compared to the sensitivity to concentration. The precision was much less sensitive to averaging time when compared with concentration and delta range effects. The preliminary results showed that 17O-excess variation was lower in summer (23±17 per meg) than in winter (34±16 per meg), whereas spring values (30±21 per meg) was similar to fall (29±13 per meg). That means kinetic fractionation influences the isotopic composition and 17O-excess in different seasons.

  6. Improving conditions for transferring family enterprises in Estonia. Pereettevõtte üleandmise võimalustest Eestis

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    Maret Güldenkoh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Family enterprise is a business entity that belongs to the family. In Estonia the concept of family business, family entrepreneur, or family enterprise has not been defined in legislation. The concepts of business and enterprise have been defined in several pieces of law with some dissensions in their interpretations, however. Differences in legal definitions become obvious when transferring a business. The aim of the article is to assess the legislative conditions of family enterprises in Estonia. Family enterprises can be transferred either by way of transferring the holding status or by transferring the enterprise. Holding can be transferred in companies; a sole proprietor should transfer the business entity either as a whole or transfer the business entity into a company to have a holding there. Family businesses operating as sole proprietors may incur tax liability by transferring the family enterprise. The paper outlines special features of transferring enterprises, including family enterprises in Estonia. Business transfers have been few and there is no unambiguous practice in this sphere. Transfer of family enterprises is identified with transfer of enterprises; differences arise when family business has been registered as a sole proprietor. The paper provides a brief description of the differences in transferring enterprises, including family enterprises in Estonia. A purpose was to evaluate the legal environment of transferring family enterprises. In Estonia guidelines should be formulated for transferring the business of a self-employed family member and legal regulations should be introduced to avoid ill-intentioned transfer of enterprises.

  7. Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Different Social Groups of Estonia: Results of the National Physical Activity Survey

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    Lusmägi Peeter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2010, 39% of the Estonian adult population is not physically active at all. This percentage is relatively high compared to other countries that are culturally close to Estonia; the corresponding figure of close neighbors Finland and Sweden is below 10%. The article aims to present the results of a survey of physical activity (n=1,009 conducted in Estonia in 2013 and analyzes physical activity levels across various social groups. The results of the article show that employment, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors for engaging in leisure-time physical activity in Estonia. Non-ethnic Estonians, the less educated, the elderly, the unemployed, and those on maternity leave are less engaged in regular leisure exercise than people in other social groups. The results of the article were used to develop Estonia’s Sports 2030 strategy.

  8. Noor-Eesti antifuturismist.On the Anti-Futurism of Young Estonia

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    Virve Sarapik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Young Estonia persists in Estonian cultural memory as a movement of renewal, among other factors through its impetus to the development of urban culture. This article undertakes to juxtapose Young Estonia’s efforts at cultural renewal, its rhetoric of the future, and futurism as a cultural phenomenon. (As such, futurism was vitally engaged with contemporary urban culture, industry, and technology. Four parameters serve as points of departure: (1 Young Estonia’s rhetoric of the new and the future. Though specific about what they rejected, Young Estonia’s texts do not outline a clear vision of the future. Frequently used key words for what they opposed included German- or Russian-mindedness, a people in servitude, the old, flat land, the lack of a unified whole, lack of style. (2 The place of the city in Young Estonia’s texts. Though in earlier publications there were only a few passing references to urban culture, the problems of the city come to the fore in several programmatic texts and in the visual design of the fourth Young Estonia album in 1912. By then the core members of Young Estonia also had had real experience of a large metropolis. If their earlier attitude toward the city had been critical, then in these Young Estonian texts the city finds its positive face. (3 Industry and the proletariat. The Young Estonia movement received stimulus from such general phenomena as factories, technology, and industry. In their imagination working people and educated people seem to live in separate worlds, with different wishes and needs. However, the freedom of the educated would be impossible without political freedom. Although they believed that technological development was a precondition for the creation of urban culture, neither their own literary works nor their other aspirations bore this out. (4 Futurism and film. Young Estonia’s later period coincided with the intensive use of term ”futurism” in Estonian journalism. Young

  9. Pilot projects for the remediation of Sillamaee uranium tailings in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, T.; Siinmaa, A.

    2001-01-01

    First Estonian uranium, produced in a pilot plant at Narva, was presented to Soviet military administration in 1945 and just a year later - 1946 - installation of an uranium production plant was started at Sillamaee, Estonia. Estonian local ore - alum shale - containing only 0,026% of uranium was used for uranium production for nearly five years, after the plant was launched in 1948. The uranium mine, having been activated from 1947 to 1952, was left in status of 'active conservation' for 17 years, until finally closed in 1969. Potential threats of this hidden legacy have never been revealed. After close-down of local uranium mine, more than 4 million tons of ore, imported mostly from Central and East European countries: Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany were processed at Sillamaee. These activities have left a large tailings impoundment with the total volume of ca. 8 million cubic meters in the immediate vicinity of the Baltic Sea. Today the plant is privatized, converted to civil purposes and provides together its power generating facilities ca. 1200 jobs in the socially sensitive area of North-East Estonia, while environmental hazards of the history, however, remain: - Continuous seepage of tailing waters into the sea contributes and would contribute over long term to the pollution of the Baltic Sea; - stability of the tailings dam seaside under present conditions can not be guaranteed thus risking a sudden release of partly liquid tailings due to potential dam failure; - uncovered surface of the tailings presents a health hazard due to dusting and radon release and hinders the revitalization of the area. The conceptual design of the Estonia's largest environmental remediation project, done by Wismut, is now complete and first implementation steps are underway. The project for mine area restoration is in initiation phase; it shall reveal the current and potential environmental hazards of the facility and create the concept for necessary rehabilitation

  10. Environmental remediation of the former Soviet military uranium milling site at Sillamae, Estonia: Features of approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassik, T.; Siinmaa, A.

    1999-01-01

    Quick launch of the nuclear program was a high priority for the Soviet military, as a uranium production plant installation was started at Sillamae, Estonia, in 1946. Estonian local ore - alum shale - containing only 0.03% of uranium was used for uranium production for nearly five years, after the plant was launched in 1948. Altogether more than 4 million tons of ore, imported mostly from Central and East European countries (Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany) were processed at Sillamae. These activities have left a large tailings impoundment with the total volume of ca 8 million cubic meters in the immediate vicinity of the Baltic Sea. Today the plant is privatized, converted to civil purposes and provides ca. 1200 jobs in the socially sensitive area of North-East Estonia, while environmental hazards from the past; however, remain: Continuous seepage of tailing waters into the sea contributes and would contribute over long term to the pollution of the Baltic Sea; stability of the tailings dam seaside under present conditions can not be guaranteed thus risking a sudden release of partly liquid tailings due to potential dam failure; and uncovered surface of the tailings presents a health hazard due to dusting and radon release and hinders the revitalization of the area. The conceptual design of the Estonia's largest environmental project is now complete, the completion of practical remedial works by the end of 2005 will render Sillamae project a pioneer among Central and East European restoration projects of this character. This paper presents characteristic features of Sillamae remediation project, planning the use of best technical solutions, especially considering the vulnerability of geotechnical stability. (author)

  11. The earliest cornulitid on the internal surface of the illaenid pygidium from the Middle Ordovician of Estonia

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    Olev Vinn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The earliest cornulitid Cornulites sp. appears in the Darriwilian (Lasnamägi Regional Stage of Estonia. Internal annulation is present in all Middle Ordovician cornulitids and could be a plesiomorphic character for the group. The encrusted trilobites are rare in the Ordovician of Estonia. Illaenid pygidia and cranidia were encrusted by cornulitids and trepostome bryozoans. The encrustation of both Middle Ordovician and Late Ordovician trilobites took place post mortem. The studied hard substrate communities of Middle Ordovician and Late Ordovician trilobite pygidia and cranidia are typical of the Ordovician.

  12. Groundwater management for pollution control: a case study for oil shale mining in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erg, K.; Raukas, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Estonia oil shale is produced by underground and surface mining. The excavation methods used cause serious damage to the environment, especially to the topography, which hampers the further use of the mined-out areas. The oil shale mining has a serious impact on the environment also due to the pollution of surface and groundwater by polluted mine drainage waters, lowering of groundwater level, changing of soil properties and high air pollution rate. Decline in mining activities and the introduction of new technologies together with economic measures has improved the situation but much should be done during coming years. (author)

  13. Extensive farming in Estonia started through a sex-biased migration from the steppe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Scheib, Christiana Lyn

    2017-01-01

    The transition from hunting and gathering to farming in Europe was brought upon by arrival of new people carrying novel material culture and genetic ancestry. The exact nature and scale of the transition—both material and genetic—varied in different parts of Europe [1–7]. Farming-based economies...... Age populations, and European Late Neolithic/Bronze Age populations, while their X chromosomes are in addition equally closely related to European and Anatolian and Levantine early farmers. These findings suggest that the shift to intensive cultivation and animal husbandry in Estonia was triggered...

  14. Quality control and patient dose from X-ray examinations in some hospitals in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Rannikko, S.; Parviainen, T.; Holmberg, P.; Kuus, E.; Mueuersepps, T.; Jaerv, V.

    1995-01-01

    Quality control measurements of X ray diagnostic units were carried out in four hospitals in Estonia. Measurements were focused on the unit's technical performance, on image quality and on patient dose and film processing. The main problems are in the areas of image receptors and film processing: image receptors are of low speed type causing high patient doses and manual film processing results in low contrast and high base plus fog. Spatial resolution, both in film imaging and in image intensifiers, is reasonably good. It is recommended that quality assurance programmes be established, that basic measuring equipment be acquired and personnel assigned to perform such measurements be trained. (Author)

  15. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Hepatitis e Virus in Veterinarians in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi

    2017-01-01

    positive with both tests. Antibody-positive samples were further examined for the presence of HEV RNA. Three (2.6%) of the 115 veterinarians tested positive for immunoglobulin G antibodies against HEV, whereas no immunoglobulin M antibodies against the virus were detected. The antibody......-positive veterinarians were small animal practitioners. Pigs comprised no or small part of their working time or patients. No HEV RNA was detected in the antibody-positive samples. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV in veterinarians in Estonia was lower than what has been observed in veterinarians in other...

  16. Real Estate Bubble Bursts and Government Policy during Crisis: Examples of Estonia, Ireland and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Varblane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current article is to view previous experience with real estate crises and taking into account such experience find suitable policy reactions to overcome the current Estonian crisis as smoothly as possible. Beside overall theoretical guidelines for overcoming the crisis, examples of Sweden and Ireland are viewed. The policy issues suggested for Estonia include some changes in tax laws, avoiding expansionary fiscal policy, making lending stricter and borrower responsible to higher extent, cooperation of different authorities to tackle problem of bad loans, initiating wage and price cut, paying more attention to exporting sector

  17. Socio-demographic Model of Gender Gap in Expected and Actual Wages in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vassil, Kristjan; Eamets, Raul; Mõtsmees, Pille

    2014-01-01

    Estonia ranks consistently on top of the list of countries with the largest gender pay gap. However, irrespective of abundant aggregate level evidence, little is known what motivates the gap at the individual level. In this paper we precisely address the issue of gender pay gap at the individual level. We examine how large is the gender pay gap in actual and expected wages and how it can be explained. We use a rich dataset from Estonian Labour Force Survey on actual wages, and the data from C...

  18. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luule Sakkeus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  19. Fossil fields of Ilmandu and Muraste north Estonia / Valter Lang, Helena Kaldre, Marge Konsa...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Imandu ja Muraste küla maadel on plaanistatud seni kõige suurem fossiilsete põldude jäänustega ala Eestis. Esindatud on eri tüüpi põllusüseemid. Maaharimise alguse neil aladel võib dateerida eelrooma rauaaega ning see kestis kuni uusajani

  20. New Investigations at Fossil Fields of Proosa, North Estonia / Valter Lang, Margot Laneman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lang, Valter, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    Proosa fossiilsed põllud avastati 1992. aastal. Pärast osa maa erastamist firmale Loo Auto OÜ lükati seal buldooseriga ära kogu paepõhja kattev pinnas, millega hävitati kõik jäljed kunagisest põlluharimisest. Päästeuuringutest 2005. aastal

  1. An overview of the digital publishing market in Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Gudinavičius

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze several aspects of digital publishing markets in Baltic countries. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have their own languages, so there are three different publishing markets. Results show that there are significant differences in the number of available titles, despite the fact that the Baltic e-book market is relatively new. The research on e-book sales identified the main e-book retailers and publishers in Baltic countries. E-books in Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian available on sale were counted and the differences between e-book formats and the pricing in each country were established. The results showed that the smallest Baltic country, Estonia, has more e-books on sale than both Latvia and Lithuania. It is difficult to say if Latvia even has an e-book market at all. Lithuania is somewhere in the middle. Finally, an overview of the largest retailers and publishers is provided and overall publishing dynamics within the past 20 years is described.

  2. Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described. For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms. The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports. As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.

  3. Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Michael Skerrett

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

  4. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in brown trout populations in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Megha; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-05-13

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a serious parasitic disease threatening both farmed and wild salmonid populations, but very little is currently known about the distribution of the parasite in the Baltic Sea region. In this study we (1) report the development of a novel multiplex PCR method for fast and reliable screening of T. bryosalmonae; (2) use this multiplex PCR method to show that the PKD agent T. bryosalmonae is widespread in natural brown trout Salmo trutta L. populations in Estonia; (3) evaluate monthly and yearly variation of T. bryosalmonae prevalence in juvenile trout; (4) assess T. bryosalmonae prevalence in different age-classes of fish (0+ vs. 1+ and older) and report the presence of the PKD agent in the kidneys of returning sea trout spawners; and (5) suggest the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella fungosa as a putative invertebrate host of T. bryosalmonae in Estonia. Our results demonstrate a highly heterogeneous distribution of T. bryosalmonae at the micro-geographic scale, indicating that PKD could have an important negative effect on recruitment in Estonian brown trout populations.

  5. Gentrification in a Post-Socialist Town: The Case of the Supilinn District, Tartu, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele NUTT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the changes that have taken place in the Supilinn district in Tartu, Estonia due to the gentrification process. The gentrification process affects the cultural, social, economic, and physical environment of the area. People have been interested in this topic since the 1960s. Nowadays, there is also reason to discuss this issue in the context of Estonia and of the Supilinn district. Studying and understanding the processes that take place in the living environment, provides an opportunity to be more aware about them and to influence the development of these processes. This article provides an analysis of the conditions necessary for gentrification in the Supilinn district, describes the process of gentrification, and tries to assess the current developmental stage of the gentrification process. Cities are shaped by their people. Every area has a unique look that is shaped not only by the physical environment, but also by the principles, values, and wishes of its residents. Local residents influence the image of the mental and the physical space of the area. What changes has the development of the Supilinn district caused in the population of the area, and how have the residents, in turn, changed the district?

  6. Estland im Sog der Russischen Volkswirtschaft? Estonia Being Caught Up in Russian Turmoil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Friedrich Laaser

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of the Ukraine crisis and Russia’s economic problems, the authors pose the question to what extent the Estonian economy still relies on foreign trade with Russia and which costs Estonia might bear in the course of an aggravation of the lingering East-West conflict. Estonian trade relations with Russia as well as Estonia’s integration in the European and global division of labor are analyzed by a gravity model which also incorporates the trade foreign trade of the Baltic neighbors Latvia and Lithuania as benchmark countries. The authors find that even before the crisis Estonia’s trade with Russia lost weight and the dependency on Russian export and import markets diminished. By an in-depth analysis of Estonia’ sectoral trade patterns these findings were confirmed for the majority of industries. Only in the case of the Estonian milk industry the authors observe significant effects of Russian sanctions. In contrast to this particular case, Estonia becomes increasingly independent from imports of Russian natural gas which in the past made the country vulnerable to political blackmail. The authors conclude that regional and sectoral diversification of Estonian trade patterns induced by the current crisis will help the country to improve its international competitiveness and its economic integration into world markets.

  7. Insect pests and their natural enemies on spring oilseed rape in Estonia : impact of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. VEROMANN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of different cropping systems, the pests, their hymenopteran parasitoids and predatory ground beetles present in two spring rape crops in Estonia, in 2003, were compared. One crop was grown under a standard (STN cropping system and the other under a minimised (MIN system. The STN system plants had more flowers than those in the MIN system, and these attracted significantly more Meligethes aeneus, the only abundant and real pest in Estonia. Meligethes aeneus had two population peaks: the first during opening of the first flowers and the second, the new generation, during ripening of the pods. The number of new generation M. aeneus was almost four times greater in the STN than in the MIN crop. More carabids were caught in the MIN than in STN crop. The maximum abundance of carabids occurred two weeks before that of the new generation of M. aeneus, at the time when M. aeneus larvae were dropping to the soil for pupation and hence were vulnerable to predation by carabids.

  8. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. A rapid situation assessment of the market for surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Lang, Katrin; Raju, Kadi; Väli, Marika; McKee, Martin

    2007-01-01

    To understand the phenomenon of consumption of surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, capital of Estonia. This study, conducted in Tallinn in May 2006, used rapid situation assessment. Interviews with key informants in relevant settings such as emergency departments of hospitals, accommodation for the homeless, police etc. (n = 22), with alcohol abusers (n = 33), natural observations of surrogate sale and consumption venues (n = 46), and tracking of trade data were carried out. Key informants confirmed that consumption of illegal and surrogate alcohols are widely used by alcohol abusers, a finding confirmed by the alcohol abusers. Availability of surrogates varied by area of the city, mainly sold from street kiosks. Illegally produced spirits were also easily available. Sales of surrogates appear to have increased in recent years. A range of alcohol-containing substances that appear to be easily available at low cost, and that have high concentration of ethanol or contaminants known to be toxic, were identified in Tallinn. Alcohol policies in Estonia should address the consumption and availability of these substances.

  10. Detection and characterization of Babesia species in Ixodes ticks in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Vasilenko, Veera; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Järvekülg, Lilian; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2011-07-01

    The presence of Babesia spp. was studied in 2603 Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected at seven sites in Estonia. By reverse line blot screening, Babesia spp. was detected in 36 (1.4%) ticks, among them 18 (0.7%) were further recognized by a Babesia microti probe, 3 (0.1%) by a Babesia divergens probe, and the other 15 (0.6%) were recognized only by the universal Babesia spp. "catch all" probe. Sequence analyses of 6 of these 15 samples revealed that all of them belonged to Babesia sp. EU1. B. microti was detected in both tick species I. ricinus and I. persulcatus at the seven sites, whereas B. divergens-like and Babesia sp. EU1 were found only in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus, respectively. Genetic characterization based on partial 18S rRNA showed that the Estonian sequences of B. microti, B. divergens-like, and Babesia sp. EU1 share a high rate of similarity and are closely related to sequences from other European countries, Siberia, and United States. The present study demonstrated for the first time the existence and distribution of Babesia spp. in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks in Estonia.

  11. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.

  12. Significance of action plans in the development of occupational well-being in the schools of Finland and Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Pertel, Tiia; Hansen, Siivi; Lepp, Kädi; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a long term project "Promoting the Occupational Well-Being of School Staff-Action Research Project in Finland and Estonia, 2009-2014." The purpose of this article is to describe the significance of action plans in the promotion of the occupational well-being of primary and upper secondary school staff in Finland and Estonia from 2010 to the turn of the year 2011-2012. An electronic open questionnaire was sent to occupational well-being groups in Finland (N=18) and in Estonia (N=39). In Finland, the questionnaire was responded to by 16 (n=16) occupational well-being groups, and in Estonia, by 38 (n=38) groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using the inductive-deductive method and content analysis. The obtained results indicate that the schools had named goals for action plans in all aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being in schools (worker and work, working conditions, professional competence, working community) and that these goals were mainly realized in the schools in a systematic way. Schools felt that the action plan for occupational well-being helped them to set goals for occupational well-being and that the planned actions were realized in a more systematic way than before. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Russian in Estonia's Public Sector: "Playing on the Borderline" between Official Policy and Real-Life Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkina, Maimu

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the use of Russian in state communication in officially monolingual Estonia. Drawing on interviews with high-level public employees in four central state institutions and an analysis of these institutions' websites, the article shows that while Russian is not specifically mentioned in the laws, it is "de facto"…

  14. Youth sexual health improvement in Estonia, 1990-2009: The role of sexuality education and youth-friendly services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haldre, K.; Part, K.; Ketting, E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives A new school curriculum was introduced in Estonia in 1996 comprising for the first time sexuality education (SE) topics. The first youth counselling centres (YCCs) addressing sexual health matters were set up in 1991-1992. This study describes the development of school-based SE

  15. Perspectives on Tolerance in Education Flowing from a Comparison of Religion Education in Estonia and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2013-01-01

    The question that prompted this investigation into religion education (RE) in Estonia and in South Africa was whether two countries from such totally different parts of the world, with such vastly different populations and cultures though with somewhat parallel histories, had tackled the same or similar problems regarding the provision of RE in…

  16. Does School Admission by Zoning Affect Educational Inequality? A Study of Family Background Effect in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin; Veski, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We indicate the size of family background effects in Sweden, Finland, and Estonia--countries that differ in both the rhetoric and extensiveness of the system-level school choice policies. Family background effect is defined as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income, and social…

  17. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  18. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter nine of the final report of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi municipalities (Estonia) present extensive data relating to economic, financial and environmental calculations, fuel consumption, energy balance and prices. (ARW)

  19. Community orientation of services for persons with a psychiatric disability. Comparison between Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken; Zsolt Bugarszki; Karin Hanga; Dagmar Narusson; Koidu Saia; Marju Medar

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the way mental health services and social services are orientated on assisting people with a psychiatric disability to participate in different areas of community life. A large research project about community participation in three different countries (Estonia, Hungary and the

  20. Late-glacial to Holocene aeolian deposition in northeastern Europe - The timing of sedimentation at the Iisaku site (NE Estonia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinska-Nartisa, Edyta; Nartiss, Maris; Thiel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Late-glacial and Holocene aeolian inland dune complex at Iisaku (NE Estonia) has been investigated using an accurate and detailed compilation of the sedimentary properties and chronological framework. The quartz grains forming the dunes are very variable, reflecting aeolian, weathering...

  1. International conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2013), 21-24 April 2013, Tartu, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2014-04-01

    The annual international conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT) was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. The warm welcome and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into an event where people from different countries and different fields come and meet under the shared umbrella of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contacts with people from various fields to build their own network. Our Latvian colleagues, with their success in internationalization, made us neighbouring Estonians so jealous that we could not help but propose organising the conference every second year in Estonia. In a way, this conference is a continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades in the last century. Due to political constraints, these seminars were only open to scientists of former Eastern Europe countries, but had a great popularity and attendance from over the whole Soviet Union. Many collaborations started from the initial personal contact between scientists at these twice yearly seminars, held alternately in Latvia and Estonia. At the FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the next event in Tartu in 2013. FM&NT-2013 was hence held in Tartu (Estonia) from 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The main selected topics of the conference were: (i) multifunctional materials, (ii) nanomaterials, (iii) materials for sustainable energy applications and (vi) theory. Additionally, the focus in this conference was on studies with the help of synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources such as free electron lasers. The conference provided an opportunity for 300 scientists from 21 countries to meet, establish contacts, exchange knowledge and discuss their research

  2. Provenance of zircon of the lowermost sedimentary cover, Estonia, East-European Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsa, M.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulk and accessory mineral composition of fresh and weathered crystalline rocks, and sedimentary deposits overlying the crystalline-sedimentary unconformity have been examined in core samples from 28 drill holes in Estonia. Before the Late Vendian to Early Cambrian regional subsidence and sedimentation, the region represented a flat plateau within the Svecofennian Domain. Palaeo-and Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks, regardless their different initial mineral composition, subcrop under the Upper Vendian/Lower Cambrian sedimentary cover as usually intensely weathered rocks (saprolites composed of residual quartz, altered micas and prevailing clay minerals mainly of the kaolinite group. Thus, the bulk mineral composition of any basement crystalline rocks imparts no specific inherited rock-forming minerals into the covering sedimentary rocks. From the variety of accessory and opaque minerals of crystalline rocks, only zircon populations survived in saprolites. Crystalline rocks of different origin yield different zircons. Relationships between the zircon typology of the basement rocks having specific areas of distribution and the sedimentary rocks immediately overlying those crystalline rocks were the main subject of this study. The result is that siliciclastic sedimentary rocks covering weathered crystalline rocks only in places inherited zircons with typological features characteristic of specific basement areas. In northeastern Estonia, local lenses of the Oru Member (the earliest Upper Vendian sedimentary rocks in Estonia resembling the debris of weathered crystalline rocks yield accessory zircon which in a 1-2 m thick layer above the basement surface is similar to the zircons of the underlying weathering mantle of certain crystalline rocks. In the next unit, the Moldova Member, up to 43 m above the basement surface, a mixture of zircons resembling those of various local basement rocks has been found. Further upwards, in the Vendian and Lower

  3. Estonia-filmi peaosas mängib Greta Scacchi : Jutta Rabe on leidnud oma filmile mõjuvõimsad toetajad / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2001-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et parvlaev "Estonia" uputati. Stsenaristiks ja produtsendiks on saksa teleajakirjanik Jutta Rabe. Peaosalisi mängivad Greta Scacchi (41) ja Jürgen Prochnow (60)

  4. [Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications. Tallinn: Tallinna Ülikool, 2010. (Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaalteaduste dissertatsioonid, 46)

  5. Midwifery at the crossroads in Estonia: attitudes of midwives and other key stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Rasch, Vibeke; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    were obtained by sending a 32-question questionnaire, based on an agenda developed through semistructured interviews, to all midwives in Estonia. A nominal group technique was employed with key stakeholders to determine the extent of their agreement with the questionnaire's major findings. RESULTS......: The response rate to the questionnaire was 75%. There was no significant association between work satisfaction and independent variables of age, ethnicity, work abroad, increased responsibility, and involvement in postpartum care and counseling. There was, however, a significant association between work...... satisfaction and salary. The group process revealed that although there is no agreement on the role of family doctors and midwives in antenatal care, there is a general agreement that midwives should be more involved in postpartum care and that their tasks need to be better defined. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half...

  6. Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars B; Sardinha, Luis B; Froberg, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Levels of overweight have increased and fitness has decreased in children. Potentially, these changes may be a threat to future health. Numerous studies have measured changes in body mass index (BMI), but few have assessed the independent effects of low fitness, overweight and physical...... inactivity on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study including 1 769 children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal. The main outcome was clustering of CVD risk factors. Independent variables were waist circumference, skinfolds, physical activity and cardio......-respiratory fitness. RESULTS: Both waist circumference and skinfolds were associated with clustered CVD risk. Odds ratios for clustered CVD risk for the upper quartiles compared with the lowest quartile were 9.13 (95% CI: 5.78-14.43) and 11.62 (95% CI: 7.11-18.99) when systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, insulin...

  7. Meteorite impact craters and possibly impact-related structures in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plado, Jüri

    2012-10-01

    Three structures (Neugrund, Kärdla, and Kaali) of proven impact origin make Estonia the most cratered country in the world by area. In addition, several candidate impact structures exist, waiting for future studies to determine their origin. This article is an overview of these proven and possible impact structures, including some breccia layers. It summarizes the information and descriptions of the morphology; geological characteristics; and mineralogical, chemical, and geophysical data available in the literature. The overview was prepared to make information in many earlier publications in local journals (many of which had been published in Estonian or Russian) accessible to the international community. This review summarizes the facts and observations in a historical fashion, summarizing the current state of knowledge with some additional comments, and providing the references.

  8. Perception of emotional nonsense sentences in China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on the identification of emotions in cross-cultural conditions on different continents and among subjects with divergent language backgrounds. The aim was to investigate whether the perception of the basic emotions from nonsense vocal samples was universal, dependent on voice quality, musicality, and/or gender. Listening tests for 350 participants were conducted on location in a variety of cultures: China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. The results suggested that the voice quality parameters played a role in the identification of emotions without the linguistic content. Cultural background may affect the interpretation of the emotions more than the presumed universality. Musical interest tended to facilitate emotion identification. No gender differences were found.

  9. Oil shale mining and processing impact on landscapes in north-east Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomik, Arvi; Liblik, Valdo

    1998-01-01

    As the world's largest commercial oil shale reserve, the Estonian Oil Shale Deposit has been exploited since 1916. As a result of mining, storing of solid wastes from the oil shale separation, combustion in the power plants and its thermal processing, the landscape in northeastern Estonia has been essentially changed and the man-made landforms have developed: the new microreliefs of natural and artificial structure are formed, as well as 'mountainous' and hilly reliefs in the form of waste heaps, ash plateaus, coke-ash dumps etc. Deformed (stable) and undeformed (unstable) areas from underground mining currently cover about 220km 2 . About 90km 2 (80%) of the area damaged by open pits are recultivated and reformed as forested and agricultural (grassland) areas. The total area occupied by solid waste has reached up to 26km 2 . New technogenic landscape units, i.e. made by technical means, will essentially influence the environment

  10. Long-term deposition patterns of airborne wastes in the North-East of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, M.; Kaasik, H.

    1999-01-01

    The deposition loads of fly ash and sulfur have been high in the North-East Estonia since the late fifties, when the oil shale energetics, chemical and cement industry achieved the remarkable extent. The combined effects of both pollutants have seriously damaged sensitive ecosystems (forest on podsolic soils and bog). Most of sulphur deposition is closely related to the oil shale fly ash deposition. The main effects are related with alkalisation due to accumulation of fly ash components and the Sphagnum growth inhibition due to sulfur load. These effects have the time scale of several years or even more. The pollution loads have been changed during recent 40 years due to launching and reconstruction of enterprises (incl. purification systems) and variations of production capacity. First representative data on air pollution deposition originate from the middle of eighties. Only model estimations could be used to quantify the deposition fluxes before that time, as well as for assessing the future scenarios

  11. Changes in time series of some climate elements in Estonia in early spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russak, Viivi

    1999-01-01

    Systematic changes in some climate elements have become evident in Estonia during the latest decades; the greatest changes have been observed in March. Two possible causes may have led to the observed warming: changes in general atmospheric circulation and in radiation budget. Due to small solar evaluation and shortness of day the role of solar radiation in air temperature formation is not considerable in March. The absence of any significant trend in the time series of net long wave radiation in March seems to be caused by simultaneous and opposite influence of changes in downward and upward infrared radiation fluxes on temperature conditions near ground. In other seasons a significant increase in greenhouse effect has been established. Therefore, the changes in general atmospheric circulation should be considered the main reason of warming, while the role of solar radiation and greenhouse effect is not considerable in March

  12. Deterrence Dilemma in Latvia and Estonia: Finding the Balance between External Military Solidarity and Territorial Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andžāns Māris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While potential threats from Russia and NATO collective defence commitments are similar for Latvia and Estonia, both countries have adopted different approaches in the balancing exercise between territorial defence and military solidarity. Notwithstanding their differences, both are by their nature fully non-aggressive – without room for pre-emptive initiatives, extra territoriality or asymmetrical tools. Given that in a case of a hypothetical large-scale conventional attack both countries would almost entirely have to rest on the allies, external military solidarity is essential. Until the Ukraine crisis, both offered more military solidarity towards their NATO allies than the latter offered to them. As the result of the Ukrainian crisis, allies became more military-solidary with the Baltic nations, especially having established the Enhanced Forward Presence, while Estonian and especially Latvian contributions to international missions and operations dropped. Therefore, it is suggested that both countries increase their efforts to the allied international endeavours.

  13. Intergenerational solidarity in family communication and childrearing among Russians living in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järva I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to ascertain the importance of intergenerational solidarity in communication within the family and childrearing among the Russians living in Estonia. Generations see the world differently enough. One of the reasons for that is individualistic worldview which characterizes not only the younger generation, but individualistic tendencies have percolated into other generationsas well. All generations admit the presence of a generation gap, but they disclaim presence of intergenerational conflict. At the same time respondents affirm that there is solidarity between generations in their families and it is based on love and respect. Solidarity between generations in families is revealed both on spiritual level (communicating, love, trust, mutual understanding, common interests as well as in real help given by generations to each other as far as homework, children's upbringing, and economical aid are concerned.

  14. Website Operators’ Liability for Offensive Comments: A Comparative Analysis of Delfi as v. Estonia and MTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šidlauskienė Jūratė

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 and 2015, the ECtHR in the famous case of Delfi AS v. Estonia recognised the possibility for a website operator to be liable for the delayed removal of illegal comments of internet users. In this case the ECtHR formulated criteria for a website operator’s liability for damage caused to a third party by its visitor comments. The judgment of 2016 in the case of MTE & Index v. Hungary the ECtHR modified the criteria for a website operator’s liability, interpreting it to the benefit of web managers. This article seeks to reveal the criteria for the liability of a website operator and to draw some general guidance that can be applied in similar cases.

  15. Dolomitization and sedimentary cyclicity of the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian rocks in South Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallaste, Toivo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and composition of dolomitized rocks and stoichiometry of dolomite in southern Estonia in the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian were studied on the background of the facies, sedimentary cyclicity (nine shallowing-up cycles, and evolution of the palaeobasins. The composition of rocks and lattice parameters of dolomite were investigated using the X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, titration and gravimetric analyses, and porosity measurements. The formation of dolostones is directly determined by the cyclic evolution of palaeobasins. Dolomitized rocks belong to the shallow-water inner shelf or tidal/lagoonal facies belt of regressive phases of sedimentary cycles. Sediments of the deep shelf/transitional environment and transgressive phases are not dolomitized. The most stoichiometric is secondary replacive dolomite of Silurian and upper Ordovician dolostones, formed during the early diagenesis of normal-marine (saline shallow-shelf calcitic sediments. The content of insoluble residue does not affect the stoichiometry. The changes in lattice parameters are induced by the Ca/Mg ratio in the dolomite lattice. The dolomite of the dolostones contacting limestone or containing calcite has an expanded lattice. The primary (syngenetic dolostone of the lagoonal or tidal flat belt has also an expanded lattice. No dolomitizing effect of the waters of the Devonian palaeobasin on the underlying rocks was revealed. The whole data set of the studied dolostones is consistent with the marine water environment in the palaeobasin at the corresponding time and shows no sign of the inflow of external fluids. It suggests that the microbial model of dolomite formation may characterize the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian in southern Estonia. The occurrence of dolostones between undolomitized rocks limits the time of dolomitization to the early diagenetic stage.

  16. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  17. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  18. Late glacial multiproxy evidence of vegetation development and environmental change at Solova, southeastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon, Leeli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the late glacial Solova (Remmeski basin, based on plant macro­fossil and diatom record, AMS 14C chronology and sediment composition (loss-on-ignition and magnetic susceptibility data, provided information on vegetation history and palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes since the time of the deglaciation of the area around 14 000 cal yr BP. The chronology of the sequence is based on seven AMS dates on terrestrial macrofossils, providing evidence of rapid sedimentation in between 14 000 and 13 500 cal yr BP. Loss-on-ignition data show a clear short-lived warming episode centred to 13 800 cal yr BP, tentatively correlated with the GI-1c warming of the event stratigraphy of the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region, which suggests that at least parts of the Haanja Heights were ice-free by 14 000 cal yr BP. Macrofossil evidence indicates Betula nana–Dryas octopetala-dominated open tundra communities with Saxifraga on dry ground, and Carex sp. and Juncus on wet ground at that time. The first evidence of the postglacial presence of tree birch (Betula pendula in Estonia is dated back to 13 500 cal yr BP. However, conifer remains were not found in the late glacial sediment sequence of Solova Bog. The late-Allerød (GI-1a organic deposits, which are quite typical of other parts of Estonia and indicate general warming, are missing at Solova, most probably due to a hiatus in sedimentation in this very small and shallow upland basin.

  19. ‘Looking like my favourite Barbie’ – Online Gender Construction of Tween Girls in Estonia and in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Siibak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse how tween girls in Estonia and in Sweden describe and discover their gender identities when selecting profile images for social networking sites (SNSs. To this end, interviews with tweens in Estonia (N=21 and in Sweden (N=31 were carried out. As SNSs largely exist without the recognisable surveillance of adults, children can explore the social matrix of relating to others, and they also feel safe to try out and display different constructions and reconstructions of their identity. At the same time, in communicating online, impression management is formulated with constant worry about how to construct one’s virtual identity so that it will be appreciated and accepted by one’s peer group. In this article, our analysis focuses on the most popular posing strategies used by tween girls, which, it turns out, are often marked by reproduction of the dominant heterosexual cultural norms and values.

  20. [The self-perception of their professional role of the primary care physicians of Estonia and Finland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virjo, I O; Mattila, K J; Lember, M; Kermes, R; Pikk, A; Isokoski, M K

    1997-05-15

    To find out how experienced primary care physicians working in different societies see themselves as doctors. A cross-sectional study. Primary health care in Estonia and Finland. Estonian district doctors (n = 110) and Finnish specialists of general practice (n = 211). In a postal questionnaire the respondents were asked to evaluate how well 18 different expressions described them as doctors on a 5-step scale from "1 = very poorly" to "5 = very well". Four of the five expressions that were thought most accurate and telling--"Listener", "Vocational doctor", "Helper", and "Family physician"--were the same in Estonia and Finland. Even though there are differences in health care systems, the self-images of primary care doctors in both countries were more or less consistent with the international definitions of the general practitioner's job and role.

  1. Independence and Interdependence Values in Changing Societies: A Three-Generation Comparative Study in Estonia, Germany, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirko Tõugu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Independent and interdependent self-construal values of three generations and the intergenerational similarity of self-construal was compared in three countries. The participants were 837 adolescents, their mothers (227 from Russia, 311 from Germany, and 299 from Estonia and 293 maternal grandmothers. In Germany, all three generations displayed higher scores on independence than participants from other countries. Russian participants had higher scores on interdependence compared to participants from other countries. Adolescents scored significantly higher on the interdependent self-construal than the two older generations, and higher than the mothers’ generation on the independent self-construal. Grandmothers’ self-construal was related to mothers’ in all three countries. In Germany and Estonia, mothers’ interdependent self-construal was related to adolescents’ interdependent self-construal. Grandmothers’ (but not mothers’ independent self-construal predicted adolescents’ independent self-construal. The results are discussed in light of the Family Change Theory and the different roles the participants have.

  2. The oldest ascocerid cephalopod from the Silurian of Estonia and notes on the biogeography of the order Ascocerida (class Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Aubrechtova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The early Palaeozoic order Ascocerida is a group of morphologically unique and rare cephalopods known from the Ordovician and Silurian rocks of Avalonia, Baltica, Laurentia and Perunica. The limited Estonian record of Silurian ascocerids is complemented with a specimen from the Pähkla locality (Island of Saaremaa; Paadla Regional Stage, Ludlow Series representing the stratigraphically oldest known occurrence of ascocerids in the Silurian of Estonia. The strata that were formerly exposed in Pähkla are likely correlated to the Hemse Group of the Island of Gotland (Sweden having a remarkable record of ascocerids. The appearance of Silurian ascocerids in Estonia is confined to a time interval when the group had the highest species diversity and the widest geographic dispersion, reaching also outside Baltica for the first time.

  3. Health Care Spending Structures in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia Over the Years as Compared to Other EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak Renata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After joining the European Union in 2004, the post-communist countries have dramatically changed their structure of expenditure for medical services. The cause of this is legislative and ownership changes in the new economy. The study analyzed the expenditure on medical services in the European Union with a special focus on Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The European Union countries were divided into clusters using different methods, that is, Ward’s, Two Step and Centroid Clustering. In the paper, the structure and changes in health expenses were presented according to the types of expenditures over the years 2004-2015. Countries were assigned to clusters based on three variables: medical products, appliances and equipment, outpatient services and hospital services. Variables were considered as a percentage of household budget. In Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, there is a clear increase in the outpatient services spending compared to the hospital services expenditure.

  4. Problems faced by Western expatriate managers in Eastern Europe: Evidence provided by Finnish expatriates in Russia and Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Suutari, Vesa

    1998-01-01

    A common human resource management strategy among Western companies in international operations is the use of home-country expatriate managers although expatriate adjustment has been found to involve difficulties. In the light of this the present study analyses the issues faced by Finnish expatriate managers working in Russia or Estonia. Three aspects were studied: adaptation to society, adaptation at the work place, and company-level management problems with which expatriates have to deal in...

  5. Rahvusooper Estonia annab 5. V oma 99. hooaja viimase etenduse "Luikede järv" / Kaido Padar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Padar, Kaido

    2005-01-01

    Kella 12-15 on linnaelanikud ja külalised kutsutud hooaega lõpetama ja saatma Estonia maja remonti. Tutvustatakse remondi-ehitusprogrammi, ekraanidel näeb videot Estoniast, lapsed saavad rasvakriidiga joonistada "Unistuste ooperimaja" ja tutvuda kostüümidega, saalis on noorteprojektides osalenute paremate tööde näitus, saab pildistada ja filmida teatri ruume jpm.

  6. Cross-cultural comparisons of bullying among university students : perspectives from Argentina, Estonia, Finland and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Pörhölä, Maili; Cvancara, Kristen; Kaal, Esta; Tampere, Kaja; Torres, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The chapter compares bullying experiences among university students between four countries and aims to provide an understanding of the cultural features which might affect these experiences. We start by providing a summary of the results from a cross-cultural survey conducted among undergraduate students in Argentina, Estonia, Finland and the United States. We continue discussing the ways in which the current cultural, political, historical and economic status and challenges in...

  7. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  8. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariina Hiiob; Enn Karro

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight diffe...

  9. How people perceive immigrants’ role in their country’s life: a comparative study of Estonia and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu PAAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a comparative analysis of people’s attitudes towards immigrants’ role in several aspects of countries’ life depending on the individual’s socio-demographic and economic characteristics in Estonia and Russia. The empirical part of the paper relies on the European Social Survey (ESS fifth round database. The results of the study show that the Estonian people’s attitudes towards immigrants are, on the average, better in all aspects of the country’s life – economy, culture and the country as a living place, compared to the Russian one. Both economic and non-economic factors explain the observed variation of individuals’ opinions regarding the role of immigrants in a country’s life. Ethnic minorities, religious people and people with higher income are more tolerant to immigrants in both countries. Socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender and education are valid determinants of people’s attitudes towards immigrants only in Estonia. Highly educated people have more positive attitudes towards immigrants compared to less educated people in Estonia but not in Russia. The results of the analysis therefore highlight the necessity to take different factors into account for the design of the migration and integration policies in the countries with ethnically diverse population.

  10. Timing of the deglaciation and the late-glacial vegetation development on the Pandivere Upland, North Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Amon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the deglaciation chronology of the Pandivere Upland is defined, and the late-glacial vegetation trends of north-eastern Estonia are summarised. The multi-proxy study includes accelerated mass spectrometry 14 C dating, plant macrofossil, magnetic susceptibility, loss-on-ignition and grain-size distribution data of the lacustrine sediment record from one previously unpublished study site (Kursi, and the study discusses the results in combination with five previously published study locations from the area. The results indicate that the deglaciation of the Pandivere Upland started at approximately 14 200 cal. yr BP and was completed by 13 800 cal. yr BP. The ice recession rate was approximately 180 m yr -1 . Based on these new radiocarbon dates, the Baltic Ice Lake stage A 1 submerged the northern and western ice-free areas of Estonia by ca. 13 800 cal. yr BP. The prevalent vegetation type in north-eastern Estonia during the late-glacial period was tundra with local variations in the dominant shrub species. The region remained treeless until the Holocene.

  11. Noor eesti teater ja Noor-Eesti. Young Estonian Theatre and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aaslav-Tepandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by examining points of intersection between two professional theatres, ”Estonia” and ”Vanemuine” (both established in 1906, their young directors – Karl Menning, Paul Pinna, Theodor Altermann, and Karl Jungholz, and the literary movement Young Estonia. Subsequently, we will consider Young Estonia’s theatrical ideals and the influence of these ideas on later Estonian theatrical life. Since not much information has survived regarding direct personal contacts between ”movers and shakers” in the theatre world and Young Estonians, the main focus here shall be on indirect creative connections and influences. One such context is education: like the Young Estonians, theatre activists of the younger generation aspired to place themselves on the larger map of European culture. Thus, their artistic beliefs and goals shall be examined in relation to those of Young Estonians’ quest for modern culture. Pinna, Altermann, Menning, Jungholz, and others went on study tours to Germany and France, where they were energized and inspired by innovative German and Russian theatres, by naturalistic staging, and by psychological realism, both in acting and in performance style. Among their models were A. Antoine’s Théâtre- Libre in Paris, K. Stanislavski’s Art Theatre in Moscow, O. Brahm’s Lessing-Theater, and M. Reinhardt’s Deutsches Theater in Berlin. These models were likewise known to the Young Estonians, but if theatre activists oriented themselves more fundamentally to German naturalist and realist dramatic art, Young Estonians were more taken with ”theatrical theatre” with its symbolist and impressionist influences. The Young Estonians attended performances at both theatres, ”Vanemuine” and ”Estonia”, and wrote numerous theatre reviews. Yet in the Young Estonia albums (yearbooks and in the magazine Young Estonia, theatre topics have a relatively modest representation. Young Estonians did not have direct

  12. THE BOOK PUBLISHING SYSTEM IN ESTONIA DURING THE SOVIET RULE IN 1944–1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möldre, Aile

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the changes in the direction of the publishing activities, the formation of the network of the state book publishing houses as well as the political and economic conditions of their activities in Estonia during the second Soviet occupation in 1944–1991. These years have been divided in three periods according to political history: the Stalinist era in 1944–1956; the thawand stagnation in 1956–1986 and the political break-through leading to the restoration of independence in 1987–1991.Special attention is paid to the leading role of the Communist Party of the USSR and the Communist Party of the ESSR in publishing activities. For example, only the all-union communist party had a right to decide over the establishment of new publishing houses, the leading officials of the local and all-union communist party studied and confirmed the reports and plans of the publishers etc. For the implementation of the regulations of the communist party a specialadministrative body was established, operating under different names in different years. For example, during the all-union reform of 1949 it was called the Central Board of Printing Industry, Publishing and Book Trade by the Council of Ministers, after the reform of 1963 – the State Publishing Committee. The latter had especially wide authority and gave detailed instructions on organising the work in the publishing houses. The directions included rigid requirements about the planning process and co-ordination of the plans on local and all-union level. The co-ordination of plans became especially complex since 1975 when the publishing houses had to get consent fromthe Head Office of Thematic Planning and Co-ordination of the all-union State Publishing Committee for every manuscript they wished to include in their plans. Although this system was unable to function, it was not revoked. All this demonstrates the dependence of the Estonian publishing from the all-union directions and

  13. Clinical value of FDG-PET in cutaneous malignant melanoma: First experience in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; Niin, M.; Paats, A.; Tonnov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In November 2002 first 18F-FDG-PET was performed in Estonia using a mobile truck-mounted scanning technology (Accel, Siemens) provided by the International Healthcare Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, (Helsinki, Finland). In 2003 this scheme was repeated for further scanning sessions. Evaluation of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) using nuclear technique is of particular interest in Estonia as its incidence is on the rise. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in CMM has a well-documented high diagnostic accuracy, especially in staging of the disease. The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of 18F-FDG-PET on detailed staging and clinical management in CMM. 30 patients of CMM, 16 males and 14 females, all non-diabetic, in the age range of 26 to 69 years were studied. Of these 30 patients, 12 were of high risk primary CMM, 7 had regional lymph node metastases and 11 had distant metastases. Patients were asked to consume a low-carbohydrate diet 3 days prior to the FDG-PET scan. 194 to 410 MBq (average 335 MBq) 18F-FDG was administered to the patients who were asked to come fasting for a minimum of 6 hours. Whole body scan was performed 40 to 65 minutes after the administration of FDG on the mobile PET. In 13 of the 30 patients (43%) 18F-FDG-PET changed the staging. In remaining 17 patients (57%) 18F-FDG-PET increased confidence level for the chosen treatment. Lymphadenectomy was planned in 2 patients showing lymph node involvement on FDG-PET. In other 2 patients, one with small pulmonary and other with a liver lesions found on PET but negative on radiological examination 'wait-and-watch' strategy was chosen. An unexpected hypermetabolic lesion seen in 1 case turned out to be a benign focus of connective tissue. One patient shown to have multiple distant metastases was started on chemotherapy. Finally in 8 of the 30 (27%) patients an immediate positive

  14. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Kohtla-Jaerve, Ahtme and Johvi (Estonia) were identified as being: Inefficiency of the heat and power production plants; Lack of means for the consumers to control their consumption of energy due to the existing constant flow system; The environmental impact from heat and power production based on oil shale; Water and heat losses from the network; Low heat intensity in the Johvi area. Investigations indicate that improvement should have first priority at the Kohtla-Jaerve power plant, total investment is estimated at US D 60,3 million, of which US D 48 million are foreign costs. The cash flow will be negative in the first half of the projects lifetime. Estii Energia should be involved in the financing of the project. At the present price level, introduction of variable flow does not significantly improve the financial viability of the project, and the improvement of the district heating system might be carried out at a later stage, when the tariff has found a more stable level and the financial viability will be more significant. Implementation of new boilers in the Kohtla-Jaerve power plant. Circulating Fluidized Bed boilers, as well as electrostatic filters and estimated to reduce the environmental impact considerably. A more in depth study of the environmental impact from utilisation of oil shale should be carried out, also in order to inform possible investors of risk of investing in the oil shale industry. It will be more expensive to supply Johvi as an independent district heating system than if Johvi is supplied from Ahtme. The results arrived at are based on a range of the crucial assumptions that: the price of oil shale is expected to reach 75% of the price of coal, the sales price of electricity from plants is 62% of the consumer price, the exchange rate of the Estonian currency is kept constant to the DEM and that the inflation is Estonia will decline from 21% to 2,3% in 2005. (ARW)

  15. Measurement of Community Empowerment in Three Community Programs in Rapla (Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Tanggaard Andersen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE. The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality’s decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community’s priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment.

  16. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Olena; Zhelykh, Vasyl; Voll, Hendrik

    2017-12-01

    The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  17. On the move: explaining migration patterns in Estonia during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaru, T; Sjoberg, O

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the migration patterns during the transition period in Estonia. A structuration approach was used to analyze data from the Estonian Statistical Office collected in 1997. Findings show that for migration between urban and rural areas, work-related reasons have been the most important motivating factor in urban growth during the transition period. Also considered are the family and education. In relation to sociodemographic structure of the population, men cite work, while women count family-related reasons, as the main motive for migrating. As to nonregistration, the most significant reason relates to issues of ownership. Because migrants are living in rented housing, it is not possible for them to register even if they desire to do so. Other reasons include "temporary", associated with study and work; "juridical", bureaucratic matters; and "multiple places of residence". This analysis, however, is incomplete because the attitudes and patterns of behavior have only partially or perfunctorily been related to the dramatic changes that have occurred in Estonian society. Proper statistical data are needed to help examine trends at a more disaggregated spatial level.

  18. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions.

  19. Mental disorders among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: A clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Kalaus, Katri-Evelin; Tekkel, Mare; Leinsalu, Mall

    2017-08-01

    To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity. A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region.

  1. Geological settings of the protected Selisoo mire (northeastern Estonia threatened by oil shale mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hiiemaa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The protected Selisoo mire in northeastern Estonia is located above valuable oil shale resources, partly in the permitted mining area. We describe in detail the geomorphology and geological setting of the mire to understand the natural preconditions for its formation, development and preservation. We used the LiDAR-based digital elevation model for relief analysis, mapped the peat thickness with ground-penetrating radar and described the Quaternary cover through corings. Ridges, oriented perpendicular to the generally southward-sloping terrain, and shallow depressions at the surface of mineral soil have influenced mire formation and its spatio-temporal dynamics. The Quaternary cover under the mire is thin and highly variable. Therefore the mire is hydro­geologically insufficiently isolated from the limestone bedrock that is drained by the nearby oil shale mine and consequently the mining activities approaching the mire may have a negative influence on the wetland and proposed Natura 2000 site. Natura 2000 type wetlands, both protected or currently outside the nature reserves, cover a significant portion of the prospective oil shale mining areas. The distribution and resilience of those sites may significantly influence further utilization of oil shale resources.

  2. First record of Telephina (Trilobita from the Ordovician of northeastern Estonia and its stratigraphical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helje Pärnaste

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a telephinid trilobite was recorded from the shallow-water rocks of the North Estonian Confacies Belt in the oil-shale mining area of northeast Estonia. A cranidium of Telephina (Telephops biseriata (Asklund was collected from a loose boulder of the kerogenous limestone of the Viivikonna Formation, Kukruse Stage, together with a rich assemblage of other trilobites, bryozoans, ostracods and rare graptolites. In its type area Jämtland, Sweden, T. biseriata occurs together with Pygodus anserinus and Hustedograptus teretiusculus in the Ståltorp Limestone Member of the Andersö Shale Formation, marking the latest Darriwilian. The occurrence in the North Estonian Confacies Belt of Telephina, known as a pelagic trilobite inhabiting deeper-water areas, probably reflects a transgression event at this time. Together with T. biseriata, other trilobite taxa such as Remopleurides and Lonchodomas, common in the Hustedograptus teretiusculus Biozone in deeper-water areas, arrive in the North Estonian Confacies Belt. Graptolites from the other loose boulders at the same locality have been identified as Hustedograptus cf. uplandicus, which occur together with a few dendroids.

  3. Measurement of Community Empowerment in Three Community Programs in Rapla (Estonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmel, Anu; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-01-01

    Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE). The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality’s decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community’s priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment. PMID:21556179

  4. District heating rehabilitation project in Kaerdla on Hiiumaa, Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Kaerdla Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system with Danish technology, and thereby support and make it possible for the Municipality of Kaerdla to develop the district heating sector in Kaerdla and thereby also to reduce emissions of harmful gases to the environment, as well as making a much more rational and energy efficient system. The project would further on demonstrate the use of pre-insulated pipes, which are fully sealed against penetration of water as well as demonstrate the use of compact units as substations including weather compensation control systems for regulation of heat and hot tap water supply for the district heating consumers. Besides the project gives significantly decreases in energy consumption`s and in the pollution from the production of energy, the objective of the project was also to put great stress on providing technical assistance to Kaerdla DH company, in order to make them capable in operation and maintenance of the new district heating system, and also to train the local operational staff in operation of the complete district heating system. The project will have a high demonstration value towards other towns in Estonia with similar problems and configurations of their heating systems. (EG)

  5. Effects of land use on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Siim-Kaarel; Jairus, Teele; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Öpik, Maarja

    2018-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities vary across habitat types, as well as across different land use types. Most relevant research, however, has focused on agricultural or other severely human-impacted ecosystems. Here, we compared AM fungal communities across six habitat types: calcareous grassland, overgrown ungrazed calcareous grassland, wooded meadow, farmyard lawn, boreonemoral forest, and boreonemoral forest clear-cut, exhibiting contrasting modes of land use. AM fungi in the roots of a single host plant species, Prunella vulgaris, and in its rhizosphere soil were identified using 454-sequencing from a total of 103 samples from 12 sites in Estonia. Mean AM fungal taxon richness per sample did not differ among habitats. AM fungal community composition, however, was significantly different among habitat types. Both abandonment and land use intensification (clearcutting; trampling combined with frequent mowing) changed AM fungal community composition. The AM fungal communities in different habitat types were most similar in the roots of the single host plant species and most distinct in soil samples, suggesting a non-random pattern in host-fungal taxon interactions. The results show that AM fungal taxon composition is driven by habitat type and land use intensity, while the plant host may act as an additional filter between the available and realized AM fungal species pool.

  6. Quality management and job related factors predicting satisfaction of dental clinic staff in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merisalu, Eda; Männik, Georg; Põlluste, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of managerial style, work environment factors and burnout in determining job satisfaction during the implementation of quality improvement activities in a dental clinic. Quantitative research was carried out using a prestructured anonymous questionnaire to survey 302 respondents in Kaarli Dental Clinic, Estonia. Dental clinic staff assessed job satisfaction, managerial style, work stress and burnout levels through the implementation period of ISO 9000 quality management system in 2003 and annually during 2006-2009. Binary logistic regression was used to explain the impact of satisfaction with management and work organisation, knowledge about managerial activities, work environment and psychosocial stress and burnout on job satisfaction. The response rate limits were between 60% and 89.6%. Job satisfaction increased significantly from 2003 to 2006 and the percentage of very satisfied staff increased from 17 to 38 (pwork organisation and working environment, as well as factors related to career, security and planning. The average scores of emotional exhaustion showed significant decrease, correlating negatively with job satisfaction (pwork environment by decreasing burnout symptoms and increased job satisfaction in staff.

  7. Detection and identification of Rickettsia species in Ixodes tick populations from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Ivanova, Anna; Värv, Kairi; Tefanova, Valentina; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    A total of 1640 ticks collected in different geographical parts of Estonia were screened for the presence of Rickettsia species DNA by real-time PCR. DNA of Rickettsia was detected in 83 out of 1640 questing ticks with an overall prevalence of 5.1%. The majority of the ticks infected by rickettsiae were Ixodes ricinus (74 of 83), while 9 of the 83 positive ticks were Ixodes persulcatus. For rickettsial species identification, a part of the citrate synthase gltA gene was sequenced. The majority of the positive samples were identified as Rickettsia helvetica (81 out of 83) and two of the samples were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae, respectively. Genetic characterization based on the partial gltA gene showed that the Estonian sequences within the R. helvetica, R. monacensis and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae species demonstrated 100% similarity with sequences deposited in GenBank, originating from Rickettsia species distributed over large territories from Europe to Asia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Smoking differences between university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, and Oulu, Finland, after the disruption of communism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Rauno; Kivastik, Jana; Kingisepp, Peet-Henn; Hirvonen, Leo; Näyhä, Simo

    2006-01-01

    To provide information on smoking differences between university faculties. Data from smoking surveys performed on 1,441 staff members and 2,308 students at the University of Tartu, Estonia, soon after the fall of communism, were analysed by faculties, using similar data from the University of Oulu, Finland (1,830 staff members, 5,947 students) for reference. Wide variations in smoking were found between faculties in Tartu, the prevalence being high among male students of theology (54%) and low among staff and students in the faculties of exercise & sports sciences (< 5%) and mathematics (< 15%). Less variation was seen in Oulu. The medical faculty showed low smoking rates in Oulu but not in Tartu. High percentages of smokers were typical of Tartu faculties representing disciplines closely connected with the country's transition (e.g. theology), and low percentages in faculties emphasising physical and mental performance (e.g. sports). The relatively high percentage of smokers in the Tartu medical faculty compared with that in Oulu can be interpreted as delayed diffusion of medical information beyond the former Iron Curtain.

  9. Sedimentary record of heavy metals in Lake Rõuge Liinjärv, southern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepane, Viia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic impact on Lake Liinjärv (Rõuge, southern Estonia was studied back to the mid-19th century on the basis of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Hg and geochemical parameters of a short sediment core dated by 210Pb isotopes. The development of the lake and its sediment composition are heavily influenced by the inflow of saturated calcareous waters that cause precipitation of calcium carbonates. The concentrations of most of the metals started to increase at the end of the 1970s. This is most clearly observable for Zn, Cu, and Pb. At the same time the distribution pattern of Mn seems to be controlled mainly by the redox conditions in the hypolimneon. The main sources of pollutants in Lake Liinjärv, due to its large catchment area, are the influence of agricultural activity and atmospheric input. Organic matter is the main factor affecting heavy metal (Pb, Hg, Cu, and Zn distribution in lake sediments.

  10. District heating rehabilitation project in Kaerdla on Hiiumaa, Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Kaerdla Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system with Danish technology, and thereby support and make it possible for the Municipality of Kaerdla to develop the district heating sector in Kaerdla and thereby also to reduce emissions of harmful gases to the environment, as well as making a much more rational and energy efficient system. The project would further on demonstrate the use of pre-insulated pipes, which are fully sealed against penetration of water as well as demonstrate the use of compact units as substations including weather compensation control systems for regulation of heat and hot tap water supply for the district heating consumers. Besides the project gives significantly decreases in energy consumption's and in the pollution from the production of energy, the objective of the project was also to put great stress on providing technical assistance to Kaerdla DH company, in order to make them capable in operation and maintenance of the new district heating system, and also to train the local operational staff in operation of the complete district heating system. The project will have a high demonstration value towards other towns in Estonia with similar problems and configurations of their heating systems. (EG)

  11. Quaternary deposits and weathered bedrock material as a source of dangerous radon emissions in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersell Valter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk of dangerous radon emissions in Estonia is high, being among the highest in Europe. In almost 33 per cent of Estonian land area, the content of radon in soil-contained air exceeds the safe limit for unrestricted construction (50 kBq/m3. In such high radon-risk areas the concentration of radon in soil-contained air ranges from 50 to 400 kBq/m3, in a few cases reaching up to 2,100 kBq/m3 exceeding the permitted level for residential areas. The situation is particularly serious in the northernmost part of the country, where uranium-rich graptolite argillite (Dictyonema shale and the Obolus phosphorite are close to ground surface and their particles are constituent parts of Quaternary deposits. Radon emissions from bedrock have been investigated in detail, but to date Quaternary strata as a source of radon emissions are poorly studied. According to our measurements the highest concentrations of radon are related to tills containing clasts and fines of graptolite argillite and phosphorite. Glacial deposits include also granitoidal material, containing U, Th and K, which have been transported by glaciers from the outcrop areas of crystalline basement rocks in Finland and the Gulf of Finland. Due to weathering, outwash and repeated redeposition other genetic types are poorer in radioactive elements and they are weaker sources of radon.

  12. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko Olena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  13. Carbonate cementation in the late glacial outwash and beach deposits in northern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Rattas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentary environments, morphology and formation of carbonate cement in the late glacial glaciofluvial outwash and beach deposits in northern Estonia are discussed. Cementation is observed in well-drained, highly porous carbonaceous debris-rich gravel and sand-forming, resistant ledges in otherwise unconsolidated sediments. The cemented units occur as laterally continuous layers or as isolated lenticular patches with thicknesses from a few centimetres to 3 m. The cement is found in two main morphologies: (1 cement crusts or coatings around detrital grains and (2 massive cement almost entirely filling interparticle pores and intraparticle voids. It is exclusively composed of low-Mg calcite with angular equant to slightly elongated rhombohedral and scalenohedral or prismatic crystals, which indicate precipitation from meteoric or connate fresh surface (glacial lake water and/or near-surface groundwater under low to moderate supersaturation and flow conditions. The absence of organic structures within the cement suggests that cementation is essentially inorganic. The cement exhibits both meteoric vadose and phreatic features and most probably occurred close to the vadose–phreatic interface, where the conditions were transitional and/or fluctuating. Cementation has mainly taken place by CO2-degassing in response to fluctuations in groundwater level and flow conditions, controlled by the Baltic Ice Lake water level, and seasonal cold and/or dry climate conditions.

  14. Trait-based analysis of decline in plant species ranges during the 20th century: a regional comparison between the UK and Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanisto, Lauri; Sammul, Marek; Kull, Tiiu; Macek, Petr; Hutchings, Michael J

    2015-02-02

    Although the distribution ranges and abundance of many plant species have declined dramatically in recent decades, detailed analysis of these changes and their cause have only become possible following the publication of second- and third-generation national distribution atlases. Decline can now be compared both between species and in different parts of species' ranges. We extracted data from distribution atlases to compare range persistence of 736 plant species common to both the UK and Estonia between survey periods encompassing almost the same years (1969 and 1999 in the UK and 1970 and 2004 in Estonia). We determined which traits were most closely associated with variation in species persistence, whether these were the same in each country, and the extent to which they explained differences in persistence between the countries. Mean range size declined less in Estonia than in the UK (24.3% vs. 30.3%). One-third of species in Estonia (239) maintained >90% of their distribution range compared with one-fifth (141) in the UK. In Estonia, 99 species lost >50% of their range compared with 127 species in the UK. Persistence was very positively related to original range in both countries. Major differences in species persistence between the studied countries were primarily determined by biogeographic (affiliation to floristic element) and ecoevolutionary (plant strategy) factors. In contrast, within-country persistence was most strongly determined by tolerance of anthropogenic activities. Decline of species in the families Orchidaceae and Potamogetonaceae was significantly greater in the UK than in Estonia. Almost all of the 736 common and native European plant species in our study are currently declining in their range due to pressure from anthropogenic activities. Those species with low tolerance of human activity, with biotic pollination vectors and in the families referred to above are the most vulnerable, especially where human population density is high. © 2015

  15. Institutional Change and Gender Inequalities at Labour Market Entry: A Comparison of Estonia, Russia, and East and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Kosyakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates how gender inequalities in job opportunities evolved during communist and post-communist times in former state-socialist countries. Theoretical arguments (mainly based on studies referring to Western countries led to the expectation of a surge in gender inequalities in these countries after the collapse of communism. Empirically, we explore the gender gap in job authority upon labour market entry by using life-history data from Russia, Estonia, and East Germany, with West Germany serving as a control case. The selection of countries was motivated primarily by the availability of rich life-history data, covering four decades of (post- state socialism but also by divergences in institutional set-ups in the course of transition from state socialism to a liberalised market economy. Our findings yield four major results. First, accounting for education and the branch of economy, women were not disadvantaged during Soviet times; instead, we have even found evidence of a slight female advantage in Estonia and East Germany. Thus, our findings mirror the communist regime’s effectiveness in equalising women’s and men’s opportunities at work. Second, in the pre-collapse decade, the advantage of women in terms of job authority decreased in East Germany and Estonia, whereas in Russia, women fell behind men. Third, with the Soviet Union collapse, a remarkable female disadvantage emerged in all formerly state socialist countries under scrutiny. In addition, we observe a growing gender gap in West Germany in the same period. The latter result strengthens the conclusion that times of economic liberalisation may go hand-in-hand with increasing gender inequalities.

  16. Application of principles of European law in the Supreme Court of Estonia : [doktoritöö] / Carri Ginter ; juhendaja: Raul Narits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ginter, Carri, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Kaitses Tartus 01. 07. 2008. a.. - Koosneb artiklitest: Access to courts for branches - some thoughts under Estonian and EC law // European competition law review : ECLR (2004) nr. 11, lk. 708-715 ; Constitutional review and EC law in Estonia // European Law Review (2006) nr. 6, lk. 912-923 ; Effective implementation of the Trade Mark Directive in Estonia // European competition law review : ECLR (2007) nr. 6, lk. 337-345 ; Procedural issues relating to EU law in the Estonian Supreme Court // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 67-79

  17. Physicians’ views on the role of smoking in smoking-related diseases: findings from cross-sectional studies from 1982–2014 in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersti Pärna

    2017-07-01

    From 1982 to 2014, physicians’ attitudes towards the health risks of smoking improved in Estonia. However, their assessment of a causal role of smoking in smoking-related diseases was related to their own smoking habits and ethnicity. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians would require special efforts targeted at physicians. Societal pressure from a national policy could support a further decline in the social acceptability of smoking in Estonia and developments in medical education could provide continuing evidence-based information about the health effects of smoking to Estonian physicians.

  18. A new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ivanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Teeth of a new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. were discovered on two levels in the sandstones of the Karksi outcrop (South Estonia, corresponding to the Härma Beds, lower part of the Burtnieki Regional Stage (Givetian, Middle Devonian. These teeth differ from all known Palaeozoic elasmobranch teeth in the presence of a unique wide transversal tube-shaped basal canal, in very fine and dense striation of cusps and in an arched base without well-developed extensions. The order and family of this taxon are notspecified.

  19. A new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Ivanov; Tiiu Märss; Anne Kleesment

    2011-01-01

    Teeth of a new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. were discovered on two levels in the sandstones of the Karksi outcrop (South Estonia), corresponding to the Härma Beds, lower part of the Burtnieki Regional Stage (Givetian, Middle Devonian). These teeth differ from all known Palaeozoic elasmobranch teeth in the presence of a unique wide transversal tube-shaped basal canal, in very fine and dense striation of cusps and in an arched base without well-developed extensions. The order ...

  20. Inclusive educational practices as perceived by prospective special education teachers in Estonia, Finland, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, S

    1997-03-01

    A survey of 125 prospective special education teachers assessed perceptions and beliefs about inclusive education in Estonia, Finland, and the United States (Michigan). The attitudes toward inclusion were rather critical. The Estonians were the most critical group, the Finns the least critical. The meanings attached to a student with severe mental retardation were related to the educational setting assessed as the best for this student. The findings suggest that special educators perceptions about inclusion are related to the prevailing implementation of inclusive education. The results support also the idea that the meanings attached to a person with a disability are connected with behavioural intentions toward this person.

  1. The efficiency of private enforcement of publik law claims in Estonia. Riiginõuete sissenõudmise efektiivsus Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrek Saar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Estonia, since 2001 the function of the enforcement of public law claims, such as fines or taxes, has been transferred to freelance bailiffs. The intention was to create profit motives for private enforcers to increase the effectiveness of the enforcement system. In this paper it is shown that the remuneration scheme for bailiffs that is currently applied tends to lead to inefficiently low level of enforced public law claims. Through quantitative calculations it is illustrated that there might exist alternatives that significantly increase the economic efficiency of the enforcement system.

  2. Danish investors' demands on skills and attributes of local accounting staff, are they met? - the case of Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundgaard, Elin; Thomsen, Jeanette; Alver, Lehte

    2008-01-01

    gaps by examining in depth a specific practice, i.e. the accounting staff of the Danish affiliations in Estonia.  Research on accounting staff is almost non-existing. This paper gives the project description and the research design as well as the results of a pilot interview in a big Danish...... and surprising aspects, e.g. the different roles and skills expectations to accountants and controllers.  These aspects will be considered when interviewing the bulk of Danish-owned Estonian companies to have their answers to the problems. The interviews will be conducted during spring 2009....

  3. Storminess-related rhythmic ridge patterns on the coasts of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülo Suursaar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Buried or elevated coastal ridges may serve as archives of past variations in sea level and climate conditions. Sometimes such ridges or coastal scarps appear in patterns, particularly on uplifting coasts with adequate sediment supply. Along the seacoasts of Estonia, where relative-to-geoid postglacial uplift can vary between 1.7 and 3.4 mm/yr, at least 27 areas with rhythmic geomorphic patterns have been identified from LiDAR images and elevation data. Such patterns were mainly found on faster emerging and well-exposed, tideless coasts. These are mostly located at heights between 1 and 21 m above sea level, the formation of which corresponds to a period of up to 7500 years. Up to approximately 150 individual ridges were counted on some cross-shore sections. Ten of these ridge patterns that formed less than 4500 years ago were chosen for detailed characterization and analysis in search of possible forcing mechanisms. Among these more closely studied cases, the mean ridge spacing varied between 19 and 28 m. Using land uplift rates from the late Holocene period, the timespans of the corresponding cross sections were calculated. The average temporal periodicity of the ridges was between 23 and 39 years with a gross mean value of 31 years. Considering the regular nature of the ridges, they mostly do not reflect single extreme events, but rather a decadal-scale periodicity in storminess in the region of the Baltic Sea. Although a contribution from some kind of self-organization process is possible, the rhythmicity in ancient coastal ridge patterns is likely linked to quasi-periodic 25−40-year variability, which can be traced to Estonian long-term sea level records and wave hindcasts, as well as in regional storminess data and the North Atlantic Oscillation index.

  4. Barite mineralization in Kalana speleothems, Central Estonia: Sr, S and O isotope characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikk Gaškov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Barite mineralization in association with calcitic speleothem precipitates in cave structures in Silurian Aeronian carbonate rocks in Kalana quarry, Central Estonia, was studied. Barite mineralization in Kalana occurs in two generations – euhedral bladed-tabular barite zonal crystals from a few to 10 cm in size, growing on the limestone-dolomite wall-rock (generation I, and sparsely placed thin tabular crystals a few millimetres thick and up to 1 cm in size, growing on calcitic crusts (generation II. The barite crystals of generation I are frequently found embedded by paragenetically later calcitic botryoidal crusts. The Sr and S isotopic composition of barite crystals shows a trend of increasing Sr isotope ratios (from 0.7114 to 0.7120 and δ34S values (from 13‰ to 33‰ from the central parts towards the edges of zonal crystals. This suggests barite precipitation by mixing of two endmember fluids at varying ratios during barite formation: warm (up to 70 °C reducing fluid bearing Ba, characterized by an elevated radiogenic Sr- and 34S-enriched isotopic signal, and a cooler ambient fluid bearing an isotopically lighter dissolved sulphate, characterized by lower Sr isotope ratios. The excess of radiogenic 87Sr in barite compared to Phanerozoic seawater values suggests Sr derived from a continental source, whereas sulphate was derived either from oxidized H2S or a modified seawater source. Gradual increase in δ34S values towards the outer zones could also indicate the 34S enrichment due to bacterial sulphate reduction, even though there is no paired 34S and 18O enrichment of sulphate, characteristic of bacterial reworking. This can be interpreted as indicating an open system with limited sulphate resupply where the δ18O composition of sulphate was equilibrated with warm ascending hydrothermal fluid.

  5. Residual Cadmium and Lead Pollution at a Former Soviet Military Airfield in Tartu, Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mander, Ulo; Kull, Ain; Frey, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents data on the levels and dynamics of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentration in the plants, soil, and groundwater of the landing corridor and airfield of a former Soviet military air base in Estonia, immediately at the end of its 40-year service in 1992 and over the following 8 yr. In 1991-92 we found high Cd concentrations in the meadow plants Trifolium pratense and Dactylis glomerata (up to 56 mg kg -1 ). In 1993, the Cd concentration had dropped to 0.12-0.19 mg kg -1 , and stabilized in 1997-2000 at 0.04 mg kg -1 . Cd concentration in plants decreased significantly with increasing distance from the landing strip. Elevated Cd concentration (0.012 mg L -1 ) was found in the fuel of the TU-22M (Backfire) strategic bombers. In 1991 and 1993, leaded fuel influenced the mean Pb concentration in plants (1.8-4.2 mg kg -1 ). Average Pb concentration in both topsoil and the 30-40 cm soil horizon decreased between 1991 and 2000 from 28 to 6.5 and from 13.5 to 4.3 mg kg -1 , respectively. Cd concentration in the topsoil of the landing corridor showed a significant increase between 1991 and 1993 (0.07-0.3 and 0.3-1.2 mg kg -1 , respectively), but stabilized later on the level of 0.04 mg kg -1 . The concentrations of both Pb and Cd in the soil were higher closer to the fuel bunkers. Current assessment of the movement of these metals from the vegetation to the soil and to groundwater is linked to potential leaching to the surrounding environment

  6. Noor-Eesti tähendust otsides: vanu ja uusi mõtteid. In Quest of the Meaning of Young Estonia: Old and New Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Kivimäe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As an important chapter of Estonian literary history, Young Estonia has been relatively well researched and interpreted. However, its influence as a cultural and intellectual movement in Estonian society in the opening decades of the last century requires further study and verification. What stands reflected in Young Estonia is actually a larger groundswell of history, along with a rupture that took place throughout Estonian society in the course of its modernization. Discussions of the meaning of Young Estonia must therefore concern themselves with literary discourse, but much more so with what transpired outside the boundaries of literary pursuits, in the contexts of social and political history and the history of ideas. In view of historiography, there is no consensus on the definition of Young Estonia: it has been referred to as a movement, a group, or a cluster of seminal ideas. The founding of the group is generally located at the publication of the first Young Estonia album near the high tide of the Russian Revolution of 1905. Young Estonia disintegrated during the First World War, with its ending marked both by the publication of the fifth and final album in 1915 and by the journal Vaba Sõna (Free Word, which carried on the ideology of Young Estonia in the years 1914–1916. Although there are strong parallels between Young Estonia and similar movements and associations in Western and Central Europe in the nineteenth century, the greatest influence being exerted by the politicalliterary movement Nuori-Suomi (Young Finland, the respective group in Estonia was largely autochthonic in its time and milieu. In the rhetoric of the era of national awakening, Baltic Germans referred to Estonian national activists as ”Young Estonians”; the term was also under discussion in the Estonian press, yet there is no direct conceptual connection between this polemic and Young Estonia as a group. The Young Estonia group was mostly composed of young

  7. WHAT SHOULD ESTONIA DO IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE VALUE OF ITS EXPORTS OF GOODS TO SLOVAKIA AND SLOVENIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Romih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Estonia’s trade in goods with the world in general and with Slovakia and Slovenia in particular. Additionally, it also proposes some measures to increase the value of Estonia’s exports of goods to the aforementioned countries, both of which are Estonia’s minor export partners in Central and Eastern Europe. In 2013, the value of Estonia’s exports of goods to Slovakia and Slovenia amounted to €51.3 million and €7.4 million respectively. In order to increase the value of its exports of goods to these two countries, Estonia should increase the competitiveness of Estonian enterprises (especially small- and medium-sized ones in the Slovakian and Slovenian markets and adopt other measures such as increasing the sustainability of the aforementioned enterprises with a view to facilitating their entry into new markets. In recent years, sustainability has become an important factor in competitiveness, which is mainly the result of increased environmental awareness of consumers and other stakeholders, foremost in developed countries (including Slovakia and Slovenia. Sustainable innovation has therefore become an important source of competitive advantage, which is especially true for enterprises operating in competitive markets. Therefore, in order to increase the competitiveness of Estonian enterprises in the aforementioned markets, Estonia should promote sustainable innovation and take certain other measures.

  8. Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Burlakovs, Juris; Kriipsalu, Mait; Hogland, Marika; Hogland, William

    2017-06-01

    Landfill mining is an alternative technology that merges the ideas of material recycling and sustainable waste management. This paper reports a case study to estimate the value of landfilled materials and their respective market opportunities, based on a full-scale landfill mining project in Estonia. During the project, a dump site (Kudjape, Estonia) was excavated with the main objectives of extracting soil-like final cover material with the function of methane degradation. In total, about 57,777 m 3 of waste was processed, particularly the uppermost 10-year layer of waste. Manual sorting was performed in four test pits to determine the detailed composition of wastes. 11,610 kg of waste was screened on site, resulting in fine (40 mm) fractions with the share of 54% and 46%, respectively. Some portion of the fine fraction was sieved further to obtain a very fine grained fraction of size, and the importance of developing and implementing innovative extraction methods for materials recovery from soil-like fractions.

  9. Uudised : Don Juan jõuab Estonia lavale. VII Rudolf Tobiase päevad Hiiumaal. Esineb Laine Leichteri koolkond / Liina Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Liina

    1999-01-01

    3.juunil Estonias esietenduvast Mozarti ooperist "Don Giovanni". 28.-29.05 toimuvatest VII R. Tobiase päevadest, mis on pühendatud helilooja 126. sünniaastapäevale. 3.06 Mustpeade Majas toimuvast L. Leichteri juubelikontserdist

  10. The Occupational Well-Being of School Staff and Maintenance of Their Ability to Work in Finland and Estonia--Focus on the School Community and Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…

  11. Social inequalities in health care services utilisation after eight years of health care reforms: a cross-sectional study of Estonia, 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habicht, Jarno; Kunst, Anton E.

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental health care reforms in Estonia started in 1991 with the introduction of a social health insurance system. While increasing the efficiency of the health care system was one of the targets of the health care reforms, equity issues have received relatively less attention. The objective of

  12. Transformation of Estonia's industrial structure : Continued de-industrialisation or interlude in re-industrialisation? / Garri Raagmaa, Mihkel Laan, Antti Raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raagmaa, Garri, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    Autorid analüüsivad Eesti tööstuse senisele arengule tuginedes võimalikke arengusuundi tulevikus. Tabelid ja diagramm. Vt. samas: Competitiveness of the Baltic states has improved; Skanska leaves Latvia and Lithuania but not from Estonia

  13. [Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940] / Raiko Jäärats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jäärats, Raiko, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (On the boundary of two worlds. identity, fredom and moral imagination in the Baltics, 35). Hrsg. von Björn M. Felder und Paul J. Weindling. Rodopi, Amsterdam u.a. 2013

  14. Housing Restitution and Privatisation: Both Catalysts and Obstacles to the Formation of Private Rental Housing in the Czech Republic and Estonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Kährik, A.; Sunega, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2012), s. 137-158 ISSN 1461-6718 R&D Projects: GA MMR WD-05-07-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Czech Republic * Estonia * housing tenure Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14616718.2012.681574

  15. Processes of Localization and Institutionalization of local Managers in Economic Functions in Danish Owned Subsidiaries in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Around the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    been conducted from 1997 to 2002 among local CEOs, chief accountants and production managers in a Danish SME, using mainly qualitative methods. Data have been compared to primary data from similar companies in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The study has resulted in establishing a model for comparing...

  16. Udder pathogens and their resistance to antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orro Toomas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to estimate the distribution of udder pathogens and their antibiotic resistance in Estonia during the years 2007-2009. Methods The bacteriological findings reported in this study originate from quarter milk samples collected from cows on Estonian dairy farms that had clinical or subclinical mastitis. The samples were submitted by local veterinarians to the Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory during 2007-2009. Milk samples were examined by conventional bacteriology. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with the disc diffusion test. Logistic regression with a random herd effect to control for clustering was used for statistical analysis. Results During the study period, 3058 clinical mastitis samples from 190 farms and 5146 subclinical mastitis samples from 274 farms were investigated. Positive results were found in 57% of the samples (4680 out of 8204, and the proportion did not differ according to year (p > 0.05. The proportion of bacteriologically negative samples was 22.3% and that of mixed growth was 20.6%. Streptococcus uberis (Str. uberis was the bacterium isolated most frequently (18.4% from cases of clinical mastitis, followed by Escherichia coli (E. coli (15.9% and Streptococcus agalactiae (Str. agalactiae (11.9%. The bacteria that caused subclinical mastitis were mainly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (20% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (15.4%. The probability of isolating S. aureus from milk samples was significantly higher on farms that had fewer than 30 cows, when compared with farms that had more than 100 cows (p Str. agalactiae infection was found on farms with more than 600 cows (p = 0.034 compared with smaller farms. The proportion of S. aureus and CNS isolates that were resistant to penicillin was 61.4% and 38.5%, respectively. Among the E. coli isolates, ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline resistance were observed in 24.3%, 15.6% and 13

  17. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  18. Milleks teatrilavale ajalugu? : Katri-Aaslav-Tepandi ja Tõnu Tepandi. "President 1939". Estonia kammersaal, esietendus 18. veebruaril 2008; Enn Vetemaa, Erki Aule ja Merle Karusoo. "Sigma Tau-S705". Eesti Draamateater, esietendus 16. märtsil 2008 /

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vseviov, David, 1949-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus : Katri-Aaslav-Tepandi ja Tõnu Tepandi. "President 1939". Estonia kammersaal, esietendus 18. veebruaril 2008; Enn Vetemaa, Erki Aule ja Merle Karusoo. "Sigma Tau-S705". Eesti Draamateater, esietendus 16. märtsil 2008

  19. Environmental innovation through transport policy. The implementation of the free fare policy on public transport in Tallinn, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.

    2016-07-01

    Urban areas are of increasing relevance when it comes to sustainability: First, about half of the world’s population now lives in cities (increasing to 60% by 2030). Second, cities are nowadays responsible for levels of resource consumption and waste generation that are higher beyond their share on world population. Third, cities are more vulnerable to disruptive events that can lead to restrictions on the provision of resources and to changes on the environment caused by climate change. And fourth, because they concentrate key resources (political, social, cultural…), cities are seen as strategic scenarios where to experiment and develop solutions to cope with the prevailing sustainability challenges driven by the major social and environmental transformations. Urban agglomerations can be seen as complex innovation systems where human activities are shaped in order to transform societies towards sustainable development. For this paper, we focus on the case of an environmental innovation regarding transport policy, the implementation of the fare-free policy on public transport for all inhabitants of Tallinn, Estonia. Tallinn, with 414,000 inhabitants in 2015, is the capital of Estonia and the largest city in the country. Over the last two decades the share of public transport trips decreased dramatically. After a public opinion poll in 2012, in which over 75% of the participants voted for a fare-free public transportation system (FFPTS) in Tallinn, the new policy was implemented on 1st January 2013. From that date on inhabitants of Tallinn could use all public transport services (busses, trams, trolly-busses) operated by city-run operators for free. Later the fare-free system was implemented also on trains within Tallinn. In this paper we analyze the context, in which this policy was implemented, the main characteristics of its implementation and its actual situation. (Author)

  20. The formation of ethnically mixed partnerships in Estonia: A stalling trend from a two-sided perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnically mixed partnerships are often regarded as the ultimate evidence of the integration of migrants and their descendants into their host society. A common finding in the literature is an increase in the occurrence of mixed partnerships across migrant generations. Objective: This study investigates the formation of minority-majority partnerships in Estonia, with special attention to the variation associated with the migrants' generation and their exposure to the majority population. Methods: The study uses pooled data from the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (FFS and the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS, and estimates proportional hazards models. Results: The experience of second-generation migrants indicates a stalling trend in the incidence of mixed partnerships between the majority population and migrant groups, which is rooted in contextual features. Apart from residential proximity, the study shows the salience of early acquisition of the host society language. Our results for the majority population highlight the role of international migration, which exposes host populations to mixed partnership formation. Conclusions: The results lend support to the view that the integration of migrant populations through mixed partnering is a lengthy process that stretches across several generations. A linguistically divided school system and residential segregation contribute to the pillarization of society. Contribution: By focussing on an Eastern European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of mixed unions in different socioeconomic and cultural settings. Estonia provides an interesting case as its migrant-origin minorities span several generations. The study underscores the importance of contextual factors for both the minority and majority populations.

  1. DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF PRINTED CULTURAL HERITAGE IN ESTONIA. STRATEGY. METHODOLOGY. PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimo, Tiiu

    2006-12-01

    (different organisations. For reasons of the historical development considerable part of documentary heritage is also located outside Estonia (Sweden, USA, Canada, Australia, Russia etc.The projects of red books as well as different digitisation projects have been in practice for some years in all Estonian memory institutions. Libraries are pioneers in initiating collaborationprojects in digitisation. Due to the joint efforts of the National Library, the Archive Library of the Estonian Literature Museum and the Tallinn University Academic Library a big collection of old Estonian newspapers is available by internet. The project is titled DEA (Digitized Estonian Newspapers. The aim of the project Red Book of Estonian publications, 1535–1850 was to create a theoretical basis for elaborating criteria that would enable decision making and determination preservation priorities of the Estonian book heritage. At the moment there is not much collaboration between different types of memory institutions. The joint projects like DEA and Red Bookof Estonian Publications give hope that together difficult problems of preservation can be better solved and users will get better access to Estonian cultural heritage.

  2. Objective Lightning Probability Forecasts for East-Central Florida Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winfred C.

    2013-01-01

    The forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL, (NWS MLB) identified a need to make more accurate lightning forecasts to help alleviate delays due to thunderstorms in the vicinity of several commercial airports in central Florida at which they are responsible for issuing terminal aerodrome forecasts. Such forecasts would also provide safer ground operations around terminals, and would be of value to Center Weather Service Units serving air traffic controllers in Florida. To improve the forecast, the AMU was tasked to develop an objective lightning probability forecast tool for the airports using data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The resulting forecast tool is similar to that developed by the AMU to support space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) for use by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) in previous tasks (Lambert and Wheeler 2005, Lambert 2007). The lightning probability forecasts are valid for the time periods and areas needed by the NWS MLB forecasters in the warm season months, defined in this task as May-September.

  3. The Black Mountain tectonic zone--a reactivated northeast-trending crustal shear zone in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska: Chapter D in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Day, Warren C.; Alienikoff, John N.; Saltus, Richard W.; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Mountain tectonic zone in the YukonTanana terrane of east-central Alaska is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can been traced across Black Mountain in the southeast corner of the Big Delta 1°×3° degree quadrangle. Geologic mapping in the larger scale B1 quadrangle of the Big Delta quadrangle, in which Black Mountain is the principal physiographic feature, has revealed a continuous zone of normal and left-lateral strikeslip high-angle faults and shear zones, some of which have late Tertiary to Quaternary displacement histories. The tectonic zone includes complexly intruded wall rocks and intermingled apophyses of the contiguous mid-Cretaceous Goodpaster and Mount Harper granodioritic plutons, mafic to intermediate composite dike swarms, precious metal mineralization, early Tertiary volcanic activity and Quaternary fault scarps. These structures define a zone as much as 6 to 13 kilometers (km) wide and more than 40 km long that can be traced diagonally across the B1 quadrangle into the adjacent Eagle 1°×3° quadrangle to the east. Recurrent activity along the tectonic zone, from at least mid-Cretaceous to Quaternary, suggests the presence of a buried, fundamental tectonic feature beneath the zone that has influenced the tectonic development of this part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The tectonic zone, centered on Black Mountain, lies directly above a profound northeast-trending aeromagnetic anomaly between the Denali and Tintina fault systems. The anomaly separates moderate to strongly magnetic terrane on the northwest from a huge, weakly magnetic terrane on the southeast. The tectonic zone is parallel to the similarly oriented left-lateral, strike-slip Shaw Creek fault zone 85 km to the west.

  4. Environmental restoration of uranium contaminated sites in Estonia within the framework of IAEA project (RER/9/022) in 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratas, R.

    1997-01-01

    In Estonia there are several radioactively contaminated sites left from the military and uranium progressing activities by the former Soviet Union. Enhanced radiation levels are prevalent in the Paldiski area, a former nuclear submarine training centre; on the territory of the waste depository at Saku/Tammiku and at Sillamae, where a large depository of uranium milling tailings is situated. During the last two years considerable effort has been put into restoration of these sites. To start with, designing of reasonably achievable remediation projects have been taken up. Estonia has received large contributions from many western countries and organisations. Practical remediation work on contaminated areas, e.g. at Sillamae is, however, delayed due to lack of funds. (author)

  5. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. A Tale of Two Cities: Stigma and Health Outcomes Among People with HIV who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sara E.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Dovidio, John F.; Levina, Olga S.; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M.; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n=381 in St. Petersburg; n=288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. PMID:25703668

  7. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-04-16

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening.

  8. A tale of two cities: stigma and health outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sara E; Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Levina, Olga S; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n = 381 in St. Petersburg; n = 288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Field studies of Pan troglodytes reviewed and comprehensively mapped, focussing on Japan's contribution to cultural primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, William C

    2017-01-01

    Field studies done over decades of wild chimpanzees in East, Central and West Africa have yielded impressive, cumulative findings in cultural primatology. Japanese primatologists have been involved in this advance from the outset, over a wide variety of topics. Here I review the origins and development of field studies of Pan troglodytes, then assess their progress based on analogy between cultural primatology and cultural anthropology, through four stages: natural history, ethnography, ethnology, and intuition. Then, I focus on six topics that continue to yield informative debate: technology, universals, nuanced variation, archaeology, applied primatology, and ecology. Finally, I offer a map of sites of field study of wild chimpanzees. It is clear that Japanese primatologists have made a significant contribution to East-West scientific exchange, especially at the field sites of Bossou and Mahale.

  10. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  11. Jobs, careers, and becoming a parent under state socialist and market conditions: Evidence from Estonia 1971-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunnee Billingsley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entering employment and achieving a stable position in the labour market are considered important preconditions for childbearing. Existing studies addressing the relationship between work experience and the timing of parenthood focus exclusively on Western Europe and North America. By adding an Eastern European context before and after societal transformation, this study contributes to a more comprehensive account of the role of work experience in first-birth timing in Europe. Objective: We investigate how work experience and career development are related to the timing of parenthood in two diverse contexts in Estonia, state socialism and the market economy, and how it varies by gender and nativity. Methods: The data used come from the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006-2007. We estimate piecewise constant event history models to analyse the transition to first birth. Results: Our results suggest that in the market economy work experience became moreimportant in the decision to enter parenthood. In the market economy the importance of work experience to entering parenthood became more similar for women and men. Non-native-origin men and women's timing of parenthood appears to have become detached from their career developments. The article discusses mechanisms that may underlie the observed patterns. Conclusions: Our study shows how work experience gained importance as a precondition for parenthood in the transition to a market economy. This lends support to the view that the increasing importance of work experience is among plausible drivers of the postponement transition that extended to Eastern Europe in the 1990s.

  12. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariina Hiiob

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight different water treatment systems (aeration combined with Manganese Greensand, Birm, Nevtraco, Hydrolit-Mn, Magno-Dol and quartz sand filters in Võru County. The results demonstrate that in most cases the systems with pre-aeration effectively purify groundwater from iron, but only 13 out of 20 water treatment plants achieved a reduction of iron concentration to the level fixed in drinking water requirements (0.2 mg L–1. Manganese content decreased below the maximum allowed concentration in only 25% of systems and in cases where the filter media was Birm or quartz sand and pre-oxidation was applied. The study showed that the high level of iron purification does not guarantee effective removal of manganese.

  13. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano-Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668, already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls, Latvia (81 cases and controls, Lithuania (123 cases and controls, and Poland (795 cases and controls. Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample. Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers.

  14. The Effect of Gender and Ethnicity and their Intersection on Work Satisfaction and Earnings in Estonia, 1993-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeni Hansson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines trends in the labour market position, defined in terms of three dimensions – earnings, perceived job security and overall job satisfaction – among four population groups in Estonia – Estonian men and women and Russian-speaking men and women. We explore how the labour market position these groups changed between 1993 and 2008. We used data from 1993 and 2008, collected in the population survey Work, Family and Leisure, designed by the Institute of International and Social Studies at Tallinn University. We carried out a two-step analysis: first, we conducted descriptive analysis to explore changes in the labour market situation of men and women of two ethnic groups in the period of 1993-2008; and second, we used models of multivariate analysis of variances to examine how gender, ethnicity and occupational status as well as the intersection of these variables are related to earnings, job security and job satisfaction.We found that Estonian men have emerged as the most successful group in the labour market, while the labour market position of Russian-speaking women is the most disadvantaged compared to other groups in terms of earnings, job security and job satisfaction. We suggest that these labour market inequalities could be increasing, and that the interaction of gender and ethnicity might become increasingly important in shaping labour market outcomes.

  15. The crystalline basement of Estonia: rock complexes of the Palaeoproterozoic Orosirian and Statherian and Mesoproterozoic Calymmian periods, and regional correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirs, Juho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available New data on the Fennoscandian Shield and the Baltic area suggest a need for reinterpretation of the stratigraphy of Estonian Precambrian rock complexes. The rocks of the Tallinn Zone formed in the framework of the Fennian orogeny at the margin of the Bergslagen microcontinent 1.90–1.88 Ga ago. The precise age of the Alutaguse Zone is not known. It may have formed either during the 1.93–1.91 Ga Lapland–Savo orogeny or as a rifted eastern part of the Tallinn Zone in the Fennian orogeny. The granulites of western and southern Estonia belong to the volcanic arcs inside the 1.84–1.80 Ga Svecobaltic orogenic belt and show peak metamorphic conditions of 1.78 Ga. Small shoshonitic plutons formed 1.83–1.63 Ga, the small granitic plutons of the Wiborg Rapakivi Subprovince 1.67–1.62 Ga, and the Riga pluton 1.59–1.54 Ga ago.

  16. Development of the reed bed in Matsalu wetland, Estonia: responses to neotectonic land uplift, sea level changes and human influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Meriste

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied reed bed development in Matsalu wetland and the Kasari River delta, Estonia, since the late 18th century using historical schemes, topographical maps and aerial photographs. Our aim was to understand the mechanisms controlling reed distribution in Matsalu wetland, the largest coastal wetland of the eastern Baltic Sea occupying an area of about 25 km2. Natural development of the reed bed in Matsalu Bay and the Kasari delta is mainly controlled by shoreline displacement due to post-glacial neotectonic land uplift. The dredging of the Kasari delta in the 1920s–1930s caused a rapid seaward migration of reed bed communities due to the dispersal of fragmented rhizomes on the shallow sea bottom and along the canal banks reaching Matsalu Bay, while the landward parts of the former wetland were occupied by meadow communities. The expansion of the reed bed started in between the 1951s and 1970s and a maximum extent of 27 km2 was gained by the late 1970s at the peak of eutrophication. In the last decades the reed bed development has been influenced by sea level rise and increased intensity of cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea, which has caused the deterioration of the reed bed that was weakened by eutrophication due to nutrient inflow from agricultural landscapes mainly in the 1960s–1980s.

  17. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues.

  18. The Policies Concerning the Strength of Intellectual Property Rights Protection: The Choices for Estonia in Wider Context of EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign direct investment (FDI can be substitute for the contractual transfer of intellectual property rights in a situation where these rights are weakly protected. Hence, stronger intellectual property rights protection may reduce incentives for FDI. This is, however, only one line of reasoning. Stronger intellectual property protection can also increase motivation to invest into completely new products and processes. Thus, from the slightly different perspective FDI and strength of intellectual property protection can be seen as complementary. This duality of impact makes the search for efficient protection very difficult and complex. The aim of this paper is to outline the policy choices open for Estonia in influencing the relative strength of intellectual property rights protection and its impact on FDI. The vital secondary research agenda by this concerns the influence of EU-membership on the autonomy of such policy choices. Given the fact that there exist European patents and patent registry, certain intellectual property rights protection measures and legislative practices are undoubtedly pre-determined by this embeddedness into EU-wide protection systems. The national level policies and enforcement issues may still vary.

  19. Biodosimetry of Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia and Latvia using the glycophorin A in vivo somatic cell mutation assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigbee, W.L.; Jensen, R.H.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 necessitated a massive environmental cleanup that involved over 600,000 workers from all 15 Republics of the former Soviet Union. To determine whether the whole-body radiation received by workers in the course of these decontamination activities resulted in a detectable biological response, over 1,500 blood samples were obtained from cleanup workers sent from two Baltic countries, Estonia and Latvia. Here we report the results of studies of biodosimetry using the glycophorin A (GPA) locus in vivo somatic cell mutation assay applied to 734 blood samples from these workers, to 51 control samples from unexposed Baltic populations and to 94 samples from historical U.S. controls. The data reveal inconsistent evidence that the protracted radiation exposures received by these workers resulted in a significant dose-associated increase in GPA locus mutations compared with the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that the average radiation exposure to these workers does not greatly exceed 10 cGy, the minimum levels at which radiation effects might be detectable by the assay. Although the protracted nature of the exposure may have reduced the efficiency of induction of GPA locus mutations, it is likely that the estimated physical doses for these cleanup worker populations (median reported dose 9.5 cGy) were too low to result in radiation damage to erythroid stem cells that can be detected reliably by this method. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Hindcast experiments of the derecho in Estonia on 08 August, 2010: Modelling derecho with NWP model HARMONIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Rõõm, Rein

    2015-05-01

    On August 8, 2010, a derecho swept over Northern Europe, causing widespread wind damage and more than 2 million Euros in economic loss in Estonia during its most destructive stage. This paper presents a modelling study of the derecho-producing storm utilising the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Europe (HARMONIE) model. The model setup is chosen to mimic near-future, nearly kilometre-scale, operational environments in European national weather services. The model simulations are compared to remote sensing and in situ observations. The HARMONIE model is capable of reproducing the wind gust severity and precipitation intensity. Moreover, 2.5-km grid spacing is shown to be sufficient for producing a reliable signal of the severe convective storm. Storm dynamics are well simulated, including the rear inflow jet. Although the model performance is promising, a strong dependence on the initial data, a weak trailing stratiform precipitation region and an incorrect timing of the storm are identified.

  1. Suicidal Behavior Among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in Medical Care in Estonia and Factors Associated with Receiving Psychological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli

    2017-06-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.

  2. Keeleliste elulugude uurimisvõimalusi: Dagmar Normeti mitmekeelne lapsepõlv Eestis. Possibilities of Research on Linguistic Biographies: Dagmar Normet, a Multilingual Childhood in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Verschik

    2012-04-01

    research is more rooted in social, cultural and historical context than the American tradition. The former views linguistic biographies not as isolated narratives but as narratives situated in certain sociolinguistic and cultural situations. Thus, a linguistic biography can be a source for historical sociolinguistics when a researcher cannot obtain naturalistic spoken data any longer, and all evidence is therefore indirect. One can ask, to what extent are linguistic biographies unique? It is clear that a certain socio-cultural context produces certain (linguistic biographical templates, for instance, immigration and learning a new language or a possible feeling of dislocation and language learning anxiety. Thus, a comparison of linguistic biographies would be necessary in a longer perspective. Linguistic biographies research is a new field in Estonia. So far historians and scholars in literary history/theory have studied autobiographies. Dagmar Normet’s (1921-2008 memoirs, although not language learning memoirs per se, provide an intriguing view into a multilingual childhood of the 1920s-1930s. The narrator starts from the first childhood memories of studying German in addition to Estonian and Russian that she already knows, proceeds through the school years with occasional leaps into the future, the Soviet occupation, and ends at the moment of escape from Estonia in 1941 before the Nazi occupation. This memoir is unique because the author is probably the only Estonian writer of Jewish decent. Life in and with several languages in Tallinn appears to be something extremely natural and it seems there is no anxiety attached to this. Learning a new language or transfer to a school with a different language of instruction is described in detail, but without a feeling of detachment or dislocation. This presents extremely valuable information concerning the “linguistic climate” of the time, multilingualism in Tallinn, the dynamics of former Baltic German elite and the

  3. An inplementation strategy for the utilization of wind energy in Estonia. Phase 1: Pre-feasibility study and project identification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report presents the results of a pre-feasibility and project identification study with the purpose of investigating the possibilities for wind energy in Estonia and to recommend on possible actions, as outlined in Letters of Interest from the Estonian Ministries of Economy and Environment in 1995. Wind as source of energy in Estonia appears not yet to have been analyzed in detail. Available data indicates that wind can constitute a viable domestic source of energy, as average wind speeds of about 6 m/s (at 10 m) are reported at many coastal regions of Estonia. With state-of-the-art wind energy technology this means cost of wind produced electricity about 0.7-0.8 EEK/kWh - comparable to the cost of electricity from a modern coal-fired power plant. Two types of grids exist in these regions: On the mainland and on islands with sea cable grid connected wind turbines can be implemented. On islands without sea cable wind turbines can be connected to the diesel powered local grids. As a first step it is proposed to undertake the detailed planning and feasibility study of grid connected wind energy demonstrations in the framework of the Danish-Estonian country collaboration agreement. If the decision is made to implement this wind energy demonstration project, a certain proportion of grant money should be allocated for the demonstration. Subsequent steps in the Danish-Estonian country collaboration agreement should include the detailed planning and feasibility studies of autonomous wind energy demonstration and the associated capacity building. (EG)

  4. Commentary on Vorobjov et al., "Comparison of injection drug users who obtain syringes from pharmacies and syringe exchange programs in Tallinn, Estonia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werb Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent data suggest that globally, between 5% and 10% of all new HIV cases are the result of unsafe injecting practices, and experts agree that reducing these practices is key to tackling the spread of HIV. And yet, despite the overwhelming evidence that providing sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDU through syringe exchange programs (SEPs or other means is an effective way of reducing HIV transmission among high-risk subpopulations, IDU in most settings still do not have access to sterile injecting equipment or if they do, access remains too restricted to effectively reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Vorobjov and colleagues have presented in this journal an interesting and timely study from Estonia comparing individuals who obtain syringes from SEPs and those who obtain syringes from pharmacies. As the authors point out, Estonia faces an unacceptably high HIV incidence rate of 50 new HIV cases per 100,000, this rate driven primarily by injection drug use. As such, the authors argue that Estonia's SEP network does not have the capacity to serve a growing IDU population at risk of transmitting HIV and pharmacy dispensation of clean syringes may be one potential approach to decreasing syringe sharing among high-risk injectors. It may be overly optimistic to consider the impact of higher threshold interventions such as pharmacy-based SEPs, given that IDU populations that engage in HIV risk behaviours such as syringe sharing are often hidden or hard to reach. Despite the need for a cautious approach, however, the findings presented by Vorobjov et al. may chart one potential course towards a more comprehensive societal response to reducing the health harms associated with injection drug use.

  5. Eesti julgeoleku tagab üksnes usaldusväärsus : Vabariigi Presidendi Lennart Meri kõne Estonia kontserdisaalis 24. veebruaril 1995 / Lennart Meri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Lennart, 1929-2006

    1995-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi 77 aastapäev. Kõne on ilmunud ka: Päevaleht, 27. veebr. 1995, lk. 1, 6, pealkiri: Eelseisvad valimised kindlustagu poliitika järjepidevust; Eesti Sõnumid, 27. veebr. 1995, lk. 3, pealkiri: "Meie raskemad ajad on nüüd tõepoolest selja taga"; Hommikuleht, 27. veebr. 1995, lk. 2, 5, pealkiri: Raskemad ajad on seljataga; Postimees, 27. veebr., lk. 2, 6, pealkiri: President Lennart Meri kõne Estonia kontserdisaalis 24. veebruaril 1995; Meie Elu, 2. märts, lk. 10; Meie Kodu, 8. märts, lk. 5

  6. The beliefs in the inheritance of risk factors for suicide scale (BIRFSS): cross-cultural validation in Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Swami, Viren; Vintilă, Mona; Kõlves, Kairi; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Ponnusamy, Subramaniam; Sonneck, Gernot; Furnham, Adrian; Lester, David

    2008-12-01

    The genetics of suicide is increasingly recognized and relevant for mental health literacy, but actual beliefs may lag behind current knowledge. We examined such beliefs in student samples (total N = 686) from Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States with the Beliefs in the Inheritance of Risk Factors for Suicide Scale. Cultural effects were small, those of key demographics nil. Several facets of construct validity were demonstrated. Marked differences in perceived plausibility of evidence about the genetics of suicide according to research design, observed in all samples, may be of general interest for investigating lay theories of abnormal behavior and communicating behavioral and psychiatric genetic research findings.

  7. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and other sexually transmitted infections causing urethritis among high-risk heterosexual male patients in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjagur, Stanislav; Mändar, Reet; Punab, Margus

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI, including Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis) among high-risk heterosexual male patients and to clarify their potency to cause complaints and inflammation. The study group included 825 men (18.0-49.5 y) consulting andrologist at Tartu University Hospital (Estonia) due to subjectively perceived risk of STI. Patients completed STI risk behaviour questionnaire. First voided urine was analysed for white blood cells and STIs. In total 193 (23.4%) patients were positive for one or multiple STI. The prevalence of C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis and combined STI was 14.3%, 4.4%, 2.7%, 0.7% and 1.3%, respectively. N. gonorrhoeae had the highest potency to generate inflammatory reaction in first voided urine (100%) followed by C. trachomatis (72.0%), M. genitalium (63.9%) and T. vaginalis (33.3%). N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis caused the highest mean number of complaints while half of T. vaginalis cases and nearly fifth of M. genitalium and C. trachomatis cases were asymptomatic. C. trachomatis has the highest prevalence among Estonian high-risk men but M. genitalium holds an important second place. Prevalence of combined STIs is low. N. gonorrhoeae has the highest potency to generate urethral inflammation followed by C. trachomatis and M. genitalium. The highest number of complaints is also associated with N. gonorrhoeae while half of T. vaginalis cases and nearly a fifth of M. genitalium and C. trachomatis cases are asymptomatic.

  8. Complementary treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants--results from two samples of pharmacy customers in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.

  9. Public Enterprises in Estonia as Instruments of Foreign Trade. Estnische öffentliche Unternehmen als Instrumente der Außenwirtschaftspolitik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Friedrich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss whether a small country with shrinking population should apply public enterprises to improve its economic situation for purposes of external economic relations policy. The study refers to Estonia as an example. Estonia has developed public enterprises of the central state and of the municipalities since the reestablishment of the Estonian Republic. As public enterprise use private forms of law, some management problems occur because public firms are legally obliged to practice the management by objectives. The operationalization of welfare maximisation or achievement of sustainability of society to formulate goals for public enterprises was yet not successful. However, public firms should increase income, avoid monopoly positions of private firms, provide special public services, and should realize public goals. The activities of Estonian public enterprises and their goals show that Estonian enterprises can be used as instruments for foreign trade. The authors formulate a simple two-country model comprising a small and a big country. They introduce a public interest function referring to production, demand and employment, which allows the authors to argue that under conditions of shrinking population, the small country’s public interests, becomes reduced. They show that employing public enterprises diminishes negative effects on public interests. Even some types of inefficient public firms may lead to improvements.

  10. Economic and trade relations of Estonia as a EU member state, incl. with Russia and Ukraine. Eesti kui Euroopa Liidu liikmesriigi majandus- ja kaubandussidemed, sh Ukraina ja Venemaaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Raudjärv

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic relations of Estonia and trends in its exports and imports with the most important countries globally in 2008–2014, and presents its export and import transactions in the main commodity groups in 2009–2014.2 Considering the many different tensions that have appeared in world economy and in politics in the recent years, the aim of this paper is to describe their possible impacts on the Estonian economy. The research tasks set are studying of economic and trade relations with Ukraine as one of the largest countries in the EU Eastern Partnership Programme. Also the range of problems and developments related to signing the association agreement between Ukraine and the European Union, as well as the new complicated trade relations arising from economic policy, and developments both in the European context and that of other countries are examined. Also economic and trade relations with Russia are discussed. All this is treated on the background of the relations between Ukraine and Russia in the recent years and their impact on the behaviour of Estonia, the EU, USA and other Western countries. The above-mentioned issues are also viewed in relation to imposing economic sanctions due to relations between Ukraine and Russia.

  11. On certain aspects of the need and possibility for the administrative-territorial reform in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Raudjärv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats important problems of regional and local government policy, such as the possibility of and need for the administrative-territorial reform, including merging of municipalities and definition of mutual relationships between the state and local governments and their functions. The need for sustainable and strong municipalities has been emphasised also on the level of the European Union already several years ago. Possible mergers of Estonian county centres with their surrounding rural municipalities, also the possibility for having several centres of attraction in a county are discussed. Statistics on demographic changes in the Estonian population, concentration of the population above all to larger cities, and decrease in rural population are presented. Also statistics, for instance, on changes in the number of pupils in counties are presented. A few suggestions are made for the further development of the regional and local government policy, including based on the considerably more radical activities in Finland in this field.

  12. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Estonia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons came into force for the Republic of Estonia on 1 December 2005 [es

  13. Smoking differences between employees in faculties of the University of Tartu, Estonia, and changes during the country's transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingisepp Peet-Henn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study found marked differences in smoking between employees in various university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, soon after the disruption of communism. The present study was conducted to see whether such differences still exist and how the patterns had changed during the country's first transitional decade. Methods All employees at the University of Tartu (UT were surveyed for smoking habits by means of a questionnaire in 1992 and 2003. The present paper is based on respondents whose faculty or workplace was known (1390 people in 1992, 1790 in 2003. Smoking differences were assessed in terms of regression-based adjusted figures. Results While 20% of the male employees smoked daily in 1992, 13% did so in 2003, the figures for females being 10% and 7%, respectively. The prevalence of men's daily smoking varied between faculties and other workplaces in the range 4-30% in 1992, and 0-24% in 2003, with corresponding ranges of 3-21% and 0-10% among females. Men in the medical faculty in both surveys, and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second survey showed higher rates than men in most other faculties, as did women in the faculty of law in the first survey and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second. The figures were usually low in the faculties of sports & exercise, physics & chemistry and mathematics. The sex pattern was reversed in the faculty of law and also in that of economics, where the women smoked more than the men. Conclusions Even in this low-smoking academic community, wide smoking differences existed between the faculties and other workplaces. Faculties where physical or mental performance is of prime importance are leading the way towards a smoke-free community, while men in the faculty of philosophy and, paradoxically, men in the medical faculty are lagging behind. The reversed sex ratio in the faculties of law and economics may indicate women's intensified drive for equality in this

  14. Smoking differences between employees in faculties of the University of Tartu, Estonia, and changes during the country's transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näyhä, Simo; Kivastik, Jana; Kingisepp, Peet-Henn; Heikkinen, Rauno

    2011-03-08

    A previous study found marked differences in smoking between employees in various university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, soon after the disruption of communism. The present study was conducted to see whether such differences still exist and how the patterns had changed during the country's first transitional decade. All employees at the University of Tartu (UT) were surveyed for smoking habits by means of a questionnaire in 1992 and 2003. The present paper is based on respondents whose faculty or workplace was known (1390 people in 1992, 1790 in 2003). Smoking differences were assessed in terms of regression-based adjusted figures. While 20% of the male employees smoked daily in 1992, 13% did so in 2003, the figures for females being 10% and 7%, respectively. The prevalence of men's daily smoking varied between faculties and other workplaces in the range 4-30% in 1992, and 0-24% in 2003, with corresponding ranges of 3-21% and 0-10% among females. Men in the medical faculty in both surveys, and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second survey showed higher rates than men in most other faculties, as did women in the faculty of law in the first survey and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second. The figures were usually low in the faculties of sports & exercise, physics & chemistry and mathematics. The sex pattern was reversed in the faculty of law and also in that of economics, where the women smoked more than the men. Even in this low-smoking academic community, wide smoking differences existed between the faculties and other workplaces. Faculties where physical or mental performance is of prime importance are leading the way towards a smoke-free community, while men in the faculty of philosophy and, paradoxically, men in the medical faculty are lagging behind. The reversed sex ratio in the faculties of law and economics may indicate women's intensified drive for equality in this transitional society. We assume that different professional cultures

  15. The incidence and survival of acute de novo leukaemias in Estonia and in a well-defined region of western Sweden during 1982-1996: a survey of patients aged > or =65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luik, E; Palk, K; Everaus, H; Varik, M; Aareleid, T; Wennström, L; Juntikka, E-L; Safai-Kutti, S; Stockelberg, D; Holmberg, E; Kutti, J

    2004-07-01

    To compare the incidence and survival of acute de novo leukaemias with particular reference to political/socio-economic and environmental factors in two neighbouring countries over the three 5-year periods (1982-1996). The present report covers only patients diagnosed when aged > or =65 years. A well-defined area of Sweden, the so-called Western Swedish Health Care Region and Estonia. Population-wise, the western Swedish Region and Estonia are very similar; area-wise they are also well comparable. The number of acute de novo leukaemias was quite dissimilar in the two countries (Estonia, n = 137, Sweden, n = 354). The age standardized incidence rates regarding the total number of acute de novo leukaemias was 5.31 per 100,000 inhabitants/year for Estonia and 7.99 for Sweden, this difference being statistically significant. However, the difference was merely attributable to incidence rates as regards acute myeloblastic leukaemias (AML); on the contrary, differences as regards acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (ALL) and non-classifiable, undifferentiated or biphenotypic acute leukaemias (uAL) were negligible. The relative survival for the total material of patients was significantly higher for Swedish when compared with Estonian patients (P or =65 years in Estonia at 1 year was 8.5% and at 3 years 3.5% respectively. The corresponding figures for the Swedish patients were considerably higher, 22.7 and 7.7% respectively. This difference, however, applied only for patients with AML (P acute leukemia patients in two neighbouring countries.

  16. Maailmakirjanduse mõõtmisest meil ja mujal / Conceptualizations of World Literature in Estonia and Elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Lukas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel käsitleb maailmakirjanduse mõiste mahu ja sisu muutumist alates selle esilekerkimisest 19. sajandi algupoolel kuni tänapäeva käsitlusviisideni ja dilemmadeni, mille ees seisab võrdlev kirjandusteadus – distsipliin, mis peab maailmakirjandust oma uurimisobjektiks. Juttu tuleb ka väikese kirjanduse spetsiifilisest suhestumisest maailmakirjandusega ning maailmakirjanduse uurimisest ja õpetamisest Tartu ülikoolis alates selle rajamisest 1632 kuni eriala institutsionaliseerumiseni taasiseseisvunud Eestis – maailmakirjanduse õppetoolina.   In the current era of globalization when the borders of national literature have become exceedingly vulnerable, cultural identities more and more hybrid and the term world literature is applied to global translations into English, a comparative literary scholar might ask a question: would it be possible to perceive of a literary world analogously to the world of music? Would it be possible that as Bach does not need to be interpreted within the context of German music or Pärt within the context of Estonian music, works of literature relate to each other within the global field of literature and are no longer related to their linguistic and cultural contexts? In order to come to a „bigger picture“, to achieve a more extensive level of generalization, might it be possible to give up the linguistic, historical and cultural contextualization of works of literature? What would a small literature win or lose in such situation? In the present article the concept of world literature and its’ historical conditions – as an object of comparative literary studies – will be explained using the example of Estonian literature. In order to do so, an overview of the history of comparative literary studies at the University of Tartu will be provided. At the University of Tartu, the study of comparative literature was initiated much earlier than systematic study of Estonian literature or its

  17. Laps(epõlv 19. sajandi teise poole Eestis omaelulooliste tekstide näitel. Child(hood in 19th Century Estonia: a Study of Autobiographical Texts

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    Ave Mattheus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss autobiographical texts which focus on children and childhood in late 19th century Estonia. Childhood memories as well as other autobiographical material became popular in Estonia in the 1920s-1930s, when most of the studied works--the memoirs by Anna Haava, Mait Metsanurk, Jaan Lattik, Jaan Vahtra, Friedebert Tuglas, August Kitzberg and Marta Sillaots--were written. Some texts come from the 19th century (e.g. Lilli Suburg’s autobiographical works or early 20th century (e.g. manuscripts by Hans Leoke, and Johannes Kõrv. Childhood as described in these autobiographical texts covers a period of circa 1850-1900, and the majority of the authors come from the families of South-Estonian peasants or manorial servants. In addition to being written in Estonian and having the same theme, they were all also written by authors of fiction for children or by people who had close contact with children, such as schoolteachers. The article offers a novel approach in the Estonian context by presenting a typology of childhood stories and looking at childhood recollections as an important part of childhood studies. The researchers of childhood investigate how society understands and values children and childhood, what children’s everyday life is like, what possibilities there are for development and if there exists a specific children’s culture in society (such as clothing, food, language, leisure activities, or independent creative work. Childhood studies as a separate discipline does not exist in Estonia, although some important works have been published by educational scholars and art historians. The autobiographical texts under discussion show that in the late 19th century, the majority of Estonian children lived in the countryside in patriarchal families, and childhood was short because children had to help their parents with farmwork quite early, at the age of six. The boundary of childhood was around the age of 10-11, when

  18. Honoraripoliitikast Eestis stalinismi perioodil. The Politics of Royalties in Estonia During the Stalinist Era

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    Eve Annuk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the topic of royalty politics within the field of Estonian literature during the Stalinist era. This is an introductory treatment of the topic with the aim of opening up a discussion and to introduce corresponding sources. The topic of royalties has avoided the attention of researchers; up until now, no studies have been made. Despite this, it is an important topic, since the role of royalties in Soviet cultural politics shouldn’t be underestimated. Even though the cultural politics of the Soviet system are usually treated as repressive pressure, the politics of royalties bring out a different aspect by revealing a bonus system with which authors were incited to create conformist texts. Several different kinds of sources relating to royalties can be found , the most important of them being the laws on author royalties. The first of these was the Author Royalties Act passed by the People’s Commissariat of the Estonian SSR and in force already in 1944. Laws passed in 1948 and 1952 regulated the payment of royalities for both fictional works as well as all other kinds of works, such as scientific and technical publications, popular science, dictionaries, school text books, various kinds of collections, translations, etc. The laws were passed according to the boundaries of the work, such as artistic value or ideological level. Larger royalties were paid for works which were ’better’ in an ideological sense. Fiction and literary studies paid the best, which shows just how important literature as ideological education was to the Soviet system. The laws were in-depth and detailed and saw regular additions, such as in 1960 when several regulations were issued. Archival sources and honorary copies of Estonian newspapers and authorpublisher agreements consitute other important sources in addition to the legislation. From the honorary copies , the size of the royalties paid becomes clear. The source value of these documents is

  19. The prevalence of genital warts in the Baltic countries: findings from national cross-sectional surveys in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, Anneli; Reile, Rainer; Rezeberga, Dace; Karnite, Anda; Logminiene, Zeneta; Padaiga, Žilvinas; Nygård, Mari

    2015-02-01

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported genital warts (GWs) among women and men aged 18-45 years in the Baltic countries. In 2011-2013 we performed a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on the history of clinically diagnosed GWs, sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Probability sampling methods were used to invite 16,959 individuals representing the general population, of whom 7760 (45.8%) participated (Estonia: 1967 women, 1221 men; Latvia: 1525 women, 1525 men; Lithuania: 1522 women). The estimated lifetime prevalence of clinically diagnosed GWs in women was 4.6% (95% CI 3.8 to 5.5) in Estonia, 2.9% (95% CI 2.0 to 3.6) in Latvia and 1.5% (95% CI 1.2 to 2.0) in Lithuania. Among men, the corresponding values were 2.8% (95% CI 1.9 to 4.0) in Estonia and 1.9% (95% CI 1.3 to 2.6) in Latvia. The mean age at first episode of clinically diagnosed GW was 24.6 years (95% CI 23.6 to 25.5) for women and 24.5 years (95% CI 22.9 to 26.0) for men. A lifetime history of clinically diagnosed GW was associated with a history of sexually transmitted infections other than GW (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.3 for women; AOR 5.3, 95% CI 3.0 to 9.2 for men), and a higher number (5+) of lifetime sexual partners (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 4.2 for women; AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9 for men). Men living comfortably within their household income had higher odds for GW (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.2). Our estimated prevalence of clinically diagnosed GWs was lower than estimates from the general population of other European countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Eesti venekeelse kirjanduse nullindate põlvkond: vastuvõtt ja tõrked omaks tunnistamisel / The Generation of the 2000s in the Russian Literature of Estonia: Acceptance and Obstacles to Acknowledgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kotjuh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the development of Russian-language literature in Estonia through the lens of Estonian literature. The article focuses on what is conditionally referred to as “authors of the younger generation” (born in 1970 and later since the creative works of representatives of this generation have attracted a lot of attention. That is the “naughts-generation”, as the authors of this generation made their debuts in literature in the 2000s.The article views the Estonian reaction to the books of Igor Kotjuh, P. I. Filimonov and Andrei Ivanov translated into Estonian. The analysis makes use of the reception theory of Hans Robert Jauss and Wolfgang Iser, scholars from Konstanz University, which makes it possible to propose two operational hypotheses: (1 numerous reviews hint at the fact that Estonian literary journals and critics do not consider works of Estonian Russian-speaking authors to be foreign literature; (2 as works of the Russian-speaking authors of Estonia have not been represented in a single literary anthology which has appeared in the 2000s, it can be concluded that there are certain obstacles regarding the works of Russian-speaking authors in Estonia.The Russian-speaking writers of Estonia have had good co-operation with Estonian colleagues and media, since they speak Estonian and their works have continuously appeared in Estonian translations. At the same time, the Russian-speaking literature of Estonia has not become a fully valued part of Estonian literature. Three major controversies can be found in the reception, where the horizons of Estonian readers and Russian-speaking Estonian authors do not coincide:(1 Literary-theoretical controversy. Estonian literary science has always identified Estonian literature via the Estonian language, yet the Russian-speaking authors who made their debuts in the 2000s are convinced that their works are, among other things, part of Estonian literature.(2 Political. Readers see

  1. Enrichment of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in ash samples from oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozden, B. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics/Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Estonia); Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu,Institute of Physics (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Energy production in Estonia is largely dependent on the oil shale industry. Oil shale is a fossil fuel typically characterized by relatively high mineral composition, modest organic fraction (varying between 10 and 65%), high ash content (usually 45% to 50%), and average lower heating value of 8.4 MJ/kg{sup -1}. Oil shale-fired power plants account for 85% of Estonian electricity production and produce up to 6 million tons of oil shale ash annually. This ash contains elevated amounts of natural radionuclides (from the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K), which were bound to oil shale during its formation. These radionuclides become enriched in ash fractions during the combustion process and are partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. Oil shale-fired electricity production is foreseen to remain a dominant trend in Estonia, suggesting that the radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere will continue in the future. The natural radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, with half-lives of 138 days and 22.3 years respectively, originate from the radioactive decay of radionuclides of {sup 238}U series present in the earth's crust. These radionuclides are also built up artificially in the environment due to waste discharge from phosphate, oil, and gas industries, combustion of fossil fuels and other energy production as technically enhanced natural radionuclides. There are few studies on oil shale power plants influence on the levels of natural radioactivity in the surrounding areas. Realo, et al. reported that the annual doses from fly ash depositions over a 30 year period are in the range 90 - 200 μSv a{sup -1}. A study previously initiated by the University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (IPh) evaluated enrichment in the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in ash samples collected from Eesti Power Plant's circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. According

  2. Using data from respondent-driven sampling studies to estimate the number of people who inject drugs: Application to the Kohtla-Järve region of Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacheng Wu

    Full Text Available Estimating the size of key risk populations is essential for determining the resources needed to implement effective public health intervention programs. Several standard methods for population size estimation exist, but the statistical and practical assumptions required for their use may not be met when applied to HIV risk groups. We apply three approaches to estimate the number of people who inject drugs (PWID in the Kohtla-Järve region of Estonia using data from a respondent-driven sampling (RDS study: the standard "multiplier" estimate gives 654 people (95% CI 509-804, the "successive sampling" method gives estimates between 600 and 2500 people, and a network-based estimate that uses the RDS recruitment chain gives between 700 and 2800 people. We critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of these statistical approaches for estimating the size of hidden or hard-to-reach HIV risk groups.

  3. Uninvited guests: traditional insect repellents in Estonia used against the clothes moth Tineola bisselliella, human flea Pulex irritons and bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others were more local. Here we discuss ways of reducing clothes moths Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), human fleas Pulex irritons L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and bedbugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with the help of plants. Various taxa used as traditional repellents have been identified. The use of plants as repellents and their toxic principles are also discussed from a comparative perspective.

  4. δ13C chemostratigraphy of the Middle and Upper Ordovician succession in the Tartu-453 drillcore, southern Estonia, and the significance of the HICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Bauert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The δ13C isotope data from the Tartu-453 core section in southern Estonia enabled creation of a continuous Ordovician carbon isotope record, ranging from the Floian to the end of the Hirnantian. Five positive δ13C excursions and one negative δ13C excursion were recognized. Most of the positive excursions correspond to those defined on the Baltoscandian carbon isotope chemostratigraphic scheme, except for the Paroveja and Rakvere ICEs which are not well expressed in the Tartu-453 curve. Besides the positive δ13C excursions, a distinctive negative δ13C excursion, the Lower Sandbian NICE, was recorded in the Tartu-453 succession. The well-expressed HICE extends about 10 m higher than the traditional Ordovician–Silurian boundary (between the Porkuni and Juuru regional stages into the Juuru Regional Stage, suggesting that the Ordovician–Silurian boundary is positioned significally higher than traditionally suggested for the East Baltic area.

  5. Muusika : TMKK 40. Tüüri Viiulikontsert USAs. Tormise autorikontsert Moskvas. Larsen Strings Eestis. "Jazzkaare" uudised. Itaalia koreograafi balletikeel Estonias / Tiina Mattisen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mattisen, Tiina

    2001-01-01

    8.XI esitles TMKK EMA kammersaalis sünnipäevapuhust raamatut ja CDd. USAs Cincinnati Music Hallis kõlab Erkki-Sven Tüüri Viiulikontsert. 21.X leiab Rahmaninovi-nim. saalis Moskvas aset Veljo Tormise autoriõhtu. 8.ئ10.XI viibis Eestis Morten Drasbek, eksklusiivseid pillikeeli ja muid keelpillitarvikuid tootva Taani firma Larsen Strings esindaja. 7.XI "Jazzkaare" kontserdil "Georg Otsa jälgedes" kõlasid Uno Loobi ja Estonian All Stars bändi esituses Georg Otsa kontsertide menulood. Prantsuse jazzkvartett 32 Janvier esines oma Skandinaavia-turneel 14.XI Von Krahli teatris. Rahvusooperis Estonia alustas 8.XI proove itaalia koreograaf Mauro Bigonzetti, kelle koreograafiat saab näha märtsis esietenduvas Delibes'i balletis "Coppelia"

  6. The system of firm support grants in Estonia: whom does it favor? Summary: Ettevõtlustoetused Eestis: millist ettevõtet need soosivad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Mõttus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After joining the European Union, remarkable support has been provided to Estonian firms through government grants financed from EU funds, but so far it has not been systematically studied, which firms can get support from them. Current study analyzes all grants for firms financed from EU funds in Estonia in the period of 2007-2013. The paper outlines most supported firms based on activities financed and restrictions set on firms and application. The results indicate that some limitations make only a narrow range of firms eligible to get financial support. The grant measures in different implementing units providing grants vary a lot. Also, grants directed to fixed asset investments have more restrictions when compared with those directed to reimbursement of costs.

  7. Palaeoenvironmental signatures revealed from rare earth element (REE compositions of vertebrate microremains of the Vesiku Bone Bed (Homerian, Wenlock, Saaremaa Island, Estonia

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    Alexandre Fadel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs have been analysed from fossil vertebrate microremains (thelodont scales from the Vesiku Bone Bed, Saaremaa, Estonia, using in situ microsampling by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. Well-preserved scales of three species of the genus Thelodus (T. carinatus, T. laevis and Thelodus sp. show very uniform REE patterns with slightly lower overall REE concentrations in enameloid than in dentine, with enrichment in middle REEs, depletion in heavy REEs and pronounced negative europium anomaly, but no cerium anomaly. The results of this study suggest a similar diagenetic history and possibly contemporaneous habitats for all three Thelodus species, as well as possible suboxic to anoxic conditions of the bottom and pore waters during the formation of the Vesiku Bone Bed.

  8. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  9. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivi Plumer

    Full Text Available Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47 in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  10. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems amongst nurses at a university hospital in Estonia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimann, Tiina; Merisalu, Eda

    2015-07-01

    Rapid changes in the Estonian health care system have placed extra pressure on the nursing profession, but the potential impacts of psychosocial changes have not been investigated. We aimed to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst nurses at the university hospital in Estonia. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital (TUH). Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms and burnout) were measured using version two of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson's r correlation with sequential Bonferroni correction were used to analyse the data. The analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the full-time working population of nurses). The highest mean scores recorded for the positive work-related psychosocial factors studied were meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships and mutual trust between employees. The highest scores for the negative factors studied were the demands for hiding emotions, work pace, cognitive and emotional demands. Stress and burnout showed the highest mean scores amongst the MHPs. Quantitative and emotional demands were positively related to all of the studied MHPs, while work pace and role conflicts had a positive correlation with stress and burnout. All of the studied negative psychosocial factors were significantly correlated with burnout. work-related psychosocial risk factors such as quantitative demands work load, emotional demands, work pace and role conflicts, had significant positive relationships with MHPS in nurses in Estonia, and may contribute to high levels of stress as well as burnout amongst nurses: . © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Management of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Central and Eastern Europe (Czech Rep., Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, M.J.; Moreton, A.D.; Wells, D.A.

    2001-04-01

    This study has been performed to consider the situation relating to the regulation and management of spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRS) in five central and Eastern European (C and EE) countries currently being considered for admission to the EU: the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. The general aim of this study has been to acquire a thorough understanding of the management of SSRS in these five countries, in order to recommend improvements in management schemes and to establish whether the application of common disposal criteria would be advantageous. This report is structured in the following manner; following the Introduction (Section 1), there is description of current and proposed regulatory requirements in the EU, together with a summarised comparison of the regulatory systems in C and EE countries with EU standards in Section 2. Sections 3 to 7 are dedicated to the situation in each of the five countries. Each of these sections is similarly sub-divided to enable country-by-country and topic-by-topic comparison. In each of Sections 3 to 7 there is an overview, description of the sealed source inventory, regulations, current management practices, retrieval of unregistered SSRS, conclusions and a description of possible future technical assistance projects. Section 8 brings together a summary of the situation in each country, with conclusions and both country-specific and generic recommendations. A common concern in the five countries and also in existing EU member states is the problem of accidental inclusion of SSRS in consignments of scrap-metal. The detection of radioactive material at entrances to scrap metal facilities and at national borders has therefore received considerable attention in recent years. Practical issues regarding the detection of SSRS in scrap metal are described in Appendix A. None of the five countries considered in this report have any plans to develop regional disposal facilities and no specific common

  12. Koolinoorte elustiilist ja selle uurimisest nõukogudeaja Eestis. Research on the Lifestyles of School Students in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airi Liimets

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been no particular difference in the understanding of lifestyle as such on either theoretical or an empirical level, regardless of whether the corresponding research work was performed in Soviet Estonia or in the German-speaking cultural sphere of Europe in the 1990s. There have been noticeably more similarities than differences. The main difference in the research of school students’ lifestyles is likely the treatment of students’ lives at and outside of school in terms of the two areas either being considered mutually intertwined or not. From the very beginning, Heino Liimets’s school of educational sociology was characterised by the treatment of studies as but one piece of lifestyle as a whole, where studying was an activity which acted as an integrator between the life at school and the life outside of it. In the German-speaking cultural sphere, the connection between these two environments has not been held quite as self-evident, and research has only been focusing on their synergy to a higher degree since the mid-1990s. The empirical data collected and analysed by the scholars of the Liimets school during the years 1975–1998 makes it possible to point out six generally important phenomena in the lifestyles of Estonian students:1 In 1975–1987 a continual decline in the appreciation rankings of learning among interesting activities took place, followed by a continual movement towards an increase already before the end of the Soviet era; 2 In 1975–1987, a strong process of alienation of students from school, studies and themselves; 3 The years 1979–1984, the final decade of the Soviet era, saw a characteristic and increasing stagnation also in the students’ attitudes and value-judgements related to their activities and lifestyles; 4 Simultaneously with the processes of alienation from studies, school and themselves, the so-called ’domestication phenomena’ (appreciation of home in students’ lifestyles increased

  13. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  14. ABB honoured in Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Energeetikafirma ABB pälvis Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse poolt Eesti parimale ettevõttele antava "Ettevõtluse Auhinna 2008" ja Aasta Välisinvestori tiitli. 18. septembril 2008 toimunud pidulikul tseremoonial autasustas president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ABB Balti riikide juhti Bo Henrikssoni

  15. Pictorial Estonia / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti pildilisest kujutamisest albumites, postkaartidel, kodulehekülgedel ja filmides, kus domineerib "fassaadi-imagoloogia", mille raamkonstruktsiooniks on utoopiline, mitte heterotoopoline ruumi mõiste

  16. Estonia : [2013] / Allan Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Allan, 1975-

    2014-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti poliitilisest elust 2013. aastal. Käsitletakse kohalikke valimisi, muutusi valitsuse kooseisus, Riigikogu tegemisi, aga ka rahvakogu ettepanekuid, Reformierakonna rahastusskandaali jt sündmusi.

  17. Hearing impairment in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teek, R; Kruustük, K; Zordania, R

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The present study was initiated to establish the etiological causes of early onset hearing loss (HL) among Estonian children between 2000-2009. Methods: The study group consisted of 233 probands who were first tested with an arrayed primer extension assay, which covers 199 mutat...... for 115 Estonian patients (49%). This algorithm may be generalized to other populations for clinical application....... performed. Results: In 110 (47%) cases, the etiology of HL was genetic and in 5 (2%) congenital CMV infection was diagnosed. We found mutations with clinical significance in GJB2 (100 children, 43%) and in 2 mitochondrial genes (2 patients, 1%). A single mutation in SLC26A4 gene was detected in 5 probands...... able to conclude that the found abnormalities are definitely pathogenic (12q13.3-q14.2 and 17q22-23.2 microdeletion), but the pathogenity of 2 other findings (3p26.2 and 1p33 microdeletion) remained unknown. Conclusion: This practical diagnostic algorithm confirmed the etiology of early onset HL...

  18. Estonia / Vello Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Vello, 1968-

    2002-01-01

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