WorldWideScience

Sample records for field disrupted stars

  1. The disruption of close binaries in the gravitational field of a supermassive black hole and the formation of hypervelocity stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremova, G. N.; Dremov, V. V.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The formation of hypervelocity stars due to the dynamical capture of one component of a closebinary system by the gravitational field of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) is modeled. The mass of the black hole was varied between 106 and 109 M ⊙. In the model, the problem was considered first as a three-body problem (stage I) and then as an N-body problem (stage II). In the first stage, the effect of the inclination of the internal close-binary orbit (the motion of the components about the center of mass of the binary system) relative to the plane of the external orbit (the motion of the close binary around the SMBH) on the velocity with which one of the binary components is ejected was assessed. The initial binary orbits were generated randomly, with 10 000 orbits considered for each external orbit with a fixed pericenter distance r p . Analysis of the results obtained in the first stage of the modeling enables determination of the binary-orbit orientations that are the most favorable for high-velocity ejection, and estimation of the largest possible ejection velocities V max. The boundaries of the region of stellar disruption derived from the balance of tidal forces and self-gravitation are discussed using V max- r p plots, which generalize the results of the first stage of the modeling. Since a point-mass representation does not enable predictions about the survival of stars during close passages by a SMBH, there is the need for a second stage of the modeling, in which the tidal influence of the SMBH is considered. An approach treating a star like a structured finite object containing N bodies ( N = 4000) enables the derivation of more accurate limits for the zone of efficient acceleration of hypervelocity stars and the formulation of conditions for the tidal disruption of stars.

  2. BINARY DISRUPTION BY MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: HYPERVELOCITY STARS, S STARS, AND TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, Benjamin C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Brown, Warren R., E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    We examine whether disrupted binary stars can fuel black hole growth. In this mechanism, tidal disruption produces a single hypervelocity star (HVS) ejected at high velocity and a former companion star bound to the black hole. After a cluster of bound stars forms, orbital diffusion allows the black hole to accrete stars by tidal disruption at a rate comparable to the capture rate. In the Milky Way, HVSs and the S star cluster imply similar rates of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} for binary disruption. These rates are consistent with estimates for the tidal disruption rate in nearby galaxies and imply significant black hole growth from disrupted binaries on 10 Gyr timescales.

  3. A Preferred Home for Disrupted Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Observed burps from the shredding of stars by supermassive black holes suggest that this behavior is more common in an unusual type of galaxy. A new study has examined NGC 3156, an example from this galaxy type, to better understand what causes this preference.Stellar BetrayalAn artists illustration of a tidal disruption event, in which a star is sent on a plunging orbit near a supermassive black hole and is subsequently torn apart by the black holes tidal forces. [NASA/CXC/M.Weiss]Tidal disruption events (TDEs) are events where a star plunges too close to a supermassive black hole and is torn apart by the black holes tidal forces. Weve observed roughly a dozen of these violent events in the last five years, and we expect to finds hundreds to thousands more with future surveys.TDEs are triggered when a star is sent on a plunging orbit close to a supermassive black hole. But what sends the star into harms way? One possible culprit is a dynamical mechanism known as two-body relaxation. In this process, stars orbiting a black hole undergo individual starstar interactions that, with a close enough encounter, can send them on plunging orbits.Choosing an Unusual HostOne puzzle with TDEs is that they tend to be preferentially found in rather unusual galaxies: galaxies that recently exhibited a lot of star formation but are now quiescent. In particular, several of the TDEs have been discovered in what are known as E+A galaxies, a rare subtype of elliptical galaxy that has recently undergone a major starburst.Since this subtype makes up only ~0.1% of all galaxies, its surprising that weve found so many TDEs in E+A galaxies so far. So why the preference?In an effort to answer this question, two scientists, Nicholas Stone (Einstein Fellow at Columbia University) and Sjoert van Velzen (Hubble Fellow at Johns Hopkins University), have teamed up to examine a nearby E+A galaxy, NGC 3156.Tidal disruption rates as a function of central supermassive-black-hole mass. The blue curve

  4. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Neutron stars: population; magnetic fields; X-ray binaries: evolution; millisecond pulsars: inter-connections. Abstract. This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the evolution of magnetic fields in neutron stars, which basically defines the evolutionary pathways between different observational classes ...

  5. Super massive black hole in galactic nuclei with tidal disruption of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Shiyan; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Tidal disruption of stars by super massive central black holes from dense star clusters is modeled by high-accuracy direct N-body simulation. The time evolution of the stellar tidal disruption rate, the effect of tidal disruption on the stellar density profile, and, for the first time, the detailed origin of tidally disrupted stars are carefully examined and compared with classic papers in the field. Up to 128k particles are used in simulation to model the star cluster around a super massive black hole, and we use the particle number and the tidal radius of the black hole as free parameters for a scaling analysis. The transition from full to empty loss-cone is analyzed in our data, and the tidal disruption rate scales with the particle number, N, in the expected way for both cases. For the first time in numerical simulations (under certain conditions) we can support the concept of a critical radius of Frank and Rees, which claims that most stars are tidally accreted on highly eccentric orbits originating from regions far outside the tidal radius. Due to the consumption of stars moving on radial orbits, a velocity anisotropy is found inside the cluster. Finally we estimate the real galactic center based on our simulation results and the scaling analysis.

  6. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J.A.; Miralles, J.A.; Rea, N.; Cenarro, A.J.; Figueras, F.; Hernández-Monteagudo, J.; Bueno, T.; Valdivielso, L.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing

  7. The star cluster-field star connection in nearby spiral galaxies. I. Data analysis techniques and application to NGC 4395

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva-Villa, E.; Larsen, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Context. It is generally assumed that a large fraction of stars are initially born in clusters. However, a large fraction of these disrupt on short timescales and the stars end up belonging to the field. Understanding this process is of paramount importance if we wish to constrain the star formation

  8. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushan Konar

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Over the decades, one of the primary preoccupations of neutron star research has been to look for a unification scheme connecting the widely different observational classes (shown in Fig. 1). The magnetic field, ranging from 108 G in millisecond pulsars to 1015 G in mag- netars, has been central to this ...

  9. Scalar fields on star graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Mattias

    2011-01-01

     A star graph consists of a vertex to which a set of edges are connected. Such an object can be used to, among other things, model the electromagnetic properties of quantum wires. A scalar field theory is constructed on the star graph and its properties are investigated. It turns out that there exist Kirchoff's rules for the conserved charges in the system leading to restrictions of the possible type of boundary conditions at the vertex. Scale invariant boundary conditions are investigated in...

  10. Gravitational interactions of stars with supermassive black hole binaries. I. Tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbha, Siva; Coughlin, Eric R.; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-04-01

    Stars approaching supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the centers of galaxies can be torn apart by strong tidal forces. We study the physics of tidal disruption by a circular, binary SMBH as a function of the binary mass ratio q = M2/M1 and separation a, exploring a large set of points in the parameter range q ∈ [0.01, 1] and a/rt1 ∈ [10, 1000]. We simulate encounters in which field stars approach the binary from the loss cone on parabolic, low angular momentum orbits. We present the rate of disruption and the orbital properties of the disrupted stars, and examine the fallback dynamics of the post-disruption debris in the "frozen-in" approximation. We conclude by calculating the time-dependent disruption rate over the lifetime of the binary. Throughout, we use a primary mass M1 = 106M⊙ as our central example. We find that the tidal disruption rate is a factor of ˜2 - 7 times larger than the rate for an isolated BH, and is independent of q for q ≳ 0.2. In the "frozen-in" model, disruptions from close, nearly equal mass binaries can produce intense tidal fallbacks: for binaries with q ≳ 0.2 and a/rt1 ˜ 100, roughly ˜18 - 40% of disruptions will have short rise times (trise ˜ 1 - 10 d) and highly super-Eddington peak return rates (\\dot{M}_{peak} / \\dot{M}_{Edd} ˜ 2 × 10^2 - 3 × 10^3).

  11. High energy neutrinos from the tidal disruption of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    We study the production of high energy neutrinos in jets from the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes. The diffuse neutrino flux expected from these tidal disruption events (TDEs) is calculated both analytically and numerically, taking account the dependence of the rate of TDEs on the redshift and black hole mass. We find that ∝ 10% of the observed diffuse flux at IceCube at an energy of about 1 PeV can come from TDEs if the characteristics of known jetted tidal disruption events are assumed to apply to the whole population of these sources. If, however, plausible scalings of the jet Lorentz factor or variability timescale with the black hole mass are taken into account, the contribution of the lowest mass black holes to the neutrino flux is enhanced. In this case, TDEs can account for most of the neutrino flux detected at IceCube, describing both the neutrino flux normalization and spectral shape with moderate baryonic loadings. While the uncertainties on our assumptions are large, a possible signature of TDEs as the origin of the IceCube signal is the transition of the flux flavor composition from a pion beam to a muon damped source at the highest energies, which will also result in a suppression of Glashow resonance events.

  12. High energy neutrinos from the tidal disruption of stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunardini, Cecilia [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-05-17

    We study the production of high energy neutrinos in jets from the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes. The diffuse neutrino flux expected from these tidal disruption events (TDEs) is calculated both analytically and numerically, taking account the dependence of the rate of TDEs on the redshift and black hole mass. We find that ∝ 10% of the observed diffuse flux at IceCube at an energy of about 1 PeV can come from TDEs if the characteristics of known jetted tidal disruption events are assumed to apply to the whole population of these sources. If, however, plausible scalings of the jet Lorentz factor or variability timescale with the black hole mass are taken into account, the contribution of the lowest mass black holes to the neutrino flux is enhanced. In this case, TDEs can account for most of the neutrino flux detected at IceCube, describing both the neutrino flux normalization and spectral shape with moderate baryonic loadings. While the uncertainties on our assumptions are large, a possible signature of TDEs as the origin of the IceCube signal is the transition of the flux flavor composition from a pion beam to a muon damped source at the highest energies, which will also result in a suppression of Glashow resonance events.

  13. Tidal disruption flares from stars on eccentric orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We study tidal disruption and subsequent mass fallback for stars approaching supermassive black holes on bound orbits, by performing three dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations with a pseudo-Newtonian potential. We find that the mass fallback rate decays with the expected -5/3 power of time for parabolic orbits, albeit with a slight deviation due to the self-gravity of the stellar debris. For eccentric orbits, however, there is a critical value of the orbital eccentricity, significantly below which all of the stellar debris is bound to the supermassive black hole. All the mass therefore falls back to the supermassive black hole in a much shorter time than in the standard, parabolic case. The resultant mass fallback rate considerably exceeds the Eddington accretion rate and substantially differs from the -5/3 power of time.

  14. Star cluster disruption by a massive black hole binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolas, Elisa; Mapelli, Michela; Spera, Mario

    2018-02-01

    Massive black hole binaries (BHBs) are expected to form as the result of galaxy mergers; they shrink via dynamical friction and stellar scatterings, until gravitational waves (GWs) bring them to the final coalescence. It has been argued that BHBs may stall at a parsec scale and never enter the GW stage if stars are not continuously supplied to the BHB loss cone. Here, we perform several N-body experiments to study the effect of an 8 × 104 M⊙ stellar cluster (SC) infalling on a parsec-scale BHB. We explore different orbital elements for the SC, and we perform runs both with and without accounting for the influence of a rigid stellar cusp (modelled as a rigid Dehnen potential). We find that the semimajor axis of the BHB shrinks by ≳ 10 per cent if the SC is on a nearly radial orbit; the shrinking is more efficient when a Dehnen potential is included and the orbital plane of the SC coincides with that of the BHB. In contrast, if the SC orbit has non-zero angular momentum, only few stars enter the BHB loss cone and the resulting BHB shrinking is negligible. Our results indicate that SC disruption might significantly contribute to the shrinking of a parsec-scale BHB only if the SC approaches the BHB on a nearly radial orbit.

  15. Variable Stars and Stellar Populations in Andromeda XXVII. IV. An Off-centered, Disrupted Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Felice; Garofalo, Alessia; Clementini, Gisella; Cignoni, Michele; Muraveva, Tatiana; Tessicini, Gianni; Testa, Vincenzo; Paris, Diego; Federici, Luciana; Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Musella, Ilaria

    2017-12-01

    We present B and V time-series photometry of the M31 satellite galaxy Andromeda XXVII (And XXVII) that we observed with the Large Binocular Cameras of the Large Binocular Telescope. In the field of And XXVII we have discovered a total of 90 variables: 89 RR Lyrae stars and 1 Anomalous Cepheid. The average period of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars (RRab) =0.59 {days} (σ = 0.05 day) and the period-amplitude diagram place And XXVII in the class of Oosterhoff I/Intermediate objects. Combining information from the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and the variable stars, we find evidence for a single old and metal-poor stellar population with [Fe/H] ˜ -1.8 dex and t ˜ 13 Gyr in And XXVII. The spatial distributions of RR Lyrae and red giant branch (RGB) stars give clear indication that And XXVII is a completely disrupted system. This is also supported by the spread observed along the line of sight in the distance to the RR Lyrae stars. The highest concentration of RGB and RR Lyrae stars is found in a circular area of 4 arcmin in radius, centered about 0.°2 in the southeast direction from Richardson et al.’s center coordinates of And XXVII. The CMD of this region is well-defined, with a prominent RGB and 15 RR Lyrae stars (out of the 18 found in the region) tracing a very tight horizontal branch at =25.24 {mag} σ = 0.06 mag (average over 15 stars). We show that And XXVII is a strong candidate building block of the M31 halo. Based on data collected with the Large Binocular Cameras at the Large Binocular Telescope, PI: G. Clementini.

  16. Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... This paper reviews the current status of the theoretical models of the evolution of the magnetic fields of neutron stars other than magnetars. It appears that the magnetic fields of neutron stars decay significantly only if they are in binary systems. Three major physical models for this, namely spindown-induced ...

  17. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD 65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars, the PGa star HD 19400, using FORS 2 installed at the VLT. We...... also give new measurements of the eclipsing system ARAur with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity, which were obtained with the SOFIN spectropolarimeter installed at the Nordic Optical Telescope. Methods. We downloaded from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) archive the publically available HARPS...

  18. Neutron stars velocities and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Martinez, A. Perez; Ayala, Alejandro.; Piccinelli, G.; Sanchez, A.

    2018-01-01

    We study a model that explain neutron stars velocities due to the anisotropic emission of neutrinos. Strong magnetic fields present in neutron stars are the source of the anisotropy in the system. To compute the velocity of the neutron star we model its core as composed by strange quark matter and analice the properties of a magnetized quark gas at finite temperature and density. Specifically we have obtained the electron polarization and the specific heat of magnetized fermions as a functions of the temperature, chemical potential and magnetic field which allow us to study the velocity of the neutron star as a function of these parameters.

  19. Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The magnetic field of a neutron star determines the evolution of its spin, its radia- tive properties and its interaction with the ... resulting in metal-like transport properties (electrical and heat conductivities) in this region (Yakovlev & Urpin ... from the spinning neutron star via magnetic coupling. The shorter the decay time scale.

  20. Neutron stars, magnetic fields, and gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, F.K.

    2001-01-01

    The r-modes of rapidly spinning young neutron stars have recently attracted attention as a promising source of detectable gravitational radiation. These neutron stars are expected to have magnetic fields ∼ 10 12 G. The r-mode velocity perturbation causes differential motion of the fluid in the star; this is a kinematic effect. In addition, the radiation-reaction associated with emission of gravitational radiation by r-waves drives additional differential fluid motions; this is a dynamic effect. These differential fluid motions distort the magnetic fields of neutron stars and may therefore play an important role in determining the structure of neutron star magnetic fields. If the stellar field is ∼ 10 16 (Ω/Ω B ) G or stronger, the usual r-modes are no longer normal modes of the star; here Ω and Ω B are the angular velocities of the star and at which mass shedding occurs. Much weaker magnetic fields can prevent gravitational radiation from amplifying the r-modes or damp existing r-mode oscillations on a relatively short timescale by extracting energy from the modes faster than gravitational wave emission can pump energy into them. The onset of proton superconductivity in the cores of newly formed magnetic neutron stars typically increases the effect on the r-modes of the magnetic field in the core by many orders of magnitude. Once the core has become superconducting, magnetic fields of the order of 10 12 G or greater are usually sufficient to damp r-modes that have been excited by emission of gravitational radiation and to suppress any further emission. A rapid drop in the strength of r-mode gravitational radiation from young neutron stars may therefore signal the onset of superconductivity in the core and provide a lower bound on the strength of the magnetic field there. Hence, measurements of r-mode gravitational waves from newly formed neutron stars may provide valuable diagnostic information about magnetic field strengths, cooling processes, and the

  1. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushan Konar

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... The emphasis here is on the evolution in binary systems and the newly emergent classes of millisecond pulsars. Keywords. Neutron stars: population—magnetic fields—X-ray binaries: evolution—millisecond pulsars: ...... Konar, S. 2013, in: Astronomical Society of India Conference. Series, Vol. 8, edited by ...

  2. Relativistic jet activity from the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, D N; Kennea, J A; Ghisellini, G; Mangano, V; Zhang, B; Page, K L; Eracleous, M; Romano, P; Sakamoto, T; Falcone, A D; Osborne, J P; Campana, S; Beardmore, A P; Breeveld, A A; Chester, M M; Corbet, R; Covino, S; Cummings, J R; D'Avanzo, P; D'Elia, V; Esposito, P; Evans, P A; Fugazza, D; Gelbord, J M; Hiroi, K; Holland, S T; Huang, K Y; Im, M; Israel, G; Jeon, Y; Jeon, Y-B; Jun, H D; Kawai, N; Kim, J H; Krimm, H A; Marshall, F E; P Mészáros; Negoro, H; Omodei, N; Park, W-K; Perkins, J S; Sugizaki, M; Sung, H-I; Tagliaferri, G; Troja, E; Ueda, Y; Urata, Y; Usui, R; Antonelli, L A; Barthelmy, S D; Cusumano, G; Giommi, P; Melandri, A; Perri, M; Racusin, J L; Sbarufatti, B; Siegel, M H; Gehrels, N

    2011-08-24

    Supermassive black holes have powerful gravitational fields with strong gradients that can destroy stars that get too close, producing a bright flare in ultraviolet and X-ray spectral regions from stellar debris that forms an accretion disk around the black hole. The aftermath of this process may have been seen several times over the past two decades in the form of sparsely sampled, slowly fading emission from distant galaxies, but the onset of the stellar disruption event has not hitherto been observed. Here we report observations of a bright X-ray flare from the extragalactic transient Swift J164449.3+573451. This source increased in brightness in the X-ray band by a factor of at least 10,000 since 1990 and by a factor of at least 100 since early 2010. We conclude that we have captured the onset of relativistic jet activity from a supermassive black hole. A companion paper comes to similar conclusions on the basis of radio observations. This event is probably due to the tidal disruption of a star falling into a supermassive black hole, but the detailed behaviour differs from current theoretical models of such events.

  3. Tidal Disruptions of Main Sequence Stars: Inferences from the Composition of the Fallback Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Monica; Law-Smith, Jamie; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    We study black holes within galactic nuclei by analyzing the motions of stars swarming around them. When the conditions are right we can observe and analyze characteristics of the black hole’s destructive power. In this paper we analyze the case when a star lurks close enough to these gravity giants to be ripped apart. After disruption, material that is bound to the supermassive black hole accretes onto it and creates a powerful flare. The standard light curve of these flares is classically described by a t-5/3 power law in time. In this paper we adopt an analytical method to calculate the fallback rate and use Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) to study the disruption of stars with masses between 0.8-3 M⊙ at various evolutionary stages. We move beyond the analysis of the light curve and peer into the interiors of the disrupted stars by studying the compositional features of the fallback material. With this work we can begin to constrain the nature of the stars that are tidally disrupted. We find that most stars develop nitrogen (14N) enhancements with carbon (12C) and oxygen (16O) depletion relative to solar abundance and find that these features are more pronounced for higher mass stars. We also find that these features become prominent only after the time of maximum fallback rate, tpeak, and are observed to appear at earlier times for stars of increasing mass. This work provides a clear spectral method to help classify the transient events we observe at the centers of galaxies.

  4. Enhancing the rate of tidal disruptions of stars by a self-gravitating disc around a massive central black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šubr L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We further study the idea that a self-gravitating accretion disc around a supermassive black hole can increase the rate of gradual orbital decay of stellar trajectories (and hence tidal disruption events by setting some stars on eccentric trajectories. Cooperation between the gravitational field of the disc and the dissipative environment can provide a mechanism explaining the origin of stars that become bound tightly to the central black hole. We examine this process as a function of the black hole mass and conclude that it is most efficient for intermediate central masses of the order of ∼ 104Mʘ. Members of the cluster experience the stage of orbital decay via collisions with an accretion disc and by other dissipative processes, such as tidal effects, dynamical friction and the emission of gravitational waves. Our attention is concentrated on the region of gravitational dominance of the central body. Mutual interaction between stars and the surrounding environment establishes a non-spherical shape and anisotropy of the nuclear cluster. In some cases, the stellar sub-system acquires ring-type geometry. Stars of the nuclear cluster undergo a tidal disruption event as they plunge below the tidal radius of the supermassive black hole.

  5. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Frau, Pau [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3 E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Li, Hua-Bai [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Padovani, Marco [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bontemps, Sylvain [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Csengeri, Timea, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  6. Electromagnetic multipole fields of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    A formalism is developed for treating general multipole electromagnetic fields of neutron stars. The electric multipoles induced in a neutron star by its rotation with an arbitrary magnetic multipole at its center are presented. It is shown how to express a family of off-centered multipoles having the same l weight as an infinite array of centered multipoles of increasing l weight referred to the rotational axis. General expressions are given for the linear momentum present in the superposition of arbitrary multipole fields, and the results are combined to compute the radiation rate of linear momentum by an off-centered dipole to zeroth order in the parameter Omega x R/c. The general Deutsch (1955) solution is then rederived in a clear consistent manner, and some minor additions and corrections are provided.

  7. Neutron star in the presence of strong magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stars: neutron stars; magnetic fields; equation of state. PACS Nos 26.60.Kp; 52.35.Tc; 97.10.Cv. 1. Introduction. The central density of neutron stars (NS) exceeds the nuclear saturation density (n0 ∼. 0.15 fm. −3. ), thereby giving the idea that compact stars might contain deconfined and chirally restored quark matter in them.

  8. Star democracy in open string field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccaferri, Carlo [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA/ISAS), Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: maccafer@sissa.it; Mamone, Davide [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA/ISAS), Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2003-09-01

    We study three types of star products in Saft: the ghosts, the twisted ghosts and the matter. We find that their Neumann coefficients are related to each other in a compact way which includes the Gross-Jevicki relation between matter and ghost sector: we explicitly show that the same relation, with a minus sign, holds for the twisted and non-twisted ghosts (which are different but define the same solution). In agreement with this, we prove that matter and twisted ghost coefficients just differ by a minus sign. As a consistency check, we also compute the spectrum of the twisted ghost vertices from conformal field theory and, using equality of twisted and reduced slivers, we derive the spectrum of the non twisted ghost star. (author)

  9. TIDAL DISRUPTIONS IN CIRCUMBINARY DISKS. I. STAR FORMATION, DYNAMICS, AND BINARY EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Brem, Patrick [Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Cuadra, Jorge, E-mail: Pau.Amaro-Seoane@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: Patrick.Brem@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: jcuadra@astro.puc.cl [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, 782-0436 Santiago (Chile)

    2013-02-10

    In our current interpretation of the hierarchical structure of the universe, it is well established that galaxies collide and merge with each other during their lifetimes. If massive black holes (MBHs) reside in galactic centers, we expect them to form binaries in galactic nuclei surrounded by a circumbinary disk. If cooling is efficient enough, the gas in the disk will clump and trigger stellar formation in situ. In this first paper we address the evolution of the binary under the influence of the newly formed stars, which form individually and also clustered. We use smoothed particle hydrodynamics techniques to evolve the gas in the circumbinary disk and to study the phase of star formation. When the amount of gas in the disk is negligible, we further evolve the system with a high-accurate direct-summation N-body code to follow the evolution of the stars, the innermost binary and tidal disruption events (TDEs). For this, we modify the direct N-body code to include (1) treatment of TDEs and (2) 'gas cloud particles' that mimic the gas, so that the stellar clusters do not dissolve when we follow their infall on to the MBHs. We find that the amount of stars disrupted by either infalling stellar clusters or individual stars is as large as 10{sup -4} yr{sup -1} per binary, higher than expected for typical galaxies.

  10. Tikekar superdense stars in electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-04-01

    We present exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations with a specified form of the electric field intensity by assuming that the hypersurface {t=constant} are spheroidal. The solution of the Einstein-Maxwell system is reduced to a recurrence relation with variable rational coefficients which can be solved in general using mathematical induction. New classes of solutions of linearly independent functions are obtained by restricting the spheroidal parameter K and the electric field intensity parameter α. Consequently, it is possible to find exact solutions in terms of elementary functions, namely, polynomials and algebraic functions. Our result contains models found previously including the superdense Tikekar neutron star model [J. Math. Phys. 31, 2454 (1990)] when K=-7 and α=0. Our class of charged spheroidal models generalize the uncharged isotropic Maharaj and Leach solutions [J. Math. Phys. 37, 430 (1996)]. In particular, we find an explicit relationship directly relating the spheroidal parameter K to the electromagnetic field.

  11. Jetted tidal disruptions of stars as a flag of intermediate mass black holes at high redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-11-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) of stars by single or binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) brighten galactic nuclei and reveal a population of otherwise dormant black holes. Adopting event rates from the literature, we aim to establish general trends in the redshift evolution of the TDE number counts and their observable signals. We pay particular attention to (I) jetted TDEs whose luminosity is boosted by relativistic beaming and (II) TDEs around binary black holes. We show that the brightest (jetted) TDEs are expected to be produced by massive black hole binaries if the occupancy of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in low-mass galaxies is high. The same binary population will also provide gravitational wave sources for the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. In addition, we find that the shape of the X-ray luminosity function of TDEs strongly depends on the occupancy of IMBHs and could be used to constrain scenarios of SMBH formation. Finally, we make predictions for the expected number of TDEs observed by future X-ray telescopes finding that a 50 times more sensitive instrument than the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board the Swift satellite is expected to trigger ˜10 times more events than BAT, while 6-20 TDEs are expected in each deep field observed by a telescope 50 times more sensitive than the Chandra X-ray Observatory if the occupation fraction of IMBHs is high. Because of their long decay times, high-redshift TDEs can be mistaken for fixed point sources in deep field surveys and targeted observations of the same deep field with year-long intervals could reveal TDEs.

  12. Mapping the Tidal Destruction of the Hercules Dwarf: A Wide-field DECam Imaging Search for RR Lyrae Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garling, Christopher; Willman, Beth; Sand, David J.; Hargis, Jonathan; Crnojević, Denija; Bechtol, Keith; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Strader, Jay; Zou, Hu; Zhou, Xu; Nie, Jundan; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhou, Zhimin; Peng, Xiyan

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesized tidal disruption of the Hercules ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD). Previous tidal disruption studies of the Hercules UFD have been hindered by the high degree of foreground contamination in the direction of the dwarf. We bypass this issue by using RR Lyrae stars, which are standard candles with a very low field-volume density at the distance of Hercules. We use wide-field imaging from the Dark Energy Camera on CTIO to identify candidate RR Lyrae stars, supplemented with observations taken in coordination with the Beijing–Arizona Sky Survey on the Bok Telescope. Combining color, magnitude, and light-curve information, we identify three new RR Lyrae stars associated with Hercules. All three of these new RR Lyrae stars lie outside its published tidal radius. When considered with the nine RR Lyrae stars already known within the tidal radius, these results suggest that a substantial fraction of Hercules’ stellar content has been stripped. With this degree of tidal disruption, Hercules is an interesting case between a visibly disrupted dwarf (such as the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy) and one in dynamic equilibrium. The degree of disruption also shows that we must be more careful with the ways we determine object membership when estimating dwarf masses in the future. One of the three discovered RR Lyrae stars sits along the minor axis of Hercules, but over two tidal radii away. This type of debris is consistent with recent models that suggest Hercules’ orbit is aligned with its minor axis.

  13. Spectropolarimetry of Giant stars: Probing the influence of magnetic field on evolved stars Spectropolarimetry of Giant stars: Probing the influence of magnetic field on evolved stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Jefferson; Castro, Matthieu; Petit, Pascal; do Nascimento, José-Dias, Jr.

    2015-08-01

    It is know that lithium is element easily destroyed in stellar interior, the existence of lithium rich stars means a great challenge in stellar evolution. In this context our observations ravels the serendipitous discovery of an unusually high lithium abundance star. This is a K0III HD 150050, which has strong deepening on lithium line (6707.8 Å) this means lithium abundance of 2.81 0.2 dex, therefore this star belong a rare group called super Li-Rich stars. A possible source of the non-standard episodes required to produce Li-rich stars were identified in magneto-thermohaline mixing accounted by models of extra-mixing induced by magnetic buoyancy. However to better understand this is necessary more observational data. In last three decades several studies has showed that late type red giant stars presents a remarkable modifications in these outer atmosphere layers when they become late type star in HR diagram. These changes are founded through X-ray, Ultraviolet, and Chromospheric activity analyses, and then we can establish the called “Dividing lines”. We made spectropalarimetric observations with ESPaDOnS@CFHT to achieve two main objectives: analyze the influence of magnetic field in the Li-rich giant stars, and understand how works the magnetic field in late type giants and supergiants across the “dividing line”.

  14. Magnetic Fields in neutron stars : A theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reisenegger, A.; Prieto, J.; Benguria, R.; Lai, D.; Araya, P.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We present our view of the main physical ingredients determining the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields. This includes the basic properties of neutron star matter, possible scenarios for the origin of the magnetic field, constraints and mechanisms for its evolution, and a discussion

  15. Magnetic fields in non-convective regions of stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jonathan; Spruit, Henk C

    2017-02-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of magnetic fields inside stars, concentrating on recent developments concerning magnetic fields in stably stratified (zones of) stars, leaving out convective dynamo theories and observations of convective envelopes. We include the observational properties of A, B and O-type main-sequence stars, which have radiative envelopes, and the fossil field model which is normally invoked to explain the strong fields sometimes seen in these stars. Observations seem to show that Ap-type stable fields are excluded in stars with convective envelopes. Most stars contain both radiative and convective zones, and there are potentially important effects arising from the interaction of magnetic fields at the boundaries between them; the solar cycle being one of the better known examples. Related to this, we discuss whether the Sun could harbour a magnetic field in its core. Recent developments regarding the various convective and radiative layers near the surfaces of early-type stars and their observational effects are examined. We look at possible dynamo mechanisms that run on differential rotation rather than convection. Finally, we turn to neutron stars with a discussion of the possible origins for their magnetic fields.

  16. Tidal disruption rate of stars by supermassive black holes obtained by direct N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockamp, M.; Baumgardt, H.; Kroupa, P.

    2011-12-01

    The disruption rate of stars by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is calculated numerically with a modified version of Aarseth's NBODY6 code. Equal-mass systems without primordial binaries are treated. The initial stellar distribution around the SMBH follows a Sérsic n= 4 profile representing bulges of late-type galaxies as well of early-type galaxies without central light deficits, i.e. without cores. In order to infer relaxation-driven effects and to increase the statistical significance, a very large set of N-body integrations with different particle numbers N, ranging from 103 to 0.5 × 106 particles, is performed. Three different black hole capture radii are taken into account, enabling us to scale these results to a broad range of astrophysical systems with relaxation times shorter than one Hubble time, i.e. for SMBHs up to M•≈ 107 M⊙. The computed number of disrupted stars is driven by diffusion in angular momentum space into the loss cone of the black hole and the rate scales with the total number of particles as (dN/dt) ∝Nb, where b is as large as 0.83. This is significantly steeper than the expected scaling (d N/dt) ∝ ln (N) derived from simplest energy relaxation arguments. Only a relatively modest dependence of the tidal disruption rate on the mass of the SMBH is found and we discuss our results in the context of the M•-σ relation. The number of disrupted stars contributes a significant part to the mass growth of black holes in the lower mass range as long as a significant part of the stellar mass becomes swallowed by the SMBH. This also bears direct consequences for the search and existence of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. For SMBHs similar to the galactic centre black hole Sgr A★, a tidal disruption rate of 55 ± 27 events Myr-1 is deduced. Finally relaxation-driven stellar feeding cannot account for the masses of massive black holes M•≥ 107 M⊙ in complete agreement with conventional gas accretion and

  17. Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    neutron star (see Sauls 1989 for a review). The rotation of the neutron star causes vortices in the neutron superfluid co-existing with the proton superconductor. Pin- ning and electromagnetic interaction are expected to exist between the neutron vor- tices and proton fluxoids, causing the fluxoids to be dragged out to the crust ...

  18. Tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes: The X-ray view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komossa S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes produces luminous soft X-ray accretion flares in otherwise inactive galaxies. First events have been discovered in X-rays with the ROSAT observatory, and have more recently been detected with XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift, and at other wavelengths. In X-rays, they typically appear as very soft, exceptionally luminous outbursts of radiation, which decline consistent with L ∝ t−5/3 on the timescale of months to years. They reach total amplitudes of decline up to factors 1000–6000 more than a decade after their initial high-states, and in low-state, their host galaxies are essentially X-ray inactive, optically inactive, and radio inactive. X-ray luminous tidal disruption events (TDEs represent a powerful new probe of accretion physics near the event horizon, and of relativistic effects. TDEs offer a new way of estimating black hole spin, and they are signposts of supermassive binary black holes and recoiling black holes. Once discovered in the thousands in upcoming sky surveys, their rates will probe stellar dynamics in distant galaxies, and they will uncover the – so far elusive – population of intermediate mass black holes in the universe, if they do exist. Further, the reprocessing of the flare into IR, optical and UV emission lines provides us with multiple new diagnostics of the properties of any gaseous material in the vicinity of the black hole (including the disrupted star itself and in the host galaxy. First candidate events of this kind have been reported recently.

  19. On the Disruption of Star Clusters in a Hierarchical Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Hunter, Deidre A.

    2010-03-01

    The distribution of the number of clusters as a function of mass M and age T suggests that clusters get eroded or dispersed in a regular way over time, such that the cluster number decreases inversely as an approximate power law with T within each fixed interval of M. This power law is inconsistent with standard dispersal mechanisms such as cluster evaporation and cloud collisions. In the conventional interpretation, it requires the unlikely situation where diverse mechanisms stitch together over time in a way that is independent of environment or M. Here, we consider another model in which the large-scale distribution of gas in each star-forming region plays an important role. We note that star clusters form with positional and temporal correlations in giant cloud complexes, and suggest that these complexes dominate the tidal force and collisional influence on a cluster during its first several hundred million years. Because the cloud complex density decreases regularly with position from the cluster birth site, the harassment and collision rates between the cluster and the cloud pieces decrease regularly with age as the cluster drifts. This decrease is typically a power law of the form required to explain the mass-age distribution. We reproduce this distribution for a variety of cases, including rapid disruption, slow erosion, combinations of these two, cluster-cloud collisions, cluster disruption by hierarchical disassembly, and partial cluster disruption. We also consider apparent cluster mass loss by fading below the surface brightness limit of a survey. In all cases, the observed log M-log T diagram can be reproduced under reasonable assumptions.

  20. ON THE DISRUPTION OF STAR CLUSTERS IN A HIERARCHICAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Hunter, Deidre A.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of the number of clusters as a function of mass M and age T suggests that clusters get eroded or dispersed in a regular way over time, such that the cluster number decreases inversely as an approximate power law with T within each fixed interval of M. This power law is inconsistent with standard dispersal mechanisms such as cluster evaporation and cloud collisions. In the conventional interpretation, it requires the unlikely situation where diverse mechanisms stitch together over time in a way that is independent of environment or M. Here, we consider another model in which the large-scale distribution of gas in each star-forming region plays an important role. We note that star clusters form with positional and temporal correlations in giant cloud complexes, and suggest that these complexes dominate the tidal force and collisional influence on a cluster during its first several hundred million years. Because the cloud complex density decreases regularly with position from the cluster birth site, the harassment and collision rates between the cluster and the cloud pieces decrease regularly with age as the cluster drifts. This decrease is typically a power law of the form required to explain the mass-age distribution. We reproduce this distribution for a variety of cases, including rapid disruption, slow erosion, combinations of these two, cluster-cloud collisions, cluster disruption by hierarchical disassembly, and partial cluster disruption. We also consider apparent cluster mass loss by fading below the surface brightness limit of a survey. In all cases, the observed log M-log T diagram can be reproduced under reasonable assumptions.

  1. Surface structure of quark stars with magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the formation of quark stars, with particular attention to the attractive quark-nova scenario which may be connected to r-process nucleosynthesis. 2. Degenerate electron gas in a strong magnetic field. Recently, a few authors [21] pointed out that the deficit of (massive) strange quarks due to surface effects on the star can lead ...

  2. Disruption of magnetospheric current sheet by quasi-electrostatic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Liu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent observational evidence has indicated that local current sheet disruptions are excited by an external perturbation likely associated with the kinetic ballooning (KB instability initiating at the transition region separating the dipole- and tail-like geometries. Specifically a quasi-electrostatic field pointing to the neutral sheet was identified in the interval between the arrival of KB perturbation and local current disruption. How can such a field drive the local current sheet unstable? This question is considered through a fluid treatment of thin current sheet (TCS where the generalized Ohm's law replaces the frozen-in-flux condition. A perturbation with the wavevector along the current is applied, and eigenmodes with frequency much below the ion gyrofrequency are sought. We show that the second-order derivative of ion drift velocity along the thickness of the current sheet is a critical stability parameter. In an E-field-free Harris sheet in which the drift velocity is constant, the current sheet is stable against this particular mode. As the electrostatic field grows, however, potential for instability arises. The threshold of instability is identified through an approximate analysis of the theory. For a nominal current sheet half-thickness of 1000 km, the estimated instability threshold is E~4 mV/m. Numerical solutions indicate that the two-fluid theory gives growth rate and wave period consistent with observations.

  3. SOFT X-RAY TEMPERATURE TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS FROM STARS ON DEEP PLUNGING ORBITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Lixin; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Miller, M. Coleman, E-mail: cosimo@umd.edu [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    One of the puzzles associated with tidal disruption event candidates (TDEs) is that there is a dichotomy between the color temperatures of a few × 10{sup 4} K for TDEs discovered with optical and UV telescopes and the color temperatures of a few × 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6} K for TDEs discovered with X-ray satellites. Here, we propose that high-temperature TDEs are produced when the tidal debris of a disrupted star self-intersects relatively close to the supermassive black hole, in contrast to the more distant self-intersection that leads to lower color temperatures. In particular, we note from simple ballistic considerations that greater apsidal precession in an orbit is the key to closer self-intersection. Thus, larger values of β, the ratio of the tidal radius to the pericenter distance of the initial orbit, are more likely to lead to higher temperatures of more compact disks that are super-Eddington and geometrically and optically thick. For a given star and β, apsidal precession also increases for larger black hole masses, but larger black hole masses imply a lower temperature at the Eddington luminosity. Thus, the expected dependence of the temperature on the mass of the black hole is non-monotonic. We find that in order to produce a soft X-ray temperature TDE, a deep plunging stellar orbit with β > 3 is needed and a black hole mass of ≲5 × 10{sup 6}M{sub ⊙} is favored. Although observations of TDEs are comparatively scarce and are likely dominated by selection effects, it is encouraging that both expectations are consistent with current data.

  4. Disruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray......This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray...

  5. The evolution of magnetic fields in hot stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksala, Mary E.; Neiner, Coralie; Georgy, Cyril; Przybilla, Norbert; Keszthelyi, Zsolt; Wade, Gregg; Mathis, Stéphane; Blazère, Aurore; Buysschaert, Bram

    2017-11-01

    Over the last decade, tremendous strides have been achieved in our understanding of magnetism in main sequence hot stars. In particular, the statistical occurrence of their surface magnetism has been established (~10%) and the field origin is now understood to be fossil. However, fundamental questions remain: how do these fossil fields evolve during the post-main sequence phases, and how do they influence the evolution of hot stars from the main sequence to their ultimate demise? Filling the void of known magnetic evolved hot (OBA) stars, studying the evolution of their fossil magnetic fields along stellar evolution, and understanding the impact of these fields on the angular momentum, rotation, mass loss, and evolution of the star itself, is crucial to answering these questions, with far reaching consequences, in particular for the properties of the precursors of supernovae explosions and stellar remnants. In the framework of the BRITE spectropolarimetric survey and LIFE project, we have discovered the first few magnetic hot supergiants. Their longitudinal surface magnetic field is very weak but their configuration resembles those of main sequence hot stars. We present these first observational results and propose to interpret them at first order in the context of magnetic flux conservation as the radius of the star expands with evolution. We then also consider the possible impact of stellar structure changes along evolution.

  6. Disruption of a red giant star by a supermassive black hole and the case of PS1-10jh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanović, Tamara; Cheng, Roseanne M.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2014-01-01

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of an RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core toward the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of the tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh, we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the SMBH before the helium core is disrupted. This places the RG core in a portion of parameter space where strong tidal heating can lift the degeneracy of the compact remnant and disrupt it before it reaches the tidal radius. We consider how this sequence of events explains the puzzling absence of the hydrogen emission lines from the spectrum of PS1-10jh and gives rise to its other observational features.

  7. Magnetic fields driven by tidal mixing in radiative stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jérémie; Cébron, David; Schaeffer, Nathanaël; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2018-04-01

    Stellar magnetism plays an important role in stellar evolution theory. Approximatively 10 per cent of observed main sequence (MS) and pre-main-sequence (PMS) radiative stars exhibit surface magnetic fields above the detection limit, raising the question of their origin. These stars host outer radiative envelopes, which are stably stratified. Therefore, they are assumed to be motionless in standard models of stellar structure and evolution. We focus on rapidly rotating, radiative stars which may be prone to the tidal instability, due to an orbital companion. Using direct numerical simulations in a sphere, we study the interplay between a stable stratification and the tidal instability, and assess its dynamo capability. We show that the tidal instability is triggered regardless of the strength of the stratification (Brunt-Väisälä frequency). Furthermore, the tidal instability can lead to both mixing and self-induced magnetic fields in stably stratified layers (provided that the Brunt-Väisälä frequency does not exceed the stellar spin rate in the simulations too much). The application to stars suggests that the resulting magnetic fields could be observable at the stellar surfaces. Indeed, we expect magnetic field strengths up to several Gauss. Consequently, tidally driven dynamos should be considered as a (complementary) dynamo mechanism, possibly operating in radiative MS and PMS stars hosting orbital companions. In particular, tidally driven dynamos may explain the observed magnetism of tidally deformed and rapidly rotating Vega-like stars.

  8. Period Changes of 23 Field RR Lyrae Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Chang Rey

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The secular period behavior of 23 field RR Lyrae stars is studied in order to determine if the observed period changes could be attributed, at least in the mean, to stellar evolution. The sample of stars is subdivided into two Oosterhoff groups based on the metallicity and period-shift. Despite the small sample size, we found a distinct bias toward positive period changes in the group variables. The period changes of the group variables in globular clusters. This provides yet another support for the Lee, Demarque, and Zinn(1990 evolutionary models of RR Lyrae stars and their explanation of the Sandage period-shift effect.

  9. Magnetic fields of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubrig S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the status of our spectropolarimetric studies of Herbig Ae/Be stars carried out during the last years. The magnetic field geometries of these stars, investigated with spectropolarimetric time series, can likely be described by centred dipoles with polar magnetic field strengths of several hundred Gauss. A number of Herbig Ae/Be stars with detected magnetic fields have recently been observed with X-shooter in the visible and the near-IR, as well as with the high-resolution near-IR spectrograph CRIRES. These observations are of great importance to understand the relation between the magnetic field topology and the physics of the accretion flow and the accretion disk gas emission.

  10. Magnetic fields of weak line T-Tauri stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Colin A.; MaTYSSE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    T-Tauri stars (TTS) are late-type pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars that are gravitationally contracting towards the MS. Those that possess a massive accretion disc are known as classical T-Tauri stars (cTTSs), and those that have exhausted the gas in their inner discs are known as weak-line T-Tauri stars (wTTSs). Magnetic fields largely dictate the angular momentum evolution of TTS and can affect the formation and migration of planets. Thus, characterizing their magnetic fields is critical for testing and developing stellar dynamo models, and trialling scenarios currently invoked to explain low-mass star and planet formation. The MaTYSSE programme (Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of close-in Exoplanets) aims to determine the magnetic topologies of ~30 wTTSs and monitor the long-term topology variability of ~5 cTTSs. We present several wTTSs that have been magnetically mapped thus far (using Zeeman Doppler Imaging), where we find a much wider range of field topologies compared to cTTSs and MS dwarfs with similar internal structures.

  11. Binary systems, star clusters and the Galactic-field population. Applied stellar dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupa, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    This book contains the results of recent theoretical work on the evolution of primordial binary systems in young star clusters, their effect on the evolution of their host clusters, implications for the distribution of young stars in the Milky Way, and the formation of bound star clusters. This work shows that if the Galactic-field binary population is a dynamically evolved version of the Taurus-Auriga pre-main sequence population, then most stars form in clusters with typically a few hundred binaries within a radius of about 0.5-1 pc. The results also suggest that the population I primordial binary-star orbital-parameter distribution functions may be universal, much like the initial mass function. Most solar-like planetary systems can survive in such clusters. The work presented here also establishes that most observed triple and quadruple systems must be primordial, but that α Cen A/B-Proxima Cen-like systems can form in clusters through dynamical capture. Precise N-body calculations using Aarseth's N-body codes of clusters containing up to 104 stars are used to create an extensive young-cluster library. These data demonstrate that the primordial binary systems are disrupted on a crossing-time scale, and that the truncation of the surviving period distribution measures the maximum concentration the cluster ever experienced. The N-body calculations demonstrate that Galactic star clusters form readily as nuclei of expanding OB associations despite a star-formation efficiency of typically 30 per cent and gas-expulsion over a time-span shorter than the cluster crossing time.

  12. Surface structure of quark stars with magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the impact of magnetic fields on the electron distribution of the electrosphere of quark stars. For moderately strong magnetic fields of ∼ 1013 G, quantization effects are generally weak due to the large number density of electrons at surface, but can nevertheless affect the photon emission properties of quark ...

  13. Radial oscillations of neutron stars in strong magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The eigen frequencies of radial pulsations of neutron stars are calculated in a strong magnetic field. At low densities we use the magnetic BPS equation of state (EOS) similar to that obtained by Lai and Shapiro while at high densities the EOS obtained from the relativistic nuclear mean field theory is taken and ...

  14. Evolution of a massive binary in a star field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The orbital evolution of a massive binary system interacting with a background field of single stars whose phase density is homogeneous in configuration space is considered. The velocity distribution is assumed isotropic up to some limiting value, and a typical field star is regarded as having a velocity much higher than the orbital speed of the pair components. An expression is derived for the transfer of energy from the binary to the field stars. The time evolution of the orbit parameters a, e is established, and the evolution rate is estimated for Kardashev's (1983) model galactic nucleus containing a central black-hole binary. On the above assumptions the components should become twice as close together within only a few tens of millennia, although the picture may change fundamentally if the nucleus is rotating. 13 references

  15. WASP-121 b: a hot Jupiter close to tidal disruption transiting an active F star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrez, L.; Santerne, A.; Almenara, J.-M.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Díaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey of WASP-121 b, a new remarkable short-period transiting hot Jupiter. The planet has a mass of 1.183_{-0.062}^{+0.064} MJup, a radius of 1.865 ± 0.044 RJup, and transits every 1.274 9255_{-0.000 0025}^{+0.000 0020} days an active F6-type main-sequence star (V = 10.4, 1.353_{-0.079}^{+0.080} M⊙, 1.458 ± 0.030 R⊙, Teff = 6460 ± 140 K). A notable property of WASP-121 b is that its orbital semimajor axis is only ˜1.15 times larger than its Roche limit, which suggests that the planet is close to tidal disruption. Furthermore, its large size and extreme irradiation (˜7.1 109 erg s-1 cm-2) make it an excellent target for atmospheric studies via secondary eclipse observations. Using the TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope, we indeed detect its emission in the z'-band at better than ˜4σ, the measured occultation depth being 603 ± 130 ppm. Finally, from a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect with the CORALIE spectrograph, we infer a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of 257.8°_{-5.5°}^{+5.3°}. This result may suggest a significant misalignment between the spin axis of the host star and the orbital plane of the planet. If confirmed, this high misalignment would favour a migration of the planet involving strong dynamical events with a third body.

  16. Effects of magnetic field topology in black hole-neutron star mergers: Long-term simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mew-Bing

    2017-05-01

    We report long-term simulations of black hole-neutron star binary mergers where the neutron star possesses an asymmetric magnetic field dipole. Focusing on the scenario where the neutron star is tidally disrupted by the black hole, we track the evolution of the binary up to ≈100 ms after the merger. We uncover more than one episode of thermally driven winds being launched along a funnel wall in all these cases beginning from ≈25 ms after the merger. On the other hand, we are unable to conclude presently whether the amount of ejected mass increases with the degree of asymmetry. A large-scale magnetic field configuration in the poloidal direction is formed along the funnel wall accompanied by the generation of a large Poynting flux. The magnetic field in the accretion disk around the black hole remnant is amplified by both magnetic winding and the nonaxisymmetric magnetorotational instability (MRI). The MRI growth is estimated to be in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) regime and thus would be free from significant effects induced by potential neutrino radiation. However, the asymmetry in the magnetic field leads to increased turbulence, which causes the vertical magnetic field in the accretion disk to grow largely in a nonlinear manner.

  17. Variable stars in the field of open cluster NGC 2126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shunfang; Wu Zhenyu; Zhang Xiaobin; Wu Jianghua; Ma Jun; Jiang Zhaoji; Chen Jiansheng; Zhou Xu

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a time-series CCD photometric survey of variable stars in the field of open cluster NGC 2126. In about a one square degree field covering the cluster, a total of 21 variable candidates are detected during this survey, of which 16 are newly found. The periods, classifications and spectral types of 14 newly discovered variables are discussed, which consist of six eclipsing binary systems, three pulsating variable stars, three long period variables, one RS CVn star, and one W UMa or δ Scuti star. In addition, there are two variable candidates, the properties of which cannot be determined. By a method based on fitting observed spectral energy distributions of stars with theoretical ones, the membership probabilities and the fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined. As a result, five variables are probably members of NGC 2126. The fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined as: metallicity to be 0.008 Z o-dot , age log(t) = 8.95, distance modulus (m - M) 0 = 10.34 and reddening value E (B - V) = 0.55 mag.

  18. A disruptive approach for a green field smart grid installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishnoi, Peeush [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore (India); Klein, Wolfram; Kuntschke, Richard; Speh, Rainer; Waszak, Michal-Wolfgang [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The current trend towards increasingly decentralized power generation including renewable generation such as photovoltaic or wind power calls for a new concept for future power supply systems. The future power grid has to incorporate numerous distributed and comparatively small-sized generation facilities in addition to the larger centralized power plants currently in operation. Consumers will turn into prosumers that consume as well as produce electrical power. Thus, power will no longer flow exclusively from power plants to consumers such as households and industrial plants, but also between consumers, requiring new solutions, e.g., for protection within the power grid. In this paper, we propose a disruptive approach for a green field smart grid installation solving the issues arising from the increasing use of decentralized power generation. The new power supply system proposed can handle up to 100 % of volatile renewable generation and allows dynamic growth of the power grid with little effort. It is therefore suitable for building up new power supply systems in previously non-electrified regions, e.g., in rural areas in developing countries. At the same time, the system also offers solutions for the issues arising from the advent of the new energy age in developed countries. (orig.)

  19. Metal-Rich SX Phe Stars in the Kepler Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec James M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution spectroscopic observations have been made for 32 of the 34 candidate SX Phe stars identified in the Kepler field by Balona & Nemec (2012. All available long-and short-cadence Q0-Q17 Kepler photometry has been analyzed for the 34 candidates. Radial velocities (RVs, space motions (U, V, W, projected rotation velocities (υ sin i, spectral types, and atmospheric characteristics (Teff, log g, [M/H], υmic, etc. were derived from ~ 160 spectra taken with the ESPaDOnS spectrograph on the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6-m telescope and with the ARCES spectrograph on the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. Two thirds of the stars are fast rotators with υ sin i > 50 km/s, including four stars with υ sin i > 200 km/s. Three of the stars have (negative RVs > 250 km/s and retrograde space motions, and seven stars have total space motions > 400 km/s. All the spectroscopically measured SX Phe candidates have positions in a Toomre diagram that are consistent with being bona fide halo and thick-disk stars. Although several stars show a marked metal weakness, the mean [Fe/H] of the sample is near 0.0 dex (σ ~ 0.25 dex, which is considerably more metal-rich than is normally expected for a sample of Pop. II stars. Observed pulsation frequency modulations and optical time delays suggest that at least eight of the SX Phe stars are in binary systems, some of which show significant RV variations. Six of the time-delay binaries have secondary masses ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 M☉ and orbital periods in the range 9 to 1570 days. Another star appears to be an ellipsoidal variable with a 2.3-day orbital period; and two other systems have orbital periods longer than the ~ 4-year sampling interval of the Kepler data.

  20. Chemical Compositions of Field Red Horizontal Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Melike; Sneden, C.; For, B.

    2011-01-01

    Field Red Horizontal Branch stars (RHBs) are alleged to be members of the thick disk of our Galaxy and are an important evolutionary link between horizontal and asymptotic giant branch evolution. They are easy to identify in globular clusters through their color-magnitude diagram positions. However, they are harder to identify as single stars in the general field; thus they have received lesser attention to date. In this study, we composed a large catalog of RHB candidates and performed the first large-sample high-resolution spectroscopic survey of these stars. We have obtained high resolution spectra of a number of candidate field RHBs. The high resolution spectra of these stars were taken with the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith Telescope and Tull 2Dcoude (R=60000) spectrometer at McDonald Observatory. We have derived the metallicities and relative abundance ratios for some of the alpha (Ca and Si) and neutron capture (La and Eu) elements along with the fundamental stellar parameters. We have also determined CNO abundances in order to gain insight into the evolutionary states of the candidates. In particular, we have investigated the 12C/13C ratio using the CN features present in the 8000-8040 A region, which we have also used to obtain the N abundances of the candidates. Plausible RHB stars, members of the thick disk, found in our study, can shed light into Galactic evolutionary models. This project has benefitted from the financial support of NSF (AST-0908978), the Rex G. Baker endowment to the University of Texas Astronomy Dept., and The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK).

  1. Tiny Stars, Strong Fields: Exploring the Origin of Intense Magnetism in M Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomre, Juri

    The M-type stars are becoming dominant targets in searches for Earth-like planets that could occupy their habitable zones. The low masses and luminosities of M-dwarf central stars make them very attractive for such exoplanetary hunts. The habitable zone of M dwarfs is close to the star due to their low luminosity. Thus possibly habitable planets will have short orbital periods, making their detection feasible both with the transit method (used by Kepler, K2 and soon with TESS) and with the radial velocity approaches. Yet habitability on a planet likely requires both solid surfaces and atmospheres, but also a favorable radiation environment. It is here that the M-dwarf central stars raise major theoretical puzzles, for many of them exhibit remarkably intense and frequent flaring, despite their modest intrinsic luminosities. The super-flares release their energy both in white light and in X-rays, and can be thousands of times brighter than the strongest solar flares. Such striking events must have magnetic origins, likely from fields built by convective dynamos operating in their interiors. Further, recent observations suggest that the surface of some M stars is carpeted with magnetic fields of 3 kG or more. Such field strengths are reminiscent of a sunspot, but here instead cover much of the stellar surface. With M stars now taking center stage in the search for Earthlike planets, it is crucial to begin to understand how convective dynamos may be able to build intense magnetic fields involved with super-flares and vast star spots, and how they depend upon the mass and rotation rate of these stars. We propose to use major 3-D MHD simulations with our Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code to study the coupling of turbulent convection, rotation, and magnetism within full spherical domains such as the interior of an M dwarf. This permits the exploration of the magnetic dynamos that must be responsible for the evolving magnetism and intense activity of many M dwarfs

  2. Stability of magnetic fields in non-barotropic stars: an analytic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Akgün, Taner; Reisenegger, Andreas; Mastrano, Alpha; Marchant, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields in upper main-sequence stars, white dwarfs, and neutron stars are known to persist for timescales comparable to their lifetimes. From a theoretical perspective this is problematic, as it can be shown that simple magnetic field configurations are always unstable. In non-barotropic stars, stable stratification allows for a much wider range of magnetic field structures than in barotropic stars, and helps stabilize them by making it harder to induce radial displacements. Recent si...

  3. PS1-10jh CONTINUES TO FOLLOW THE FALLBACK ACCRETION RATE OF A TIDALLY DISRUPTED STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gezari, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Chornock, R. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 251B Clippinger Lab, Ohio University Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Lawrence, A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jones, D. O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Berger, E.; Challis, P. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Narayan, G., E-mail: suvi@astro.umd.edu [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We present late-time observations of the tidal disruption event candidate PS1-10jh. UV and optical imaging with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 localize the transient to be coincident with the host galaxy nucleus to an accuracy of 0.023 arcsec, corresponding to 66 pc. The UV flux in the F225W filter, measured 3.35 rest-frame years after the peak of the nuclear flare, is consistent with a decline that continues to follow a t{sup −5/3} power-law with no spectral evolution. Late epochs of optical spectroscopy obtained with MMT ∼ 2 and 4 years after the peak, enable a clean subtraction of the host galaxy from the early spectra, revealing broad helium emission lines on top of a hot continuum, and placing stringent upper limits on the presence of hydrogen line emission. We do not measure Balmer Hδ absorption in the host galaxy that is strong enough to be indicative of a rare, post-starburst “E+A” galaxy as reported by Arcavi et al. The light curve of PS1-10jh over a baseline of 3.5 years is best modeled by fallback accretion of a tidally disrupted star. Its strong broad helium emission relative to hydrogen (He iiλ4686/Hα > 5) could be indicative of either the hydrogen-poor chemical composition of the disrupted star, or certain conditions in the tidal debris of a solar-composition star in the presence of an optically thick, extended reprocessing envelope.

  4. A 200-Second Quasi-Periodicity After the Tidal Disruption of a Star by a Dormant Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R. C.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.; Gueltkinm K.; Maitra, D.; King, A. L.; Strohmayer, T.

    2012-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are known to exist at the center of most galaxies with sufficient stellar mass, In the local Universe, it is possible to infer their properties from the surrounding stars or gas. However, at high redshifts we require active, continuous accretion to infer the presence of the SMBHs, often coming in the form of long term accretion in active galactic nuclei. SMBHs can also capture and tidally disrupt stars orbiting nearby, resulting in bright flares from otherwise quiescent black holes. Here, we report on a approx.200-s X-ray quasi-periodicity around a previously dormant SMBH located in the center of a galaxy at redshift z = 0.3534. This result may open the possibility of probing general relativity beyond our local Universe.

  5. Relativistic motion of particle in photogravitational field of star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubko, O.L.

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic motion of particle in photogravitational field of star has been considered at different levels. It is shown that taking into account direct light pressure, elliptical orbit of the particle increases in sizes. Taking into account longitudinal Doppler effect and aberration of light leads to the motion of the particle by decreasing in size ellipse, which also has decreasing and eccentricity. Taking into account forces proportional to v 1 2 /c 2 leads to a faster reduction of the ellipse and its eccentricity. (authors)

  6. Magnetic fields in mixed neutron-star-plus-wormhole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aringazin, Ascar; Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    We consider mixed configurations consisting of a wormhole filled by a strongly magnetized isotropic or anisotropic neutron fluid. The nontrivial topology of the spacetime is allowed by the presence of exotic matter. By comparing these configurations with ordinary magnetized neutron stars, we clarify the question of how the presence of the nontrivial topology influences the magnetic field distribution inside the fluid. In the case of an anisotropic fluid, we find new solutions describing configurations, where the maximum of the fluid density is shifted from the center. A linear stability analysis shows that these mixed configurations are unstable

  7. Magnetic fields in mixed neutron-star-plus-wormhole systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringazin, Ascar [Institute for Basic Research, Eurasian National University, 5, Munaitpasov Street, Astana, 010008 (Kazakhstan); Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta, E-mail: aringazin@gmail.com, E-mail: v.dzhunushaliev@gmail.com, E-mail: vfolomeev@mail.ru, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de, E-mail: jutta.kunz@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, 114-118, Ammerländer Heerstraße, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We consider mixed configurations consisting of a wormhole filled by a strongly magnetized isotropic or anisotropic neutron fluid. The nontrivial topology of the spacetime is allowed by the presence of exotic matter. By comparing these configurations with ordinary magnetized neutron stars, we clarify the question of how the presence of the nontrivial topology influences the magnetic field distribution inside the fluid. In the case of an anisotropic fluid, we find new solutions describing configurations, where the maximum of the fluid density is shifted from the center. A linear stability analysis shows that these mixed configurations are unstable.

  8. Ionizing feedback from massive stars in massive clusters - III. Disruption of partially unbound clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, J. E.; Ercolano, B.; Bonnell, I. A.

    2013-03-01

    We extend our previous smoothed particle hydrodynamics parameter study of the effects of photoionization from O-stars on star-forming clouds to include initially unbound clouds. We generate a set of model clouds in the mass range 104-106 M⊙ with initial virial ratios Ekin/Epot = 2.3, allow them to form stars and study the impact of the photoionizing radiation produced by the massive stars. We find that, on the 3 Myr time-scale before supernovae are expected to begin detonating, the fraction of mass expelled by ionizing feedback is a very strong function of the cloud escape velocities. High-mass clouds are largely unaffected dynamically, while low-mass clouds have large fractions of their gas reserves expelled on this time-scale. However, the fractions of stellar mass unbound are modest and significant portions of the unbound stars are so only because the clouds themselves are initially partially unbound. We find that ionization is much more able to create well-cleared bubbles in the unbound clouds, owing to their intrinsic expansion, but that the presence of such bubbles does not necessarily indicate that a given cloud has been strongly influenced by feedback. We also find, in common with the bound clouds from our earlier work, that many of the systems simulated here are highly porous to photons and supernova ejecta, and that most of them will likely survive their first supernova explosions.

  9. Neutron star in the presence of strong magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Compact stars such as neutron stars (NS) can have either hadronic or exotic states like strange quark or colour superconducting matter. Stars can also have a quark core surrounded by hadronic matter, known as hybrid stars (HS). The HS is likely to have a mixed phase in between the hadron and the quark phases ...

  10. Neutron star in the presence of strong magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-22

    Apr 22, 2014 ... Compact stars such as neutron stars (NS) can have either hadronic or exotic states like strange quark or colour superconducting matter. Stars can also have a quark core surrounded by hadronic matter, known as hybrid stars (HS). The HS is likely to have a mixed phase in between the hadron and the quark ...

  11. Flows of X-ray gas reveal the disruption of a star by a massive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon M; Kaastra, Jelle S; Miller, M Coleman; Reynolds, Mark T; Brown, Gregory; Cenko, S Bradley; Drake, Jeremy J; Gezari, Suvi; Guillochon, James; Gultekin, Kayhan; Irwin, Jimmy; Levan, Andrew; Maitra, Dipankar; Maksym, W Peter; Mushotzky, Richard; O'Brien, Paul; Paerels, Frits; de Plaa, Jelle; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Strohmayer, Tod; Tanvir, Nial

    2015-10-22

    Tidal forces close to massive black holes can violently disrupt stars that make a close approach. These extreme events are discovered via bright X-ray and optical/ultraviolet flares in galactic centres. Prior studies based on modelling decaying flux trends have been able to estimate broad properties, such as the mass accretion rate. Here we report the detection of flows of hot, ionized gas in high-resolution X-ray spectra of a nearby tidal disruption event, ASASSN-14li in the galaxy PGC 043234. Variability within the absorption-dominated spectra indicates that the gas is relatively close to the black hole. Narrow linewidths indicate that the gas does not stretch over a large range of radii, giving a low volume filling factor. Modest outflow speeds of a few hundred kilometres per second are observed; these are below the escape speed from the radius set by variability. The gas flow is consistent with a rotating wind from the inner, super-Eddington region of a nascent accretion disk, or with a filament of disrupted stellar gas near to the apocentre of an elliptical orbit. Flows of this sort are predicted by fundamental analytical theory and more recent numerical simulations.

  12. Magnetic field of massive chemically peculiar stars in the Orion OB1 association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Yakunin, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of 55 chemically peculiar stars in the Orion OB1 association were obtained at the 6 m telescope of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the aim of searching for the presence of stellar magnetic fields. We found 8 new magnetic stars in addition to 20 previously known objects. The frequency of chemically peculiar A and B-type stars among normal A and B-type stars and the frequency of magnetic stars among all chemically peculiar stars decreases with age in the Orion OB1 association.

  13. Discovery of the magnetic field in the pulsating B star β Cephei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; de Jong, J.A.; Verdugo, E.; Schnerr, R.S.; Neiner, C.; Donati, J.-F.; Catala, C.; Shorlin, S.L.S.; Wade, G.A.; Veen, P.M.; Nichols, J.S.; Damen, E.M.F.; Talavera, A.; Hill, G.M.; Kaper, L.; Tijani, A.M.; Geers, V.C.; Wiersema, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Rygl, K.L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Although the star itself is not helium enriched, the periodicity and the variability in the UV wind lines of the pulsating B1 IV star β Cephei are similar to what is observed in magnetic helium-peculiar B stars, suggesting that β Cep is magnetic. Aims. We searched for a magnetic field using

  14. Neutron Star Structure in the Presence of Conformally Coupled Scalar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Joseph; Bose, Benjamin; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-01

    Neutron star models are studied in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, using two different numerical equations of state (EoS) representing different degrees of stiffness. In both cases we obtain a complete solution by matching the interior numerical solution of the coupled Einstein-scalar field hydrostatic equations, with an exact metric on the surface of the star. These are then used to find the effect of the scalar field and its coupling to geometry, on the neutron star structure, particularly the maximum neutron star mass and radius. We show that in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, neutron stars are less dense and have smaller masses and radii than their counterparts in the minimally coupled case, and the effect increases with the magnitude of the scalar field at the center of the star.

  15. Magnetic stars with wide depressions in the continuum. 2. The silicon star with a complex field structure HD 27404

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenko, E. A.; Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenova, E. S.; Moiseeva, A. V.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Yakunin, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    Observations of the chemically peculiar star HD 27404 with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope showed a strong magnetic field with the longitudinal field component varying in a complicated way in the range of -2.5 to 1 kG. Fundamental parameters of the star ( T eff = 11 300 K, log g = 3.9) were estimated analyzing photometric indices in the Geneva and in the Stro¨ mgren-Crawford photometric systems. We detected weak radial velocity variations which can be due to the presence of a close star companion or chemical spots in the photosphere. Rapid estimation of the key chemical element abundance allows us to refer HD 27404 to a SiCr or Si+ chemically peculiar A0-B9 star.

  16. StarHorse: A Bayesian tool for determining stellar masses, ages, distances, and extinctions for field stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, A. B. A.; Anders, F.; Santiago, B. X.; Chiappini, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Ponte, M.; Stassun, K. G.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Crestani, J.; Beers, T. C.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Zamora, O.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of our Galaxy requires accurate distances, ages and chemistry for large populations of field stars. Here we present several updates to our spectro-photometric distance code, that can now also be used to estimate ages, masses, and extinctions for individual stars. Given a set of measured spectro-photometric parameters, we calculate the posterior probability distribution over a given grid of stellar evolutionary models, using flexible Galactic stellar-population priors. The code (called StarHorse) can acommodate different observational datasets, prior options, partially missing data, and the inclusion of parallax information into the estimated probabilities. We validate the code using a variety of simulated stars as well as real stars with parameters determined from asteroseismology, eclipsing binaries, and isochrone fits to star clusters. Our main goal in this validation process is to test the applicability of the code to field stars with known Gaia-like parallaxes. The typical internal precision (obtained from realistic simulations of an APOGEE+Gaia-like sample) are ≃ 8% in distance, ≃ 20% in age,≃ 6% in mass, and ≃ 0.04 mag in AV. The median external precision (derived from comparisons with earlier work for real stars) varies with the sample used, but lies in the range of ≃ [0, 2]% for distances, ≃ [12, 31]% for ages, ≃ [4, 12]% for masses, and ≃ 0.07 mag for AV. We provide StarHorse distances and extinctions for the APOGEE DR14, RAVE DR5, GES DR3 and GALAH DR1 catalogues.

  17. Mating disruption of Coleophora deauratella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) using laminate flakes in red clover seed production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Boyd A; Evenden, Maya L

    2015-08-01

    The red clover casebearer, Coleophora deauratella, is a significant pest in red clover (Trifolium pratense) seed production regions throughout the world. The internal feeding nature of C. deauratella larvae makes infestations difficult to control with insecticide. We test the ability of Hercon Disrupt Micro-Flakes(®) releasing the complete pheromone blend of C. deauratella to disrupt communication and mating in red clover seed production fields. Initial small-plot (0.25 ha) trials found a significant reduction (93.6 ± 2.9%) of male C. deauratella captured in pheromone-treated plots compared with untreated controls. Subsequent large-plot (5 ha) mating disruption trials found a significant reduction (72.3 ± 5.7%) in male C. deauratella captured in pheromone-treated plots compared with untreated control plots over the growing season. Furthermore, larval numbers were significantly reduced and seed yield was increased in pheromone-treated plots compared with untreated control plots. In a concurrent small-plot (0.0625 ha) trial with various flake densities, disruption increased with pheromone flake density, and the resulting graphical disruption profiles matched the theoretical predictions of mating disruption by competitive attraction. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption with laminate flakes has the potential to suppress C. deauratella populations and may help to reduce damage even at high pest densities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Grace

    2017-01-01

    This title will cover how stars form, different types of stars, their lifecycle, and the most important star to us--the Sun! Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Kids Jumbo is an imprint of Abdo Kids, a division of ABDO.

  19. Signatures of field induced spin polarization of neutron star matter in seismic vibrations of paramagnetic neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastrukov, S I; Yang, J; Podgainy, D V; Weber, F

    2003-01-01

    A macroscopic model of the dissipative magneto-elastic dynamics of viscous spin polarized nuclear matter is discussed in the context of seismic activity of a paramagnetic neutron star. The source of the magnetic field of such a star is attributed to Pauli paramagnetism of baryon matter promoted by a seed magnetic field frozen into the star in the process of gravitational collapse of a massive progenitor. Particular attention is given to the effect of shear viscosity of incompressible stellar material on the timing of non-radial torsional magneto-elastic pulsations of the star triggered by starquakes. By accentuating the fact that this kind of vibration is unique to the seismology of a paramagnetic neutron star we show that the high-frequency modes decay faster than the low-frequency modes. The obtained analytic expressions for the period and relaxation time of this mode, in which the magnetic susceptibility and viscosity enter as input parameters, are then quantified by numerical estimates for these parameters taken from early and current works on transport coefficients of dense matter. It is found that the effect of viscosity is crucial for the lifetime of magneto-torsion vibrations but it does not appreciably affect the periods of this seismic mode which fall in the realm of periods of pulsed emission of soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous x-ray pulsars - young super-magnetized neutron stars, radiating, according to the magnetar model, at the expense of the magnetic energy release. Finally, we present arguments that the long periodic pulsed emission of these stars in a quiescent regime of radiation can be interpreted as a manifestation of weakly damped seismic magneto-torsion vibrations exhibiting the field induced spin polarization of baryon matter

  20. Are neutron stars crushed? Gravitomagnetic tidal fields as a mechanism for binary-induced collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favata, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations of binary neutron stars by Wilson, Mathews, and Marronetti indicated that neutron stars that are stable in isolation can be made to collapse to black holes when placed in a binary. This claim was surprising as it ran counter to the Newtonian expectation that a neutron star in a binary should be more stable, not less. After correcting an error found by Flanagan, Wilson and Mathews found that the compression of the neutron stars was significantly reduced but not eliminated. This has motivated us to ask the following general question: Under what circumstances can general-relativistic tidal interactions cause an otherwise stable neutron star to be compressed? We have found that if a nonrotating neutron star possesses a current-quadrupole moment, interactions with a gravitomagnetic tidal field can lead to a compressive force on the star. If this current quadrupole is induced by the gravitomagnetic tidal field, it is related to the tidal field by an equation-of-state-dependent constant called the gravitomagnetic Love number. This is analogous to the Newtonian Love number that relates the strength of a Newtonian tidal field to the induced mass quadrupole moment of a star. The compressive force is almost never larger than the Newtonian tidal interaction that stabilizes the neutron star against collapse. In the case in which a current quadrupole is already present in the star (perhaps as an artifact of a numerical simulation), the compressive force can exceed the stabilizing one, leading to a net increase in the central density of the star. This increase is small (< or approx. 1%) but could, in principle, cause gravitational collapse in a star that is close to its maximum mass. This paper also reviews the history of the Wilson-Mathews-Marronetti controversy and, in an appendix, extends the discussion of tidally induced changes in the central density to rotating stars

  1. Streams and magnetic fields in surface layers of Ap-stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolginov, A.Z.; Urpin, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Magnetic field generation of Ap-stars is considered. It is shown that in the surface layers of Ap-stars inhomogeneity of chemical composition produces a strong magnetic field. Velocities of possible circulation of stellar matter are estimated. It is shown that circulation does not prevent the process of the magnetic field generation. It needs the order of million years, for arranging the stationary magnetic field in surface layers

  2. The Universality of the Rapid Neutron-capture Process Revealed by a Possible Disrupted Dwarf Galaxy Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Andrew R.; Schlaufman, Kevin C.

    2017-12-01

    The rapid neutron-capture or r-process is thought to produce the majority of the heavy elements (Z> 30) in extremely metal-poor stars. The same process is also responsible for a significant fraction of the heavy elements in the Sun. This universality of the r-process is one of its characteristic features, as well as one of the most important clues to its astrophysical origin. We report the discovery of an extremely metal-poor field giant with [{Sr},{Ba}/{{H}}]≈ -6.0 and [{Sr},{Ba}/{Fe}]≈ -3.0, the lowest abundances of strontium and barium relative to iron ever observed. Despite its low abundances, the star 2MASS J151113.24-213003.0 has [{Sr}/{Ba}]=-0.11+/- 0.14, therefore its neutron-capture abundances are consistent with the main solar r-process pattern that has [{Sr}/{Ba}]=-0.25. It has been suggested that extremely low neutron-capture abundances are a characteristic of dwarf galaxies, and we find that this star is on a highly eccentric orbit with an apocenter ≳100 kpc that lies in the disk of satellites in the halo of the Milky Way. We show that other extremely metal-poor stars with low [Sr, Ba/H] and [Sr, Ba/Fe] plus solar [Sr/Ba] tend to have orbits with large apocenters, consistent with a dwarf galaxy origin for this class of object. The nucleosynthesis event that produced the neutron-capture elements in 2MASS J151113.24-213003.0 must produce both strontium and barium together in the solar ratio. We exclude contributions from the s-process in intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch or fast-rotating massive metal-poor stars, pair-instability supernovae, the weak r-process, and neutron-star mergers. We argue that the event was a Pop III or extreme Pop II core-collapse supernova explosion. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  3. The search for magnetic fields in mercury-manganese stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaganiuk, V.; Kochukhov, O.; Piskunov, N.; Jeffers, S.V.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Keller, C.U.; Rodenhuis, M.; Snik, F.; Stempels, H. C.; Valenti, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    A subclass of the upper main-sequence chemically peculiar stars, mercury-manganese (HgMn) stars were traditionally considered to be non-magnetic, showing no evidence of variability in their spectral line profiles. However, discoveries of chemical inhomogeneities on their surfaces imply that this

  4. Cationic peptide exposure enhances pulsed-electric-field-mediated membrane disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephen M; Aiken, Erik J; Beres, Kaytlyn A; Hahn, Adam R; Kamin, Samantha J; Hagness, Susan C; Booske, John H; Murphy, William L

    2014-01-01

    The use of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to irreversibly electroporate cells is a promising approach for destroying undesirable cells. This approach may gain enhanced applicability if the intensity of the PEF required to electrically disrupt cell membranes can be reduced via exposure to a molecular deliverable. This will be particularly impactful if that reduced PEF minimally influences cells that are not exposed to the deliverable. We hypothesized that the introduction of charged molecules to the cell surfaces would create regions of enhanced transmembrane electric potential in the vicinity of each charged molecule, thereby lowering the PEF intensity required to disrupt the plasma membranes. This study will therefore examine if exposure to cationic peptides can enhance a PEF's ability to disrupt plasma membranes. We exposed leukemia cells to 40 μs PEFs in media containing varying concentrations of a cationic peptide, polyarginine. We observed the internalization of a membrane integrity indicator, propidium iodide (PI), in real time. Based on an individual cell's PI fluorescence versus time signature, we were able to determine the relative degree of membrane disruption. When using 1-2 kV/cm, exposure to >50 μg/ml of polyarginine resulted in immediate and high levels of PI uptake, indicating severe membrane disruption, whereas in the absence of peptide, cells predominantly exhibited signatures indicative of no membrane disruption. Additionally, PI entered cells through the anode-facing membrane when exposed to cationic peptide, which was theoretically expected. Exposure to cationic peptides reduced the PEF intensity required to induce rapid and irreversible membrane disruption. Critically, peptide exposure reduced the PEF intensities required to elicit irreversible membrane disruption at normally sub-electroporation intensities. We believe that these cationic peptides, when coupled with current advancements in cell targeting techniques will be useful tools in

  5. Radial modes of slowly rotating compact stars in the presence of magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, N.R. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India); Siksha ' O' Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar (India); Mohanta, K.K. [Rairangpur College, Rairangpur, Odisha (India); Sahu, P.K. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2016-09-15

    Compact stars are composed of very high-density hadron matter. When the matter is above nuclear matter density, then there is a chance of different phases of matter such as hadron matter to quark matter. There is a possible phase which, having the quark core surrounded by a mixed phase followed by hadronic matter, may be considered as a hybrid phase inside the stars called hybrid star (HS). The star which consists of only u, d and s quarks is called quark star (QS) and the star which has only hadronic matter is called neutron star (NS). For the equation of state (EOS) of hadronic matter, we have considered the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) theory and we incorporated the effect of strong magnetic fields. For the EOS of the quark phase we use the simple MIT bag model. We have assumed Gaussian parametrization to make the density dependent for both bag pressure in quark matter and magnetic field. We have constructed the intermediate mixed phase by using the Glendenning conjecture. Eigenfrequencies of radial pulsations of slowly rotating magnetized compact stars (NS, QS, HS) are calculated in a general relativistic formalism given by Chandrasekhar and Friedman. We have studied the effect of central density on the square of the frequencies of the compact stars in the presence of zero and strong magnetic field. (orig.)

  6. Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kukla, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Climb Aboard! Explore planets and how they are formed! Meet key astronomers! Examine the history of mapping the stars! Investigate red giants, black and white dwarfs, neutron stars, supernovas, and black holes! See an infographic showing our solar system's statistics! Did You Know? facts and a Guidebook of the brightest stars complete your journey. Aligned to Common Core standards and correlated to state standards. Checkerboard Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  7. Stationary bound-state massive scalar field configurations supported by spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-12-15

    It has recently been demonstrated that asymptotically flat neutral reflecting stars are characterized by an intriguing no-hair property. In particular, it has been proved that these horizonless compact objects cannot support spatially regular static matter configurations made of scalar (spin-0) fields, vector (spin-1) fields and tensor (spin-2) fields. In the present paper we shall explicitly prove that spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars can support stationary (rather than static) bound-state massive scalar fields in their exterior spacetime regions. To this end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon wave equation for a linearized scalar field of mass μ and proper frequency ω in the curved background of a spherically symmetric compact reflecting star of mass M and radius R{sub s}. It is proved that the regime of existence of these stationary composed star-field configurations is characterized by the simple inequalities 1 - 2M/R{sub s} < (ω/μ){sup 2} < 1. Interestingly, in the regime M/R{sub s} << 1 of weakly self-gravitating stars we derive a remarkably compact analytical equation for the discrete spectrum {ω(M,R_s, μ)}{sup n=∞}{sub n=1} of resonant oscillation frequencies which characterize the stationary composed compact-reflecting-star-linearized-massive-scalar-field configurations. Finally, we verify the accuracy of the analytically derived resonance formula of the composed star-field configurations with direct numerical computations. (orig.)

  8. A prevalence of dynamo-generated magnetic fields in the cores of intermediate-mass stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stello, Dennis; Cantiello, Matteo; Fuller, Jim; Huber, Daniel; García, Rafael A; Bedding, Timothy R; Bildsten, Lars; Aguirre, Victor Silva

    2016-01-21

    Magnetic fields play a part in almost all stages of stellar evolution. Most low-mass stars, including the Sun, show surface fields that are generated by dynamo processes in their convective envelopes. Intermediate-mass stars do not have deep convective envelopes, although 10 per cent exhibit strong surface fields that are presumed to be residuals from the star formation process. These stars do have convective cores that might produce internal magnetic fields, and these fields might survive into later stages of stellar evolution, but information has been limited by our inability to measure the fields below the stellar surface. Here we report the strength of dipolar oscillation modes for a sample of 3,600 red giant stars. About 20 per cent of our sample show mode suppression, by strong magnetic fields in the cores, but this fraction is a strong function of mass. Strong core fields occur only in red giants heavier than 1.1 solar masses, and the occurrence rate is at least 50 per cent for intermediate-mass stars (1.6-2.0 solar masses), indicating that powerful dynamos were very common in the previously convective cores of these stars.

  9. Using red clump stars to decompose the galactic magnetic field with distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel, Michael D., E-mail: pavelmi@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, C1402, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A new method for measuring the large-scale structure of the Galactic magnetic field is presented. The Galactic magnetic field has been probed through the Galactic disk with near-infrared starlight polarimetry; however, the distance to each background star is unknown. Using red clump stars as near-infrared standard candles, this work presents the first attempt to decompose the line-of-sight structure of the sky-projected Galactic magnetic field. Two example lines of sight are decomposed: toward a field with many red clump stars and toward a field with few red clump stars. A continuous estimate of magnetic field orientation over several kiloparsecs of distance is possible in the field with many red clump stars, while only discrete estimates are possible in the sparse example. Toward the outer Galaxy, there is a continuous field orientation with distance that shows evidence of perturbation by the Galactic warp. Toward the inner Galaxy, evidence for a large-scale change in the magnetic field geometry is consistent with models of magnetic field reversals, independently derived from Faraday rotation studies. A photo-polarimetric method for identifying candidate intrinsically polarized stars is also presented. The future application of this method to large regions of the sky will begin the process of mapping the Galactic magnetic field in a way never before possible.

  10. Signatures of field induced spin polarization of neutron star matter in seismic vibrations of paramagnetic neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Bastrukov, S I; Podgainy, D V; Weber, F

    2003-01-01

    A macroscopic model of the dissipative magneto-elastic dynamics of viscous spin polarized nuclear matter is discussed in the context of seismic activity of a paramagnetic neutron star. The source of the magnetic field of such a star is attributed to Pauli paramagnetism of baryon matter promoted by a seed magnetic field frozen into the star in the process of gravitational collapse of a massive progenitor. Particular attention is given to the effect of shear viscosity of incompressible stellar material on the timing of non-radial torsional magneto-elastic pulsations of the star triggered by starquakes. By accentuating the fact that this kind of vibration is unique to the seismology of a paramagnetic neutron star we show that the high-frequency modes decay faster than the low-frequency modes. The obtained analytic expressions for the period and relaxation time of this mode, in which the magnetic susceptibility and viscosity enter as input parameters, are then quantified by numerical estimates for these parameter...

  11. Star tracker operation in a high density proton field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklus, Kenneth J.; Kissh, Frank; Flynn, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms that reject transient signals due to proton effects on charge coupled device (CCD) sensors have been implemented in the HDOS ASTRA-l Star Trackers to be flown on the TOPEX mission scheduled for launch in July 1992. A unique technique for simulating a proton-rich environment to test trackers is described, as well as the test results obtained. Solar flares or an orbit that passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly can subject the vehicle to very high proton flux levels. There are three ways in which spurious proton generated signals can impact tracker performance: the many false signals can prevent or extend the time to acquire a star; a proton-generated signal can compromise the accuracy of the star's reported magnitude and position; and the tracked star can be lost, requiring reacquisition. Tests simulating a proton-rich environment were performed on two ASTRA-1 Star Trackers utilizing these new algorithms. There were no false acquisitions, no lost stars, and a significant reduction in reported position errors due to these improvements.

  12. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Overview And Catalog From The Cosmos Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Civano, F.; Hickox, R. C.; Puccetti, S.

    2015-01-01

    To provide the census of the sources contributing to the X-ray background peak above 10 keV, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is performing extragalactic surveys using a three-tier "wedding cake" approach. We present the NuSTAR survey of the COSMOS field, the medium sensitivity, and...

  13. Discovery of the magnetic field of the B1/B2V star σ Lupi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S.C.; Waite, I.A.; Landstreet, J.; Grunhut, J.; Oksala, M.; Wade, G.; MiMeS Collaboration, [Unknown; Hoffman, J.L.; Bjorkman, J.; Whitney, B.

    2012-01-01

    In our search for new magnetic massive stars we use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of UV stellar wind lines occurring in a velocity range symmetric around zero. Our aim is to obtain follow-up spectropolarimetry to search for a magnetic

  14. Discovery of a magnetic field in the early B-type star σ Lupi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S.C.; Waite, I.A.; Landstreet, J.D.; Wade, G.A.; Grunhut, J.H.; Oksala, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Magnetic early B-type stars are rare. Indirect indicators are needed to identify them before investing in time-intensive spectropolarimetric observations. Aims. We use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of ultraviolet (UV) stellar

  15. Thermal generation of the magnetic field in the surface layers of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urpin, V.

    2017-11-01

    A new magnetic field-generation mechanism based on the Nernst effect is considered in hot massive stars. This mechanism can operate in the upper atmospheres of O and B stars where departures from the LTE form a region with the inverse temperature gradient.

  16. Chemical composition of the horizontal-branch stars of globular clusters in the galactic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klochkova, V.G.; Panchuk, V.E.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical abundance is calculated for 6 field stars: HD 2857, 64488, 93329, 105262, HDE 281679, BD+20 deg 5009, using 12 spectra with a reciprocal dispersion of 9 A/mm, obtained on the 6-m telescope. Fundamental characteristics for 7 stars of the horizontal branch are found

  17. Evolution of magnetic fields in collapsing star-forming clouds under different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Koki; Machida, Masahiro N.; Susa, Hajime

    2018-04-01

    In nearby star-forming clouds, amplification and dissipation of the magnetic field are known to play crucial roles in the star-formation process. The star-forming environment varies from place to place and era to era in galaxies. In this study, amplification and dissipation of magnetic fields in star-forming clouds are investigated under different environments using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. We consider various star-forming environments in combination with the metallicity and the ionization strength, and prepare prestellar clouds having two different mass-to-flux ratios. We calculate the cloud collapse until protostar formation using ideal and non-ideal (inclusion and exclusion of ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion) MHD calculations to investigate the evolution of the magnetic field. We perform 288 runs in total and show the diversity of the density range within which the magnetic field effectively dissipates, depending on the environment. In addition, the dominant dissipation process (Ohmic dissipation or ambipolar diffusion) is shown to strongly depend on the star-forming environment. Especially, for the primordial case, magnetic field rarely dissipates without ionization source, while it efficiently dissipates when very weak ionization sources exist in the surrounding environment. The results of this study help to clarify star formation in various environments.

  18. Magnetic fields in O-, B- and A-type stars on the main sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briquet Maryline

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the latest observational results on magnetic fields in main-sequence stars with radiative envelopes are summarised together with the theoretical works aimed at explaining them.

  19. Topological currents in neutron stars: kicks, precession, toroidal fields, and magnetic helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, James; Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    The effects of anomalies in high density QCD are striking. We consider a direct application of one of these effects, namely topological currents, on the physics of neutron stars. All the elements required for topological currents are present in neutron stars: degenerate matter, large magnetic fields, and parity violating processes. These conditions lead to the creation of vector currents capable of carrying momentum and inducing magnetic fields. We estimate the size of these currents for many representative states of dense matter in the neutron star and argue that they could be responsible for the large proper motion of neutron stars (kicks), the toroidal magnetic field and finite magnetic helicity needed for stability of the poloidal field, and the resolution of the conflict between type-II superconductivity and precession. Though these observational effects appear unrelated, they likely originate from the same physics — they are all P-odd phenomena that stem from a topological current generated by parity violation

  20. THE EXTRAORDINARY COMPLEX MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE HELIUM-STRONG STAR HD 37776

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochukhov, Oleg; Lundin, Andreas; Romanyuk, Iosif; Kudryavtsev, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    The early-type chemically peculiar stars often show strong magnetic fields on their surfaces. These magnetic topologies are organized on large scales and are believed to be close to an oblique dipole for most of the stars. In a striking exception to this general trend, the helium-strong star HD 37776 shows an extraordinary double-wave rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field measurements, indicating a topologically complex and, possibly, record-strong magnetic field. Here we present a new investigation of the magnetic field structure of HD 37776, using both simple geometrical interpretation of the longitudinal field curve and detailed modeling of the time-resolved circular polarization line profiles with the help of a magnetic Doppler imaging technique. We derive a model of the magnetic field structure of HD 37776, which reconciles for the first time all magnetic observations available for this star. We find that the local surface field strength does not exceed ∼30 kG, while the overall field topology of HD 37776 is dominated by a non-axisymmetric component and represents by far the most complex magnetic field configuration found among early-type stars.

  1. Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Saders, Jennifer L; Ceillier, Tugdual; Metcalfe, Travis S; Aguirre, Victor Silva; Pinsonneault, Marc H; García, Rafael A; Mathur, Savita; Davies, Guy R

    2016-01-14

    A knowledge of stellar ages is crucial for our understanding of many astrophysical phenomena, and yet ages can be difficult to determine. As they become older, stars lose mass and angular momentum, resulting in an observed slowdown in surface rotation. The technique of 'gyrochronology' uses the rotation period of a star to calculate its age. However, stars of known age must be used for calibration, and, until recently, the approach was untested for old stars (older than 1 gigayear, Gyr). Rotation periods are now known for stars in an open cluster of intermediate age (NGC 6819; 2.5 Gyr old), and for old field stars whose ages have been determined with asteroseismology. The data for the cluster agree with previous period-age relations, but these relations fail to describe the asteroseismic sample. Here we report stellar evolutionary modelling, and confirm the presence of unexpectedly rapid rotation in stars that are more evolved than the Sun. We demonstrate that models that incorporate dramatically weakened magnetic braking for old stars can--unlike existing models--reproduce both the asteroseismic and the cluster data. Our findings might suggest a fundamental change in the nature of ageing stellar dynamos, with the Sun being close to the critical transition to much weaker magnetized winds. This weakened braking limits the diagnostic power of gyrochronology for those stars that are more than halfway through their main-sequence lifetimes.

  2. Dense matter in strong gravitational field of neutron star

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sajad A. Bhat

    2018-02-10

    Feb 10, 2018 ... Abstract. Mass, radius and moment of inertia are direct probes of compositions and Equation of State (EoS) of dense matter in neutron star interior. These are computed for novel phases of dense matter involving hyperons and antikaon condensate and their observable consequences are discussed in this ...

  3. Radial oscillations of neutron stars in strong magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The eigen frequencies of radial pulsations of neutron stars are calculated in a strong magnetic field. At low densities we use the magnetic BPS equation of state (EOS) similar to that obtained by Lai and Shapiro while at high densities the EOS obtained from the relativistic nuclear mean field theory is taken and extended to ...

  4. Do magnetic fields cause increased risk of childhood leukemia via melatonin disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Denis L; Reiter, Russel J

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between exposure to power frequency magnetic fields and increased risk of certain cancer and noncancer illnesses. For childhood leukemia, a doubling of risk has been associated with exposures above 0.3/0.4 microT. Here, we propose that the melatonin hypothesis, in which power frequency magnetic fields suppress the nocturnal production of melatonin in the pineal gland, accounts for the observed increased risk of childhood leukemia. Such melatonin disruption has been shown in animals, especially with exposure to electric and/or rapid on/off magnetic fields. Equivocal evidence has been obtained from controlled laboratory magnetic field exposures of volunteers, although the exposure conditions are generally atypical of neighborhood exposures. In contrast, support for the hypothesis is found in the body of studies showing magnetic field disruption of melatonin in human populations chronically exposed to both electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity distribution. Further support comes from the observation that melatonin is highly protective of oxidative damage to the human haemopoietic system. Aspects of the hypothesis are amenable to further investigation. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  5. Magnetic field generation in PMS stars with and without radiative core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaire, B.; Guerrero, G.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.; Landin, N. R.

    2017-10-01

    Recent observations of the magnetic field in pre-main sequence stars suggest that the magnetic field topology changes as a function of age. The presence of a tachocline could be an important factor in the development of magnetic field with higher multipolar modes. In this work we performed MHD simulations using the EULAG-MHD code to study the magnetic field generation and evolution in models that mimic stars at two evolutionary stages. The stratification for both stellar phases was computed by fitting stellar structure profiles obtained with the ATON stellar evolution code. The first stage is at 1.1Myr, when the star is completely convective. The second stage is at 14Myrs, when the star is partly convective, with a radiative core developed up to 30% of the stellar radius. In this proceedings we present a preliminary analysis of the resulting mean-flows and magnetic field. The mean-flow analysis shown that the star rotate almost rigidly on the fully convective phase, whereas at the partially convective phase there is differential rotation with conical contours of iso-rotation. As for the mean magnetic field both simulations show similarities with respect to the field evolution. However, the topology of the magnetic field is different.

  6. Effects of metallicity, star-formation conditions, and evolution in B and Be stars. II. Small Magellanic Cloud, field of NGC 330

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martayan, C.; Frémat, Y.; Hubert, A.-M.; Floquet, M.; Zorec, J.; Neiner, C.

    2007-02-01

    Aims:We search for the effects of metallicity on B and Be stars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC) and in the Milky Way (MW), by extending our previous analysis of B and Be star populations in the LMC to the SMC. The rotational velocities of massive stars and the evolutionary status of Be stars are examined with respect to their environments. Methods: Spectroscopic observations of hot stars belonging to the young cluster SMC-NGC 330 and its surrounding region were obtained with the VLT-GIRAFFE facilities in MEDUSA mode. We determined fundamental parameters for B and Be stars with the GIRFIT code, taking the effect of fast rotation and the age of observed clusters into account. We compared the mean V sin i obtained by spectral type- and mass-selection for field and cluster B and Be stars in the SMC with the one in the LMC and MW. Results: We find that (i) B and Be stars rotate faster in the SMC than in the LMC and in the LMC than in the MW; (ii) at a given metallicity, Be stars begin their main sequence life with a higher initial rotational velocity than B stars. Consequently, only a fraction of the B stars that reach the ZAMS with a sufficiently high initial rotational velocity can become Be stars; (iii) the distributions of initial rotational velocities at the ZAMS for Be stars in the SMC, LMC, and MW are mass- and metallicity-dependent; (iv) the angular velocities of B and Be stars are higher in the SMC than in the LMC and MW; (v) in the SMC and LMC, massive Be stars appear in the second part of the main sequence, in contrast to massive Be stars in the MW. Tables 1-6, 8 and 11 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. 1969 - 2010: Multicolor Photometric Observations of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A. G. Davis

    2010-05-01

    From 1969 to 2010 I have been involved in a photometric study of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch stars. I started by making Stromgren four-color observations at Kitt Peak National Observatory and then Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. I had taken spectral plates of all my selected areas on which I marked all the A-type stars. These stars were then observed photometrically. New FHB stars could be identified by their large c1 indices, caused by their greater (u-b) colors. Later four new filters were added ( U V B S ). With Richard Boyle of the Vatican Observatory we observed on Mt. Graham (Arizona) on the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope.We plan follow-up observations of the new FHB stars found.

  8. HDE 229189 - A variable Ae star in the field of NGC 6910

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbedel, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The star HDE 229189 (BD + 40 4145; in the field, though probably not a member, of the open cluster NGC 6910) has been found to exhibit large photometric changes in V magnitude over relatively short time scales. The total observed range was 0.416 V magnitude. An outburst in 1982 showed an even greater V range (Delta V = 1.66) and concomitant color changes. A coude spectrum of the star taken a week before a minor outburst showed emission at H-alpha but no other unusual lines. The star is likely an A3 (V)e star, an unusual object in itself (since stars as late as A3 seldom show emission at H-α), or else possibly a member of a binary system undergoing mass transfer between the members. 19 refs

  9. Winds of Massive Magnetic Stars: Interacting Fields and Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Yates, S.; Stevens, I. R.

    2018-01-01

    We present results of 3D numerical simulations of magnetically confined, radiatively driven stellar winds of massive stars, conducted using the astrophysical MHD code Pluto, with a focus on understanding the rotational variability of radio and sub-mm emission. Radiative driving is implemented according to the Castor, Abbott and Klein theory of radiatively driven winds. Many magnetic massive stars posses a magnetic axis which is inclined with respect to the rotational axis. This misalignment leads to a complex wind structure as magnetic confinement, centrifugal acceleration and radiative driving act to channel the circumstellar plasma into a warped disk whose observable properties should be apparent in multiple wavelengths. This structure is analysed to calculate free-free thermal radio emission and determine the characteristic intensity maps and radio light curves.

  10. Triggered star formation: Rotation, magnetic fields and outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A.; Li, S.; Blackman, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Star formation can be triggered by compression from wind or supernova driven shock waves that sweep over molecular clouds. In a previous work we used Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulation methods, including sink particles, to simulate the full collapse of a stable Bonnor-Ebert sphere subjected to a passing shock. We tracked the flow of cloud material after a star (a sink particle) had formed. For rotating clouds we observed the formation of disks which then interact with the post-shock flow. In this paper we take the next step forward in complexity, presenting first results of simulations that include a magnetized cloud. Our results show that after a disk is formed a collimated magneto-centrifugal outflow is launched. The outflow is bipolar but asymmetric, due to interactions with the shocked flow. We explore the influence of the outflows on the post-triggering collapse dynamics.

  11. Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines: Magnetic field determinations from Stokes I and V spectra⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, G.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Some Ap stars that have a strong enough magnetic field and a sufficiently low v sini show spectral lines resolved into their magnetically split components. Aims: We present the results of a systematic study of the magnetic fields and other properties of those stars. Methods: This study is based on 271 new measurements of the mean magnetic field modulus ⟨ B ⟩ of 43 stars, 231 determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field ⟨ Bz ⟩ and of the crossover ⟨ Xz ⟩ of 34 stars, and 229 determinations of the mean quadratic magnetic field ⟨ Bq ⟩ of 33 stars. Those data were used to derive new values or meaningful lower limits of the rotation periods Prot of 21 stars. Variation curves of the mean field modulus were characterised for 25 stars, the variations of the longitudinal field were characterised for 16 stars, and the variations of the crossover and of the quadratic field were characterised for 8 stars. Our data are complemented by magnetic measurements from the literature for 41 additional stars with magnetically resolved lines. Phase coverage is sufficient to define the curve of variation of ⟨ B ⟩ for 2 of these stars. Published data were also used to characterise the ⟨ Bz ⟩ curves of variation for 10 more stars. Furthermore, we present 1297 radial velocity measurements of the 43 Ap stars in our sample that have magnetically resolved lines. Nine of these stars are spectroscopic binaries for which new orbital elements were derived. Results: The existence of a cut-off at the low end of the distribution of the phase-averaged mean magnetic field moduli ⟨ B ⟩ av of the Ap stars with resolved magnetically split lines, at about 2.8 kG, is confirmed. This reflects the probable existence of a gap in the distribution of the magnetic field strengths in slowly rotating Ap stars, below which there is a separate population of stars with fields weaker than 2 kG. In more than half of the stars with magnetically resolved lines that have a

  12. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  13. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  14. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rebull, L. M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), California Institute of Technology, M/S 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 169-530, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  15. Tabulated Neutron Star Equations of State Modelled within the Chiral Mean Field Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexheimer, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this special issue article, I review some of the accomplishments of the chiral mean field (CMF) model, which contains nucleon, hyperon, and quark degrees of freedom, and its applications to proto-neutron and neutron stars. I also present a set of equation of state and particle population tables built using the CMF model subject to physical constraints necessary to reproduce different environments, such as those present in cold neutron stars, core-collapse supernova explosions, and different stages of compact star mergers.

  16. Tidal disruption of stars in a supermassive black hole binary system: the influence of orbital properties on fallback and accretion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Quentin; Lodato, Giuseppe; Guidarelli, Alessio

    2018-03-01

    The disruption of a star by a supermassive black hole generates a sudden bright flare. Previous studies have focused on the disruption by single black holes, for which the fallback rate decays as ∝t-5/3. In this paper, we generalise the study to the case of a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB), using both analytical estimates and hydrodynamical simulations, looking for specific observable signatures. The range of binary separation for which it is possible to distinguish between the disruption created by a single or a binary black hole concerns typically separations of order a few milliparsecs for a primary of mass ˜106M⊙. When the fallback rate is affected by the secondary, it undergoes two types interruptions, depending on the initial inclination θ of the orbit of the star relative to the plane of the SMBHB. For θ ≲ 70°, periodic sharp interruptions occur and the time of first interruption depends on the distance of the secondary black hole with the debris. If θ ≳ 70°, a first smooth interruption occurs, but not always followed by a further recovery of the fallback rate. This implies that most of the TDEs around a SMBHB will undergo periodic sharp interruptions of their lightcurve.

  17. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-forming Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from th...

  18. Spin ordering in dense matter and magnetic fields of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Wojcik, W.

    1990-08-01

    The spin properties of the ground-state dense baryon matter are discussed in the nucleon as well as in the quark phase. Predictions for magnetic properties of neutron stars possessing a ferromagnetic core are given. Astrophysical measurements of the magnetic fields of neutron stars are reviewed. An attempt is made to reproduce the data with the ferromagnetic core model. 29 refs., 8 figs. (author)

  19. Determination of the spectroscopic stellar parameters for 257 field giant stars

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, S.; Benamati, L.; Santos, N. C.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Sousa, S. G.; Israelian, G.; De Medeiros, J. R.; Lovis, C.; Udry, S.

    2015-01-01

    The study of stellar parameters of planet-hosting stars, such as metallicity and chemical abundances, help us to understand the theory of planet formation and stellar evolution. Here, we present a catalogue of accurate stellar atmospheric parameters and iron abundances for a sample of 257 K and G field evolved stars that are being surveyed for planets using precise radial--velocity measurements as part of the CORALIE programme to search for planets around giants. The analysis was done using a...

  20. The Age-Metallicity Relation for the Field Disk Stars in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, See-Woo; Ann, Hong Bae; Sung, Hwankyung

    1989-06-01

    The ages of field stars given in the catalogue of Cayrel de Strobel et al.(1985) are derived by the five different methods with combination of theoretical isochrones. By using these ages and metal abundances homogenized by Lee and Choe(1988), the age-metallicity relations are obtained. For disk stars of [Fe/H] > -0.9, the present age-metallicity relations are nearly consistent with those given by Twarog(1980) and Carlberg et al.(1985).

  1. The evolution of stable magnetic fields in stars: an analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestel, Leon; Moss, David

    2010-07-01

    The absence of a rigorous proof of the existence of dynamically stable, large-scale magnetic fields in radiative stars has been for many years a missing element in the fossil field theory for the magnetic Ap/Bp stars. Recent numerical simulations, by Braithwaite & Spruit and Braithwaite & Nordlund, have largely filled this gap, demonstrating convincingly that coherent global scale fields can survive for times of the order of the main-sequence lifetimes of A stars. These dynamically stable configurations take the form of magnetic tori, with linked poloidal and toroidal fields, that slowly rise towards the stellar surface. This paper studies a simple analytical model of such a torus, designed to elucidate the physical processes that govern its evolution. It is found that one-dimensional numerical calculations reproduce some key features of the numerical simulations, with radiative heat transfer, Archimedes' principle, Lorentz force and Ohmic decay all playing significant roles.

  2. Evolution of the surface magnetic field of rotating proto-neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obergaulinger, M.; Aloy, M. Á.

    2017-12-01

    We study the evolution of the field on the surface of proto-neutron stars in the immediate aftermath of stellar core collapse by analyzing the results of self-consistent, axisymmetric simulations of the cores of rapidly rotating high-mass stars. To this end, we compare the field topology and the angular spectra of the poloidal and toroidal field components over a time of about one seconds for cores. Both components are characterized by a complex geometry with high power at intermediate angular scales. The structure is mostly the result of the accretion of magnetic flux embedded in the matter falling through the turbulent post-shock layer onto the PNS. Our results may help to guide further studies of the long-term magneto-thermal evolution of proto-neutron stars. We find that the accretion of stellar progenitor layers endowed with low or null magnetization bury the magnetic field on the PNS surface very effectively.

  3. B fields in OB stars (BOB): Detection of a magnetic field in the He-strong star CPD -57° 3509

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybilla, N.; Fossati, L.; Hubrig, S.; Nieva, M.-F.; Järvinen, S. P.; Castro, N.; Schöller, M.; Ilyin, I.; Butler, K.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Oskinova, L. M.; Morel, T.; Langer, N.; de Koter, A.; BOB Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We report the detection of a magnetic field in the helium-strong star CPD -57° 3509 (B2 IV), a member of the Galactic open cluster NGC 3293, and characterise the star's atmospheric and fundamental parameters. Methods: Spectropolarimetric observations with FORS2 and HARPSpol are analysed using two independent approaches to quantify the magnetic field strength. A high-S/N FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrum is analysed using a hybrid non-LTE model atmosphere technique. Comparison with stellar evolution models constrains the fundamental parameters of the star. Results: We obtain a firm detection of a surface averaged longitudinal magnetic field with a maximum amplitude of about 1 kG. Assuming a dipolar configuration of the magnetic field, this implies a dipolar field strength larger than 3.3 kG. Moreover, the large amplitude and fast variation (within about 1 day) of the longitudinal magnetic field implies that CPD -57° 3509 is spinning very fast despite its apparently slow projected rotational velocity. The star should be able to support a centrifugal magnetosphere, yet the spectrum shows no sign of magnetically confined material; in particular, emission in Hα is not observed. Apparently, the wind is either not strong enough for enough material to accumulate in the magnetosphere to become observable or, alternatively, some leakage process leads to loss of material from the magnetosphere. The quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the star yields an effective temperature and a logarithmic surface gravity of 23 750 ± 250 K and 4.05 ± 0.10, respectively, and a surface helium fraction of 0.28 ± 0.02 by number. The surface abundances of C, N, O, Ne, S, and Ar are compatible with the cosmic abundance standard, whereas Mg, Al, Si, and Fe are depleted by about a factor of 2. This abundance pattern can be understood as the consequence of a fractionated stellar wind. CPD -57° 3509 is one of the most evolved He-strong stars known with an independent age constraint due to its

  4. Dipole magnetic field of neutron stars in f(R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakirova, Elizat; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    The structure of an interior dipole magnetic field of neutron stars in f( R) gravity is considered. For this purpose, the perturbative approaches are used when both the deviations from general relativity and the deformations of spherically symmetric configurations associated with the presence of the magnetic field are assumed to be small. Solutions are constructed which describe relativistic, spherically symmetric configurations consisting of a gravitating magnetized perfect fluid modeled by a realistic equation of state. Comparing configurations from general relativity and modified gravity, we reveal possible differences in the structure of the magnetic field which occur in considering neutron stars in modified gravity.

  5. No hair for spherically symmetric neutral reflecting stars: Nonminimally coupled massive scalar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2017-10-01

    Recent no-hair theorems have revealed the intriguing fact that horizonless stars with compact reflecting surfaces cannot support non-linear matter configurations made of scalar, vector, and tensor fields. In the present paper we extend the regime of validity of these no-hair theorems by explicitly proving that spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars cannot support static configurations made of massive scalar fields with non-minimal coupling to gravity. Interestingly, our no-hair theorem is valid for generic values of the dimensionless field-curvature coupling parameter ξ.

  6. Magnetic fields and star formation: evidence from imaging polarimetry of the Serpens Reflection Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren-Smith, R.F.; Draper, P.W.; Scarrott, S.M.

    1987-08-01

    CCD imaging of the Serpens bipolar reflection nebula shows it to be surrounded by dark material having spiral density structure. Multi-colour polarization mapping also reveals details of the surrounding magnetic field, indicating that this also has spiral structure. These observations are discussed along with current ideas about the role of magnetic fields during star formation. An interpretation involving the non-axisymmetric magnetically braked collapse of a protostellar cloud is proposed and a resulting magnetic field configuration is described which can account for the observations. Evidence is also discussed for the formation of a binary star system within the nebula, resulting from the fragmentation of a magnetized protostellar disc.

  7. No hair for spherically symmetric neutral reflecting stars: Nonminimally coupled massive scalar fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent no-hair theorems have revealed the intriguing fact that horizonless stars with compact reflecting surfaces cannot support non-linear matter configurations made of scalar, vector, and tensor fields. In the present paper we extend the regime of validity of these no-hair theorems by explicitly proving that spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars cannot support static configurations made of massive scalar fields with non-minimal coupling to gravity. Interestingly, our no-hair theorem is valid for generic values of the dimensionless field-curvature coupling parameter ξ.

  8. Dynamos in asymptotic-giant-branch stars as the origin of magnetic fields shaping planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, E G; Frank, A; Markiel, J A; Thomas, J H; Van Horn, H M

    2001-01-25

    Planetary nebulae are thought to be formed when a slow wind from the progenitor giant star is overtaken by a subsequent fast wind generated as the star enters its white dwarf stage. A shock forms near the boundary between the winds, creating the relatively dense shell characteristic of a planetary nebula. A spherically symmetric wind will produce a spherically symmetric shell, yet over half of known planetary nebulae are not spherical; rather, they are elliptical or bipolar in shape. A magnetic field could launch and collimate a bipolar outflow, but the origin of such a field has hitherto been unclear, and some previous work has even suggested that a field could not be generated. Here we show that an asymptotic-giant-branch (AGB) star can indeed generate a strong magnetic field, having as its origin a dynamo at the interface between the rapidly rotating core and the more slowly rotating envelope of the star. The fields are strong enough to shape the bipolar outflows that produce the observed bipolar planetary nebulae. Magnetic braking of the stellar core during this process may also explain the puzzlingly slow rotation of most white dwarf stars.

  9. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    What happens when a magnetized star is torn apart by the tidal forces of a supermassive black hole, in a violent process known as a tidal disruption event? Two scientists have broken new ground by simulating the disruption of stars with magnetic fields for the first time.The magnetic field configuration during a simulation of the partial disruption of a star. Top left: pre-disruption star. Bottom left: matter begins to re-accrete onto the surviving core after the partial disruption. Right: vortices form in the core as high-angular-momentum debris continues to accrete, winding up and amplifying the field. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]What About Magnetic Fields?Magnetic fields are expected to exist in the majority of stars. Though these fields dont dominate the energy budget of a star the magnetic pressure is a million times weaker than the gas pressure in the Suns interior, for example they are the drivers of interesting activity, like the prominences and flares of our Sun.Given this, we can wonder what role stars magnetic fields might play when the stars are torn apart in tidal disruption events. Do the fields change what we observe? Are they dispersed during the disruption, or can they be amplified? Might they even be responsible for launching jets of matter from the black hole after the disruption?Star vs. Black HoleIn a recent study, James Guillochon (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Michael McCourt (Hubble Fellow at UC Santa Barbara) have tackled these questions by performing the first simulations of tidal disruptions of stars that include magnetic fields.In their simulations, Guillochon and McCourt evolve a solar-mass star that passes close to a million-solar-mass black hole. Their simulations explore different magnetic field configurations for the star, and they consider both what happens when the star barely grazes the black hole and is only partially disrupted, as well as what happens when the black hole tears the star apart

  10. Spontaneous scalarization with an extremely massive field and heavy neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Soichiro; Suyama, Teruaki

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the internal structure and the mass-radius relation of neutron stars in a recently proposed scalar-tensor theory dubbed asymmetron in which a massive scalar field undergoes spontaneous scalarization inside neutron stars. We focus on the case where the Compton wavelength is shorter than 10 km, which has not been investigated in the literature. By solving the modified Einstein equations, either purely numerically or by partially using a semianalytic method, we find that not only the weakening of gravity by spontaneous scalarization but also the scalar force affect the internal structure significantly in the massive case. We also find that the maximum mass of neutron stars is larger for certain parameter sets than that in general relativity and reaches 2 M⊙ even if the effect of strange hadrons is taken into account. There is even a range of parameters where the maximum mass of neutron stars largely exceeds the threshold that violates the causality bound in general relativity.

  11. Rapidly Rotating, X-Ray Bright Stars in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Steve B.; Mason, Elena; Boyd, Patricia; Smith, Krista Lynne; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    We present Kepler light curves and optical spectroscopy of twenty X-ray bright stars located in the Kepler field of view. The stars, spectral type F-K, show evidence for rapid rotation including chromospheric activity 100 times or more above the Sun at maximum and flaring behavior in their light curves. Eighteen of our objects appear to be (sub)giants and may belong to the class of FK Com variables, which are evolved rapidly spinning single stars with no excretion disk and high levels of chromospheric activity. Such stars are rare and are likely the result of W UMa binary mergers, a process believed to produce the FK Com class of variable and their descendants. The FK Com stage, including the presence of an excretion disk, is short lived but leads to longer-lived stages consisting of single, rapidly rotating evolved (sub)giants with high levels of stellar activity.

  12. Discovery of a magnetic field in the δ Scuti F2m star ρ Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.; Sikora, J.

    2017-06-01

    ρ Pup is a δ Scuti F2 pulsator, known to host a main radial mode as well as non-radial pulsations, with chemical peculiarities typical of evolved Am stars. We present a high-precision spectropolarimetric observations of this star, obtained with ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in the frame of the BRITE spectropolarimetric survey. A magnetic field is clearly detected in ρ Pup, with a longitudinal field strength below 1 G. This makes ρ Pup the second known magnetic δ Scuti discovered, after HD 188774, and a possible cool evolved counterpart of the recently discovered ultraweakly magnetic Am family.

  13. Fibrillar disruption by AC electric field induced oscillation: A case study with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Shubhatam; Chakraborty, Monojit; Goley, Snigdha; Dasgupta, Swagata; DasGupta, Sunando

    2017-07-01

    The effect of oscillation induced by a frequency-dependent alternating current (AC) electric field to dissociate preformed amyloid fibrils has been investigated. An electrowetting-on-dielectric type setup has been used to apply the AC field of varying frequencies on preformed fibrils of human serum albumin (HSA). The disintegration potency has been monitored by a combination of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The experimental results suggest that the frequency of the applied AC field plays a crucial role in the disruption of preformed HSA fibrils. The extent of stress generated inside the droplet due to the application of the AC field at different frequencies has been monitored as a function of the input frequency of the applied AC voltage. This has been accomplished by assessing the morphology deformation of the oscillating HSA fibril droplets. The shape deformation of the oscillating droplets is characterized using image analysis by measuring the dynamic changes in the shape dependent parameters such as contact angle and droplet footprint radius and the amplitude. It is suggested that the cumulative effects of the stress generated inside the HSA fibril droplets due to the shape deformation induced hydrodynamic flows and the torque induced by the intrinsic electric dipoles of protein due to their continuous periodic realignment in presence of the AC electric field results in the destruction of the fibrillar species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Multipolar electromagnetic fields around neutron stars: general-relativistic vacuum solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétri, J.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic fields inside and around neutron stars are at the heart of pulsar magnetospheric activity. Strong magnetic fields are responsible for quantum effects, an essential ingredient to produce leptonic pairs and the subsequent broad-band radiation. The variety of electromagnetic field topologies could lead to the observed diversity of neutron star classes. Thus, it is important to include multipolar components to a presumably dominant dipolar magnetic field. Exact analytical solutions for these multipoles in Newtonian gravity have been computed in recent literature. However, flat space-time is not adequate to describe physics in the immediate surroundings of neutron stars. We generalize the multipole expressions to the strong gravity regime by using a slowly rotating metric approximation such as the one expected around neutron stars. Approximate formulae for the electromagnetic field including frame dragging are computed from which we estimate the Poynting flux and the braking index. Corrections to leading order in compactness and spin parameter are presented. As far as spin-down luminosity is concerned, it is shown that frame dragging remains irrelevant. For high-order multipoles starting from the quadrupole, the electric part can radiate more efficiently than the magnetic part. Both analytical and numerical tools are employed.

  15. Sex Pheromone Dosages and Release Point Densities for Mating Disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in NE China Corn Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ri-Zhao; Jow, Chung-Kuang; Klein, Michael G; Jia, Yu-di; Zhang, Da-Yu; Li, Lan-Bing

    2017-08-01

    Mating disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with its sex pheromone has not been commonly used in NE China due to a lack of information about optimal sex pheromone dosages and the density of release points required in the field. During 2014-2016, first, the two active pheromone ingredients were evaluated in the laboratory alone at ca. 2.5-5.0 mg, or in combination at 0.2-6.0 mg, to disrupt male O. furnacalis mating behaviors. Then, mating disruption areas, with radii of disruption treatments. Finally, 6.0 (F30) and 0.2 mg (Fs) dosages were used in fields at 20-640 and 200-6,400 release points/ha. We found that ≧6.0 mg of the binary pheromone mixture, or ca. 5.0 mg of either of the two single components, completely disrupted mating behaviors, and F30 of the binary mixture provided a 200-m2 disruption area, with at least 50% capture reductions. At a density of 60-640 and 600-6,400 points/ha in a corn field, F30 and Fs dosages provided >90% mating disruption, leaf protection, and ear protection. The dispenser densities and inverse male catches in traps tended to follow a noncompetitive mechanism of mating disruption. Since 85% disruption of mating with 200-400 0.02 mg release points/ha was obtained, that level is recommended as the choice in future NE China O. furnacalis IPM programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Open Wilson lines and generalized star product in noncommutative scalar field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiem, Youngjai; Sato, Haru-Tada; Rey, Soo-Jong; Yee, Jung-Tay

    2002-01-01

    Open Wilson line operators and a generalized star product have been studied extensively in noncommutative gauge theories. We show that they also show up in noncommutative scalar field theories as universal structures. We first point out that the dipole picture of noncommutative geometry provides an intuitive argument for the robustness of the open Wilson lines and generalized star products therein. We calculate the one-loop effective action of noncommutative scalar field theory with a cubic self-interaction and show explicitly that the generalized star products arise in the nonplanar part. It is shown that, at the low-energy, large noncommutativity limit, the nonplanar part is expressible solely in terms of the scalar open Wilson line operator and descendants

  17. The complex magnetic field topology of the cool Ap star 49 Cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Rusomarov, N.; Wade, G. A.

    2017-10-01

    49 Cam is a cool magnetic chemically peculiar star that has been noted for showing strong, complex Zeeman linear polarization signatures. This paper describes magnetic and chemical surface maps obtained for 49 Cam using the Invers10 magnetic Doppler imaging code and high-resolution spectropolarimetric data in all four Stokes parameters collected with the ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and Pic du Midi Observatory. The reconstructed magnetic field maps of 49 Cam show a relatively complex structure. Describing the magnetic field topology in terms of spherical harmonics, we find significant contributions of modes up to ℓ = 3, including toroidal components. Observations cannot be reproduced using a simple low-order multipolar magnetic field structure. 49 Cam exhibits a level of field complexity that has not been seen in magnetic maps of other cool Ap stars. Hence, we concluded that relatively complex magnetic fields are observed in Ap stars at both low and high effective temperatures. In addition to mapping the magnetic field, we also derive surface abundance distributions of nine chemical elements, including Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ce, Pr, Nd and Eu. Comparing these abundance maps with the reconstructed magnetic field geometry, we find no clear relationship of the abundance distributions with the magnetic field for some elements. However, for other elements some distinct patterns are found. We discuss these results in the context of other recent magnetic mapping studies and theoretical predictions of radiative diffusion.

  18. Detection of magnetic field in the B2 star ρ Ophiuchi A with ESO FORS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitteri, I.; Fossati, L.; Castro Rodriguez, N.; Oskinova, L.; Wolk, S. J.

    2018-02-01

    Circumstantial evidence suggests that magnetism and enhanced X-ray emission are likely correlated in early B-type stars: similar fractions of them ( 10%) are strong and hard X-ray sources and possess strong magnetic fields. It is also known that some B-type stars have spots on their surface. Yet up to now no X-ray activity associated with spots on early-type stars was detected. In this Letter we report the detection of a magnetic field on the B2V star ρ Oph A. Previously, we assessed that the X-ray activity of this star is associated with a surface spot, herewith we establish its magnetic origin. We analyze spectra of ρ Oph A obtained with the FORS2 spectrograph at ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at two epochs, and detect a longitudinal component of the magnetic field of the order of 500 G in one of the datasets. The detection of the magnetic field only at one epoch can be explained by stellar rotation which is also invoked to explain observed periodic X-ray activity. From archival HARPS ESO VLT high resolution spectra we derived the fundamental stellar parameters of ρ Oph A and further constrained its age. We conclude that ρ Oph A provides strong evidence for the presence of active X-ray emitting regions on young magnetized early type stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 099.D-0067(A) and 078.C-0403(A).

  19. Warm dust around cool stars: field M dwarfs with Wise 12 or 22 μm excess emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theissen, Christopher A.; West, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) spectroscopic catalog, we searched the WISE AllWISE catalog to investigate the occurrence of warm dust, as inferred from IR excesses, around field M dwarfs (dMs). We developed SDSS/WISE color selection criteria to identify 175 dMs (from 70,841) that show IR flux greater than the typical dM photosphere levels at 12 and/or 22 μm, including seven new stars within the Orion OB1 footprint. We characterize the dust populations inferred from each IR excess and investigate the possibility that these excesses could arise from ultracool binary companions by modeling combined spectral energy distributions. Our observed IR fluxes are greater than levels expected from ultracool companions (>3σ). We also estimate that the probability the observed IR excesses are due to chance alignments with extragalactic sources is <0.1%. Using SDSS spectra we measure surface gravity-dependent features (K, Na, and CaH 3) and find <15% of our sample indicates low surface gravities. Examining tracers of youth (Hα, UV fluxes, and Li absorption), we find <3% of our sample appear young, indicating we are observing a population of field stars ≳1 Gyr, likely harboring circumstellar material. We investigate age-dependent properties probed by this sample, studying the disk fraction as a function of Galactic height. The fraction remains small and constant to |Z| ∼ 700 pc and then drops, indicating little to no trend with age. Possible explanations for disks around field dMs include (1) collisions of planetary bodies, (2) tidal disruption of planetary bodies, or (3) failed planet formation.

  20. CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THIN-DISK, HIGH-METALLICITY RED HORIZONTAL-BRANCH FIELD STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afsar, M. [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Sneden, C.; For, B.-Q., E-mail: melike.afsar@ege.edu.tr, E-mail: afsar@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: chris@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: biqing@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: biqing.for@uwa.edu.au [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    We present a detailed abundance analysis and atmospheric parameters of 76 stars from a survey to identify field Galactic red horizontal-branch (RHB) stars. High-resolution echelle spectra (R {approx_equal} 60,000, S/N {>=} 100) were obtained with the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. The target stars were selected only by color and parallax information. Overall metallicities and relative abundances of proton-capture elements (C, N, O, Li), {alpha}-elements (Ca and Si), and neutron-capture elements (Eu and La) were determined by either equivalent width or synthetic spectrum analyses. We used CN features at the {lambda}{lambda}7995-8040 region in order to determine the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios of our targets. Investigation of the evolutionary stages, using spectroscopic T{sub eff} and log g values along with derived {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios, revealed the presence of 18 probable RHB stars in our sample. We also derived kinematics of the stars with available distance information. Taking into account both the kinematics and probable evolutionary stages, we conclude that our sample contains 5 thick-disk and 13 thin-disk RHB stars. Up until now, RHB stars have been considered as members of the thick disk, and were expected to have large space velocities and sub-solar metallicities. However, our sample is dominated by low-velocity solar-metallicity RHB stars; their existence cannot be easily explained with standard stellar evolution.

  1. Magnetic fields of chemically peculiar and related stars. III. Main results of 2016 and analysis of closest perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, I. I.

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed more than 90 papers in the area "Magnetic fields and physical parameters of chemically peculiar and related stars," published mainly in 2016. The main results of the period under survey are as follows. The search for new magnetic stars continued.Many measurements weremade at the 6-m BTA telescope of the SAO RAS, new data on stellar magnetism in the OrionOB1 association were obtained. A systematic study ofmagnetic fields of stars with large anomalies in the energy distribution in the continuum was started. New data on ultra-slowmagnetic rotators—chemically peculiar stars with rotation periods of years and decades are obtained. Successful observations on the search for new magnetic stars are performed among the objects of the southern sky in Chile at the FORS2 VLT spectropolarimeter. A new direction was developed, namely, the study of binarymagnetic stars. Depending on the mass-distance ratio between the components, interaction with the magnetosphere and, possibly, magnetic braking may occur. The study of the details of this process is important for the theory of formation of stellar magnetic fields. The search for large-scale, but weak magnetic fields (magnitude of unities and tens of G) in non-CP stars is ongoing. Such fields are found in Am stars. No fields were found in the classical Be stars. Cool stars of various types were studied in detail. They manifested magnetic fields of a complex structure. Their mapping was performed, changes in the topology of the field were found at timescales of several years. Spectral and photometric variability was studied. Dozens of new potentially magnetic stars are discovered as a result of the ASAS-3, SuperWASP, Stereo and Kepler surveys. High-accuracy observations of rapidly oscillating stars were performed with the BRITE nanosatellite.Work continued on the studies of magnetic and photometric variability of white dwarfs. Finally, an overview of several papers on exoplanets, related with the subject of our

  2. Poloidal field measurements during transient phenomena on MTX: Sawtooth perturbations and the effect of ECH on disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.; Hooper, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    A fifteen channel far-infrared polarimeter has been used to measure poloidal field (B p ) profiles during transient events on MTX. Here we present experimental results on two separate phenomena. First,strong Bp perturbations are observed to be correlated with the sawtooth crash. The on-axis safety factor q 0 ∼ 0.8, is approximately constant before and after the crash. Although the perturbed field profile during the crash is too complex to invert unambiguously, several observations concerning existing sawtooth models can be made. The low value of q 0 combined with the large amplitude and complex radial structure of the B p perturbations, is more consistent with the stochastic or the double-layer reconnection sawtooth models rather than other standard models such as Kadomtsev reconnection or quasi-interchange. In addition, poloidal field measurements have been made prior to disruptions on MTX, both with and without electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The disruption studied here, is related to the buildup of heavy-metal impurities in the core, which is particularly prevalent at lower densities. The impurity radiation leads to a collapse of the T e , and J profiles followed by a disruption. The application of on-axis ECH during the T e collapse but prior to the disruption can repeak the T e and J profiles thus preventing the disruption. Since the core impurity radiation depends quite sensitively on T e heating significantly effects the power balance in the core, leading to stability for this type of disruption

  3. A Decade of Field Changing Atmospheric Aerosol Research: Outcomes of EPA’s STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conference: Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry, July 28 – August 2, 2013, VermontPresentation Type: PosterTitle: An Analysis of EPA’s STAR Program and a Decade of Field Changing Research in Atmospheric AerosolsAuthors: Kristina M. Wagstrom1,2, Sherri ...

  4. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide: a tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. Methods. We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer...

  5. Connecting stars and ionised gas with integral-field spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Emsellem, Eric; Shapiro, Kristen L.; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, Tim; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using integral-field spectroscopy, the SAURON survey has shown that early-type galaxies, once thought to be essentially devoid of gas, commonly show ionised gas emission. This emission is found with a rich variety of distributions and kinematics, ranging from very uniform disks or rings, and

  6. Revisiting Field Burial by Accretion onto Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipanjan Mukherjee

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... mechanism of the apparent reduction of field strength in MSPs is still a subject of debate. One of the proposed mechanisms is ... involving pulsar population studies (Bailes 1989; Bhat- tacharya et al. 1992; Faucher-Giguère ...... fully capture the growth of the instabilities. Lower res- olution results in higher ...

  7. Maxwell Equation Violation by Density Dependent Magnetic Fields in Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Marcelo D.; Menezes, Débora P.

    We show that the widely used density dependent magnetic field prescriptions, necessary to account for the variation of the field intensity from the crust to the core of neutron stars violate one of the Maxwell equations. We estimate how strong the violation is when different equations of state are used and check for which cases the pathological problem can be cured. We then propose a simple solution that allows for the usual prescriptions to be used without violating a fundamental equation of physics.

  8. Direct URCA-processes in neutron star quark core with strong magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyaev Vasily

    2017-01-01

    In evaluations, the strength of magnetic field corresponds to the case, where the quarks of medium occupy a lot of Landau levels, while the electrons are in ground Landau level. The analytical dependence of neutrino emissivity on chemical potentials of quarks and electrons, temperature and magnetic field strength is obtained and briefly discussed. The result could be important in application to a massive strongly magnetized neutron star with quark core.

  9. Neutron Star masses from the Field Correlator Method Equation of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappalà D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the hadron-quark phase transition in neutron stars by confronting the hadronic Equation of State (EoS obtained according to the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many body theory, with the quark matter EoS derived within the Field Correlator Method. In particular, the latter EoS is only parametrized in terms of the gluon condensate and the large distance quark-antiquark potential, so that the comparison of the results of this analysis with the most recent measurements of heavy neutron star masses provides some physical constraints on these two parameters.

  10. Dwarf Galaxies with Gentle Star Formation and the Counts of Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Ana

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the counts and colors of the faint galaxies observed in the Hubble Deep Field are fitted by means of simple luminosity evolution models that incorporate a numerous population of fading dwarfs. The observed color distribution of the very faint galaxies now allows us to put constraints on the star formation history in dwarfs. It is shown that the star-forming activity in these small systems has to proceed in a gentle way, i.e., through episodes where each one lasts much longer tha...

  11. Diversity in Neutron Stars: X-ray Observations of High-Magnetic-Field Radio Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2011-09-01

    Young neutron stars show a surprising diversity in observational behavior. Many different `classes' of these objects are presently inferred, including rotation-powered pulsars, magnetars, CCOs, INSs, among others. In this presentation I review a critical group of neutron stars that sit at the juncture of multiple such classes: the high-magnetic field rotation-powered pulsars. Deep X-ray studies of multiple high-B sources have now been done, and have revealed possible evidence for enhanced thermal emission, as predicted by models of magneto-thermal evolution. These observations will be described, and the evidence for enhanced cooling presented.

  12. Helium-burning flashes on accreting neutron stars: effects of stellar mass, radius, and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joss, P.C.; Li, F.K.

    1980-01-01

    We have computed the evolution of the helium-burning shell in an accreting neutron star for various values of the stellar mass (M), radius (R), and surface magnetic fields strength (B). As shown in previous work, the helium-burning shell is often unstable and undergoes thermonuclear flashes that result in the emission of X-ray bursts from the neutron-star surface. The dependence of the properties of these bursts upon the values of M and R can be described by simple scaling relations. A strong magnetic field decreases the radiative and conductive opacities and inhibits convection in the neutron-star surface layers. For B 12 gauss, these effects are unimportant; for B> or approx. =10 13 gauss, the enhancement of the electron thermal conductivity is sufficiently large to stabilize the helium-burning shell against thermonuclear flashes. For intermediate values of B, the reduced opacities increase the recurrence intervals between bursts and the energy released per burst, while the inhibition of convection increases the burst rise times to about a few seconds. If the magnetic field funnels the accreting matter onto the magnetic polar caps, the instability of the helium-burning shell will be very strongly suppressed. These results suggest that it may eventually be possible to extract information on the macroscopic properties of neutron stars from the observed features of X-ray burst sources

  13. The Double Star magnetic field investigation: instrument design, performance and highlights of the first year's observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carr

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of the Double Star mission is the accurate measurement of the magnetic field vector along the orbits of the two spacecraft. The magnetic field is an essential parameter for the understanding of space plasma processes and is also required for the effective interpretation of data from the other instruments on the spacecraft. We present the design of the magnetic field instrument onboard both of the Double Star spacecraft and an overview of the performance as measured first on-ground and then in-orbit. We also report the results of in-flight calibration of the magnetometers, and the processing methods employed to produce the final data products which are provided to Double Star investigators, and the wider community in general. Particular attention is paid to the techniques developed for removing magnetic interference generated by the solar arrays on the first (equatorial orbiting spacecraft. Results from the first year of operations are reviewed in the context of combined observations by Double Star and Cluster, and examples given from the different regions visited by the spacecraft to date.

  14. On Possible Reduction of Equilibrium Radius of a Neutron Star Influenced by Superstrong Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Skobelev

    2012-01-01

    -decay suppression of a neutron in degenerate magnetized electron gas is formulated. Based on this, it is shown that, in superstrong magnetic field, equilibrium radius of a neutron star is approximately several times smaller than without the field influence. Therefore, we can make a prediction that in short-period pulsars, such fields can be observed. In fact, possible existence of new class of stellar objects is noted, the objects with superstrong magnetic field and supersmall radius about 1 km which we named minimagnetars. They can be detected by gravitational red shift of their radiation.

  15. Relativistic mean field model for entrainment in general relativistic superfluid neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, G.L.; Joynt, R.

    2003-01-01

    General relativistic superfluid neutron stars have a significantly more intricate dynamics than their ordinary fluid counterparts. Superfluidity allows different superfluid (and superconducting) species of particles to have independent fluid flows, a consequence of which is that the fluid equations of motion contain as many fluid element velocities as superfluid species. Whenever the particles of one superfluid interact with those of another, the momentum of each superfluid will be a linear combination of both superfluid velocities. This leads to the so-called entrainment effect whereby the motion of one superfluid will induce a momentum in the other superfluid. We have constructed a fully relativistic model for entrainment between superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons using a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the nucleons and their interactions. In this context there are two notions of 'relativistic': relativistic motion of the individual nucleons with respect to a local region of the star (i.e. a fluid element containing, say, an Avogadro's number of particles), and the motion of fluid elements with respect to the rest of the star. While it is the case that the fluid elements will typically maintain average speeds at a fraction of that of light, the supranuclear densities in the core of a neutron star can make the nucleons themselves have quite high average speeds within each fluid element. The formalism is applied to the problem of slowly rotating superfluid neutron star configurations, a distinguishing characteristic being that the neutrons can rotate at a rate different from that of the protons

  16. Bulgeless galaxies in the COSMOS field: environment and star formation evolution at z < 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Marco; Fernandes, Cristina A. C.; Sobral, David; Afonso, José; Telles, Eduardo; Bizzocchi, Luca; Paulino-Afonso, Ana; Matute, Israel

    2018-03-01

    Combining the catalogue of galaxy morphologies in the COSMOS field and the sample of H α emitters at redshifts z = 0.4 and z = 0.84 of the HiZELS survey, we selected ˜ 220 star-forming bulgeless systems (Sérsic index n ≤ 1.5) at both epochs. We present their star formation properties and we investigate their contribution to the star formation rate function (SFRF) and global star formation rate density (SFRD) at z comparison, we also analyse H α emitters with more structurally evolved morphologies that we split into two classes according to their Sérsic index n: intermediate (1.5 3). At both redshifts, the SFRF is dominated by the contribution of bulgeless galaxies and we show that they account for more than 60 per cent of the cosmic SFRD at z systems. Star-forming bulgeless systems are mostly located in regions of low to intermediate galaxy densities (Σ ˜ 1-4 Mpc-2) typical of field-like and filament-like environments and their specific star formation rates (sSFRs) do not appear to vary strongly with local galaxy density. Only few bulgeless galaxies in our sample have high (sSFR > 10-9 yr-1) and these are mainly low-mass systems. Above M* ˜ 1010 M⊙ bulgeless are evolving at a `normal' rate (10-9 yr-1 < sSFR < 10-10 yr-1) and in the absence of an external trigger (i.e. mergers/strong interactions) they might not be able to develop a central classical bulge.

  17. Astronomers Use X-Rays To Probe Gravitational Field Of A Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    With NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers have detected features that may be the first direct evidence of the effect of gravity on radiation from a neutron star. This finding, if confirmed, could enable scientists to measure the gravitational field of neutron stars and determine whether they contain exotic forms of matter not seen on Earth. A team led by George Pavlov of Penn State University in University Park observed 1E 1207.4-5209, a neutron star in the center of a supernova remnant about 7,000 light years from Earth. The results were presented on June 6, 2002, at the American Astronomical Society in Albuquerque, NM. Pavlov's group found two dips, or absorption features, in the spectrum of X-rays from the star. If these dips are due to the absorption of X-rays near the star by helium ions in a strong magnetic field, they indicate that the gravitational field reduces the energies of X-rays escaping from near the surface of a neutron star. "This interpretation is consistent with the data," said Pavlov, "but the features may be a blend of many other features. More precise measurements, preferably with Chandra's grating spectrometer, are needed." "These absorption features may be the first evidence of the effect of gravity on radiation near the surface of an isolated neutron star," said Pavlov. "This is particularly important because it would allow us to set limits on the type of matter that comprises this star." Neutron stars are formed when a massive star runs out of fuel and its core collapses. A supernova explosion occurs and the collapsed core is compressed to a hot object about 12 miles in diameter, with a thin atmosphere of hydrogen and possibly heavier ions in a gravitational field 100 billion times as strong as Earth's. These objects, which have a density of more than 1 billion tons per teaspoonful, are called neutron stars because they have been thought to be composed mostly of neutrons. Although neutron stars have been studied extensively for

  18. Star Formation In the Galaxy and the Fluctuating UV Radiation Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, David; Parravano, Antonio; McKee, Christopher H.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We examine the formation of massive stars in the Galaxy, the resultant fluctuating UV (ultraviolet) radiation field, and the effect of this field on the star-forming interstellar medium. There are substantial fluctuations of the UV radiation field in space (scales of 100's of parsecs) and time (time-scales of order 100 million years). The FUV (far ultraviolet) (6 eV less than hv less than 13.6 eV) field and the pressure determines whether the thermal balance of the neutral gas results in cold clouds or warm (T approx. 10(exp 4) K) neutral medium. We show how to calculate the average fractions of the gas in the cold and warm phases when the interstellar gas is subject to this fluctuating FUV field. The knowledge of how these fractions depend on the gas properties and on the FUV sources is a basic step in building a model of the large scale behavior of the ISM (interstellar medium) and the mutual relation between the ISM and the star formation rate.

  19. Magnetic field strength of a neutron-star-powered ultraluminous X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Fürst, F.; Middleton, M. J.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Fabian, A. C.; Heida, M.; Barret, D.; Bachetti, M.

    2018-04-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are bright X-ray sources in nearby galaxies not associated with the central supermassive black hole. Their luminosities imply they are powered by either an extreme accretion rate onto a compact stellar remnant, or an intermediate mass ( 100-105M⊙) black hole1. Recently detected coherent pulsations coming from three bright ULXs2-5 demonstrate that some of these sources are powered by accretion onto a neutron star, implying accretion rates significantly in excess of the Eddington limit, a high degree of geometric beaming, or both. The physical challenges associated with the high implied accretion rates can be mitigated if the neutron star surface field is very high (1014 G)6, since this suppresses the electron scattering cross-section, reducing the radiation pressure that chokes off accretion for high luminosities. Surface magnetic field strengths can be determined through cyclotron resonance scattering features7,8 produced by the transition of charged particles between quantized Landau levels. Here, we present the detection at a significance of 3.8σ of an absorption line at 4.5 keV in the Chandra spectrum of a ULX in M51. This feature is likely to be a cyclotron resonance scattering feature produced by the strong magnetic field of a neutron star. Assuming scattering off electrons, the magnetic field strength is implied to be 1011 G, while protons would imply a magnetic field of B 1015 G.

  20. Investigating Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Stine Schmieg; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    This book shares knowledge collected from 2015 and onward within the Consortium for Digital Disruption anchored at Aalborg University (www.dd.aau.dk). Evidenced by this publication, the field of disruptive innovation research has gone through several stages of operationalizing the theory. In recent...... years, researchers are increasingly looking back towards the origins of the theory in attempts to cure it from its most obvious flaws. This is especially true for the use of the theory in making predictions about future disruptions. In order to continue to develop a valuable theory of disruption, we...... find it useful to first review what the theory of disruptive innovation initially was, how it has developed, and where we are now. A cross section of disruptive innovation literature has been reviewed in order to form a general foundation from which we might better understand the changing world...

  1. Magnetic Axis Drift and Magnetic Spot Formation in Neutron Stars with Toroidal Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    We explore magnetic field configurations that lead to the formation of magnetic spots on the surface of neutron stars and the displacement of the magnetic dipole axis. We find that a toroidally dominated magnetic field is essential for the generation of a single spot with a strong magnetic field. Once a spot forms, it survives for several million years, even after the total magnetic field has decayed significantly. We find that the dipole axis is not stationary with respect to the neutron star’s surface and does not in general coincide with the location of the magnetic spot. This is due to non-axisymmetric instabilities of the toroidal field that displace the poloidal dipole axis at rates that may reach 0.°4 per century. A misaligned poloidal dipole axis with the toroidal field leads to more significant displacement of the dipole axis than the fully aligned case. Finally we discuss the evolution of neutron stars with such magnetic fields on the P{--}\\dot{P} diagram and the observational implications. We find that neutron stars spend a very short time before they cross the Death Line of the P{--}\\dot{P} diagram, compared to their characteristic ages. Moreover, the maximum intensity of their surface magnetic field is substantially higher than the dipole component of the field. We argue that SGR 0418+5729 could be an example of this type of behavior, having a weak dipole field, yet hosting a magnetic spot responsible for its magnetar behavior. The evolution on the pulse profile and braking index of the Crab pulsar, which are attributed to an increase of its obliquity, are compatible with the anticipated drift of the magnetic axis.

  2. Characterization of the magnetic field of the Herbig Be star HD200775

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alecian, E.; Catala, C.; Wade, G. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Petit, P.; Landstreet, J. D.; Böhm, T.; Bouret, J.-C.; Bagnulo, S.; Folsom, C.; Grunhut, J.; Silvester, J.

    2008-03-01

    The origin of the magnetic fields observed in some intermediate-mass and high-mass main-sequence stars is still a matter of vigorous debate. The favoured hypothesis is a fossil field origin, in which the observed fields are the condensed remnants of magnetic fields present in the original molecular cloud from which the stars formed. According to this theory a few per cent of the pre-main-sequence (PMS) Herbig Ae/Be star should be magnetic with a magnetic topology similar to that of main-sequence intermediate-mass stars. After our recent discovery of four magnetic Herbig stars, we have decided to study in detail one of them, HD200775, to determine if its magnetic topology is similar to that of the main-sequence magnetic stars. With this aim, we monitored this star in Stokes I and V over more than 2yr, using the new spectropolarimeters ESPaDOnS at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), and Narval at Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL). By analysing the intensity spectrum we find that HD200775 is a double-lined spectroscopic binary system, whose secondary seems similar, in temperature, to the primary. We have carefully compared the observed spectrum to a synthetic one, and we found no evidence of abundance anomalies in its spectrum. We infer the luminosity ratio of the components from the Stokes I profiles. Then, using the temperature and luminosity of HD200775 found in the literature, we estimate the age, the mass and the radius of both components from their HR diagram positions. From our measurements of the radial velocities of both stars we determine the ephemeris and the orbital parameters of the system. A Stokes V Zeeman signature is clearly visible in most of the least-squares deconvolution profiles and varies on a time-scale on the order of 1d. We have fitted the 30 profiles simultaneously, using a χ2 minimization method, with a centred and a decentred-dipole model. The best-fitting model is obtained with a reduced χ2 = 1.0 and provides a rotation period of 4

  3. Looking for imprints of the first stellar generations in metal-poor bulge field stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Chiappini, C.; Barbuy, B.; Freeman, K.; Ness, M.; Depagne, E.; Cantelli, E.; Pignatari, M.; Hirschi, R.; Frischknecht, U.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Efforts to look for signatures of the first stars have concentrated on metal-poor halo objects. However, the low end of the bulge metallicity distribution has been shown to host some of the oldest objects in the Milky Way and hence this Galactic component potentially offers interesting targets to look at imprints of the first stellar generations. As a pilot project, we selected bulge field stars already identified in the ARGOS survey as having [Fe/H] ≈-1 and oversolar [α/Fe] ratios, and we used FLAMES-UVES to obtain detailed abundances of key elements that are believed to reveal imprints of the first stellar generations. Aims: The main purpose of this study is to analyse selected ARGOS stars using new high-resolution (R ~ 45 000) and high-signal-to-noise (S/N> 100) spectra. We aim to derive their stellar parameters and elemental ratios, in particular the abundances of C, N, the α-elements O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the neutron-capture s-process dominated elements Y, Zr, La, and Ba, and the r-element Eu. Methods: High-resolution spectra of five field giant stars were obtained at the 8 m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph in FLAMES-UVES configuration. Spectroscopic parameters were derived based on the excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II. The abundance analysis was performed with a MARCS LTE spherical model atmosphere grid and the Turbospectrum spectrum synthesis code. Results: We confirm that the analysed stars are moderately metal-poor (-1.04 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤-0.43), non-carbon-enhanced (non-CEMP) with [C/Fe] ≤ + 0.2, and α-enhanced. We find that our three most metal-poor stars are nitrogen enhanced. The α-enhancement suggests that these stars were formed from a gas enriched by core-collapse supernovae, and that the values are in agreement with results in the literature for bulge stars in the same metallicity range. No abundance anomalies (Na - O, Al - O, Al - Mg anti-correlations) were

  4. SEARCH FOR A MAGNETIC FIELD VIA CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IN THE WOLF-RAYET STAR EZ CMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Chevrotière, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first deep, direct search for a magnetic field via the circular polarization of Zeeman splitting in a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star. Using the highly efficient ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed at three different epochs one of the best W-R candidates in the sky expected to harbor a magnetic field, the bright, highly variable WN4 star EZ CMa = WR6 = HD 50896. We looked for the characteristic circular polarization (Stokes V) pattern in strong emission lines that would arise as a consequence of a global, rotating magnetic field with a split monopole configuration. We also obtained nearly simultaneous linear polarization spectra (Stokes Q and U), which are dominated by electron scattering, most likely from a flattened wind with large-scale corotating structures. As the star rotates with a period of 3.766 days, our view of the wind changes, which in turn affects the value of the linear polarization in lines versus continuum at the ∼0.2% level. Depending on the epoch of observation, our Stokes V data were affected by significant crosstalk from Stokes Q and U to V. We removed this spurious signal from the circular polarization data and experimented with various levels of spectral binning to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our data. In the end, no magnetic field is unambiguously detected in EZ CMa. Assuming that the star is intrinsically magnetic and harbors a split monopole configuration, we find an upper limit of B ∼ 100 G for the intensity of its field in the line-forming regions of the stellar wind.

  5. Plunging neutron stars as origin of organised magnetic field in galactic nuclei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, Vladimír; Kopáček, Ondřej; Kunneriath, D.; Zajaček, M.; Araudo, Anabella; Eckart, A.; Kovář, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-16287S; GA MŠk LD15061 Grant - others:COST(XE) MP1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetic fields * neutron stars * galactic centre Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  6. Magnetic field topology and chemical spot distributions of the Ap star HD 119419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusomarov, N.; Kochukhov, O.; Lundin, A.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Analysis of high-resolution spectropolarimetric time-series observations of early-type magnetic stars is currently the most advanced method of obtaining detailed information on their surface magnetic field topologies and horizontal spot distributions. Aims: In this study we analyse a new set of high-quality full Stokes vector observations of the magnetic Ap star HD 119419 - a member of the 14 Myr old Lower Cen-Cru association - for the purpose of studying the surface field topology and mapping the chemical abundance spots. Methods: We made use of the circular and linear polarisation data collected for HD 119419 with the HARPSpol instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. These observations were analysed with a multi-line magnetic diagnostic technique and modelled in detail with a Magnetic Doppler imaging (MDI) code. Results: We present a new set of high-precision mean longitudinal magnetic field measurements and derive a revised stellar rotational period by comparing our measurements with the literature data. We also redetermine the basic stellar atmospheric parameters. Our four Stokes parameter magnetic inversions reveal a moderately complex surface field topology with a mean field strength of 18 kG and a maximum local strength of 24 kG. A poloidal dipolar component dominates the magnetic energy spectrum of the surface field in HD 119419. However, significant contributions of the higher-order spherical harmonic components are also present. We show that the dipole plus quadrupole part of the reconstructed field geometry is incapable of reproducing the observed amplitudes and shapes of the Stokes Q and U profiles. The chemical abundance distributions of Fe, Cr, Ti, and Nd, derived self-consistently with the magnetic field geometry, are characterised by large abundance gradients and a lack of clear correlation with the magnetic field structure. Conclusions: This full Stokes vector analysis of HD 119419 extends the modern hot-star magnetic mapping investigations

  7. Field #3 of the Palomar-Groningen Survey; 1, Variable stars at the edge of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultheis, M.

    1996-01-01

    Submitted to: Astron. Astrophys. Abstract: A catalogue is presented with variable (RR Lyrae, semiregular and Mira) stars located inside field #3 of the Palomar-Groningen Survey, at the outer edge of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. One of the semiregular variables is a carbon star, comparable with

  8. Massive disc formation in the tidal disruption of a neutron star by a nearly extremal black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, Geoffrey; Kidder, Lawrence E; Duez, Matthew D; Foucart, Francois; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilágyi, Béla

    2013-01-01

    Black hole–neutron star (BHNS) binaries are important sources of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometers, and BHNS mergers are also a proposed engine for short, hard gamma-ray bursts. The behavior of both the spacetime (and thus the emitted gravitational waves) and the neutron-star matter in a BHNS merger depend strongly and nonlinearly on the black hole's spin. While there is a significant possibility that astrophysical black holes could have spins that are nearly extremal (i.e. near the theoretical maximum), to date fully relativistic simulations of BHNS binaries have included black-hole spins only up to S/M 2 = 0.9, which corresponds to the black hole having approximately half as much rotational energy as possible, given the black hole's mass. In this paper, we present a new simulation of a BHNS binary with a mass ratio q = 3 and black-hole spin S/M 2 = 0.97, the highest simulated to date. We find that the black hole's large spin leads to the most massive accretion disc and the largest tidal tail outflow of any fully relativistic BHNS simulations to date, even exceeding the results implied by extrapolating results from simulations with lower black-hole spin. The disc appears to be remarkably stable. We also find that the high black-hole spin persists until shortly before the time of merger; afterward, both merger and accretion spin down the black hole. (paper)

  9. Eyes in the sky. Interactions between asymptotic giant branch star winds and the interstellar magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, A. J.; Cox, N. L. J.; Decin, L.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The extended circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of evolved low-mass stars display a large variety of morphologies. Understanding the various mechanisms that give rise to these extended structures is important to trace their mass-loss history. Aims: Here, we aim to examine the role of the interstellar magnetic field in shaping the extended morphologies of slow dusty winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in an effort to pin-point the origin of so-called eye shaped CSEs of three carbon-rich AGB stars. In addition, we seek to understand if this pre-planetary nebula (PN) shaping can be responsible for asymmetries observed in PNe. Methods: Hydrodynamical simulations are used to study the effect of typical interstellar magnetic fields on the free-expanding spherical stellar winds as they sweep up the local interstellar medium (ISM). Results: The simulations show that typical Galactic interstellar magnetic fields of 5 to 10 μG are sufficient to alter the spherical expanding shells of AGB stars to appear as the characteristic eye shape revealed by far-infrared observations. The typical sizes of the simulated eyes are in accordance with the observed physical sizes. However, the eye shapes are transient in nature. Depending on the stellar and interstellar conditions, they develop after 20 000 to 200 000 yrs and last for about 50 000 to 500 000 yrs, assuming that the star is at rest relative to the local interstellar medium. Once formed, the eye shape develops lateral outflows parallel to the magnetic field. The explosion of a PN in the centre of the eye-shaped dust shell gives rise to an asymmetrical nebula with prominent inward pointing Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Conclusions: Interstellar magnetic fields can clearly affect the shaping of wind-ISM interaction shells. The occurrence of the eyes is most strongly influenced by stellar space motion and ISM density. Observability of this transient phase is favoured for lines-of-sight perpendicular to the

  10. Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    2013-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observed from this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of

  11. High-resolution Ultraviolet Radiation Fields of Classical T Tauri Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Schindhelm, Eric; Bergin, Edwin A.; Roueff, Evelyne; Abgrall, Hervé

    2014-04-01

    The far-ultraviolet (FUV; 912-1700 Å) radiation field from accreting central stars in classical T Tauri systems influences the disk chemistry during the period of giant planet formation. The FUV field may also play a critical role in determining the evolution of the inner disk (r publicly available in machine-readable format. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. Characterization of methanol as a magnetic field tracer in star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankhaar, Boy; Vlemmings, Wouter; Surcis, Gabriele; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.; van der Avoird, Ad

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role during star formation1. Direct magnetic field strength observations have proven particularly challenging in the extremely dynamic protostellar phase2-4. Because of their occurrence in the densest parts of star-forming regions, masers, through polarization observations, are the main source of magnetic field strength and morphology measurements around protostars2. Of all maser species, methanol is one of the strongest and most abundant tracers of gas around high-mass protostellar disks and in outflows. However, as experimental determination of the magnetic characteristics of methanol has remained largely unsuccessful5, a robust magnetic field strength analysis of these regions could hitherto not be performed. Here, we report a quantitative theoretical model of the magnetic properties of methanol, including the complicated hyperfine structure that results from its internal rotation6. We show that the large range in values of the Landé g factors of the hyperfine components of each maser line lead to conclusions that differ substantially from the current interpretation based on a single effective g factor. These conclusions are more consistent with other observations7,8 and confirm the presence of dynamically important magnetic fields around protostars. Additionally, our calculations show that (nonlinear) Zeeman effects must be taken into account to further enhance the accuracy of cosmological electron-to-proton mass ratio determinations using methanol9-12.

  13. Young massive star clusters in the era of HST and integral field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Peter; Nota, Antonella; Sabbi, Elena; Grebel, Eva K.; Pasquali, Anna

    2018-01-01

    With an age of 1 – 2 Myr at a distance of 4 kpc and a total stellar mass of 3.7×104 M⊙, Westerlund 2 (Wd2) is one of the most massive young star clusters in the Milky Way. We present a detailed analysis of its prominent pre-main-sequence population using the data of a high-resolution multi-band survey in the optical and near-infrared with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), in combination with our spectroscopic survey, observed with the VLT/MUSE integral field unit. With our derived high-resolution extinction map of the region, which is absolutely essential giving the dominating presences of the gas and dust, we derived the spatial dependence of the mass function and quantify the degree of mass segregation down to 0.65 M⊙ with a completeness level better than 50%. Studying the radial dependence of the mass function of Wd2 and quantifying the degree of mass segregation in this young massive star cluster showed that it consists of two sub-clumps, namely the main cluster and the northern clump. From the MUSE data, we can extract individual stellar spectra and spectral energy distributions of the stars, based on the astrometry, provided by our high-resolution HST photometric catalog. This data will provide us with an almost complete spectral classification of a young massive star cluster down to 1.0 M⊙. The combination of the MUSE data, together with 3 more years of approved HST data will allow us to obtain, for the first time, the 3D motions of the stars with an accuracy of 1-2 km s-2 to determine the stellar velocity dispersion in order to study the fate of Wd2. This information is of great importance to adjust the initial conditions in cluster evolution models in order to connect these young massive star clusters and the old globular cluster population. Additionally, the combination of the photometric and spectroscopic datasets allows us to study the stars and their feedback onto the surrounding HII region simultaneously, as well as peculiar objects such as

  14. X-ray studies of neutron stars and their magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAKISHIMA, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1–7) × 108 T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states. Taking all these results into account, a discussion is made on the origin and evolution of these strong MFs. One possible scenario is that the MF of NSs is a manifestation of some fundamental physics, e.g., neutron spin alignment or chirality violation, and the MF makes transitions from strong to weak states. PMID:27169348

  15. Magnetic field evolution of neutron stars - I. Basic formalism, numerical techniques and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransgrove, Ashley; Levin, Yuri; Beloborodov, Andrei

    2018-01-01

    In this work we explore the evolution of magnetic fields inside strongly magnetized neutron stars in axisymmetry. We model numerically the coupled field evolution in the core and the crust. Our code models the Hall drift and Ohmic effects in the crust, the back-reaction on the field from magnetically induced elastic deformation of the crust, the magnetic twist exchange between the crust and the core, and the drift of superconducting flux tubes inside the core. The correct hydromagnetic equilibrium is enforced in the core. We find that (i) The Hall attractor found by Gourgouliatos and Cumming in the crust exists also for configurations when the B-field penetrates into the core. However, the evolution time-scale for the core-penetrating fields is dramatically different from that of the fields confined to the crust. (ii) The combination of Jones' flux tube drift and Ohmic dissipation in the crust can deplete the pulsar magnetic fields on the time-scale of 150 Myr if the crust is hot (T ∼ 2 × 108 K), but acts on much slower time-scales for cold neutron stars, such as recycled pulsars (∼1.8 Gyr, depending on impurity levels). (iii) The outward motion of superfluid vortices during the rapid spin-down of a young highly magnetized pulsar can result in a partial expulsion of flux from the core when B ≲ 1013 G. However for B ≳ 2 × 1013 G, the combination of a stronger magnetic field and a longer spin period implies that the core field cannot be expelled.

  16. Atypical Mg-poor Milky Way Field Stars with Globular Cluster Second-generation-like Chemical Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Geisler, D.; Tang, B.; Villanova, S.; Mennickent, R. E. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Dell’Agli, F.; Prieto, Carlos Allende [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Souto, Diogo; Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ—20921-400 (Brazil); Schiavon, R. P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Hasselquist, Sten [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Shetrone, M. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Vieira, K. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, AP 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Zasowski, G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sobeck, J.; Hayes, C. R.; Majewski, S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Placco, V. M., E-mail: jfernandezt@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: jfernandezt87@gmail.com [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); and others

    2017-09-01

    We report the peculiar chemical abundance patterns of 11 atypical Milky Way (MW) field red giant stars observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). These atypical giants exhibit strong Al and N enhancements accompanied by C and Mg depletions, strikingly similar to those observed in the so-called second-generation (SG) stars of globular clusters (GCs). Remarkably, we find low Mg abundances ([Mg/Fe] < 0.0) together with strong Al and N overabundances in the majority (5/7) of the metal-rich ([Fe/H] ≳ −1.0) sample stars, which is at odds with actual observations of SG stars in Galactic GCs of similar metallicities. This chemical pattern is unique and unprecedented among MW stars, posing urgent questions about its origin. These atypical stars could be former SG stars of dissolved GCs formed with intrinsically lower abundances of Mg and enriched Al (subsequently self-polluted by massive AGB stars) or the result of exotic binary systems. We speculate that the stars Mg-deficiency as well as the orbital properties suggest that they could have an extragalactic origin. This discovery should guide future dedicated spectroscopic searches of atypical stellar chemical patterns in our Galaxy, a fundamental step forward to understanding the Galactic formation and evolution.

  17. Unveiling the Role of the Magnetic Field at the Smallest Scales of Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Mocz, Philip; Burkhart, Blakesley; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia (Spain); Cortés, Paulo C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Springel, Volker [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Lai, Shih-Ping, E-mail: chat.hull@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2 Kuang Fu Road, 30013 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-20

    We report Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of polarized dust emission from the protostellar source Ser-emb 8 at a linear resolution of 140 au. Assuming models of dust-grain alignment hold, the observed polarization pattern gives a projected view of the magnetic field structure in this source. Contrary to expectations based on models of strongly magnetized star formation, the magnetic field in Ser-emb 8 does not exhibit an hourglass morphology. Combining the new ALMA data with previous observational studies, we can connect magnetic field structure from protostellar core (∼80,000 au) to disk (∼100 au) scales. We compare our observations with four magnetohydrodynamic gravo-turbulence simulations made with the AREPO code that have initial conditions ranging from super-Alfvénic (weakly magnetized) to sub-Alfvénic (strongly magnetized). These simulations achieve the spatial dynamic range necessary to resolve the collapse of protostars from the parsec scale of star-forming clouds down to the ∼100 au scale probed by ALMA. Only in the very strongly magnetized simulation do we see both the preservation of the field direction from cloud to disk scales and an hourglass-shaped field at <1000 au scales. We conduct an analysis of the relative orientation of the magnetic field and the density structure in both the Ser-emb 8 ALMA observations and the synthetic observations of the four AREPO simulations. We conclude that the Ser-emb 8 data are most similar to the weakly magnetized simulations, which exhibit random alignment, in contrast to the strongly magnetized simulation, where the magnetic field plays a role in shaping the density structure in the source. In the weak-field case, it is turbulence—not the magnetic field—that shapes the material that forms the protostar, highlighting the dominant role that turbulence can play across many orders of magnitude in spatial scale.

  18. Models of large-scale magnetic fields in stellar interiors. Application to solar and ap stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duez, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Stellar astrophysics needs today new models of large-scale magnetic fields, which are observed through spectropolarimetry at the surface of Ap/Bp stars, and thought to be an explanation for the uniform rotation of the solar radiation zone, deduced from helio seismic inversions. During my PhD, I focused on describing the possible magnetic equilibria in stellar interiors. The found configurations are mixed poloidal-toroidal, and minimize the energy for a given helicity, in analogy with Taylor states encountered in spheromaks. Taking into account the self-gravity leads us to the 'non force-free' equilibria family, that will thus influence the stellar structure. I derived all the physical quantities associated with the magnetic field; then I evaluated the perturbations they induce on gravity, thermodynamic quantities as well as energetic ones, for a solar model and an Ap star. 3D MHD simulations allowed me to show that these equilibria form a first stable states family, the generalization of such states remaining an open question. It has been shown that a large-scale magnetic field confined in the solar radiation zone can induce an oblateness comparable to a high core rotation law. I also studied the secular interaction between the magnetic field, the differential rotation and the meridional circulation in the aim of implementing their effects in a next generation stellar evolution code. The influence of the magnetism on convection has also been studied. Finally, hydrodynamic processes responsible for the mixing have been compared with diffusion and a change of convection's efficiency in the case of a CoRoT star target. (author) [fr

  19. Realistic exact solution for the exterior field of a rotating neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachon, Leonardo A.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Sanabria-Gomez, Jose D.

    2006-01-01

    A new six-parametric, axisymmetric, and asymptotically flat exact solution of Einstein-Maxwell field equations having reflection symmetry is presented. It has arbitrary physical parameters of mass, angular momentum, mass-quadrupole moment, current octupole moment, electric charge, and magnetic dipole, so it can represent the exterior field of a rotating, deformed, magnetized, and charged object; some properties of the closed-form analytic solution such as its multipolar structure, electromagnetic fields, and singularities are also presented. In the vacuum case, this analytic solution is matched to some numerical interior solutions representing neutron stars, calculated by Berti and Stergioulas [E. Berti and N. Stergioulas, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 350, 1416 (2004)], imposing that the multipole moments be the same. As an independent test of accuracy of the solution to describe exterior fields of neutron stars, we present an extensive comparison of the radii of innermost stable circular orbits (ISCOs) obtained from the Berti and Stergioulas numerical solutions, the Kerr solution [R. P. Kerr, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 237 (1963)], the Hartle and Thorne solution [J. B. Hartle and K. S. Thorne, Astrophys. J. 153, 807 (1968)], an analytic series expansion derived by Shibata and Sasaki [M. Shibata and M. Sasaki, Phys. Rev. D 58, 104011 (1998)], and our exact solution. We found that radii of ISCOs from our solution fits better than others with realistic numerical interior solutions

  20. Adaptive acoustic energy delivery to near and far fields using foldable, tessellated star transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chengzhe; Harne, Ryan L.

    2017-05-01

    Methods of guiding acoustic energy arbitrarily through space have long relied on digital controls to meet performance needs. Yet, more recent attention to adaptive structures with unique spatial configurations has motivated mechanical signal processing (MSP) concepts that may not be subjected to the same functional and performance limitations as digital acoustic beamforming counterparts. The periodicity of repeatable structural reconfiguration enabled by origami-inspired tessellated architectures turns attention to foldable platforms as frameworks for MSP development. This research harnesses principles of MSP to study a tessellated, star-shaped acoustic transducer constituent that provides on-demand control of acoustic energy guiding via folding-induced shape reconfiguration. An analytical framework is established to probe the roles of mechanical and acoustic geometry on the far field directivity and near field focusing of sound energy. Following validation by experiments and verification by simulations, parametric studies are undertaken to uncover relations between constituent topology and acoustic energy delivery to arbitrary points in the free field. The adaptations enabled by folding of the star-shaped transducer reveal capability for restricting sound energy to angular regions in the far field while also introducing means to modulate sound energy by three orders-of-magnitude to locations near to the transducer surface. In addition, the modeling philosophy devised here provides a valuable approach to solve general sound radiation problems for foldable, tessellated acoustic transducer constituents of arbitrary geometry.

  1. A star tracker insensitive to stray light generated by radiation sources close to the field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoli, A.; Gambicorti, L.; Simonetti, F.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of this work is to propose an innovative star tracker, practically insensitive to the radiation coming from the sun or from other strong planetary sources out of (but near) the Field of View. These sources need to be stopped in some way. The classical solution to reject the unwanted radiation is to place a shadow (or baffle) before the star tracker objective. The shadow size depends on the Field of View and on the minimum angle subtended by the source (i.e. the sun) with respect to the optical axis of the star tracker. The lower is this angle the larger is the shadow. Requests for star trackers able to work with the sun as close as possible to the Field of View are increasing, due to the need of maximum mission flexibility. The innovation of this proposed star tracker is conceived by using spatial filtering with a concept complementary to that of coronagraph for sun corona observation, allowing to drastically reduce the size of the shadow. It can also work close to antennas and other part of the platform, which, when illuminated by the sun, become secondary sources capable to blind the star tracker. This kind of accommodation offers three main advantages: no cumbersome shadows (baffle), maximum flexibility in terms of mission profile, less platform location constraints. This new star sensor concept, dated 2007, is now patent pending. Galileo Avionica (now Selex Galileo) is the owner of the patent.

  2. THE LUMINOSITY, MASS, AND AGE DISTRIBUTIONS OF COMPACT STAR CLUSTERS IN M83 BASED ON HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandar, Rupali; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaleida, Catherine; Calzetti, Daniela; Saha, Abhijit; O'Connell, Robert; Balick, Bruce; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick; Paresce, Francesco; Silk, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The newly installed Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain multi-band images of the nearby spiral galaxy M83. These new observations are the deepest and highest resolution images ever taken of a grand-design spiral, particularly in the near-ultraviolet, and allow us to better differentiate compact star clusters from individual stars and to measure the luminosities of even faint clusters in the U band. We find that the luminosity function (LF) for clusters outside of the very crowded starburst nucleus can be approximated by a power law, dN/dL ∝ L α , with α = -2.04 ± 0.08, down to M V ∼ -5.5. We test the sensitivity of the LF to different selection techniques, filters, binning, and aperture correction determinations, and find that none of these contribute significantly to uncertainties in α. We estimate ages and masses for the clusters by comparing their measured UBVI, Hα colors with predictions from single stellar population models. The age distribution of the clusters can be approximated by a power law, dN/dτ ∝ τ γ , with γ = -0.9 ± 0.2, for M ∼> few x 10 3 M sun and τ ∼ 8 yr. This indicates that clusters are disrupted quickly, with ∼80%-90% disrupted each decade in age over this time. The mass function of clusters over the same M-τ range is a power law, dN/dM ∝ M β , with β = -1.94 ± 0.16, and does not have bends or show curvature at either high or low masses. Therefore, we do not find evidence for a physical upper mass limit, M C , or for the earlier disruption of lower mass clusters when compared with higher mass clusters, i.e., mass-dependent disruption. We briefly discuss these implications for the formation and disruption of the clusters.

  3. STAR FORMATION IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: OBSERVATIONS CONFRONT SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damen, Maaike; Franx, Marijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Labbe, Ivo; Toft, Sune; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the star formation history of the universe using FIREWORKS, a multiwavelength survey of the Chandra Deep Field South. We study the evolution of the specific star formation rate (sSFR) with redshift in different mass bins from z = 0 to z ∼ 3. We find that the sSFR increases with redshift for all masses. The logarithmic increase of the sSFR with redshift is nearly independent of mass, but this cannot yet be verified at the lowest-mass bins at z>0.8, due to incompleteness. We convert the sSFRs to a dimensionless growth rate to facilitate a comparison with a semianalytic galaxy formation model that was implemented on the Millennium Simulation. The model predicts that the growth rates and sSFRs increase similarly with redshift for all masses, consistent with the observations. However, we find that for all masses, the inferred observed growth rates increase more rapidly with redshift than the model predictions. We discuss several possible causes for this discrepancy, ranging from field-to-field variance, conversions to SFR, and shape of the initial mass function. We find that none of these can solve the discrepancy completely. We conclude that the models need to be adapted to produce the steep increase in growth rate between redshift z = 0 and z = 1.

  4. Introduction to modeling convection in planets and stars magnetic field, density stratification, rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Glatzmaier, Gary

    2013-01-01

    This book provides readers with the skills they need to write computer codes that simulate convection, internal gravity waves, and magnetic field generation in the interiors and atmospheres of rotating planets and stars. Using a teaching method perfected in the classroom, Gary Glatzmaier begins by offering a step-by-step guide on how to design codes for simulating nonlinear time-dependent thermal convection in a two-dimensional box using Fourier expansions in the horizontal direction and finite differences in the vertical direction. He then describes how to implement more efficient and accura

  5. Machine learning techniques to select Be star candidates. An application in the OGLE-IV Gaia south ecliptic pole field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ortiz, M. F.; García-Varela, A.; Quiroz, A. J.; Sabogal, B. E.; Hernández, J.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Optical and infrared variability surveys produce a large number of high quality light curves. Statistical pattern recognition methods have provided competitive solutions for variable star classification at a relatively low computational cost. In order to perform supervised classification, a set of features is proposed and used to train an automatic classification system. Quantities related to the magnitude density of the light curves and their Fourier coefficients have been chosen as features in previous studies. However, some of these features are not robust to the presence of outliers and the calculation of Fourier coefficients is computationally expensive for large data sets. Aims: We propose and evaluate the performance of a new robust set of features using supervised classifiers in order to look for new Be star candidates in the OGLE-IV Gaia south ecliptic pole field. Methods: We calculated the proposed set of features on six types of variable stars and also on a set of Be star candidates reported in the literature. We evaluated the performance of these features using classification trees and random forests along with the K-nearest neighbours, support vector machines, and gradient boosted trees methods. We tuned the classifiers with a 10-fold cross-validation and grid search. We then validated the performance of the best classifier on a set of OGLE-IV light curves and applied this to find new Be star candidates. Results: The random forest classifier outperformed the others. By using the random forest classifier and colours criteria we found 50 Be star candidates in the direction of the Gaia south ecliptic pole field, four of which have infrared colours that are consistent with Herbig Ae/Be stars. Conclusions: Supervised methods are very useful in order to obtain preliminary samples of variable stars extracted from large databases. As usual, the stars classified as Be stars candidates must be checked for the colours and spectroscopic characteristics

  6. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin [Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning [Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Wu, Liming, E-mail: wlm@zju.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zheng, Shusen, E-mail: shusenzheng@zju.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation of Zhejiang Province, The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge.

  8. Can disturbances in the atmospheric electric field created by powerline corona ions disrupt melatonin production in the pineal gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Denis L; Ward, Jonathan P; Matthews, James C

    2008-11-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of leukemia in adults and children near overhead high voltage powerlines at distances beyond the measured range of the direct electric and magnetic fields. Corona ions are emitted by powerlines, forming a plume that is carried away from the line by the wind. The plume generates highly variable disturbances in the atmospheric electric field of tens to a few hundred V/m on time scales from seconds to minutes. Such disturbances can be seen up to several hundred meters from powerlines. It is hypothesized that these random disturbances result in the disruption of nocturnal melatonin synthesis and related circadian rhythms, in turn leading to increased risk of a number of adverse health effects including leukemia. In support of the hypothesis, it is noted that melatonin is highly protective of oxidative damage to the human hemopoietic system. A review of electric field studies provides evidence that (i) diurnal variation in the natural atmospheric electric field may itself act as a weak Zeitgeber; (ii) melatonin disruption by electric fields occurs in rats; (iii) in humans, disturbances in circadian rhythms have been observed with artificial fields as low at 2.5 V/m. Specific suggestions are made to test the aspects of the hypothesis.

  9. How good a clock is rotation? The stellar rotation-mass-age relationship for old field stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Courtney R.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    The rotation-mass-age relationship offers a promising avenue for measuring the ages of field stars, assuming the attendant uncertainties to this technique can be well characterized. We model stellar angular momentum evolution starting with a rotation distribution from open cluster M37. Our predicted rotation-mass-age relationship shows significant zero-point offsets compared to an alternative angular momentum loss law and published gyrochronology relations. Systematic errors at the 30% level are permitted by current data, highlighting the need for empirical guidance. We identify two fundamental sources of uncertainty that limit the precision of rotation-based ages and quantify their impact. Stars are born with a range of rotation rates, which leads to an age range at fixed rotation period. We find that the inherent ambiguity from the initial conditions is important for all young stars, and remains large for old stars below 0.6 M ☉ . Latitudinal surface differential rotation also introduces a minimum uncertainty into rotation period measurements and, by extension, rotation-based ages. Both models and the data from binary star systems 61 Cyg and α Cen demonstrate that latitudinal differential rotation is the limiting factor for rotation-based age precision among old field stars, inducing uncertainties at the ∼2 Gyr level. We also examine the relationship between variability amplitude, rotation period, and age. Existing ground-based surveys can detect field populations with ages as old as 1-2 Gyr, while space missions can detect stars as old as the Galactic disk. In comparison with other techniques for measuring the ages of lower main sequence stars, including geometric parallax and asteroseismology, rotation-based ages have the potential to be the most precise chronometer for 0.6-1.0 M ☉ stars.

  10. Star Formation, Quenching And Chemical Enrichment In Local Galaxies From Integral Field Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Within the currently well-established ΛCDM cosmological framework we still lack a satisfactory understanding of the processes that trigger, regulate and eventually quench star formation on galactic scales. Gas flows (including inflows from the cosmic web and supernovae-driven outflows) are considered to act as self-regulatory mechanisms, generating the scaling relations between stellar mass, star formation rate and metallicity observed in the local Universe by large spectroscopic surveys. These surveys, however, have so far been limited by the availability of only one spectrum per galaxy. The aim of this dissertation is to expand the study of star formation and chemical abundances to resolved scales within galaxies by using integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data, mostly from the ongoing SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. In the first part of this thesis I demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of extended low ionisation emission-line regions (LIERs) in both late- and early-type galaxies. By studying the Hα equivalent width and diagnostic line ratios radial profiles, together with tracers of the underlying stellar population, I show that LIERs are not due to a central point source but to hot evolved (post-asymptotic giant branch) stars. In light of this, I suggest a new classification scheme for galaxies based on their line emission. By analysing the colours, star formation rates, morphologies, gas and stellar kinematics and environmental properties of galaxies with substantial LIER emission, I identify two distinct populations. Galaxies where the central regions are LIER-like, but show star formation at larger radii are late types in which star formation is slowly quenched inside-out. This transformation is associated with massive bulges. Galaxies dominated by LIER emission at all radii, on the other hand, are red-sequence galaxies harbouring a residual cold gas component, acquired mostly via external accretion. Quiescent galaxies devoid of line emission reside in denser

  11. Far-infrared - radio correlation and magnetic field strength in star-forming early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, A.; Paswan, A.

    2018-03-01

    A tight far-infrared - radio correlation similar to that in star-forming late-type galaxies is also indicated in star-forming blue early-type galaxies, in which the nuclear optical-line emissions are primarily due to star-forming activities without a significant contribution from active galactic nuclei. The average value of far-infrared to 1.4 GHz radio flux-ratio commonly represented as the ΄q΄ parameter is estimated to be 2.35 ± 0.05 with a scatter of 0.16 dex. The average star formation rate estimated using 1.4 GHz radio continuum is ˜6 M⊙ yr-1 in good agreement with those estimated using far-infrared and Hα luminosities. The radio emission is detected mainly from central region which could be associated with the star-forming activities, most likely triggered by recent tidal interactions. The average thermal contribution to total radio flux is estimated to be ˜12 per cent. The average value of the magnetic field strengths in the star-forming early-type galaxies is estimated to be 12^{+11}_{-4} μG. These magnetic fields are very likely generated via fast amplification in small-scale turbulent dynamos acting in the star-bursting regions.

  12. MAGNETIC FIELD TOPOLOGY IN LOW-MASS STARS: SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Lim, Jeremy; Donati, Jean-Francois; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; MartIn, Eduardo L.

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic field topology plays an important role in the understanding of stellar magnetic activity. While it is widely accepted that the dynamo action present in low-mass partially convective stars (e.g., the Sun) results in predominantly toroidal magnetic flux, the field topology in fully convective stars (masses below ∼0.35 M sun ) is still under debate. We report here our mapping of the magnetic field topology of the M4 dwarf G 164-31 (or Gl 490B), which is expected to be fully convective, based on time series data collected from 20 hr of observations spread over three successive nights with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter. Our tomographic imaging technique applied to time series of rotationally modulated circularly polarized profiles reveals an axisymmetric large-scale poloidal magnetic field on the M4 dwarf. We then apply a synthetic spectrum fitting technique for measuring the average magnetic flux on the star. The flux measured in G 164-31 is |Bf| = 3.2 ± 0.4 kG, which is significantly greater than the average value of 0.68 kG determined from the imaging technique. The difference indicates that a significant fraction of the stellar magnetic energy is stored in small-scale structures at the surface of G 164-31. Our Hα emission light curve shows evidence for rotational modulation suggesting the presence of localized structure in the chromosphere of this M dwarf. The radius of the M4 dwarf derived from the rotational period and the projected equatorial velocity is at least 30% larger than that predicted from theoretical models. We argue that this discrepancy is likely primarily due to the young nature of G 164-31 rather than primarily due to magnetic field effects, indicating that age is an important factor which should be considered in the interpretation of this observational result. We also report here our polarimetric observations of five other M dwarfs with spectral types from M0 to M4.5, three of them showing strong Zeeman signatures.

  13. Circumnuclear star formation in Mrk 42 mapped with Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Moiré G.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Dors, O. L.; Riffel, Rogerio; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Colina, Luis

    2018-03-01

    We present Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) observations of the inner 1.5 × 1.5 kpc2 of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 42 at a spatial resolution of 60 pc and spectral resolution of 40 km s^{-1}. The emission-line flux and equivalent width maps clearly show a ring of circumnuclear star formation regions (CNSFRs) surrounding the nucleus with radius of ˜ 500 pc. The spectra of some of these regions show molecular absorption features which are probably of CN, TiO or VO, indicating the presence of massive evolved stars in the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase. The gas kinematics of the ring is dominated by rotation in the plane of the galaxy, following the large scale disk geometry, while at the nucleus an additional outflowing component is detected blueshifted by 300-500 km s^{-1}, relative to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. Based on the equivalent width of Brγ we find evidences of gradients in the age of H II regions along the ring of Mrk 42, favoring the pearls on a string scenario of star formation. The broad component of Paβ emission line presents a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of ˜ 1480 km s^{-1}, implying in a mass of ˜ 2.5 × 106 M⊙ for the central supermassive black hole. Based on emission-line ratios we conclude that besides the active galactic nucleus, Mrk 42 presents nuclear Starburst activity.

  14. Interaction of a weak gravitational wave with the electromagnetic field of a neutron star in the field theory of gravitation and in the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction of a weak gravitational wave and the electromagnetic field of a neutron star from the point of view of two theories: the linear variant of the field theory of gravitation and the general theory of relativity. The obtained solutions are used to analyze the possibilities of establishing experimentally which of the two theories describes reality adequately

  15. Origin and Evolution of Magnetic Field in PMS Stars: Influence of Rotation and Structural Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emeriau-Viard, Constance; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2017-01-01

    During stellar evolution, especially in the pre-main-sequence phase, stellar structure and rotation evolve significantly, causing major changes in the dynamics and global flows of the star. We wish to assess the consequences of these changes on stellar dynamo, internal magnetic field topology, and activity level. To do so, we have performed a series of 3D HD and MHD simulations with the ASH code. We choose five different models characterized by the radius of their radiative zone following an evolutionary track computed by a 1D stellar evolution code. These models characterized stellar evolution from 1 to 50 Myr. By introducing a seed magnetic field in the fully convective model and spreading its evolved state through all four remaining cases, we observe systematic variations in the dynamical properties and magnetic field amplitude and topology of the models. The five MHD simulations develop a strong dynamo field that can reach an equipartition state between the kinetic and magnetic energies and even superequipartition levels in the faster-rotating cases. We find that the magnetic field amplitude increases as it evolves toward the zero-age main sequence. Moreover, the magnetic field topology becomes more complex, with a decreasing axisymmetric component and a nonaxisymmetric one becoming predominant. The dipolar components decrease as the rotation rate and the size of the radiative core increase. The magnetic fields possess a mixed poloidal-toroidal topology with no obvious dominant component. Moreover, the relaxation of the vestige dynamo magnetic field within the radiative core is found to satisfy MHD stability criteria. Hence, it does not experience a global reconfiguration but slowly relaxes by retaining its mixed stable poloidal-toroidal topology.

  16. Origin and Evolution of Magnetic Field in PMS Stars: Influence of Rotation and Structural Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeriau-Viard, Constance; Brun, Allan Sacha, E-mail: constance.emeriau@cea.fr, E-mail: sacha.brun@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay CEA/DSM—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/DAp CEA Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2017-09-01

    During stellar evolution, especially in the pre-main-sequence phase, stellar structure and rotation evolve significantly, causing major changes in the dynamics and global flows of the star. We wish to assess the consequences of these changes on stellar dynamo, internal magnetic field topology, and activity level. To do so, we have performed a series of 3D HD and MHD simulations with the ASH code. We choose five different models characterized by the radius of their radiative zone following an evolutionary track computed by a 1D stellar evolution code. These models characterized stellar evolution from 1 to 50 Myr. By introducing a seed magnetic field in the fully convective model and spreading its evolved state through all four remaining cases, we observe systematic variations in the dynamical properties and magnetic field amplitude and topology of the models. The five MHD simulations develop a strong dynamo field that can reach an equipartition state between the kinetic and magnetic energies and even superequipartition levels in the faster-rotating cases. We find that the magnetic field amplitude increases as it evolves toward the zero-age main sequence. Moreover, the magnetic field topology becomes more complex, with a decreasing axisymmetric component and a nonaxisymmetric one becoming predominant. The dipolar components decrease as the rotation rate and the size of the radiative core increase. The magnetic fields possess a mixed poloidal-toroidal topology with no obvious dominant component. Moreover, the relaxation of the vestige dynamo magnetic field within the radiative core is found to satisfy MHD stability criteria. Hence, it does not experience a global reconfiguration but slowly relaxes by retaining its mixed stable poloidal-toroidal topology.

  17. The complex kinematics of rotating star clusters in a tidal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiongco, Maria A.; Vesperini, Enrico; Varri, Anna Lisa

    2018-03-01

    We broaden the investigation of the dynamical properties of tidally perturbed, rotating star clusters by relaxing the traditional assumptions of coplanarity, alignment, and synchronicity between the internal and orbital angular velocity vector of their initial conditions. We show that the interplay between the internal evolution of these systems and their interaction with the external tidal field naturally leads to the development of a number of evolutionary features in their three-dimensional velocity space, including a precession and nutation of the global rotation axis and a variation of its orientation with the distance from the cluster centre. In some cases, such a radial variation may manifest itself as a counter-rotation of the outermost regions relative to the inner ones. The projected morphology of these systems is characterized by a non-monotonic ellipticity profile and, depending on the initial inclination of the rotation axis, it may also show a twisting of the projected isodensity contours. These results provide guidance in the identification of non-trivial features which may emerge in upcoming investigations of star cluster kinematics and a dynamical framework to understand some of the complexities already hinted by recent observational studies.

  18. Results of the magnetic field measurements of CP stars carried out with the Russian 6-m telescope. II. Observations in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.

    2015-10-01

    We present the results of the magnetic field measurements of 37 chemically peculiar and 4 normal main sequence stars using circularly polarized spectra obtained in 2008 with a Zeeman analyzer on the Main Stellar Spectrograph (MSS) of the Russian 6-m telescope (BTA). Four new magnetic stars have been discovered (HD25999, HD35100, HD96237, and HD279021), the presence of a field was suspected in two stars (HD2887 and BD-12°2366), 16 previously known CP stars were continued to be monitored to study their fields. The results of the longitudinal magnetic field B e measurements show that in stars with narrow spectral lines, systematic errors in B e determination do not exceed 10-20 G, which is within the statistical error. Our study of stars with reliable phase curves of the longitudinal field B e show that there are no instrumental effects which can distort the observations.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral types of stars in CoRoT fields (Sebastian+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, D.; Guenther, E. W.; Schaffenroth, V.; Gandolfi, D.; Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Deleuil, M.; Moutou, C.

    2012-03-01

    Spectroscopic classification for 2950 O-, B-, and A-type stars in the CoRoT-fields IRa01, LRa01, and LRa02. Stars are named by their CoRoT-identifier and Coordinates are given. The visual magnitudes were obtained with the Wide Field Camera filter-system of the Isaac Newton Telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma and can be converted into Landolt standards, as shown in Deleuil et al. (2009AJ....138..649D). (1 data file).

  20. Sc and neutron-capture abundances in Galactic low- and high-alpha field halo stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fishlock, Cherie K.; Yong, D.; Karakas, Amanda I.

    2017-01-01

    We determine relative abundance ratios for the neutron-capture elements Zr, La, Ce, Nd and Eu for a sample of 27 Galactic dwarf stars with -1.5 <[Fe/H] <-0.8. We also measure the iron-peak element Sc. These stars separate into three populations (low-and high-a halo and thick-disc stars) based on ...

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Selection function of Milky Way field stars (Stonkute+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonkute, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Howes, L. M.; Feltzing, S.; Worley, C. C.; Gilmore, G.; Ruchti, G. R.; Kordopatis, G.; Randich, S.; Zwitter, T.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Costado, M. T.; Tautvaisiene, G.; Casey, A. R.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofre, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Sbordone, L.

    2017-10-01

    The observations are conducted with the FLAMES (Pasquini et al., 2002Msngr.110....1P) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) array operated by the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal, Chile. FLAMES is a fibre facility of the VLT and is mounted at the Nasmyth A platform of the second Unit Telescope of VLT. In this paper, we present the Gaia-ESO Survey selection function only for the Milky Way field stars observed with the GIRAFFE and UVES spectrographs at VLT, not including the bulge. All targets were selected according to their colours and magnitudes, using photometry from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS; McMahon et al. 2013Msngr.154...35M) and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS; Skrutskie et al., 2006, Cat. VII/233). Selected potential target lists were generated at the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) centre. (3 data files).

  2. Close Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster: On the Universality of Stellar Multiplicity and the Origin of Field Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchene, Gaspard; Lacour, Sylvestre; Moraux, Estelle; Bouvier, Jerome; Goodwin, Simon

    2018-01-01

    While stellar multiplicity is an ubiquitous outcome of star formation, there is a clear dichotomy between the multiplicity properties of young (~1 Myr-old) stellar clusters, like the ONC, which host a mostly field-like population of visual binaries, and those of equally young sparse populations, like the Taurus-Auriga region, which host twice as many stellar companions. Two distinct scenarios can account for this observation: one in which different star-forming regions form different number of stars, and one in which multiplicity properties are universal at birth but where internal cluster dynamics destroy many wide binaries. To solve this ambiguity, one must probe binaries that are sufficiently close so as not to be destroyed through interactions with other cluster members. To this end, we have conducted a survey for 10-100 au binaries in the ONC using the aperture masking technique with the VLT adaptive optics system. Among our sample of the 42 ONC members, we discovered 13 companions in this range of projected separations. This is consistent with the companion frequency observed in the Taurus population and twice as high as that observed among field stars. This survey thus strongly supports the idea that stellar multiplicity is characterized by near-universal initial properties that can later be dynamically altered. On the other hand, this exacerbates the question of the origin of field stars, since only clusters much denser than the ONC can effectively destroyed binaries closer than 100 au.

  3. Mechanical disruption of tumors by iron particles and magnetic field application results in increased anti-tumor immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam N Bouchlaka

    Full Text Available The primary tumor represents a potential source of antigens for priming immune responses for disseminated disease. Current means of debulking tumors involves the use of cytoreductive conditioning that impairs immune cells or removal by surgery. We hypothesized that activation of the immune system could occur through the localized release of tumor antigens and induction of tumor death due to physical disruption of tumor architecture and destruction of the primary tumor in situ. This was accomplished by intratumor injection of magneto-rheological fluid (MRF consisting of iron microparticles, in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer, followed by local application of a magnetic field resulting in immediate coalescence of the particles, tumor cell death, slower growth of primary tumors as well as decreased tumor progression in distant sites and metastatic spread. This treatment was associated with increased activation of DCs in the draining lymph nodes and recruitment of both DCs and CD8(+T cells to the tumor. The particles remained within the tumor and no toxicities were observed. The immune induction observed was significantly greater compared to cryoablation. Further anti-tumor effects were observed when MRF/magnet therapy was combined with systemic low dose immunotherapy. Thus, mechanical disruption of the primary tumor with MRF/magnetic field application represents a novel means to induce systemic immune activation in cancer.

  4. A stochastic mathematical model to locate field hospitals under disruption uncertainty for large-scale disaster preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezir Aydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider field hospital location decisions for emergency treatment points in response to large scale disasters. Specifically, we developed a two-stage stochastic model that determines the number and locations of field hospitals and the allocation of injured victims to these field hospitals. Our model considers the locations as well as the failings of the existing public hospitals while deciding on the location of field hospitals that are anticipated to be opened. The model that we developed is a variant of the P-median location model and it integrates capacity restrictions both on field hospitals that are planned to be opened and the disruptions that occur in existing public hospitals. We conducted experiments to demonstrate how the proposed model can be utilized in practice in a real life problem case scenario. Results show the effects of the failings of existing hospitals, the level of failure probability and the capacity of projected field hospitals to deal with the assessment of any given emergency treatment system’s performance. Crucially, it also specifically provides an assessment on the average distance within which a victim needs to be transferred in order to be treated properly and then from this assessment, the proportion of total satisfied demand is then calculated.

  5. EXPLAINING THE COEXISTENCE OF LARGE-SCALE AND SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS IN FULLY CONVECTIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Rakesh K.; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Wolk, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Christensen, Ulrich R.; Gastine, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Morin, Julien [LUPM, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, Place Eugène Bataillon, F-34095 (France); Reiners, Ansgar, E-mail: rakesh.yadav@cfa.harvard.edu [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich Hund Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-11-10

    Despite the lack of a shear-rich tachocline region, low-mass fully convective (FC) stars are capable of generating strong magnetic fields, indicating that a dynamo mechanism fundamentally different from the solar dynamo is at work in these objects. We present a self-consistent three-dimensional model of magnetic field generation in low-mass FC stars. The model utilizes the anelastic magnetohydrodynamic equations to simulate compressible convection in a rotating sphere. A distributed dynamo working in the model spontaneously produces a dipole-dominated surface magnetic field of the observed strength. The interaction of this field with the turbulent convection in outer layers shreds it, producing small-scale fields that carry most of the magnetic flux. The Zeeman–Doppler-Imaging technique applied to synthetic spectropolarimetric data based on our model recovers most of the large-scale field. Our model simultaneously reproduces the morphology and magnitude of the large-scale field as well as the magnitude of the small-scale field observed on low-mass FC stars.

  6. Calculation of the form of an equilibrium poloidal magnetic field contained in a polytropic star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundrit, G.B.; Miketinac, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    This program is designed to integrate the exact equations which determine the distribution of the density of a self-gravitating, axisymmetric polytrope of infinite conductivity containing a poloidal magnetic field. In addition, other properties of an equilibrium configuration such as mass, volume and radius are calculated. The program can also provide at very small extra cost the rates of change of the density with respect to changes of the polytropic index n and the parameter lambda which characterizes the poloidal magnetic field. Mathematically, the problem can be formulated as a boundary value problem for three coupled equations, two of which are second order, non-linear, two-dimensional partial differential equations. The solution is obtained numerically by an adaptation of the Stoeckl's finite difference-finite expansion method. In fact, the present program is a major modification of the program TOROID. The numerical scheme developed in the program is valid for all polytropes whose polytropic index n is greater than or equal to one. The other parameter of the theory, lambda, is unrestricted, i.e. the program permits the study of stars whose matnetic energy is a 'sizeable' percentage of their gravitational energy. Also, the program, with minor modifications, could be used for calculating equilibrium configurations of (a) (uniformly or non-uniformly) rotating polytropes pervaded by poloidal magnetic fields or (b) (rotation) polytropes containing poloidal magnetic fields. However, the greatest use of the present program is expected to arise in attempts to construct equilibrium configurations of polytropes containing mixed poloidal toroidal magnetic fields. (Auth.)

  7. Linking Signatures of Accretion with Magnetic Field Measurements–Line Profiles are not Significantly Different in Magnetic and Non-magnetic Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Megan; Calvet, Nuria; Thanathibodee, Thanawuth; Kraus, Stefan; Cauley, P. Wilson; Monnier, John; Rubinstein, Adam; Aarnio, Alicia; Harries, Tim J.

    2018-01-01

    Herbig Ae/Be stars are young, pre-main-sequence stars that sample the transition in structure and evolution between low- and high-mass stars, providing a key test of accretion processes in higher-mass stars. Few Herbig Ae/Be stars have detected magnetic fields, calling into question whether the magnetospheric accretion paradigm developed for low-mass stars can be scaled to higher masses. We present He I 10830 Å line profiles for 64 Herbig Ae/Be stars with a magnetic field measurement in order to test magnetospheric accretion in the physical regime where its efficacy remains uncertain. Of the five stars with a magnetic field detection, one shows redshifted absorption, indicative of infall, and two show blueshifted absorption, tracing mass outflow. The fraction of redshifted and blueshifted absorption profiles in the non-magnetic Herbig Ae/Be stars is remarkably similar, suggesting that the stellar magnetic field does not affect gas kinematics traced by He I 10830 Å. Line profile morphology does not correlate with the luminosity, rotation rate, mass accretion rate, or disk inclination. Only the detection of a magnetic field and a nearly face-on disk inclination show a correlation (albeit for a few sources). This provides further evidence for weaker dipoles and more complex field topologies as stars develop a radiative envelope. The small number of magnetic Herbig Ae/Be stars has already called into question whether magnetospheric accretion can be scaled to higher masses; accretion signatures are not substantially different in magnetic Herbig Ae/Be stars, casting further doubt that they accrete in the same manner as classical T Tauri stars.

  8. An Application of Supervised Learning Methods to Search for Variable Stars in a Selected Field of the VVV Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Feliciano, B.; García-Varela, A.; Pérez-Ortiz, M. F.; Sabogal, B. E.; Minniti, D.

    2017-07-01

    We characterize properties of time series of variable stars in the B278 field of the VVV survey, using robust statistics. Using random forest and support vector machines classifiers we propose 47 candidates to RR Lyraae, and 12 candidates to WU Ursae Majoris eclipsing binaries.

  9. Investigating the origin of cyclical wind variability in hot, massive stars - I. On the dipolar magnetic field hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David-Uraz, A.; Wade, G.A.; Petit, V.; ud-Doula, A.; Sundqvist, J.O.; Grunhut, J.; Schultz, M.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Henrichs, H.F.; Bouret, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    OB stars exhibit various types of spectral variability associated with wind structures, including the apparently ubiquitous discrete absorption components (DACs). These are proposed to be caused by either magnetic fields or non-radial pulsations. In this paper, we evaluate the possible relation

  10. Evidence for a chemical enrichment coupling of globular clusters and field stars in the Fornax dSph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Boeche, Corrado; Johnson, Christian I.; Frank, Matthias J.; Koch, Andreas; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I.

    2016-01-01

    The globular cluster H4, located in the center of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, is crucial for understanding the formation and chemical evolution of star clusters in low-mass galactic environments. H4 is peculiar because the cluster is significantly more metal-rich than the galaxy's other clusters, is located near the galaxy center, and may also be the youngest cluster in the galaxy. In this study, we present detailed chemical abundances derived from high-resolution (R ~ 28 000) spectroscopy of an isolated H4 member star for comparison with a sample of 22 nearby Fornax field stars. We find the H4 member to be depleted in the alpha-elements Si, Ca, and Ti with [Si/Fe] = -0.35 ± 0.34, [Ca/Fe] = + 0.05 ± 0.08, and [Ti/Fe] = -0.27 ± 0.23, resulting in an average [α/Fe] = -0.19 ± 0.14. If this result is representative of the average cluster properties, H4 is the only known system with a low [α/Fe] ratio and a moderately low metallicity embedded in an intact birth environment. For the field stars we find a clear sequence, seen as an early depletion in [α/Fe] at low metallicities, in good agreement with previous measurements. H4 falls on top of the observed field star [α/Fe] sequence and clearly disagrees with the properties of Milky Way halo stars. We therefore conclude that within a galaxy, the chemical enrichment of globular clusters may be closely linked to the enrichment pattern of the field star population. The low [α/Fe] ratios of H4 and similar metallicity field stars in Fornax give evidence that slow chemical enrichment environments, such as dwarf galaxies, may be the original hosts of alpha-depleted clusters in the halos of the Milky Way and M31. This article includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  11. Field Red Horizontal Branch Star Chemical Compositions from High Resolution Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneden, Chris; Afsar, Melike; Bozkurt, Zeynep; Bocek-Topcu, Gamze; Mace, Gregory N.; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaplan, Kyle; Kidder, Benjamin; McLane, Jacob

    2017-06-01

    We have observed three field red horizontal branch stars with the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS). The high resolution (R~45000) high signal-to-noise (S/N > 200) spectra obtained with IGRINS cover the complete H-band (1.50-1.80 micron) and K-band (1.90-2.45 micron). We analyzed hundreds of lines of the ubiquitous OH, CN, and CO molecular bands, and found more than 80 lines of atomic species that were useful for abundance work. A combination of good laboratory transition probabilities (when available) and ones derived from reverse solar analyses were employed. Our transition data were checked through studies of the Arcturus Atlas spectrum. We derived abundances from synthetic spectra instead of from equivalent widths. With IGRINS data we were able to extract metallicities and abundance ratios for more than 20 elements, including several not detectable or poorly represented in optical wavelength regions. Our abundances from IGRINS spectra are in excellent accord with those derived from optical spectrum studies. These results are directly applicable to calibrations of results from lower-resolution and/or S/N infrared spectral surveys. IGRINS observations will give high reolution spectroscopic access to heavily obscured normal red giants and other cool stars with unusual element mixes.This work used the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS) that was developed under a collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) with the financial support of the US National Science Foundation (NSF; grant AST-1229522), of the University of Texas at Austin, and of the Korean GMT Project of KASI. Our project also has been supported by NSF grants AST~1211585 and AST~1616040, by the University of Texas Rex G. Baker, Jr. Centennial Research Endowment, and by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, project No. 112T929).

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT z {approx} 0.9 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajisawa, M.; Shioya, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Nagao, T.; Matsubayashi, K.; Riguccini, L. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Aida, Y.; Ideue, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Murayama, T., E-mail: kajisawa@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the fraction of [O II] emitters in galaxies at z {approx} 0.9 as a function of the local galaxy density in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) COSMOS 2 deg{sup 2} field. [O II] emitters are selected by the narrowband excess technique with the NB711-band imaging data taken with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru telescope. We carefully selected 614 photo-z-selected galaxies with M{sub U3500} < -19.31 at z = 0.901 - 0.920, which includes 195 [O II] emitters, to directly compare the results with our previous study at z {approx} 1.2. We found that the fraction is almost constant at 0.3 Mpc{sup -2} < {Sigma}{sub 10th} < 10 Mpc{sup -2}. We also checked the fraction of galaxies with blue rest-frame colors of NUV - R < 2 in our photo-z-selected sample, and found that the fraction of blue galaxies does not significantly depend on the local density. On the other hand, the semi-analytic model of galaxy formation predicted that the fraction of star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 0.9 decreases with increasing projected galaxy density even if the effects of the projection and the photo-z error in our analysis were taken into account. The fraction of [O II] emitters decreases from {approx}60% at z {approx} 1.2 to {approx}30% at z {approx} 0.9 independent of galaxy environment. The decrease of the [O II] emitter fraction could be explained mainly by the rapid decrease of star formation activity in the universe from z {approx} 1.2 to z {approx} 0.9.

  13. Axial Symmetric Solutions to Einstein's Field Equations for Deformed Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Omair; Weber, Fridolin

    2016-03-01

    Traditional models of neutron stars are constructed under of assumption that they are perfect spheres. This is not correct, however, if the matter inside of neutron stars is described by an non-isotropic model for the equation of state. Examples of such stars are magnetars and neutron stars that would contain color-superconducting quark matter. In this work, we derive the stellar structure equations which describe the properties of non-isotropic neutron stars. The equations are solved numerically in two dimensions. We calculate stellar properties such as masses and radii along with pressure and density profiles and investigate any changes from conventional spherically symmetric neutron stars. This work was supported through the National Science Foundation under Grants PHYS-1411708 and DUE-1259951. Additional computing resources were provided by the CSRC at SDSU and the Department of Sciences at Wentworth Institute of Technology.

  14. Oscillating magnetic field disrupts magnetic orientation in Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiltschko Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebra finches can be trained to use the geomagnetic field as a directional cue for short distance orientation. The physical mechanisms underlying the primary processes of magnetoreception are, however, largely unknown. Two hypotheses of how birds perceive magnetic information are mainly discussed, one dealing with modulation of radical pair processes in retinal structures, the other assuming that iron deposits in the upper beak of the birds are involved. Oscillating magnetic fields in the MHz range disturb radical pair mechanisms but do not affect magnetic particles. Thus, application of such oscillating fields in behavioral experiments can be used as a diagnostic tool to decide between the two alternatives. Methods In a setup that eliminates all directional cues except the geomagnetic field zebra finches were trained to search for food in the magnetic north/south axis. The birds were then tested for orientation performance in two magnetic conditions. In condition 1 the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field was shifted by 90 degrees using a helmholtz coil. In condition 2 a high frequently oscillating field (1.156 MHz was applied in addition to the shifted field. Another group of birds was trained to solve the orientation task, but with visual landmarks as directional cue. The birds were then tested for their orientation performance in the same magnetic conditions as applied for the first experiment. Results The zebra finches could be trained successfully to orient in the geomagnetic field for food search in the north/south axis. They were also well oriented in test condition 1, with the magnetic field shifted horizontally by 90 degrees. In contrast, when the oscillating field was added, the directional choices during food search were randomly distributed. Birds that were trained to visually guided orientation showed no difference of orientation performance in the two magnetic conditions. Conclusion The results

  15. Development and investigation of an inverse problem solution algorithm for determination of Ap stars magnetic field geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunov, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    Mathematical formulation of the inverse problem of determination of magnetic field geometry from the polarization profiles of spectral lines is gven. The solving algorithm is proposed. A set of model calculations has shown the effectiveness of the algorithm, the high precision of magnetic star model parameters obtained and also the advantages of the inverse problem method over the commonly used method of interpretation of effective field curves

  16. Magnetic field topology and chemical abundance distributions of the young, rapidly rotating, chemically peculiar star HR 5624

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochukhov, O.; Silvester, J.; Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.; Wade, G. A.

    2017-09-01

    Context. The young, rapidly rotating Bp star HR 5624 (HD 133880) shows an unusually strong non-sinusoidal variability of its longitudinal magnetic field. This behaviour was previously interpreted as the signature of an exceptionally strong, quadrupole-dominated surface magnetic field geometry. Aims: We studied the magnetic field structure and chemical abundance distributions of HR 5624 with the aim to verify the unusual quadrupolar nature of its magnetic field and to investigate correlations between the field topology and chemical spots. Methods: We analysed high-resolution, time series Stokes parameter spectra of HR 5624 with the help of a magnetic Doppler imaging inversion code based on detailed polarised radiative transfer modelling of the line profiles. Results: We refined the stellar parameters, revised the rotational period, and obtained new longitudinal magnetic field measurements. Our magnetic Doppler inversions reveal that the field structure of HR 5624 is considerably simpler and the field strength is much lower than proposed by previous studies. We find a maximum local field strength of 12 kG and a mean field strength of 4 kG, which is about a factor of three weaker than predicted by quadrupolar field models. Our model implies that overall large-scale field topology of HR 5624 is better described as a distorted, asymmetric dipole rather than an axisymmetric quadrupole. The chemical abundance maps of Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Nd obtained in our study are characterised by large-scale, high-contrast abundance patterns. These structures correlate weakly with the magnetic field geometry and, in particular, show no distinct element concentrations in the horizontal field regions predicted by theoretical atomic diffusion calculations. Conclusions: We conclude that the surface magnetic field topology of HR 5624 is not as unusual as previously proposed. Considering these results together with other recent magnetic mapping analyses of early-type stars suggests that

  17. The Double Star magnetic field investigation: instrument design, performance and highlights of the first year's observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carr

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of the Double Star mission is the accurate measurement of the magnetic field vector along the orbits of the two spacecraft. The magnetic field is an essential parameter for the understanding of space plasma processes and is also required for the effective interpretation of data from the other instruments on the spacecraft. We present the design of the magnetic field instrument onboard both of the Double Star spacecraft and an overview of the performance as measured first on-ground and then in-orbit. We also report the results of in-flight calibration of the magnetometers, and the processing methods employed to produce the final data products which are provided to Double Star investigators, and the wider community in general. Particular attention is paid to the techniques developed for removing magnetic interference generated by the solar arrays on the first (equatorial orbiting spacecraft. Results from the first year of operations are reviewed in the context of combined observations by Double Star and Cluster, and examples given from the different regions visited by the spacecraft to date.

  18. A Randomized Trial of the Self-Management Training and Regulation Strategy (STARS): A Selective Intervention for Students with Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    To attain academic goals, school personnel must effectively manage 20% of students who engage in the disruptive behaviors that interrupt instruction, create teacher stress, and contribute to poor student outcomes. Without effective strategies, school personnel often respond to disruptive students with ineffective authoritarian tactics,…

  19. Supported lipid bilayer on nanocrystalline diamond: dual optical and field-effect sensor for membrane disruption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ang, P.K.; Loh, K.P.; Wohland, T.; Nesládek, Miloš; Van Hove, E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2009), s. 109-116 ISSN 1616-301X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * biocompatibility * supported lipid bilayers * biosensors * solution gate field effect transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.990, year: 2009

  20. The magnetic field of the B1/B2V star σ Lup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S.C.; Waite, I.A.; Wade, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ultraviolet stellar wind lines of the photometrically periodic variable early B-type star σ Lupi were found to behave very similarly to what has been observed in known magnetic B stars, although no periodicity could be determined. AAT spectropolarimetric measurements with SEMPOL were obtained.

  1. Kepler red-clump stars in the field and in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossini, D.; Miglio, A.; Salaris, M.

    2017-01-01

    Convective mixing in helium-core-burning (HeCB) stars is one of the outstanding issues in stellar modelling. The precise asteroseismic measurements of gravity-mode period spacing (Delta Pi(1)) have opened the door to detailed studies of the near-core structure of such stars, which had not been po...

  2. On the kinematic separation of field and cluster stars across the bulge globular NGC 6528

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagioia, E. P.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma-Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Stetson, P. B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Prada Moroni, P. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Dall' Ora, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Aparicio, A.; Monelli, M. [Instituto de Astrofìsica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Calamida, A.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00044 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Gilmozzi, R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Matsunaga, N. [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 10762-30, Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso-gun, 3 Nagano 97-0101 (Japan); Walker, A., E-mail: eplagioia@roma2.infn.it [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-02-10

    We present deep and precise multi-band photometry of the Galactic bulge globular cluster NGC 6528. The current data set includes optical and near-infrared images collected with ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The images cover a time interval of almost 10 yr, and we have been able to carry out a proper-motion separation between cluster and field stars. We performed a detailed comparison in the m {sub F814W}, m {sub F606W} – m {sub F814W} color-magnitude diagram with two empirical calibrators observed in the same bands. We found that NGC 6528 is coeval with and more metal-rich than 47 Tuc. Moreover, it appears older and more metal-poor than the super-metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791. The current evidence is supported by several diagnostics (red horizontal branch, red giant branch bump, shape of the sub-giant branch, slope of the main sequence) that are minimally affected by uncertainties in reddening and distance. We fit the optical observations with theoretical isochrones based on a scaled-solar chemical mixture and found an age of 11 ± 1 Gyr and an iron abundance slightly above solar ([Fe/H] = +0.20). The iron abundance and the old cluster age further support the recent spectroscopic findings suggesting a rapid chemical enrichment of the Galactic bulge.

  3. Shock-front compression of the magnetic field in the Canis Majoris R1 star-formation region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrba, F.J.; Baierlein, R.; Herbst, W.; Wesleyan Univ., Middletown, CT; Van Vleck Observatory, Middletown, CT)

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from a linear polarization survey at optical wavelengths of over 140 stars in the direction of the CMa R1 star-formation region; 26 of these are clearly associated with nebulosity within the area. The observations were obtained in order to test the argument of Herbst et al. (1978) that star formation in CMa R1 is driven by a shock wave from a nearby supernova (Herbs and Assousa, 1977 and 1978). The polarizations are found to be consistent with a simple model of the compression by a supernova-induced spherical shock front of an initially uniform interstellar magnetic field. The polarization vectors are inconsistent with a scenario of quiescent cloud collapse along magnetic-field lines. Multicolor polarimetry of the nebular stars provides evidence of grain growth toward increasing cloud optical depth, characterized by a ratio of total-to-selective extinction of R = 3.0 at E(B-V) = 0.23, increasing to R = 4.2 at E(B-V) = 0.7. 15 references

  4. Dual guild herbivory disrupts predator-prey interactions in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blubaugh, Carmen K; Asplund, Jacob S; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Morra, Matthew J; Philips, Christopher R; Popova, Inna E; Reganold, John P; Snyder, William E

    2018-02-21

    Plant defenses often mediate whether competing chewing and sucking herbivores indirectly benefit or harm one another. Dual guild herbivory also can muddle plant signals used by specialist natural enemies to locate prey, further complicating the net impact of herbivore-herbivore interactions in naturally diverse settings. While dual guild herbivore communities are common in nature, their community trilevel consequences are unclear, as chemically mediated tri-trophic interactions are rarely evaluated in field environments. Combining observational and experimental approaches in the open field, we test a prediction that chewing herbivores interfere with top-down suppression of phloem feeders on Brassica oleracea across broad landscapes. In a two-year survey of 52 working farm sites, we found that parasitoid and aphid densities on broccoli plants positively correlated at farms where aphids and caterpillars rarely co-occurred, but this relationship disappeared at farms where caterpillars commonly co-occurred. In a follow-up experiment, we compared single and dual guild herbivore communities at four local farm sites and found that caterpillars (P. rapae) caused a 30% reduction in aphid parasitism (primarily by Diaeretiella rapae), and increased aphid colony (Brevicoryne brassicae) growth at some sites. Notably, in the absence of predators, caterpillars indirectly suppressed, rather than enhanced, aphid growth. Amid considerable ecological noise, our study reveals a pattern of apparent commensalism: herbivore-herbivore facilitation via relaxed top-down suppression. This work suggests that enemy-mediated apparent commensalism may override constraints to growth induced by competing herbivores in field environments, and emphasizes the value of placing chemically-mediated interactions within their broader environmental and community contexts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Stellar dynamics and tidal disruption events in galactic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The disruption of a star by the tidal field of a massive black hole is the final outcome of a chain of complex dynamical processes in the host galaxy. I introduce the “loss cone problem”, and describe the many theoretical and numerical challenges on the path of solving it. I review various dynamical channels by which stars can be supplied to a massive black hole, and the relevant dynamical relaxation/randomization mechanisms. I briefly mention some “exotic” tidal disruption scenarios, and conclude by discussing new dynamical results that are changing our understanding of dynamics near a massive black hole, and may well be relevant for tidal disruption dynamics.

  6. PERINATAL DELTA-9-TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL EXPOSURE DISRUPTS SOCIAL AND OPEN FIELD BEHAVIOR IN ADULT MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, R.J.; Kelly, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the most frequently used illegal drug among women of reproductive age, but little is known about the consequences of using marijuana during pregnancy. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), one of the active chemicals in marijuana, has been shown to cross the placental barrier easily. In this study, pregnant Long Evans rats were assigned to one of three treatment groups (Δ9-THC-exposed, vehicle control, and non-treated control) on day 1 of gestation. Drug exposure consisted of 2 mg/kg of natural Δ9-THC, administered twice daily by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, from gestational day 1 through 22. Pups continued to receive drug exposure via s.c. injection from postnatal day 2 through 10. Male rats from each group were tested starting on postnatal day 90 in a battery of tests which included open field activity, active social interaction, and the forced-swim test. There were no significant differences in weight gained by dams or weight of offspring when compared to controls. Δ9-THC-exposed rats showed decreased time in the inner part of the open field and an increase in investigation time in the test of social interaction compared to both control groups. There were no differences among groups in the forced-swim test. Perinatal Δ9-THC exposure may result in increased susceptibility to anxious behavior and alter social functioning in adult offspring. PMID:18272327

  7. CARINA OB STARS: X-RAY SIGNATURES OF WIND SHOCKS AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, Marc; Fehon, Garrett; Savoy, Michael R.; Cohen, David H.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Povich, Matthew S.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Walborn, Nolan R.; Remage Evans, Nancy; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Naze, Yael; Oskinova, Lida M.

    2011-01-01

    The Chandra Carina Complex contains 200 known O- and B-type stars. The Chandra survey detected 68 of the 70 O stars and 61 of 127 known B0-B3 stars. We have assembled a publicly available optical/X-ray database to identify OB stars that depart from the canonical L X /L bol relation or whose average X-ray temperatures exceed 1 keV. Among the single O stars with high kT we identify two candidate magnetically confined wind shock sources: Tr16-22, O8.5 V, and LS 1865, O8.5 V((f)). The O4 III(fc) star HD 93250 exhibits strong, hard, variable X-rays, suggesting that it may be a massive binary with a period of >30 days. The visual O2 If* binary HD 93129A shows soft 0.6 keV and hard 1.9 keV emission components, suggesting embedded wind shocks close to the O2 If* Aa primary and colliding wind shocks between Aa and Ab. Of the 11 known O-type spectroscopic binaries, the long orbital-period systems HD 93343, HD 93403, and QZ Car have higher shock temperatures than short-period systems such as HD 93205 and FO 15. Although the X-rays from most B stars may be produced in the coronae of unseen, low-mass pre-main-sequence companions, a dozen B stars with high L X cannot be explained by a distribution of unseen companions. One of these, SS73 24 in the Treasure Chest cluster, is a new candidate Herbig Be star.

  8. Massive neutron star with strangeness in a relativistic mean-field model with a high-density cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Hu, Jinniu; Liu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    The properties of neutron stars with the strangeness degree of freedom are studied in the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model via including a logarithmic interaction as a function of the scalar meson field. This interaction, named the σ -cut potential, can largely reduce the attractive contributions of the scalar meson field at high density without any influence on the properties of nuclear structure around the normal saturation density. In this work, the TM1 parameter set is chosen as the RMF interaction, while the strengths of σ -cut potential are constrained by the properties of finite nuclei so that we can obtain a reasonable effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The hyperons Λ ,Σ , and Ξ are considered in neutron stars within this framework, whose coupling constants with mesons are determined by the latest hyperon-nucleon and Λ -Λ potentials extracted from the available experimental data of hypernuclei. The maximum mass of neutron star can be larger than 2 M⊙ with these hyperons in the present framework. Furthermore, the nucleon mass at high density will be saturated due to this additional σ -cut potential, which is consistent with the conclusions obtained by other calculations such as Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory and quark mean-field model.

  9. Axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere in the exterior of a neutron star - II. Maximum storage and open field energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yasufumi; Okamoto, Satoki

    2018-04-01

    A magnetar's magnetosphere gradually evolves by the injection of energy and helicity from the interior. Axisymmetric static solutions for a relativistic force-free magnetosphere with a power-law current model are numerically obtained. They provide information about the configurations in which the stored energy is large. The energy along a sequence of equilibria increases and becomes sufficient to open the magnetic field. A magnetic flux rope, in which a large amount of toroidal field is confined, is formed in the vicinity of the star, for states exceeding the open field energy. These states are energetically metastable, and the excess energy may be ejected as a magnetar outburst.

  10. Massive neutron stars and Λ-hypernuclei in relativistic mean field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting-Ting; Xia, Cheng-Jun; Zhang, Shi-Sheng; Smith, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    Based on relativistic mean field (RMF) models, we study finite Λ-hypernuclei and massive neutron stars. The effective N-N interactions PK1 and TM1 are adopted, while the N-Λ interactions are constrained by reproducing the binding energy of Λ-hyperon at 1s orbit of {}{{Λ }}{}40{Ca}. It is found that the Λ-meson couplings follow a simple relation, indicating a fixed Λ potential well for symmetric nuclear matter at saturation densities, i.e., around {V}{{Λ }}=-29.786 {MeV}. With those interactions, a large mass range of Λ-hypernuclei can be described well. Furthermore, the masses of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432 can be attained adopting the Λ-meson couplings {g}{{σ }{{Λ }}}/{g}{{σ }N}≳ 0.73, {g}{{ω }{{Λ }}}/{g}{{ω }N}≳ 0.80 for PK1 and {g}{{σ }{{Λ }}}/{g}{{σ }N}≳ 0.81, {g}{{ω }{{Λ }}}/{g}{{ω }N}≳ 0.90 for TM1, respectively. This resolves the hyperon puzzle without introducing any additional degrees of freedom. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11525524, 11505157, 11375022, 11705163, 11621131001), National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB834400), the Physics Research and Development Program of Zhengzhou University (32410017) and the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The computation for this work was supported by the HPC Cluster of SKLTP/ITP-CAS and the Supercomputing Center, CNIC, of the CAS

  11. THE COMPLEXITY THAT THE FIRST STARS BROUGHT TO THE UNIVERSE: FRAGILITY OF METAL-ENRICHED GAS IN A RADIATION FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykutalp, A.; Spaans, M.

    2011-01-01

    The initial mass function (IMF) of the first (Population III) stars and Population II (Pop II) stars is poorly known due to a lack of observations of the period between recombination and reionization. In simulations of the formation of the first stars, it has been shown that, due to the limited ability of metal-free primordial gas to cool, the IMF of the first stars is a few orders of magnitude more massive than the current IMF. The transition from a high-mass IMF of the first stars to a lower-mass current IMF is thus important to understand. To study the underlying physics of this transition, we performed several simulations using the cosmological hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo for metallicities of 10 -4 , 10 -3 , 10 -2 , and 10 -1 Z sun . In our simulations, we include a star formation prescription that is derived from a metallicity-dependent multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM) structure, an external UV radiation field, and a mechanical feedback algorithm. We also implement cosmic ray heating, photoelectric heating, and gas-dust heating/cooling, and follow the metal enrichment of the ISM. It is found that the interplay between metallicity and UV radiation leads to the coexistence of Pop III and Pop II star formation in non-zero-metallicity (Z/Z sun ≥ 10 -2 ) gas. A cold (T 10 -22 g cm -3 ) gas phase is fragile to ambient UV radiation. In a metal-poor (Z/Z sun ≤ 10 -3 ) gas, the cold and dense gas phase does not form in the presence of a radiation field of F 0 ∼ 10 -5 -10 -4 erg cm -2 s -1 . Therefore, metallicity by itself is not a good indicator of the Pop III-Pop II transition. Metal-rich (Z/Z sun ≥ 10 -2 ) gas dynamically evolves two to three orders of magnitude faster than metal-poor gas (Z/Z sun ≤ 10 -3 ). The simulations including supernova explosions show that pre-enrichment of the halo does not affect the mixing of metals.

  12. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. VII. Fe II* emission in star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Hayley; Bouché, Nicolas; Contini, Thierry; Paalvast, Mieke; Boogaard, Leindert; Maseda, Michael; Bacon, Roland; Blaizot, Jérémy; Brinchmann, Jarle; Epinat, Benoît; Feltre, Anna; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Muzahid, Sowgat; Richard, Johan; Schaye, Joop; Verhamme, Anne; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    Non-resonant Fe II* (λ2365, λ2396, λ2612, λ2626) emission can potentially trace galactic winds in emission and provide useful constraints to wind models. From the 3.15' × 3.15' mosaic of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) obtained with the VLT/MUSE integral field spectrograph, we identify a statistical sample of 40 Fe II* emitters and 50 MgIII (λλ2796,2803) emitters from a sample of 271 [O II]λλ3726,3729 emitters with reliable redshifts from z = 0.85-1.50 down to 2 × 10-18 (3σ) ergs s-1 cm-2 (for [O II]), covering the M⋆ range from 108-1011 M⊙. The Fe II* and Mg II emitters follow the galaxy main sequence, but with a clear dichotomy. Galaxies with masses below 109 M⊙ and star formation rates (SFRs) of ≲ 1 M⊙ yr-1 have MgIII emission without accompanying Fe II* emission, whereas galaxies with masses above 1010 M⊙ and SFRs ≳ 10 M⊙ yr-1 have Fe II* emission without accompanying MgIII emission. Between these two regimes, galaxies have both MgIII and Fe II* emission, typically with MgIII P Cygni profiles. Indeed, the MgIII profile shows a progression along the main sequence from pure emission to P Cygni profiles to strong absorption, due to resonant trapping. Combining the deep MUSE data with HST ancillary information, we find that galaxies with pure MgIII emission profiles have lower SFR surface densities than those with either MgIII P Cygni profiles or Fe II* emission. These spectral signatures produced through continuum scattering and fluorescence, MgIII P Cygni profiles and Fe II* emission, are better candidates for tracing galactic outflows than pure MgIII emission, which may originate from HIII regions. We compare the absorption and emission rest-frame equivalent widths for pairs of FeIII transitions to predictions from outflow models and find that the observations consistently have less total re-emission than absorption, suggesting either dust extinction or non-isotropic outflow geometries.

  13. The evolution of surface magnetic fields in young solar-type stars II: the early main sequence (250-650 Myr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, C. P.; Bouvier, J.; Petit, P.; Lèbre, A.; Amard, L.; Palacios, A.; Morin, J.; Donati, J.-F.; Vidotto, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    There is a large change in surface rotation rates of sun-like stars on the pre-main sequence and early main sequence. Since these stars have dynamo-driven magnetic fields, this implies a strong evolution of their magnetic properties over this time period. The spin-down of these stars is controlled by interactions between stellar and magnetic fields, thus magnetic evolution in turn plays an important role in rotational evolution. We present here the second part of a study investigating the evolution of large-scale surface magnetic fields in this critical time period. We observed stars in open clusters and stellar associations with known ages between 120 and 650 Myr, and used spectropolarimetry and Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize their large-scale magnetic field strength and geometry. We report 15 stars with magnetic detections here. These stars have masses from 0.8 to 0.95 M⊙, rotation periods from 0.326 to 10.6 d, and we find large-scale magnetic field strengths from 8.5 to 195 G with a wide range of geometries. We find a clear trend towards decreasing magnetic field strength with age, and a power law decrease in magnetic field strength with Rossby number. There is some tentative evidence for saturation of the large-scale magnetic field strength at Rossby numbers below 0.1, although the saturation point is not yet well defined. Comparing to younger classical T Tauri stars, we support the hypothesis that differences in internal structure produce large differences in observed magnetic fields, however for weak-lined T Tauri stars this is less clear.

  14. Estimation of spectral classifications for stars with interesting Stroemgren indices: population II field 'blue stragglers'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    More than 17 years ago in Princeton at the Conference on Interstellar Matter, Stroemgren (1962) concluded the presentation of one of his papers by mentioning a program aimed at obtaining four-color photometry of all F8-G0 stars to apparent magnitude 8. The purpose was to perform a detailed analysis of the correlations between age, chemical composition, and kinematics, and thus gain new insight into the state of the interstellar matter at various times during the history of the Galaxy. The author considers one specific category of stars, 'blue stragglers'. (Auth.)

  15. The GOODS UV Legacy Fields: A Full Census of Faint Star-Forming Galaxies at z~0.5-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Deep HST imaging has shown that the overall star formation density and UV light density at z>3 is dominated by faint, blue galaxies. Remarkably, very little is known about the equivalent galaxy population at lower redshifts. Understanding how these galaxies evolve across the epoch of peak cosmic star-formation is key to a complete picture of galaxy evolution. While we and others have been making every effort to use existing UV imaging data, a large fraction of the prior data were taken without post-flash and are not photometric. We now propose to obtain a robust legacy dataset for a complete census of faint star-forming galaxies at z~0.5-2, akin to what is achieved at z>3, using the unique capabilities of the WFC3/UVIS camera to obtain very deep UV imaging to 27.5-28.0 mag over the CANDELS Deep fields in GOODS North and South. We directly sample the FUV at z>~0.5 and we make these prime legacy fields for JWST with unique and essential UV/blue HST coverage. Together with the exquisite ancillary multi-wavelength data at high spatial resolution from ACS and WFC3/IR our program will result in accurate photometric redshifts for very faint sources and will enable a wealth of research by the community. This includes tracing the evolution of the FUV luminosity function over the peak of the star formation rate density from z~3 down to z~0.5, measuring the physical properties of sub-L* galaxies, and characterizing resolved stellar populations to decipher the build-up of the Hubble sequence from sub-galactic clumps. The lack of a future UV space telescope makes the acquisition of such legacy data imperative for the JWST era and beyond.

  16. HD 185330 — chemically peculiar 3He star in the Kepler field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczura, E.; Vennes, S.; Różański, T.; Pigulski, A.; Hełminiak, K.; Lehmann, H.

    2018-01-01

    We analyzed high-resolution spectra of the chemically peculiar 3He star HD 185330. We determined its atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, ξ) and constrained its rotation velocity and abundance pattern. In particular, we found a large (×100) phosphorus abundance excess and evidence of 3He and 4He abundance stratification in the atmosphere.

  17. Magnetism of hot stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, G. A.; Neiner, C.

    2018-01-01

    Strong, stable, and organised magnetic fields are present at the surfaces of a small fraction of OBA stars. These "fossil fields" exhibit uniform characteristics in stars over a tremendous range of stellar mass, age, temperature, and rotation rate. In hot O- and B-type stars, these magnetic fields couple efficiently to the stellar radiatively driven winds, strongly influencing stellar mass loss and rotation. In this article we review the characteristics of the known magnetic hot stars, discuss recent discoveries and insights, and describe recent theoretical progress toward understanding basic field properties and the influence of magnetic fields on hot star evolution.

  18. THE VLT-FLAMES TARANTULA SURVEY: THE FASTEST ROTATING O-TYPE STAR AND SHORTEST PERIOD LMC PULSAR—REMNANTS OF A SUPERNOVA DISRUPTED BINARY?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufton, P. L.; Dunstall, P. R.; Fraser, M.; Evans, C. J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.; De Koter, A.; Sana, H.; De Mink, S. E.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Taylor, W. D.; Howarth, I. D.; Lennon, D. J.; Markova, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of an extremely rapidly rotating late O-type star, VFTS102, observed during a spectroscopic survey of 30 Doradus. VFTS102 has a projected rotational velocity larger than 500 km s –1 and probably as large as 600 km s –1 ; as such it would appear to be the most rapidly rotating massive star currently identified. Its radial velocity differs by 40 km s –1 from the mean for 30 Doradus, suggesting that it is a runaway. VFTS102 lies 12 pc from the X-ray pulsar PSR J0537-6910 in the tail of its X-ray diffuse emission. We suggest that these objects originated from a binary system with the rotational and radial velocities of VFTS102 resulting from mass transfer from the progenitor of PSR J0537-691 and the supernova explosion, respectively.

  19. Quark matter and quark stars in strong magnetic fields at finite temperature within the confined-isospin-density-dependent mass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Li, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Hong-Yang; Wang, Bin; Dong, Yu-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Min

    2018-03-01

    We study the properties of strange quark matter (SQM) and quark stars (QSs) in strong magnetic fields within the extended confined isospin-density-dependent mass (CIDDM) model including the temperature dependence of the equivalent mass for quarks. The quark symmetry energy, quark symmetry free energy, and the equation of state (EOS) of SQM in constant magnetic fields at finite temperature are investigated, and it is found that including the temperature dependence in CIDDM model and considering strong magnetic fields can both significantly influence the properties of the SQM and the maximum mass of quark stars. Using the density-dependent magnetic field and assuming two extreme cases for the magnetic field orientation in QSs (the radial orientation in which the local magnetic fields are along the radial direction and the transverse orientation in which the local magnetic fields are randomly oriented but perpendicular to the radial orientation), we analyze the mass-radius relations for different stages of the protoquark stars (PQSs) along the star evolution. Our results indicate that the maximum mass of magnetized PQSs may depend on not only the strength distribution and the orientation of the magnetic fields inside the PQSs, but also the heating process and the cooling process in the star evolution.

  20. Spin Dependence in Tidal Disruption Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesden, Michael; Stone, Nicholas; van Velzen, Sjoert

    2018-01-01

    A supermassive black hole (SBH) can tidally disrupt stars when its tidal field overwhelms the stars’ self-gravity. The stellar debris produced in such tidal disruption events (TDEs) evolves into tidal streams that can self-intersect. These inelastic stream collisions dissipate orbital energy, both circularizing the tidal stream and contributing to the emission observed during the TDE. Once circularized into a disk, the stellar debris can be viscously accreted by the SBH powering additional luminous emission. We explore how SBH spin can affect the tidal disruption process. Tidal forces are spin dependent, as is the minimum orbital angular momentum below which stars are directly captured by the SBH. This implies that the TDE rate will be spin dependent, particularly for more massive SBHs for which relativistic effects are more significant. SBH spin also affects TDE light curves through the initial debris orbits, the nature of the stream collisions, the viscous evolution of the accretion disk, and the possibility of launching jets. We explore the spin dependence of these phenomena to identify promising signatures for upcoming surveys expected to discover hundreds of TDE candidates in the next decade.

  1. Ventral tegmental area disruption selectively affects CA1/CA2 but not CA3 place fields during a differential reward working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2011-02-01

    Hippocampus (HPC) receives dopaminergic (DA) projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra. These inputs appear to provide a modulatory signal that influences HPC dependent behaviors and place fields. We examined how efferent projections from VTA to HPC influence spatial working memory and place fields when the reward context changes. CA1 and CA3 process environmental context changes differently and VTA preferentially innervates CA1. Given these anatomical data and electrophysiological evidence that implicate DA in reward processing, we predicted that CA1 place fields would respond more strongly to both VTA disruption and changes in the reward context than CA3 place fields. Rats (N = 9) were implanted with infusion cannula targeting VTA and recording tetrodes aimed at HPC. Then they were tested on a differential reward, win-shift working memory task. One recording session consisted of 5 baseline and 5 manipulation trials during which place cells in CA1/CA2 (N = 167) and CA3 (N = 94) were recorded. Prior to manipulation trials rats were infused with either baclofen or saline and then subjected to control or reward conditions during which the learned locations of large and small reward quantities were reversed. VTA disruption resulted in an increase in errors, and in CA1/CA2 place field reorganization. There were no changes in any measures of CA3 place field stability during VTA disruption. Reward manipulations did not affect performance or place field stability in CA1/CA2 or CA3; however, changes in the reward locations "rescued" performance and place field stability in CA1/CA2 when VTA activity was compromised, perhaps by trigging compensatory mechanisms. These data support the hypothesis that VTA contributes to spatial working memory performance perhaps by maintaining place field stability selectively in CA1/CA2. Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. ULTRAVIOLET-SELECTED FIELD AND PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS TOWARD TAURUS AND UPPER SCORPIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, K.; Hillenbrand, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out a Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Cycle 1 guest investigator program covering 56 deg 2 near the Taurus T association and 12 deg 2 along the northern edge of the Upper Scorpius OB association. We combined photometry in the GALEX far-ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet bands with data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey to identify candidate young (∼<100 Myr old) stars as those with an ultraviolet excess relative to older main-sequence stars. Follow-up spectroscopy of a partial sample of these candidates suggests five new members of Taurus, with 8-20 expected from additional observations, and five new members of Upper Scorpius, with three to six expected from additional observations. These candidate new members appear to represent a distributed, non-clustered population in either region, although our sample statistics are as of yet too poor to constrain the nature or extent of this population. Rather, our study demonstrates the ability of GALEX observations to identify young stellar populations distributed over a wide area of the sky. We also highlight the necessity of a better understanding of the Galactic ultraviolet source population to support similar investigations. In particular, we report a large population of stars with an ultraviolet excess but no optical indicators of stellar activity or accretion, and briefly argue against several interpretations of these sources.

  3. Disrupted Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Uldam, Julie

    , and onongoing research in the extractive industries and social movements, this work-in-progress sets outto examine (a) why and how transparency has been constructed and mobilized in recentinternational attempts to regulate the extractive industries, specifically oil and gas companies; (b)how companies’ normal...... appearances become challenged through disruptive disclosures in mediaenvironments characterized by multiple levels of visibility, with companies both observing andbeing observed by civil society groups that criticize them; (c) why and how the mobilization aroundtransparency and ensuing practices......While projects of governance by transparency have become widespread over the past decades, theyare usually investigated and theorized in isolation from the wider field of visibility and surveillancein which they are embedded. Building on theories of governance, visibility and surveillance...

  4. The evolution of magnetic hot massive stars: Implementation of the quantitative influence of surface magnetic fields in modern models of stellar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, Zsolt; Wade, Gregg A.; Petit, Veronique

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale dipolar surface magnetic fields have been detected in a fraction of OB stars, however only few stellar evolution models of massive stars have considered the impact of these fossil fields. We are performing 1D hydrodynamical model calculations taking into account evolutionary consequences of the magnetospheric-wind interactions in a simplified parametric way. Two effects are considered: i) the global mass-loss rates are reduced due to mass-loss quenching, and ii) the surface angular momentum loss is enhanced due to magnetic braking. As a result of the magnetic mass-loss quenching, the mass of magnetic massive stars remains close to their initial masses. Thus magnetic massive stars - even at Galactic metallicity - have the potential to be progenitors of "heavy" stellar mass black holes. Similarly, at Galactic metallicity, the formation of pair instability supernovae is plausible with a magnetic progenitor.

  5. Steeper Stellar Cusps in Galactic Centers from Binary Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Sari, Re’em

    2018-01-01

    The relaxed distribution of stars around a massive black hole is known to follow a cusp profile, ρ (r)\\propto {r}-α , with a characteristic slope α =7/4. This follows from energy conservation and a scattering rate given by two-body encounters. However, we show that the injection of stars close to the black hole, i.e., a source term in the standard cusp picture, modifies this profile. In the steady-state configuration, the cusp develops a central region with a typical slope α =9/4 in which stars diffuse outward. Binary disruption by the intense tidal field of the massive black hole is among the phenomena that take place in the Galactic Center (GC). In such a disruption, one of the binary members remains bound to the black hole, thus providing a source term of stars close to the black hole. Assuming a binary fraction of 0.1 and an orbital circularization efficiency of 0.35, we show that this source is strong enough to modify the cusp profile within ≈ 0.07 pc of the GC. If the binary fraction at the influence radius is of order unity and the orbits of all captured stars are efficiently circularized, the steeper cusp extends almost as far as the radius of influence of the black hole.

  6. Investigation of stellar magnetic fields based on the strengths of spectral lines - Application to Omicron Pegasi and Cool AP Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yoichi

    1993-06-01

    A practical method for simultaneous determinations of H (magnetic field) and xi (microturbulence) in a stellar atmosphere is presented, which is based on the requirement that the scatter of the abundances derived from individual lines should be minimized for the best choice of H and xi. This procedure may be regarded as being an improved and extended version of the classical Hensberge-De Loore method, since it is based on a 'fine analysis' technique using a model atmosphere and the detailed Zeeman-split components of a line are explicitly taken into account with an approximate treatment of the polarization effect. This method was first applied to the hot Am star O Peg, resulting in H = 2 kG (and xi is about 1.5 km/s); this H value is fairly consistent with other estimates based either on the Stenflo-Lindegren technique or on the line-pair method. As an alternative application, surface magnetic fields of five cool Ap stars were also investigated, showing that the H-values by this method agree well with those derived from the method of differential Zeeman broadening and that the classical Hensberge-De Loore technique tends to yield somewhat underestimated values.

  7. The Star Formation Main Sequence in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Paola; Fontana, Adriano; Castellano, Marco; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Merlin, Emiliano; Amorin, Ricardo; Cullen, Fergus; Daddi, Emanuele; Dickinson, Mark; Dunlop, James S.; Grazian, Andrea; Lamastra, Alessandra; McLure, Ross J.; Michałowski, Michał. J.; Pentericci, Laura; Shu, Xinwen

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass (M), I.e., the main sequence (MS) relation of star-forming galaxies, at 1.3≤slant zframe UV observations. Gravitational lensing combined with deep HST observations allows us to extend the analysis of the MS down to {log} M/{M}⊙ ˜ 7.5 at z≲ 4 and {log} M/{M}⊙ ˜ 8 at higher redshifts, a factor of ˜10 below most previous results. We perform an accurate simulation to take into account the effect of observational uncertainties and correct for the Eddington bias. This step allows us to reliably measure the MS and in particular its slope. While the normalization increases with redshift, we fit an unevolving and approximately linear slope. We nicely extend to lower masses the results of brighter surveys. Thanks to the large dynamic range in mass and by making use of the simulation, we analyzed any possible mass dependence of the dispersion around the MS. We find tentative evidence that the scatter decreases with increasing mass, suggesting a larger variety of star formation histories in low-mass galaxies. This trend agrees with theoretical predictions and is explained as either a consequence of the smaller number of progenitors of low-mass galaxies in a hierarchical scenario and/or of the efficient but intermittent stellar feedback processes in low-mass halos. Finally, we observe an increase in the SFR per unit stellar mass with redshift milder than predicted by theoretical models, implying a still incomplete understanding of the processes responsible for galaxy growth.

  8. Wind estimation around the shipwreck of Oriental Star based on field damage surveys and radar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiyong; Yao, Dan; Bai, Lanqiang; Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Kun; Tian, Fuyou; Wang, Mingjun

    Based on observational analyses and on-site ground and aerial damage surveys, this work aims to reveal the weather phenomena-especially the wind situation-when Oriental Star capsized in the Yangtze River on June 1, 2015. Results demonstrate that the cruise ship capsized when it encountered strong winds at speeds of at least 31 m s -1 near the apex of a bow echo embedded in a squall line. As suggested by the fallen trees within a 2-km radius around the wreck location, such strong winds were likely caused by microburst straight-line wind and/or embedded small vortices, rather than tornadoes.

  9. Library of high-resolution UES echelle spectra of F, G, K and M field dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, D.; Martin, E. L.

    1998-03-01

    We present a library of Utrecht echelle spectrograph (UES) observations of a sample of F, G, K and M field dwarf stars covering the spectral range from 4800 \\ Angstroms to 10600 \\ Angstroms with a resolution of 55000. These spectra include some of the spectral lines most widely used as optical and near-infrared indicators of chromospheric activity such as Hβ , Mg i b triplet, Na i D1, D2, He i D3, Hα , and Ca ii IRT lines, as well as a large number of photospheric lines which can also be affected by chromospheric activity. The spectra have been compiled with the aim of providing a set of standards observed at high-resolution to be used in the application of the spectral subtraction technique to obtain the active-chromosphere contribution to these lines in chromospherically active single and binary stars. This library can also be used for spectral classification purposes. A digital version with all the spectra is available via ftp and the World Wide Web (WWW) in both ASCII and FITS formats. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrof\\'{\\i

  10. Spectroscopic study of the HgMn star HD 49606: the quest for binarity, abundance stratifications and magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, G.; Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Munari, M.; Scalia, C.; Sparacello, E.; Scuderi, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a multi-instrument analysis of the mercury-manganese star HD 49606. New spectroscopic observations have been obtained by us with Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter (CAOS@OAC) and High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher-North@Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (HARPS-N@TNG). Combining these observations with archive data coming from other instruments, we performed a comprehensive analysis of this star. We highlight the motion around the centre of mass of a binary system of SB1 type, and we calculate the fundamental parameters characterizing its orbit. We also speculate on the nature of the unseen component. From the fit of H β and H γ, we determined the effective temperature and gravity, while from a number of metal lines, we derive the rotational and microturbulent velocities. Regarding chemical composition, we found underabundances of helium, oxygen, magnesium, sulfur and nickel, solar composition for carbon and overabundances for all the other elements. In particular, mercury abundance is derived taking into account an isotopic mixture different from the terrestrial one. As to magnesium, silicon and phosphorus, we found a non-constant abundance with the optical depth, a result currently considered an evidence of stratification. Spectropolarimetric observations have been performed in the attempt to highlight the presence of a magnetic field, but no detection has been found.

  11. Pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M?rcio

    2014-01-01

    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  12. The Complexity that the First Stars Brought to the Universe: Fragility of Metal-enriched Gas in a Radiation Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aykutalp, A.; Spaans, M.

    2011-01-01

    The initial mass function (IMF) of the first (Population III) stars and Population II (Pop II) stars is poorly known due to a lack of observations of the period between recombination and reionization. In simulations of the formation of the first stars, it has been shown that, due to the limited

  13. Rotationally modulated variability and pulsations of the He-rich star CPD -62°2124 with an extraordinarily strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubrig, S.; Mikulášek, Z.; Kholtygin, A. F.; Ilyin, I.; Schöller, M.; Järvinen, S. P.; Scholz, R.-D.; Zejda, M.

    2017-11-01

    A longitudinal magnetic field with a strength of 5.2 kG was recently detected in CPD -62°2124, which has a fractional main-sequence lifetime of about 60 per cent. Strongly magnetic early-B type chemically peculiar stars in an advanced evolutionary state are of special interest to understand the evolution of the angular momentum and spin-down time-scales in the presence of a global magnetic field. We made use of 17 FORS 2 low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations and 844 ASAS3 photometric measurements for the determination of the rotation period, pulsationsand the magnetic field geometry of the star. We calculated periodograms and applied phenomenological models of photometric, spectral and spectropolarimetric variability. We found that all quantities studied, specifically equivalent widths, the mean longitudinal magnetic field 〈Bz〉 and the flux in the V filter, vary with the same period P = 2.628 d, which was identified as the rotation period. The observed variations can be fully explained by a rigidly rotating main-sequence star with an uneven distribution of chemical elements, photometric spots and a stable, nearly dipolar magnetic field with a polar field strength of about 21 kG, frozen into the body of the star. The magnetic field of CPD -62°2124 is tilted to the rotation axis by β = 28° ± 7°, while the inclination of the rotation axis towards the line of sight is only i = 20° ± 5°. In the acquired FORS 2 spectra, we detect short-term line profile variations indicating the presence of β Cephei type pulsations. As of today, no other pulsating star of this type is known to possess such a strong magnetic field.

  14. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Source Catalog and the Compton-thick Fraction in the UDS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, A.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Fornasini, F.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Lansbury, G. B.; Treister, E.; Alexander, D. M.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Kocevski, D. D.; Lanz, L.; Marchesi, S.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Saez, C.; Stern, D.; Zappacosta, L.

    2018-03-01

    We present the results and the source catalog of the NuSTAR survey in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) field, bridging the gap in depth and area between NuSTAR’s ECDFS and COSMOS surveys. The survey covers a ∼0.6 deg2 area of the field for a total observing time of ∼1.75 Ms, to a half-area depth of ∼155 ks corrected for vignetting at 3–24 keV, and reaching sensitivity limits at half-area in the full (3–24 keV), soft (3–8 keV), and hard (8–24 keV) bands of 2.2 × 10‑14 erg cm‑2 s‑1, 1.0 × 10‑14 erg cm‑2 s‑1, and 2.7 × 10‑14 erg cm‑2 s‑1, respectively. A total of 67 sources are detected in at least one of the three bands, 56 of which have a robust optical redshift with a median of ∼ 1.1. Through a broadband (0.5–24 keV) spectral analysis of the whole sample combined with the NuSTAR hardness ratios, we compute the observed Compton-thick (CT; N H > 1024 cm‑2) fraction. Taking into account the uncertainties on each N H measurement, the final number of CT sources is 6.8 ± 1.2. This corresponds to an observed CT fraction of 11.5% ± 2.0%, providing a robust lower limit to the intrinsic fraction of CT active galactic nuclei and placing constraints on cosmic X-ray background synthesis models.

  15. Disruption model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Bronner, G.

    1982-07-01

    Calculations of disruption time and energy dissipation have been obtained by simulating the plasma as an electrical conducting loop that varies in resistivity, current density, major radius. The calculations provide results which are in good agreement with experimental observations. It is believed that this approach allows engineering designs for disruptions to be completed in large tokamaks such as INTOR or FED

  16. Discovery of a transient U-band dropout in a Lyman break survey : A tidally disrupted star at z=3.3?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stern, D; van Dokkum, PG; Nugent, P; Sand, DJ; Ellis, RS; Sullivan, M; Bloom, JS; Frail, DA; Kneib, JP; Koopmans, LVE; Treu, T

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of a transient source in the central regions of galaxy cluster A267. The object, which we call "PALS-1,'' was found in a survey aimed at identifying highly magnified Lyman break galaxies in the fields of intervening rich clusters. At discovery, the source had U(n)>24.7 (2

  17. Ultraviolet and optical observations of tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezari S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tidal disruption events are expected to produce a luminous flare of radiation from fallback accretion of tidally disrupted stellar debris onto the central supermassive black hole. The first convincing candidates for tidal disruption events were discovered in the soft X-rays: large-amplitude, luminous, extremely-soft X-ray flares from inactive galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky survey. However, the sparsely sampled light curves and lack of multiwavelength observations for these candidates make it difficult to directly constrain the parameters of their events (e.g., Eddington ratio, mass of the black hole, type of star disrupted. Here I present a review of the recent progress made in studying tidal disruption events in detail from taking advantage of wide-field, multi-epoch observations of UV and optical surveys (GALEX, SDSS, PTF, Pan-STARRS1 to measure well-sampled light curves, trigger prompt multiwavelength follow-up observations, and measure rates. I conclude with the promising potential of the next generation of optical synoptic surveys, such as LSST, to probe black hole demographics with samples of thousands of tidal disruption events.

  18. Magnetic field of the Sun as a star, 1969-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.A.; Demidov, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    A superposed epoch analysis of the solar mean magnetic field measured in Crimea during 1969-1976 was performed about 215 sector boundaries as observed at Earth. Mean field has showed quite good organization about sector boundaries with a typical field strength of about 0.4-0.3 Grin average sector. There is a significant difference between (+, -) and (-, +) boundaries with respect to the value of dH/dt (approximately 0.20 and 0.08 Gs/day respectively). It is found that average magnitude of the mean field has decreased from 0.5 Gs in 1969-1970 to 0.15 Gs in 1975-1976. The most principal recurrence period found in the data is 27sup(d),04+-0sup(d),06; resultant 27sup(d),04-curve exhibits remarcable asymmetry between magnetic fields of opposite signs (duration of S polarity is by 3-4 days larger than that of N polarity)

  19. Neutron Stars : Magnetism vs Gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Neutron Stars : Magnetism vs Gravity. WHY do neutron stars have such strong magnetic fields? Conservation of magnetic flux of the collapsing stellar core. ∫ B.ds (over surface of the star) = constant; Radius of the star collapses from ~ 5x108 to 1x104 metres; Hence, ...

  20. Today's talented youth field hockey players, the stars of tomorrow? : a study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije Titia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was addressed by conducting research within a group of all talented field hockey players, measuring multidimensional performance characteristics in a sports-specific way, and following talented players across time by adopting a longitudinal study design. With caution because

  1. Portrait of Gunnar Källén a physics shooting star and poet of early quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Wolfgang Pauli referred to him as 'my discovery,' Robert Oppenheimer described him as 'one of the most gifted theorists' and Niels Bohr found him enormously stimulating. Who was the man in question, Gunnar Källén (1926-1968)? His appearance in the physics sky was like a shooting star. His contributions to the scientific debate caused excitement among young and old. Similar to his friend and mentor, Wolfgang Pauli, he demanded honesty and rigor in physics - a distinct dividing line between fact and speculation. In his obituary, Arthur S. Wightman would write: 'Gunnar Källén was a proud continuer of the tradition in quantum field theory established by Wolfgang Pauli. His papers on quantum electrodynamics in the period 1950-1954 carried the non-perturbative approach to quantum electrodynamics forward to a point beyond which very little essential progress has been made up to the present day. At the time I was trying to puzzle out the grammar of the language of quantum field theory, and here was Källén al...

  2. Adaptive optics for fluorescence wide-field microscopy using spectrally independent guide star and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Pierre; Muro, Eleonora; Pons, Thomas; Loriette, Vincent; Fragola, Alexandra

    2011-07-01

    We describe the implementation and use of an adaptive optics loop in the imaging path of a commercial wide field microscope. We show that it is possible to maintain the optical performances of the original microscope when imaging through aberrant biological samples. The sources used for illuminating the adaptive optics loop are spectrally independent, in excitation and emission, from the sample, so they do not appear in the final image, and their use does not contribute to the sample bleaching. Results are compared with equivalent images obtained with an identical microscope devoid of adaptive optics system.

  3. ENHANCED TIDAL DISRUPTION RATES FROM MASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xian; Liu, F. K.; Madau, Piero; Sesana, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    'Hard' massive black hole (MBH) binaries embedded in steep stellar cusps can shrink via three-body slingshot interactions. We show that this process will inevitably be accompanied by a burst of stellar tidal disruptions, at a rate that can be several orders of magnitude larger than that appropriate for a single MBH. Our numerical scattering experiments reveal that (1) a significant fraction of stars initially bound to the primary hole are scattered into its tidal disruption loss cone by gravitational interactions with the secondary hole, an enhancement effect that is more pronounced for very unequal mass binaries; (2) about 25% (40%) of all strongly interacting stars are tidally disrupted by an MBH binary of mass ratio q = 1/81 (q = 1/243) and eccentricity 0.1; and (3) two mechanisms dominate the fueling of the tidal disruption loss cone, a Kozai nonresonant interaction that causes the secular evolution of the stellar angular momentum in the field of the binary, and the effect of close encounters with the secondary hole that change the stellar orbital parameters in a chaotic way. For a hard MBH binary of 10 7 M sun and mass ratio 10 -2 , embedded in an isothermal stellar cusp of velocity dispersion σ * = 100 km s -1 , the tidal disruption rate can be as large as N-dot * ∼1 yr -1 . This is 4 orders of magnitude higher than estimated for a single MBH fed by two-body relaxation. When applied to the case of a putative intermediate-mass black hole inspiraling onto Sgr A*, our results predict tidal disruption rates N-dot * ∼0.05-0.1 yr -1 .

  4. A SEARCH FOR NEUTRON STAR PRECESSION AND INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD VARIATIONS VIA MULTIEPOCH PULSAR POLARIMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, J. M.; Everett, J. E.; Morgan, J. J.; Brisbin, D. G.; Cordes, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to study precession and interstellar magnetic field variations, we measured the polarized position angle of 81 pulsars at several-month intervals for four years. We show that the uncertainties in a single-epoch measurement of position angle are usually dominated by random pulse-to-pulse jitter of the polarized subpulses. Even with these uncertainties, we find that the position angle variations in 19 pulsars are significantly better fitted (at the 3σ level) by a sinusoid than by a constant. Such variations could be caused by precession, which would then indicate periods of ∼(200-1300) days and amplitudes of ∼(1-12) degrees. We narrow this collection to four pulsars that show the most convincing evidence of sinusoidal variation in position angle. Also, in a handful of pulsars, single discrepant position angle measurements are observed which may result from the line of sight passing across a discrete ionized, magnetized structure. We calculate the standard deviation of position angle measurements from the mean for each pulsar and relate these to limits on precession and interstellar magnetic field variations.

  5. Digital Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    Disruption var frem til slutningen af 2016 i Danmark et ord, som kun få kendte og endnu færre havde en holdning til. Nu er der imidlertid sat fokus på begrebet fra allerhøjeste nationale sted, idet regeringen har taget initiativ til nedsættelse af det, Statsminister Lars Løkke Rasmussen indtil...... videre kalder et ”disruption-råd”. Faktisk er rådet skrevet ind i 2016 regeringsgrundlaget for VLK-regeringen. Disruption af organisationer er ikke et nyt fænomen; men hastigheden, hvormed det sker, er stadig accelererende. Årsagen er den globale mega-trend: Digitalisering. Og derfor er specielt digital...... disruption en sag for os alle. Derfor er det også for vigtigt et emne til, at det udelukkende behandles i elitære videnskabelige, industrielle og politiske kredse. Der er behov for en bredere samfundsdebat; og bogen er et forskningsbaseret bidrag ind i denne debat. For a kvalificere debatten om disruption i...

  6. The Cluster AgeS Experiment (CASE). Variable Stars in the Field of the Globular Cluster M22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozyczka, M.; Thompson, I. B.; Pych, W.; Narloch, W.; Poleski, R.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.

    2017-09-01

    The field of the globular cluster M22 (NGC 6656) was monitored between 2000 and 2008 in a search for variable stars. BV light curves were obtained for 359 periodic, likely periodic, and long-term variables, 238 of which are new detections. 39 newly detected variables, and 63 previously known ones are members or likely members of the cluster, including 20 SX Phe, 10 RRab and 16 RRc type pulsators, one BL Her type pulsator, 21 contact binaries, and 9 detached or semi-detached eclipsing binaries. The most interesting among the identified objects are V112 - a bright multimode SX Phe pulsator, V125 - a β Lyr type binary on the blue horizontal branch, V129 - a blue/yellow straggler with a W UMa-like light curve, located halfway between the extreme horizontal branch and red giant branch, and V134 - an extreme horizontal branch object with P=2.33 d and a nearly sinusoidal light curve. All four of them are proper motion members of the cluster. Among nonmembers, a P=2.83 d detached eclipsing binary hosting a δ Sct type pulsator was found, and a peculiar P=0.93 d binary with ellipsoidal modulation and narrow minimum in the middle of one of the descending shoulders of the sinusoid. We also collected substantial new data for previously known variables. In particular we revise the statistics of the occurrence of the Blazhko effect in RR Lyr type variables of M22.

  7. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Davy Kirkpatrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  8. Are Wolf-Rayet Stars Able to Pollute the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies? Results from Integral Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pérez-Montero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatial distribution of chemical abundances in a sample of low metallicity Wolf-Rayet (WR galaxies selected from the SDSS. We used the integral field spectroscopy technique in the optical spectral range (3700 Å–6850 Å with PMAS attached to the CAHA 3.5 m telescope. Our statistical analysis of the spatial distributions of O/H and N/O, as derived using the direct method or strong-line parameters consistent with it, indicates that metallicity is homogeneous in five out of the six analysed objects in scales of the order of several kpc. Only in the object WR404 is a gradient of metallicity found in the direction of the low surface brightness tail. In contrast, we found an overabundance of N/O in spatial scales of the order of hundreds of pc associated with or close to the positions of the WR stars in 4 out of the 6 galaxies. We exclude possible hydrodynamical causes, such as the metal-poor gas inflow, for this local pollution by means of the analysis of the mass-metallicity relation (MZR and mass-nitrogen-to-oxygen relation (MNOR for the WR galaxies catalogued in the SDSS.

  9. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  10. Politisk disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Dette blogindlæg giver en kort analyse af hvordan de sociale medier ved at give en ny tid har åbnet for den disruption af de politiske processer som især Trump stå som et eksempel på.......Dette blogindlæg giver en kort analyse af hvordan de sociale medier ved at give en ny tid har åbnet for den disruption af de politiske processer som især Trump stå som et eksempel på....

  11. Disrupting Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Bazzichelli, Tatiana

    Disruptive Business explores some of the interconnections between art, activism and the business concept of disruptive innovation. With a backdrop of the crisis of financial capitalism, austerity cuts in the cultural sphere, the idea is to focus on potential art strategies in relation to a broken...... economy. In a perverse way, we ask whether this presents new opportunities for cultural producers to achieve more autonomy over their production process. If it is indeed possible, or desirable, what alternative business models emerge? The book is concerned broadly with business as material for reinvention...

  12. The Gaia-ESO Survey: radial distribution of abundances in the Galactic disc from open clusters and young-field stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, L.; Randich, S.; Kordopatis, G.; Prantzos, N.; Romano, D.; Chieffi, A.; Limongi, M.; François, P.; Pancino, E.; Friel, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Spina, L.; Overbeek, J.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Donati, P.; Vallenari, A.; Sordo, R.; Jiménez-Esteban, F. M.; Tang, B.; Drazdauskas, A.; Sousa, S.; Duffau, S.; Jofré, P.; Gilmore, G.; Feltzing, S.; Alfaro, E.; Bensby, T.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Lanzafame, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G.; Sbordone, L.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The spatial distribution of elemental abundances in the disc of our Galaxy gives insights both on its assembly process and subsequent evolution, and on the stellar nucleogenesis of the different elements. Gradients can be traced using several types of objects as, for instance, (young and old) stars, open clusters, HII regions, planetary nebulae. Aims: We aim to trace the radial distributions of abundances of elements produced through different nucleosynthetic channels - the α-elements O, Mg, Si, Ca and Ti, and the iron-peak elements Fe, Cr, Ni and Sc - by use of the Gaia-ESO IDR4 results for open clusters and young-field stars. Methods: From the UVES spectra of member stars, we have determined the average composition of clusters with ages > 0.1 Gyr. We derived statistical ages and distances of field stars. We traced the abundance gradients using the cluster and field populations and compared them with a chemo-dynamical Galactic evolutionary model. Results: The adopted chemo-dynamical model, with the new generation of metallicity-dependent stellar yields for massive stars, is able to reproduce the observed spatial distributions of abundance ratios, in particular the abundance ratios of [O/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] in the inner disc (5 kpc Tables A.1-A.4 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/603/A2

  13. RED CLUMP STARS IN THE SAGITTARIUS TIDAL STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrell, Kenneth; Chen Yuqin; Wilhelm, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    We have probed a section (l ∼ 150, b ∼ –60) of the trailing tidal arm of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy by identifying a sample of Red Clump (RC) stream stars. RC stars are not generally found in the halo field, but are found in significant numbers in both the Sagittarius galaxy and its tidal streams, making them excellent probes of stream characteristics. Our target sample was selected using photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 6, which was constrained in color to match the Sagittarius RC stars. Spectroscopic observations of the target stars were conducted at Kitt Peak National Observatory using the WIYN telescope. The resulting spectroscopic sample is magnitude limited and contains both main-sequence disk stars and evolved RC stars. We have developed a method to systematically separate these two stellar classes using kinematic information and a Bayesian approach for surface gravity determination. The resulting RC sample allows us to determine an absolute stellar density of ρ = 2.7 ± 0.5 RC stars kpc –3 at this location in the stream. Future measurements of stellar densities for a variety of populations and at various locations along the streams will lead to a much improved understanding of the original nature of the Sagittarius galaxy and the physical processes controlling its disruption and subsequent stream generation.

  14. THE UV CONTINUUM OF z > 1 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE ULTRAVIOLET ULTRADEEP FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rafelski, Marc [NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Acquaviva, Viviana [New York City College of Technology, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Brown, Thomas M.; Coe, Dan; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); De Mello, Duilia F. [Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lee, Kyoung-soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Scarlata, Claudia [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Siana, Brian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We estimate the UV continuum slope, β, for 923 galaxies in the range 1 < z < 8 in the Hubble Ultradeep Field (HUDF). These data include 460 galaxies at 1 < z < 2 down to an absolute magnitude M{sub UV}=−14(∼0.006 L{sub z=1}{sup ∗};0.02 L{sub z=0}{sup ∗}), comparable to dwarf galaxies in the local universe. We combine deep HST/UVIS photometry in F225W, F275W, F336W wavebands (UVUDF) with recent data from HST/WFC3/IR (HUDF12). Galaxies in the range 1 < z < 2 are significantly bluer than local dwarf galaxies. We find their mean (median) values <β > = – 1.382(– 1.830) ± 0.002 (random) ± 0.1 (systematic). We find comparable scatter in β (standard deviation = 0.43) to local dwarf galaxies and 30% larger scatter than z > 2 galaxies. We study the trends of β with redshift and absolute magnitude for binned sub-samples and find a modest color-magnitude relation, dβ/dM = –0.11 ± 0.01, and no evolution in dβ/dM with redshift. A modest increase in dust reddening with redshift and luminosity, ΔE(B – V) ∼ 0.1, and a comparable increase in the dispersion of dust reddening at z < 2, appears likely to explain the observed trends. At z > 2, we find trends that are consistent with previous works; combining our data with the literature in the range 1 < z < 8, we find a color evolution with redshift, dβ/dz = –0.09 ± 0.01 for low luminosity (0.05 L{sub z=3}{sup ∗}), and dβ/dz = –0.06 ± 0.01 for medium luminosity (0.25 L{sub z=3}{sup ∗}) galaxies.

  15. Numerical study of rotating relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The equations of structure for rotating stars in general relativity are presented and put in a form suitable for computer calculations. The results of equilibrium calculations for supermassive stars, neutron stars, and magnetically supported stars are reported, as are calculations of collapsing, rotating, and magnetized stars in the slowly changing gravitational field approximation. (auth)

  16. Luciola Hypertelescope Space Observatory. Versatile, Upgradable High-Resolution Imaging,from Stars to Deep-Field Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeyrie, Antoine; Le Coroller, Herve; Dejonghe, Julien; Lardiere, Olivier; Aime, Claude; Dohlen, Kjetil; Mourard, Denis; Lyon, Richard; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2008-01-01

    missions, the spectral coverage can be extended from 120nm to 20 microns, using four detectors carried by two to four focal spacecraft. The number of collector mirrors in the flotilla can also be increased from 12 to 100 and possibly 1,000. The imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets in the mid infra-red then becomes feasible once the collecting area reaches 6m2 , using a specialized mid infra-red focal spacecraft. Calculations ( Boccaletti et al., 2000) have shown that hypertelescope coronagraphy has unequalled sensitivity for detecting, at mid infra-red wavelengths, faint exoplanets within the exo-zodiacal glare. Later upgrades will enable the more difficult imaging and spectroscopy of these faint objects at visible wavelengths, using refined techniques of adaptive coronagraphy (Labeyrie. & Le Coroller, 2004). Together, the infra-red and visible spectral data carry rich information on the possible presence of life. The close environment of the central black-hole in the Milky Way will be imageable with unprecedented detail in the near infra-red . Cosmological imaging of remote galaxies at the limit of the known universe is also expected, from the ultra-violet to the near infra-red, following the first upgrade, and with greatly increasing sensitivity through successive upgrades. These areas will indeed greatly benefit from the upgrades, in terms of dynamic range, limiting complexity of the objects to be imaged, size of the elementary Direct Imaging Field , and limiting magnitude, approaching that of an 8-meter space telescope when 1000 apertures of 25cm are installed. Similar gains will occur for addressing fundamental problems in physics and cosmology, particularly when observing neutron stars and black holes, single or binary, including the giant black holes, with accretion disks and jets, in active galactic nuclei beyond the Milky Way. Gravitational lensing and micro-lensing patterns, including time-variable patterns and perhaps millisecond lensing flasheshich

  17. Probing star formation and feedback in dwarf galaxies. Integral field view of the blue compact galaxy Tololo 1937-423

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairós, L. M.; González-Pérez, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Blue compact galaxies (BCG) are gas-rich, low-mass, small systems that form stars at unusually high rates. This makes them excellent laboratories for investigating the process of star-formation (SF) at galactic scales and the effects of massive stellar feedback on the interstellar (and intergalactic) medium. Aims: We analyzed the BCG Tololo 1937-423 using optical integral field spectroscopy to probe its morphology, stellar content, nebular excitation and ionization properties, and the kinematics of its warm ionized gas. Methods: Tololo 1937-423 was observed with the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We took data in the wavelength range 4150-7400 Å, covering a field of view of 27″× 27″ on the sky with a spatial sampling of 0.̋67. From these data we built maps in the continuum and brighter emission lines, diagnostic line ratio maps, and velocity dispersion fields. We also generated the integrated spectrum of the main H II regions and young stellar clusters to determine reliable physical parameters and oxygen abundances. Results: We found that Tololo 1937-423 is currently undergoing an extended starburst. In the Hα maps we identified nine major clumps, aligned mostly northeast-southwest, and stretching to galactocentric distances ≥2 kpc. The galaxy presents a single continuum peak that is not cospatial with any knot in emission lines, indicating at least two relatively recent episodes of SF. The inhomogeneous dust distribution reachs its maximum (E(B-V) 0.97) roughly at the position of the continuum peak. We found shocked regions in the galaxy outer regions and at the edges of the SF knots. The oxygen abundance, 12 + log(O/H) 8.20 ± 0.1, is similar in all the SF regions, suggesting a chemically homogeneous ionized interstellar medium over spatial scales of several kpc. The ionized gas kinematics displays an overall regular rotation around a northwest-southeast axis, with a maximum velocity of 70 ± 7 km s-1. Conclusions

  18. Doppler search for exoplanet candidates and binary stars in a CoRoT field using a multi-fiber spectrograph. I. Global analysis and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeillet, B.; Bouchy, F.; Deleuil, M.; Royer, F.; Bouret, J. C.; Moutou, C.; Barge, P.; de Laverny, P.; Pont, F.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Santos, N. C.

    2008-03-01

    Context: The discovery of the short-period giant exoplanet population, the so-called hot Jupiter population, and their link to brown dwarfs and low-mass stars challenges the conventional view of planet formation and evolution. Aims: We took advantage of the multi-fiber facilities GIRAFFE and UVES/FLAMES (VLT) to perform the first large radial velocity survey using a multi-fiber spectrograph to detect planetary, brown-dwarf candidates and binary stars. Methods: We observed 816 stars during 5 consecutive half-nights. These stars were selected within one of the exoplanet fields of the space mission CoRoT. Results: We computed the radial velocities of these stars and showed that a systematic error floor of 30 m s-1 was reached over 5 consecutive nights with the GIRAFFE instrument. Over the whole sample the Doppler measurements allowed us to identify a sample of 50 binaries, 9 active or blended binary stars, 5 unsolved cases, 14 exoplanets and brown-dwarf candidates. Further higher precision Doppler measurements are now necessary to confirm and better characterize these candidates. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the efficiency of a multi-fiber approach for large radial-velocity surveys in search for exoplanets as well as the follow-up of transiting exoplanet candidates. The spectroscopic characterization of the large stellar population is an interesting by-product of such missions as the CoRoT space mission. Based on observations collected with the GIRAFFE and UVES/FLAMES spectrographs at the VLT/UT2 Kueyen telescope (Paranal observatory, ESO, Chile: program 074.C-0633A).

  19. The infrared-radio correlation of spheroid- and disc-dominated star-forming galaxies to z ˜ 1.5 in the COSMOS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Dániel Cs; Sargent, Mark T.; Delhaize, Jacinta; Delvecchio, Ivan; Smolčić, Vernesa; Novak, Mladen; Schinnerer, Eva; Zamorani, Giovanni; Bondi, Marco; Herrera-Ruiz, Noelia; Murphy, Eric J.; Vardoulaki, Eleni; Karim, Alexander; Leslie, Sarah; Magnelli, Benjamin; Carollo, C. Marcella; Middelberg, Enno

    2018-03-01

    Using infrared data from the Herschel Space Observatory and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 3 GHz observations in the COSMOS field, we investigate the redshift evolution of the infrared-radio correlation (IRRC) for star-forming galaxies (SFGs) we classify as either spheroid- or disc-dominated based on their morphology. The sample predominantly consists of disc galaxies with stellar mass ≳ 1010 M⊙, and residing on the star-forming main sequence (MS). After the removal of AGN using standard approaches, we observe a significant difference between the redshift evolution of the median IR/radio ratio \\overline{q}_{TIR} of (i) a sample of ellipticals, plus discs with a substantial bulge component (`spheroid-dominated' SFGs) and, (ii) virtually pure discs and irregular systems (`disc-dominated' SFGs). The spheroid-dominated population follows a declining \\overline{q}_{TIR} versus z trend similar to that measured in recent evolutionary studies of the IRRC. However, for disc-dominated galaxies, where radio and IR emission should be linked to star formation in the most straightforward way, we measure very little change in \\overline{q}_{TIR}. This suggests that low-redshift calibrations of radio emission as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer may remain valid out to at least z ≃ 1-1.5 for pure star-forming systems. We find that the different redshift evolution of qTIR for the spheroid- and disc-dominated sample is mainly due to an increasing radio excess for spheroid-dominated galaxies at z ≳ 0.8, hinting at some residual AGN activity in these systems. This finding demonstrates that in the absence of AGN, the IRRC is independent of redshift, and that radio observations can therefore be used to estimate SFRs at all redshifts for genuinely star-forming galaxies.

  20. N-body simulations on the numerical determination of the dissolution times of open star clusters in the Galactic tidal field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, G.

    1992-11-01

    The dissolution times of open star clusters with N = 100 to 1000 members with and without a mass-spectrum have been determined by direct N-body simulations, following the evolution of the cluster until total dissolution, using Aarseth's NBODY5 code. Initial conditions were Plummer models with different initial radii. The models were either isolated or embedded into the Galactic tidal field. The results show a good agreement with the prediction for the dissolution time by Wielen (AAA 45.151.072) for medium and large clusters in the tidal field. Clusters with small initial radii or isolated models do not agree with the prediction. The number of stars remaining in an isolated model decreases exponentially with time. In the isolated case the formation of hard binaries absorbs energy from the cluster. The dynamical evolution slows down because the half mass radius and the crossing time of the cluster are increasing.

  1. The Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope Ii Catalog Of Variable Stars. Ii. Characterization Of The Corot Src02 Field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klagyivik, P.; Csizmadia, S.; Pasternacki, T.; Cabrera, J.; Chini, R.; Eigmueller, P.; Erikson, A.; Fruth, T.; Kabáth, Petr; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.; Rauer, H.; Titz-Weider, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 151, May (2016), 110/1-110/9 ISSN 0004-6256 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : eclipsing binaries * variables stars * photometric techniques Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.609, year: 2016

  2. TESTING MODELS OF MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION OF NEUTRON STARS WITH THE STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF THEIR SPIN EVOLUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuangnan; Xie Yi

    2012-01-01

    We test models for the evolution of neutron star (NS) magnetic fields (B). Our model for the evolution of the NS spin is taken from an analysis of pulsar timing noise presented by Hobbs et al.. We first test the standard model of a pulsar's magnetosphere in which B does not change with time and magnetic dipole radiation is assumed to dominate the pulsar's spin-down. We find that this model fails to predict both the magnitudes and signs of the second derivatives of the spin frequencies (ν-double dot). We then construct a phenomenological model of the evolution of B, which contains a long-term decay (LTD) modulated by short-term oscillations; a pulsar's spin is thus modified by its B-evolution. We find that an exponential LTD is not favored by the observed statistical properties of ν-double dot for young pulsars and fails to explain the fact that ν-double dot is negative for roughly half of the old pulsars. A simple power-law LTD can explain all the observed statistical properties of ν-double dot. Finally, we discuss some physical implications of our results to models of the B-decay of NSs and suggest reliable determination of the true ages of many young NSs is needed, in order to constrain further the physical mechanisms of their B-decay. Our model can be further tested with the measured evolutions of ν-dot and ν-double dot for an individual pulsar; the decay index, oscillation amplitude, and period can also be determined this way for the pulsar.

  3. The clustering and bias of radio-selected AGN and star-forming galaxies in the COSMOS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, C. L.; Jarvis, M. J.; Delvecchio, I.; Hatfield, P. W.; Novak, M.; Smolčić, V.; Zamorani, G.

    2018-03-01

    Dark matter haloes in which galaxies reside are likely to have a significant impact on their evolution. We investigate the link between dark matter haloes and their constituent galaxies by measuring the angular two-point correlation function of radio sources, using recently released 3 GHz imaging over ˜2 deg2 of the Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. We split the radio source population into star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and active galactic nuclei (AGN), and further separate the AGN into radiatively efficient and inefficient accreters. Restricting our analysis to z hand, AGN are significantly more strongly clustered with b = 2.1 ± 0.2 at a median redshift of 0.7. This supports the idea that AGN are hosted by more massive haloes than SFGs. We also find low accretion rate AGN are more clustered (b = 2.9 ± 0.3) than high accretion rate AGN (b = 1.8^{+0.4}_{-0.5}) at the same redshift (z ˜ 0.7), suggesting that low accretion rate AGN reside in higher mass haloes. This supports previous evidence that the relatively hot gas that inhabits the most massive haloes is unable to be easily accreted by the central AGN, causing them to be inefficient. We also find evidence that low accretion rate AGN appear to reside in halo masses of Mh ˜ 3-4 × 1013 h-1 M⊙ at all redshifts. On the other hand, the efficient accreters reside in haloes of Mh ˜ 1-2 × 1013 h-1 M⊙ at low redshift but can reside in relatively lower mass haloes at higher redshifts. This could be due to the increased prevalence of cold gas in lower mass haloes at z ≥ 1 compared to z < 1.

  4. Pulsating star products from the Palomar Transient Factory: Ultra-long period Cepheids in M31 and RR Lyrae in Kepler field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngeow Chow-Choong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and its successor, the intermediate PTF (iPTF, are wide-field synoptic sky surveys aimed to detect transients. Even though the main science goal for PTF/iPTF is to detect various types of transients, the synoptic nature of the surveys can also be used for the study of variable stars. In this proceedings contribution, I will first give a brief introduction to PTF/iPTF, followed by the two pulsating stars studies using the PTF/iPTF data: the Ultra-Long Period Cepheids (ULPC in M31 and the RR Lyrae in the Kepler field. For the formal study, we searched the M31’s ULPC using PTF imaging data, and follow up the candidates with other telescopes. Our finding revealed that there are only two ULPC in M31. I will give a brief implication of our finding in distance scale studies. For the latter study, I will present our work on the derivation of metallicity-light curve relation in native PTF/iPTF R-band using the RRab stars in the Kepler field.

  5. The Problem of Hipparcos Distances to Open Clusters. II. Constraints from Nearby Field Theory. Report 2; ClustersConstraints from nearly Field Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, David R.; King, Jeremy R.; Hanson, Robert B.; Jones, Burton F.; Fischer, Debra; Stauffer, John R.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the discrepancy between distances to nearby open clusters as determined by parallaxes from Hipparcos compared to traditional main-sequence fitting. The biggest difference is seen for the Pleiades, and our hypothesis is that if the Hipparcos distance to the Pleiades is correct, then similar subluminous zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) stars should exist elsewhere, including in the immediate solar neighborhood. We examine a color-magnitude diagram of very young and nearby solar-type stars and show that none of them lie below the traditional ZAMS, despite the fact that the Hipparcos Pleiades parallax would place its members 0.3 mag below that ZAMS. We also present analyses and observations of solar-type stars that do lie below the ZAMS, and we show that they are subluminous because of low metallicity and that they have the kinematics of old stars.

  6. Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günerken, E; D'Hondt, E; Eppink, M H M; Garcia-Gonzalez, L; Elst, K; Wijffels, R H

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a potential source for various valuable chemicals for commercial applications ranging from nutraceuticals to fuels. Objective in a biorefinery is to utilize biomass ingredients efficiently similarly to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of products with higher value. Downstream processes in microalgae biorefineries consist of different steps whereof cell disruption is the most crucial part. To maintain the functionality of algae biochemicals during cell disruption while obtaining high disruption yields is an important challenge. Despite this need, studies on mild disruption of microalgae cells are limited. This review article focuses on the evaluation of conventional and emerging cell disruption technologies, and a comparison thereof with respect to their potential for the future microalgae biorefineries. The discussed techniques are bead milling, high pressure homogenization, high speed homogenization, ultrasonication, microwave treatment, pulsed electric field treatment, non-mechanical cell disruption and some emerging technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for non-axisymmetry in M 31 from wide-field kinematics of stars and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitsch, M.; Fabricius, M. H.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Blaña, M.; Gerhard, O.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. As the nearest large spiral galaxy, M 31 provides a unique opportunity to study the structure and evolutionary history of this galaxy type in great detail. Among the many observing programs aimed at M 31 are microlensing studies, which require good three-dimensional models of the stellar mass distribution. Possible non-axisymmetric structures like a bar need to be taken into account. Due to M 31's high inclination, the bar is difficult to detect in photometry alone. Therefore, detailed kinematic measurements are needed to constrain the possible existence and position of a bar in M 31. Methods: We obtained ≈220 separate fields with the optical integral-field unit spectrograph VIRUS-W, covering the whole bulge region of M 31 and parts of the disk. We derived stellar line-of-sight velocity distributions from the stellar absorption lines, as well as velocity distributions and line fluxes of the emission lines Hβ, [O III] and [N I]. Our data supersede any previous study in terms of spatial coverage and spectral resolution. Results: We find several features that are indicative of a bar in the kinematics of the stars, we see intermediate plateaus in the velocity and the velocity dispersion, and correlation between the higher moment h3 and the velocity. The gas kinematics is highly irregular, but is consistent with non-triaxial streaming motions caused by a bar. The morphology of the gas shows a spiral pattern, with seemingly lower inclination than the stellar disk. We also look at the ionization mechanisms of the gas, which happens mostly through shocks and not through starbursts. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.This research was supported by the DFG cluster of excellence "Origin and Structure of the Universe".Full Tables B.4-B.7 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A38

  8. Tidal Disruption Events from Eccentric Nuclear Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernke, Heather N.; Madigan, Ann-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Stars that get too close to a supermassive black hole are in danger of being tidally disrupted. Stellar two-body relaxation is commonly assumed to be the main driver of these events. Recent work has shown, however, that secular gravitational torques from eccentric nuclear disks can push stars to extreme eccentricities at much higher rates than predicted by two-body relaxation. This work did not include the effects of general relativity, however, which could quench secular torques via rapid apsidal precession. Here we show that, for a star in danger of disruption, general relativity acts on a timescale of less than an orbital period. This short timescale means that general relativity does not have enough time to have a major effect on the orbit. When driven by secular torques from eccentric nuclear disks, tidal disruption event rates are not affected by general relativity.

  9. Highlights from 4STAR Sky-Scanning Retrievals of Aerosol Intensive Optical Properties from Multiple Field Campaigns with Detailed Comparisons of SSA Reported During SEAC4RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, C. J.; Dahlgren, R. P.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Schmidt, S.; Holben, B. N.; Sinyuk, A.; Hair, J. W.; Anderson, B. E.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) with AERONET-like sky-scanning capability and adds state-of-the-art fiber-coupled grating spectrometry to yield hyperspectral measurements of direct solar irradiance and angularly resolved sky radiance. The combination of sun-tracking and sky-scanning capability enables retrievals of wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD), mode-resolved aerosol size distribution (SD), asphericity, and complex refractive index, and thus also the scattering phase function, asymmetry parameter, single-scattering albedo (SSA), and absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT). From 2012 to 2014 4STAR participated in four major field campaigns: the U.S. Dept. of Energy's TCAP I & II campaigns, and NASA's SEAC4RS and ARISE campaigns. Establishing a strong performance record, 4STAR operated successfully on all flights conducted during each of these campaigns. Sky radiance spectra from scans in either constant azimuth (principal plane) or constant zenith angle (almucantar) were interspersed with direct beam measurements during level legs. During SEAC4RS and ARISE, 4STAR airborne measurements were augmented with flight-level albedo from the collocated Shortwave Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) providing improved specification of below-aircraft radiative conditions for the retrieval. Calibrated radiances and retrieved products will be presented with particular emphasis on detailed comparisons of ambient SSA retrievals and measurements during SEAC4RS from 4STAR, AERONET, HSRL2, and from in situ measurements.

  10. IMPROVED VARIABLE STAR SEARCH IN LARGE PHOTOMETRIC DATA SETS: NEW VARIABLES IN CoRoT FIELD LRa02 DETECTED BY BEST II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruth, T.; Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Eigmüller, P.; Erikson, A.; Kirste, S.; Pasternacki, T.; Rauer, H.; Titz-Weider, R.; Kabath, P.; Chini, R.; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.

    2012-01-01

    The CoRoT field LRa02 has been observed with the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope II (BEST II) during the southern summer 2007/2008. A first analysis of stellar variability led to the publication of 345 newly discovered variable stars. Now, a deeper analysis of this data set was used to optimize the variability search procedure. Several methods and parameters have been tested in order to improve the selection process compared to the widely used J index for variability ranking. This paper describes an empirical approach to treat systematic trends in photometric data based upon the analysis of variance statistics that can significantly decrease the rate of false detections. Finally, the process of reanalysis and method improvement has virtually doubled the number of variable stars compared to the first analysis by Kabath et al. A supplementary catalog of 272 previously unknown periodic variables plus 52 stars with suspected variability is presented. Improved ephemerides are given for 19 known variables in the field. In addition, the BEST II results are compared with CoRoT data and its automatic variability classification.

  11. Early Monocular Defocus Disrupts the Normal Development of Receptive-Field Structure in V2 Neurons of Macaque Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Shen, Guofu; Wensveen, Janice; Smith, Earl L.; Nishimoto, Shinji; Ohzawa, Izumi

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing different quality images in the two eyes soon after birth can cause amblyopia, a developmental vision disorder. Amblyopic humans show the reduced capacity for judging the relative position of a visual target in reference to nearby stimulus elements (position uncertainty) and often experience visual image distortion. Although abnormal pooling of local stimulus information by neurons beyond striate cortex (V1) is often suggested as a neural basis of these deficits, extrastriate neurons in the amblyopic brain have rarely been studied using microelectrode recording methods. The receptive field (RF) of neurons in visual area V2 in normal monkeys is made up of multiple subfields that are thought to reflect V1 inputs and are capable of encoding the spatial relationship between local stimulus features. We created primate models of anisometropic amblyopia and analyzed the RF subfield maps for multiple nearby V2 neurons of anesthetized monkeys by using dynamic two-dimensional noise stimuli and reverse correlation methods. Unlike in normal monkeys, the subfield maps of V2 neurons in amblyopic monkeys were severely disorganized: subfield maps showed higher heterogeneity within each neuron as well as across nearby neurons. Amblyopic V2 neurons exhibited robust binocular suppression and the strength of the suppression was positively correlated with the degree of hereogeneity and the severity of amblyopia in individual monkeys. Our results suggest that the disorganized subfield maps and robust binocular suppression of amblyopic V2 neurons are likely to adversely affect the higher stages of cortical processing resulting in position uncertainty and image distortion. PMID:25297110

  12. The first evidence for multiple pulsation axes: a new rapidly oscillating Ap star in the Kepler field, KIC 10195926

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Donald W.; Cunha, Margarida S.; Saio, H.

    2011-01-01

    . The principal pulsation mode is an oblique dipole mode that shows a rotationally split frequency septuplet that provides information on the geometry of the mode. The secondary mode also appears to be a dipole mode with a rotationally split triplet, but we are able to show within the improved oblique pulsator...... to these values that reproduces the rotational variations of the two obliquely pulsating modes with different pulsation axes. The star shows overabundances of the rare earth elements, but these are not as extreme as most other roAp stars. The spectrum is variable with rotation, indicating surface abundance...... spotted magnetic variable that shows a complex rotational light variation with a period of Prot= 5.684 59 d. For the first time for any spotted magnetic star of the upper main sequence, we find clear evidence of light variation with a period of twice the rotation period, that is, a subharmonic frequency...

  13. The determination of the rotation period and magnetic field geometry of the strongly magnetic roAp star HD 154708

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubrig, S.; Mathys, G.; Kurtz, D.W.; Schöller, M.; Elkin, V.G.; Henrichs, H.F.

    2009-01-01

    We obtained 13 spectropolarimetric observations of the strongly magnetic rapidly oscillating Ap star HD 154708 over 3 months with the multimode instrument FORS 1, installed at the 8-m Kueyen telescope of the Very Large Telescope. These observations have been used for the determination of the

  14. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s−1 at peak, rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ∼ 2 − 5, created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  15. Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations of In Situ Star Formation in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Chris; Heitsch, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Many stars observed in the Galactic Center (GC) orbit the supermassive black hole (SMBH), Sagittarius A*, in a region where the extreme gravitational field is expected to inhibit star formation. Yet, many of these stars are young which favors an in situ formation scenario. Previous numerical work on this topic has focused on two possible solutions. First, the tidal capture of a > 10^4 Msun infalling molecular cloud by an SMBH may result in the formation of a surrounding gas disk which then rapidly cools and forms stars. This process results in stellar populations that are consistent with the observed stellar disk in the GC. Second, dense gas clumps of approximately 100 Msun on highly eccentric orbits about an SMBH can experience sparks of star formation via orbital compressions occurring during pericenter passage. In my dissertation, I build upon these models using a series of grid-based radiative hydrodynamic simulations, including the effects of both ionizing ultraviolet light from existing stars as well as X-ray radiation emanating from the central black hole. Radiation is treated with an adaptive ray-tracing routine, including appropriate heating and cooling for both neutral and ionized gas. These models show that ultraviolet radiation is sufficiently strong to heat low mass gas clouds, thus suppressing star formation from clump compression. Gas disks that form from cloud capture become sufficiently dense to provide shielding from the radiation of existing central stars, thus allowing star formation to continue. Conversely, X-rays easily penetrate and heat the potentially star forming gas. For sufficiently high radiation fields, this provides a mechanism to disrupt star formation for both scenarios considered above.

  16. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development...... invested in the issue of sustainable business development, in particular the leaders and employees of SMEs, but also to design education seeking new ways to consciously handle and teach the complexity inherent in sustainable transformation. Findings indicate that the SD design thinking approach contributes....... The tools have been applied in practice in collaboration with 11 small and medium sized companies (SMEs). The study investigates these approaches to further understand how design thinking can contribute to sustainable transition in a business context. The study and the findings are relevant to organizations...

  17. Massive soliton stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  18. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) disrupts the structure and metabolism of human Echinococcus granulosus protoscolex in vitro with a dose effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqing; Aji, Tuerganaili; Shao, Yingmei; Jiang, Tiemin; Yang, Lei; Lv, Weimin; Chen, Yonggang; Chen, Xinhua; Wen, Hao

    2017-04-01

    The number of interventional treatments for hepatic cystic echinococcosis is increasing, but the chemicals or high temperatures used in these methodologies cause biliary complications, thus limiting their clinical applications. This experimental study aimed to apply a novel, non-thermal, non-chemical ablation method termed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) for the treatment of human hepatic cystic echinococcosis. The nsPEF treatment parameters against protoscolices from human hepatic cystic echinococcosis were optimized in vitro. The efficacy and mechanism of nsPEF treatment were also investigated. Fresh protoscolices were isolated from human hepatic cystic echinococcosis and were exposed to 300 ns of nsPEF with different field strengths (0, 7, 14, 21, and 29 kV/cm) and pulse numbers (50 and 100 pulses). Then, the viability of the nsPEF-treated protoscolices was evaluated in vitro. Morphological and ultra-structural changes were visualized with H&E staining and scanning electron microscopy. The membrane enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) was measured. nsPEF caused dose-dependent protoscolex death. One-hundred pulses of nsPEF at 21 kV/cm or higher caused a significant increase in the death rate of protoscolices. nsPEF induced significant lethal damage with 50 pulses at 21 or 29 kV/cm and with 100 pulses at 14, 21, or 29 kV/cm, accompanied by morphological destruction and increased levels of AP and GGT membrane enzymes. Thus, nsPEF induced dose-dependent protoscolex mortality and caused destruction of protoscolices and increased membrane enzymes. The mechanism may involve direct damage to the membrane structures of the protoscolices, promoting enzyme exhaustion and disruption of metabolism.

  19. Kepler observations of Am stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, L. A.; Ripepi, V.; Cantanzaro, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of high-resolution spectra for two pulsating Am stars in the Kepler field. The stellar parameters derived in this way are important because parameters derived from narrow-band photometry may be affected by the strong metal lines in these stars. We analyse the Kepler time...... series of ten known Am stars and find that six of them clearly show δ Scuti pulsations. The other four appear to be non-pulsating. We derive fundamental parameters for all known pulsating Am stars from ground-based observations and also for the Kepler Am stars to investigate the location...... of the instability strip for pulsating Am stars. We find that there is not much difference between the Am-star instability strip and the δ Scuti instability strip. We find that the observed location of pulsating Am stars in the HR diagram does not agree with the location predicted from diffusion calculations. Based...

  20. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  1. Dynamics and radiation from tidal disruption events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnerot, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    When a star gets too close to a supermassive black hole, it is torn apart by strong tidal forces in a tidal disruption event (TDE). The stellar matter then fuels the compact object causing a bright flare that is a unique probe of the majority of galactic nuclei, otherwise quiescent. For

  2. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  3. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  4. The E-MOSAICS project: simulating the formation and co-evolution of galaxies and their star cluster populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Joel; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Crain, Robert A.; Bastian, Nate

    2018-04-01

    We introduce the MOdelling Star cluster population Assembly In Cosmological Simulations within EAGLE (E-MOSAICS) project. E-MOSAICS incorporates models describing the formation, evolution, and disruption of star clusters into the EAGLE galaxy formation simulations, enabling the examination of the co-evolution of star clusters and their host galaxies in a fully cosmological context. A fraction of the star formation rate of dense gas is assumed to yield a cluster population; this fraction and the population's initial properties are governed by the physical properties of the natal gas. The subsequent evolution and disruption of the entire cluster population are followed accounting for two-body relaxation, stellar evolution, and gravitational shocks induced by the local tidal field. This introductory paper presents a detailed description of the model and initial results from a suite of 10 simulations of ˜L⋆ galaxies with disc-like morphologies at z = 0. The simulations broadly reproduce key observed characteristics of young star clusters and globular clusters (GCs), without invoking separate formation mechanisms for each population. The simulated GCs are the surviving population of massive clusters formed at early epochs (z ≳ 1-2), when the characteristic pressures and surface densities of star-forming gas were significantly higher than observed in local galaxies. We examine the influence of the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies on their cluster populations, finding that (at similar present-day mass) earlier-forming galaxies foster a more massive and disruption-resilient cluster population, while galaxies with late mergers are capable of forming massive clusters even at late cosmic epochs. We find that the phenomenological treatment of interstellar gas in EAGLE precludes the accurate modelling of cluster disruption in low-density environments, but infer that simulations incorporating an explicitly modelled cold interstellar gas phase will overcome

  5. Which of Kepler's Stars Flare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    The habitability of distant exoplanets is dependent upon many factors one of which is the activity of their host stars. To learn about which stars are most likely to flare, a recent study examines tens of thousands of stellar flares observed by Kepler.Need for a Broader SampleArtists rendering of a flaring dwarf star. [NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center/S. Wiessinger]Most of our understanding of what causes a star to flare is based on observations of the only star near enough to examine in detail the Sun. But in learning from a sample size of one, a challenge arises: we must determine which conclusions are unique to the Sun (or Sun-like stars), and which apply to other stellar types as well.Based on observations and modeling, astronomers think that stellar flares result from the reconnection of magnetic field lines in a stars outer atmosphere, the corona. The magnetic activity is thought to be driven by a dynamo caused by motions in the stars convective zone.HR diagram of the Kepler stars, with flaring main-sequence (yellow), giant (red) and A-star (green) stars in the authors sample indicated. [Van Doorsselaere et al. 2017]To test whether these ideas are true generally, we need to understand what types of stars exhibit flares, and what stellar properties correlate with flaring activity. A team of scientists led by Tom Van Doorsselaere (KU Leuven, Belgium) has now used an enormous sample of flares observed by Kepler to explore these statistics.Intriguing TrendsVan Doorsselaere and collaborators used a new automated flare detection and characterization algorithm to search through the raw light curves from Quarter 15 of the Kepler mission, building a sample of 16,850 flares on 6,662 stars. They then used these to study the dependence of the flare occurrence rate, duration, energy, and amplitude on the stellar spectral type and rotation period.This large statistical study led the authors to several interesting conclusions, including:Flare star incidence rate as a a

  6. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  7. Spectroscopic Comparison of Metal-rich RRab Stars of the Galactic Field with their Metal-poor Counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadid, Merieme [Université Nice Sophia–Antipolis, Observatoire de la Côte dAzur, UMR 7293, Parc Valrose, F-06108, Nice Cedex 02 (France); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Preston, George W., E-mail: chadid@unice.fr, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: gwp@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate atmospheric properties of 35 stable RRab stars that possess the full ranges of period, light amplitude, and metal abundance found in Galactic RR Lyrae stars. Our results are derived from several thousand echelle spectra obtained over several years with the du Pont telescope of Las Campanas Observatory. Radial velocities of metal lines and the H α line were used to construct curves of radial velocity versus pulsation phase. From these we estimated radial velocity amplitudes for metal lines (formed near the photosphere) and H α Doppler cores (formed at small optical depths). We also measured H α emission fluxes when they appear during primary light rises. Spectra shifted to rest wavelengths, binned into small phase intervals, and co-added were used to perform model atmospheric and abundance analyses. The derived metallicities and those of some previous spectroscopic surveys were combined to produce a new calibration of the Layden abundance scale. We then divided our RRab sample into metal-rich (disk) and metal-poor (halo) groups at [Fe/H] = −1.0; the atmospheres of RRab families, so defined, differ with respect to (a) peak strength of H α emission flux, (b) H α radial velocity amplitude, (c) dynamical gravity, (d) stellar radius variation, (e) secondary acceleration during the photometric bump that precedes minimum light, and (f) duration of H α line-doubling. We also detected H α line-doubling during the “bump” in the metal-poor family, but not in the metal-rich one. Although all RRab probably are core helium-burning horizontal branch stars, the metal-rich group appears to be a species sui generis.

  8. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies. I. Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-07-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ~ 5 Gyr (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ~ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M 107 M ⊙) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between "ultra-faint" and "classical" dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  9. Molecular Star

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This report describes the making of a self-assembled coordination architecture that is named as a 'molecular star' since it resembles the shape of a star; more specifically a five-pointed star. This work has been already published in Chemistry- A European Jour- nal in the September 2017 issue and was featured in the cover.

  10. The Frequency of Binary Stars in the Globular Cluster M71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, S. C.; Armandroff, T. E.; Pryor, C. P.

    1994-12-01

    The frequency of binary stars is a fundamental property of a stellar population. A comparison of the frequency of binaries in globular clusters with those in the field halo and disk populations tests the similarity of star formation in those environments. Binary stars in globular clusters also act as an energy source which ``heats" the cluster through super-elastic encounters with other stars and binaries. Such encounters can not only profoundly affect the dynamical evolution of the cluster, they can disrupt the widely separated binaries and catalyze the formation of exotic objects such as blue stragglers, x-ray binaries, and milli-second pulsars. We have used the KPNO 4-m and the multi-fiber instruments Nessie and Hydra to measure radial velocities at 4 epochs over two years for a sample of 126 stars in the globular cluster M71. Velocity errors are under 1 km s(-1) for the brighter stars and under 2 km s(-1) for the majority of our data set. These velocities will be valuable for studying the kinematics of M71, but here we focus on searching for binaries. The faintest stars are at V=17, or just above the main sequence turnoff. Our sample is thus deeper than any published globular cluster binary search utilizing spectroscopic techniques. By observing smaller stars, we double the number of decades of binary periods sampled compared to previous studies and come within a factor of 4 of the shortest possible periods for turnoff stars. This wider period window has produced the largest known sample of binaries in a globular cluster. Four stars show velocity ranges larger than 20 km s(-1) , nine have ranges larger than 10 km s(-1) , and others are clearly variable. We will compare the radial distribution of these stars to that predicted by theory and derive the main-sequence binary fraction.

  11. Dense Axion Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-16

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10^{-14}M_{⊙} if the axion mass is 10^{-4}  eV. We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10^{-20}M_{⊙} to about M_{⊙}. If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  12. Enhanced Burst-Suppression and Disruption of Local Field Potential Synchrony in a Mouse Model of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Exhibiting Spike-Wave Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1. Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old followed by 24 h cortical EEG recordings. Results indicated that FL animals exhibit a high prevalence of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWDs, predominately during sleep (EEG, and an increase in the incidence of hyper-excitable burst/suppression activity under general anesthesia (extracellular recordings, 0.5-3.0% isoflurane. Brief periods of burst activity in the local field potential (LFP typically presented as an arrhythmic pattern of increased theta-alpha spectral peaks (4-12 Hz on a background of low-amplitude delta activity (1-4 Hz, were associated with an increase in spontaneous spiking of cortical neurons, and were highly synchronized in control animals across recording sites in both cortical and subcortical layers (average cross-correlation values ranging from +0.73 to +1.0 with minimal phase shift between electrodes. However, in FL animals, cortical vs. subcortical burst activity was strongly out of phase with significantly lower cross-correlation values compared to controls (average values of -0.1 to +0.5, P<0.05 between groups. In particular, a marked reduction in the level of synchronous burst activity was observed the closer the recording electrodes were to the malformation (Pearson’s Correlation = 0.525, P<0.05. In a subset of FL animals (3/9, burst activity also included a spike or spike-wave pattern similar to the SWDs observed in unanesthetized animals. In summary, neonatal FLs increased the hyperexcitable pattern of burst activity induced by anesthesia and disrupted field

  13. Boson Stars and Boson Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kulshreshtha, Usha; Kulshreshtha, Daya Shankar

    2018-03-01

    In this work we present a broad formalism for a study of the models of black holes, boson stars, boson shells and wormholes. The studies of boson stars and boson shells in a theory involving Scalar field, U(1) gauge field and a shelf interacting scalar potential coupled to gravity in the presence of a cosmological constant Λ are presented in details.

  14. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactions in stars is a major topic in the field of nuclear astrophysics, and deals with the topics of how precisely stars generate their energy through nuclear reactions, and how these nuclear reactions create the elements the stars, planets and - ultimately - we humans consist of. The present book treats these topics in detail. It also presents the nuclear reaction and structure theory, thermonuclear reaction rate formalism and stellar nucleosynthesis. The topics are discussed in a coherent way, enabling the reader to grasp their interconnections intuitively. The book serves bo

  15. Prompt emission from tidal disruptions of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laguna P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a qualitative picture of prompt emission from tidal disruptions of white dwarfs (WD by intermediate mass black holes (IMBH. The smaller size of an IMBH compared to a supermassive black hole and a smaller tidal radius of a WD disruption lead to a very fast event with high peak luminosity. Magnetic field is generated in situ following the tidal disruption, which leads to effective accretion. Since large-scale magnetic field is also produced, geometrically thick super-Eddington inflow leads to a relativistic jet. The dense jet possesses a photosphere, which emits quasi-thermal radiation in soft X-rays. The source can be classified as a long low-luminosity gamma-ray burst (ll-GRB. Tidal compression of a WD causes nuclear ignition, which is observable as an accompanying supernova. We suggest that GRB060218 and SN2006aj is such a pair of ll-GRB and supernova. We argue that in a flux-limited sample the disruptions of WDs by IMBHs are more frequent then the disruptions of other stars by IMBHs.

  16. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Hormones and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. ...

  17. Kepler Observations and Asteroseismology of θ Cyg, the Brightest StarObservable in the Kepler Field of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzik, Joyce A.; Houdek, G.; Chaplin, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    -March 2011). We present analyses of the solar-like oscillations first discovered in the Q6 data [1, 2]. We use observational constraints from the literature and recent ground-based observations including angular diameters from optical interferometry in conjunction with the frequency data to derive stellar...... properties (e.g., mass, age, metallicity, extent of convection zones). We also discuss the prospects for detecting longer period gravity-mode pulsations as seen in gamma Doradus variable stars of spectral type A-F, given these constraints. With an effective temperature near 6500 K and near ‘solar’ element....... The calculated envelope convection zone depth depends on the element abundance mixtures adopted for the stellar models [2]. Asteroseismic studies of θ Cyg therefore have potential to shed light on the solar abundance problem [3, 4], as well as to put constraints on the presence and detectability of g...

  18. The birth of star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    All stars are born in groups. The origin of these groups has long been a key question in astronomy, one that interests researchers in star formation, the interstellar medium, and cosmology. This volume summarizes current progress in the field, and includes contributions from both theorists and observers. Star clusters appear with a wide range of properties, and are born in a variety of physical conditions. Yet the key question remains: How do diffuse clouds of gas condense into the collections of luminous objects we call stars? This book will benefit graduate students, newcomers to the field, and also experienced scientists seeking a convenient reference.

  19. The Infrared Eye of the Wide-Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope Reveals Multiple Main Sequences of Very Low Mass Stars in NGC 2808

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Cassisi, S.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Allard, F.; Aparicio, A.; Bellini, A.; Buonanno, R.; Monelli, M.; Pietrinferni, A.

    2012-08-01

    We use images taken with the infrared channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the multiple main sequences (MSs) of NGC 2808. Below the turnoff, the red, the middle, and the blue MS, previously detected from visual-band photometry, are visible over an interval of about 3.5 F160W magnitudes. The three MSs merge together at the level of the MS bend. At fainter magnitudes, the MS again splits into two components containing ~65% and ~35% of stars, with the most-populated MS being the bluest one. Theoretical isochrones suggest that the latter is connected to the red MS discovered in the optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and hence corresponds to the first stellar generation, having primordial helium and enhanced carbon and oxygen abundances. The less-populated MS in the faint part of the near-IR CMD is helium-rich and poor in carbon and oxygen, and it can be associated with the middle and the blue MS of the optical CMD. The finding that the photometric signature of abundance anti-correlation is also present in fully convective MS stars reinforces the inference that they have a primordial origin. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  20. K2 variable catalogue - II. Machine learning classification of variable stars and eclipsing binaries in K2 fields 0-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Kirk, J.; Lam, K. W. F.; McCormac, J.; Osborn, H. P.; Spake, J.; Walker, S.; Brown, D. J. A.; Kristiansen, M. H.; Pollacco, D.; West, R.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    We are entering an era of unprecedented quantities of data from current and planned survey telescopes. To maximize the potential of such surveys, automated data analysis techniques are required. Here we implement a new methodology for variable star classification, through the combination of Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm) and the more common Random Forest (RF) supervised machine learning technique. We apply this method to data from the K2 mission fields 0-4, finding 154 ab-type RR Lyraes (10 newly discovered), 377 δ Scuti pulsators, 133 γ Doradus pulsators, 183 detached eclipsing binaries, 290 semidetached or contact eclipsing binaries and 9399 other periodic (mostly spot-modulated) sources, once class significance cuts are taken into account. We present light-curve features for all K2 stellar targets, including their three strongest detected frequencies, which can be used to study stellar rotation periods where the observed variability arises from spot modulation. The resulting catalogue of variable stars, classes, and associated data features are made available online. We publish our SOM code in PYTHON as part of the open source PYMVPA package, which in combination with already available RF modules can be easily used to recreate the method.

  1. Tracing the Mass-Dependent Star Formation History of Late-Type Galaxies using X-ray Emission: Results from the CHANDRA Deep Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B.D; Brandt, W.N.; Schneider, D.P.; Steffen, A.T.; Alexander, D.M.; Bell, E.F.; Hornschemeier, A.E.; McIntosh, D.H.; Bauer, F.E.; Gilli, R.; hide

    2008-01-01

    We report on the X-ray evolution over the last approx.9 Gyr of cosmic history (i.e., since z = 1.4) of late-type galaxy populations in the Chandra Deep Field-North and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-N and E-CDF-S. respectively; jointly CDFs) survey fields. Our late-type galaxy sample consists of 2568 galaxies. which were identified using rest-frame optical colors and HST morphologies. We utilized X-ray stacking analyses to investigate the X-ray emission from these galaxies, emphasizing the contributions from normal galaxies that are not dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Over this redshift range, we find significant increases (factors of approx. 5-10) in the X-ray-to-optical mean luminosity ratio (L(sub x)/L(sub B)) and the X-ray-to-stellar-mass mean ratio (L(sub x)/M(sub *)) for galaxy populations selected by L(sub B) and M(sub *), respectively. When analyzing galaxy samples selected via SFR, we find that the mean X-ray-to-SFR ratio (L(sub x)/SFR) is consistent with being constant over the entire redshift range for galaxies with SFR = 1-100 Solar Mass/yr, thus demonstrating that X-ray emission can be used as a robust indicator of star-formation activity out to z approx. 1.4. We find that the star-formation activity (as traced by X-ray luminosity) per unit stellar mass in a given redshift bin increases with decreasing stellar mass over the redshift range z = 0.2-1, which is consistent with previous studies of how star-formation activity depends on stellar mass. Finally, we extend our X-ray analyses to Lyman break galaxies at z approx. 3 and estimate that L(sub x)/L(sub B) at z approx. 3 is similar to its value at z = 1.4.

  2. A new family of magnetic stars: the Am stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.

    2016-12-01

    We presented the discovery of an ultra-weak field in three Am stars, β UMa, θ Leo, and Alhena, thanks to ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations. Two of the three stars of this study shown peculiar magnetic signatures with prominent positive lobes like the one of Sirius A that are not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect. Alhena, contrary to Sirius A, β UMa and θ Leo, show normal signatures. These detections of ultra-weak fields in Am stars suggest the existence of a new family of magnetic intermediate-mass stars: the Am stars. However the various shapes of the signatures required further observation to identify the physical processes at work in these stars. A preliminary explanation is based on microturbulence.

  3. Mechanized applicator for large-scale field deployment of paraffin-wax dispensers of pheromone for mating disruption in tree fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; Miller, J R; Ledebuhr, R; Gut, L J

    2006-10-01

    A tractor-mounted mechanized applicator was developed for large-scale deployment of paraffin-wax dispensers of pheromone for mating disruption of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). The wax formulation was mostly water and emulsified paraffin wax containing 5% (by weight) pheromone [93:6:1 blend of (Z)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate:(E)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate: (Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol]. Ten milliliters of wax was applied per tree as approximately 160 deposits (0.04 ml of wax per drop). An average of 23 min was required to treat 1 ha of crop. Disruption efficacy of mechanically applied wax was measured relative to an untreated control in replicated 0.4-ha blocks within a recently abandoned apple orchard. From 6 May to 27 June, 100% disruption of tethered virgin females and 97% inhibition of pheromone traps was achieved for 52 d with two applications of wax. However, during mid- to late summer (July-August), this level of efficacy was maintained for only approximately 1 wk after each of two applications. Higher temperatures later in the season may have accounted for abbreviated efficacy of the applied small drops. Mechanically applied paraffin-wax technology may increase adoption of mating disruption given that a higher level of efficacy was achieved despite deploying less active ingredient per hectare relative to that used with reservoir dispensers. The savings in labor by not requiring hand application of reservoir dispensers could be directed toward cost of machinery. However, the short duration of efficacy obtained with the current wax formulation and mechanical applicator is judged uneconomical given the eight or more applications that would have been required for high-performance disruption over the full season. Larger drops with lower surface area-to-volume ratios are expected to prolong pheromone release for extended efficacy and desirable overall economics.

  4. CERN Library | Cecilia Jarlskog presents "Portrait of Gunnar Källén: a physics shooting star and poet of early quantum field theory" | 16 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Wolfgang Pauli referred to him as 'my discovery', Robert Oppenheimer described him as 'one of the most gifted theorists' and Niels Bohr found him enormously stimulating. Who was the man in question, Gunnar Källén (1926-1968)?   His appearance in the physics sky was like a shooting star. His contributions to the scientific debate caused excitement among young and old. Similar to his friend and mentor, Wolfgang Pauli, he demanded honesty and rigour in physics - a distinct dividing line between fact and speculation. In his obituary, Arthur S. Wightman would write: "Gunnar Källén was a proud continuer of the tradition in quantum field theory established by Wolfgang Pauli. His papers on quantum electrodynamics in the period 1950-1954 carried the non-perturbative approach to quantum electrodynamics forward to a point beyond which very little essential progress has been made up to the present day. At the time I was trying ...

  5. Principles of star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bodenheimer, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Understanding star formation is one of the key fields in present-day astrophysics. This book treats a wide variety of the physical processes involved, as well as the main observational discoveries, with key points being discussed in detail. The current star formation in our galaxy is emphasized, because the most detailed observations are available for this case. The book presents a comparison of the various scenarios for star formation, discusses the basic physics underlying each one, and follows in detail the history of a star from its initial state in the interstellar gas to its becoming a condensed object in equilibrium. Both theoretical and observational evidence to support the validity of the general evolutionary path are presented, and methods for comparing the two are emphasized. The author is a recognized expert in calculations of the evolution of protostars, the structure and evolution of disks, and stellar evolution in general. This book will be of value to graduate students in astronomy and astroph...

  6. Star Wreck

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A; Tinyakov, Peter G; Tkachev, Igor I; Kusenko, Alexander; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Tkachev, Igor I.

    1998-01-01

    Electroweak models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking predict the existence of stable non-topological solitons, Q-balls, that can be produced in the early universe. The relic Q-balls can accumulate inside a neutron star and gradually absorb the baryons into the scalar condensate. This causes a slow reduction in the mass of the star. When the mass reaches a critical value, the neutron star becomes unstable and explodes. The cataclysmic destruction of the distant neutron stars may be the origin of the gamma-ray bursts.

  7. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  8. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  9. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  10. Neutron Star Science with the NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), launched in June 2012, helped scientists obtain for the first time a sensitive high-­energy X-­ray map of the sky with extraordinary resolution. This pioneering telescope has aided in the understanding of how stars explode and neutron stars are born. LLNL is a founding member of the NuSTAR project, with key personnel on its optics and science team. We used NuSTAR to observe and analyze the observations of different neutron star classes identified in the last decade that are still poorly understood. These studies not only help to comprehend newly discovered astrophysical phenomena and emission processes for members of the neutron star family, but also expand the utility of such observations for addressing broader questions in astrophysics and other physics disciplines. For example, neutron stars provide an excellent laboratory to study exotic and extreme phenomena, such as the equation of state of the densest matter known, the behavior of matter in extreme magnetic fields, and the effects of general relativity. At the same time, knowing their accurate populations has profound implications for understanding the life cycle of massive stars, star collapse, and overall galactic evolution.

  11. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamel Nicolas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  12. Radio emission from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1: a jet launched by a strong magnetic field neutron star?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnden, J.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Rupen, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    Her X-1 is an accreting neutron star (NS) in an intermediate-mass X-ray binary. Like low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), it accretes via Roche lobe overflow, but similar to many high-mass X-ray binaries containing a NS; Her X-1 has a strong magnetic field and slow spin. Here, we present the discovery of radio emission from Her X-1 with the Very Large Array. During the radio observation, the central X-ray source was partially obscured by a warped disc. We measure a radio flux density of 38.7 ± 4.8 μJy at 9 GHz but cannot constrain the spectral shape. We discuss possible origins of the radio emission, and conclude that coherent emission, a stellar wind, shocks and a propeller outflow are all unlikely explanations. A jet, as seen in LMXBs, is consistent with the observed radio properties. We consider the implications of the presence of a jet in Her X-1 on jet formation mechanisms and on the launching of jets by NSs with strong magnetic fields.

  13. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 degrees each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is 2 to 8 visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arc seconds. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arc seconds and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arc seconds. The purpose of this paper is to describe the LPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  14. Stellar Death by Black Hole: How Tidal Disruption Events Unveil the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Eric Robert

    2017-08-01

    When a star comes very close to a supermassive black hole, the tidal field of the hole can be strong enough to deform and stretch the star into a stream of debris. Half of this stellar debris stream returns to the black hole and forms an accretion disk, briefly lighting up the black hole and, in the most extreme cases, launching relativistic jets. These ``tidal disruption events,'' from the initial stellar destruction to the eventual jet production, are the focus of my thesis, and during this talk I will describe some of the theoretical advances we have made in understanding them. I will also discuss more recent work that shows how this relatively simple picture can be more complicated when the disrupting black hole is part of a binary system. Despite the added complexity, I will argue that there is a timescale over which one expects to see variation in the luminosity of a tidal disruption event from a binary supermassive black hole system. Using these predictions and a set of simulations, I will motivate such an interpretation for the superluminous supernova ASASSN-15lh.

  15. Dark stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maselli, Andrea; Pnigouras, Pantelis; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2017-01-01

    to the formation of compact objects predominantly made of dark matter. Considering both fermionic and bosonic (scalar φ4) equations of state, we construct the equilibrium structure of rotating dark stars, focusing on their bulk properties and comparing them with baryonic neutron stars. We also show that these dark...... objects admit the I-Love-Q universal relations, which link their moments of inertia, tidal deformabilities, and quadrupole moments. Finally, we prove that stars built with a dark matter equation of state are not compact enough to mimic black holes in general relativity, thus making them distinguishable...

  16. Asteroseismology of Scuti Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We briefly outline the state-of-the-art seismology of Scuti stars from a theoretical point of view: why is it so difficult a task? The recent theoretical advances in the field that these difficulties have influenced are also discussed.

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC EXTRACTION OF ENERGY FROM BLACK-HOLE–NEUTRON-STAR BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Levin, Janna

    2011-01-01

    The coalescence of black-hole-neutron-star binaries is expected to be a principal source of gravitational waves for the next generation of detectors, Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. For black hole masses not much larger than the neutron star mass, the tidal disruption of the neutron star by the black hole provides one avenue for generating an electromagnetic counterpart. However, in this work, we demonstrate that, for all black-hole-neutron-star binaries observable by Advanced LIGO/Virgo, the interaction of the black hole with the magnetic field of the neutron star will generate copious luminosity, comparable to supernovae and active galactic nuclei. This novel effect may have already been observed as a new class of very short gamma-ray bursts by the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Telescope. These events may be observable to cosmological distances, so that any black-hole-neutron-star coalescence detectable with gravitational waves by Advanced LIGO/Virgo could also be detectable electromagnetically.

  18. Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the 'blue hook' stars of ω Centauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailo, Marco; D'Antona, Francesca; Vesperini, Enrico; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Ventura, Paolo; Milone, Antonino P; Bellini, Andrea; Dotter, Aaron; Decressin, Thibaut; D'Ercole, Annibale; Caloi, Vittoria; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2015-07-16

    Horizontal branch stars belong to an advanced stage in the evolution of the oldest stellar galactic population, occurring either as field halo stars or grouped in globular clusters. The discovery of multiple populations in clusters that were previously believed to have single populations gave rise to the currently accepted theory that the hottest horizontal branch members (the 'blue hook' stars, which had late helium-core flash ignition, followed by deep mixing) are the progeny of a helium-rich 'second generation' of stars. It is not known why such a supposedly rare event (a late flash followed by mixing) is so common that the blue hook of ω Centauri contains approximately 30 per cent of the horizontal branch stars in the cluster, or why the blue hook luminosity range in this massive cluster cannot be reproduced by models. Here we report that the presence of helium core masses up to about 0.04 solar masses larger than the core mass resulting from evolution is required to solve the luminosity range problem. We model this by taking into account the dispersion in rotation rates achieved by the progenitors, whose pre-main-sequence accretion disk suffered an early disruption in the dense environment of the cluster's central regions, where second-generation stars form. Rotation may also account for frequent late-flash-mixing events in massive globular clusters.

  19. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    the star formation rate can be deduced from the far-infrared luminosity, and derive star formation rates for these galaxies of 8-1000 phi M. yr(-1), where phi takes account of the uncertainty in the initial mass function, The HDF galaxies detected by ISO are clearly forming stars at, a prodigious rate...... compared with nearby normal galaxies, We discuss the implications of our detections for the history of star and heavy element formation in the Universe, Although uncertainties in the calibration, reliability of source detection, associations and starburst models remain, it is clear that dust plays...

  20. Major plasma disruptions in TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onega, R.J.; Becraft, W.R.; Bettis, E.S.

    1979-02-01

    Evaluation of the instrumentation and control of a power producing tokamak fusion reactor such as The Next Step (TNS) requires an assessment of the consequences of a major plasma disruption during reactor operation. The most important consequence of a disruption will be damage to the first wall from thermal and magnetic stress. Severe temperature gradients will cause thermal stress, placing a limit on the number of disruptions that can occur before the integrity of the wall is lost, and eddy currents induced in the wall will interact with the magnetic energy of the plasma and the →B/sub T/ field to create mechanical forces. Consequences to the ohmic heating (OH) coils, their power supplies, and other coils must also be taken into account

  1. The void galaxy survey: Star formation properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beygu, B.; Kreckel, K.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Peletier, R.; van de Weygaert, R.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the star formation properties of 59 void galaxies as part of the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS). Current star formation rates are derived from H α and recent star formation rates from near-UV imaging. In addition, infrared 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 μm Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer emission is

  2. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA REGION AS SELECTED FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg 2 . The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a ∼260 deg 2 region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  3. New Young Star Candidates in the Taurus-Auriga Region as Selected from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebull, L. M.; Koenig, X. P.; Padgett, D. L.; Terebey, S.; McGehee, P. M.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Knapp, G. R.; Leisawitz, D.; Liu, W.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Ressler, M. E.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Mainzer, A.

    2011-09-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg2. The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a ~260 deg2 region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  4. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  5. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  6. Star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-09-27

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references.

  7. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  8. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  9. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  10. Time scales in tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolik J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the temporal structure of tidal disruption events pointing out the corresponding transitions in the lightcurves of the thermal accretion disk and of the jet emerging from such events. The hydrodynamic time scale of the disrupted star is the minimal time scale of building up the accretion disk and the jet and it sets a limit on the rise time. This suggest that Swift J1644+57, that shows several flares with a rise time as short as a few hundred seconds could not have arisen from a tidal disruption of a main sequence star whose hydrodynamic time is a few hours. The disrupted object must have been a white dwarf. A second important time scale is the Eddington time in which the accretion rate changes form super to sub Eddington. It is possible that such a transition was observed in the light curve of Swift J2058+05. If correct this provides interesting constraints on the parameters of the system.

  11. Dynamical Boson Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Liebling

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.

  12. Runaway electron generation in tokamak disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helander, P. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Andersson, F.; Fulop, T.; Smith, T.H.; Anderson, D.; Lisak, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Electromagnetics, Goteborg (Sweden); Eriksson, L.G. [Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2004-07-01

    The time evolution of the plasma current during a tokamak disruption is calculated by solving the equations for runaway electron production simultaneously with the induction equation for the toroidal electric field. The resistive diffusion time in a post-disruption plasma is typically comparable to the runaway avalanche growth time. Accordingly, the toroidal electric field induced after the thermal quench of a disruption diffuses radially through the plasma at the same time as it accelerates runaway electrons, which in turn back-react on the electric field. When these processes are accounted for in a self-consistent way, it is found that (1) the efficiency and time scale of runaway generation agrees with JET experiments; (2) the runaway current profile typically becomes more peaked than the pre-disruption current profile; and (3) can easily become radially in the shape of filaments. It is also shown that higher runaway electron generation is expected if the thermal quench is sufficiently fast. (authors)

  13. Velocity Distributions of Runaway Stars Produced by Supernovae in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using a method of population synthesis, we investigate the runaway stars produced by disrupted binaries via asymmetric core collapse supernova explosions (CC-RASs) and thermonuclear supernova explosions (TN-RASs). We find the velocities of CC-RASs in the range of about 30--100 km s − 1 . The runaway stars ...

  14. The Destructive Birth of Massive Stars and Massive Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Anna; Krumholz, Mark; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Massive stars play an essential role in the Universe. They are rare, yet the energy and momentum they inject into the interstellar medium with their intense radiation fields dwarfs the contribution by their vastly more numerous low-mass cousins. Previous theoretical and observational studies have concluded that the feedback associated with massive stars' radiation fields is the dominant mechanism regulating massive star and massive star cluster (MSC) formation. Therefore detailed simulation of the formation of massive stars and MSCs, which host hundreds to thousands of massive stars, requires an accurate treatment of radiation. For this purpose, we have developed a new, highly accurate hybrid radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform a suite of three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive stars and MSCs. For individual massive stellar systems, we simulate the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channeled to the massive stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of RT instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of the radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. RT instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. To model MSC formation, we simulate the collapse of a dense, turbulent, magnetized Mcl = 106 M⊙ molecular cloud. We find that the influence of the magnetic pressure and radiative feedback slows down star formation. Furthermore, we find that star formation is suppressed along dense filaments where the magnetic field is

  15. Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Schöller, Markus; Hubrig, Swetlana

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a brief introduction into the use of the Zeeman effect in astronomy and the general detection of magnetic fields in stars, concentrating on the use of FORS2 for longitudinal magnetic field measurements.

  16. Analysis of the Dynamical Instability of Several Multiple Stars with Weak Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuchkov, R. Ya.; Orlov, V. V.

    2005-04-01

    The dynamical stability of 16 multiple stars is analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations with allowance for the errors in the observational data. The analysis was carried out by varying the uncertainties in the initial observational data. Six different stability criteria were considered, and the dynamical evolution was studied using numerical simulations. Eleven of the systems are probably stable, whereas five systems (HD 40887, HD 136176, HD 150680, HD 217675, and HD 222326) are probably unstable (the probability that they are unstable is 0.94 or more accordingt o the results of forward and backward simulations over intervals of 106 yr). The results of the simulations were most consistent with the criteria of Mardling-Aarseth (the correlation coefficient between the probabilities of disruption inferred from the stability criterion and numerical integration was r = 0.998), Valtonen-Karttunen (r = 0.998), and Eggleton-Kiseleva (r = 0.997). In about 92 93% of all cases, these criteria yield results that are consistent with the numerical simulations. These criteria also yield high disruption probabilities for the unstable systems. Scenarios for the formation of such systems are discussed: temporary capture of a field star by a close binary, perturbation of a stable multiple system by a massive field object, and disruption of small stellar groups or clusters. The probabilities that these scenarios are realized are analyzed.

  17. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. VIII. Extended Lyman-α haloes around high-z star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Floriane; Bacon, Roland; Wisotzki, Lutz; Mitchell, Peter; Garel, Thibault; Verhamme, Anne; Blaizot, Jérémy; Hashimoto, Takuya; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Conseil, Simon; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Inami, Hanae; Contini, Thierry; Richard, Johan; Maseda, Michael; Schaye, Joop; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Akhlaghi, Mohammad; Brinchmann, Jarle; Carollo, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    We report the detection of extended Lyα haloes around 145 individual star-forming galaxies at redshifts 3 ≤ z ≤ 6 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field observed with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at ESO-VLT. Our sample consists of continuum-faint (- 15 ≥ MUV ≥ -22) Lyα emitters (LAEs). Using a 2D, two-component (continuum-like and halo) decomposition of Lyα emission assuming circular exponential distributions, we measure scale lengths and luminosities of Lyα haloes. We find that 80% of our objects having reliable Lyα halo measurements show Lyα emission that is significantly more extended than the UV continuum detected by HST (by a factor ≈4 to >20). The median exponential scale length of the Lyα haloes in our sample is ≈4.5 kpc with a few haloes exceeding 10 kpc. By comparing the maximal detected extent of the Lyα emission with the predicted dark matter halo virial radii of simulated galaxies, we show that the detected Lyα emission of our selected sample of Lyα emitters probes a significant portion of the cold circum-galactic medium of these galaxies (>50% in average). This result therefore shows that there must be significant HI reservoirs in the circum-galactic medium and reinforces the idea that Lyα haloes are ubiquitous around high-redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. Our characterization of the Lyα haloes indicates that the majority of the Lyα flux comes from the halo (≈65%) and that their scale lengths seem to be linked to the UV properties of the galaxies (sizes and magnitudes). We do not observe a significant Lyα halo size evolution with redshift, although our sample for z> 5 is very small. We also explore the diversity of the Lyα line profiles in our sample and we find that the Lyα lines cover a large range of full width at half maximum (FWHM) from 118 to 512 km s-1. While the FWHM does not seem to be correlated to the Lyα scale length, most compact Lyα haloes and those that are not detected with high significance tend

  18. FORMATION EPOCHS, STAR FORMATION HISTORIES, AND SIZES OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN CLUSTER AND FIELD ENVIRONMENTS AT z = 1.2: INSIGHTS FROM THE REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettura, Alessandro; Demarco, R.; Ford, H. C.; Rosati, P.; Gobat, R.; Nonino, M.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Menci, N.; Strazzullo, V.; Mei, S.

    2010-01-01

    We derive stellar masses, ages, and star formation histories (SFHs) of massive early-type galaxies in the z = 1.237 RDCS1252.9-2927 cluster and compare them with those measured in a similarly mass-selected sample of field contemporaries drawn from the Great Observatories Origin Deep Survey South Field. Robust estimates of these parameters are obtained by comparing a large grid of composite stellar population models with 8-9 band photometry in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet, optical, and IR, thus sampling the entire relevant domain of emission of the different stellar populations. Additionally, we present new, deep U-band photometry of both fields, giving access to the critical far-ultraviolet rest frame, in order to empirically constrain the dependence of the most recent star formation processes on the environment. We also analyze the morphological properties of both samples to examine the dependence of their scaling relations on their mass and environment. We find that early-type galaxies, both in the cluster and in the field, show analogous optical morphologies, follow comparable mass versus size relation, have congruent average surface stellar mass densities, and lie on the same Kormendy relation. We also show that a fraction of early-type galaxies in the field employ longer timescales, τ, to assemble their mass than their cluster contemporaries. Hence, we conclude that while the formation epoch of early-type galaxies only depends on their mass, the environment does regulate the timescales of their SFHs. Our deep U-band imaging strongly supports this conclusion. We show that cluster galaxies are at least 0.5 mag fainter than their field contemporaries of similar mass and optical-to-infrared colors, implying that the last episode of star formation must have happened more recently in the field than in the cluster.

  19. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 753-756. Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... be composed of normal nuclear matter with hyperons and/or condensed mesons. The matter at ...

  20. Star Conquest

    OpenAIRE

    Porrino Serrano, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Star Conquest es un juego de mesa "print n play" de estrategia por turnos para dos o tres jugadores. Éste proyecto consiste en tomar el juego de mesa original y desarrollar una adaptación en forma de videojuego para distintas plataformas

  1. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  2. Carbon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzopardi, M.; Lequeux, J.; Rebeirot, E.

    1985-01-01

    Several stars of this type have just been detected in galaxies where they were not suspected and where they reveal a recent activity not really corresponding to current ideas. Data given by these observations allow the astrophysicists to improve the galaxy evolution models, in particular the evolution model of our galaxy [fr

  3. Forming Stars Near Our Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    of the galactic center made with the Atacama Large Millimeter-Submillimeter Array (ALMA). And this time, they consider what they found to be conclusive.ALMA observations of BP1, one of 11 bipolar outflows signatures of star formation discovered within the central few light-years of our galaxy. BP1 is shown in context at left and zoomed in at right; click for a closer look.[Yusef-Zadeh et al. 2017]Unambiguous SignaturesThe authors deep ALMA observations of the galactic center revealed the presence of 11 bipolar outflows within a few light-years of Sgr A*. These outflows appear as approaching and receding lobes of dense gas that were likely swept up by the jets created as stars were formed within the last 10,000 years. Yusef-Zadeh and collaborators argue that the bipolar outflows are unambiguous signatures of young protostars.Based on these sources, the authors calculate an approximate rate of star formation of 5 x 10-4 solar masses per year in this region. This is large enough that such low-mass star formation over the past few billion years could be a significant contributor to the stellar mass budget in the galactic center.Locations and orientations of the 11 bipolar outflows found. [Yusef-Zadeh et al. 2017]The question of how these stars were able to form so near the black hole remains open. Yusef-Zadeh and collaborators suggest the possibility of events that compress the host cloud, creating star-forming condensations with enough self-gravity to resist tidal disruption by Sgr A*s strong gravitational forces.To verify this picture, the next step is to build a detailed census of low-mass star formation at the galactic center. Were looking forward to seeing how this field has progressed by the next time we report on it!CitationF. Yusef-Zadeh et al 2017 ApJL 850 L30. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa96a2

  4. Star Products and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  5. Pulsating stars harbouring planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Why bother with asteroseismology while studying exoplanets? There are several answers to this question. Asteroseismology and exoplanetary sciences have much in common and the synergy between the two opens up new aspects in both fields. These fields and stellar activity, when taken together, allow maximum extraction of information from exoplanet space missions. Asteroseismology of the host star has already proved its value in a number of exoplanet systems by its unprecedented precision in determining stellar parameters. In addition, asteroseismology allows the possibility of discovering new exoplanets through time delay studies. The study of the interaction between exoplanets and their host stars opens new windows on various physical processes. In this review I will summarize past and current research in exoplanet asteroseismology and explore some guidelines for the future.

  6. The Aquarius comoving group is not a disrupted classical globular cluster★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, A. R.; Keller, S. C.; Alves-Brito, A.; Frebel, A.; Da Costa, G.; Karakas, A.; Yong, D.; Schlaufman, K. C.; Jacobson, H. R.; Yu, Q.; Fishlock, C.

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for five Aquarius stream stars observed with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay telescope. Our sample represents one-third of the 15 known members in the stream. We find the stream is not monometallic: the metallicity ranges from [Fe/H] = -0.63 to -1.58. No anticorrelation in Na-O abundances is present, and we find a strong positive Mg-Al relationship, similar to that observed in the thick disc. We find no evidence that the stream is a result of a disrupted classical globular cluster, contrary to a previously published claim. High [(Na, Ni, α)/Fe] and low [Ba/Y] abundance ratios in the stream suggest that it is not a tidal tail from a disrupted dwarf galaxy, either. The stream is chemically indistinguishable from Milky Way field stars with the exception of one candidate, C222531-145437. From its position, velocity, and detailed chemical abundances, C222531-145437 is likely a star that was tidally disrupted from ω-Centauri. We propose that the Aquarius stream is Galactic in origin, and could be the result of a disc-satellite perturbation in the Milky Way thick disc of the order of a few Gyr ago: derived orbits, UVW velocities, and angular momenta of the Aquarius members offer qualitative support for our hypothesis. Assuming that C222531-145437 is a tidally disrupted member of ω-Centauri, this system is the most likely disc perturber. In the absence of compelling chemical and/or dynamical evidence that the Aquarius stream is the tidal tail of a disrupted satellite, we advocate the `Aquarius group' as a more appropriate description. Like the Canis Major overdensity, as well as the Hercules and Monoceros groups, the Aquarius group joins the list of kinematically identified substructures that are not actually accreted material: they are simply part of the rich complexity of the Milky Way structure.

  7. Tidal capture of stars by a massive black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, I. D.; Pethick, C. J.; Polnarev, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    The processes leading to tidal capture of stars by a massive black hole and the consequences of these processes in a dense stellar cluster are discussed in detail. When the amplitude of a tide and the subsequent oscillations are sufficiently large, the energy deposited in a star after periastron passage and formation of a bound orbit cannot be estimated directly using the linear theory of oscillations of a spherical star, but rather numerical estimates must be used. The evolution of a star after tidal capture is discussed. The maximum ratio R of the cross-section for tidal capture to that for tidal disruption is about 3 for real systems. For the case of a stellar system with an empty capture loss cone, even in the case when the impact parameter for tidal capture only slightly exceeds the impact parameter for direct tidal disruption, tidal capture would be much more important than tidal disruption.

  8. Sgr A* flares: tidal disruption of asteroids and planets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zubovas, K.; Nayakshin, S.; Markoff, S.

    2012-01-01

    It is theoretically expected that a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the centre of a typical nearby galaxy disrupts a solar-type star every ∼105 yr, resulting in a bright flare lasting for months. Sgr A*, the resident SMBH of the Milky Way, produces (by comparison) tiny flares that last only hours

  9. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  10. Strangeon Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiguang; Xu, Renxin

    Stable micro-nucleus is 2-flavored (u and d), whereas stable macro-nucleus could be 3-flavored (u, d, and s) if the light flavor symmetry restores there. Nucleons are the constituent of a nucleus, while strangeons are named as the constituent of 3-flavored baryonic matter. Gravity-compressed baryonic object created after core-collapse supernova could be strangeon star if the energy scale (˜0.5 GeV) cannot be high enough for quark deconfinement and if there occurs 3-flavor symmetry restoration. Strangeon stars are explained here, including their formation and manifestation/identification. Much work, coupled with effective micro-model of strangeon matter, is needed to take advantage of the unique opportunities advanced facilities will provide.

  11. Discriminating strange star mergers from neutron star mergers by gravitational-wave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauswein, A.; Oechslin, R.; Janka, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    We perform three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of the coalescence of strange stars and explore the possibility to decide on the strange matter hypothesis by means of gravitational-wave measurements. Self-binding of strange quark matter and the generally more compact stars yield features that clearly distinguish strange star from neutron star mergers, e.g. hampering tidal disruption during the plunge of quark stars. Furthermore, instead of forming dilute halo structures around the remnant as in the case of neutron star mergers, the coalescence of strange stars results in a differentially rotating hypermassive object with a sharp surface layer surrounded by a geometrically thin, clumpy high-density strange quark matter disk. We also investigate the importance of including nonzero temperature equations of state in neutron star and strange star merger simulations. In both cases we find a crucial sensitivity of the dynamics and outcome of the coalescence to thermal effects, e.g. the outer remnant structure and the delay time of the dense remnant core to black hole collapse depend on the inclusion of nonzero temperature effects. For comparing and classifying the gravitational-wave signals, we use a number of characteristic quantities like the maximum frequency during inspiral or the dominant frequency of oscillations of the postmerger remnant. In general, these frequencies are higher for strange star mergers. Only for particular choices of the equation of state the frequencies of neutron star and strange star mergers are similar. In such cases additional features of the gravitational-wave luminosity spectrum like the ratio of energy emitted during the inspiral phase to the energy radiated away in the postmerger stage may help to discriminate coalescence events of the different types. If such characteristic quantities could be extracted from gravitational-wave signals, for instance with the upcoming gravitational-wave detectors, a decision on the

  12. Classification of Tidal Disruption Events Based on Stellar Orbital Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Zhong, Shiyan; Li, Shuo; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2018-03-01

    We study the rates of tidal disruption of stars on bound to unbound orbits by intermediate-mass to supermassive black holes using high-accuracy direct N-body experiments. Stars from the star cluster approaching the black hole can have three types of orbit: eccentric, parabolic, and hyperbolic. Since the mass fallback rate shows different variabilities depending on the orbital type, we can classify tidal disruption events (TDEs) into three main categories: eccentric, parabolic, and hyperbolic. The respective TDEs are characterized by two critical values of the orbital eccentricity: the lower critical eccentricity is the one below which stars on eccentric orbits cause finite, intense accretion, and the upper critical eccentricity is the one above which stars on hyperbolic orbits cause no accretion. Moreover, we find that parabolic TDEs can be divided into three subclasses: precisely parabolic, marginally eccentric, and marginally hyperbolic. We analytically derive that the mass fallback rate of marginally eccentric TDEs can be flatter and slightly higher than the standard fallback rate proportional to t ‑5/3, whereas it can be flatter and lower for marginally hyperbolic TDEs. We confirm using N-body experiments that only a few eccentric, precisely parabolic, and hyperbolic TDEs can occur in a spherical stellar system with a single intermediate-mass to supermassive black hole. A substantial fraction of the stars approaching the black hole would cause marginally eccentric or marginally hyperbolic TDEs.

  13. Physics and observations of tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Arun; Mageshwaran, Tamilan

    2018-04-01

    We describe a model of tidal disruption events (TDEs) with input physical parameters that include the black hole (BH) mass M•, the specific orbital energy E, the angular momentum J, the star mass M⊙ and radius R⊙. We calculate the rise time of the TDEs, the peak bolometric luminosity in terms of these physical parameters and a typical light curve of TDEs for various All Sky Survey (ASS) and Deep Sky Survey (DSS) missions. We then derive the expected detection rates and discuss the follow up of TDEs through observations in various spectral bands from X-rays to radio wavelengths.

  14. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    Extant research on external knowledge search and open innovation assumes that collaborators are aligned in their strategic interests towards solving innovation problems. However, disruptive innovation is known to threaten the competitive advantage of incumbent firms, thereby creating a potential...

  15. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    This paper analyzes how external search is affected by strategic interest alignment among knowledge sources. I focus on misalignment arising from the heterogeneous effects of disruptive technologies by analyzing the influence of incumbents on 2,855 non-incumbents? external knowledge search efforts....... The efforts most likely to solve innovation problems obtained funding from the European Commission?s 7th Framework Program (2007-2013). The results show that involving incumbents improves search in complementary technologies, while demoting it when strategic interests are misaligned in disruptive technologies....... However, incumbent sources engaged in capability reconfiguration to accommodate disruption improve search efforts in disruptive technologies. The paper concludes that the value of external sources is contingent on more than their knowledge. Specifically, interdependence of sources in search gives rise...

  16. Disruption Rose Tinted II

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    'Disruption - Rose Tinted II' continues to engage narratives of historical English china as previously explored in the work 'Rose Tinted'. This work engages the sleepy rural idyll which is overlaid with visual contemporary social commentary.

  17. Digital disruption ?syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Clair; Staib, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The digital transformation of hospitals in Australia is occurring rapidly in order to facilitate innovation and improve efficiency. Rapid transformation can cause temporary disruption of hospital workflows and staff as processes are adapted to the new digital workflows. The aim of this paper is to outline various types of digital disruption and some strategies for effective management. A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a rapid, successful roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR). We observed this transformation and propose several digital disruption "syndromes" to assist with understanding and management during digital transformation: digital deceleration, digital transparency, digital hypervigilance, data discordance, digital churn and post-digital 'depression'. These 'syndromes' are defined and discussed in detail. Successful management of this temporary digital disruption is important to ensure a successful transition to a digital platform. What is known about this topic? Digital disruption is defined as the changes facilitated by digital technologies that occur at a pace and magnitude that disrupt established ways of value creation, social interactions, doing business and more generally our thinking. Increasing numbers of Australian hospitals are implementing digital solutions to replace traditional paper-based systems for patient care in order to create opportunities for improved care and efficiencies. Such large scale change has the potential to create transient disruption to workflows and staff. Managing this temporary disruption effectively is an important factor in the successful implementation of an EMR. What does this paper add? A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a successful rapid roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR) to become Australia's largest digital hospital over a 3-week period. We observed and assisted with the management of several cultural, behavioural and

  18. From stars to planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzano, Jean-Christophe; Deleuil, Magali; De Laverny, Patrick; Blanco, Alejandra Recio; Bouchy, François; Gandolfi, Davide; Loeillet, Benoît

    2009-02-01

    A large program of multi-fibre (FLAMES) spectroscopic observations of the stellar population in two CoRoT/Exoplanet field with the GIRAFFE/VLT, took place in spring 2008. It aims at characterizing the brightest dwarf population and providing the ground for statistical analysis of the planetary population found by CoRoT. To perform such an ambitious analysis, we use an automated software based on the MATISSE algorithm, originally designed for the GAIA/RVS spectral analysis. This software derives the atmospheric stellar parameters: effective temperature, surface gravity and the overall metallicity. Further improvements are foreseen in order to measure also individual abundances. By comparing the main physical and chemical properties of the host stars to those of the stellar population they belong to, this will bring new insights into the formation and evolution of exoplanetary systems and the star-planet connection.

  19. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V

    2001-01-01

    processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...... or embryo models for the evaluation of possible consequences of human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds is discussed. Furthermore, possible consequences of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds for the embryo transfer industry are addressed....

  20. Engineering analysis of TFTR disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Rothe, K.E.; Bronner, G.

    1984-09-01

    This report covers an engineering approach quantifying the currents, forces, and times, as well as plasma position, for the worst-case disruption based on engineerign circuit assumptions for the plasma. As the plasma moves toward the wall during the current-decay phase of disruption, the wall currents affect the rate of movement and, hence, the decay time. The calculated structure-induced currents differ considerably from those calculated using a presently available criterion, which specifies that the plasma remains stationary in the center of the torus while decaying in 10 ms. This report outlines the method and basis for the engineering calculation used to determine the current and forces as a function of the circuit characteristics. It provides specific calculations for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with variations in parameters such as the thermal decay time, the torus resistance, and plasma temperature during the current decay. The study reviews possible ways to reduce the disruption damage of TFTR by reducing the magnitude of the plasma external field energy that is absorbed by the plasma during the current decay

  1. Engineering analysis of TFTR disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J.G.; Rothe, K.E.; Bronner, G.

    1984-09-01

    This report covers an engineering approach quantifying the currents, forces, and times, as well as plasma position, for the worst-case disruption based on engineerign circuit assumptions for the plasma. As the plasma moves toward the wall during the current-decay phase of disruption, the wall currents affect the rate of movement and, hence, the decay time. The calculated structure-induced currents differ considerably from those calculated using a presently available criterion, which specifies that the plasma remains stationary in the center of the torus while decaying in 10 ms. This report outlines the method and basis for the engineering calculation used to determine the current and forces as a function of the circuit characteristics. It provides specific calculations for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with variations in parameters such as the thermal decay time, the torus resistance, and plasma temperature during the current decay. The study reviews possible ways to reduce the disruption damage of TFTR by reducing the magnitude of the plasma external field energy that is absorbed by the plasma during the current decay.

  2. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) No. 110; Updated May 2013 Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) is a relatively new diagnosis ...

  3. Theory of Disk Accretion onto Magnetic Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disk accretion onto magnetic stars occurs in a variety of systems, including accreting neutron stars (with both high and low magnetic fields, white dwarfs, and protostars. We review some of the key physical processes in magnetosphere-disk interaction, highlighting the theoretical uncertainties. We also discuss some applications to the observations of accreting neutron star and protostellar systems, as well as possible connections to protoplanetary disks and exoplanets.

  4. Effect of cannabidiol on sleep disruption induced by the repeated combination tests consisting of open field and elevated plus-maze in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Tse; Yi, Pei-Lu; Li, Chia-Ling; Chang, Fang-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently complain of having sleep disturbances, such as insomnia and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep abnormality. Cannabidiol (CBD), a psycho-inactive constituent of marijuana, reduces physiological non-REM (NREM) sleep and REM sleep in normal rats, in addition to generating its anxiolytic effect. However, the effects of CBD on anxiety-induced sleep disturbances remain unclear. Because anxiety progression is caused by persistent stress for a period of time, we employed the repeated combination tests (RCT) consisting of a 50-min open field (OF) and a subsequent 10-min elevated plus-maze (EPM) for four consecutive days to simulate the development of anxiety. Time spent in the centre arena of OF and during open arms of the EPM was substantially decreased in latter days of RCT, suggesting the habituation, which potentially lessens anxiety-mediated behavioural responses, was not observed in current tests. CBD microinjected into the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) significantly enhanced time spent in centre arena of OF, increased time during the open arms and decreased frequency of entry to the enclosed arms of EPM, further confirming its anxiolytic effect. The decrease of NREM sleep during the first hour and the suppression of REM sleep during hours 4-10 after the RCT represent the similar clinical observations (e.g. insomnia and REM sleep interruption) in PTSD patients. CBD efficiently blocked anxiety-induced REM sleep suppression, but had little effect on the alteration of NREM sleep. Conclusively, CBD may block anxiety-induced REM sleep alteration via its anxiolytic effect, rather than via sleep regulation per se. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Neutron Star Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not

  6. Spectroscopy of λ Bootis stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiter, U.

    2000-05-01

    theory picture. In the last part of the thesis, the λ Bootis abundance pattern is compared to that of related groups of chemically peculiar stars, i.e. classical CP stars (He-weak, Am and Ap), metal poor stars (field horizontal branch, field blue straggler, and F type main sequence stars), and stars with circumstellar material (post-AGB, Vega-like and A shell stars). A sample of five metal poor post-AGB stars, for which the log g values are much lower than for the λ Bootis stars, shows an abundance pattern similar to that of the λ Bootis stars, but with larger underabundances. All other groups can be well distinguished from the λ Bootis stars on the basis of their element abundance. (author)

  7. Disruption prediction at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, F.

    1998-12-01

    The sudden loss of the plasma magnetic confinement, known as disruption, is one of the major issue in a nuclear fusion machine as JET (Joint European Torus). Disruptions pose very serious problems to the safety of the machine. The energy stored in the plasma is released to the machine structure in few milliseconds resulting in forces that at JET reach several Mega Newtons. The problem is even more severe in the nuclear fusion power station where the forces are in the order of one hundred Mega Newtons. The events that occur during a disruption are still not well understood even if some mechanisms that can lead to a disruption have been identified and can be used to predict them. Unfortunately it is always a combination of these events that generates a disruption and therefore it is not possible to use simple algorithms to predict it. This thesis analyses the possibility of using neural network algorithms to predict plasma disruptions in real time. This involves the determination of plasma parameters every few milliseconds. A plasma boundary reconstruction algorithm, XLOC, has been developed in collaboration with Dr. D. O'Brien and Dr. J. Ellis capable of determining the plasma wall/distance every 2 milliseconds. The XLOC output has been used to develop a multilayer perceptron network to determine plasma parameters as l i and q ψ with which a machine operational space has been experimentally defined. If the limits of this operational space are breached the disruption probability increases considerably. Another approach for prediction disruptions is to use neural network classification methods to define the JET operational space. Two methods have been studied. The first method uses a multilayer perceptron network with softmax activation function for the output layer. This method can be used for classifying the input patterns in various classes. In this case the plasma input patterns have been divided between disrupting and safe patterns, giving the possibility of

  8. An ultraviolet-optical flare from the tidal disruption of a helium-rich stellar core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezari, S; Chornock, R; Rest, A; Huber, M E; Forster, K; Berger, E; Challis, P J; Neill, J D; Martin, D C; Heckman, T; Lawrence, A; Norman, C; Narayan, G; Foley, R J; Marion, G H; Scolnic, D; Chomiuk, L; Soderberg, A; Smith, K; Kirshner, R P; Riess, A G; Smartt, S J; Stubbs, C W; Tonry, J L; Wood-Vasey, W M; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Grav, T; Heasley, J N; Kaiser, N; Kudritzki, R-P; Magnier, E A; Morgan, J S; Price, P A

    2012-05-02

    The flare of radiation from the tidal disruption and accretion of a star can be used as a marker for supermassive black holes that otherwise lie dormant and undetected in the centres of distant galaxies. Previous candidate flares have had declining light curves in good agreement with expectations, but with poor constraints on the time of disruption and the type of star disrupted, because the rising emission was not observed. Recently, two 'relativistic' candidate tidal disruption events were discovered, each of whose extreme X-ray luminosity and synchrotron radio emission were interpreted as the onset of emission from a relativistic jet. Here we report a luminous ultraviolet-optical flare from the nuclear region of an inactive galaxy at a redshift of 0.1696. The observed continuum is cooler than expected for a simple accreting debris disk, but the well-sampled rise and decay of the light curve follow the predicted mass accretion rate and can be modelled to determine the time of disruption to an accuracy of two days. The black hole has a mass of about two million solar masses, modulo a factor dependent on the mass and radius of the star disrupted. On the basis of the spectroscopic signature of ionized helium from the unbound debris, we determine that the disrupted star was a helium-rich stellar core.

  9. EMACSS: Evolve Me A Cluster of StarS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Poul E. R.; Gieles, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The star cluster evolution code Evolve Me A Cluster of StarS (EMACSS) is a simple yet physically motivated computational model that describes the evolution of some fundamental properties of star clusters in static tidal fields. The prescription is based upon the flow of energy within the cluster, which is a constant fraction of the total energy per half-mass relaxation time. According to Henon's predictions, this flow is independent of the precise mechanisms for energy production within the core, and therefore does not require a complete description of the many-body interactions therein. Dynamical theory and analytic descriptions of escape mechanisms is used to construct a series of coupled differential equations expressing the time evolution of cluster mass and radius for a cluster of equal-mass stars. These equations are numerically solved using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration kernel; the results were benchmarked against a data base of direct N-body simulations. EMACSS is publicly available and reproduces the N-body results to within 10 per cent accuracy for the entire post-collapse evolution of star clusters.

  10. A Vanishing Star Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    VLT Observations of an Unusual Stellar System Reinhold Häfner of the Munich University Observatory (Germany) is a happy astronomer. In 1988, when he was working at a telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory, he came across a strange star that suddenly vanished off the computer screen. He had to wait for more than a decade to get the full explanation of this unusual event. On June 10-11, 1999, he observed the same star with the first VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope (ANTU) and the FORS1 astronomical instrument at Paranal [1]. With the vast power of this new research facility, he was now able to determine the physical properties of a very strange stellar system in which two planet-size stars orbit each other. One is an exceedingly hot white dwarf star , weighing half as much as the Sun, but only twice as big as the Earth. The other is a much cooler and less massive red dwarf star , one-and-a-half times the size of planet Jupiter. Once every three hours, the hot star disappears behind the other, as seen from the Earth. For a few minutes, the brightness of the system drops by a factor of more than 250 and it "vanishes" from view in telescopes smaller than the VLT. A variable star named NN Serpentis ESO PR Photo 30a/99 ESO PR Photo 30a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 468 pix - 152k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 936 pix - 576k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2304 x 2695 pix - 4.4M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 30a/99 : The sky field around the 17-mag variable stellar system NN Serpentis , as seen in a 5 sec exposure through a V(isual) filter with VLT ANTU and FORS1. It was obtained just before the observation of an eclipse of this unsual object and served to centre the telescope on the corresponding sky position. The field shown here measures 4.5 x 4.5 armin 2 (1365 x 1365 pix 2 ; 0.20 arcsec/pix). The field is somewhat larger than that shown in Photo 30b/99 and has the same orientation to allow comparison: North is about 20° anticlockwise from the top and East is 90° clockwise from that direction. The

  11. Stability properties of Q-stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerril, R.; Bernal, A.; Guzman, F.S.; Nucamendi, U.

    2007-01-01

    We present the evolution of Q-star configurations using numerical methods. We solve the full Einstein-Klein-Gordon system of equations and show that: Q-stars can be stable and unstable. The unstable branch is two fold: configurations with negative binding energy that collapse and form black holes, and others with positive binding energy that explode and release the scalar field

  12. Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Matthias, E-mail: mski@ua.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Uhlemann, Christoph F. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität Frankfurt (Germany); Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-09-10

    Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to a thousand kilometers per second. We argue that this remarkable effect can be explained as a manifestation of quantum anomalies on astrophysical scales. To theoretically describe the early stage in the life of neutron stars we use hydrodynamics as a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Within this framework, anomalies of the Standard Model of particle physics as underlying microscopic theory imply the presence of a particular set of transport terms, whose form is completely fixed by theoretical consistency. The resulting chiral transport effects in proto-neutron stars enhance neutrino emission along the internal magnetic field, and the recoil can explain the order of magnitude of the observed kick velocities.

  13. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old. The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within

  14. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  15. Structured Literature Review of disruptive innovation theory within the digital domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesti, Helle; Nielsen, Christian; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    The area of interest is disruption is the digital domain. The research questions are: How has the disruption and digital disruption literature developed over time? What is the research focus into disruption regarding the digital domain and how has this changed over time?Which methods are being...... utilized in research regarding disruption and digital disruption?Where are the key contributors to disruption in general and in digital disruption? Is there a future for digital disruption research? The method is a Structured Literature Review (SLR). The contribution is the results of an analysis of 95...... publications within the field of disruption in the digital domain and disruptive innovation theory in general. Works of twelve practitioners and 83 academics are investigated....

  16. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Probing Magnetic Fields with Square Kilometre Array and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/joaa/037/04/0042. Keywords. Magnetic fields; telescopes; galaxies: magnetic fields; ISM: magnetic fields; stars: magnetic fields; turbulence. Abstract. Origin of magnetic fields, its structure and effects on dynamical processes in stars to ...

  18. Bipolar Molecular Outflows within 1pc of Sgr A*:Evidence for Low-mass Star Formation Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Wardle, Mark; Kunneriath, Devaky; Royster, Marc; Wootten, Al; Roberts, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    The 4 million solar mass black hole, Sgr A*, is expected to suppress star formation because the measured density of the cloud is insufficient for self-gravity to overcome tidal disruption by the black hole's gravitational field. Nevertheless, objects resembling dust-enshrouded young stars and photo-evaporative flows from their disks have been identified within 2pc of Sgr A*. Clear identification of the nature of these objects has been hampered by the Galactic center's distance, 30 magnitudes of foreground extinction, and stellar crowding. Here, we report the discovery of 11 bipolar molecular outflows using ALMA within a projected distance of one pc from Sgr A*. These unambiguous signatures of young protostars manifest as approaching and receding lobes of dense gas swept up by the jets created during the formation and early evolution of low-mass stars. The mean dynamical age of the outflow sources and the rate of star formation are estimated to be ~6500 years and ~5x10^{-4} solar mass per year, respectively. These measurements suggest that star formation could take place in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes in the nuclei of external galaxies.

  19. An Ecological Perspective on Sleep Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougeron, Kévin; Abram, Paul K

    2017-09-01

    Despite its evolutionary importance and apparent ubiquity among animals, the ecological significance of sleep is largely unresolved. The ecology of sleep has been particularly neglected in invertebrates. In insects, recent neurobehavioral research convincingly demonstrates that resting behavior shares several common characteristics with sleep in vertebrates. Laboratory studies have produced compelling evidence that sleep disruption can cause changes in insect daily activity patterns (via "sleep rebound") and have consequences for behavioral performance during active periods. However, factors that could cause insect sleep disruption in nature have not been considered nor have the ecological consequences. Drawing on evidence from laboratory studies, we argue that sleep disruption may be an overlooked component of insect ecology and could be caused by a variety of anthropogenic and nonanthropogenic factors in nature. We identify several candidate sleep-disrupting factors and provide new insights on the potential consequences of sleep disruption on individual fitness, species interactions, and ecosystem services. We propose an experimental framework to bridge the current gap in knowledge between laboratory and field studies. We conclude that sleep disruption is a potential mechanism underpinning variation in behavioral, population, and community-level processes associated with several aspects of global change.

  20. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for ex......Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused...... by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major airlines has intensified the interest in the development of new and cost e cient methods to handle airline...... disruptions. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first part it o ers an introduction to airline disruption management, provides the readers with a description of the planning processes and delivers a detailed overview of the numerous aspects of airline disruption management. In the second part we...

  1. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for ex......Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused...... by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major airlines has intensified the interest in the development of new and cost efficient methods to handle...... airline disruptions. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first part it offers an introduction to airline disruption management provides the readers with a description of the planning processes and delivers a detailed overview of the numerous aspects of airline disruption management. In the second...

  2. Small star trackers for modern space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzmin, Vladimir; Jushkov, Vladimir; Zaikin, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Based on experience of many years creation of spacecrafts' star trackers with diversified detectors (from the first star trackers of 60's to tens versions of star trackers in the following years), using technological achievements in the field of optics and electronics the NPP "Geofizika-Cosmos" has provided celestial orientation for all the space vehicles created in Russia and now has developed a series of new star trackers with CCD matrix and special processors, which are able to meet needs in celestial orientation of the modern spacecrafts for the nearest 10-15 years. In the given article the main characteristics and description of some star trackers' versions are presented. The star trackers have various levels of technical characteristics and use both combined (Russian and foreign) procurement parts, and only national (Russian) procurement parts for the main units.

  3. Pulsating star research and the Gaia revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyer Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present an overview of the ESA Gaia mission and of the unprecedented impact that Gaia will have on the field of variable star research. We summarise the contents and impact of the first Gaia data release on the description of variability phenomena, with particular emphasis on pulsating star research. The Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution, although limited to 2.1 million stars, has been used in many studies related to pulsating stars. Furthermore a set of 3,194 Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars with their times series have been released. Finally we present the plans for the ongoing study of variable phenomena with Gaia and highlight some of the possible impacts of the second data release on variable, and specifically, pulsating stars.

  4. RR Lyrae Stars in M4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuehn Charles A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations by Kepler/K2 have revolutionized the study of RR Lyrae stars by allowing the detection of new phenomna, such as low amplitude additional modes and period doubling, which had not previously been seen from the ground. During campaign 2, K2 observed the globular cluster M4, providiing the first opportunity to study a sizeable group of RR Lyrae stars that belong to a single population; the other RR Lyrae stars that have been observed from space are field stars in the galactic halo and thus belong to an assortment of populations. In this poster we present the results of our study of the RR Lyrae variables in M4 from K2 photometry. We have identified additional, low amplitude pulsation modes in both observed RRc stars. In 3 RRab stars we have found the Blazhko effect with periods of 16.6d, 22.4d, and 44.5d.

  5. An onboard star catalog for satellite angular attitude estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzhilov, Ivan; Chernetsov, Andrey; Zakharov, Andrei; Kruzhilov, Svyatoslav

    2017-09-01

    Accuracy assessment of the satellite remote sensing depends on the angular attitude estimation precision. The 1 arc second error in attitude estimation causes 2.5-meter error in the accuracy derived from remote sensing data for the 500 km orbit. Different kind of momentum wheels, propulsions and sensors help correct spacecraft torque moment to stabilize it in the orbit. Star tracker is the most precise optical sensor for spacecraft angular attitude estimation. An onboard guide star catalog containing data for star pattern identification is essential for star tracker operating. The total number of stars, the faintest stellar magnitude, completeness and uniformity are the key specifications of a star catalog influencing many characteristic of a star tracker. The steps of creating guide star catalog are: instrumental stellar magnitude estimation with respect to the star tracker spectral response, clusterization of nearby stars, removing of unreliable stars and final star selection. An iterative algorithm for thinning down the catalog allows reducing appreciably the number of stars in the catalog and improving its uniformity. The key point of the algorithm is the lower bound evaluation of star number in the FOV (field of view) for every boresight position within a triangle area. The algorithm uses recursive quaternary division of the icosahedron for the celestial sphere tessellation. The correction methods of stellar aberration and star proper motion are discussed as well.

  6. Old and new neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruderman, M.

    1984-09-01

    The youngest known radiopulsar in the rapidly spinning magnetized neutron star which powers the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the historical supernova explosion of 1054 AD. Similar neutron stars are probably born at least every few hundred years, but are less frequent than Galactic supernova explosions. They are initially sources of extreme relativistic electron and/or positron winds (approx.10/sup 38/s/sup -1/ of 10/sup 12/ eV leptons) which greatly decrease as the neutron stars spin down to become mature pulsars. After several million years these neutron stars are no longer observed as radiopulsars, perhaps because of large magnetic field decay. However, a substantial fraction of the 10/sup 8/ old dead pulsars in the Galaxy are the most probable source for the isotropically distributed ..gamma..-ray burst detected several times per week at the earth. Some old neutron stars are spun-up by accretion from companions to be resurrected as rapidly spinning low magnetic field radiopulsars. 52 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Old and new neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, M.

    1984-09-01

    The youngest known radiopulsar in the rapidly spinning magnetized neutron star which powers the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the historical supernova explosion of 1054 AD. Similar neutron stars are probably born at least every few hundred years, but are less frequent than Galactic supernova explosions. They are initially sources of extreme relativistic electron and/or positron winds (approx.10 38 s -1 of 10 12 eV leptons) which greatly decrease as the neutron stars spin down to become mature pulsars. After several million years these neutron stars are no longer observed as radiopulsars, perhaps because of large magnetic field decay. However, a substantial fraction of the 10 8 old dead pulsars in the Galaxy are the most probable source for the isotropically distributed γ-ray burst detected several times per week at the earth. Some old neutron stars are spun-up by accretion from companions to be resurrected as rapidly spinning low magnetic field radiopulsars. 52 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  8. Tracing galaxy evolution through resolved stellar populations and star clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva Villa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Field stars and star clusters contain a big part of the galaxy’s history. To understand galaxy formation and evolution we need then to understand the parts of which galaxies are composed. It has commonly been assumed that most stars formed in clusters. However, the connection between these two

  9. Near-parabolic comets observed in 2006-2010 - II. Their past and future motion under the influence of the Galaxy field and known nearby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybczyński, Piotr A.; Królikowska, Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    In the first part of this research we extensively investigated and carefully determined osculating, original (when entering Solar system) and future (when leaving it), orbits of 22 near-parabolic comets with small perihelion distance (qosc perturbing action of our Galactic environment. At all stages of our dynamical study, we precisely propagate in time the observational uncertainties of cometary orbits. For the first time in our calculations, we fully take into account individual perturbations from all known stars or stellar systems that closely (less than 3.5 pc) approach the Sun during the cometary motion in the investigated time interval of several million years. This is done by means of a direct numerical integration of the N-body system comprising of a comet, the Sun and 90 potential stellar perturbers. We show a full review of various examples of individual stellar action on cometary motion. We conclude that perturbations from all known stars or stellar systems do not change the overall picture of the past orbit evolution of long-period comets. Their future motion might be seriously perturbed during the predicted close approach of Gliese 710 star but we do not observe significant energy changes. The importance of stellar perturbations is tested on the whole sample of 108 comets investigated by us so far and our previous results, obtained with only Galactic perturbations included, are fully confirmed. We present how our results can be used to discriminate between dynamically new and old near-parabolic comets and discuss the relevance of the so-called Jupiter-Saturn barrier phenomenon. Finally, we show how the Oort spike in the 1/a-distribution of near-parabolic comets is built from both dynamically new and old comets. We also point out that C/2007 W1 seems to be the first serious candidate for interstellar provenance.

  10. Managing Supply Chain Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-09

    additional resources such as increased levels of inventory to restore operations following a disruption (Stonebraker & Afifi , 2004; Zsidisin et al...Other Disciplines to Logistics. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 27(9/10), pp 515. Stonebraker, P. W. & Afifi

  11. Sustainable Disruption Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar

    when managing recovery from disruptions. The underlying work of this thesis is carried out as an industrial PhD project in co-operation with the company Jeppesen, which have the airline industry as its primary area of business and the maritime industry as its secondary area. For this reason the thesis...

  12. Probing Quiescent Massive Black Holes: Insights from Tidal Disruption Events

    OpenAIRE

    Gezari, Suvi; Strubbe, Linda; Bloom, Joshua S.; Grindlay, J. E.; Soderberg, Alicia; Elvis, Martin; Coppi, Paolo; Lawrence, Andrew; Ivezic, Zeljko; Merritt, David; Komossa, Stefanie; Halpern, Jules; Eracleous, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tidal disruption events provide a unique probe of quiescent black holes in the nuclei of distant galaxies. The next generation of synoptic surveys will yield a large sample of flares from the tidal disruption of stars by massive black holes that will give insights to four key science questions: 1) What is the assembly history of massive black holes in the universe? 2) Is there a population of intermediate mass black holes that are the primordial seeds of supermassive black holes? 3) How can w...

  13. Statistical analysis of JET disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanga, A.; Johnson, M.F.

    1991-07-01

    In the operation of JET and of any tokamak many discharges are terminated by a major disruption. The disruptive termination of a discharge is usually an unwanted event which may cause damage to the structure of the vessel. In a reactor disruptions are potentially a very serious problem, hence the importance of studying them and devising methods to avoid disruptions. Statistical information has been collected about the disruptions which have occurred at JET over a long span of operations. The analysis is focused on the operational aspects of the disruptions rather than on the underlining physics. (Author)

  14. Charged boson stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Daniela; Quevedo, Hernando; Rueda H., Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2013-07-01

    We study time-independent, spherically symmetric, self-gravitating systems minimally coupled to a scalar field with U(1) gauge symmetry: charged boson stars. We find numerical solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations coupled to the relativistic Klein-Gordon equation. It is shown that bound stable configurations exist only for values of the coupling constant less than or equal to a certain critical value. The metric coefficients and the relevant physical quantities, such as the total mass and charge, turn out to be, in general, bound functions of the radial coordinate, reaching their maximum values at a critical value of the scalar field at the origin. We discuss the stability problem from both the quantitative and qualitative point of view. We take into account the electromagnetic contribution to the total mass and investigate the stability issue considering the binding energy per particle. We verify the existence of configurations with positive binding energy in which objects that are apparently bound can be unstable against small perturbations, in full analogy with the effect observed in the mass-radius relation of neutron stars.

  15. Engineering aspects of disruption current decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.

    1983-11-01

    Engineering features associated with the configuration of a tokamak can affect the amount of energy that produces melting and damage to the limiters or internal wall surfaces as the result of a major disruption. During the current decay period of a major thermal disruption, the energy that can damage a wall or limiter comes from the external magnetic field. By providing a good conducting torus near the plasma and increasing the plasma circuit resistance, this magnetic energy (transferred by way of the plasma circuit) can be minimized. This report addresses engineering design features to reduce the energy deposited on the inner torus surface that produces melting of the structures

  16. Competing risks and the development of adaptive management plans for water resources: Field reconnaissance investigation of risks to fishes and other aquatic biota exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in lake mead, Nevada USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, G.; Little, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of competing risks for water resources rely on a wide spectrum of tools to evaluate hazards and risks associated with their management. For example, waters of the lower Colorado River stored in reservoirs such as Lake Mead present a wide range of competing risks related to water quantity and water quality. These risks are often interdependent and complicated by competing uses of source waters for sustaining biological resources and for supporting a range of agricultural, municipal, recreational, and industrial uses. USGS is currently conducting a series of interdisciplinary case-studies on water quality of Lake Mead and its source waters. In this case-study we examine selected constituents potentially entering the Lake Mead system, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Worldwide, a number of environmental EDCs have been identified that affect reproduction, development, and adaptive behaviors in a wide range of organisms. Many EDCs are minimally affected by current treatment technologies and occur in treated sewage effluents. Several EDCs have been detected in Lake Mead, and several substances have been identified that are of concern because of potential impacts to the aquatic biota, including the sport fishery of Lake Mead and endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) that occur in the Colorado River system. For example, altered biomarkers relevant to reproduction and thyroid function in fishes have been observed and may be predictive of impaired metabolism and development. Few studies, however, have addressed whether such EDC-induced responses observed in the field have an ecologically significant effect on the reproductive success of fishes. To identify potential linkages between EDCs and species of management concern, the risk analysis and characterization in this reconnaissance study focused on effects (and attendant uncertainties) that might be expressed by exposed populations. In addition, risk reduction

  17. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II.

    1984-03-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 10 4 years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  18. A spectral atlas of λ Bootis stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunzen E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of λ Bootis stars, a permanent confusion about their classification can be found in literature. This group of non-magnetic, Population I, metal-poor A to F-type stars, has often been used as some sort of trash can for "exotic" and spectroscopically dubious objects. Some attempts have been made to establish a homogeneous group of stars which share the same common properties. Unfortunately, the flood of "new" information (e.g. UV and IR data led again to a whole zoo of objects classified as λ Bootis stars, which, however, are apparent non-members. To overcome this unsatisfying situation, a spectral atlas of well established λ Bootis stars for the classical optical domain was compiled. It includes intermediate dispersion (40 and 120Å mm-1 spectra of three λ Bootis, as well as appropriate MK standard stars. Furthermore, "suspicious" objects, such as shell and Field Horizontal Branch stars, have been considered in order to provide to classifiers a homogeneous reference. As a further step, a high resolution (8Å mm-1 spectrum of one "classical" λ Bootis star in the same wavelength region (3800-4600Å is presented. In total, 55 lines can be used for this particular star to derive detailed abundances for nine heavy elements (Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Sr and Ba.

  19. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford M.T. II

    1984-03-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 10/sup 4/ years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields.

  20. Spectral shifting strongly constrains molecular cloud disruption by radiation pressure on dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissl, Stefan; Klessen, Ralf S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Pellegrini, Eric W.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. We aim to test the hypothesis that radiation pressure from young star clusters acting on dust is the dominant feedback agent disrupting the largest star-forming molecular clouds and thus regulating the star-formation process. Methods: We performed multi-frequency, 3D, radiative transfer calculations including both scattering and absorption and re-emission to longer wavelengths for model clouds with masses of 104-107 M⊙, containing embedded clusters with star formation efficiencies of 0.009-91%, and varying maximum grain sizes up to 200 μm. We calculated the ratio between radiative and gravitational forces to determine whether radiation pressure can disrupt clouds. Results: We find that radiation pressure acting on dust almost never disrupts star-forming clouds. Ultraviolet and optical photons from young stars to which the cloud is optically thick do not scatter much. Instead, they quickly get absorbed and re-emitted by the dust at thermal wavelengths. As the cloud is typically optically thin to far-infrared radiation, it promptly escapes, depositing little momentum in the cloud. The resulting spectrum is more narrowly peaked than the corresponding Planck function, and exhibits an extended tail at longer wavelengths. As the opacity drops significantly across the sub-mm and mm wavelength regime, the resulting radiative force is even smaller than for the corresponding single-temperature blackbody. We find that the force from radiation pressure falls below the strength of gravitational attraction by an order of magnitude or more for either Milky Way or moderate starbust conditions. Only for unrealistically large maximum grain sizes, and star formation efficiencies far exceeding 50% do we find that the strength of radiation pressure can exceed gravity. Conclusions: We conclude that radiation pressure acting on dust does not disrupt star-forming molecular clouds in any Local Group galaxies. Radiation pressure thus appears unlikely to regulate the star

  1. THE GALEX NEARBY YOUNG-STAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, David R.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zuckerman, B.; Kastner, Joel H.; Bessell, M. S.; Murphy, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method that exploits data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) ultraviolet and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and Two Micron All Sky Survey infrared source catalogs, combined with proper motions and empirical pre-main sequence isochrones, to identify candidate nearby, young, low-mass stars. Applying our method across the full GALEX-covered sky, we identify 2031 mostly M-type stars that, for an assumed age of 10 (100) Myr, all lie within ∼150 (∼90) pc of Earth. The distribution of M spectral subclasses among these ∼2000 candidate young stars peaks sharply in the range M3-M4; these subtypes constitute 50% of the sample, consistent with studies of the M star population in the immediate solar neighborhood. We focus on a subset of 58 of these candidate young M stars in the vicinity of the Tucana-Horologium association. Only 20 of these 58 candidates were detected in the ROSAT All-Sky X-ray Survey—reflecting the greater sensitivity of GALEX for the purposes of identifying active nearby, young stars, particularly for stars of type M4 and later. Based on statistical analysis of the kinematics and/or spectroscopic followup of these 58 M stars, we find that 50% (29 stars) indeed have properties consistent with Tuc-Hor membership, while 12 are potential new members of the Columba association, and 2 may be AB Dor moving group members. Hence, ∼75% of our initial subsample of 58 candidates are likely members of young (age ∼ 10-40 Myr) stellar moving groups within 100 pc, verifying that the stellar color- and kinematics-based selection algorithms described here can be used to efficiently isolate nearby, young, low-mass objects from among the field star population. Future studies will focus on characterizing additional subsamples selected from among this list of candidate nearby, young M stars

  2. MHD stability, operational limits and disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present physics understandings of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of tokamak plasmas, the threshold conditions for onset of MHD instability, and the resulting operational limits on attainable plasma pressure (beta limit) and density (density limit), and the consequences of plasma disruption and disruption related effects are reviewed and assessed in the context of their application to a future DT burning reactor prototype tokamak experiment such as ITER. The principal considerations covered within the MHD stability and beta limit assessments are (i) magnetostatic equilibrium, ideal MHD stability and the resulting ideal MHD beta limit; (ii) sawtooth oscillations and the coupling of sawtooth activity to other types of MHD instability; (iii) neoclassical island resistive tearing modes and the corresponding limits on beta and energy confinement; (iv) wall stabilization of ideal MHD instabilities and resistive wall instabilities; (v) mode locking effects of non-axisymmetric error fields; (vi) edge localized MHD instabilities (ELMs, etc.); and (vii) MHD instabilities and beta/pressure gradient limits in plasmas with actively modified current and magnetic shear profiles. The principal considerations covered within the density limit assessments are (i) empirical density limits; (ii) edge power balance/radiative density limits in ohmic and L-mode plasmas; and (iii) edge parameter related density limits in H-mode plasmas. The principal considerations covered in the disruption assessments are (i) disruption causes, frequency and MHD instability onset; (ii) disruption thermal and current quench characteristics; (iii) vertical instabilities (VDEs), both before and after disruption, and plasma and in-vessel halo currents; (iv) after disruption runaway electron formation, confinement and loss; (v) fast plasma shutdown (rapid externally initiated dissipation of plasma thermal and magnetic energies); (vi) means for disruption avoidance and disruption effect mitigation; and

  3. [Xenoestrogens: endocrine disrupting compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Milena; Murias, Marek

    2008-11-01

    In recent years much attention has been paid to the issues of chemicals that disrupt the normal function of endocrine system, namely xenoestrogens. These chemicals can mimic the activity of endogenous estrogens, antagonize their interaction with estrogen receptors or disrupt the synthesis, metabolism and functions of endogenous female hormones. Due to the fact that they act thanks to many different mechanisms, it is very difficult to estimate their estrogenic activity by means of a simple tests. The important issue remains the fact that xenoestrogens may have a positive or negative influence on the function of the endocrine system. It seems to be very important that there are many sources of xenoestrogens, that is not only vegetables and fruit (phytoestrogens), but also metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb), dental appliances (alkilphenols), food containers or blood containers (PVC--polyvinyl chloride, DEHP--di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), cosmetics (parabens) and pesticides (DDT--dichlor-diphenyl-trichlorethylane, endosulfane).

  4. Jets from Merging Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    With the recent discovery of gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes, its especially important to understand the electromagnetic signals resulting from mergers of compact objects. New simulations successfully follow a merger of two neutron stars that produces a short burst of energy via a jet consistent with short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) detections.Still from the authors simulation showing the two neutron stars, and their magnetic fields, before merger. [Adapted from Ruiz et al. 2016]Challenging SystemWe have long suspected that sGRBs are produced by the mergers of compact objects, but this model has been difficult to prove. One major hitch is that modeling the process of merger and sGRB launch is very difficult, due to the fact that these extreme systems involve magnetic fields, fluids and full general relativity.Traditionally, simulations are only able to track such mergers over short periods of time. But in a recent study, Milton Ruiz (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Industrial University of Santander, Colombia) and coauthors Ryan Lang, Vasileios Paschalidis and Stuart Shapiro have modeled a binary neutron star system all the way through the process of inspiral, merger, and the launch of a jet.A Merger TimelineHow does this happen? Lets walk through one of the teams simulations, in which dipole magnetic field lines thread through the interior of each neutron star and extend beyond its surface(like magnetic fields found in pulsars). In this example, the two neutron stars each have a mass of 1.625 solar masses.Simulation start (0 ms)Loss of energy via gravitational waves cause the neutron stars to inspiral.Merger (3.5 ms)The neutron stars are stretched by tidal effects and make contact. Their merger produces a hypermassive neutron star that is supported against collapse by its differential (nonuniform) rotation.Delayed collapse into a black hole (21.5 ms)Once the differential rotation is redistributed by magnetic fields and partially

  5. Effects of back warming in cocoon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnison, J.R.; Williams, I.P.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that dust shells frequently surround young stars, and attempts have been made to determine some of the properties of these shells. It is probable that the dust absorbs the outgoing radiation from the star and re-emits it in the infrared. If the dust shell does absorb radiation both its inner and outer surfaces will re-emit a certain proportion and some radiation will return to the central star, causing what amounts to 'warming of its own back'. It is interesting to consider how such a star evolves, compared with evolution of a normal pre-main-sequence star. A model for a contracting star that is receiving radiation from an external source has been developed by the authors in connection with the evolution of Jupiter within the radiation field of the Sun (Astrophys. Space Sci., 29:387 (1974)), and this model is here applied to the situation just described. It is emphasised that the discussion is concerned only with the evolution of the central star, the dust being regarded merely as a means of redirecting radiation back on to the surface of this star. Amongst conclusions reached is that a thin shell will cause no significant change in the structure and evolution of the central star, whilst the presence of a thick shell has a substantial effect on the star, slowing down is evolution. Whilst a dust shell is present the star cannot be seen, but only the dust shell emitting in the infrared, but once the dust shell clears the star is seen in a position and with an age that differs considerably from what it would have had if it had evolved without 'back warming' from the dust shell. (U.K.)

  6. Disrupted Refugee Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Ditte Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Fleeing civil war involves managing life threatening events and multiple disruptions of everyday life. The theoretical potentials of analysing the recreation of everyday family life among Syrian refugees in Denmark is explored based on conceptualizations that emphasize the collective agency...... war and struggle to recreate an everyday life in exile is to contribute with contextualization and expansion of mainstream understandings of family life, suffering, and resilience in refugee family trajectories in multiple contexts....

  7. Noncommutative via closed star product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, V. G.; Vitale, P.

    2015-08-01

    We consider linear star products on of Lie algebra type. First we derive the closed formula for the polydifferential representation of the corresponding Lie algebra generators. Using this representation we define the Weyl star product on the dual of the Lie algebra. Then we construct a gauge operator relating the Weyl star product with the one which is closed with respect to some trace functional, Tr ( f ⋆ g) = Tr ( f · g). We introduce the derivative operator on the algebra of the closed star product and show that the corresponding Leibniz rule holds true up to a total derivative. As a particular example we study the space R {/θ 3} with type noncommutativity and show that in this case the closed star product is the one obtained from the Duflo quantization map. As a result a Laplacian can be defined such that its commutative limit reproduces the ordinary commutative one. The deformed Leibniz rule is applied to scalar field theory to derive conservation laws and the corresponding noncommutative currents.

  8. Giant CP stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loden, L.O.; Sundman, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study is part of an investigation of the possibility of using chemically peculiar (CP) stars to map local galactic structure. Correct luminosities of these stars are therefore crucial. CP stars are generally regarded as main-sequence or near-main-sequence objects. However, some CP stars have been classified as giants. A selection of stars, classified in literature as CP giants, are compared to normal stars in the same effective temperature interval and to ordinary 'non giant' CP stars. There is no clear confirmation of a higher luminosity for 'CP giants', than for CP stars in general. In addition, CP characteristics seem to be individual properties not repeated in a component star or other cluster members. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Wound Disruption Following Colorectal Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Carmichael, Joseph C; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Nguyen, Ninh T; Stamos, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative wound disruption is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify the risk factors and outcomes of wound disruption following colorectal resection. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to examine the clinical data of patients who underwent colorectal resection from 2005 to 2013. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors of wound disruption. We sampled a total of 164,297 patients who underwent colorectal resection. Of these, 2073 (1.3 %) had wound disruption. Patients with wound disruption had significantly higher mortality (5.1 vs. 1.9 %, AOR: 1.46, P = 0.01). The highest risk of wound disruption was seen in patients with wound infection (4.8 vs. 0.9 %, AOR: 4.11, P disruption such as chronic steroid use (AOR: 1.71, P disruption compared to open surgery (AOR: 0.61, P disruption occurs in 1.3 % of colorectal resections, and it correlates with mortality of patients. Wound infection is the strongest predictor of wound disruption. Chronic steroid use, obesity, severe COPD, prolonged operation, non-elective admission, and serum albumin level are strongly associated with wound disruption. Utilization of the laparoscopic approach may decrease the risk of wound disruption when possible.

  10. Energy production in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, Hans.

    1977-01-01

    Energy in stars is released partly by gravitation, partly by nuclear reactions. For ordinary stars like our sun, nuclear reactions predominate. However, at the end of the life of a star very large amounts of energy are released by gravitational collapse; this can amount to as much as 10 times the total energy released nuclear reactions. The rotational energy of pulsars is a small remnant of the energy of gravitation. The end stage of small stars is generally a white dwarf, of heavy stars a neutron star of possibly a black hole

  11. Rates of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    It is illustrated that a theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies depends on an understanding of star formation, and especially of the factors influencing the rate of star formation. Some of the theoretical problems of star formation in galaxies, some approaches that have been considered in models of galaxy evolution, and some possible observational tests that may help to clarify which processes or models are most relevant are reviewed. The material is presented under the following headings: power-law models for star formation, star formation processes (conditions required, ways of achieving these conditions), observational indications and tests, and measures of star formation rates in galaxies. 49 references

  12. Fast and Robust pointing and tracking using a second-generation star tracker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Pickles, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Second generation star trackers work by taking wide-angle optical pictures of star fields, correlating the image against a star catalogue in ROM, centroiding many stars to derive an accurate position and orientation. This paper describes a miniature instrument(10cm cube), fast and lightweight (850g...

  13. Neutron star natal kicks and the long-term survival of star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contenta, Filippo; Varri, Anna Lisa; Heggie, Douglas C.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of a star cluster in an external tidal field by using N-body simulations, with focus on the effects of the presence or absence of neutron star natal velocity kicks. We show that, even if neutron stars typically represent less than 2 per cent of the total bound mass of a star cluster, their primordial kinematic properties may affect the lifetime of the system by up to almost a factor of 4. We interpret this result in the light of two known modes of star cluster dissolution, dominated by either early stellar evolution mass-loss or two-body relaxation. The competition between these effects shapes the mass-loss profile of star clusters, which may either dissolve abruptly (`jumping'), in the pre-core-collapse phase, or gradually (`skiing'), after having reached core collapse.

  14. Little Bear’s pulsating stars: Variable star census of UMi dSph Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinemuchi K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations and a photometric search for variable stars in the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy (UMi dSph are presented. Our observations were taken at Apache Point Observatory in 2014 and 2016 using the 0.5m ARCSAT telescope and the West Mountain Observatory (WMO 0.9m telescope of Brigham Young University in 2016. Previously known RR Lyrae stars in our field of view of the UMi dSph are identified, and we also catalog new variable star candidates. Tentative classifications are given for some of the new variable stars. We have conducted period searches with the data collected with the WMO telescope. Our ultimate goal is to create an updated catalog of variable stars in the UMi dSph and to compare the RR Lyrae stellar characteristics to other RR Lyrae stars found in the Local Group dSph galaxies.

  15. Regular Generalized Star Star closed sets in Bitopological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kannan; D. Narasimhan; K. Chandrasekhara Rao; R. Ravikumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of τ1τ2-regular generalized star star closed sets , τ1τ2-regular generalized star star open sets and study their basic properties in bitopological spaces.

  16. Multiple Stars Across the H-R Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, Swetlana; Tokovinin, Andrei; Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held in Garching, Germany, 12-15 July 2005

    2008-01-01

    Stars show a marked tendency to be in systems of different multiplicity, ranging from simple binaries and triples to globular clusters with several 10,000's of stars. The formation and evolution of multiple systems remains a challenging part of astrophysics, and the contributions in this book report on the significant progress that had been made in this research field in the last years. The reader will find a variety of research topics addressed, such as the dynamical evolution in multiple stars, the effects of the environment on multiple system parameters, stellar evolution within multiple stars, multiplicity of massive stars, pre-main sequence and intermediate mass stars, multiplicity of low-mass stars from embedded protostars to open clusters, and brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets in multiples. This book presents the proceedings of the ESO Workshop on Multiple Stars across the H-R Diagram held in the summer of 2005.

  17. Quark core stars, quark stars and strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, F.

    1988-01-01

    A recent one flavor quark matter equation of state is generalized to several flavors. It is shown that quarks undergo a first order phase transition. In addition, this equation of state depends on just one parameter in the two flavor case, two parameters in the three flavor case, and these parameters are constrained by phenomenology. This equation of state is then applied to the hadron-quark transition in neutron stars and the determination of quark star stability, the investigation of strange matter stability and possible strange star existence. 43 refs., 6 figs

  18. Autonomous star tracker based on active pixel sensors (APS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, U.

    2017-11-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used onboard of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years, star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The Jena-Optronik GmbH is active in the field of opto-electronic sensors like star trackers since the early 80-ties. Today, with the product family ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15, all marked segments like earth observation, scientific applications and geo-telecom are supplied to European and Overseas customers. A new generation of star trackers can be designed based on the APS detector technical features. The measurement performance of the current CCD based star trackers can be maintained, the star tracker functionality, reliability and robustness can be increased while the unit costs are saved.

  19. Disruption - Access cards service

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  20. Dwarf Star Erupts in Giant Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This movie taken by NASA'S Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows one of the largest flares, or star eruptions, ever recorded at ultraviolet wavelengths. The star, called GJ 3685A, just happened to be in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer's field of view while the telescope was busy observing galaxies. As the movie demonstrates, the seemingly serene star suddenly exploded once, then even more intensely a second time, pouring out in total about one million times more energy than a typical flare from our Sun. The second blast of light constituted an increase in brightness by a factor of at least 10,000. Flares are huge explosions of energy stemming from a single location on a star's surface. They are caused by the brief destruction of a star's magnetic fields. Many types of stars experience them, though old, small, rapidly rotating 'red dwarfs' like GJ 3685A tend to flare more frequently and dramatically. These stars, called flare stars, can experience powerful eruptions as often as every few hours. Younger stars, in general, also erupt more often. One of the reasons astronomers study flare stars is to gain a better picture and history of flare events taking place on the Sun. A preliminary analysis of the GJ 3685A flare shows that the mechanisms underlying stellar eruptions may be more complex than previously believed. Evidence for the two most popular flare theories was found. Though this movie has been sped up (the actual flare lasted about 20 minutes), time-resolved data exist for each one-hundredth of a second. These observations were taken at 2 p.m. Pacific time, April 24, 2004. In the still image, the time sequence starts in the upper left panel, continues in the upper right, then moves to the lower left and ends in the lower right. The circular and linear features that appear below and to the right of GJ 3685A during the flare event are detector artifacts caused by the extreme brightness of the flare.

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Televisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions that are effective as of October 30,...

  2. mSTAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mini-STAR (mSTAR) is a small satellite mission concept to test the hypothesis that the velocity of light is independent of the velocity and orientation of the...

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  4. Observations of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Difficulties occurring in the observation of central stars of planetary nebulae are reviewed with emphasis on spectral classifications and population types, and temperature determination. Binary and peculiar central stars are discussed. (U.M.G.)

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Computers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers that are effective as of June 2, 2014....

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Telephones

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Telephony (cordless telephones and VoIP...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Dehumidifiers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers that are effective as of October...

  9. STAR FORMATION IN 30 DORADUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Spezzi, Loredana; Sirianni, Marco; Andersen, Morten; Paresce, Francesco; Panagia, Nino; Mutchler, Max; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard; Beccari, Giacomo; Balick, Bruce; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Calzetti, Daniela; Marcella Carollo, C.; Disney, Michael J.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Using observations obtained with the Wide-Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have studied the properties of the stellar populations in the central regions of 30 Dor in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations clearly reveal the presence of considerable differential extinction across the field. We characterize and quantify this effect using young massive main-sequence stars to derive a statistical reddening correction for most objects in the field. We then search for pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars by looking for objects with a strong (>4σ) Hα excess emission and find about 1150 of them over the entire field. Comparison of their location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with theoretical PMS evolutionary tracks for the appropriate metallicity reveals that about one-third of these objects are younger than ∼4 Myr, compatible with the age of the massive stars in the central ionizing cluster R 136, whereas the rest have ages up to ∼30 Myr, with a median age of ∼12 Myr. This indicates that star formation has proceeded over an extended period of time, although we cannot discriminate between an extended episode and a series of short and frequent bursts that are not resolved in time. While the younger PMS population preferentially occupies the central regions of the cluster, older PMS objects are more uniformly distributed across the field and are remarkably few at the very center of the cluster. We attribute this latter effect to photo-evaporation of the older circumstellar disks caused by the massive ionizing members of R 136.

  10. Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maund, Justyn R; Crowther, Paul A; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Langer, Norbert

    2017-10-28

    Almost since the beginning, massive stars and their resultant supernovae have played a crucial role in the Universe. These objects produce tremendous amounts of energy and new, heavy elements that enrich galaxies, encourage new stars to form and sculpt the shapes of galaxies that we see today. The end of millions of years of massive star evolution and the beginning of hundreds or thousands of years of supernova evolution are separated by a matter of a few seconds, in which some of the most extreme physics found in the Universe causes the explosive and terminal disruption of the star. Key questions remain unanswered in both the studies of how massive stars evolve and the behaviour of supernovae, and it appears the solutions may not lie on just one side of the explosion or the other or in just the domain of the stellar evolution or the supernova astrophysics communities. The need to view massive star evolution and supernovae as continuous phases in a single narrative motivated the Theo Murphy international scientific meeting 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae' at Chicheley Hall, UK, in June 2016, with the specific purpose of simultaneously addressing the scientific connections between theoretical and observational studies of massive stars and their supernovae, through engaging astronomers from both communities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  12. Pulsation of Ap-Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W. W.; Schneider, H.

    1983-09-01

    It has been known for many centuries that one can determine by simple means if a barrel of wine is full, half empty, or- horribile dictu - empty. One knocks against the wall and listens to the echo. Another example of the same technique, but less interesting for the connaisseur en vin is given by seismology. Seismographs distributed all over the globe register earthquakes and since they are differently located with respect to an earthquake centre the registrations look different. From a comparison of such registrations geologists have extracted most of our knowledge about the structure and composition of the terrestrial interior. Corresponding experiments were also planned and successfully executed on the Moon and on Mars. Stellar astronomers, however, are not in the lucky position of their colleagues who work in our solar system with the help of satellites. They are limited to stars which pulsate voluntarily. We will not discuss here the question why some groups of stars pulsate and others do not. We shall only mention that pulsating stars have at least one layer in their interior which does not absorb pulsational energy, as is the case for the rest of the star, but produces energy of variable amount and in phase with PUlsation. This mechanism keeps the star pulsating as long as this (these) layer(s) exists. Oue to stellar evolution, diffusion, magnetic fields, to name only some possible mechanisms, these layers can disappear or undergo substantial changes so that the energy losses due to pulsation cannot be compensated anymore. Oamping will result and finally the star will become stable against pulsation.

  13. Giant Black Hole Rips Apart Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Thanks to two orbiting X-ray observatories, astronomers have the first strong evidence of a supermassive black hole ripping apart a star and consuming a portion of it. The event, captured by NASA's Chandra and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, had long been predicted by theory, but never confirmed. Astronomers believe a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after being thrown off course by a close encounter with another star. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information about how these black holes grow and affect surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, leader of the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighborhood." While other observations have hinted stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as "stellar tidal disruptions"), these new results are the first strong evidence. Evidence already exists for supermassive black holes in many galaxies, but looking for tidal disruptions represents a completely independent way to search for black holes. Observations like these are urgently needed to determine how quickly black holes can grow by swallowing neighboring stars. Animation of Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgen satellite, detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the center of the galaxy RX J1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees Celsius before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in the process

  14. Rotation and magnetism in intermediate mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Léo G.; Tout, Christopher A.

    2018-03-01

    Rotation and magnetism are increasingly recognized as important phenomena in stellar evolution. Surface magnetic fields from a few to 20, 000 G have been observed and models have suggested that magnetohydrodynamic transport of angular momentum and chemical composition could explain the peculiar composition of some stars. Stellar remnants such as white dwarfs have been observed with fields from a few to more than 109 G. We investigate the origin of and the evolution, on thermal and nuclear rather than dynamical time-scales, of an averaged large-scale magnetic field throughout a star's life and its coupling to stellar rotation. Large-scale magnetic fields sustained until late stages of stellar evolution with conservation of magnetic flux could explain the very high fields observed in white dwarfs. We include these effects in the Cambridge stellar evolution code using three time-dependant advection-diffusion equations coupled to the structural and composition equations of stars to model the evolution of angular momentum and the two components of the magnetic field. We present the evolution in various cases for a 3 M_{⊙} star from the beginning to the late stages of its life. Our particular model assumes that turbulent motions, including convection, favour small-scale field at the expense of large-scale field. As a result the large-scale field concentrates in radiative zones of the star and so is exchanged between the core and the envelope of the star as it evolves. The field is sustained until the end of the asymptotic giant branch, when it concentrates in the degenerate core.

  15. Observational Tests of Magnetospheric Accretion Models in Young Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns–Krull Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically controlled accretion of disk material onto the surface of Classical T Tauri stars is the dominant paradigm in our understanding of how these young stars interact with their surrounding disks. These stars provide a powerful test of magnetically controlled accretion models since all of the relevant parameters, including the magnetic field strength and geometry, are in principle measureable. Both the strength and the field geometry are key for understanding how these stars interact with their disks. This talk will focus on recent advances in magnetic field measurements on a large number of T Tauri stars, as well as very recent studies of the accretion rates onto a sample of young stars in NGC 2264 with known rotation periods. We discuss how these observations provide critical tests of magnetospheric accretion models which predict a rotational equilibrium is reached. We find good support for the model predictions once the complex geometry of the stellar magnetic field is taken into account. We will also explore how the observations of the accretion properties of the 2264 cluster stars can be used to test emerging ideas on how magnetic fields on young stars are generated and organized as a function of their internal structure (i.e. the presence of a radiative core. We do not find support for the hypothesis that large changes in the magentic field geometry occur when a radiative core appears in these young stars.

  16. Analytic modeling of axisymmetric disruption halo currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Kellman, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Currents which can flow in plasma facing components during disruptions pose a challenge to the design of next generation tokamaks. Induced toroidal eddy currents and both induced and conducted poloidal ''halo'' currents can produce design-limiting electromagnetic loads. While induction of toroidal and poloidal currents in passive structures is a well-understood phenomenon, the driving terms and scalings for poloidal currents flowing on open field lines during disruptions are less well established. A model of halo current evolution is presented in which the current is induced in the halo by decay of the plasma current and change in enclosed toroidal flux while being convected into the halo from the core by plasma motion. Fundamental physical processes and scalings are described in a simplified analytic version of the model. The peak axisymmetric halo current is found to depend on halo and core plasma characteristics during the current quench, including machine and plasma dimensions, resistivities, safety factor, and vertical stability growth rate. Two extreme regimes in poloidal halo current amplitude are identified depending on the minimum halo safety factor reached during the disruption. A 'type I' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor that remains relatively high (typically 2 - 3, comparable to the predisruption safety factor), and a relatively low poloidal halo current. A 'type II' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor comparable to unity and a relatively high poloidal halo current. Model predictions for these two regimes are found to agree well with halo current measurements from vertical displacement event disruptions in DIII-D [T. S. Taylor, K. H. Burrell, D. R. Baker, G. L. Jackson, R. J. La Haye, M. A. Mahdavi, R. Prater, T. C. Simonen, and A. D. Turnbull, open-quotes Results from the DIII-D Scientific Research Program,close quotes in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Yokohama, 1998, to be published in

  17. America's Star Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  18. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  19. BVR PHOTOMETRY OF SUPERGIANT STARS IN HOLMBERG II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-J. Sohn

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the photometric properties in BVR bands for the resolved bright supergiant stars in the dwarf galaxy Holmberg II. The color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagram of 374 resolved stars indicate that the majority of the member stars are supergiant stars with a wide range of spectral type between B-K. A comparison with theoretical evolutionary tracks indicates that the supergiant stars in the observed field have progenitor masses between ~10M_⨀ and 20M_⨀. The exponent of luminosity function in V is in good agreement with those of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds.

  20. Luminous variable stars with naked eye: data reduction including extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    The observation of variable stars from urban contexts is hampered by city lights and field of view. Some bright stars like Betelgeuse and Antares are visible from the majority of cities, and during clear nights can be accurately estimated with the naked eye. The reference stars should be bright stars, not necessarily at the same altitude, including the atmospheric extinction in the data reduction. The software Stellarium 0.12.4 calculates well the standard atmospheric extinction with stars at least 10 degrees above the horizon. The accuracy of visual estimations is better than 0.1 magnitudes.

  1. Modeling Gyrosynchrotron Coronae of Radio-Loud Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Fast gyrosynchrotron codes are used to model the emission in close, active binary star systems. Multiple magnetic field topologies, plasma densities, and scale heights for the emitting plasma are tested for in an attempt to duplicate the emission characteristics detected using high-resolution VLBI imaging of the close active binaries UX Arietis and Algol. Also included are effects of occlusion by the companion star. It is found that a co-orbiting coronal loop oriented toward the companion star with its feet anchored on the poles of the active star is consistent with the observed emission from these two radio-loud stars.

  2. A survey for southern delta Scuti variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInally, C.J.; Austin, R.R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-nine field stars have been tested photoelectrically for short-period variability. Eighteen of these stars have spectral types between A2 and F5 and are not Am stars; of these, six have been discovered to be variable and one is a suspected variable. HD 185969, with a period of 0.361 day, has the longest known period for a star of the delta Scuti type. The predominance of discovered variables with amplitudes close to the detection limit is suggestive of most stars in the instability strip being pulsators. (author)

  3. Undercover Stars Among Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    events by monitoring the brightness of a very large number of stars over extended time intervals. During the past years, it has also included a search for periodic, very shallow "dips" in the brightness of stars, caused by the regular transit of small orbiting objects (small stars, brown dwarfs [2] or Jupiter-size planets). The OGLE team has since announced 177 "planetary transit candidates" from their survey of several hundred thousand stars in three southern sky fields, one in the direction of the Galactic Centre, another within the Carina constellation and the third within the Centaurus/Musca constellations. The nature of the transiting object can however only be established by subsequent radial-velocity observations of the parent star. The size of the velocity variations (the amplitude) is directly related to the mass of the companion object and therefore allows discrimination between stars and planets as the cause of the observed brightness "dip". A Bonanza of Low-Mass Stars An international team of astronomers [3] has made use of the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope for this work. Profiting from the multiplex capacity of the FLAMES/UVES facility that permits to obtain high-resolution spectra of up to 8 objects simultaneously, they have looked at 60 OGLE transit candidate stars, measuring their radial velocities with an accuracy of about 50 m/s [4]. This ambitious programme has so far resulted in the discovery of five new transiting exoplanets (see, e.g., ESO PR 11/04 for the announcement of two of those). Most of the other transit candidates identified by OGLE have turned out to be eclipsing binaries, that is, in most cases common, small and low-mass stars passing in front of a solar-like star. This additional wealth of data on small and light stars is a real bonanza for the astronomers. Constraining the Relation Between Mass and Radius Low-mass stars are exceptionally interesting objects, also because the physical conditions in their interiors have much in common with

  4. Relativistic stars in vector-tensor theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Ryotaro; Minamitsuji, Masato; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2018-04-01

    We study relativistic star solutions in second-order generalized Proca theories characterized by a U (1 )-breaking vector field with derivative couplings. In the models with cubic and quartic derivative coupling, the mass and radius of stars become larger than those in general relativity for negative derivative coupling constants. This phenomenon is mostly attributed to the increase of star radius induced by a slower decrease of the matter pressure compared to general relativity. There is a tendency that the relativistic star with a smaller mass is not gravitationally bound for a low central density and hence is dynamically unstable, but that with a larger mass is gravitationally bound. On the other hand, we show that the intrinsic vector-mode couplings give rise to general relativistic solutions with a trivial field profile, so the mass and radius are not modified from those in general relativity.

  5. Very massive stars in the local universe

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the status of research on very massive stars in the Universe. While it has been claimed that stars with over 100 solar masses existed in the very early Universe, recent studies have also discussed the existence and deaths of stars up to 300 solar masses in the local Universe. This represents a paradigm shift for the stellar upper-mass limit, which may have major implications far beyond the field of stellar physics. The book comprises 7 chapters, which describe this discipline and provide sufficient background and introductory content for graduate (PhD) students and researchers from different branches of astronomy to be able to enter this exciting new field of very massive stars.

  6. Star-Formation Histories of MUSCEL Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jason; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Xuesong Wang, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    The MUSCEL program (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies) uses combined ground-based/space-based data to determine the spatially resolved star-formation histories of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. LSB galaxies are paradoxical in that they are gas rich but have low star-formation rates. Here we present our observations and fitting technique, and the derived histories for select MUSCEL galaxies. It is our aim to use these histories in tandem with velocity fields and metallicity profiles to determine the physical mechanism(s) that give these faint galaxies low star-formation rates despite ample gas supplies.

  7. Hydrogen deficient stars and related objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunger, K.; Schoenberner, D.; Kameswara Rao, N.

    1986-01-01

    The central and most startling problem in the field of helium stars is how extreme helium stars are formed and how a star of one solar mass may get rid of all its original hydrogen. A few opposed hypotheses are known, but until now none of them have been very convincing. One of the aims of this book is to explore the various paths which may lead to a solution of the above problems, both theoretically and by means of new methods of observation. One of the points discussed, therefore, is whether the Hubble Space Telescope can be used to this end. (Auth.)

  8. Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Armond, Tina; Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located a...

  9. Implementing Maxwell's Aether Illuminates the Physics of Gravitation:. The Gravity-Electric (G-E) Field, Evident at Every Scale, From the Ionosphere to Spiral Galaxies and a Neutron-Star Extreme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    2013-09-01

    the means for displacing its local density exist; that, we show, is the nature of gravitational action and brings gravitation into the electromagnetic family of forces. Under (B) the particle mass is measured by the aether-sucking capability of its vortex, positiveonly gravitation being because the outward-diminishing force developed by each makes mutual convergence at any given point the statistically prevalent expectation. This activity maintains a radial aether (charge) density gradient - the Gravity-Electric (G-E) Field - around and within any gravitationally retained assemblage. So Newton's is an incomplete description of gravitation; the corresponding G-E field is an inseparable facet of the action. The effect on c of that charge density gradient yields gravitational lensing. We find that G-E field action on plasma is astronomically ubiquitous. This strictly radial outward force on ions has the property of increasing the orbital angular momentum of material, by moving it outwards, but at constant tangential velocity. Spiral galaxies no longer require Cold Dark Matter (CDM) to explain this. The force (maybe 30 V.m-1 at solar surface) has comprehensive relevance to the high orbital a.m. achieved during solar planet formation, to their prograde spins and to exoplanet observations. The growth of high-mass stars is impossible if radiation pressure rules, whereas G-E field repulsion is low during dust-opaque infall, driving their prodigious mass loss rates when infall ceases and the star establishes an ionized environment. Its biggest force-effect (~1012 V.m-1) is developed at neutron stars, where it is likely the force of supernova explosions, and leads to a fertile model for pulsars and the acceleration of 1019 eV extreme-energy cosmic rays. Our only directly observed measure of the G-E field is recorded at about 1 V.m-1 in the ionosphere-to-Earth electric potential. And temporary local changes of ionosphere electron density, monitored by radio and satellite, have

  10. A Transient Transit Signature Associated with the Young Star RIK-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Trevor J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Wang, Ji [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Petigura, Erik A.; Benneke, Björn [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie; Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California 94035 (United States); Cameron, Andrew Collier [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Stauffer, John R. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fulton, B. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Isaacson, Howard T. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hellier, Coel; Anderson, David R. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); West, Richard G.; Pollacco, Don, E-mail: tjd@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    We find transient transit-like dimming events within the K2 time series photometry of the young star RIK-210 in the Upper Scorpius OB association. These dimming events are variable in depth, duration, and morphology. High spatial resolution imaging revealed that the star is single and radial velocity monitoring indicated that the dimming events cannot be due to an eclipsing stellar or brown dwarf companion. Archival and follow-up photometry suggest the dimming events are transient in nature. The variable morphology of the dimming events suggests they are not due to a single spherical body. The ingress of each dimming event is always shallower than egress, as one would expect for an orbiting body with a leading tail. The dimming events are periodic and synchronous with the stellar rotation. However, we argue it is unlikely the dimming events could be attributed to anything on the stellar surface based on the observed depths and durations. Variable obscuration by a protoplanetary disk is unlikely on the basis that the star is not actively accreting and lacks the infrared excess associated with an inner disk. Rather, we explore the possibilities that the dimming events are due to magnetospheric clouds, a transiting protoplanet surrounded by circumplanetary dust and debris, eccentric orbiting bodies undergoing periodic tidal disruption, or an extended field of dust or debris near the corotation radius.

  11. Disruptive Innovation in Chinese and Indian Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    With the rapid development of China and India as new economic powers in global competition, an obvious question is whether these emerging economies are great opportunities or threats. Whilst answers are bound to differ depending on one's perspective, it is increasingly clear that more local firms...... sustainable. This unique book will be valuable to both scholars and practitioners interested in disruptive innovation and those working in the fields of Asian studies, international business, economics and globalization...

  12. Star distribution in the Orion spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharina, T.S.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Filippova, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the Orion spiral arm is studied by numerical experiments, assuming that in each direction considered the star distribution along the line of sight is a combination of two Gaussian laws. The corresponding parameters are evaluated for four Milky Way fields; the bimodal laws now fit the observations by the chi 2 criterion. In the Orion arm the line-of-sight star densities follow asymmetric curves, steeper at the outer edge of the arm

  13. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  14. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book

  15. General properties of magnetic CP stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagolevskij, Yu. V.

    2017-07-01

    We present the review of our previous studies related to observational evidence of the fossil field hypothesis of formation and evolution of magnetic and non-magnetic chemically peculiar stars. Analysis of the observed data shows that these stars acquire their main properties in the process of gravitational collapse. In the non-stationary Hayashi phase, a magnetic field becomes weakened and its configuration complicated, but the fossil field global orientation remains. After a non-stationary phase, relaxation of young star's tangled field takes place and by the time of joining ZAMS (Zero Age Main Sequence) it is generally restored to a dipole structure. Stability of dipole structures allows them to remain unchanged up to the end of their life on the Main Sequence which is 109 years at most.

  16. Can neutron stars have auroras ? : electromagnetic coupling process between neutron star and magnetized accretion disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Iwakiri, W. B.; Enoto, T.; Wada, T.; Tao, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the binary neutron star system, angular momentum transfer from accretion disk to a star is essential process for spin-up/down of stars. The angular momentum transfer has been well formulated for the accretion disk strongly magnetized by the neutron star [e.g., Ghosh and Lamb, 1978, 1979a, b]. However, the electromagnetic (EM) coupling between the neutron star and accretion disk has not been self-consistently solved in the previous studies although the magnetic field lines from the star are strongly tied with the accretion disk. In this study, we applied the planet-magnetosphere coupling process established for Jupiter [Hill, 1979] to the binary neutron star system. Angular momentum distribution is solved based on the torque balance between the neutron star's surface and accretion disk coupled by the magnetic field tensions. We found the EM coupling can transfer significantly larger fraction of the angular momentum from the magnetized accretion disk to the star than the unmagnetized case. The resultant spin-up rate is estimated to ~10^-14 [sec/sec] for the nominal binary system parameters, which is comparable with or larger than the other common spin-down/up processes: e.g., the magnetic dipole radiation spin-down. The Joule heating energy dissipated in the EM coupling is estimated to be up to ~10^36 [erg/sec] for the nominal binary system parameters. The release is comparable to that of gravitation energy directly caused by the matters accreting onto the neutron star. This suggests the EM coupling at the neutron star can accompany the observable radiation as auroras with a similar manner to those at the rotating planetary magnetospheres like Jupiter, Saturn, and other gas giants.

  17. THE FIRST STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whalen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pop III stars are the key to the character of primeval galaxies, the first heavy elements, the onset of cosmological reionization, and the seeds of supermassive black holes. Unfortunately, in spite of their increasing sophistication, numerical models of Pop III star formation cannot yet predict the masses of the first stars. Because they also lie at the edge of the observable universe, individual Pop III stars will remain beyond the reach of observatories for decades to come, and so their properties are unknown. However, it will soon be possible to constrain their masses by direct detection of their supernovae, and by reconciling their nucleosynthetic yields to the chemical abundances measured in ancient metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, some of which may bear the ashes of the first stars. Here, I review the state of the art in numerical simulations of primordial stars and attempts to directly and indirectly constrain their properties.

  18. Ponderable soliton stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.

  19. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to reproductive changes in boys in the Western world, however, less is known about influence of EDCs in women. The incidence of precocious breast development is increasing in USA and Europe and mammary gland development has been...... gland development before puberty in whole mounted mammary glands and in adults in histological sections of the mammary glands. Moreover, female offspring were evaluated for external genital malformations. The EDCs studied for mammary gland effects were the estrogenic compounds ethinyl estradiol...... were sensitive to EDCs. EDCs with estrogenic mode of action appeared to increase mammary outgrowth in prepubertal female rats and a potent model compound, ethinyl estradiol, increased the density in females and males and the number of terminal end buds in male rats. Histological examination showed...

  20. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  1. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Initial Results and Catalog from the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullaney, J. R.; Del-Moro, A.; Aird, J.

    2015-01-01

    field, although five of these are found to lie below our significance threshold once contaminating flux from neighboring (i.e., blended) sources is taken into account. Of the remaining 49 that are significant, 19 are detected in the 8–24 keV band. The8–24 to 3–8 keV band ratios of the 12 sources...

  2. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...

  3. BPS Skyrmions as neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The BPS Skyrme model has been demonstrated already to provide a physically intriguing and quantitatively reliable description of nuclear matter. Indeed, the model has both the symmetries and the energy–momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, and thus represents a field theoretic realization of the “liquid droplet” model of nuclear matter. In addition, the classical soliton solutions together with some obvious corrections (spin–isospin quantization, Coulomb energy, proton–neutron mass difference provide an accurate modeling of nuclear binding energies for heavier nuclei. These results lead to the rather natural proposal to try to describe also neutron stars by the BPS Skyrme model coupled to gravity. We find that the resulting self-gravitating BPS Skyrmions provide excellent results as well as some new perspectives for the description of bulk properties of neutron stars when the parameter values of the model are extracted from nuclear physics. Specifically, the maximum possible mass of a neutron star before black-hole formation sets in is a few solar masses, the precise value of which depends on the precise values of the model parameters, and the resulting neutron star radius is of the order of 10 km.

  4. Star Formation in low mass galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang

    2018-01-01

    Our current hierarchical view of the universe asserts that the large galaxies we see today grew via mergers of numerous smaller galaxies. As evidenced by recent literature, the collective impact of these low mass galaxies on the universe is more substantial than previously thought. Studying the growth and evolution of these low mass galaxies is critical to our understanding of the universe as a whole. Star formation is one of the most important ongoing processes in galaxies. Forming stars is fundamental to the growth of a galaxy. One of the main goals of my thesis is to analyze the star formation in these low mass galaxies at different redshifts.Using the Hubble UltraViolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF), I investigate the star formation in galaxies at the peak of the cosmic star formation history using the ultraviolet (UV) light as a star formation indicator. Particularly, I measure the UV luminosity function (LF) to probe the volume-averaged star formation properties of galaxies at these redshifts. The depth of the UVUDF is ideal for a direct measurement of the faint end slope of the UV LF. This redshift range also provides a unique opportunity to directly compare UV to the "gold standard" of star formation indicators, namely the Hα nebular emission line. A joint analysis of the UV and Hα LFs suggests that, on average, the star formation histories in low mass galaxies (~109 M⊙) are more bursty compared to their higher mass counterparts at these redshifts.Complementary to the analysis of the average star formation properties of the bulk galaxy population, I investigate the details of star formation in some very bursty galaxies at lower redshifts selected from Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime Cam (SPLASH). Using a broadband color-excess selection technique, I identify a sample of low redshift galaxies with bright nebular emission lines in the Subaru-XMM Deep Field (SXDF) from the SPLASH-SXDF catalog. These galaxies are highly star forming and have

  5. The superluminous transient ASASSN-15lh as a tidal disruption event from a Kerr black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloudas, G.; Fraser, M.; Stone, N. C.; van Velzen, S.; Jonker, P. G.; Arcavi, I.; Fremling, C.; Maund, J. R.; Smartt, S. J.; Krìhler, T.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Mazzali, P. A.; De Cia, A.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Patat, F.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Yaron, O.; Ashall, C.; Bar, I.; Campbell, H.; Chen, T.-W.; Childress, M.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harmanen, J.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Johansson, J.; Kangas, T.; Kankare, E.; Kim, S.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Lyman, J.; Magee, M. R.; Maguire, K.; Malesani, D.; Mattila, S.; McCully, C. V.; Nicholl, M.; Prentice, S.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Schulze, S.; Smith, K. W.; Sollerman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Tucker, B. E.; Valenti, S.; Wheeler, J. C.; Young, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    When a star passes within the tidal radius of a supermassive black hole, it will be torn apart1. For a star with the mass of the Sun (M ⊙) and a non-spinning black hole with a mass 108 M ⊙ 12,13, a star with the same mass as the Sun could be disrupted outside the event horizon if the black hole were spinning rapidly14. The rapid spin and high black hole mass can explain the high luminosity of this event.

  6. Radio observations of candidate magnetic O stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnerr, R.S.; Rygl, K.L.J.; Oosterloo, T.A.; Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Henrichs, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    A number of O stars are suspected to have (weak) magnetic fields because of the observed cyclical variability in their UV wind-lines. However, direct detections of these magnetic fields with optical spectropolarimetry have proven to be very difficult. We have searched for non-thermal radio emission,

  7. Neutron Star Physics in the Square Kilometre Array Era: An Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutron stars: generation, population, EoS, magnetic fields; radio pulsar: emission; radio pulsars: gravitational waves. ... the evolution of neutron stars in binaries and the magnetic fields, (d) the neutron star equation of state, (e) the radio pulsar emission mechanism, and (f) the radio pulsars as probes of gravitational physics.

  8. Period Changes and Evolution in Pulsating Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, H. R.; Percy, J. R.; Smith, H. A.

    2016-12-01

    We review ways in which observations of the changing periods of pulsating variable stars can be used to detect and directly measure their evolution. We briefly describe the two main techniques of analysis-(O-C) analysis and wavelet analysis - and results for pulsating variable star types which are reasonably periodic: type I and II Cepheids, RR Lyrae stars, beta Cephei stars, and Mira stars. We comment briefly on delta Scuti stars and pulsating white dwarfs. For some of these variable star types, observations agree approximately with the predictions of evolutionary models, but there still exist significant areas of disagreement that challenge future models of stellar evolution. There may be a need, for instance, to include processes such as rotation, mass loss, and magnetic fields. There may also be non-evolutionary processes which are contributing to the period changes.

  9. Tidal breakup of triple stars in the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Gualandris, Alessia

    2018-04-01

    The last decade has seen the detection of fast moving stars in the Galactic halo, the so-called hypervelocity stars (HVSs). While the bulk of this population is likely the result of a close encounter between a stellar binary and the supermassive black hole (MBH) in the Galactic Centre (GC), other mechanims may contribute fast stars to the sample. Few observed HVSs show apparent ages, which are shorter than the flight time from the GC, thereby making the binary disruption scenario unlikely. These stars may be the result of the breakup of a stellar triple in the GC, which led to the ejection of a hypervelocity binary (HVB). If such binary evolves into a blue straggler star due to internal processes after ejection, a rejuvenation is possible that make the star appear younger once detected in the halo. A triple disruption may also be responsible for the presence of HVBs, of which one candidate has now been observed. We present a numerical study of triple disruptions by the MBH in the GC and find that the most likely outcomes are the production of single HVSs and single/binary stars bound to the MBH, while the production of HVBs has a probability ≲ 1 per cent regardless of the initial parameters. Assuming a triple fraction of ≈ 10 per cent results in an ejection rate of ≲ 1 Gyr - 1, insufficient to explain the sample of HVSs with lifetimes shorter than their flight time. We conclude that alternative mechanisms are responsible for the origin of such objects and HVBs in general.

  10. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  11. Massive Star Burps, Then Explodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    event was a complete surprise," added Alex Filippenko, leader of the UC Berkeley/Keck supernova group and a member of NASA'S Swift team. "It opens up a fascinating new window on how some kinds of stars die." All the observations suggest that the supernova's blast wave took only a few weeks to reach the shell of material ejected two years earlier, which did not have time to drift very far from the star. As the wave smashed into the ejecta, it heated the gas to millions of degrees, hot enough to emit copious X-rays. The Swift satellite saw the supernova continue to brighten in X-rays for 100 days, something that has never been seen before in a supernova. All supernovae previously observed in X-rays have started off bright and then quickly faded to invisibility. "You don't need a lot of mass in the ejecta to produce a lot of X-rays," notes Immler. Swift's ability to monitor the supernova's X-ray rise and decline over six months was crucial to his team's mass determination. But he adds that Chandra's sharp resolution enabled his group to resolve the supernova from a bright X-ray source that appears in the field of view of Swift's X-ray Telescope. "We could not have made this measurement without Chandra," says Immler, who will submit his team's paper next week to the Astrophysical Journal. "The synergy between Swift's fast response and its ability to observe a supernova every day for a long period, and Chandra's high spatial resolution, is leading to a lot of interesting results." Foley and his colleagues, whose paper appears in the March 10 Astrophysical Journal Letters, propose that the star recently transitioned from a Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) star to a Wolf-Rayet star. An LBV is a massive star in a brief but unstable phase of stellar evolution. Similar to the 2004 eruption, LBVs are prone to blow off large amounts of mass in outbursts so extreme that they are frequently mistaken for supernovae, events dubbed "supernova impostors." Wolf-Rayet stars are hot, highly

  12. Dark stars: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  13. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    left after a massive star explodes as a supernova at the end of its life. The pulsars in Terzan 5 are the product of a complex history. The stars in the cluster formed about 10 billion years ago, the astronomers say. Some of the most massive stars in the cluster exploded and left the neutron stars as their remnants after only a few million years. Normally, these neutron stars would no longer be seen as swiftly-rotating pulsars: their spin would have slowed because of the "drag" of their intense magnetic fields until the "lighthouse" effect is no longer observable. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) However, the dense concentration of stars in the cluster gave new life to the pulsars. In the core of a globular cluster, as many as a million stars may be packed into a volume that would fit easily between the Sun and our nearest neighbor star. In such close quarters, stars can pass near enough to form new binary pairs, split apart such pairs, and binary systems even can trade partners, like an elaborate cosmic square dance. When a neutron star pairs up with a "normal" companion star, its strong gravitational pull can draw material off the companion onto the neutron star. This also transfers some of the companion's spin, or angular momentum, to the neutron star, thereby "recycling" the neutron star into a rapidly-rotating millisecond pulsar. In Terzan 5, all the pulsars discovered are rotating rapidly as a result of this process. Astronomers previously had discovered three pulsars in Terzan 5, some 28,000 light-years distant in the constellation Sagittarius, but suspected there were more. On July 17, 2004, Ransom and his colleagues used the GBT, and, in a 6-hour observation, found 14 new pulsars, the most ever found in a single observation. "This was possible because of the great sensitivity of the GBT and the new capabilities of our backend processor," said Ingrid Stairs, a professor at the

  14. Demonstrating the likely neutron star nature of five M31 globular cluster sources with Swift-NuSTAR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.; Yukita, Mihoko; Hornschemeier, Ann

    2016-01-01

    for which neutron stars are in hard states. We show that these two sources are likely to be Z-sources (i.e. low magnetic field neutron stars accreting near their Eddington limits), or perhaps bright atoll sources (low magnetic field neutron stars which are just a bit fainter than this level) on the basis...... are also likely to be bright neutron star X-ray binaries, rather than black hole X-ray binaries. We discuss why it should already have been realized that it was unlikely that these objects were black holes on the basis of their being persistent sources, and we re-examine past work which suggested...

  15. Is molecular gas necessary for star formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.

    2012-03-01

    On galactic scales, the surface density of star formation appears to be well correlated with the surface density of molecular gas. This has led many authors to suggest that there exists a causal relationship between the chemical state of the gas and its ability to form stars - in other words, the assumption that the gas must be molecular before star formation can occur. We test this hypothesis by modelling star formation within a dense cloud of gas with properties similar to a small molecular cloud using a series of different models of the chemistry, ranging from one in which the formation of molecules is not followed and the gas is assumed to remain atomic throughout, to one that tracks the formation of both H2 and CO. We find that the presence of molecules in the gas has little effect on the ability of the gas to form stars: star formation can occur just as easily in atomic gas as in molecular gas. At low densities (makeup, we find that the most important factor controlling the rate of star formation is the ability of the gas to shield itself from the interstellar radiation field. As this is also a prerequisite for the survival of molecules within the gas, our results support a picture in which molecule formation and the formation of cold gas are both correlated with the column density of the cloud - and thus its ability to shield itself - rather than being directly correlated with each other.

  16. Star Tracker Performance Estimate with IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Swank, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A software tool for estimating cross-boresight error of a star tracker combined with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was developed to support trade studies for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication project (iROC) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center. Typical laser communication systems, such as the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD), use a beacon to locate ground stations. iROC is investigating the use of beaconless precision laser pointing to enable laser communication at Mars orbits and beyond. Precision attitude knowledge is essential to the iROC mission to enable high-speed steering of the optical link. The preliminary concept to achieve this precision attitude knowledge is to use star trackers combined with an IMU. The Star Tracker Accuracy (STAcc) software was developed to rapidly assess the capabilities of star tracker and IMU configurations. STAcc determines the overall cross-boresight error of a star tracker with an IMU given the characteristic parameters: quantum efficiency, aperture, apparent star magnitude, exposure time, field of view, photon spread, detector pixels, spacecraft slew rate, maximum stars used for quaternion estimation, and IMU angular random walk. This paper discusses the supporting theory used to construct STAcc, verification of the program and sample results.

  17. PROGRESSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE YOUNG GALACTIC SUPER STAR CLUSTER NGC 3603

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccari, Giacomo; Spezzi, Loredana; De Marchi, Guido; Andersen, Morten; Paresce, Francesco; Young, Erick; Panagia, Nino; Bond, Howard; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, C. Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Saha, Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    Early Release Science observations of the cluster NGC 3603 with the WFC3 on the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope allow us to study its recent star formation history. Our analysis focuses on stars with Hα excess emission, a robust indicator of their pre-main sequence (PMS) accreting status. The comparison with theoretical PMS isochrones shows that 2/3 of the objects with Hα excess emission have ages from 1 to 10 Myr, with a median value of 3 Myr, while a surprising 1/3 of them are older than 10 Myr. The study of the spatial distribution of these PMS stars allows us to confirm their cluster membership and to statistically separate them from field stars. This result establishes unambiguously for the first time that star formation in and around the cluster has been ongoing for at least 10-20 Myr, at an apparently increasing rate.

  18. Echoes from a Dying Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    When a passing star is torn apart by a supermassive black hole, it emits a flare of X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical light. What can we learn from the infrared echo of a violent disruption like this one?Stellar DestructionOptical (black triangles) and infrared (blue circles and red squares) observations of F010042237. Day 0 marks the day the optical emission peaked. The infrared emission rises steadily through the end of the data. [Dou et al. 2017]Tidal disruption events occur when a star passes within the tidal radius of a supermassive black hole. After tidal forces pull the star apart, much of the stellar matter falls onto the black hole, radiating briefly in X-ray, ultraviolet and optical as it accretes. This signature rise and gradual fall of emission has allowed us to detect dozens of tidal disruption events thus far.One of the recently discovered candidate events is a little puzzling. Not only does the candidate in ultraluminous infrared galaxy F010042237 have an unusual host most disruptions occur in galaxies that are no longer star-forming, in contrast to this one but its optical light curve also shows an unusually long decay time.Now mid-infrared observations of this event have beenpresented by a team of scientists led by Liming Dou (Guangzhou University and Department of Education, Guangdong Province, China), revealing why this disruption is behaving unusually.Schematic of a convex dusty ring (red bows) that absorbs UV photons and re-emits in the infrared. It simultaneously scatters UV and optical photons into our line of sight. The dashed lines illustrate the delays at lags of 60 days, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. [Adapted from Dou et al. 2017]A Dusty Solution?The optical flare from F010042237s nucleus peaked in 2010, so Dou and collaborators obtained archival mid-infrared data from the WISE and NEOWISE missions from 2010 to 2016. The data show that the galaxy is quiescent in mid-infrared in 2010 but in data from three years later, the infrared emission has

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Young star groups in NGC 300 (Rodriguez+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M. J.; Baume, G.; Feinstein, C.

    2016-08-01

    Fundamental characteristics of 1147 young star groups identified in 6 ACS/WFC fields of the galaxy NGC 300. For each group: field of the ACS/WFC, equatorial coordinates, radius, number of stars (the suffix bri indicates bright stars with F555W<25, the suffix dct indicate stars belonging to the decontaminated region, the suffixes blue and red refer to blue and red stars respectively), the magnitude of the brightest star in the group, PDMF slope with its error, and galactocentric distance. (1 data file).

  20. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.