WorldWideScience

Sample records for field diagnostic tool

  1. Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for geomagnetic field variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic indices like Dst, K and A, have been used since the early twentieth century to characterize activity in the external part of the modern geomagnetic field and as a diagnostic for space weather. These indices reflect regional and global activity and serve as a proxy for associated physical processes. However, no such tools are yet available for the internal geomagnetic field driven by the geodynamo in Earth's liquid outer core. To some extent this reflects limited spatial and temporal sampling for longer timescales associated with paleomagnetic secular variation, but recent efforts in both paleomagnetic data gathering and modeling activity suggest that longer term characterization of the internal geomagnetic weather/climate and its variability would be useful. Specifically, we propose an index for activity in paleosecular variation, useful as both a local and global measure of field stability during so-called normal secular variation and as a means of identifying more extreme behavior associated with geomagnetic excursions and reversals. To date, geomagnetic excursions have been identified by virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) deviating more than some conventional limit from the geographic pole (often 45 degrees), and/or by periods of significant intensity drops below some critical value, for example 50% of the present-day field. We seek to establish a quantitative definition of excursions in paleomagnetic records by searching for synchronous directional deviations and lows in relative paleointensity. We combine paleointensity variations with deviations from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination in a single parameter, which we call the paleosecular variation (PSV) activity index. This new diagnostic can be used on any geomagnetic time series (individual data records, model predictions, spherical harmonic coefficients, etc.) to characterize the level of paleosecular variation activity, find excursions, or even study incipient reversals

  2. Reversed field pinch diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP

  3. Diagnostic tools in ocular allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, A; Doan, S; Fauquert, J L; Bozkurt, B; Allegri, P; Marmouz, F; Rondon, C; Jedrzejczak, M; Hellings, P; Delgado, L; Calder, V

    2017-10-01

    Ocular allergy (OA) includes a group of common and less frequent hypersensitivity disorders frequently misdiagnosed and not properly managed. The diagnosis of OA is usually based on clinical history and signs and symptoms, with the support of in vivo and in vitro tests when identification of the specific allergen is required. To date, no specific test is available for the diagnosis of the whole spectrum of the different forms of OA. The lack of recommendations on diagnosis of OA is considered a medical need not only for allergists but also for ophthalmologists. This position paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the currently available tools for diagnosing OA to promote a common nomenclature and procedures to be used by different specialists. Questionnaires, sign and symptom grading scales, tests, and potential biomarkers for OA are reviewed. We also identified several unmet needs in the diagnostic tools to generate interest, increase understanding, and inspire further investigations. Tools, recommendations, and algorithms for the diagnosis of OA are proposed for use by both allergists and ophthalmologists. Several unmet needs in the diagnostic tools should be further improved by specific clinical research in OA. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  4. Usefulness of a Small-Field Digital Mammographic Imaging System Using Parabolic Polycapillary Optics as a Diagnostic Imaging Tool: a Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon, Kwon Su; Park, Jeong Gon; Son, Hyun Hwa; Kang, Sung Hoon; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hye Won; Kim, Hun Soo; Yoon, Kwon Ha

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy for spatial resolution and radiation dose of a small-field digital mammographic imaging system using parabolic polycapillary optics. We developed a small-field digital mammographic imaging system composed of a CCD (charge coupled device) detector and an Xray source coupled with parabolic polycapillary optics. The spatial resolution and radiation dose according to various filters were evaluated for a small-field digital mammographic imaging system. The images of a test standard phantom and breast cancer tissue sample were obtained. The small-field digital mammographic imaging system had spatial resolutions of 12 lp/mm with molybdenum and rhodium filters with a 25-μm thickness. With a thicker molybdenum filter (100 μm thick), the system had a higher spatial resolution of 11 lp/mm and contrast of 0.48. The radiation dose for a rhodium filter with a 25-μm thickness was 0.13 mGy within a 10-mm-diameter local field. A larger field image greater than 10 mm in diameter could be obtained by scanning an object. On the small-field mammographic imaging system, microcalcifications of breast cancer tissue were clearly observed. A small-field digital mammographic imaging system with parabolic polycapillary optics may be a useful diagnostic tool for providing high-resolution imaging with a low radiation dose for examination of local volumes of breast tissue

  5. Usefulness of a Small-Field Digital Mammographic Imaging System Using Parabolic Polycapillary Optics as a Diagnostic Imaging Tool: a Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chon, Kwon Su [Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Gon; Son, Hyun Hwa; Kang, Sung Hoon; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hye Won; Kim, Hun Soo; Yoon, Kwon Ha [Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate the efficacy for spatial resolution and radiation dose of a small-field digital mammographic imaging system using parabolic polycapillary optics. We developed a small-field digital mammographic imaging system composed of a CCD (charge coupled device) detector and an Xray source coupled with parabolic polycapillary optics. The spatial resolution and radiation dose according to various filters were evaluated for a small-field digital mammographic imaging system. The images of a test standard phantom and breast cancer tissue sample were obtained. The small-field digital mammographic imaging system had spatial resolutions of 12 lp/mm with molybdenum and rhodium filters with a 25-{mu}m thickness. With a thicker molybdenum filter (100 {mu}m thick), the system had a higher spatial resolution of 11 lp/mm and contrast of 0.48. The radiation dose for a rhodium filter with a 25-{mu}m thickness was 0.13 mGy within a 10-mm-diameter local field. A larger field image greater than 10 mm in diameter could be obtained by scanning an object. On the small-field mammographic imaging system, microcalcifications of breast cancer tissue were clearly observed. A small-field digital mammographic imaging system with parabolic polycapillary optics may be a useful diagnostic tool for providing high-resolution imaging with a low radiation dose for examination of local volumes of breast tissue.

  6. Diagnostic Tools of Pleural Effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusion is not a rare disease in Korea. The diagnosis of pleural effusion is very difficult, even though the patients often complain of typical symptoms indicating of pleural diseases. Pleural effusion is characterized by the pleural cavity filled with transudative or exudative pleural fluids, and it is developed by various etiologies. The presence of pleural effusion can be confirmed by radiological studies including simple chest radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography. Identifying the causes of pleural effusions by pleural fluid analysis is essential for proper treatments. This review article provides information on the diagnostic approaches of pleural effusions and further suggested ways to confirm their various etiologies, by using the most recent journals for references. PMID:24920946

  7. Diagnostics of vector magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the vector magnetic fields derived from observations with a filter magnetograph will be severely distorted if the spatially unresolved magnetic structure is not properly accounted for. Thus the apparent vector field will appear much more horizontal than it really is, but this distortion is strongly dependent on the area factor and the temperature line weakenings. As the available fluxtube models are not sufficiently well determined, it is not possible to correct the filter magnetograph observations for these effects in a reliable way, although a crude correction is of course much better than no correction at all. The solution to this diagnostic problem is to observe simultaneously in suitable combinations of spectral lines, and/or use Stokes line profiles recorded with very high spectral resolution. The diagnostic power of using a Fourier transform spectrometer for polarimetry is shown and some results from I and V spectra are illustrated. The line asymmetries caused by mass motions inside the fluxtubes adds an extra complication to the diagnostic problem, in particular as there are indications that the motions are nonstationary in nature. The temperature structure appears to be a function of fluxtube diameter, as a clear difference between plage and network fluxtubes was revealed. The divergence of the magnetic field with height plays an essential role in the explanation of the Stokes V asymmetries (in combination with the mass motions). A self consistent treatment of the subarcsec field geometry may be required to allow an accurate derivation of the spatially averaged vector magnetic field from spectrally resolved data.

  8. Heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) diagnostics as a tool for investigations into the plasma turbulence and the local electric field of dense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnik, L.I.; Chmyga, A.A.; Komarov, A.D.; Kozachok, A.S.; Zhezhera, A.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, 310108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Melnikov, A.V.; Eliseev, L.G.; Lysenko, S.E.; Mavrin, V.A.; Perfilov, S.V. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Hidalgo, C.; Ascasibar, E.; Estrada, T.; Liniers, M.; Ochando, M.A.; Pablos, J.L. de; Pedrosa, M.A.; Tabares, F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    One of essential achievements of the Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostics is the possibility to use it for investigation of plasma confinement by measuring the fluctuations of electric field and plasma density; the method is based on the important role of the plasma electric fields. Both edge and core transport barriers are related to a large increase in the E*B sheared flows in a fusion device. In the TJ-II stellarator the HIBP diagnostics has recently been upgraded for two-point measurements with a good spatial (1 cm) and temporal (10 {mu}s) resolution of the plasma electric potential and density, as well as their fluctuations and poloidal component of electric field, E{sub p} equals ({phi}1 - {phi}2)/{Delta}r [V/cm]; these data give chance to extract the radial turbulent particle flux: {Gamma}(r) equals {Gamma}(Epol*Btor) equals {Gamma}(E*B). (authors)

  9. Diagnostic tools based on minor groove binder probe technology for rapid identification of vaccinal and field strains of canine parvovirus type 2b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Tempesta, Maria; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2006-12-01

    TaqMan-based diagnostic tests have been developed for the identification of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) strains in the faeces of dogs with diarrhoea, including a minor groove binder (MGB) probe assay for identification of type 2-based vaccines and field strains (types 2a, 2b and 2c). Since type 2b vaccines have been licensed recently in Europe, two novel MGB assays were developed for discrimination between type 2b vaccines and field strains of CPV. Such assays have been found to be highly sensitive, specific and reproducible, allowing for simultaneous detection of type 2b vaccinal and field strains present in the same specimens. These new assays will help resolution of the diagnostic problems related to the detection of a type 2b strain in the faeces of dogs shortly after the administration of a type 2b vaccine.

  10. Field Audit Checklist Tool (FACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download EPA's The Field Audit Checklist Tool (FACT). FACT is intended to help auditors perform field audits, to easily view monitoring plan, quality assurance and emissions data and provides access to data collected under MATS.

  11. Comparing Diagnostic Tools in Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel AKGUN AKTAS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Personality Disorder is defined as; continually self experience and behavioral pattern which has great variations of individual cultural normal expectations. Several diagnostic tools were developed for diagnosing personality disorders. In our study consistency of different diagnostic tools used for thhe diagnosis of personality disorders were evaluated. 39 inpatients diagnosed as personality disorder from Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Traning and Reseach Hospital were recruited into the study. Psychotic patients are excluded from the study. Sociodemographic Information Form, MMPI and PBQ scales were given all the patients. Both PBQ personality subscales and MMPI PD scales were compared with semi-structured SCID-II interview diagnoses. Findings suggest less correlation than expected. Relatively higher correlation was found between PBQ personality subscales and MMPI-PD. Most common psychiatric comorbid disorder was depression. These findings suggest that further studies are needed for the development of diagnostic tools which take the differences of self report scales and clinical evalution into consideration. Beside, the differences of the categorical and dimensional classification of personality disorders should be bear in mind in evaluation of this patient group. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 22-27

  12. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR.

  13. Acute-phase proteins: As diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The varied reactions of the host to infection, inflammation, or trauma are collectively known as the acute-phase response and encompass a wide range of pathophysiological responses such as pyrexia, leukocytosis, hormone alterations, and muscle protein depletion combining to minimize tissue damage while enhancing the repair process. The mechanism for stimulation of hepatic production of acute-phase proteins is by proinflammatory cytokines. The functions of positive acute-phase proteins (APP are regarded as important in optimization and trapping of microorganism and their products, in activating the complement system, in binding cellular remnants like nuclear fractions, in neutralizing enzymes, scavenging free hemoglobin and radicals, and in modulating the host′s immune response. APP can be used as diagnostic tool in many diseases like bovine respiratory syncytial virus, prostate cancer, bronchopneumonia, multiple myeloma, mastitis, Streptococcus suis infection, starvation, or lymphatic neoplasia. Thus, acute-phase proteins may provide an alternative means of monitoring animal health.

  14. Synchrotron radiation from magnetic undulators as a prospective diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbini, R.; Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Torre, A.; Ginnessi, L.

    1989-01-01

    The brightness of the radiation emitted by an ultrarelativistic e-beam passing through a magnetic undulator is sensitive to the beam quality (namely, energy spread and emittances) and to the undulator characteristics (i.e., possible random errors both in intensity and direction of magnetization, etc.) The spectrum distortion induced by the above effects and the possibility of using the undulator radiation as a diagnostic tool is discussed. Finally the importance of near-field effects when the radiation is detectedunfocussed off-axis and how they can combine with the effects induced by the beam emittances to produced a larger on-axis inhomogeneous broadening

  15. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  16. Incoherent Thomson scattering as a diagnostic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wavelength is much smaller than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  17. Pharmaceutical care and the use of routine diagnostic tools by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of routine diagnostic tools among community pharmacists in Ibadan,. Nigeria. ... measurement, and tests for serum cholesterol, capillary .... Development .... Duweijua M, Dodoo A, Plange R. Quality Counseling on.

  18. Highly polymorphic RFLP probes as diagnostic tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donis-Keller, H.; Barker, D.F.; Knowlton, R.G.; Schumm, J.W.; Braman, J.C.; Green, P.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the identification of highly polymorphic RFLP loci and their application to genotyping in humans and to mapping the CF gene to chromosome 7. We also report the construction of a high-resolution genetic map of chromosome 7 and summarize progress toward the development of a presymptomatic diagnostic test for CF that should be useful in virtually every case. 25 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  19. Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chavira, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henfling, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hetmaniak, Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huey, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jacobson, Ron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); King, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knudsen, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mansure, A. J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Polsky, Yarom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report documents work performed in the second phase of the Diagnostics While-Drilling (DWD) project in which a high-temperature (HT) version of the phase 1 low-temperature (LT) proof-of-concept (POC) DWD tool was built and tested. Descriptions of the design, fabrication and field testing of the HT tool are provided.

  20. Trace element analysis: a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Cheema, M.N.

    1976-09-01

    The human mody continuously assimilates a variety of elements from the environment, and the concentration of these elements in the blood is regulated by means of various homeostatic mechanisms. Some of the elements, though present in very small amounts, have highly specialized functions in initiating many biochemical reactions. These elements, known as essential trace elements, are closely related to human diseases since their deficiency or excess induces physiological changes. Many diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc., are related to an imbalance in trace element. The measurement of trace elements in body fluids and tissues can, therefore, be effectively employed for diagnostic tests

  1. Field-based systems and advanced diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryurek, E.

    1998-01-01

    Detection and characterization of anomalies in an industrial plant provide improved plant availability and plant efficiency thus yielding increased economic efficiency. Traditionally, detection of process anomalies is done at a high-level control system through various signal validation methods. These signal validation techniques rely on data from transmitters, which measure related process variables. Correlating these signals and deducing anomalies often is a very time consuming and a difficult task. Delays in detecting these anomalies can be costly during plant operation. Conventional centralized approaches also suffer from their dependence on detailed mathematical models of the processes. Smart field devices have the advantage of providing the necessary information directly to the control system as anomalies develop during operation of the processes enabling operators to take necessary steps to either prevent an unnecessary shut down before the problem becomes serious or schedule maintenance on the problematic loop. Fisher-Rosemount's PlantWeb TM architecture addresses 'Enhanced Measurement, Advanced Diagnostics and Control in the Field'. PlantWeb TM builds open process management systems by networking intelligent field devices, scalable control and systems platforms, and integrated modular software. A description of PlantWeb TM and how it improves various process conditions and reduces operating cost of a plant as well as a high level description of 'Enhanced Measurement, Advanced Diagnostics and Control in the Field', will be provided in this paper. PlantWeb TM is the trademark for Fisher-Rosemount's new field-based architecture that uses emerging technologies to utilize the power of intelligent field devices and deliver critical process and equipment information to improve plant performance. (author)

  2. Alien wavelength modeling tool and field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, N.; Sgambelluri, A.; Secondini, M.

    2015-01-01

    A modeling tool is presented for pre-FEC BER estimation of PM-QPSK alien wavelength signals. A field trial is demonstrated and used as validation of the tool's correctness. A very close correspondence between the performance of the field trial and the one predicted by the modeling tool has been...

  3. Evaluating online diagnostic decision support tools for the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Marie; White, David; Potter, Bronwyn; Traill, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Clinical decision support tools available at the point of care are an effective adjunct to support clinicians to make clinical decisions and improve patient outcomes. We developed a methodology and applied it to evaluate commercially available online clinical diagnostic decision support (DDS) tools for use at the point of care. We identified 11 commercially available DDS tools and assessed these against an evaluation instrument that included 6 categories; general information, content, quality control, search, clinical results and other features. We developed diagnostically challenging clinical case scenarios based on real patient experience that were commonly missed by junior medical staff. The evaluation was divided into 2 phases; an initial evaluation of all identified and accessible DDS tools conducted by the Clinical Information Access Portal (CIAP) team and a second phase that further assessed the top 3 tools identified in the initial evaluation phase. An evaluation panel consisting of senior and junior medical clinicians from NSW Health conducted the second phase. Of the eleven tools that were assessed against the evaluation instrument only 4 tools completely met the DDS definition that was adopted for this evaluation and were able to produce a differential diagnosis. From the initial phase of the evaluation 4 DDS tools scored 70% or more (maximum score 96%) for the content category, 8 tools scored 65% or more (maximum 100%) for the quality control category, 5 tools scored 65% or more (maximum 94%) for the search category, and 4 tools score 70% or more (maximum 81%) for the clinical results category. The second phase of the evaluation was focused on assessing diagnostic accuracy for the top 3 tools identified in the initial phase. Best Practice ranked highest overall against the 6 clinical case scenarios used. Overall the differentiating factor between the top 3 DDS tools was determined by diagnostic accuracy ranking, ease of use and the confidence and

  4. LIFDAR: A Diagnostic Tool for the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, O. E.; Rodgers, C. T.; Batholomew, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    ITT Corporation proposes a novel system to measure and monitor the ion species within the Earth's ionosphere called Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection and Ranging (LIFDAR). Unlike current ionosphere measurements that detect electrons and magnetic field, LIFDAR remotely measures the major contributing ion species to the electron plasma. The LIFDAR dataset has the added capability to demonstrate stratification and classification of the layers of the ionosphere to ultimately give a true tomographic view. We propose a proof of concept study using existing atmospheric LIDAR sensors combined with a mountaintop observatory for a single ion species that is prevalent in all layers of the atmosphere. We envision the LIFDAR concept will enable verification, validation, and exploration of the physics of the magneto-hydrodynamic models used in ionosphere forecasting community. The LIFDAR dataset will provide the necessary ion and electron density data for the system wide data gap. To begin a proof of concept, we present the science justification of the LIFDAR system based on the model photon budget. This analysis is based on the fluorescence of ionized oxygen within the ionosphere versus altitude. We use existing model abundance data of the ionosphere during normal and perturbed states. We propagate the photon uncertainties from the laser source through the atmosphere to the plasma and back to the collecting optics and detector. We calculate the expected photon budget to determine signal to noise estimates based on the targeted altitude and detection efficiency. Finally, we use these results to derive a LIFDAR observation strategy compatible with operational parameters.

  5. Molecular diagnostics of inflammatory disease: New tools and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzorz-Stark, Natalie; Lauffer, Felix

    2017-08-01

    This essay reviews current approaches to establish novel molecular diagnostic tools for inflammatory skin diseases. Moreover, it highlights the importance of stratifying patients according to molecular signatures and revising current outdated disease classification systems to eventually reach the goal of personalized medicine. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Diagnosing Chronic Pancreatitis Comparison and Evaluation of Different Diagnostic Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Yama; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; van Dieren, Susan; Besselink, Marc G.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Ahmed Ali, Usama

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to compare theM-ANNHEIM, Buchler, and Luneburg diagnostic tools for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the development of CP was performed in a prospectively collected multicenter cohort including 669 patients after a first episode of acute

  7. A diagnostic tool on time perception of children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gongsook, P.; Peijnenborgh, J.; Sallustro, C.; Spek, van der E.D.; Hu, J.; Bellotti, F.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Hendriksen, J.G.M.; De Gloria, A.

    2014-01-01

    ADHD is among the most common childhood developmental disorder which may affect the school achievements. Children with ADHD may show symptoms of time perception problems. Although ADHD is a clinical diagnosis with several approaches, no diagnostic tool has been designed to detect the symptoms of

  8. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease. PMID:27143822

  9. Diagnosis demystified: CT as diagnostic tool in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shruthi, Nagaraja; Sreenivasa Murthy, B V; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis in endodontics is usually based on clinical and radiographical presentations, which are only empirical methods. The role of healing profession is to apply knowledge and skills towards maintaining and restoring the patient's health. Recent advances in imaging technologies have added to correct interpretation and diagnosis. CT is proving to be an effective tool in solving endodontic mysteries through its three-dimensional visualisation. CT imaging offers many diagnostic advantages to produce reconstructed images in selected projection and low-contrast resolution far superior to that of all other X-ray imaging modalities. This case report is an endeavour towards effective treatment planning of cases with root fracture, root resorption using spiral CT as an adjuvant diagnostic tool. PMID:23814212

  10. A defect-driven diagnostic method for machine tool spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Gregory W; Donmez, M Alkan

    2015-01-01

    Simple vibration-based metrics are, in many cases, insufficient to diagnose machine tool spindle condition. These metrics couple defect-based motion with spindle dynamics; diagnostics should be defect-driven. A new method and spindle condition estimation device (SCED) were developed to acquire data and to separate system dynamics from defect geometry. Based on this method, a spindle condition metric relying only on defect geometry is proposed. Application of the SCED on various milling and turning spindles shows that the new approach is robust for diagnosing the machine tool spindle condition.

  11. SNS Diagnostics Tools for Data Acquisition and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Sundaram, Madhan; Long, Cary D

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1.0 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based and will run Windows for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. The diagnostics platform as well as other control systems and operator consoles use the Channel Access (CA) protocol of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) to communicate. This paper describes the tools created to evaluate the diagnostic instrument using our standard programming environment, LabVIEW. The tools are based on the LabVIEW Channel Access library and can run on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. The data-acquisition tool uses drop and drag to select process variables organized by instrument, accelerator component, or beam parameters. The data can be viewed on-line and logged to disk for later ...

  12. Performance Assessment as a Diagnostic Tool for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruit, Patricia; Oostdam, Ron; van den Berg, Ed; Schuitema, Jaap

    2018-04-01

    Information on students' development of science skills is essential for teachers to evaluate and improve their own education, as well as to provide adequate support and feedback to the learning process of individual students. The present study explores and discusses the use of performance assessments as a diagnostic tool for formative assessment to inform teachers and guide instruction of science skills in primary education. Three performance assessments were administered to more than 400 students in grades 5 and 6 of primary education. Students performed small experiments using real materials while following the different steps of the empirical cycle. The mutual relationship between the three performance assessments is examined to provide evidence for the value of performance assessments as useful tools for formative evaluation. Differences in response patterns are discussed, and the diagnostic value of performance assessments is illustrated with examples of individual student performances. Findings show that the performance assessments were difficult for grades 5 and 6 students but that much individual variation exists regarding the different steps of the empirical cycle. Evaluation of scores as well as a more substantive analysis of students' responses provided insight into typical errors that students make. It is concluded that performance assessments can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring students' skill performance as well as to support teachers in evaluating and improving their science lessons.

  13. The diagnostic and prognostic value of conventional and rapid diagnostic tools in malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakanth C.H

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of malaria is raising all over the world and India is no exception. Despite well established treatment regimens and diagnostic tools, Malaria is thought to kill between1.1 to 2.7 million people worldwide each year. Rapid diagnosis and early treatment are one of the key factors in controlling the disease burden of malaria. Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic utility of rapid test (QBC, PLDH, HRP2) with conventional thick and th...

  14. Two novel plasma diagnostic tools: fiber sensors and phase conjugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    A rapidly developing technology (single-mode optical fiber sensors) and recent fundamental research in nonlinear optics (phase conjugation) both offer opportunities for novel plasma diagnostics. Single-mode fiber sensors can replace electrical wire probes for current and magnetic field measurements with advantages in voltage insulation requirements, electromagnetic noise immunity, much greater bandwidth, and some configuration flexibility. Faraday rotation measurements through fibers wound on the ZT-40M RFP have demonstrated quantitative results, but competing linear birefringence effects still hinder independent interpretation. Twisted fiber may solve this problem. Optical phase conjugation (in which a phase reversed copy of a laser beam is generated) allows real time distortion corrections in laser diagnostics. Self-pumped phase conjugation in BaTiO 3 improves the quality of phase conjugation imagery and greatly simplifies experimentation directed toward plasma diagnostics. Our initial applications are a) time-differential refractometry with high spatial resolution and b) intracavity absorption Zeeman spectroscopy

  15. The diagnostic path, a useful visualisation tool in virtual microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Thomas; Niepage, Sonja; Leuthold, Thomas; Saeger, Kai; Schluns, Karsten; Hufnagl, Peter; Kayser, Klaus; Dietel, Manfred

    2006-11-08

    The Virtual Microscopy based on completely digitalised histological slide. Concerning this digitalisation many new features in mircoscopy can be processed by the computer. New applications are possible or old, well known techniques of image analyses can be adapted for routine use. A so called diagnostic path observes in the way of a professional sees through a histological virtual slide combined with the text information of the dictation process. This feature can be used for image retrieval, quality assurance or for educational purpose. The diagnostic path implements a metadata structure of image information. It stores and processes the different images seen by a pathologist during his "slide viewing" and the obtained image sequence ("observation path"). Contemporary, the structural details of the pathology reports were analysed. The results were transferred into an XML structure. Based on this structure, a report editor and a search function were implemented. The report editor compiles the "diagnostic path", which is the connection from the image viewing sequence ("observation path") and the oral report sequence of the findings ("dictation path"). The time set ups of speech and image viewing serve for the link between the two sequences. The search tool uses the obtained diagnostic path. It allows the user to search for particular histological hallmarks in pathology reports and in the corresponding images. The new algorithm was tested on 50 pathology reports and 74 attached histological images. The creation of a new individual diagnostic path is automatically performed during the routine diagnostic process. The test prototype experienced an insignificant prolongation of the diagnosis procedure (oral case description and stated diagnosis by the pathologist) and a fast and reliable retrieval, especially useful for continuous education and quality control of case description and diagnostic work. The Digital Virtual Microscope has been designed to handle 1000 images

  16. The diagnostic path, a useful visualisation tool in virtual microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hufnagl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Virtual Microscopy based on completely digitalised histological slide. Concerning this digitalisation many new features in mircoscopy can be processed by the computer. New applications are possible or old, well known techniques of image analyses can be adapted for routine use. Aims A so called diagnostic path observes in the way of a professional sees through a histological virtual slide combined with the text information of the dictation process. This feature can be used for image retrieval, quality assurance or for educational purpose. Materials and methods The diagnostic path implements a metadata structure of image information. It stores and processes the different images seen by a pathologist during his "slide viewing" and the obtained image sequence ("observation path". Contemporary, the structural details of the pathology reports were analysed. The results were transferred into an XML structure. Based on this structure, a report editor and a search function were implemented. The report editor compiles the "diagnostic path", which is the connection from the image viewing sequence ("observation path" and the oral report sequence of the findings ("dictation path". The time set ups of speech and image viewing serve for the link between the two sequences. The search tool uses the obtained diagnostic path. It allows the user to search for particular histological hallmarks in pathology reports and in the corresponding images. Results The new algorithm was tested on 50 pathology reports and 74 attached histological images. The creation of a new individual diagnostic path is automatically performed during the routine diagnostic process. The test prototype experienced an insignificant prolongation of the diagnosis procedure (oral case description and stated diagnosis by the pathologist and a fast and reliable retrieval, especially useful for continuous education and quality control of case description and diagnostic work

  17. A tool for model based diagnostics of the AGS Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.

    1993-01-01

    A model-based algorithmic tool was developed to search for lattice errors by a systematic analysis of orbit data in the AGS Booster synchrotron. The algorithm employs transfer matrices calculated with MAD between points in the ring. Iterative model fitting of the data allows one to find and eventually correct magnet displacements and angles or field errors. The tool, implemented on a HP-Apollo workstation system, has proved very general and of immediate physical interpretation

  18. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  19. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool

  20. Fielding of the on-axis diagnostic package at Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, M.J.; Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.; Kellogg, J.W.; Torres, J.; McGurn, J.; Seaman, J.; Jobe, D.; Lazier, S.E.

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed a comprehensive diagnostic package for observing z-pinch radiation along the pinch axis on the Z accelerator. The instrumentation, which was fielded on the axial package, are x-ray diagnostics requiring direct lines of sight to the target. The diagnostics require vacuum access to the center of the accelerator. The environment is a hostile one, where one must deal with an intense, energetic photon flux (>100 keV), EMP, debris (e.g. bullets or shrapnel), and mechanical shock in order for the diagnostics to survive. In addition, practical constraints require the package be refurbished and utilized on a once a day shot schedule. In spite of this harsh environment, the authors have successfully fielded the diagnostic package with a high survivability of the data and the instruments. In this paper, they describe the environment and issues related to the re-entrant diagnostic package's implementation and maintenance

  1. Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for urban soil contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella

    2014-05-01

    Urbanization has become one of the major forces of change around the globe. Land use transformation, especially urbanization has the most profound influences of human activities because it affects so many of the planet's physical and biological systems. Land use changes directly impact the ability of the earth to continue to provide ecological services to human society and the other occupants of the ecosystems. The urban process gradually degrades and transforms agricultural and natural ecosystems into built environments. The urban environment includes cities, suburbs, peri-urban areas and towns. Urban ecosystems are highly heterogeneous due to the variety of land covers and land purposes. Thus, the choices on managing the extent and arranging the land cover patches (e.g., lawns) assist to shape the emergent structure and function of the urban ecosystems. As a result of ecological conditions and current management status the urban soils show substantial spatial heterogeneity. Whereas, adverse effects of pollutants on ecosystems have been demonstrated, one important need for environmental impact assessment have been defined as maintenance of long-term monitoring systems, which can enable to improve monitoring, modelling and assessment of various stressors in agriculture environment. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy across visible-near- short- mid- and long- wave infrared (0.4-14μm) has the potential to meet this demand. Relationships between spectral reflectance and soil properties, such as grain size distribution, moisture, iron oxides, carbonate content, and organic matter, have already been established in many studies (Krishnan et al. 1980, Ben-Dor and Banin 1995, Jarmer et al. 2008, Richter et al. 2009). The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic tool for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos and other anthropogenic contaminants in urban soil using spectroscopy

  2. Granular filters for water treatment: heterogeneity and diagnostic tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose

    the last barrier against disinfection resistant protozoan pathogens and this has led to increased regulation of the filtration process. To be able to produce high-quality filtrate in a constant and reliable manner while meeting stricter drinking water guideline values, it is important to be able......Rapid granular filters are the most commonly used filters in drinking water treatment plants and are the focus of this PhD study. They are usually constructed with sand, anthracite, activated carbon, garnet sand, and ilmenite and have filtration rates ranging from 3 to 15 m/h. Filters are often...... options prescribed. The diagnostic tools are then used again to verify the efficiency of the solution applied. If the problem is not solved the whole process starts again. These tools are of significant interest for the development of the Water Safety Plans recommended by WHO to monitor filters...

  3. Lithium Battery Transient Response as a Diagnostic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, E.; Nigmatullin, R.; Evdokimov, Y.; Timergalina, G.

    2018-05-01

    Lithium batteries are currently used as the main energy storage for electronic devices. Progress in the field of portable electronic devices is significantly determined by the improvement of their weight/dimensional characteristics and specific capacity. In addition to the high reliability required of lithium batteries, in some critical applications proper diagnostics are required. Corresponding techniques allow prediction and prevention of operation interruption and avoidance of expensive battery replacement, and also provide additional benefits. Many effective diagnostic methods have been suggested; however, most of them require expensive experimental equipment, as well as interruption or strong perturbation of the operating mode. In the framework of this investigation, a simple diagnostic method based on analysis of transient processes is proposed. The transient response is considered as a reaction to an applied load variation that typically corresponds to normal operating conditions for most real applications. The transient response contains the same information as the impedance characteristic for the system operating in linear mode. Taking into account the large number of publications describing the impedance response associated with diagnostic methods, it can be assumed that the transient response contains a sufficient amount of information for creation of effective diagnostic systems. The proposed experimental installation is based on a controlled load, providing current variation, measuring equipment, and data processing electronics. It is proposed to use the second exponent parameters U 2 and β to estimate the state of charge for secondary lithium batteries. The proposed method improves the accuracy and reliability of a set of quantitative parameters associated with electrochemical energy sources.

  4. Prostate cancer diagnostics: Clinical challenges and the ongoing need for disruptive and effective diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; O'Kennedy, Richard

    The increased incidence and the significant health burden associated with carcinoma of the prostate have led to substantial changes in its diagnosis over the past century. Despite technological advancements, the management of prostate cancer has become progressively more complex and controversial for both early and late-stage disease. The limitations and potential harms associated with the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a diagnostic marker have stimulated significant investigation of numerous novel biomarkers that demonstrate varying capacities to detect prostate cancer and can decrease unnecessary biopsies. However, only a few of these markers have been approved for specific clinical settings while the others have not been adequately validated for use. This review systematically and critically assesses ongoing issues and emerging challenges in the current state of prostate cancer diagnostic tools and the need for disruptive next generation tools based on analysis of combinations of these biomarkers to enhance predictive accuracy which will benefit clinical diagnostics and patient welfare. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Monitoring of ionospheric turbulence spatial features by SEE diagnostic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, E. N.; Boiko, G. N.; Shvarts, M. M.; Grach, S. M.; Kotov, P. V.

    Spatial features of HF pumped ionospheric F-region are investigated experimentally at the SURA facility by means of the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE). SEE, recall, appears as a result of conversion (or scattering) of HF pump-driven plasma waves off the geomagnetic field aligned electron density irregularities (striations). A specially designed pumping scheme was elaborated to study an influence of the perturbations of the electron density and temperature, created by powerful pump wave at frequency f_h and occupying quite extended altitude range (range-I), on spectral and temporal evolution of the diagnostic SEE (DSEE) generated by a weak continuous or pulse diagnostic wave at a frequency f_d in an altitude range-II, spatially shifted from the centre of the range-I. New two-channel digital receiver allowed to analyze the SEE from both ranges (around both frequencies f_h and f_d) simultaneously. A combination of the SEE diagnostics and computer simulations allowed to study:% (a) dependences of striation spectrum and dynamics on the frequency shift |f_h-f_d| (which can be easily translated to the altitude displacement), powers of the pump and diagnostic waves, offsets of the frequencies f_h and f_d from electron gyroharmonics, and on the daily conditions. It is found that a slow (time scale of 1--10 s) dynamics of DSEE, namely, characteristics of its slow overshoot and undershoot effects are determined by the spectral shape and intensity of the striations at, respectively, the development and relaxation stages. It is shown that the striation spectrum flattens in meter scale range for f_h between 3th and 4th gyroharmonics in comparison with larger f_h, in the centre of the range-I in comparison with its periphery, that the range-I extension increases with its altitude and with a transition from day to night conditions;% (b) an influence of the powerful pumping on ``diagnostic'' HF plasma wave evolution by measurements of growth and decay times of the DSEE

  6. MALDI TOF imaging mass spectrometry in clinical pathology: a valuable tool for cancer diagnostics (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsmann, Jörg; Kriegsmann, Mark; Casadonte, Rita

    2015-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an evolving technique in cancer diagnostics and combines the advantages of mass spectrometry (proteomics), detection of numerous molecules, and spatial resolution in histological tissue sections and cytological preparations. This method allows the detection of proteins, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates or glycoconjugates and small molecules.Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue can also be investigated by IMS, thus, this method seems to be an ideal tool for cancer diagnostics and biomarker discovery. It may add information to the identification of tumor margins and tumor heterogeneity. The technique allows tumor typing, especially identification of the tumor of origin in metastatic tissue, as well as grading and may provide prognostic information. IMS is a valuable method for the identification of biomarkers and can complement histology, immunohistology and molecular pathology in various fields of histopathological diagnostics, especially with regard to identification and grading of tumors.

  7. Improvements in diagnostic tools for early detection of psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Salvatore; Palazzi, Carlo; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2016-11-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a wide clinical spectrum. The early diagnosis of PsA is currently a challenging topic. Areas covered: The literature was extensively reviewed for studies addressing the topic area "diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis". This review will summarize improvements in diagnostic tools, especially referral to the rheumatologist, the role of patient history and clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging techniques in getting an early and correct diagnosis of PsA. Expert commentary: Due to the heterogeneity of its expression, PsA may be easily either overdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. A diagnosis of PsA should be taken into account every time a patient with psoriasis or a family history of psoriasis shows peripheral arthritis, especially if oligoarticular or involving the distal interphalangeal joints, enthesitis or dactylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography are useful for diagnosing PsA early, particularly when isolated enthesitis or inflammatory spinal pain occur.

  8. Development and validation of a premature ejaculation diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Tara; Perelman, Michael A; Althof, Stanley; Giuliano, François; Martin, Mona; May, Kathryn; Abraham, Lucy; Crossland, Anna; Morris, Mark

    2007-08-01

    Diagnosis of premature ejaculation (PE) for clinical trial purposes has typically relied on intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) for entry, but this parameter does not capture the multidimensional nature of PE. Therefore, the aim was to develop a brief, multidimensional, psychometrically validated instrument for diagnosing PE status. The questionnaire development involved three stages: (1) Five focus groups and six individual interviews were conducted to develop the content; (2) psychometric validation using three different groups of men; and (3) generation of a scoring system. For psychometric validation/scoring system development, data was collected from (1) men with PE based on clinician diagnosis, using DSM-IV-TR, who also had IELTs or =11 PE. The development and validation of this new PE diagnostic tool has resulted in a new, user-friendly, and brief self-report questionnaire for use in clinical trials to diagnose PE.

  9. Plenoptic Imaging for Three-Dimensional Particle Field Diagnostics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hall, Elise Munz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising emerging technology for single-camera, 3D diagnostics of particle fields. In this work, recent developments towards quantitative measurements of particle size, positions, and velocities are discussed. First, the technique is proven viable with measurements of the particle field generated by the impact of a water drop on a thin film of water. Next, well cont rolled experiments are used to verify diagnostic uncertainty. Finally, an example is presented of 3D plenoptic imaging of a laboratory scale, explosively generated fragment field.

  10. The Shoulder Objective Practical Assessment Tool: Evaluation of a New Tool Assessing Residents Learning in Diagnostic Shoulder Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher L; Holt, Edward M; Gooding, Benjamin W T; Tennent, Thomas D; Foden, Philip

    2015-08-01

    To design and validate an objective practical assessment tool for diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy that would provide residents with a method to evaluate their progression in this field of surgery and to identify specific learning needs. We designed and evaluated the shoulder Objective Practical Assessment Tool (OPAT). The shoulder OPAT was designed by us, and scoring domains were created using a Delphi process. The shoulder OPAT was trialed by members of the British Elbow & Shoulder Society Education Committee for internal consistency and ease of use before being offered to other trainers and residents. Inter-rater reliability and intrarater reliability were calculated. One hundred forty orthopaedic residents, of varying seniority, within 5 training regions in the United Kingdom, were questioned regarding the tool. A pilot study of 6 residents was undertaken. Internal consistency was 0.77 (standardized Cronbach α). Inter-rater reliability was 0.60, and intrarater reliability was 0.82. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r) between the global summary score for the shoulder OPAT and the current assessment tool used in postgraduate training for orthopaedic residents undertaking diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy equaled 0.74. Of the residents, 82% agreed or strongly agreed when asked if the shoulder OPAT would be a useful tool in monitoring progression and 72% agreed or strongly agreed with the introduction of the shoulder OPAT within the orthopaedic domain. This study shows that the shoulder OPAT fulfills several aspects of reliability and validity when tested. Despite the inter-rater reliability being 0.60, we believe that the shoulder OPAT has the potential to play a role alongside the current assessment tool in the training of orthopaedic residents. The shoulder OPAT can be used to assess residents during shoulder arthroscopy and has the potential for use in medical education, as well as arthroscopic skills training in the operating theater. Copyright © 2015

  11. MTX microwave-electric-field diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odajima, Kazuo; Ohasa, Kazumi; Shiho, Makoto

    1990-06-01

    A joint Japan-U.S. project is in progress to measure the high electric fields produced by a free-electron laser beam of GW-peak-power level when injected into the plasma of the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. In this report, we discuss the planned method of measurement and the status of the work. The equipment needed is either well along in the design stage or is being built. We plan to test out the combined operation of all components in Japan before shipping to Livermore. Although the measurement appears difficult for a variety of technical and physics reasons, calculations indicate that it should be possible. (author)

  12. Correlation diagnostics of random spatially nonuniform optical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel'skii, O.V.

    1992-01-01

    This review examines some questions concerning the capabilities of interference and polarization-interference correlation diagnostics of the amplitude-phase characteristics of random optical fields for the purpose of identifying these fields and then studying the corresponding objects. The diagnostics of random phase objects is discussed separately in the case in which the phase dispersion of the inhomogeneities is less than and greater than one. The outlook is promising for the use of the correlation dimensionality of chaos in a field as a diagnostic parameter. It is also shown that the use of interference principles for a parallel processing of large data files can substantially increase the speed of processing systems. 32 refs., 8 figs

  13. Towards diagnostic tools for analysing Swarm data through model retrievals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Plank, Gernot; Haagmans, R.

    polar orbits between 300 and 550 km altitude. Goal of the current study is to build tools and to analyze datasets, in order to allow a fast diagnosis of the Swarm system performance in orbit during the commission phase and operations of the spacecraft. The effects on the reconstruction of the magnetic...... field resulting from various error sources are investigated. By using a specially developed software package closed loop simulations are performed aiming at different scenarios. We start from the simple noise-free case and move on to more complex and realistic situations which include attitude errors...

  14. Auto fluorescence of intervertebral disc tissue: a new diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, T; Huschak, G; Beier, A; Hüttmann, G; Minkus, Y; Holzhausen, H J; Meisel, H J

    2006-08-01

    The paper reports on auto fluorescence phenomena of inter-vertebral human discs. It systematically investigates the auto fluorescence effects of ex vivo disc specimen and reports on surgical cases to demonstrate the potential value of the new method. The paper offers biologic explanations of the phenomenon and discusses the potential value of the UV auto fluorescence technique as a diagnostic tool. Intra- and postoperative observations are made by a surgical microscope with an integrated UV light source. Quantitative measurements were carried out using a photon counter and a spectrometer ex vivo. The auto fluorescence phenomenon allows the differentiation of traumatized and degenerated disc tissue intraoperatively in some cases, it allows the differentiation of bony and collagen endplate in cervical disc surgery. The source of the auto fluorescent light emission are amino acids of the collagen molecules. The proteoglycan components and the liquid components of the disc do not show relevant auto fluorescence. Emission wavelength of disc material is equivalent to color perception. It differs due to different collagen composition of the intervertebral disc components from yellow-green to blue-green and can be visualized in situ by naked eye.UV-auto fluorescence of inter-vertebral discs is a new clinical tool that has the potential to differentiate disc material from the anatomical surrounding, to distinguish between different fractions of the disc and to give information on the quality and status of the disc material. Since the technology has just emerged, it needs further investigations to quantify the clinical observations reported in this paper.

  15. Tools for collaboration across STEM fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Ejiwale

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Supporting learners at different stages of learning is essential to achieve positive learning, critical thinking, technical and problem solving skills, and gainful employment upon graduation. Collaboration is critical to providing strong foundational educational support to all learners as they advance to higher level of learning. More important is the need to promote collaboration among educators and other professionals across the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM fields who educate the learners throughout their academic pursuit in their respective institutions of learning. To reap the value in diverse teams, the promotion of emergent interdependence fosters seamless collaborative activities across STEM disciplines.  For industrial technology programs to prepare students with skills necessary to supervise and manage the future workforce of any organization successfully, necessary tools must be utilized for the success of the collaborative effort. This paper addresses leadership and knowledge sharing among collaborators, the educational aspects of research facilities and research clusters as some of the tools necessary to develop program through collaboration in STEM fields.

     

  16. Tools for collaboration across STEM fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Ejiwale

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Supporting learners at different stages of learning is essential to achieve positive learning, critical thinking, technical and problem solving skills, and gainful employment upon graduation. Collaboration is critical to providing strong foundational educational support to all learners as they advance to higher level of learning. More important is the need to promote collaboration among educators and other professionals across the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM fields who educate the learners throughout their academic pursuit in their respective institutions of learning. To reap the value in diverse teams, the promotion of emergent interdependence fosters seamless collaborative activities across STEM disciplines.  For industrial technology programs to prepare students with skills necessary to supervise and manage the future workforce of any organization successfully, necessary tools must be utilized for the success of the collaborative effort. This paper addresses leadership and knowledge sharing among collaborators, the educational aspects of research facilities and research clusters as some of the tools necessary to develop program through collaboration in STEM fields.  

  17. Plasma diagnostic tools for optimizing negative hydrogen ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantz, U.; Falter, H.D.; Franzen, P.; Speth, E.; Hemsworth, R.; Boilson, D.; Krylov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The powerful diagnostic tool of optical emission spectroscopy is used to measure the plasma parameters in negative hydrogen ion sources based on the surface mechanism. Results for electron temperature, electron density, atomic-to-molecular hydrogen density ratio, and gas temperature are presented for two types of sources, a rf source and an arc source, which are currently under development for a neutral beam heating system of ITER. The amount of cesium in the plasma volume is obtained from cesium radiation: the Cs neutral density is five to ten orders of magnitude lower than the hydrogen density and the Cs ion density is two to three orders of magnitude lower than the electron density in front of the grid. It is shown that monitoring of cesium lines is very useful for monitoring the cesium balance in the source. From a line-ratio method negative ion densities are determined. In a well-conditioned source the negative ion density is of the same order of magnitude as the electron density and correlates with extracted current densities

  18. Medical thoracoscopy: a useful diagnostic tool for undiagnosed pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Prasad, Rajendra; Garg, Rajiv; Verma, S K; Singh, Abhijeet; Husain, N

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess the role of medical thoracoscopy in patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion. Patiens presenting with pleural effusion underwent three pleural aspirations. Patients in whom pleural fluid analysis was inconclusive underwent closed pleural biopsy for diagnostic confirmation. Patients in whom closed pleural biopsy was incolcusive underwent medical thoracoscopy using a rigid thoracoscope with a viewing angle of zero degrees was done under local anaesthesia and sedation with the patient lying in lateral decubitus position with the affected side up. Biopsy specimens from parietal pleura were obtained under direct vision and were sent for histopathological examination. Of the 128 patients with pleural effusion who were studied, pleural fluid examination established the diagnosis in 81 (malignancy 33, tuberculosis 33, pyogenic 14 and fungal 1); 47 patients underwent closed pleural biopsy and a diagnosis was made in 28 patients (malignancy 24, tuberculosis 4). The remaining 19 patients underwent medical thoracoscopy and pleural biopsy and the aetiological diagnosis could be confirmed in 13 of the 19 patients (69%) (adenocarcinoma 10, poorly differentiated carcinoma 2 and mesothelioma 1). Medical thoracoscopy is a useful tool for the diagnosis of pleural diseases. The procedure is safe with minimal complications.

  19. Diagnostic tools used in the calibration and verification of protein crystallography synchrotron beam lines and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotella, F.J.; Alkire, R.W.; Duke, N.E.C.; Molitsky, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic tools have been developed for use at the Structural Biology Center beam lines at the Advanced Photon Source. These tools are used in the calibration and operating verification of these synchrotron X-ray beam lines and constituent equipment.

  20. A postgraduate qualification in the specialisation fields of diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Current education and training in radiography in South Africa does not address the need for training in the specialisation fields of diagnostic radiography sufficiently. Methods. To address this problem, a needs assessment was conducted by means of quantitative questionnaires, qualitative interviews and a ...

  1. Review of diagnostic tools to investigate the physical state of rapid granular filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose; Binning, Philip John; Arvin, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews diagnostic tools that can be used at waterworks to investigate the physical and operational state of rapid granular filters. Diagnostic tools can be of interest for the Water Safety Plans of WHO to monitor filters in a proactive manner. The review considers conventional and state...

  2. Clinical history in management of suspected syncope: A powerful diagnostic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, Richard; van Dijk, Nynke; Wieling, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the role of history taking as a diagnostic tool in patients with transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) is addressed. From a literature review it can be demonstrated that, if properly performed, the history is a powerful diagnostic tool, which in the majority of cases proves to be the

  3. Problem Representation, Background Evidence, Analysis, Recommendation: An Oral Case Presentation Tool to Promote Diagnostic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Cristina; Akar-Ghibril, Nicole; Sestokas, Jeff; Dixon, Gabrina; Bradford, Wilhelmina; Ottolini, Mary

    2018-03-01

    Oral case presentations provide an opportunity for trainees to communicate diagnostic reasoning at the bedside. However, few tools exist to enable faculty to provide effective feedback. We developed a tool to assess diagnostic reasoning and communication during oral case presentations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. State of the field: Paper tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Boris

    2017-08-01

    Paper occupies a special place in histories of knowledge. It is the substrate of communication, the stuff of archives, the bearer of marks that make worlds. For the early-modern period in particular we now have a wealth of studies of 'paper tools', of the ways in which archives were assembled and put to use, of the making of lists and transcribing of observations, and so on. In other fields, too, attention has turned to the materiality of information. How far is it possible to draw a stable methodology out of the insights of literary and book historians, bibliographers, anthropologists, and those working in media studies? Do these diverse fields in fact refer to the same thing when they talk of paper, its qualities, affordances and limitations? In attempting to answer these questions, the present essay begins in the rich territory of early-modern natural philosophy - but from there opens out to take in recent works in a range of disciplines. Attending to the specific qualities of paper is only possible, I argue, if it is understood that paper can be both transparent and opaque depending on the social world it inhabits and helps to constitute. Paper flickers into and out of view, and it is precisely this quality that constitutes its sociomateriality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Verification and Validation Tool for Diagnostic Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced diagnostic systems have the potential to improve safety, increase availability, and reduce maintenance costs in aerospace vehicle and a variety of other...

  6. Validation Tools and Methods for Diagnostic Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The potential benefits of advanced algorithms for diagnostics and prognostics, inner-loop control, and other flight critical systems have been demonstrated in a...

  7. Vibrational spectroscopy: a clinical tool for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Catherine; Isabelle, Martin; Bazant-Hegemark, Florian; Hutchings, Joanne; Orr, Linda; Babrah, Jaspreet; Baker, Rebecca; Stone, Nicholas

    2009-06-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy techniques have demonstrated potential to provide non-destructive, rapid, clinically relevant diagnostic information. Early detection is the most important factor in the prevention of cancer. Raman and infrared spectroscopy enable the biochemical signatures from biological tissues to be extracted and analysed. In conjunction with advanced chemometrics such measurements can contribute to the diagnostic assessment of biological material. This paper also illustrates the complementary advantage of using Raman and FTIR spectroscopy technologies together. Clinical requirements are increasingly met by technological developments which show promise to become a clinical reality. This review summarises recent advances in vibrational spectroscopy and their impact on the diagnosis of cancer.

  8. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  9. Circulating nucleic acids as a new diagnostic tool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Markéta; Plzák, J.; Strnad, Hynek; Betka, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2010), s. 242-259 ISSN 1425-8153 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : circulating nucleic acids * diagnostics * cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2010

  10. Reticulocyte haemoglobin content as a diagnostic tool for iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IDA) in ill children is complicated by the unreliability of serum ferritin (S-ferritin). The presence of a microcytic, hypochromic anaemia suggests IDA but is not specific. There is a need for a diagnostic test that will be accessible, cost-effective and ...

  11. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics.

  12. A miRNA expression based diagnostic tool for breast cancer using random forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wenric, Stéphane; Freres, Pierre; Josse, Claire; Bours, Vincent; Jerusalem, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We developed a novel diagnostic tool for breast cancer using circulating miRNA expression levels as features of a supervised machine learning problem. We showed very good results on an independent validation cohort.

  13. Design of a magnetic field alignment diagnostic for the MFTF-B magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deadrick, F.J.; House, P.A.; Frye, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet alignment in tandem mirror fusion machines plays a crucial role in achieving and maintaining plasma confinement. Various visual alignment tools have been described by Post et al. to align the Tara magnet system. We have designed and installed a remotely operated magnetic field alignment (MFA) diagnostic system as a part of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B). It measures critical magnetic field alignment parameters of the MFTF-B coil set while under full-field operating conditions. The MFA diagnostic employs a pair of low-energy, electron beam guns on a remotely positionable probe to trace and map selected magnetic field lines. An array of precision electrical detector paddles locates the position of the electron beam, and thus the magnetic field line, at several critical points. The measurements provide a means to compute proper compensating currents to correct for mechanical misalignments of the magnets with auxiliary trim coils if necessary. This paper describes both the mechanical and electrical design of the MFA diagnostic hardware

  14. Prototype of a diagnostic decision support tool for structural damage in masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vent, I.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    This prototype of a diagnostic decision support tool for structural damage in traditional masonry is the result of a PhD research project. The research project has aimed to improve and facilitate the diagnostic process by offering support in the initial phase in which hypotheses are generated. The

  15. Which children could benefit from additional diagnostic tools in case of suspected appendicitis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, W. T.; van der Ende, E. D.; Bijnen, A. B.; Breslau, P. J.; Gouma, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: New diagnostic tools such as ultrasound scan, computed tomography (CT) scan, and diagnostic laparoscopy, have become available for children with suspected appendicitis but should be reserved for equivocal cases. The aim of this study was to develop a scoring system to identify this

  16. comparative analysis of diagnostic applications of autoscan tools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    A structured questionnaire with 3 items questions as checklist, 2 Auto scan tools were used for the study and test carried out on 5 vehicle systems at the 3 centers where Innova ... maintenance, auto- analyzers, solid work design and can-.

  17. Electron temperature diagnostics in the RFX reversed field pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiromo, R.; Carraro, L.; Marrelli, L.; Murari, A.; Pasqualotto, R.; Puiatti, M.E.; Scarin, P.; Valisa, M.; Franz, P.; Martin, P.; Zabeo, L.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated approach to the problem of electron temperature diagnostics of the plasma in a reversed field pinch. Three different methods, sampling different portions of the electron distribution function, are adopted, namely Thomson scattering, soft X-ray spectroscopy by pulse-height analysis and filtered soft X-ray intensity ratio. A careful analysis of the different sources of systematic errors is performed and a novel statistical approach is adopted to mutually validate the three independent measurements. A satisfactory agreement is obtained over a large range of experimental conditions, indicating that in the plasma core the energy distribution function is well represented by a maxwellian. (author)

  18. Applications of nanoparticles in cancer detection and diagnostic tool for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatasalam, C.; Nagappan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer nanotechnology is multidisciplinary area of science and technology. In recent days nano particles are used in medical field as diagnostic tools. It is highly precious and accurate measurement tools for detecting many disease. One of the broad application of cancer biology, for detecting molecular imaging, molecular diagnosis of cancer cells. In the present study deals with the nanoparticles are widely used for finding tumor as biomarker imaging for cancer detection and the nanoparticles are have important notice. An ample choice of materials may be used for construct nanoparticles that can cover for increase the capability of delivery or to provide unique structural and electrical properties for imaging. This exclusive properties are worn to several functional nanoparticles have already been demonstrated, including some clinically approved liposome drugs and metallic imaging agents. In early detection of heptocellular carcinoma, the metallic nanoparticles are vital role in the imaging technology. Several functions of nanoparticles that may eventually additional the understanding of producing imaging especially the darkening and enlarging of the images. These nanoparticles may be able to identify malignant cells by means of molecular detection, visualization of their location in the body by providing enhanced contrast in medical imaging technology, Through selective particle targeting and monitoring of identification of multiplied cells in different organs of the body. In the future prospective of medical field, the nanoparticles are having vital role for detecting cancer cells. (author)

  19. A new diagnostic tool for rapid and accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nour-Neamatollahi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis, acid fast bacilli from the family of Mycobacteriaceae, is the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis, as a communicable disease, remains a serious public health threat, killing more than one million people globally every year. Primary diagnosis of tuberculosis bacilli (TB relies mainly on microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB, but the method suffers from low sensitivity and the results largely depend on the technician’s skill. New diagnostic tools are necessary to be introduced for rapid and accurate detection of the bacilli in sputum samples. We, in collaboration with Anda Biologicals, have developed a new platform, named as “Patho-tb”, for rapid detection of AFB with high sensitivity and with low dependence on human skills. Evaluation of Patho-tb test performance was done in two settings: (1 primary field study conducted using 38 sputa from high TB prevalence area of Iran (Zabol city near to the Afghanistan border, and (2 main study conducted using 476 sputa from Tehran, capital of Iran. Patho-tb was applied for processed sputum samples in parallel with routine diagnostic methods (including AFB microscopy, culture and PCR. All test results were compared to final clinical diagnostic state of an individual and diagnostic sensitivity (DSe, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of each test results were calculated using standard formulations. Analytical sensitivity and specificity of the Patho-tb test were also determined. Calculated values for five above mentioned parameters are as follows: for field study: AFB (DSe: 29.6, DSp: 81.8, PPV: 80, NPV: 23.1, AC: 44.7, Patho-tb (DSe: 63, DSp: 72.7, PPV: 85, NPV: 44.4, AC: 65.8, and for main study: AFB (DSe: 86.1, DSp: 99.4, PPV: 98.5, NPV: 93.9, AC: 95.2, Patho-tb (DSe: 97.4, DSp: 92.9, PPV: 86.5, NPV: 98.7, AC: 94.3. Reproducibility of Patho-tb test results were near to 100% (Cohen’s kappa value

  20. Evaluation of the field size in dental diagnostic radiology system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, P.S.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the field size of a dental X rays machine was evaluated considering the recommendation of the Brazilian Health Ministry Regulation 453 which established basic lines of radiological protection in medical and dental diagnostic radiology. The diameter of the field should not be superior to 6 cm in the localized end point, limiting the radiated area and protecting the head-neck region. The measurements were carried out in a dental X rays machine, Dabi Atlante, model Spectro 70X Seletronic. For the field size or useful beam determination, the intra-oral films were positioned on a plain surface to be exposed in four stages and two focus-film distances (FFD), 20 cm and 27.5 cm: 1) with spacer cone; 2) without spacer cone; 3) with spacer cone and film-holding device; 4) without spacer cone and film-holding device. The results show that the diameter of the field size is satisfactory only for FFD = 20 cm. When the film-holding device is used, which is recommended by the Regulation 453, item 5.8 d(ii), the diameter of the field size exceeds the maximum recommended value of 6 cm. (authors)

  1. Tracer Equivalent Latitude: A Diagnostic Tool for Isentropic Transport Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Douglas R.; Nakamura, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    Area equivalent latitude based on potential vorticity (PV) is a widely used diagnostic for isentropic transport in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Here, an alternate method for calculating equivalent latitude is explored, namely, a numerical synthesis of a PV-like tracer from a long-term integration of the advection-diffusion equation on isentropic surfaces. It is found that the tracer equivalent latitude (TrEL) behaves much like the traditional PV equivalent latitude (PVEL) despite the simplified governing physics; this is evidenced by examining the kinematics of the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex. Yet in some cases TrEL performs markedly better as a coordinate for long-lived trace species such as ozone. These instances include analysis of lower stratospheric ozone during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) campaign and three-dimensional reconstruction of total column ozone during November-December 1999 from fitted ozone-equivalent latitude relationship. It is argued that the improvement is due to the tracer being free from the diagnostic errors and certain diabatic processes that affect PV. The sensitivity of TrEL to spatial and temporal resolution, advection scheme, and driving winds is also examined.

  2. In situ electromagnetic field diagnostics with an electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Evetts, N.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J.S.; Hardy, W.N.; Hayden, M.E.; Isaac, C.A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J.T.K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S.C.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D.M.; So, C.; Stracka, S.; Tharp, T.; Thompson, R.I.; van der Werf, D.P.; Wurtele, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel detection method for the cyclotron resonance frequency of an electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap. With this technique, the electron plasma is used as an in situ diagnostic tool for measurement of the static magnetic field and the microwave electric field in the trap. The cyclotron motion of the electron plasma is excited by microwave radiation and the temperature change of the plasma is measured non-destructively by monitoring the plasma's quadrupole mode frequency. The spatially-resolved microwave electric field strength can be inferred from the plasma temperature change and the magnetic field is found through the cyclotron resonance frequency. These measurements were used extensively in the recently reported demonstration of resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen.

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Iranian Version of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Pakpour, PhD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The results provide evidence for good reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the PEDT. The questionnaire therefore represents a suitable tool for screening PE in Iranian men. Pakpour AH, Yekaninejad MS, Nikoobakht MR, Burri A, and Fridlund B. Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. Sex Med 2014;2:31–40.

  4. Executive summary of European Task Force document on diagnostic tools in rhinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, P. W.; Scadding, G.; Alobid, I.; Bachert, C.; Fokkens, W. J.; Gerth van Wijk, R.; Gevaerts, P.; Guilemany, J.; Kalogjera, L.; Lund, V. J.; Mullol, J.; Passalacqua, G.; Toskala, E.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This Executive Summary of the EAACI Task Force document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology provides the readers with an over- view of the currently available tools for diagnosis of nasal and sino-nasal disease, published in full version in the first issue of Clini- cal and Translational Allergy. A

  5. Phages of Listeria offer novel tools for diagnostics and biocontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Loessner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, bacteriophages infecting their hosts have perhaps been best known and even notorious for being a nuisance in dairy-fermentation processes. However, with the rapid progress in molecular microbiology and microbial ecology, a new dawn has risen for phages. This review will provide an overview on possible uses and applications of Listeria phages, including phage-typing, reporter phage for bacterial diagnostics, and use of phage as biocontrol agents for food safety. The use of phage-encoded enzymes such as endolysins for the detection and as antimicrobial will also be addressed. Desirable properties of candidate phages for biocontrol will be discussed. While emphasizing the enormous future potential for applications, we will also consider some of the intrinsic limitations dictated by both phage and bacterial ecology.

  6. Physicians' use of plasma methylmalonic acid as a diagnostic tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, A M; Vestergaard, H; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    with a plasma methylmalonic acid measurement above the reference interval. Information on diagnostic decisions was available for 177 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reasons for requesting plasma methylmalonic acid and the reactions to the finding of elevated plasma methylmalonic acid. RESULTS: An explicit......OBJECTIVES: To investigate physicians' reasons for requesting plasma methylmalonic acid and their reactions to an increased concentration of plasma methylmalonic acid. DESIGN: Study of medical records. SETTING: Three somatic district hospitals in Denmark. SUBJECTS: Medical records of 198 patients...... reason for requesting plasma methylmalonic acid was stated in 57% of 198 examined medical records, known or suspected anaemia being the most frequent reason. No further action was taken in 109 (62%) of the 177 cases available for follow-up. Amongst the remaining 68 patients, the finding of an increased...

  7. Wave launching as a diagnostic tool to investigate plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, H.Y.W.; Bengtson, R.D.; Li, G.X.; Richards, B.; Uglum, J.; Wootton, A.J.; Uckan, T.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental scheme to extend the investigation of plasma turbulence has been implemented. It involves driving waves into the plasma to modify the statistical properties of the fluctuations; the dynamic balance of the turbulence is perturbed via the injection of waves at selected spectral regions. A conditional sampling technique is used in conjunction with correlation analyses to study the wave launching and the wave-wave coupling processes. Experimental results from TEXT-U tokamak show that the launched waves interact with the intrinsic fluctuations both linearly and nonlinearly. The attainment of driven nonlinearity is necessary for this diagnostic scheme to work. It is also the key to an active modification and control of edge turbulence in tokamaks

  8. FNAC AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalivarapu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND FNAC of salivary gland tumours is an accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless procedure. The success of FNAC depends on the adequacy of sample and high-quality preparation. FNAC of salivary gland neoplasms provides essential information in decision making and management. AIM OF THE STUDY Know the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of salivary gland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a prospective study done at the tertiary care centre for a period of three years. A total number of 67 cases of clinically suspected salivary gland tumours were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology and correlated with histopathology. RESULTS A total number of 67 cases, clinically suspected as salivary gland tumours were subjected to FNAC and compared with histopathology. The observations of the study were as follows: Most of the tumours were observed between the age group of 31-40 years. The commonest gland involved was the parotid gland, 56 cases of benign, 10 cases of malignant and one case of inconclusive diagnosis was made on FNAC. In the present study, FNAC showed Sensitivity of 66.6%, Specificity of 98%, Positive predictive value; 90.9%, Negative predictive value; 91%, Percentage of false negative cases 33.3%, Percentage of false positive cases 1.9% and Overall Diagnostic Accuracy of 91%. CONCLUSION FNAC is a very useful, simple, cheap, accurate and repeatable technique in the preoperative diagnosis of various salivary gland neoplasms. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was 91%, in cystic lesions of salivary glands, combined FNAC and histopathology is essential for diagnosis.

  9. T-scan III system diagnostic tool for digital occlusal analysis in orthodontics - a modern approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpevska, Vesna; Kovacevska, Gordana; Benedeti, Alberto; Jordanov, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review was performed to establish the mechanism, methodology, characteristics, clinical application and opportunities of the T-Scan III System as a diagnostic tool for digital occlusal analysis in different fields of dentistry, precisely in orthodontics. Searching of electronic databases, using MEDLINE and PubMed, hand searching of relevant key journals, and screening of reference lists of included studies with no language restriction was performed. Publications providing statistically examined data were included for systematic review. Twenty potentially relevant Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) were identified. Only ten met the inclusion criteria. The literature demonstrates that using digital occlusal analysis with T-Scan III System in orthodontics has significant advantage with regard to the capability of measuring occlusal parameters in static positions and during dynamic of the mandible. Within the scope of this systematic review, there is evidence to support that T-Scan system is rapid and accurate in identifying the distribution of the tooth contacts and it shows great promise as a clinical diagnostic screening device for occlusion and for improving the occlusion after various dental treatments. Additional clinical studies are required to advance the indication filed of this system. Importance of using digital occlusal T-Scan analysis in orthodontics deserves further investigation.

  10. MicroRNAs: A Puzzling Tool in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Barbara; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Cimini, Annamaria; Giordano, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a dominating class of small RNAs that regulate diverse cellular functions. Due the pivotal role of miRNAs in biological processes, a deregulated miRNA expression is likely involved in human cancers. MicroRNAs possess tumor suppressor capability, as well as display oncogenic characteristics. Interestingly, miRNAs exist in various biological fluids as circulating entities. Changes in the profile of circulating miRNAs are indicative of pathophysiological conditions in human cancer. This concept has led to consider circulating miRNAs valid biomarkers in cancer diagnostics. Furthermore, current research promotes the use of miRNAs as a target in cancer therapy. However, miRNAs are an evolving research field. Although miRNAs have been demonstrated to be potentially valuable tools both in cancer diagnosis and treatment, a greater effort should be made to improve our understanding of miRNAs biology. This review describes the biology of microRNAs, emphasizing on the use of miRNAs in cancer diagnostics and therapy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis Tools for the Ion Cyclotron Emission Diagnostic on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, C. A.; Thome, K. E.; Pinsker, R. I.; Meneghini, O.; Pace, D. C.

    2017-10-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) waves are excited by suprathermal particles such as neutral beam particles and fusion products. An ICE diagnostic is in consideration for use at ITER, where it could provide important passive measurement of fast ions location and losses, which are otherwise difficult to determine. Simple ICE data analysis codes had previously been developed, but more sophisticated codes are required to facilitate data analysis. Several terabytes of ICE data were collected on DIII-D during the 2015-2017 campaign. The ICE diagnostic consists of antenna straps and dedicated magnetic probes that are both digitized at 200 MHz. A suite of Python spectral analysis tools within the OMFIT framework is under development to perform the memory-intensive analysis of this data. A fast and optimized analysis allows ready access to data visualizations as spectrograms and as plots of both frequency and time cuts of the data. A database of processed ICE data is being constructed to understand the relationship between the frequency and intensity of ICE and a variety of experimental parameters including neutral beam power and geometry, local and global plasma parameters, magnetic fields, and many others. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  12. A Statistically Based Training Diagnostic Tool for Marine Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    the behavioral and social sciences in pursuit of an assessment tool to measure the tactical cognitive skills of officers in the combat arms...presence, flow and interaction, media for mood and arousal, media to attract and persuade, media for emotional effects, media to attract attention, and...expletive] better know how to read and execute checklist items, or they shouldn’t have made it out of the FRS. I could rant , but I won’t. Suffice it

  13. Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for urban soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic urban soil are the foundation of the urban green infrastructure, the green net quality is as good as each of its patches. In early days of pedology urban soil has been recognized with respect to contamination and the risks for human health but in study performed since the 70s, the importance of urban soil for the urban ecology became increasingly significant (Gómez-Baggethun and Barton 2013). Urban soils are highly disturbed land that was created by the process of urbanization. The dominant agent in the creation of urban soils is human activity which modifies the natural soil through mixing, filling or by contamination of land surfaces so as to create a layer of urban soil which can be more than 50 cm thick (Pavao-Zuckerman 2008). The objective of this study is to determine the extent to which field spectroscopy methods can be used to extend the knowledge of urban soils features and components. The majority of the studies on urban soils concentrate on identifying and mapping of pollution mostly heavy metals. In this study a top-down analysis is developed - a simple and intuitive spectral feature for detecting the presence of minerals, organic matter and pollutants in mixed soil samples. The developed method uses spectral activity (SA) detection in a structured hierarchical approach to quickly and, more importantly, correctly identify dominant spectral features. The developed method is adopted by multiple in-production tools including continuum removal normalization, guided by polynomial generalization, and spectral-likelihood algorithms: orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) and iterative spectral mixture analysis (ISMA) were compared to feature likelihood methods (Li et al. 2014). Results of the proposed top-down unmixing method suggest that the analysis is made very fast due to the simplified hierarchy which avoids the high-learning curve associated with unmixing algorithms showed that the most abundant components were coarse organic matter 12

  14. Development of transient internal probe (TIP) magnetic field diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is designed to permit measurement of internal magnetic fields, in hot, high density plasmas. The concept consists of accelerating a probe to high velocities (2.2 Km/s) in order to minimize probe exposure time to plasma. Faraday rotation within the probe is used to measure the local magnetic field. An Argon laser illuminates the probe consisting of a Faraday-rotator material with a retro-reflector that returns the incident light to the detection system. Performance results of the light gas gun and optical detection system will be shown. To date, the gas gun has been extensively tested consistently achieving velocities between 2 and 3 km/s. The probe and detection scheme have been tested by dropping the probe through a static magnetic field. Magnetic field resolution of 20 gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm has been achieved. System frequency response is 10Mhz. Work is currently being conducted to integrate the diagnostic system with laboratory plasma experiments. Specifically a gas interfaced system has been developed to prevent helium muzzle gas from entering the plasma chamber with the probe. Additionally the probe must be separated from the sabot which protects the probe during acceleration in the gas gun. Data will be presented showing the results of various separation techniques

  15. [Pharmacovigilance center --internal medicine interactions: A useful diagnostic tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochoy, M; Gautier, S; Bordet, R; Caron, J; Launay, D; Hachulla, E; Hatron, P-Y; Lambert, M

    2015-08-01

    Patients hospitalized in internal medicine often have unexplained clinical symptoms for which a drug origin can be considered. The prevalence of patients hospitalized for iatrogenic is estimated between 4-22%. We wanted to evaluate the diagnostic value of the regional center of pharmacovigilance to identify or confirm an iatrogenic disease in the department of internal medicine of Lille and characterize factors associated with drug-related side effect. This is a single-center prospective diagnostic study. We included all subsequent requests from the department of internal medicine with the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional pharmacovigilance center between 2010 and 2012. The opinion of the regional pharmacovigilance centre was held on the record of the adverse drug reaction in the national pharmacovigilance database and analyzed according to the conclusion of iatrogenic used by clinicians in internal medicine (reference diagnosis) with a follow-up to June 2013. The variables relating to the patient, medication and adverse events were analyzed by binary logistic regression. We analyzed 160 contacts: 118 concordant cases, 38 false-positives (drug-related side effect retained by the regional pharmacovigilance center only), 4 false negatives. Registration in the national pharmacovigilance database had a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI [0.92 to 0.99]), a specificity of 46% (95% CI [0.38 to 0.53]), a value positive predictive of 69% (95% CI [0.62 to 0.76]), a negative predictive value of 89% (95% CI [0.84 to 0.94]) and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.1. False-positive had chronological and semiological accountabilities questionable (adjusted RR=2.1, 95% CI [1.2 to 2.8]). In our study, the regional pharmacovigilance center confirms the clinician's suspicion of drug-related side effects and helps to exclude drug-induced with a high negative predictive value. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Facebook: can it be a diagnostic tool for neurologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Manoj K; Sloan, Jeff A; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented with acute ischaemic stroke with NIHSS 13. She had right eye ptosis and miosis. She and her husband were not sure if her facial features were different than usual. With her consent, we compared her face with her pictures on Facebook. In the absence of any ptosis or miosis in her pictures, she was diagnosed with acute Horner syndrome. Facebook may be a useful tool for the neurologists to define the timing of facial neurological signs. PMID:22914235

  17. Diagnostic Tools for Doctors' Evaluation of Tattoo Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of tattoo complications is a multi-facetted field since many clinical entities and disease mechanisms are represented. Infections, allergies, and pigment foreign body reactions with granuloma are the major groups. The clinician needs a structured approach to diagnosis and an armamentari...

  18. Subungual hyperkeratosis nail biopsy: A better diagnostic tool for onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Nagar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is one of the most common nail disorders. Mycological examination by potassium hydroxide (KOH mount and fungal culture is the most commonly used diagnostic method. However, it is associated with a low sensitivity. Aims: To evaluate the technique of subungual hyperkeratosis nail biopsy in diagnosing onychomycosis in HIV-infected and immunocompetent adults and compare it with mycological examination. Methods: 34 HIV-positive patients who presented clinically with onychomycosis were recruited in the study from the beginning. There was no screening done for patients with onychomycosis. This has been clarified in manuscript under the heading of methods. Results: All the fungal cultures yielded dermatophytes correlating with the biopsy findings. Only hyphal form of fungus was detected in KOH examination, indicating it was not a contaminant. Clinical types of onychomycosis are stated in discussion. Conclusions: PAS stain of subungual hyperkeratosis nail biopsy was the most sensitive in the diagnosis of onychomycosis in both HIV-infected and non-infected groups.

  19. Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    Intensity and line profile measurements of the spectra of light hydrogenic ion which are excited by charge exchange reactions with fast neutral atoms are being widely used as diagnostics for fusion plasma research. This technique, which is referred to as charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, allows measurements of the densities of fully stripped impurity ions and particle transport coefficients with only minor uncertainties arising from atomic processes. The excitation of long wavelength transitions in light ions such as He + , C 5+ , and O 7+ allows relatively easy measurements of ion velocity distributions to determine ion temperatures and plasma rotation velocities. Among its advantages for such measurements are the facts that fiber optic coupling between a remote spectrometer and the immediate reactor environment is possible in many cases. The measurement is localized by the intersection region of a neutral beamline and viewing sightline, and intrinsic ions can be used so that injection of potentially perturbing impurities can be avoided. A particularly challenging application of this technique lies in the diagnosis of alpha particles expected to be produced in the present generation of Q approx. = 1 tokamak experiments

  20. Diagnostic tools for identifying sleepy drivers in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    The overarching goal of this project was to identify and evaluate cognitive and behavioral indices that are sensitive to sleep : deprivation and may help identify commercial motor vehicle drivers (CMV) who are at-risk for driving in a sleep deprived ...

  1. Blood culture-negative endocarditis: Improving the diagnostic yield using new diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Gouriet, Frédérique; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Lepidi, Hubert; Chaudet, Hervé; Thuny, Franck; Collart, Frédéric; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2017-11-01

    Blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) may represent up to 70% of all endocarditis cases, depending on series. From 2001 to 2009, we implemented in our laboratory a multimodal diagnostic strategy for BCNE that included systematized testing of blood, and when available, valvular biopsy specimens using serological, broad range molecular, and histopathological assays. A causative microorganism was identified in 62.7% of patients.In this study from January 2010 to December 2015, in an effort to increase the number of identified causative microorganisms, we prospectively added to our diagnostic protocol specific real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting various endocarditis agents, and applied them to all patients with BCNE admitted to the 4 public hospitals in Marseille, France.A total of 283 patients with BCNE were included in the study. Of these, 177 were classified as having definite endocarditis. Using our new multimodal diagnostic strategy, we identified an etiology in 138 patients (78.0% of cases). Of these, 3 were not infective (2.2%) and 1 was diagnosed as having Mycobacterium bovis BCG endocarditis. By adding specific PCR assays from blood and valvular biopsies, which exhibited a significantly greater sensitivity (P < 10) than other methods, causative agents, mostly enterococci, streptococci, and zoonotic microorganisms, were identified in an additional 27 patients (14 from valves only, 11 from blood only, and 2 from both). Finally, in another 107 patients, a pathogen was detected using serology in 37, valve culture in 8, broad spectrum PCR from valvular biopsies and blood in 19 and 2, respectively, immunohistochemistry from valves in 3, and a combination of several assays in 38.By adding specific RT-PCR assays to our systematic PCR testing of patients with BCNE, we increased the diagnostic efficiency by 24.3%, mostly by detecting enterococci and streptococci that had not been detected by other diagnostic methods, but also agents

  2. Acquaintance to Artificial Neural Networks and use of artificial intelligence as a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dande, Payal; Samant, Purva

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis [TB] has afflicted numerous nations in the world. As per a report by the World Health Organization [WHO], an estimated 1.4 million TB deaths in 2015 and an additional 0.4 million deaths resulting from TB disease among people living with HIV, were observed. Most of the TB deaths can be prevented if it is detected at an early stage. The existing processes of diagnosis like blood tests or sputum tests are not only tedious but also take a long time for analysis and cannot differentiate between different drug resistant stages of TB. The need to find newer prompt methods for disease detection has been aided by the latest Artificial Intelligence [AI] tools. Artificial Neural Network [ANN] is one of the important tools that is being used widely in diagnosis and evaluation of medical conditions. This review aims at providing brief introduction to various AI tools that are used in TB detection and gives a detailed description about the utilization of ANN as an efficient diagnostic technique. The paper also provides a critical assessment of ANN and the existing techniques for their diagnosis of TB. Researchers and Practitioners in the field are looking forward to use ANN and other upcoming AI tools such as Fuzzy-logic, genetic algorithms and artificial intelligence simulation as a promising current and future technology tools towards tackling the global menace of Tuberculosis. Latest advancements in the diagnostic field include the combined use of ANN with various other AI tools like the Fuzzy-logic, which has led to an increase in the efficacy and specificity of the diagnostic techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Helicons in uniform fields. I. Wave diagnostics with hodograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    The wave equation for whistler waves is well known and has been solved in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates, yielding plane waves and cylindrical waves. In space plasmas, waves are usually assumed to be plane waves; in small laboratory plasmas, they are often assumed to be cylindrical "helicon" eigenmodes. Experimental observations fall in between both models. Real waves are usually bounded and may rotate like helicons. Such helicons are studied experimentally in a large laboratory plasma which is essentially a uniform, unbounded plasma. The waves are excited by loop antennas whose properties determine the field rotation and transverse dimensions. Both m = 0 and m = 1 helicon modes are produced and analyzed by measuring the wave magnetic field in three dimensional space and time. From Ampère's law and Ohm's law, the current density and electric field vectors are obtained. Hodograms for these vectors are produced. The sign ambiguity of the hodogram normal with respect to the direction of wave propagation is demonstrated. In general, electric and magnetic hodograms differ but both together yield the wave vector direction unambiguously. Vector fields of the hodogram normal yield the phase flow including phase rotation for helicons. Some helicons can have locally a linear polarization which is identified by the hodogram ellipticity. Alternatively the amplitude oscillation in time yields a measure for the wave polarization. It is shown that wave interference produces linear polarization. These observations emphasize that single point hodogram measurements are inadequate to determine the wave topology unless assuming plane waves. Observations of linear polarization indicate wave packets but not plane waves. A simple qualitative diagnostics for the wave polarization is the measurement of the magnetic field magnitude in time. Circular polarization has a constant amplitude; linear polarization results in amplitude modulations.

  4. Hyperspectral imaging as a diagnostic tool for chronic skin ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denstedt, Martin; Pukstad, Brita S.; Paluchowski, Lukasz A.; Hernandez-Palacios, Julio E.; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2013-03-01

    The healing process of chronic wounds is complex, and the complete pathogenesis is not known. Diagnosis is currently based on visual inspection, biopsies and collection of samples from the wound surface. This is often time consuming, expensive and to some extent subjective procedures. Hyperspectral imaging has been shown to be a promising modality for optical diagnostics. The main objective of this study was to identify a suitable technique for reproducible classification of hyperspectral data from a wound and the surrounding tissue. Two statistical classification methods have been tested and compared to the performance of a dermatologist. Hyperspectral images (400-1000 nm) were collected from patients with venous leg ulcers using a pushbroom-scanning camera (VNIR 1600, Norsk Elektro Optikk AS).Wounds were examined regularly over 4 - 6 weeks. The patients were evaluated by a dermatologist at every appointment. One patient has been selected for presentation in this paper (female, age 53 years). The oxygen saturation of the wound area was determined by wavelength ratio metrics. Spectral angle mapping (SAM) and k-means clustering were used for classification. Automatic extraction of endmember spectra was employed to minimize human interaction. A comparison of the methods shows that k-means clustering is the most stable method over time, and shows the best overlap with the dermatologist's assessment of the wound border. The results are assumed to be affected by the data preprocessing and chosen endmember extraction algorithm. Results indicate that it is possible to develop an automated method for reliable classification of wounds based on hyperspectral data.

  5. Dogs as a diagnostic tool for ill health in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Deborah L

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have long reported that dogs and cats improve the physical and psychological health of their human caregivers, and while it is still inconclusive, a substantial amount of research now lends support for the commonly held view that pets are good for us. Recently, studies have directed attention toward exploring the use of animals, most notably dogs, in the detection of disease and other types of health problems in people. This article reviews the evidence for dogs' ability to detect ill health in humans, focusing specifically on the detection of cancer, epileptic seizures, and hypoglycemia. The author describes the research carried out in this area and evaluates it in an effort to determine whether dogs have a role to play in modern health care as an alert tool or screening system for ill health. Where necessary, the author has highlighted weaknesses in the work and proposed directions for future studies.

  6. The diagnostic value of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Sung Chul; Han, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sung Won

    2011-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most prevalent male ejaculation disorder. The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the DSM-IV-TR criteria in diagnostic PE. To evaluate the diagnostic value of the PEDT and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). (i) Korean validation of PEDT: data was collected from men interviewed by one of the two clinical experts, who made a diagnostic of present or absence of PE, using DSM-IV-TR criteria. A total of 103 patients with PE and 100 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the PEDT; and (ii) The correlation between IELT and PEDT: 200 participants were enrolled and each participant was asked to make out PEDT. All participants were requested to measure IELT. Validity and reliability of the PEDT and its association with IELT. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 115.37 ± 78.14 seconds. The number of men reporting IELTs of 2 minutes were 28 (28.6%), 29 (29.6%), and 41 (41.8%), respectively. The Cronbach's alpha score was calculated as 0.93, showing adequate internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.72 and the correlation coefficients of the total score was 0.88. (P IELT showed an adequate negative correlation. (ρ = -0.77, P IELT ≤ 2 minutes) and IELT showed a negative correlation. (ρ = -0.6, P < 0.0001) The PEDT was highly effective in detecting the presence of PE. The result of our study supports its validity as a diagnostic tool in the clinical setting. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Synthesis and Development of Diagnostic Tools for Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Henrik

    was the synthesis of different materials. The first project introduces the development of injectable fiducial markers within the field of image-guided radiotherapy. Fiducial markers for computed tomography (CT)-imaging are today needed in order to correlate the positioning of the tumor to provide a more precise...... loading of liposomes. Long circulating contrast agents for blood pool imaging by CT-imaging are of interest due to the current limitations of short retention times and the considerable amounts needed to achieve a proper contrast. A small library of contrast agents designed for remote loading of liposomes...

  8. A Quantitative Tool for Producing DNA-Based Diagnostic Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom J. Whitaker

    2008-07-11

    The purpose of this project was to develop a precise, quantitative method to analyze oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on an array to enable a systematic approach to quality control issues affecting DNA microarrays. Two types of ODN's were tested; ODN's formed by photolithography and ODN's printed onto microarrays. Initial work in Phase I, performed in conjunction with Affymetrix, Inc. who has a patent on a photolithographic in situ technique for creating DNA arrays, was very promising but did seem to indicate that the atomization process was not complete. Soon after Phase II work was under way, Affymetrix had further developed fluorescent methods and indicated they were no longer interested in our resonance ionization technique. This was communicated to the program manager and it was decided that the project would continue and be focused on printed ODNs. The method being tested is called SIRIS, Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy. SIRIS has been shown to be a highly sensitive, selective, and quantitative tool for atomic species. This project was aimed at determining if an ODN could be labeled in such a way that SIRIS could be used to measure the label and thus provide quantitative measurements of the ODN on an array. One of the largest problems in this study has been developing a method that allows us to know the amount of an ODN on a surface independent of the SIRIS measurement. Even though we could accurately determine the amount of ODN deposited on a surface, the amount that actually attached to the surface is very difficult to measure (hence the need for a quantitative tool). A double-labeling procedure was developed in which 33P and Pt were both used to label ODNs. The radioactive 33P could be measured by a proportional counter that maps the counts in one dimension. This gave a good measurement of the amount of ODN remaining on a surface after immobilization and washing. A second label, Pt, was attached to guanine nucleotides in the

  9. Watershed modeling tools and data for prognostic and diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambel-Leitao, P.; Brito, D.; Neves, R.

    2009-04-01

    When eutrophication is considered an important process to control it can be accomplished reducing nitrogen and phosphorus losses from both point and nonpoint sources and helping to assess the effectiveness of the pollution reduction strategy. HARP-NUT guidelines (Guidelines on Harmonized Quantification and Reporting Procedures for Nutrients) (Borgvang & Selvik, 2000) are presented by OSPAR as the best common quantification and reporting procedures for calculating the reduction of nutrient inputs. In 2000, OSPAR HARP-NUT guidelines on a trial basis. They were intended to serve as a tool for OSPAR Contracting Parties to report, in a harmonized manner, their different commitments, present or future, with regard to nutrients under the OSPAR Convention, in particular the "Strategy to Combat Eutrophication". HARP-NUT Guidelines (Borgvang and Selvik, 2000; Schoumans, 2003) were developed to quantify and report on the individual sources of nitrogen and phosphorus discharges/losses to surface waters (Source Orientated Approach). These results can be compared to nitrogen and phosphorus figures with the total riverine loads measured at downstream monitoring points (Load Orientated Approach), as load reconciliation. Nitrogen and phosphorus retention in river systems represents the connecting link between the "Source Orientated Approach" and the "Load Orientated Approach". Both approaches are necessary for verification purposes and both may be needed for providing the information required for the various commitments. Guidelines 2,3,4,5 are mainly concerned with the sources estimation. They present a set of simple calculations that allow the estimation of the origin of loads. Guideline 6 is a particular case where the application of a model is advised, in order to estimate the sources of nutrients from diffuse sources associated with land use/land cover. The model chosen for this was SWAT (Arnold & Fohrer, 2005) model because it is suggested in the guideline 6 and because it

  10. Lacrimination in Sjogren′s syndrome. Is Schirmer′s test really a useful diagnostic tool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhadoria D

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, Schinier′s test was used as a diagnostic tool in Sjogren′s Syndrome. In this study, a comparison of 100 normal patients with 2l patients with Sjogren′s Syndrome has been made to study its reliability. It has been concluded that Schimer′s test is of a poor diagnostic value in Sjogren′s Syndrome.

  11. Exploring the Knowledge Management Index as a Performance Diagnostic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Crnkovic

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge management index (KMI has been proposed as a parsimonious and useful tool to help organizations gauge their knowledge management (KM capabilities. This may be the first step in understanding the difference between what an organization is currently doing and what it needs to do in order to maintain and improve its performance level. At the macro level, the index enables organizations to compare themselves with each other. At the micro level, it calls attention to areas needing improvement in current and future KM initiatives. In either case, the KMI provides a robust indicator and basis for business decision-making and organizational support and development. This paper presents a holistic approach to KM that relates key knowledge management processes (KMP and critical success factors (CSF needed to successfully implement it. By juxtaposing these processes and success factors, we create Belardo's matrix that will enable us to characterize an organization and estimate the KMI. At the macro level, we used realized KMI values and OP estimates to confirm the positive correlation between the KMI and OP. Additional findings include comparing the current and expected role of KM in organizations and discussion for marginal values of rows (CSF and columns (KM Processes of the proposed matrix.

  12. Research and development of an aimed magnetic lead current density-magnetic field diagnostic. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A diagnostics survey was made to provide a clear definition of advanced diagnostic needs and the limitations of current approaches in addressing those needs. Special attention was given to the adequacy with which current diagnostics are interfaced to signal processing/data acquisition devices and systems. Critical evaluations of selected alternative diagnostic techniques for future R and D activities are presented. The conceptual basis of the Aimed Magnetic Lead Gradiometric system as a current density/magnetic field diagnostic is established

  13. The MDP skull uptake test: A new diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ell, P.J.; Jarritt, P.H.; Cullum, I.; Lui, D.

    1984-01-01

    An original approach to the measurement of bone turnover is presented. With SPECT, the authors have measured in pgr/ml, the uptake of MDP by the skull in man. The Cleon 710 scanner, ring phantoms and bone biopsies were used for ultimate in vivo/in vitro count recovery correlation and calibration. A normal range for 24 patients was found: 8.5 to 19.5 pgr/ml with a mean of 14. For patients with bony metastases (12), the values were: 22.5 to 50, mean of 30. For 5 patients with osteomalacia, the values were 46 to 68, mean of 62: for 12 patients with hyperparathyroidism, the values were 37 to 48.5, mean of 43. In 3 patients with Pagets disease, the values were 58.5 to 75, with a mean of 65. In 76 patients with metastatic disease to bone, the conventional wholebody bone scan was investigated against the following: 24h wholebody retention of MDP (WBR), skull uptake as described and GFR by Cr-51-DTPA. There is a correlation between GFR and WBR - r=0.67. There is a lesser correlation between GFR and skull uptake - r=0.3. There is no correlation between skull uptake and WBR - r=0.1. The comparison of skull uptake data with normal whole body bone scans leads to a significant proportion of cancer patients with positive skull uptake data. Monostotic disease (especially if metabolic in nature) expresses itself by abnormal skull uptake even if the clinical site of abnormality lies outside the skull. This new technique is ideal as a tool to investigate phosphonate concentration in bone. With it, the authors have shown the effect of specific activity of label on skull uptake, which increases as the specific activity of labelled MDP decreases

  14. Eosin fluorescence: A diagnostic tool for quantification of liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamid; Ali, Safdar; Mazhar, Maryam; Ali, Amjad; Jahan, Azra; Ali, Abid

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis is one of the most common life threatening diseases. The diagnosis is mainly based on biochemical analysis such as liver function test. However, histopathological evaluation of liver serves far better for more accurate final diagnosis. The goal of our study was to evaluate the eosin fluorescence pattern in CCl 4 -induced liver injury model compared with normal and different treatment groups. For this purpose, liver tissues were stained with H/E and examined under bright field microscope but the fluorescence microscopy of H/E stained slides provided an interesting fluorescence pattern and was quite helpful in identifying different structures. Interesting fluorescence patterns were obtained with FITC, Texas Red and Dual channel filter cubes that were quite helpful in identifying different morphological features of the liver. During the course of hepatic injury, liver cells undergo necrosis, apoptosis and overall cellular microenvironment is altered due to the modification of proteins and other intracellular molecules. Intensified eosin fluorescence was observed around the central vein of injured liver compared to normal indicating enhanced binding of eosin to the more exposed amino acid residues. To conclude, eosin fluorescence pattern varies with the health status of a tissue and can be used further for the diagnosis and quantification of severity of various liver diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia: which diagnostic tool is superior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, Susan E

    2003-12-01

    As flexible endoscopic examinations of swallowing become more widely used to evaluate patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia, it is important to be aware of research regarding the efficacy of this procedure as compared with the videofluoroscopy procedure. A recent evidence-based review of the field threw some long-held findings into question and has stimulated a surge of new research studying the sensitivity of the two instrumental examinations, health outcomes of patients who receive each procedure, and a look at different patient outcomes. Since 1999, one quasi-randomized clinical trial has directly compared outcomes of patients given a fluoroscopy versus a fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) examination. This study showed no significant difference in pneumonia rates between the two groups of patients. A multitude of studies have shown a high level of agreement between the two instrumental examinations, and the use of the term gold standard as applied to fluoroscopy is no longer appropriate. The attempt to standardize each examination has been slow, and inter-judge reliability of results has come under fire. Several new scales for quality of life and functional status are now ready to be applied to research that can measure outcomes other than pneumonia. Research to date has suggested that both instrumental examinations are valuable. It is likely that both will continue to be used and will be seen as complementary rather than competitors.

  16. Self-calibrating magnetic field diagnostics in beam emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voslamber, D.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic field diagnostics in tokamaks using the motional Stark effect in fast neutral beams have been based on two kinds of polarimetry which we call ''static'' and ''dynamic.'' A detailed analysis shows that static polarimetry presents a number of advantages over dynamic polarimetry, provided it is made complete in the sense that a sufficient number of polarization analyzers are installed and different parts of the spectrum are explored to yield full information on the set of unknowns inherent in the problem. A detailed scheme of complete static polarimetry is proposed, including the case where an in-vessel mirror with changing characteristics (coating by impurities) is placed in front of the optical detection system. The main merit of this scheme relies on the fact that it is self-calibrating with respect to both the characteristics of the mirror and the transmission of the different polarization channels, the latter item implying that it is uniquely based on relative measurements of spectra. Further advantages are a greater flexibility with regard to different kinds of diagnostics and the circumstance that the technical equipment is less involved. The above scheme is based on a detection system of moderate etendue exploiting a large spectral domain, which is the regime where static polarimetry usually operates. It is also possible, however, to work with large etendue and a small spectral domain, such as commonly adopted in dynamic polarimetry. Using such a regime, static polarimetry loses the advantages mentioned above but gains, as a new advantage, the benefit of a comparatively lower level of photon noise. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  17. Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma and Magnetic Field Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaa, Jaakko Hannes; Leung, Ka Ngo; Kwan, Joe W.; Levinton, Fred

    2007-01-01

    At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) a diagnostic neutral beam injection system for measuring plasma parameters, flow velocity, and local magnetic field is being developed. High proton fraction and small divergence is essential for diagnostic neutral beams. In our design, a neutral hydrogen beam with an 8 cm x 11 cm (or smaller) elliptical beam spot at 2.5 m from the end of the extraction column is produced. The beam will deliver up to 5 A of hydrogen beam to the target with a pulse width of ∼1 s, once every 1-2 min. The H1+ ion species of the hydrogen beam will be over 90 percent. For this application, we have compared two types of RF driven multicusp ion sources operating at 13.56MHz. The first one is an ion source with an external spiral antenna behind a dielectric RF-window. The second one uses an internal antenna in similar ion source geometry. The source needs to generate uniform plasma over a large (8 cm x 5 cm) extraction area. We expect that the ion source with internal antenna will be more efficient at producing the desired plasma density but might have the issue of limited antenna lifetime, depending on the duty factor. For both approaches there is a need for extra shielding to protect the dielectric materials from the backstreaming electrons. The source walls will be made of insulator material such as quartz that has been observed to generate plasma with higher atomic fraction than sources with metal walls. The ion beam will be extracted and accelerated by a set of grids with slits, thus forming an array of 6 sheet-shaped beamlets. The multiple grid extraction will be optimized using computer simulation programs. Neutralization of the beam will be done in neutralization chamber, which has over 70 percent neutralization efficiency

  18. Diagnostic Tools for Doctors' Evaluation of Tattoo Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of tattoo complications is a multi-facetted field since many clinical entities and disease mechanisms are represented. Infections, allergies, and pigment foreign body reactions with granuloma are the major groups. The clinician needs a structured approach to diagnosis and an armamentarium of standard tests. Diagnosis primarily builds on patient history, objective clinical examination, and punch biopsy, supplemented with microbiology testing, ultrasound scanning, and clinical photography. Evaluation of allergic tattoo reactions and allergy to pigments by patch testing is not applicable and has a falsely negative outcome except for the diagnosis of allergy to metals and preservatives. Simple inspection of raw punch biopsies from chronic tattoo reactions, preferably evaluated with stereo microscopy, provides important information about the density and the local distribution of tattoo pigment in the dermis and changes of micro- anatomical skin structures. Histology may show subtle structural changes, but traditional patterns (lichenoid reaction, pseudolymphoma, granuloma, and pseudoepitheliomatous epidermal hyperplasia) are of little or no help in the diagnosis since the patterns overlap and have no distinct clinical correlates. Histology cannot separate allergic and nonallergic reactions. However, granulomatous reaction and sarcoid granuloma are significant findings since papulonodular reaction of black tattoos and sarcoidosis are strongly associated with each other. 20-MHz ultrasound scanning is important for noninvasive imaging and characterization of inflammatory tattoo reactions and can be used preoperatively as guide to treatment. Electron microscopy can visualize pigment particles in tissues, cells, and tattoo inks. Chemicals of pigment in tissues and in tattoo inks can be analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Diagnostic framework and health check tool for engineering and technology projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Philbin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Development of a practitioner oriented diagnostic framework and health check tool to support the robust assessment of engineering and technology projects.Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a literature review that draws together insights on project assessment and critical success factors to establish an integrated systems view of projects. This is extended to allow a comprehensive diagnostic framework to be developed along with a high-level health check tool that can be readily deployed on projects. The utility of the diagnostic framework and health check tool are explored through three illustrative case studies, with two from Canada and one from the United Kingdom. Findings andOriginality/value: The performance of engineering and technology projects can be viewed through a systems perspective and being a function of six sub-systems that are: process, technology, resources, impact, knowledge and culture. The diagnostic framework that is developed through this research integrates these sub-systems to provide a comprehensive assessment methodology for projects, which is linked to existing best practice for project reviews, performance management and maturity models. The case studies provide managerial insights that are related to the diagnostic framework but crucially also position the approach in the context of industrial applications for construction engineering and technology management.Research limitations/implications: The case study approach includes two case studies from the construction and facilities development sector with the third case study from the research and technology sector. Further work is required to investigate the use of the diagnostic framework and health check tool in other sectors.Practical implications: The health check tool will be of practical benefit to new projects managers that require access to a robust and convenient project review methodology for assessing the status and health of a

  20. Nanotechnology solutions for Alzheimer's disease: advances in research tools, diagnostic methods and therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazem, Amir; Mansoori, G Ali

    2008-03-01

    A century of research has passed since the discovery and definition of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the primary common dementing disorder worldwide. However, AD lacks definite diagnostic approaches and effective cure at the present. Moreover, the currently available diagnostic tools are not sufficient for an early screening of AD in order to start preventive approaches. Recently the emerging field of nanotechnology has promised new techniques to solve some of the AD challenges. Nanotechnology refers to the techniques of designing and manufacturing nanosize (1-100 nm) structures through controlled positional and/or self-assembly of atoms and molecules. In this report, we present the promises that nanotechnology brings in research on the AD diagnosis and therapy. They include its potential for the better understanding of the AD root cause molecular mechanisms, AD's early diagnoses, and effective treatment. The advances in AD research offered by the atomic force microscopy, single molecule fluorescence microscopy and NanoSIMS microscopy are examined here. In addition, the recently proposed applications of nanotechnology for the early diagnosis of AD including bio-barcode assay, localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor, quantum dot and nanomechanical cantilever arrays are analyzed. Applications of nanotechnology in AD therapy including neuroprotections against oxidative stress and anti-amyloid therapeutics, neuroregeneration and drug delivery beyond the blood brain barrier (BBB) are discussed and analyzed. All of these applications could improve the treatment approach of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. The complete cure of AD may become feasible by a combination of nanotechnology and some other novel approaches, like stem cell technology.

  1. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  2. Kite aerial photography (KAP) as a tool for field teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneousl...... a new vantage point to the fieldwork experience....

  3. Fusion proton diagnostic for the C-2 field reversed configurationa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, R. M.; Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Garate, E.; Knapp, K.; Tkachev, A.

    2014-11-01

    Measurements of the flux of fusion products from high temperature plasmas provide valuable insights into the ion energy distribution, as the fusion reaction rate is a very sensitive function of ion energy. In C-2, where field reversed configuration plasmas are formed by the collision of two compact toroids and partially sustained by high power neutral beam injection [M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010); M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012)], measurements of DD fusion neutron flux are used to diagnose ion temperature and study fast ion confinement and dynamics. In this paper, we will describe the development of a new 3 MeV proton detector that will complement existing neutron detectors. The detector is a large area (50 cm2), partially depleted, ion implanted silicon diode operated in a pulse counting regime. While the scintillator-based neutron detectors allow for high time resolution measurements (˜100 kHz), they have no spatial or energy resolution. The proton detector will provide 10 cm spatial resolution, allowing us to determine if the axial distribution of fast ions is consistent with classical fast ion theory or whether anomalous scattering mechanisms are active. We will describe in detail the diagnostic design and present initial data from a neutral beam test chamber.

  4. New diagnostic and therapeutic tools for tuberculosis using anti-ESAT-6/CFP-10 aptamers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rotherham, L

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available to form the heterodimer in vitro. The scientists test the ability of the apmaters to: 1) be used as TB diagnostics tools by detecting the presence of ESAT-6 and/or CFP-10 in blood or sputum samples; 2) inhibit the virulence of M. tuberculosis in vitro...

  5. Salivary glucose as a diagnostic tool in Type II diabetes mellitus: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... glucose level is the key to both diagnosis and management of ... diagnostic, as well as a monitoring tool to assess the glycemic status of Type II ..... Priya SS, Bharani GO, Nagalingam M, Jayanthi M, Kanagavalli U. Potential of ... Agrawal RP, Sharma N, Rathore MS, Gupta VB, Jain S, Agarwal V, et al.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Fall Risk Assessment Tools in People With Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Patricia S.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Kluding, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy affects nearly half of individuals with diabetes and leads to increased fall risk. Evidence addressing fall risk assessment for these individuals is lacking. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify which of 4 functional mobility fall risk assessment tools best discriminates, in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, between recurrent “fallers” and those who are not recurrent fallers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Setting The study was conducted in a medical research university setting. Participants The participants were a convenience sample of 36 individuals between 40 and 65 years of age with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Measurements Fall history was assessed retrospectively and was the criterion standard. Fall risk was assessed using the Functional Reach Test, the Timed “Up & Go” Test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Dynamic Gait Index. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and overall diagnostic accuracy were calculated for each fall risk assessment tool. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to estimate modified cutoff scores for each fall risk assessment tool; indexes then were recalculated. Results Ten of the 36 participants were classified as recurrent fallers. When traditional cutoff scores were used, the Dynamic Gait Index and Functional Reach Test demonstrated the highest sensitivity at only 30%; the Dynamic Gait Index also demonstrated the highest overall diagnostic accuracy. When modified cutoff scores were used, all tools demonstrated improved sensitivity (80% or 90%). Overall diagnostic accuracy improved for all tests except the Functional Reach Test; the Timed “Up & Go” Test demonstrated the highest diagnostic accuracy at 88.9%. Limitations The small sample size and retrospective fall history assessment were limitations of the study. Conclusions Modified cutoff scores improved diagnostic accuracy for 3 of 4 fall risk

  7. Cancer-associated fibroblasts as target and tool in cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vlieghere, Elly; Verset, Laurine; Demetter, Pieter; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are drivers of tumour progression and are considered as a target and a tool in cancer diagnostic and therapeutic applications. An increased abundance of CAFs or CAF signatures are recognized as a bad prognostic marker in several cancer types. Tumour-environment biomimetics strongly improve our understanding of the communication between CAFs, cancer cells and other host cells. Several experimental drugs targeting CAFs are in clinical trials for multiple tumour entities; alternatively, CAFs can be exploited as a tool to characterize the functionality of circulating tumour cells or to capture them as a tool to prevent metastasis. The continuous interaction between tissue engineers, biomaterial experts and cancer researchers creates the possibility to biomimic the tumour-environment and provides new opportunities in cancer diagnostics and management.

  8. Novel molecular diagnostic tools for malaria elimination: a review of options from the point of view of high-throughput and applicability in resource limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Sumudu; Cheng, Qin; McCarthy, James S

    2016-02-16

    As malaria transmission continues to decrease, an increasing number of countries will enter pre-elimination and elimination. To interrupt transmission, changes in control strategies are likely to require more accurate identification of all carriers of Plasmodium parasites, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, using diagnostic tools that are highly sensitive, high throughput and with fast turnaround times preferably performed in local health service settings. Currently available immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid diagnostic tests and field microscopy are unlikely to consistently detect infections at parasite densities less than 100 parasites/µL making them insufficiently sensitive for detecting all carriers. Molecular diagnostic platforms, such as PCR and LAMP, are currently available in reference laboratories, but at a cost both financially and in turnaround time. This review describes the recent progress in developing molecular diagnostic tools in terms of their capacity for high throughput and potential for performance in non-reference laboratories for malaria elimination.

  9. Development of a high-temperature diagnostics-while-drilling tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavira, David J.; Huey, David (Stress Engineering Services, Inc.); Hetmaniak, Chris (Stress Engineering Services, Inc.); Polsky, Yarom; King, Dennis K.; Jacobson, Ronald David; Blankenship, Douglas Alan; Knudsen, Steven Dell; Henfling, Joseph Anthony; Mansure, Arthur James

    2009-01-01

    The envisioned benefits of Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD) are based on the principle that high-speed, real-time information from the downhole environment will promote better control of the drilling process. Although in practice a DWD system could provide information related to any aspect of exploration and production of subsurface resources, the current DWD system provides data on drilling dynamics. This particular set of new tools provided by DWD will allow quicker detection of problems, reduce drilling flat-time and facilitate more efficient drilling (drilling optimization) with the overarching result of decreased drilling costs. In addition to providing the driller with an improved, real-time picture of the drilling conditions downhole, data generated from DWD systems provides researchers with valuable, high fidelity data sets necessary for developing and validating enhanced understanding of the drilling process. Toward this end, the availability of DWD creates a synergy with other Sandia Geothermal programs, such as the hard-rock bit program, where the introduction of alternative rock-reduction technologies are contingent on the reduction or elimination of damaging dynamic effects. More detailed descriptions of the rationale for the program and early development efforts are described in more detail by others [SAND2003-2069 and SAND2000-0239]. A first-generation low-temperature (LT) DWD system was fielded in a series of proof-of-concept tests (POC) to validate functionality. Using the LT system, DWD was subsequently used to support a single-laboratory/multiple-partner CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) entitled Advanced Drag Bits for Hard-Rock Drilling. The drag-bit CRADA was established between Sandia and four bit companies, and involved testing of a PDC bit from each company [Wise, et al., 2003, 2004] in the same lithologic interval at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) test facility near Catoosa, OK. In addition, the LT DWD system has

  10. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation as a Diagnostic Tool for the LCLS Longitudinal Feedback System

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao; Huang, Zhirong

    2005-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). To ensure the vitality of FEL lasing, a longitudinal feedback system is required together with other diagnostics. In this paper, we study the possibility of using Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) from the chicane as the diagnostic tool for bunch length feedback. Calculations show that CSR is a good candidate, even for the non-Gaussian, double-horn longitudinal charge distribution. We further check the feasibility for low and high charge options, and also the possibility for detecting the microbunching.

  11. Mass spectrometry based proteomics profiling as diagnostic tool in oncology: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Peter; Neumaier, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics analysis has been heralded as a novel tool for identifying new and specific biomarkers that may improve diagnosis and monitoring of various disease states. Recent years have brought a number of proteomics profiling technologies. Although proteomics profiling has resulted in the detection of disease-associated differences and modification of proteins, current proteomics technologies display certain limitations that are hampering the introduction of these new technologies into clinical laboratory diagnostics and routine applications. In this review, we summarize current advances in mass spectrometry based biomarker discovery. The promises and challenges of this new technology are discussed with particular emphasis on diagnostic perspectives of mass-spectrometry based proteomics profiling for malignant diseases.

  12. Field-programmable custom computing technology architectures, tools, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Luk, Wayne; Pocek, Ken

    2000-01-01

    Field-Programmable Custom Computing Technology: Architectures, Tools, and Applications brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast-moving area. In seven selected chapters, the book describes the latest advances in architectures, design methods, and applications of field-programmable devices for high-performance reconfigurable systems. The contributors to this work were selected from the leading researchers and practitioners in the field. It will be valuable to anyone working or researching in the field of custom computing technology. It serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging issues being examined today.

  13. CRISP. Simulation tool for fault detection and diagnostics in high-DG power networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontela, M.; Andrieu, C.; Raison, B.

    2004-08-01

    This document gives a description of a tool proposed for fault detection and diagnostics. The main principles of the functions of fault localization are described and detailed for a given MV network that will be used for the ICT experiment in Grenoble (experiment 3B). The aim of the tool is to create a technical, simple and realistic context for testing ICT dedicated to an electrical application. The tool gives the expected inputs and outputs contents of the various distributed ICT components when a fault occurs in a given MV network. So the requirements for the ICT components are given in term of expected data collected, analysed and transmitted. Several examples are given in order to illustrate the inputs/outputs in case of different faults. The tool includes a topology description which is a main aspect to develop in the future for managing the distribution network. Updating topology in real time will become necessary for fault diagnostic and protection, but also necessary for the various possible added applications (local market balance and local electrical power quality for instance). The tool gives a context and a simple view for the ICT components behaviours assuming an ideal response and transmission from them. The real characteristics and possible limitations for the ICT (information latency, congestion, security) will be established during the experiments from the same context described in the HTFD tool

  14. A field-deployable mobile molecular diagnostic system for malaria at the point of need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gihoon; Song, Daniel; Shrestha, Sony; Miao, Jun; Cui, Liwang; Guan, Weihua

    2016-11-01

    In response to the urgent need of a field-deployable and highly sensitive malaria diagnosis, we developed a standalone, "sample-in-answer-out" molecular diagnostic system (AnyMDx) to enable quantitative molecular analysis of blood-borne malaria in low resource areas. The system consists of a durable battery-powered analyzer and a disposable microfluidic compact disc loaded with reagents ready for use. A low power thermal module and a novel fluorescence-sensing module are integrated into the analyzer for real-time monitoring of loop-mediated isothermal nucleic acid amplification (LAMP) of target parasite DNA. With 10 μL of raw blood sample, the AnyMDx system automates the nucleic acid sample preparation and subsequent LAMP and real-time detection. Under laboratory conditions with whole-blood samples spiked with cultured Plasmodium falciparum, we achieved a detection limit of ∼0.6 parasite per μL, much lower than those for the conventional microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (∼50-100 parasites per μL). The turnaround time from sample to answer is less than 40 minutes. The AnyMDx is user-friendly requiring minimal technological training. The analyzer and the disposable reagent compact discs are cost-effective, making AnyMDx a potential tool for malaria molecular diagnosis under field settings for malaria elimination.

  15. A survey of diagnostic ultrasound within the physiotherapy profession for the design of future training tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKiernan, Sharmaine; Chiarelli, Pauline; Warren-Forward, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of diagnostic ultrasound outside of the traditional radiology profession into the physiotherapy profession is occurring. The purpose of this study was to determine if physiotherapists are purchasing diagnostic ultrasound machines, receiving training in the modality and what imaging procedures they are performing. For the design of future training tools, also investigated were the methods of training that physiotherapists might find most beneficial and what content they deem necessary to be covered during such training for the use of diagnostic ultrasound for their profession. An e-mail invitation was sent to physiotherapists throughout Australian who were registered on two databases, asking them to complete a web based survey. The survey was comprised of 18 questions including open and closed items. The data was then categorised into themes in accordance with the purpose of the study. Of the respondents, 39% did not own a diagnostic ultrasound machine, 33% had access to a machine that was owned by their employer and 18% actually owned a machine themselves. Training in diagnostic ultrasound had been received by 61% of the respondents however for 67% of those who had been trained, this training had only lasted for several hours, not days or weeks. For future training in ultrasound the majority of respondents would prefer either a workshop or DVD to cover imaging anatomy, the use of machine controls and scanning the pelvic floor, abdominal muscles and shoulder. From this survey it can be concluded that physiotherapists have an interest in or are using diagnostic ultrasound in their practice. While some form of training is being provided, further training is considered necessary and wanted by the physiotherapists so training tools need to be developed.

  16. A survey of diagnostic ultrasound within the physiotherapy profession for the design of future training tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKiernan, Sharmaine, E-mail: sharmaine.mckiernan@newcastle.edu.a [School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia); Chiarelli, Pauline; Warren-Forward, Helen [School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    The expansion of diagnostic ultrasound outside of the traditional radiology profession into the physiotherapy profession is occurring. The purpose of this study was to determine if physiotherapists are purchasing diagnostic ultrasound machines, receiving training in the modality and what imaging procedures they are performing. For the design of future training tools, also investigated were the methods of training that physiotherapists might find most beneficial and what content they deem necessary to be covered during such training for the use of diagnostic ultrasound for their profession. An e-mail invitation was sent to physiotherapists throughout Australian who were registered on two databases, asking them to complete a web based survey. The survey was comprised of 18 questions including open and closed items. The data was then categorised into themes in accordance with the purpose of the study. Of the respondents, 39% did not own a diagnostic ultrasound machine, 33% had access to a machine that was owned by their employer and 18% actually owned a machine themselves. Training in diagnostic ultrasound had been received by 61% of the respondents however for 67% of those who had been trained, this training had only lasted for several hours, not days or weeks. For future training in ultrasound the majority of respondents would prefer either a workshop or DVD to cover imaging anatomy, the use of machine controls and scanning the pelvic floor, abdominal muscles and shoulder. From this survey it can be concluded that physiotherapists have an interest in or are using diagnostic ultrasound in their practice. While some form of training is being provided, further training is considered necessary and wanted by the physiotherapists so training tools need to be developed.

  17. Developing a Multi-Dimensional Early Elementary Mathematics Screener and Diagnostic Tool: The Primary Mathematics Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendefur, Jonathan L; Johnson, Evelyn S; Thiede, Keith W; Strother, Sam; Severson, Herb H

    2018-01-01

    There is a critical need to identify primary level students experiencing difficulties in mathematics to provide immediate and targeted instruction that remediates their deficits. However, most early math screening instruments focus only on the concept of number, resulting in inadequate and incomplete information for teachers to design intervention efforts. We propose a mathematics assessment that screens and provides diagnostic information in six domains that are important to building a strong foundation in mathematics. This article describes the conceptual framework and psychometric qualities of a web-based assessment tool, the Primary Math Assessment (PMA). The PMA includes a screener to identify students at risk for poor math outcomes and a diagnostic tool to provide a more in-depth profile of children's specific strengths and weaknesses in mathematics. The PMA allows teachers and school personnel to make better instructional decisions by providing more targeted analyses.

  18. Diagnostic tool for structural health monitoring: effect of material nonlinearity and vibro-impact process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwarkar, V. R.; Babitsky, V. I.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Numerous techniques are available for monitoring structural health. Most of these techniques are expensive and time-consuming. In this paper, vibration-based techniques are explored together with their use as diagnostic tools for structural health monitoring. Finite-element simulations are used to study the effect of material nonlinearity on dynamics of a cracked bar. Additionally, several experiments are performed to study the effect of vibro-impact behavior of crack on its dynamics. It was observed that a change in the natural frequency of the cracked bar due to crack-tip plasticity and vibro-impact behavior linked to interaction of crack faces, obtained from experiments, led to generation of higher harmonics; this can be used as a diagnostic tool for structural health monitoring.

  19. Feasibility of streamlining an interactive Bayesian-based diagnostic support tool designed for clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Hao; Botzolakis, Emmanuel; Mohan, Suyash; Bryan, R. N.; Cook, Tessa

    2016-03-01

    In radiology, diagnostic errors occur either through the failure of detection or incorrect interpretation. Errors are estimated to occur in 30-35% of all exams and contribute to 40-54% of medical malpractice litigations. In this work, we focus on reducing incorrect interpretation of known imaging features. Existing literature categorizes cognitive bias leading a radiologist to an incorrect diagnosis despite having correctly recognized the abnormal imaging features: anchoring bias, framing effect, availability bias, and premature closure. Computational methods make a unique contribution, as they do not exhibit the same cognitive biases as a human. Bayesian networks formalize the diagnostic process. They modify pre-test diagnostic probabilities using clinical and imaging features, arriving at a post-test probability for each possible diagnosis. To translate Bayesian networks to clinical practice, we implemented an entirely web-based open-source software tool. In this tool, the radiologist first selects a network of choice (e.g. basal ganglia). Then, large, clearly labeled buttons displaying salient imaging features are displayed on the screen serving both as a checklist and for input. As the radiologist inputs the value of an extracted imaging feature, the conditional probabilities of each possible diagnosis are updated. The software presents its level of diagnostic discrimination using a Pareto distribution chart, updated with each additional imaging feature. Active collaboration with the clinical radiologist is a feasible approach to software design and leads to design decisions closely coupling the complex mathematics of conditional probability in Bayesian networks with practice.

  20. Proteomics: a tool to develop novel diagnostic methods and unravel molecular mechanisms of pediatric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Arroyo, Angélica; Ruiz-Lara, Arturo; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Méndez-Cruz, Sara Teresa; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara Elvia; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco Javier; Zarate-Mondragón, Flora; Cervantes-Bustamante, Roberto; Bosch-Canto, Vanessa; Vizzuett-López, Iris; Ordaz-Fávila, Juan Carlos; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio

    Proteomics is the study of the expression of changes and post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins along a metabolic condition either normal or pathological. In the field of health, proteomics allows obtaining valuable data for treatment, diagnosis or pathophysiological mechanisms of different illnesses. To illustrate the aforementioned, we describe two projects currently being performed at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría: The immuno-proteomic study of cow milk allergy and the Proteomic study of childhood cataract. Cow's milk proteins (CMP) are the first antigens to which infants are exposed and generate allergy in some of them. In Mexico, the incidence of CMP allergy has been estimated at 5-7%. Clinical manifestations include both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal symptoms, making its diagnosis extremely difficult. An inappropriate diagnosis affects the development and growth of children. The goals of the study are to identify the main immune-reactive CMP in Mexican pediatric population and to design more accurate diagnostic tools for this disease. Childhood cataract is a major ocular disease representing one of the main causes of blindness in infants; in developing countries, this disease promotes up to 27% of cases related to visual loss. From this group, it has been estimated that close to 60% of children do not survive beyond two years after vision lost. PTM have been pointed out as the main cause of protein precipitation at the crystalline and, consequently, clouding of this tissue. The study of childhood cataract represents an outstanding opportunity to identify the PTM associated to the cataract-genesis process. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Beam diagnostic tools for the negative hydrogen ion source test facility ELISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, Riccardo; Fantz, Ursel; Franzen, Peter; Froeschle, Markus; Heinemann, Bernd; Riedl, Rudolf; Ruf, Benjamin; Wuenderlich, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present an overview of beam diagnostic tools foreseen for the new testbed ELISE. ► A sophisticated diagnostic calorimeter allows beam profile measurement. ► A tungsten wire mesh in the beam path provides a qualitative picture of the beam. ► Stripping losses and beam divergence are measured by H α Doppler shift spectroscopy. -- Abstract: The test facility ELISE, presently being commissioned at IPP, is a first step in the R and D roadmap for the RF driven ion source and extraction system of the ITER NBI system. The “half-size” ITER-like test facility includes a negative hydrogen ion source that can be operated for 1 h. ELISE is expected to extract an ion beam of 20 A at 60 kV for 10 s every 3 min, therefore delivering a total power of 1.2 MW. The extraction area has a geometry that closely reproduces the ITER design, with the same width and half the height, i.e. 1 m × 1 m. This paper presents an overview of beam diagnostic tools foreseen for ELISE. For the commissioning phase, a simple beam dump with basic diagnostic capabilities has been installed. In the second phase, the beam dump will be substituted by a more sophisticated diagnostic calorimeter to allow beam profile measurement. Additionally, a tungsten wire mesh will be introduced in the beam path to provide a qualitative picture of beam size and position. Stripping losses and beam divergence will be measured by means of H α Doppler shift spectroscopy. An absolute calibration is foreseen in order to measure beam intensity

  2. Next Generation Diagnostic System (NGDS) Increment 1 Early Fielding Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    the NGDS production representative configuration, which includes a different laptop computer. System Overview The Services intend for the NGDS to...Powder/Surface Water collected on swabs Soil/Sand Animal Blood Vectors (such as insects) Test Adequacy The data from the OA, supplemented by data...results. The medical provider used NGDS diagnostic results to tailor antibiotic treatment to the specific biological agent identified or to cease

  3. Vulnerability analysis of DT fusion diagnostics for laser Megajoule facility. A new tool: Diacad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'hose, C.; Baggio, J.; Musseau, O.

    1999-01-01

    The Megajoule laser (LMJ) project is a major component of the French simulation program to study inertial confinement. This new facility will provide an energy 60 times greater than the largest lasers presently available (Phebus, Nova, Omega). Many diagnostic links will have to be developed in order to acquire complementary knowledge in this domain. A computer based tool has been defined. This paper presents the most recent developments of this new CAD (computer assisted diagnosis) tool. We first describe LMJ context, and then the analysis methodology developed to address the sensitivity to transient radiation of nuclear diagnosis links. This tool takes into account the vulnerability of individual parts and the global structure of the link. (A.C.)

  4. Infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool to indicate sick-house-syndrome: a case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1996-03-01

    function, manload and demand of air flow. Field control inspections were performed partly from the inside and partly from the outside of the building. Microbial activities were investigated by traditional measurements of the emissions and contamination of indoor air, and by ocular inspections and laboratory tests of building materials. Despite the fact that the building studied has a complicated composition of surface materials, including glass, wood, steel and concrete panels, it was possible to indirectly indicate surface anomalies, related to microbial deterioration of organic materials, through mold and rot activities, due to in-exfiltration of humid air, causing moisture problems within the construction. The result from this case-study shows that thermography can become an important diagnostic tool in order to detect and map sick-house-syndromes. The project is to be continued.

  5. MODIFIED ALVARADO SCORING AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN ACUTE APPENDICITIS- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Arun Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute Appendicitis commonest community-acquired intra-abdominal infections. Acute appendicitis and its associated complications are significant source of morbidity and sometimes mortality. The Modified Alvarado Scoring System (MASS has been reported to be a cheap and quick diagnostic tool in patients with acute appendicitis. Diagnostic accuracy have been observed if the scores were applied to various populations and clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Modified Alvarado Scoring System in patients with acute appendicitis in our setting. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of the modified Alvarado score as a diagnostic tool in Acute Appendicitis, as the diagnosis of appendicitis depends on the onset of symptoms and the subjective interpretation of the physical examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective study carried out in Pondicherry Institute of Medical Science during the period of November 2013 to May 2015. This study was done on 50 patients diagnosed with Acute Appendicitis and admitted in General Surgery. RESULTS In this study, there were a total of 50 patients who were taken up for surgery based on clinical and radiological diagnosis. Our study demonstrates that modified Alvarado score applied to all adult patients of acute appendicitis in adults with a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 40% only. Showing it wasn’t efficient in diagnosing acute appendicitis. The positive predictive value shown by our study was 80% which is marginally lower than that explained in literature which reports 87.5%. Negative appendicectomy rate in this study is 12%. CONCLUSION Alvarado score is a non-invasive, safe diagnostic procedure, which is simple, fast reliable and repeatable; it can be used in all conditions, without expensive and complicated supportive diagnostic methods. Alvarado score increases the diagnostic certainty of clinical examination in diagnosis of

  6. Case Report: SPECT/CT as the New Diagnostic Tool for Specific Wrist Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Musters; Ten Broek, M; Kraan, G A

    2017-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography has been introduced as a promising new diagnostic tool in orthopaedic pathology since the early 90'. Computed tomography, the combined with SPECT, gives insight in the specific sight of wrist pathology. Literature already supports introduction of SPECT/CT in wrist pathology, but clinical application is lagging. A 40yr old patient reported first in 2004 with persisting pain after a right distal radius fracture. Several diagnostics and operative interventions were performed, all unsuccessful. Because of the persisting pain a SPECT-CT was performed which showed a cyst in the hamate bone, which was successfully enucleated. The patient was finally pain free at recent follow-up. With a QDash-score of 43 and a PRW (H) E-DLV-score of 58/150. In this case report, SPECT/CT proved a very sensitive diagnostic tool for specific pathology of the wrist. It offered precise localisation and thereby the clinically suspected diagnosis was confirmed and the patient successfully treated.

  7. DsixTools: the standard model effective field theory toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celis, Alejandro [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); Fuentes-Martin, Javier; Vicente, Avelino [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Virto, Javier [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland)

    2017-06-15

    We present DsixTools, a Mathematica package for the handling of the dimension-six standard model effective field theory. Among other features, DsixTools allows the user to perform the full one-loop renormalization group evolution of the Wilson coefficients in the Warsaw basis. This is achieved thanks to the SMEFTrunner module, which implements the full one-loop anomalous dimension matrix previously derived in the literature. In addition, DsixTools also contains modules devoted to the matching to the ΔB = ΔS = 1, 2 and ΔB = ΔC = 1 operators of the Weak Effective Theory at the electroweak scale, and their QCD and QED Renormalization group evolution below the electroweak scale. (orig.)

  8. An update on the use of cerebrospinal fluid analysis as a diagnostic tool in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldi, Matteo; Zardini, Elisabetta; Franciotta, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Intrathecal B-lymphocyte activation is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a multi-factorial inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Such activation has a counterpart in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB), whose diagnostic role in MS has been downgraded within the current McDonald's criteria. With a theoretico-practical approach, the authors review the physiopathological basis of the CSF dynamics, and the state-of-the-art of routine CSF analysis and CSF biomarkers in MS. Areas covered: The authors discuss pros and cons of CSF analysis, including critical evaluations of both well-established, and promising diagnostic and prognostic laboratory tools. New acquisitions on the CSF and cerebral interstitial fluid dynamics are also presented. The authors searched the PubMed database for English-language articles reported between January 2010 and June 2016, using the key words 'multiple sclerosis', 'cerebrospinal fluid', 'oligoclonal bands'. Reference lists of relevant articles were scanned for additional studies. Expert commentary: The availability of performing high-quality, routine CSF tests in specialized laboratories, the emerging potential of novel CSF biomarkers, and the trend for early treatments should induce a reappraisal of CSF analysis for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in MS. Further procedural and methodological improvements seem to be necessary in both research and translational diagnostic CSF settings.

  9. INCLEN diagnostic tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (INDT-ADHD): development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sharmila; Aneja, Satinder; Russell, Paul S S; Gulati, Sheffali; Deshmukh, Vaishali; Sagar, Rajesh; Silberberg, Donald; Bhutani, Vinod K; Pinto, Jennifer M; Durkin, Maureen; Pandey, Ravindra M; Nair, M K C; Arora, Narendra K

    2014-06-01

    To develop and validate INCLEN Diagnostic Tool for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (INDT-ADHD). Diagnostic test evaluation by cross sectional design. Tertiary care pediatric centers. 156 children aged 65-117 months. After randomization, INDT-ADHD and Connors 3 Parent Rating Scale (C3PS) were administered, followed by an expert evaluation by DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. Psychometric evaluation of diagnostic accuracy, validity (construct, criterion and convergent) and internal consistency. INDT-ADHD had 18 items that quantified symptoms and impairment. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was identified in 57, 87 and 116 children by expert evaluation, INDT-ADHD and C3PS, respectively. Psychometric parameters of INDT-ADHD for differentiating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and normal children were: sensitivity 87.7%, specificity 97.2%, positive predictive value 98.0% and negative predictive value 83.3%, whereas for differentiating from other neuro-developmental disorders were 87.7%, 42.9%, 58.1% and 79.4%, respectively. Internal consistency was 0.91. INDT-ADHD has a 4-factor structure explaining 60.4% of the variance. Convergent validity with Conner's Parents Rating Scale was moderate (r =0.73, P= 0.001). INDT-ADHD is suitable for diagnosing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Indian children between the ages of 6 to 9 years.

  10. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  11. Addiction screening and diagnostic tools: 'Refuting' and 'unmasking' claims to legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Robyn; Fraser, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Human practices of all kinds - substance use, gambling, sex, even eating - are increasingly being reframed through the language of addiction. This 'addicting' of contemporary society is achieved, in part, through the screening and diagnostic tools intended to identify and measure addiction. These tools are a key element in the expert knowledge-making through which realities of addiction emerge. Promoted as objective and accurate, the tools are given legitimacy through application of scientific validation techniques. In this article, we critically examine the operations of these validation techniques as applied to substance addiction tools. Framed by feminist and other scholarship that decentres the epistemological guarantees of objectivity and validity, we structure our analysis using Ian Hacking's (1999) concepts of 'refuting' (showing a thesis to be false) and 'unmasking' (undermining a thesis). Under 'refuting', we consider the methodological validation processes on their own terms, identifying contradictory claims, weak findings and inconsistent application of methodological standards. Under 'unmasking', we critically analyse validation as a concept in itself. Here we identify two fundamental problems: symptom learning and feedback effects; and circularity and assumptions of independence and objectivity. Our analysis also highlights the extra-theoretical functions and effects of the tools. Both on their own terms and when subjected to more searching analysis, then, the validity claims the tools make fail to hold up to scrutiny. In concluding, we consider some of the effects of the processes we identify. Not only do these tools make certainty where there is none, we contend, they actively participate in the creation of social objects and social groups, and in shaping affected individuals and their opportunities. In unpacking in detail the legitimacy of the tools, our aim is to open up for further scrutiny the processes by which they go about making (rather than

  12. GPLS VME Module: A Diagnostic and Display Tool for NSLS Micro Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, S.; Smith, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The General Purpose Light Source VME module is an integral part of every front-end micro in the NSLS control system. The board incorporates features such as a video character generator, clock signals, time-of-day clock, a VME bus interrupter and general-purpose digital inputs and outputs. This module serves as a valuable diagnostic and real-time display tool for the micro development as well as for the find operational systems. This paper describes the functions provided by the board for the NSLS micro control monitor software

  13. Magnetic Field Measurements In Magnetized Plasmas Using Zeeman Broadening Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Showera; Wallace, Matthew; Presura, Radu; Neill, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used to measure the magnetic field in high energy density plasmas. This method is limited when plasma conditions are such that the line broadening due to the high plasma density and temperature surpasses the Zeeman splitting. We have measured magnetic fields in magnetized laser plasmas under conditions where the Zeeman splitting was not spectrally resolved. The magnetic field strength was determined from the difference in widths of two doublet components, using an idea proposed by Tessarin et al. (2011). Time-gated spectra with one-dimensional space-resolution were obtained at the Nevada Terawatt Facility for laser plasmas created by 20 J, 1 ns Leopard laser pulses, and expanding in the azimuthal magnetic field produced by the 0.6 MA Zebra pulsed power generator. We explore the response of the Al III 4s 2S1/2 - 4p 2P1 / 2 , 3 / 2 doublet components to the external magnetic field spatially along the plasma. Radial magnetic field and electron density profiles were measured within the plasma plume. This work was supported by the DOE/OFES Grant DE-SC0008829 and DOE/NNSA contract DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  14. Monitoring of lobectomy in cystic fibrosis with electrical impedance tomography - a new diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Sylvia; Tenbrock, Klaus; Schrading, Simone; Pikkemaat, Robert; Antink, Christoph Hoog; Santos, Susana; Spillner, Jan Wilhelm; Wagner, Norbert; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a radiation-free technique generating cross-sectional images of the lung. EIT visualizes global and regional ventilation by illustrating the distribution of electrical bioimpedance. With an electrode belt around the patient's thorax, rotating injection-couples of a harmless alternating current allow voltage measurement of the remaining electrodes. This enables the reconstruction of a tomogram with highly dynamic changes within ventilation. We report on a female six-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis and complete destruction of the upper and middle lobe of the right lung. Lobectomy, a rare therapeutic option in patients with cystic fibrosis that needs to be considered in cases of severe localized destruction, was performed. We show a pre- and postoperative documentation of static (radiology) and dynamic investigation tools (spirometry) in correlation with EIT as a new non-invasive and radiation-free diagnostic tool for this patient group.

  15. A Diagnostics Tool to detect ensemble forecast system anomaly and guide operational decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G. H.; Srivastava, A.; Shrestha, E.; Thiemann, M.; Day, G. N.; Draijer, S.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrologic community is moving toward using ensemble forecasts to take uncertainty into account during the decision-making process. The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) implements several types of ensemble forecasts in their decision-making process: ensemble products for a statistical model (Hirsch and enhanced Hirsch); the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) forecasts based on the classical Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) technique; and the new NWS Hydrologic Ensemble Forecasting Service (HEFS) forecasts. To remove structural error and apply the forecasts to additional forecast points, the DEP post processes both the AHPS and the HEFS forecasts. These ensemble forecasts provide mass quantities of complex data, and drawing conclusions from these forecasts is time-consuming and difficult. The complexity of these forecasts also makes it difficult to identify system failures resulting from poor data, missing forecasts, and server breakdowns. To address these issues, we developed a diagnostic tool that summarizes ensemble forecasts and provides additional information such as historical forecast statistics, forecast skill, and model forcing statistics. This additional information highlights the key information that enables operators to evaluate the forecast in real-time, dynamically interact with the data, and review additional statistics, if needed, to make better decisions. We used Bokeh, a Python interactive visualization library, and a multi-database management system to create this interactive tool. This tool compiles and stores data into HTML pages that allows operators to readily analyze the data with built-in user interaction features. This paper will present a brief description of the ensemble forecasts, forecast verification results, and the intended applications for the diagnostic tool.

  16. Practical tools to implement massive parallel pyrosequencing of PCR products in next generation molecular diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim De Leeneer

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in terms of sequence quality and price per basepair, Sanger sequencing remains restricted to screening of individual disease genes. The development of massively parallel sequencing (MPS technologies heralded an era in which molecular diagnostics for multigenic disorders becomes reality. Here, we outline different PCR amplification based strategies for the screening of a multitude of genes in a patient cohort. We performed a thorough evaluation in terms of set-up, coverage and sequencing variants on the data of 10 GS-FLX experiments (over 200 patients. Crucially, we determined the actual coverage that is required for reliable diagnostic results using MPS, and provide a tool to calculate the number of patients that can be screened in a single run. Finally, we provide an overview of factors contributing to false negative or false positive mutation calls and suggest ways to maximize sensitivity and specificity, both important in a routine setting. By describing practical strategies for screening of multigenic disorders in a multitude of samples and providing answers to questions about minimum required coverage, the number of patients that can be screened in a single run and the factors that may affect sensitivity and specificity we hope to facilitate the implementation of MPS technology in molecular diagnostics.

  17. Use of Aptamers as Diagnostics Tools and Antiviral Agents for Human Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate diagnosis is the key factor for treatment of viral diseases. Time is the most important factor in rapidly developing and epidemiologically dangerous diseases, such as influenza, Ebola and SARS. Chronic viral diseases such as HIV-1 or HCV are asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and the therapeutic success mainly depends on early detection of the infective agent. Over the last years, aptamer technology has been used in a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications and, concretely, several strategies are currently being explored using aptamers against virus proteins. From a diagnostics point of view, aptamers are being designed as a bio-recognition element in diagnostic systems to detect viral proteins either in the blood (serum or plasma or into infected cells. Another potential use of aptamers is for therapeutics of viral infections, interfering in the interaction between the virus and the host using aptamers targeting host-cell matrix receptors, or attacking the virus intracellularly, targeting proteins implicated in the viral replication cycle. In this paper, we review how aptamers working against viral proteins are discovered, with a focus on recent advances that improve the aptamers’ properties as a real tool for viral infection detection and treatment.

  18. Is this the right normalization? A diagnostic tool for ChIP-seq normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Claudia; Heller, Ruth; Volkinshtein, Rita; Yekutieli, Daniel

    2015-05-09

    Chip-seq experiments are becoming a standard approach for genome-wide profiling protein-DNA interactions, such as detecting transcription factor binding sites, histone modification marks and RNA Polymerase II occupancy. However, when comparing a ChIP sample versus a control sample, such as Input DNA, normalization procedures have to be applied in order to remove experimental source of biases. Despite the substantial impact that the choice of the normalization method can have on the results of a ChIP-seq data analysis, their assessment is not fully explored in the literature. In particular, there are no diagnostic tools that show whether the applied normalization is indeed appropriate for the data being analyzed. In this work we propose a novel diagnostic tool to examine the appropriateness of the estimated normalization procedure. By plotting the empirical densities of log relative risks in bins of equal read count, along with the estimated normalization constant, after logarithmic transformation, the researcher is able to assess the appropriateness of the estimated normalization constant. We use the diagnostic plot to evaluate the appropriateness of the estimates obtained by CisGenome, NCIS and CCAT on several real data examples. Moreover, we show the impact that the choice of the normalization constant can have on standard tools for peak calling such as MACS or SICER. Finally, we propose a novel procedure for controlling the FDR using sample swapping. This procedure makes use of the estimated normalization constant in order to gain power over the naive choice of constant (used in MACS and SICER), which is the ratio of the total number of reads in the ChIP and Input samples. Linear normalization approaches aim to estimate a scale factor, r, to adjust for different sequencing depths when comparing ChIP versus Input samples. The estimated scaling factor can easily be incorporated in many peak caller algorithms to improve the accuracy of the peak identification. The

  19. Plasma water as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisier, Annemarie; Maingay-de Groof, Femke; Mast-Harwig, Roechama; Kalkman, Patricia M J; Wulkan, Remi W; Verwers, Renee; Neele, Marjolein; Hop, Wim C J; Groeneweg, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is common in childhood. The estimation of the degree of dehydration is essential for management of acute gastroenteritis. Plasma water was assessed as a diagnostic tool in children with acute gastroenteritis and dehydration admitted to hospital. In a prospective cohort study, 101 patients presenting at the emergency department with dehydration were included. Clinical assessment, routine laboratory tests, and plasma water measurement were performed. Plasma water was measured as a percentage of water content using dry weight method. During admission, patients were rehydrated in 12 h. Weight gain at the end of the rehydration period and 2 weeks thereafter was used to determine the percentage of weight loss as a gold standard for the severity of dehydration. Clinical assessment of dehydration was not significantly associated with the percentage of weight loss. Blood urea nitrogen (r = 0.3, p = 0.03), base excess (r =-0.31, p = 0.03), and serum bicarbonate (r = 0.32, p = 0.02) were significantly correlated with the percentage of weight loss. Plasma water did not correlate with the percentage of weight loss. On the basis of the presented data, plasma water should not be used as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis.

  20. The Limpopo Non-Metropolitan Drinking Water Supplier Response to a Diagnostic Tool for Technical Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefale, Avhashoni D; Kamika, Ilunga; Obi, Chikwelu L; Momba, Maggy Nb

    2017-07-19

    Water services providers should supply water that is fit for human consumption, taking into account multi-barrier approaches and technical aspects such as design aspects, operation monitoring, final water quality compliance monitoring, plant monitoring practices, maintenance, and risk management practices. Against this background, this study focused on applying the diagnostic tool for technical compliance as well as assessing the compliance of water treatment plants with management norms. Six plants in the Vhembe District Municipality were selected; the Vondo, Malamulele, Mutshedzi, and Mutale plants (conventional), and the Dzingahe and Tshedza package plants. During the first assessment, four (Malamulele, Mutshedzi, Mutale and Dzingahe) plants scored between 44% and 49% and achieved Class 3 certification, revealing serious challenges requiring immediate intervention. Two water plants (Vondo and Tshedza, scoring 53% and 63%, respectively) were in the Class 2 category, revealing serious challenges requiring attention and improvement. During the second assessment, all plants scored between 63% and 87% (Class 2 category). The greatest improvement (30%) was noted for the Dzingahe and Tshedza plants, followed by the Malamulele plant, while the Mutale, Vondo, and Mutshedzi plants improved their scores by 20%, 17% and 14%, respectively. After corrective actions and re-measurement, no plant complied. It is recommended that Water Services Providers (WSPs) regularly apply the diagnostic tools and water safety plans as developed in order to comply with applicable standards.

  1. The Limpopo Non-Metropolitan Drinking Water Supplier Response to a Diagnostic Tool for Technical Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avhashoni D. Nefale

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water services providers should supply water that is fit for human consumption, taking into account multi-barrier approaches and technical aspects such as design aspects, operation monitoring, final water quality compliance monitoring, plant monitoring practices, maintenance, and risk management practices. Against this background, this study focused on applying the diagnostic tool for technical compliance as well as assessing the compliance of water treatment plants with management norms. Six plants in the Vhembe District Municipality were selected; the Vondo, Malamulele, Mutshedzi, and Mutale plants (conventional, and the Dzingahe and Tshedza package plants. During the first assessment, four (Malamulele, Mutshedzi, Mutale and Dzingahe plants scored between 44% and 49% and achieved Class 3 certification, revealing serious challenges requiring immediate intervention. Two water plants (Vondo and Tshedza, scoring 53% and 63%, respectively were in the Class 2 category, revealing serious challenges requiring attention and improvement. During the second assessment, all plants scored between 63% and 87% (Class 2 category. The greatest improvement (30% was noted for the Dzingahe and Tshedza plants, followed by the Malamulele plant, while the Mutale, Vondo, and Mutshedzi plants improved their scores by 20%, 17% and 14%, respectively. After corrective actions and re-measurement, no plant complied. It is recommended that Water Services Providers (WSPs regularly apply the diagnostic tools and water safety plans as developed in order to comply with applicable standards.

  2. Antenna diagnostics for power flow in extreme near-field of a standard gain horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2016-01-01

    The plane wave spectrum of an aperture antenna can be calculated from a complex measurement of the radiated near- or far-field and it facilitates antenna diagnostics for the extreme near-field of the antenna. While antenna diagnostics often concerns the magnitude of the co-polar field, the plane...... wave spectrum actually allows for determination of both magnitude and phase of all three components of the electric as well as the magnetic field - and thus also the Poynting vector. In this work we focus on the Poynting vector and thus the power flow in the extreme near-field; as an example we employ...... that these oscillations are not merely a “Gibbs-like” phenomenon due to the availability of only the visible region of the plane wave spectrum and they are not caused by multiple reflections between the horn and the near-field probe - but resulted from the interference between the direct field and the edge...

  3. Molecular tools for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C. M.; van der Veer, C.; Leeflang, M. M. G.; Deborggraeve, S.; Lucas, C.; Adams, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular methods have been proposed as highly sensitive tools for the detection of Leishmania parasites in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Here, we evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these tools in a meta-analysis of the published literature. The selection criteria were original studies that

  4. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flávio da Silva; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal de; Crema, Daniela; Pinez, Célia Miranda Nunes; Colmanetti, Thaís Cristina; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumia; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabeth; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue ® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA) as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue ® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90%) were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue ® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue ® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. This study demonstrated that the QuickVue ® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics.

  6. Fluorophotometry as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Vincent C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye disease is a common debilitating ocular disease. Current diagnostic tests used in dry eye disease are often neither sensitive nor reproducible, making it difficult to accurately diagnose and determine end points for clinical trials, or evaluate the usefulness of different medications in the treatment of dry eye disease. The recently developed fluorophotometer can objectively detect changes in the corneal epithelium by quantitatively measuring its barrier function or permeability. The purpose of the study is to investigate the use of corneal fluorescein penetration measured by the fluorophotometer as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of dry eye patients. Methods Dry eye patients (16 eyes, who presented with a chief complaint of ocular irritation corresponding with dry eye, low Schirmer's one test ( Results Ten minutes after fluorescein installition, patients with dry eye disease averaged a five-fold increase in corneal tissue fluorescein concentration (mean = 375.26 ± 202.67 ng/ml compared with that of normal subjects (mean = 128.19 ± 85.84 ng/ml. Sixty minutes after dye installation, patients with dry eye disease still revealed higher corneal tissue fluorescein concentration (mean = 112.87 ± 52.83 ng/ml compared with that of controls (mean = 40.64 ± 7.96 ng/ml, averaging a three-fold increase. Conclusion Patients with dry eye disease demonstrated an increased corneal permeability and a slower rate of elimination to topically administered fluorescein when measured by the fluorophotometer. This suggests that fluorophotometry may serve as a valuable quantitative and objective tool for the diagnosis of dry eye disease, and in following patients' response to new treatment modalities. Fluorophotometry may serve as an objective non-invasive tool for end-point analysis in clinical trials of new treatments for dry eye disease.

  7. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.; Bohac, D.; Nelson, C.; Smith, I.

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home's asset performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Home rating systems can help motivate homeowners in several ways. Ratings can clearly communicate a home's achievable energy efficiency potential, provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, and show homeowners how they rate compared to their neighbors, thus creating an incentive to conform to a social standard. An important consideration is how rating tools for the retrofit market will integrate with existing home energy service programs. For residential programs that target energy savings only, home visits should be focused on key efficiency measures for that home. In order to gain wide adoption, a rating tool must be easily integrated into the field process, demonstrate consistency and reasonable accuracy to earn the trust of home energy technicians, and have a low monetary cost and time hurdle for homeowners. Along with the Home Energy Score, this project also evaluated the energy modeling performance of SIMPLE and REM/Rate.

  8. ICRU activity in the field of phantoms in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; White, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRU Report on 'Phantoms and Computational Models in Radiation Therapy, Diagnosis and Protection' is presented. The Report contains a major section on human anatomy, from fetus to adult with the variations due to ethnic origin. Tolerance levels for the phantoms (composition, dimensions) are proposed and quality assurance programs are outlined. The report contains extensive appendices: human anatomical data and full specification of over 80 phantoms and computational models. ICRU Report 46 on 'Photon, electron, proton and neutron interaction data for body tissues' is closely related to the field of phantoms. It is a logical continuation on ICRU Report 44 (1989) on 'Tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurements' and contains the interaction data for more than 100 tissues, from fetal to adult, including some diseased tissues. (author)

  9. ICRU activity in the field of phantoms in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRU Report on 'Phantoms and Computational Models in Radiation Therapy, Diagnosis and Protection' is presented. Different types of phantoms may be defined. They may be broadly categorized according to their primary function: dosimetry, calibration and imaging. Within each functional category, there are 3 types or designs of phantoms: body phantoms (anthropomorphic), standard phantoms and reference phantoms (used in the definition and specification of certain radiation quantities). In radiological imaging, anthropomorphic body phantoms are used for measuring the absorbed dose distribution resulting from imaging procedures. Standard phantoms have simple reproducible geometry and are used for comparing measurements under standard conditions of exposure. Imaging phantoms are useful for evaluating a given imaging system; they contain different types of test pieces. The report contains a major section on human anatomy, from fetus to adult with the variations due to ethnic origin. Tolerance levels for the phantoms (composition, dimensions) are proposed and quality assurance programs are outlined. The report contains extensive appendices; human anatomical data and full specification of over 80 phantoms and computational models. ICRU Report 46 on 'Photon, electron, proton and neutron interaction data for body tissues' is closely related to the field of phantoms. It is a logical continuation on ICRU Report 44 (1989) on 'Tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurements' and contains the interaction data for more than 100 tissues, from fetal to adult, including some diseased tissues

  10. Torsional vibration signal analysis as a diagnostic tool for planetary gear fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Song; Howard, Ian

    2018-02-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of using the torsional vibration signal as a diagnostic tool for planetary gearbox faults detection. The traditional approach for condition monitoring of the planetary gear uses a stationary transducer mounted on the ring gear casing to measure all the vibration data when the planet gears pass by with the rotation of the carrier arm. However, the time variant vibration transfer paths between the stationary transducer and the rotating planet gear modulate the resultant vibration spectra and make it complex. Torsional vibration signals are theoretically free from this modulation effect and therefore, it is expected to be much easier and more effective to diagnose planetary gear faults using the fault diagnostic information extracted from the torsional vibration. In this paper, a 20 degree of freedom planetary gear lumped-parameter model was developed to obtain the gear dynamic response. In the model, the gear mesh stiffness variations are the main internal vibration generation mechanism and the finite element models were developed for calculation of the sun-planet and ring-planet gear mesh stiffnesses. Gear faults on different components were created in the finite element models to calculate the resultant gear mesh stiffnesses, which were incorporated into the planetary gear model later on to obtain the faulted vibration signal. Some advanced signal processing techniques were utilized to analyses the fault diagnostic results from the torsional vibration. It was found that the planetary gear torsional vibration not only successfully detected the gear fault, but also had the potential to indicate the location of the gear fault. As a result, the planetary gear torsional vibration can be considered an effective alternative approach for planetary gear condition monitoring.

  11. Mobile Phones Democratize and Cultivate Next-Generation Imaging, Diagnostics and Measurement Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the emerging applications and the future opportunities and challenges created by the use of mobile phones and their embedded components for the development of next-generation imaging, sensing, diagnostics and measurement tools. The massive volume of mobile phone users, which has now reached ~7 billion, drives the rapid improvements of the hardware, software and high-end imaging and sensing technologies embedded in our phones, transforming the mobile phone into a cost-effective and yet extremely powerful platform to run e.g., biomedical tests and perform scientific measurements that would normally require advanced laboratory instruments. This rapidly evolving and continuing trend will help us transform how medicine, engineering and sciences are practiced and taught globally. PMID:24647550

  12. Laparohysteroscopy in female infertility: A diagnostic cum therapeutic tool in Indian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Suman; Jain, Dinesh; Puri, Sandeep; Kaushal, Sandeep; Deol, Satjeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the role of laparohysteroscopy in female infertility andto study the effect of therapeutic procedures in achieving fertility. Patients with female infertility presenting to outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Fifty consenting subjects excluding male factor infertility with normal hormonal profile and no contraindication to laparoscopy were subject to diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. T-test. We studied 50 patients comprising of 24 (48%) cases of primary infertility and 26 (52%) patients of secondary infertility. The average age of active married life for 50 patients was between 8 and 9 years. In our study, the most commonly found pathologies were PCOD, endometroisis and tubal blockage. 11 (28.2) patients conceived after laparohysteroscopy followed by artificial reproductive techniques. This study demonstrates the benefit of laparohysteroscopy for diagnosis and as a therapeutic tool in patients with primary and secondary infertility. We were able to achieve a higher conception rate of 28.2%.

  13. Summary of the dose assessment tool for diagnostic X-ray CT, WAZA-ARIv2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koba, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    WAZA-ARIv2 is the web-based open system for the dose assessment for diagnostic X-ray CT. Amid growing interest about the dose assessment for medical exposure, WAZA-ARIv2 is opened to the public from January 2015 and attracts rising attention. Using WAZA-ARIv2 system, users can calculate exposure dose to consider patient's age and body shape, and can register the calculation results on WAZA-ARIv2 server for checking as histogram statistics. This paper reviews the background of development of WAZA-ARI system, the comparison of characteristics between WAZA-ARIv2 and other tools, and the calculation method of organ dose in WAZA-ARIv2. (author)

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging-a diagnostic tool for postoperative evaluation of dental implants: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Laura; Ludwig, Ute; Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Nelson, Katja; Flügge, Tabea

    2018-04-01

    Compared with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might be superior for the diagnosis of nerve lesions associated with implant placement. A patient presented with unilateral pain associated with dysesthesia in the region of the right lower lip and chin after implant placement. Conventional orthopantomography could not identify an association between the position of the inferior alveolar nerve and the implant. For 3-dimensional display of the implant in relation to the surrounding anatomy, CBCT was compared with MRI. MRI enabled the precise depiction of the implant position and its spatial relation to the inferior alveolar nerve, whereas the nerve position and its exact course within the mandible could not be directly displayed in CBCT. MRI may be a valuable, radiation-free diagnostic tool for the visualization of intraoral hard and soft tissues, offering an objective assessment of nerve injuries by a direct visualization of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcranial brainstem sonography as a diagnostic tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Tino; Schenk, Annekathrin; Witte, Otto W; Grosskreutz, Julian; Günther, Albrecht

    2014-06-01

    Diagnosing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can be difficult, particularly in the early stage of disease; therefore, we evaluated the use of transcranial stem sonography (TCS) to improve early detection of the disease. In this cross-sectional study, 94 patients with sporadic ALS and 46 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were evaluated by TCS according to a standardized protocol used to diagnose Parkinson's disease. Approximately half (48%) of the patients with ALS showed a clear (> 0.25 cm(2)) mesencephalic hyperechogenic structure, 20% showed a possible (laterally. In conclusion, although the neuropathological correlation to hyperechogenicity remains unclear, TCS is an easy, feasible and reproducible technique that could serve as an additional diagnostic tool and as a surrogate biomarker in ALS.

  16. Line and continuum spectroscopy as diagnostic tools for gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, E.P.

    1990-12-01

    We review the theoretical framework of both line and continuum spectra formation in gamma ray bursts. These include the cyclotron features at 10's of keV, redshifted annihilation features at ∼400 keV, as well as other potentially detectable nuclear transition lines, atomic x-ray lines, proton cyclotron lines and plasma oscillation lines. By combining the parameters derived from line and continuum modeling we can try to reconstruct the location, geometry and physical conditions of the burst emission region, thereby constraining and discriminating the astrophysical models. Hence spectroscopy with current and future generations of detectors should provide powerful diagnostic tools for gamma ray bursters. 48 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Vibration Diagnostics as an effective Tool for Testing Engines of Internal Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Dömötör

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods of automotive diagnostics used in services to detect a large variety of faults and damages of various parts of engines of internal combustion. Undoubtedly, they are effective, but they are simply unable to find all types of mechanical faults occurring during the operation. This is the reason why authors of this paper tried to use a special tool, which has been proven for years for detecting faults of rolling element bearing in rotating machinery. During their research, the authors tried to find valuable results by measuring vibration of various parts of engines. Three items were tested, a Diesel engine and two Otto motors. A large number of measurements have been taken at various speed, at different points, in different directions, with different parameter setup, etc. However, there was one setup which has been applied to all three engines. It is the measurement setup of vibration velocity, in the frequency range of 2 Hz-300 Hz. Valuable consequences have been found regarding the clogging of the air filters and the exhaust systems. As a conclusion the authors expressed their opinion, that, apart from the traditional diagnostic methods used in services, vibration measurements can also be useful, especially for detecting faults of rolling element bearings.

  18. Medical Community of Inquiry: A Diagnostic Tool for Learning, Assessment, and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakefet Ackerman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: These days educators are expected to integrate technological tools into classes. Although they acquire relevant skills, they are often reluctant to use these tools. Background:\tWe incorporated online forums for generating a Community of Inquiry (CoI in a faculty development program. Extending the Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge (TPACK model with Assessment Knowledge and content analysis of forum discourse and reflection after each CoI, we offer the Diagnostic Tool for Learning, Assessment, and Research (DTLAR. Methodology: This study spanned over two cycles of a development program for medical faculty. Contribution: This study demonstrates how the DTLAR supports in-depth examination of the benefits and challenges of using CoIs for learning and teaching. Findings: Before the program, participants had little experience with, and were reluctant to use, CoIs in classes. At the program completion, many were willing to adopt CoIs and appreciated this method’s contribution. Both CoIs discourse and reflections included positive attitudes regarding cognitive and teacher awareness categories. However, negative attitudes regarding affective aspects and time-consuming aspects of CoIs were exposed. Participants who experienced facilitating a CoI gained additional insights into its usefulness. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: The DTLAR allows analyzing adaption of online forums for learning and teaching. Recommendation for Researchers: The DTLAR allows analyzing factors that affect the acceptance of online fo-rums for learning and teaching. Impact on Society\t: While the tool was implemented in the context of medical education, it can be readily applied in other adult learning programs. Future Research: The study includes several design aspects that probably affected the improve-ment and challenges we found. Future research is called for providing guidelines for identifying boundary conditions and potential for further

  19. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Nelson, C. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Smith, I. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home’s energy performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Rating systems based on energy performance models, the focus of this report, can establish a home’s achievable energy efficiency potential and provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, although their accuracy needs to be verified by actual measurement or billing data. Ratings can also show homeowners where they stand compared to their neighbors, thus creating social pressure to conform to or surpass others. This project field-tested three different building performance models of varying complexity, in order to assess their value as rating systems in the context of a residential retrofit program: Home Energy Score, SIMPLE, and REM/Rate.

  20. Power spectra as a diagnostic tool in probing statistical/nonstatistical behavior in unimolecular reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoyen Y.; Sewell, Thomas D.; Raff, Lionel M.; Thompson, Donald L.

    1992-11-01

    The possibility of utilizing different types of power spectra obtained from classical trajectories as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of nonstatistical dynamics is explored by using the unimolecular bond-fission reactions of 1,2-difluoroethane and the 2-chloroethyl radical as test cases. In previous studies, the reaction rates for these systems were calculated by using a variational transition-state theory and classical trajectory methods. A comparison of the results showed that 1,2-difluoroethane is a nonstatistical system, while the 2-chloroethyl radical behaves statistically. Power spectra for these two systems have been generated under various conditions. The characteristics of these spectra are as follows: (1) The spectra for the 2-chloroethyl radical are always broader and more coupled to other modes than is the case for 1,2-difluoroethane. This is true even at very low levels of excitation. (2) When an internal energy near or above the dissociation threshold is initially partitioned into a local C-H stretching mode, the power spectra for 1,2-difluoroethane broaden somewhat, but discrete and somewhat isolated bands are still clearly evident. In contrast, the analogous power spectra for the 2-chloroethyl radical exhibit a near complete absence of isolated bands. The general appearance of the spectrum suggests a very high level of mode-to-mode coupling, large intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) rates, and global statistical behavior. (3) The appearance of the power spectrum for the 2-chloroethyl radical is unaltered regardless of whether the initial C-H excitation is in the CH2 or the CH2Cl group. This result also suggests statistical behavior. These results are interpreted to mean that power spectra may be used as a diagnostic tool to assess the statistical character of a system. The presence of a diffuse spectrum exhibiting a nearly complete loss of isolated structures indicates that the dissociation dynamics of the molecule will

  1. Web-based tools for quality assurance and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moores, B. M.; Charnock, P.; Ward, M.

    2010-01-01

    Practical and philosophical aspects of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology have changed very little over the past 50 y even though patient doses have continued to rise significantly in this period. This rise has been driven by technological developments, such as multi-slice computed tomography, that have been able to improve diagnostic accuracy but not necessarily provide the same level of risk-benefit to all patients or groups of patients given the dose levels involved. Can practical radiation protection strategies hope to keep abreast of these ongoing developments? A project was started in 1992 in Liverpool that aimed to develop IT driven quality assurance (QA)/radiation protection software tools based upon a modular quality assurance dose data system. One of the modules involved the assessment of the patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for an X-ray examination that was based upon the use of calibrated X-ray tube exposure factors to calculate ESAK as well as collecting appropriate patient details (age, sex, weight, thickness etc). The package also contained modules for logging all necessary equipment performance QA data. This paper will outline the experience gained with this system through its transition from a local application on a stand alone PC within the department to the current web-based approach. Advantages of a web-based approach to delivering such an application as well as centrally storing data originating on many hospital sites will be discussed together with the scientific support processes that can be developed with such a system. This will include local, national and international considerations. The advantages of importing radiographic examination details directly from other electronic storage systems such as a hospital's radiology information system will be presented together with practical outcomes already achieved. This will include the application of statistical techniques to the very large data sets generated. The development

  2. Web-based tools for quality assurance and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, B M; Charnock, P; Ward, M

    2010-01-01

    Practical and philosophical aspects of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology have changed very little over the past 50 y even though patient doses have continued to rise significantly in this period. This rise has been driven by technological developments, such as multi-slice computed tomography, that have been able to improve diagnostic accuracy but not necessarily provide the same level of risk-benefit to all patients or groups of patients given the dose levels involved. Can practical radiation protection strategies hope to keep abreast of these ongoing developments? A project was started in 1992 in Liverpool that aimed to develop IT driven quality assurance (QA)/radiation protection software tools based upon a modular quality assurance dose data system. One of the modules involved the assessment of the patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for an X-ray examination that was based upon the use of calibrated X-ray tube exposure factors to calculate ESAK as well as collecting appropriate patient details (age, sex, weight, thickness etc). The package also contained modules for logging all necessary equipment performance QA data. This paper will outline the experience gained with this system through its transition from a local application on a stand alone PC within the department to the current web-based approach. Advantages of a web-based approach to delivering such an application as well as centrally storing data originating on many hospital sites will be discussed together with the scientific support processes that can be developed with such a system. This will include local, national and international considerations. The advantages of importing radiographic examination details directly from other electronic storage systems such as a hospital's radiology information system will be presented together with practical outcomes already achieved. This will include the application of statistical techniques to the very large data sets generated. The development

  3. Toward an Attention-Based Diagnostic Tool for Patients With Locked-in Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesenfants, Damien; Habbal, Dina; Chatelle, Camille; Soddu, Andrea; Laureys, Steven; Noirhomme, Quentin

    2018-03-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has been proposed as a supplemental tool for reducing clinical misdiagnosis in severely brain-injured populations helping to distinguish conscious from unconscious patients. We studied the use of spectral entropy as a measure of focal attention in order to develop a motor-independent, portable, and objective diagnostic tool for patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS), answering the issues of accuracy and training requirement. Data from 20 healthy volunteers, 6 LIS patients, and 10 patients with a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) were included. Spectral entropy was computed during a gaze-independent 2-class (attention vs rest) paradigm, and compared with EEG rhythms (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) classification. Spectral entropy classification during the attention-rest paradigm showed 93% and 91% accuracy in healthy volunteers and LIS patients respectively. VS/UWS patients were at chance level. EEG rhythms classification reached a lower accuracy than spectral entropy. Resting-state EEG spectral entropy could not distinguish individual VS/UWS patients from LIS patients. The present study provides evidence that an EEG-based measure of attention could detect command-following in patients with severe motor disabilities. The entropy system could detect a response to command in all healthy subjects and LIS patients, while none of the VS/UWS patients showed a response to command using this system.

  4. ADHD and Present Hedonism: time perspective as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, S; Klicperova-Baker, M; Zimbardo, P; Schonova, K; Akotia, D; Kostal, J; Goetz, M; Raboch, J; Ptacek, R

    2016-01-01

    The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo's time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods), deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population scoring high on Present Hedonism in the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. We conclude that Zimbardo's time perspective offers both: 1) a potential diagnostic tool - the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2) a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder); however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD.

  5. Diagnostic test accuracy of nutritional tools used to identify undernutrition in patients with colorectal cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, Sasja Jul; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Bath-Hextall, Fiona; Kirkpatrick, Pamela

    2015-05-15

    Effective nutritional screening, nutritional care planning and nutritional support are essential in all settings, and there is no doubt that a health service seeking to increase safety and clinical effectiveness must take nutritional care seriously. Screening and early detection of malnutrition is crucial in identifying patients at nutritional risk. There is a high prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients undergoing treatment for colorectal cancer. To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the diagnostic test accuracy of nutritional tools (sensitivity and specificity) used to identify malnutrition (specifically undernutrition) in patients with colorectal cancer (such as the Malnutrition Screening Tool and Nutritional Risk Index) compared to reference tests (such as the Subjective Global Assessment or Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment). Patients with colorectal cancer requiring either (or all) surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in secondary care. Focus of the review: The diagnostic test accuracy of validated assessment tools/instruments (such as the Malnutrition Screening Tool and Nutritional Risk Index) in the diagnosis of malnutrition (specifically under-nutrition) in patients with colorectal cancer, relative to reference tests (Subjective Global Assessment or Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment). Types of studies: Diagnostic test accuracy studies regardless of study design. Studies published in English, German, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian were considered for inclusion in this review. Databases were searched from their inception to April 2014. Methodological quality was determined using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies checklist. Data was collected using the data extraction form: the Standards for Reporting Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy checklist for the reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy. The accuracy of diagnostic tests is presented in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive

  6. Multi-hybrid instrumentations with smartphones and smartpads for innovative in-field and POC diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Dietrich; Dittrich, Paul-Gerald; Gärtner, Claudia; Klemm, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Aim of the paper is the orientation of research and development on a completely new approach to innovative in-field and point of care diagnostics in industry, biology and medicine. Central functional modules are smartphones and/or smart pads supplemented by additional hardware apps and software apps. Specific examples are given for numerous practical applications concerning optodigital instrumentations. The methodical classification distinguishes between different levels for combination of hardware apps (hwapps) and software apps (swapps) with smartphones and/or smartpads. These methods are fundamental enablers for the transformation from stationary conventional laboratory diagnostics into mobile innovative in-field and point of care diagnostics. The innovative approach opens so far untapped enormous markets due to the convenience, reliability and affordability of smartphone and/or smartpad instruments. A highly visible advantage of smartphones and/or smartpads is the huge number of their distribution, their worldwide connectivity via cloud services and the experienced capability of their users for practical operations.

  7. Measurement properties of screening and diagnostic tools for autism spectrum adults of mean normal intelligence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Russet, F; Mottron, L

    2017-07-01

    The autism spectrum (AS) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental variant associated with lifelong challenges. Despite the relevant importance of identifying AS in adults for epidemiological, public health, and quality of life issues, the measurement properties of the tools currently used to screen and diagnose adults without intellectual disabilities (ID) have not been assessed. This systematic review addresses the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the reported AS screening and diagnostic tools used in adults without ID. Electronic databases and bibliographies were searched, and identified papers evaluated against inclusion criteria. The PRISMA statement was used for reporting the review. We evaluated the quality of the papers using the COSMIN Checklist for psychometric data, and QUADAS-2 for diagnostic data. For the COSMIN assessment, evidence was considered to be strong when several methodologically good articles, or one excellent article, reported consistent evidence for or against a measurement property. For the QUADAS ratings, evidence was considered to be "satisfactory" if at least one study was rated with a low risk of bias and low concern about applicability. We included 38 articles comprising 32 studies, five reviews, and one book chapter and assessed nine tools (three diagnostic and six screening, including eight of their short versions). Among screening tools, only AQ-50, AQ-S, and RAADS-R and RAADS-14 were found to provide satisfactory or intermediate values for their psychometric properties, supported by strong or moderate evidence. Nevertheless, risks of bias and concerns on the applicability of these tools limit the evidence on their diagnostic properties. We found that none of the gold standard diagnostic tools used for children had satisfactory measurement properties. There is limited evidence for the measurement properties of the screening and diagnostic tools used for AS adults with a mean normal range of measured intelligence. This may lessen

  8. [Epilepsy-new diagnostic tools, old drugs? : Therapeutic consequences of epilepsy genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, M; Neubauer, B A; Gerstl, L; Roser, T; Rémi, J; Borggraefe, I

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in the field of epilepsy genetics have led to an increased fraction of patients with epilepsies where the etiology of the disease could be identified. Nevertheless, there is some criticism regarding the use of epilepsy genetics because in many cases the identification of a pathogenetic mutation does not lead to an adaptation of therapy or to an improved prognosis. In addition, the interpretation of genetic results might be complicated due to the considerable numbers of variants of unclear significance. This publication presents the arguments in favour of a broad use of genetic investigations for children with epilepsies. Several diseases where a genetic diagnosis does in fact have direct therapeutic consequences are mentioned. In addition, the indirect impact of an established etiology, encompassing the avoidance of unnecessary diagnostic measures, possibility of genetic counselling, and the easing of the psychologic burden for the caregivers, should not be underestimated. The arguments in favour of broad genetic diagnostics prevail notwithstanding the lack of relevant new developments regarding the therapy.

  9. APPLICATION OF THE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS WITH USING BERG METHOD TO DEVELOPED SPECIAL SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR OPTICAL VIBRATION DIAGNOSTICS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Zaitsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is development and experimental verification special software of spectral analysis. Spectral analysis use of controlled vibrations objects. Spectral analysis of vibration based on use maximum-entropy autoregressive method of spectral analysis by the Berg algorithm. For measured signals use preliminary analysis based on regression analysis. This analysis of the signal enables to eliminate uninformative parameters such as – the noise and the trend. For preliminary analysis developed special software tools. Non-contact measurement of mechanical vibrations parameters rotating diffusely-reflecting surfaces used in circumstances where the use of contact sensors difficult or impossible for a number of reasons, including lack of access to the object, the small size of the controlled area controlled portion has a high temperature or is affected by strong electromagnetic fields. For control use offered laser measuring system. This measuring system overcomes the shortcomings interference or Doppler optical measuring systems. Such as measure the large amplitude and inharmonious vibration. On the basis of the proposed methods developed special software tools for use measuring laser system. LabVIEW using for developed special software. Experimental research of the proposed method of vibration signals processing is checked in the analysis of the diagnostic information obtained by measuring the vibration system grinding diamond wheel cold solid tungsten-containing alloy TK8. A result of work special software tools was complex spectrum obtained «purified» from non-informative parameters. Spectrum of the signal corresponding to the vibration process observed object. 

  10. Diagnostic flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy: development of a procedure specific assessment tool using a Delphi methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiors, Jacob; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Dikkers, Frederik G; Gavilán, Javier; Noordzij, J Pieter; Fried, Marvin P; Novakovic, Daniel; Fagan, Johannes; Charabi, Birgitte W; Konge, Lars; von Buchwald, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Proper training and assessment of skill in flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy are central in the education of otorhinolaryngologists. To facilitate an evidence-based approach to curriculum development in this field, a structured analysis of what constitutes flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy is necessary. Our aim was to develop an assessment tool based on this analysis. We conducted an international Delphi study involving experts from twelve countries in five continents. Utilizing reiterative assessment, the panel defined the procedure and reached consensus (defined as 80% agreement) on the phrasing of an assessment tool. FIFTY PANELISTS COMPLETED THE DELPHI PROCESS. THE MEDIAN AGE OF THE PANELISTS WAS 44 YEARS (RANGE 33-64 YEARS). MEDIAN EXPERIENCE IN OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY WAS 15 YEARS (RANGE 6-35 YEARS). TWENTY-FIVE WERE SPECIALIZED IN LARYNGOLOGY, 16 WERE HEAD AND NECK SURGEONS, AND NINE WERE GENERAL OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGISTS. AN ASSESSMENT TOOL WAS CREATED CONSISTING OF TWELVE DISTINCT ITEMS.: Conclusion The gathering of validity evidence for assessment of core procedural skills within Otorhinolaryngology is central to the development of a competence-based education. The use of an international Delphi panel allows for the creation of an assessment tool which is widely applicable and valid. This work allows for an informed approach to technical skills training for flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy and as further validity evidence is gathered allows for a valid assessment of clinical performance within this important skillset.

  11. Memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Riklund, Katrine Aa.; Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta; Larsson, Anne; Nyberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease that progressively affects all brain functions, with devastating consequences for the patient, the patient's family and society. Rest regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) could have a strategic role in differentiating between AD patients and normal controls, but its use for this purpose has a low discriminatory capacity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the diagnostic sensitivity of rCBF single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be increased by using an episodic memory task provocation, i.e. memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT (MP-SPECT). Eighteen persons (73.2±4.8 years) with mild AD and 18 healthy elderly (69.4±3.9 years) were included in the study. The subjects were injected with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) during memory provocation with faces and names, followed by an rCBF-SPECT study. The rCBF 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Peaks with a false discovery rate corrected value of 0.05 were considered significant. On MP-SPECT, the AD group showed a significant rCBF reduction in the left parietal cortex in comparison with healthy elderly. At rest, no significant group differences were seen. Memory provocation increased the sensitivity of rCBF-SPECT for the detection of AD-related blood flow changes in the brain at the group level. Further studies are needed to evaluate MP-SPECT as a diagnostic tool at the individual level. If a higher sensitivity for AD at the individual level is verified in future studies, a single MP-SPECT study might be sufficient in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  12. Lung ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for radiographically-confirmed pneumonia in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Laura E; Gilman, Robert H; Chavez, Miguel A; Pervaiz, Farhan; Marin-Concha, Julio; Compen-Chang, Patricia; Riedel, Stefan; Rodriguez, Shalim J; Gaydos, Charlotte; Hardick, Justin; Tielsch, James M; Steinhoff, Mark; Benson, Jane; May, Evelyn A; Figueroa-Quintanilla, Dante; Checkley, William

    2017-07-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide; however, its diagnosis can be challenging, especially in settings where skilled clinicians or standard imaging are unavailable. We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound when compared to radiographically-confirmed clinical pediatric pneumonia. Between January 2012 and September 2013, we consecutively enrolled children aged 2-59 months with primary respiratory complaints at the outpatient clinics, emergency department, and inpatient wards of the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño in Lima, Peru. All participants underwent clinical evaluation by a pediatrician and lung ultrasonography by one of three general practitioners. We also consecutively enrolled children without respiratory symptoms. Children with respiratory symptoms had a chest radiograph. We obtained ancillary laboratory testing in a subset. Final clinical diagnoses included 453 children with pneumonia, 133 with asthma, 103 with bronchiolitis, and 143 with upper respiratory infections. In total, CXR confirmed the diagnosis in 191 (42%) of 453 children with clinical pneumonia. A consolidation on lung ultrasound, which is our primary endpoint for pneumonia, had a sensitivity of 88.5%, specificity of 100%, and an area under-the-curve of 0.94 (95% CI 0.92-0.97) when compared to radiographically-confirmed clinical pneumonia. When any abnormality on lung ultrasound was compared to radiographically-confirmed clinical pneumonia the sensitivity increased to 92.2% and the specificity decreased to 95.2%, with an area under-the-curve of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.96). Lung ultrasound had high diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of radiographically-confirmed pneumonia. Added benefits of lung ultrasound include rapid testing and high inter-rater agreement. Lung ultrasound may serve as an alternative tool for the diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  13. Turkish validation of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, E C; Cimen, H I; Ozdemir, A T; Symonds, T; Berktas, M; Balbay, M D

    2009-01-01

    There are uncertain issues on the diagnostic methods of premature ejaculation (PE). The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria in diagnosing PE and the aim of this study is to carry out the Turkish validation of the PEDT and to evaluate its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). A total of 94 patients with a self-reported complaint of PE and 88 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the nine-item PEDT, which was translated into Turkish. The patients were also requested to measure IELT. All participants were requested to come for a second visit to assess the PEDT's retest reliability; data from 78 men in the PE group and 69 men in the control group were collected. The IELT data of 35 patients were also recorded. The mean age of the PE group and the control group were 39.4+/-9.7 (24-65) and 30.1+/-5.7 (20-56), respectively, (P=0.068). Among the patients in the PE group, 24 (68.5%) reported life-long PE, whereas 11 (31.5%) reported acquired PE. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 59.7+/-46.2 (6.5-197.7) s. The number of men reporting IELTs of 2 min were 20 (57.1%), 11 (31.5) and 4 (11.4%), respectively. The factor analysis assessment showed that the five-item combination (questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8) explained 74.4% of the variance, there were no other combinations that explained the variance more effectively. Cronbach's alpha score of five-item combination was calculated as 0.77, showing adequate internal consistency. The overall Cronbach's alpha score did not increase if any item combination was deleted. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.80 and the correlation coefficient of the total score was 0.90. The PEDT and IELT showed an adequate correlation (rho=0.44). As a conclusion, the validated five-item Turkish version of PEDT is a

  14. Selected Tools and Methods from Quality Management Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina BRODECKÁ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Following paper describes selected tools and methods from Quality management field and their practical applications on defined examples. Solved examples were elaborated in the form of electronic support. This in detail elaborated electronic support provides students opportunity to thoroughly practice specific issues, help them to prepare for exams and consequently will lead to education improvement. Especially students of combined study form will appreciate this support. The paper specifies project objectives, subjects that will be covered by mentioned support, target groups, structure and the way of elaboration of electronic exercise book in view. The emphasis is not only on manual solution of selected examples that may help students to understand the principles and relationships, but also on solving and results interpreting of selected examples using software support. Statistic software Statgraphics Plus v 5.0 is used while working support, because it is free to use for all students of the faculty. Exemplary example from the subject Basic Statistical Methods of Quality Management is also part of this paper.

  15. Bioimmobilization of uranium-practical tools for field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istok, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Extensive laboratory and field research has conclusively demonstrated that it is possible to stimulate indigenous microbial activity and create conditions favorable for the reductive precipitation of uranium from groundwater, reducing aqueous U concentrations below regulatory levels. A wide variety of complex and coupled biogeochemical processes have been identified and specific reaction mechanisms and parameters have been quantified for a variety of experimental systems including pure, mixed, and natural microbial cultures, and single mineral, artificial, and natural sediments, and groundwater aquifers at scales ranging from very small (10s nm) to very large (10s m). Multicomponent coupled reactive transport models have also been developed to simulate various aspects of this process in 3D heterogeneous environments. Nevertheless, full-scale application of reductive bioimmobilization of uranium (and other radionuclides and metals) remains problematical because of the technical and logistical difficulties in creating and maintaining reducing environment in the many large U contaminated groundwater aquifers currently under aerobic and oxidizing conditions and often containing high concentrations of competing and more energetically favorable electron acceptors (esp. nitrate). This talk will discuss how simple tools, including small-scale in situ testing and geochemical reaction path modeling, can be used to quickly assess the feasibility of applying bioimmobilization to remediate U contaminated groundwater aquifers and provide data needed for full-scale design.

  16. Filtered x-ray diode diagnostics fielded on the Z-accelerator for source power measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.A.; Deeney, C.; Cuneo, M.

    1998-01-01

    Filtered x-ray diode, (XRD), detectors are used as primary radiation flux diagnostics on Sandia's Z-accelerator, which generates nominally a 200 TW, 2 MJ, x-ray pulse. Given such flux levels and XRD sensitivities the detectors are being fielded 23 meters from the source. The standard diagnostic setup and sensitivities are discussed. Vitreous carbon photocathodes are being used to reduce the effect of hydrocarbon contamination present in the Z-machine vacuum system. Nevertheless pre- and post-calibration data taken indicate spectrally dependent changes in the sensitivity of these detectors by up to factors up to 2 or 3

  17. Salivary cortisol as a tool for physiological studies and diagnostic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary cortisol is an index of plasma free cortisol and is obtained by a noninvasive procedure. We have been using salivary cortisol as a tool for physiological and diagnostic studies, among them the emergence of circadian rhythm in preterm and term infants. The salivary cortisol circadian rhythm in term and premature infants was established between 8 and 12 postnatal weeks. In the preterm infants the emergence of circadian rhythm was parallel to the onset of sleep rhythm. We also studied the use of salivary cortisol for screening for Cushing's syndrome (CS in control and obese outpatients based on circadian rhythm and the overnight 1 mg dexamethasone (DEX suppression test. Salivary cortisol was suppressed to less than 100 ng/dl after 1 mg DEX in control and obese patients. A single salivary cortisol measurement at 23:00 h and again after 1 mg DEX above the 90th percentile of the obese group values had sensitivity and specificity of 93 and 93% (23:00 h, and 91 and 94% (after DEX, respectively. The sensitivity improved to 100% when we combined both parameters. We also studied 11 CS children and 21 age-matched primary obese children for whom salivary cortisol sensitivity and specificity were 100/95% (23:00 h, and 100/95% (1 mg DEX, respectively. Similar to adults, sensitivity and specificity of 100% were obtained by combining 23:00 h and 1 mg DEX. The measurement of salivary cortisol is a useful tool for physiological studies and for the diagnosis of CS in children and adults on an outpatient basis.

  18. In situ plasma diagnostics study of a commercial high-power hollow cathode magnetron deposition tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Liang; Raju, Ramasamy; Flauta, Randolph; Shin, Hyungjoo; Ruzic, David N.; Hayden, Douglas B.

    2010-01-01

    Using a newly designed and built plasma diagnostic system, the plasma parameters were investigated on a commercial 200 mm high-power hollow cathode magnetron (HCM) physical vapor deposition tool using Ta target under argon plasma. A three dimensional (3D) scanning radio frequency (rf)-compensated Langmuir probe was constructed to measure the spatial distribution of the electron temperature (T e ) and electron density (n e ) in the substrate region of the HCM tool at various input powers (2-15 kW) and pressures (10-70 mTorr). The T e was in the range of 1-3 eV, scaling with decreasing power and decreasing pressure. Meanwhile, n e was in the range of 4x10 10 -1x10 12 cm -3 scaling with increasing power and decreasing pressure. As metal deposits on the probe during the probe measurements, a self-cleaning plasma cup was designed and installed in the chamber to clean the tungsten probe tip. However, its effectiveness in recovering the measured plasma parameters was hindered by the metal layer deposited on the insulating probe tube which was accounted for the variation in the plasma measurements. Using a quartz crystal microbalance combined with electrostatic filters, the ionization fraction of the metal flux was measured at various input power of 2-16 kW and pressure of 5-40 mTorr. The metal ionization fraction reduced significantly with the increasing input power and decreasing gas pressure which were attributed to the corresponding variation in the ionization cross section and the residence time of the sputtered atoms in the plasma, respectively. Both the metal neutral and ion flux increased at higher power and lower pressure. The 3D measurements further showed that the ionization fraction decreased when moving up from the substrate to the cathode.

  19. ADHD and Present Hedonism: time perspective as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissenberger S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available S Weissenberger,1 M Klicperova-Baker,2 P Zimbardo,3 K Schonova,1 D Akotia,1 J Kostal,2 M Goetz,4 J Raboch,1 R Ptacek1 1First Medical Faculty, Charles University, 2Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 4Second Faculty of Medicine, Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University, Motol University Hospital, Praha, Czech RepublicAbstract: The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo’s time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201 are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods, deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population high on Present Hedonism. We conclude that Zimbardo’s time perspective offers both: 1 a potential diagnostic tool – the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2 a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder; however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD.Keywords: ADHD, time perspective, ZTPI, Zimbardo, addiction, alcoholism, delinquency

  20. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  1. The diagnostic accuracy of single- and five-field fundus photography in diabetic retinopathy screening by primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srihatrai, Parinya; Hlowchitsieng, Thanita

    2018-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of digital fundus photography in diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening at a single university hospital. This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study. One hundred and ninety-eight diabetic patients were recruited for comprehensive eye examination by two ophthalmologists. Five-field fundus photographs were taken with a digital, nonmydriatic fundus camera, and trained primary care physicians then graded the severity of DR present by single-field 45° and five-field fundus photography. Sensitivity and specificity of DR grading were reported using the findings from the ophthalmologists' examinations as a gold standard. When fundus photographs of the participants' 363 eyes were analyzed for the presence of DR, there was substantial agreement between the two primary care physicians, κ = 0.6226 for single-field and 0.6939 for five-field photograph interpretation. The sensitivity and specificity of DR detection with single-field photographs were 70.7% (95% Confidence interval [CI]; 60.2%-79.7%) and 99.3% (95% CI; 97.4%-99.9%), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for five-field photographs were 84.5% (95% CI; 75.8%-91.1%) and 98.6% (95% CI; 96.5%-99.6%), respectively. The receiver operating characteristic was 0.85 (0.80-0.90) for single-field photographs and 0.92 (0.88-0.95) for five-field photographs. The sensitivity and specificity of fundus photographs for DR detection by primary care physicians were acceptable. Single- and five-field digital fundus photography each represent a convenient screening tool with acceptable accuracy.

  2. Development of class model based on blood biochemical parameters as a diagnostic tool of PSE meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Daofeng; Zhou, Xu; Yang, Feng; Tian, Shiyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ma, Lin; Han, Jianzhong

    2017-06-01

    A fast, sensitive and effective method based on the blood biochemical parameters for the detection of PSE meat was developed in this study. A total of 200 pigs were slaughtered in the same slaughterhouse. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring pH, electrical conductivity and color at 45min, 2h and 24h after slaughtering in M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LD). Blood biochemical parameters were determined in blood samples collected during carcass bleeding. Principal component analysis (PCA) biplot showed that high levels of exsanguination Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Aspertate aminotransferase, blood glucose and lactate were associated with the PSE meat, and the five biochemical parameters were found to be good indicators of PSE meat Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was able to clearly identify PSE meat using the five biochemical parameters as input data, and the class model is an effective diagnostic tool in pigs which can be used to detect the PSE meat and reduce economic loss for the company. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. System diagnostic builder: a rule-generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Burke, Roger

    1993-03-01

    The system diagnostic builder (SDB) is an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state- of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. The SDB uses an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert (SME). Thus, data is captured from the subject system, classified by an expert, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule-bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The rule-bases can be used in any knowledge based system which monitors or controls a physical system or simulation. The SDB has demonstrated the utility of using inductive machine learning technology to generate reliable knowledge bases. In fact, we have discovered that the knowledge captured by the SDB can be used in any number of applications. For example, the knowledge bases captured from the SMS can be used as black box simulations by intelligent computer aided training devices. We can also use the SDB to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production, or oil and gas production. These knowledge bases can be used in automated advisory systems to ensure safety, productivity, and consistency.

  4. Regulatory T cell derived Exosomes: possible therapeutic and diagnostic tools in transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akansha eAgarwal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released by many cells of the body. These small vesicles play an important part in intercellular communication both in the local environment and systemically, facilitating in the transfer of proteins, cytokines as well as miRNA between cells. The observation that exosomes isolated from immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs modulate the immune response has paved the way for these structures to be considered as potential immunotherapeutic reagents. Indeed clinical trials using DC derived exosomes to facilitate immune responses to specific cancer antigens are now underway. Exosomes can also have a negative effect on the immune response and exosomes isolated from regulatory T cells (Tregs and other subsets of T cells have been shown to have immune suppressive capacities. Here we review what is currently known about Treg derived exosomes and their contribution to immune regulation, as well as highlighting their possible therapeutic potential for preventing graft rejection, and their possible use as diagnostic tools to assess transplant outcome.

  5. Large biases in regression-based constituent flux estimates: causes and diagnostic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    It has been documented in the literature that, in some cases, widely used regression-based models can produce severely biased estimates of long-term mean river fluxes of various constituents. These models, estimated using sample values of concentration, discharge, and date, are used to compute estimated fluxes for a multiyear period at a daily time step. This study compares results of the LOADEST seven-parameter model, LOADEST five-parameter model, and the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) model using subsampling of six very large datasets to better understand this bias problem. This analysis considers sample datasets for dissolved nitrate and total phosphorus. The results show that LOADEST-7 and LOADEST-5, although they often produce very nearly unbiased results, can produce highly biased results. This study identifies three conditions that can give rise to these severe biases: (1) lack of fit of the log of concentration vs. log discharge relationship, (2) substantial differences in the shape of this relationship across seasons, and (3) severely heteroscedastic residuals. The WRTDS model is more resistant to the bias problem than the LOADEST models but is not immune to them. Understanding the causes of the bias problem is crucial to selecting an appropriate method for flux computations. Diagnostic tools for identifying the potential for bias problems are introduced, and strategies for resolving bias problems are described.

  6. Multirule Based Diagnostic Approach for the Fog Predictions Using WRF Modelling Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Payra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of fog onset remains difficult despite the progress in numerical weather prediction. It is a complex process and requires adequate representation of the local perturbations in weather prediction models. It mainly depends upon microphysical and mesoscale processes that act within the boundary layer. This study utilizes a multirule based diagnostic (MRD approach using postprocessing of the model simulations for fog predictions. The empiricism involved in this approach is mainly to bridge the gap between mesoscale and microscale variables, which are related to mechanism of the fog formation. Fog occurrence is a common phenomenon during winter season over Delhi, India, with the passage of the western disturbances across northwestern part of the country accompanied with significant amount of moisture. This study implements the above cited approach for the prediction of occurrences of fog and its onset time over Delhi. For this purpose, a high resolution weather research and forecasting (WRF model is used for fog simulations. The study involves depiction of model validation and postprocessing of the model simulations for MRD approach and its subsequent application to fog predictions. Through this approach model identified foggy and nonfoggy days successfully 94% of the time. Further, the onset of fog events is well captured within an accuracy of 30–90 minutes. This study demonstrates that the multirule based postprocessing approach is a useful and highly promising tool in improving the fog predictions.

  7. Species-specific nested PCR as a diagnostic tool for Brucella ovis infection in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate a species-specific nested PCR based on a previously described species-specific PCR for detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples of experimentally infected rams. The performance of the species-specific nested PCR was compared with the results of a genus-specific PCR. Fourteen rams were experimentally infected with the Brucella ovis REO 198 strain and samples of semen and urine were collected every week up to 180 days post infection. Out of 83 semen samples collected, 42 (50.6% were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, and 23 (27.7% were positive for the genus-specific PCR. Out of 75 urine samples, 49 (65.3% were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, whereas 11 (14.6% were genus-specific PCR positive. Species-specific nested PCR was significantly more sensitive (P<0.001 than the genus-specific PCR in semen and urine from experimentally infected rams. In conclusion, the species-specific nested PCR developed in this study may be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples from suspected rams.

  8. Dynamic 3-D computer graphics for designing a diagnostic tool for patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Attila; Papathomas, Thomas V; Silverstein, Steven M; Kourtev, Hristiyan; Papayanopoulos, John F

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a novel procedure that uses dynamic 3-D computer graphics as a diagnostic tool for assessing disease severity in schizophrenia patients, based on their reduced influence of top-down cognitive processes in interpreting bottom-up sensory input. Our procedure uses the hollow-mask illusion, in which the concave side of the mask is misperceived as convex, because familiarity with convex faces dominates sensory cues signaling a concave mask. It is known that schizophrenia patients resist this illusion and their resistance increases with illness severity. Our method uses virtual masks rendered with two competing textures: (a) realistic features that enhance the illusion; (b) random-dot visual noise that reduces the illusion. We control the relative weights of the two textures to obtain psychometric functions for controls and patients and assess illness severity. The primary novelty is the use of a rotating mask that is easy to implement on a wide variety of portable devices and avoids the use of elaborate stereoscopic devices that have been used in the past. Thus our method, which can also be used to assess the efficacy of treatments, provides clinicians the advantage to bring the test to the patient's own environment, instead of having to bring patients to the clinic.

  9. Calculation of the nonlinear relativistic Thomson scattering fields and Its application to electron distribution function diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasp, J.; Pastor, I.; Álvarez-Estrada, R. F.; Castejón, F.

    2015-02-01

    Analytical results obtained recently of the ab-initio classical incoherent Thomson Scattering (TS) spectrum from a single-electron (Alvarez-Estrada et al 2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 062302) have been numerically implemented in a paralelized code to efficiently compute the TS emission from a given electron distribution function, irrespective of its characteristics and/or the intensity of the incoming radiation. These analytical results display certain differences, when compared with other authors, in the general case of incoming linearly and circularly polarized radiation and electrons with arbitrary initial directions. We regard such discrepancies and the ubiquitous interest in TS as motivations for this work. Here, we implement some analytical advances (like generalized Bessel functions for incoming linearly polarized radiation) in TS. The bulk of this work reports on the efficient computation of TS spectra (based upon our analytical approach), for an electron population having an essentially arbitrary distribution function and for both incoming linearly and circularly polarized radiation. A detailed comparison between the present approach and a previous Monte Carlo one (Pastor et al 2011 Nuclear Fusion 51 043011), dealing with the ab-initio computation of TS spectra, is reported. Both approaches are shown to fully agree with each other. As key computational improvements, the analytical technique yields a × 30 to × 100 gain in computation time and is a very flexible tool to compute the scattered spectrum and eventually the scattered electromagnetic fields in the time domain. The latter are computed explicitly here for the first time, as far as we know. Scaling laws for the power integrated over frequency versus initial kinetic energy are studied for the case of isotropic and monoenergetic electron distribution functions and their potential application as diagnostic tools for high-energy populations is briefly discussed. Finally, we discuss the application of these

  10. The Role of Epigenomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics plays a key role in cancer development. Genetics alone cannot explain sporadic cancer and cancer development in individuals with no family history or a weak family history of cancer. Epigenetics provides a mechanism to explain the development of cancer in such situations. Alterations in epigenetic profiling may provide important insights into the etiology and natural history of cancer. Because several epigenetic changes occur before histopathological changes, they can serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and risk assessment. Many cancers may remain asymptomatic until relatively late stages; in managing the disease, efforts should be focused on early detection, accurate prediction of disease progression, and frequent monitoring. This chapter describes epigenetic biomarkers as they are expressed during cancer development and their potential use in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Based on epigenomic information, biomarkers have been identified that may serve as diagnostic tools; some such biomarkers also may be useful in identifying individuals who will respond to therapy and survive longer. The importance of analytical and clinical validation of biomarkers is discussed, along with challenges and opportunities in this field.

  11. Overview of erosion–deposition diagnostic tools for the ITER-Like Wall in the JET tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Widdowson, A.; Matthews, G.F.; Esser, H.G.; Hirai, T.; Likonen, J.; Linke, J.; Lungu, C.P.; Mayer, M.; Pedrick, L.; Ruset, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents scientific and technical issues related to the development of erosion–deposition diagnostic tools for JET operated with the ITER-Like Wall: beryllium and tungsten marker tiles and several types of wall probes installed in the main chamber and in the divertor. Markers tiles are the standard limiter and divertor components additionally coated first with a thin sandwich of Ni–Be and Mo–W for, beryllium and tungsten markers, respectively. Both types of markers are embedded in regular arrays of limiter and divertor tiles. Coated W–Be probes are also inserted in the Be-covered Inconel cladding tiles on the central column. Other types of erosion–deposition diagnostic tools are: rotating collectors, deposition traps, louver clips, quartz microbalance and mirrors for the First Mirror Test at JET for ITER. The specific role of these tools is discussed in detail

  12. Principles and applications of polymerase chain reaction in medical diagnostic fields: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valones, Marcela Agne Alves; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Alessandra; Crovela, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized the detection and characterization of microorganisms in a broad range of medical diagnostic fields, including virology, mycology, parasitology, microbiology and dentistry. Among these methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has generated great benefits and allowed scientific advancements. PCR is an excellent technique for the rapid detection of pathogens, including those difficult to culture. Along with conventional PCR techniques, Real-Time PCR has emerged as a technological innovation and is playing an ever-increasing role in clinical diagnostics and research laboratories. Due to its capacity to generate both qualitative and quantitative results, Real-Time PCR is considered a fast and accurate platform. The aim of the present literature review is to explore the clinical usefulness and potential of both conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR assays in diverse medical fields, addressing its main uses and advances.

  13. The three-dimensional positioning system at the VINETA.II experiment—a multipurpose tool for in situ plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shesterikov, I.; Milojevic, D.; von Stechow, A.; Rahbarnia, K.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.

    2017-08-01

    The manipulator systems installed at the VINETA.II magnetic reconnection experiment are essential elements for experimental investigation of local plasma parameters. A novel three-dimensional (3D) probe manipulator has been designed, implemented and successfully operated at VINETA.II. This work presents its design and performance for three-dimensional measurements of VINETA.II plasmas. Its design consists of three vertically stacked independent and mutually perpendicular linear motion stages which allow flexible positioning of diagnostic tools such as electrical and magnetic probes or optical diagnostics within the vacuum vessel. Its design features include a wide spatial coverage, sub-millimeter positioning accuracy and the capability to operate in a harsh environment under the influence of microwaves, radio-frequency waves and direct contact with plasma. Manipulator performance is assessed by measuring a volumetric distribution of plasma parameters by a B-dot probe. A typical discharge of the magnetic reconnection setup in VINETA.II with a pulse time of τ=600 μs is chosen for this purpose. The azimuthal magnetic field distribution measured with the 3D manipulator agrees favorably with measurements obtained by the two-dimensional (2D) manipulator, used at VINETA.II as a standard reference diagnostic tool, thereby demonstrating its reliability and performance. A programmable stepper motor controller (TMCM-1110) that is operated remotely by a PC drives all possible features of the manipulator system.

  14. EEG, CT scan and MRI as diagnostic tools for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally diagnosed based on the criteria of DSM-IV. Because several diagnostic tests have appeared such as electroencephalography (EEG, CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, there is a particular interest in determining the usefulness and diagnostic accuracy of these tests for the diagnosis of ADHD. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the usefulness of EEG, CT and MRI as a diagnostic tool in ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of studies on diagnostic tests that assessed the validity, reliability and effectiveness of the implementation of EEG, CT and MRI in the diagnosis of ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population was conducted. Searches were done in PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse databases, until February 2012, in English and Spanish. The articles that met the inclusion criteria were independently assessed by two investigators for methodological quality using standard checklists for review articles and diagnostic test articles. Results: Of the 115 studies found, eight studies were included, among which two medium-quality systematic reviews and a good-quality primary article on diagnostic tests. Additionally, five evidence-based clinical guidelines that address this issue were also included. Conclusions: The available evidence on the validity, reliability and effectiveness of the electroencephalogram, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, does not recommend their use as diagnostic tools for ADHD. Clinical practice guidelines do not recommend their use either. These tests are recommended for the assessment of the individual patient with the disorder.

  15. Electron density and temperature profile diagnostics for C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, B. H.; Kinley, J. S.; Schroeder, J. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The 9-point Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas is improved and the measured electron temperature profiles are consistent with theoretical expectations. Rayleigh scattering revealed a finite line width of the ruby laser emission, which complicates density calibration. Taking advantage of the plasma wobble motion, density profile reconstruction accuracy from the 6-chord two-color CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer data is improved.

  16. Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful diagnostic tool for accurate determination of albumin glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Barman, Ishan

    2012-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future.

  17. Development of a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jed A.; Guttman, Jeffrey L.; McCauley, John

    2016-03-01

    High power lasers in excess of 1 kW generate enough Rayleigh scatter, even in the NIR, to be detected by silicon based sensor arrays. A lens and camera system in an off-axis position can therefore be used as a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers. Despite the simplicity of the concept, technical challenges have been encountered in the development of an instrument referred to as BeamWatch. These technical challenges include reducing background radiation, achieving high signal to noise ratio, reducing saturation events caused by particulates crossing the beam, correcting images to achieve accurate beam width measurements, creating algorithms for the removal of non-uniformities, and creating two simultaneous views of the beam from orthogonal directions. Background radiation in the image was reduced by the proper positioning of the back plane and the placement of absorbing materials on the internal surfaces of BeamWatch. Maximizing signal to noise ratio, important to the real-time monitoring of focus position, was aided by increasing lens throughput. The number of particulates crossing the beam path was reduced by creating a positive pressure inside BeamWatch. Algorithms in the software removed non-uniformities in the data prior to generating waist width, divergence, BPP, and M2 results. A dual axis version of BeamWatch was developed by the use of mirrors. By its nature BeamWatch produced results similar to scanning slit measurements. Scanning slit data was therefore taken and compared favorably with BeamWatch results.

  18. The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT): linguistic validity of the Chinese version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Ping, Ping; Wang, Hong-Xiang; Hu, Kai; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Hao; Jin, Yan; Yang, Qi; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-09-01

    The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to standardize the diagnosis of PE and has been applied in many countries. However, a linguistic validation of the Chinese version of PEDT does not exist. This study aims to undertake the Chinese validation of the PEDT and to evaluate its association with self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and clinical expert diagnosis of PE. A Chinese version of PEDT was confirmed by andrologist and bilingual linguist. Participants were recruited among seven different communities of Shanghai from 2011 to 2012, and their information regarding self-reported PE, self-estimated IELT, expert diagnosis of PE, and PEDT scores were collected. Validity of the PEDT and its association with clinical expert diagnosis of PE and self-estimated IELT were analyzed. A total of 143 patients without PE (mean age 55.11 ± 7.65 years) and 100 men with PE (mean age 53.07 ± 8.08 years) were enrolled for validation. Of the patients in PE group, the number of men reporting self-estimated IELTs of ≤1, 1-2, and >2 minutes were 34 (34.0%), 22 (22.0%), and 44 (44.0%), respectively. The Cronbach's alpha score (α = 0.77) showed adequate internal consistency, and the test-retest correlation coefficients of each item (r ≥ 0.70, P IELT (ρ = -0.396, P IELT ≤1 minute). The Chinese version of PEDT is valid in screening the presence of PE among Chinese men. The PEDT showed an adequate negative correlation with self-estimated IELT and an excellent concordance with clinician diagnosis of PE. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Raman Spectroscopy Provides a Powerful Diagnostic Tool for Accurate Determination of Albumin Glycation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L.; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan

    2012-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future. PMID:22393405

  20. Duplex ultrasound: A diagnostic tool for carotid stenosis management in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogan Kisten

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic patients are at increased risk of developing cardiac events and stroke, and prevention of diabetes mellitus is therefore desirable. Marked geographical and ethnic variation in the prevalence of diabetes caused by urbanisation, demographic and epidemiological transitions has rendered this one of the major non-communicable diseases in South Africa. Duplex ultrasound (DUS plays an important role in primary health care in early detection of carotid atherosclerotic disease and the degree of carotid stenosis present. It is a reliable, cost-effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of ultrasound in carotid stenosis management in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of carotid stenosis in a selected T2DM population using DUS and to correlate these findings with other predisposing atherosclerotic risk factors. Methods: The study setting was at an academic hospital in the Western Cape using carotid DUS reports of 103 diabetic subjects ≥ 35 years old. Predisposing risk factors were correlated with degree of carotid stenosis present. Data were analysed using the Fischer exact test, Chisquare and Student t-test. Results: Carotid DUS reports of 63 out of 103 T2DM patients revealed no evidence of a carotid stenosis, thereby lowering the risk profile. Forty patients were identified as having carotidstenosis; 22 symptomatic patients had a > 70% carotid stenosis which warranted surgicalintervention. A greater prevalence of stenosis in the Caucasian group, in both the male (p =0.0411 and female (p = 0.0458 cohorts, was noted. The overall trend suggested a relationship between T2DM and lifestyle, and a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.0063 between smoking and carotid stenosis was observed. Conclusion: T2DM and predisposing atherosclerotic risk factors significantly increased thepossibility of carotid stenosis development.

  1. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management.

  2. Tokamak ion temperature and poloidal field diagnostics using 3 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Strachan, J.D.

    1984-10-01

    The 3 MeV protons created by d(d,p)t fusion reactions in a moderately sized tokamak leave the plasma on trajectories determined by the position of their birth and by the poloidal magnetic field. Pitch-angle resolution of the escaping 3 MeV protons can separately resolve the spatial distribution of the d(d,p)t fusion reactions and the poloidal field distribution inside the tokamak. These diagnostic techniques have been demonstrated on PLT with an array of collimated surface barrier detectors

  3. Features of laser spectroscopy and diagnostics of plasma ions in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A F; Fomichev, S V

    2003-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence and laser absorption spectroscopies of plasma ions in high magnetic fields have been investigated. Both the high degree of Zeeman splitting of the resonant transitions and the ion rotational movement drastically change the properties of the resonance interaction of the continuous wave laser radiation with ions in highly magnetized plasma. Numerical solution of the density matrix equation for a dissipative two-level system with time-dependent detuning from resonance was used to analyse this interaction. A theoretical simulation was performed and compared with the experimental results obtained from the laser spectroscopy diagnostics of barium plasma ions in high magnetic fields in the several tesla range

  4. Quantified light-induced fluorescence, review of a diagnostic tool in prevention of oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Josselin de Jong, E.; Higham, S.M.; Smith, P.W.; van Daelen, C.J.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic methods for the use in preventive dentistry are being developed continuously. Few of these find their way into general practice. Although the general trend in medicine is to focus on disease prevention and early diagnostics, in dentistry this is still not the case. Nevertheless, in dental

  5. Quantitative Electroencephalography as a Diagnostic Tool for Alzheimer's Dementia in Adults with Down Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Lise Cronberg; Sabers, Anne; Kjaer, Troels W

    2015-01-01

    be used as a diagnostic marker for dementia. The aim of this study was to examine the value of qEEG in the diagnostic evaluation of dementia in patients with Down syndrome (DS). METHOD: The study included 21 patients with DS and mild-to-moderate dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (DS-AD) and 16 age...

  6. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy between Octopus 900 and Goldmann Kinetic Visual Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Rowe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine diagnostic accuracy of kinetic visual field assessment by Octopus 900 perimetry compared with Goldmann perimetry. Methods. Prospective cross section evaluation of 40 control subjects with full visual fields and 50 patients with known visual field loss. Comparison of test duration and area measurement of isopters for Octopus 3, 5, and 10°/sec stimulus speeds. Comparison of test duration and type of visual field classification for Octopus versus Goldmann perimetry. Results were independently graded for presence/absence of field defect and for type and location of defect. Statistical evaluation comprised of ANOVA and paired t test for evaluation of parametric data with Bonferroni adjustment. Bland Altman and Kappa tests were used for measurement of agreement between data. Results. Octopus 5°/sec perimetry had comparable test duration to Goldmann perimetry. Octopus perimetry reliably detected type and location of visual field loss with visual fields matched to Goldmann results in 88.8% of results (K=0.775. Conclusions. Kinetic perimetry requires individual tailoring to ensure accuracy. Octopus perimetry was reproducible for presence/absence of visual field defect. Our screening protocol when using Octopus perimetry is 5°/sec for determining boundaries of peripheral isopters and 3°/sec for blind spot mapping with further evaluation of area of field loss for defect depth and size.

  7. Diagnostic Machine Learning Models for Acute Abdominal Pain: Towards an e-Learning Tool for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumrin, Piyapong; Ryan, Anna; Judd, Terry; Verspoor, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Computer-aided learning systems (e-learning systems) can help medical students gain more experience with diagnostic reasoning and decision making. Within this context, providing feedback that matches students' needs (i.e. personalised feedback) is both critical and challenging. In this paper, we describe the development of a machine learning model to support medical students' diagnostic decisions. Machine learning models were trained on 208 clinical cases presenting with abdominal pain, to predict five diagnoses. We assessed which of these models are likely to be most effective for use in an e-learning tool that allows students to interact with a virtual patient. The broader goal is to utilise these models to generate personalised feedback based on the specific patient information requested by students and their active diagnostic hypotheses.

  8. HF turbulence as a source of novel diagnostics tool for space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothkaehl, H.; Klos, Z.; Thide, B.; Bergman, J.

    2005-01-01

    The T type of turbulence and instabilities can be produced by a source of free energy in the form of natural and anthropogenic perturbation. Space turbulence acts as a tracer of the various physical processes acting in these regions and gives access to them, but on the other side it disturbs the propagation of radio waves and the ability of detecting targets of interests. To understand the property of solar terrestrial environment and to develop a quantitative model of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere subsystem, which is strongly coupled via the electric field, particle precipitation, heat flows and small scale interaction, it is necessary to design and build new generation multipoint and different type sensor diagnostics, as proposed by LOFAR/LOIS facility in complementary of space borne satellite experiments. Ground based multi frequency and multi polarization LOIS clusters antennas and clusters observations in the in the space should be helpful in achieving to solve problems of space physics and described long term environmental changes. The real-time access to gathered based data, relevant to the impact of environment physical condition on communications and global positioning system, will create the possibility to improve quality of different type space related services. Simultaneously investigation and monitoring of Earth environment will be coordinated with space borne experiment COMPAS 2 experiment. The new design radio spectrometer will be designed to investigate the still largely unknown mechanisms which govern these turbulent interactions natural and man-made origin. The main aim of this presentation is to show the general architecture of LOIS and COMPAS 2 experiment and its scientific challenges. It will be emphasize the description of electromagnetic Earth environments in HF range as well. (author)

  9. Radio frequency diagnostics on board of Cubesat as a tool for planetary Space Weather monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkaehl, H.; Morawski, M.; Szewczyk, T.

    2014-04-01

    CubeSat pico-satellite standard was developed recently to allow easy access to space for projects with limited funds. Due to relatively cheap yet professional development process, CubeSats have also great educational impact. This allows the students to learn about all crucial aspects of space engineering and project management. Since all the basic steps for developing CubeSat are similar to those performed on bigger satellites (i.e. designing, testing, operating in space), this gives possibility to develop all the necessary skills and experience for future work at space industries. Space Research Center, together with its collaborators from University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn and others, would like to design and build double unit CubeSat as an opportunity to perform scientific experiments in space together with technological demonstrators of subsystems. In order to monitor the Earth's and planetary space environment and obtain a much more complete picture of magnetosphere and ionosphere coupling and particularly waves-particle interaction in this system than those available hitherto new mission of clustered Cubesat mission can be propose. Moreover to enhance our understanding of the rich plasma physical processes that drive the Solar Terrestrial space environment, we need to increase our ability to perform multi-point measurements by means of different sensors. Therefore, new technologies radio frequency radio analyser RFA instrument will gave the possibility for diagnostics 3D electric field component (spectra and wave forms) with extremely high time resolution. Additional technological challenges regarding size, computational power and energy constraints are imposed by the design of CubeSat.

  10. Array CGH Analysis and Developmental Delay: A Diagnostic Tool for Neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, F; Xu, J; Jung, J; Prasad, C

    2013-11-01

    Developmental delay occurs in 1-3% of the population, with unknown etiology in approximately 50% of cases. Initial genetic work up for developmental delay previously included chromosome analysis and subtelomeric FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) has emerged as a tool to detect genetic copy number changes and uniparental disomy and is the most sensitive test in providing etiological diagnosis in developmental delay. aCGH allows for the provision of prognosis and recurrence risks, improves access to resources, helps limit further investigations and may alter medical management in many cases. aCGH has led to the delineation of novel genetic syndromes associated with developmental delay. An illustrative case of a 31-year-old man with long standing global developmental delay and recently diagnosed 4q21 deletion syndrome with a deletion of 20.8 Mb genomic interval is provided. aCGH is now recommended as a first line test in children and adults with undiagnosed developmental delay and congenital anomalies. Puce d'hybridation génomique comparative et retard de développement : un outil diagnostic pour les neurologues. Le retard de développement survient chez 1 à 3% de la population et son étiologie est inconnue chez à peu près 50% des cas. L'évaluation génétique initiale pour un retard de développement incluait antérieurement une analyse chromosomique et une analyse par FISH (hybridation in situ en fluorescence) de régions subtélomériques. La puce d'hybridation génomique comparative (CGHa) est devenue un outil de détection des changements du nombre de copies géniques ainsi que de la disomie uniparentale et elle est le test le plus sensible pour fournir un diagnostic étiologique dans le retard de développement. Le CGHa permet d'offrir un pronostic et un risque de récurrence, améliore l'accès aux ressources, aide à limiter les évaluations et peut modifier le traitement médical dans bien des cas

  11. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar o teste QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, EUA para o diagn

  12. [Conceptual and methodological issues involved in the research field of diagnostic reasoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Persia, Francisco N

    2016-05-01

    The psychopathological field is crossed by dilemmas that put in question its methodological, conceptual and philosophical filiations. Since the early works of Ey and Jaspers until recent work of Berrios it has been in question the position psychopathology has in the field of medicine in general, and in the field of psychiatry in particular, especially if it should follow the principles of natural science or if it has an autonomous position between them. This debate has led to two opposing positions facing two different models of psychopathology: the biomedical model and the socio-constructionist model. In this work it is proposed to review the scope and difficulties involved in each model following two central axes: diagnostic reasoning and mental illness conceptual problem. Later, as a synthesis of the analysis proposed they are identified central concepts of each model that could allow the development of a hybrid model in psychopathology; in between them the comprehensive framework employed in symptoms recognition and the social component that characterizes it are highlighted. As a conclusion, these concepts are proposed as central aspects for conceptual and methodological clarification of the research field of diagnostic reasoning in psychopathology.

  13. Videofluoroscopy versus upper G.I. endoscopy: A comparative study as a diagnostic tool in patients presenting with dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Sharwak Ramlan; Sai Manohar; Gangadhara Somayaji

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Dysphagia is a major symptom in many of the patients coming to the hospital. There can be various causes of dysphagia and its accurate diagnosis shows the way for the necessary treatment. Videofluoroscopy and upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy are the two most commonly employed primary investigating modalities in assessing dysphagia. The objective of the study was to compare videofluoroscopy and upper GI endoscopy and establish a primary diagnostic tool for assess...

  14. Application of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique as an efficient diagnostic tool for ciliate communities in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jousset, Alexandre; Lara, Enrique; Nikolausz, Marcell; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotasa, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    Ciliates (or Ciliophora) are ubiquitous organisms which can be widely used as bioindicators in ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic and industrial influences. The evaluation of the environmental impact on soil ciliate communities with methods relying on morphology-based identification may be hampered by the large number of samples usually required for a statistically supported, reliable conclusion. Cultivation-independent molecular-biological diagnostic tools are a promising alternative to gre...

  15. A Simple Evaluation Tool (ET-CET) Indicates Increase of Diagnostic Skills From Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy Training Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, J.G.; Humbla, O.; McAlindon, M.E.; Davison, C.; Seitz, U.; Fraser, C.; Hagenm?ller, F.; Noetzel, E.; Spada, C.; Riccioni, M.E.; Barnert, J.; Filmann, N.; Keuchel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has become a first line diagnostic tool. Several training courses with a similar format have been established in Europe; however, data on learning curve and training in SBCE remain sparse. Between 2008 and 2011, different basic SBCE training courses were organized internationally in UK (n?=?2), Italy (n?=?2), Germany (n?=?2), Finland (n?=?1), and nationally in Germany (n?=?10), applying similar 8-hour curricula with 50% lectures and 50% hands-on t...

  16. Model-based evaluation of the use of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons molecular diagnostic ratios as a source identification tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Breivik, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) molecular diagnostic ratios (MDRs) are unitless concentration ratios of pair-PAHs with the same molecular weight (MW); MDRs have long been used as a tool for PAHs source identification purposes. In the present paper, the efficiency of the MDR methodology is evaluated through the use of a multimedia fate model, the calculation of characteristic travel distances (CTD) and the estimation of air concentrations for individual PAHs as a function of distance from an initial point source. The results show that PAHs with the same MW are sometimes characterized by substantially different CTDs and therefore their air concentrations and hence MDRs are predicted to change as the distance from the original source increases. From the assessed pair-PAHs, the biggest CTD difference is seen for Fluoranthene (107 km) vs. Pyrene (26 km). This study provides a strong indication that MDRs are of limited use as a source identification tool. -- Highlights: • Model-based evaluation of the PAHs molecular diagnostic ratios efficiency. • Individual PAHs are characterized by different characteristic travel distances. • MDRs are proven to be a limited tool for source identification. • Use of MDRs for other environmental media is likely unfeasible. -- PAHs molecular diagnostic ratios which change greatly as a function of distance from the emitting source are improper for source identification purposes

  17. Synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles as diagnostic and therapeutic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Pryscila Rodrigues da

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine covers the use of nanoparticles to the targeted site of action as platforms for building imaging and therapeutic agents against cancer and other human diseases. In particular, gold nanoparticles (AuNp's) have proven to be efficient for the diagnosis and therapy. Interest in the development of AuNp's is due to their extraordinary physical and chemical properties resulting from the effect of its size in the nanoscale, to have an area of easy modification and the radioactive γ and β emitter ( 198 Au; Eγ = 0,411 MeV, β max = 0,96 MeV; T 1/2 = 2,69 days), having the advantage of being able to be applied as a diagnostic tool for molecular photon emission tomography (SPECT) using only a small amount of radioactive gold . In this study were synthesized AuNp's, whose surface is functionalized with a biocompatible polymer (modified polyethylene glycol) and folic acid in order to render them stealth and specific tumors that over express the folate receptors. The techniques of Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), zeta potential (ζ), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy were employed to characterization of the size and geometry of the nanoparticles, in addition to confirming its binding to thiol -PEG and PEG-thiol Folate. The results of UV-Visible and TEM showed the formation of dispersed AuNp's ranging in size from 8-12 nm with a strong absorption around 520 nm, relating to a maximum of surface plasmon resonance. DLS results showed a hydrodynamic diameter of 10 and 14 nm. The (pH ∼ 5.0 to 6.0) ranged ζ potential values of the dispersions prepared between -16.2 and -42.1 mV, indicating stable colloidal suspensions. To determine the real concentration of gold in the samples, it was used neutron activation in the nuclear reactor TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 CDTN / CNEN of Belo Horizonte. Biocompatibility studies in vitro and in vivo of the samples were carried out showing that they have low toxicity in the models used. We evaluated

  18. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz T Paweska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD cases.The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14% tested positive for Ebola virus RNA.The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  19. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Meier, Gunther H; le Roux, Chantel; Conteh, Ousman S; Kemp, Alan; Fourie, Cardia; Naidoo, Prabha; Naicker, Serisha; Ohaebosim, Phumza; Storm, Nadia; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ming Sun, Lisa K; Mogodi, Busisiwe; Prabdial-Sing, Nishi; du Plessis, Desiree; Greyling, Deidre; Loubser, Shayne; Goosen, Mark; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Moerdyk, Alexandra; Dlamini, Wesley; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Idrissa L; Sowa, Dauda; Sorie, Samuel; Kargbo, Brima; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-06-01

    In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14%) tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  20. A New Paradigm for Tissue Diagnostics: Tools and Techniques to Standardize Tissue Collection, Transport, and Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel R; Otter, Michael; Chafin, David R

    2018-01-01

    Studying and developing preanalytical tools and technologies for the purpose of obtaining high-quality samples for histological assays is a growing field. Currently, there does not exist a standard practice for collecting, fixing, and monitoring these precious samples. There has been some advancement in standardizing collection for the highest profile tumor types, such as breast, where HER2 testing drives therapeutic decisions. This review examines the area of tissue collection, transport, and monitoring of formalin diffusion and details a prototype system that could be used to help standardize tissue collection efforts. We have surveyed recent primary literature sources and conducted several site visits to understand the most error-prone processes in histology laboratories. This effort identified errors that resulted from sample collection techniques and subsequent transport delays from the operating room (OR) to the histology laboratories. We have therefore devised a prototype sample collection and transport concept. The system consists of a custom data logger and cold transport box and takes advantage of a novel cold + warm (named 2 + 2) fixation method. This review highlights the beneficial aspects of standardizing tissue collection, fixation, and monitoring. In addition, a prototype system is introduced that could help standardize these processes and is compatible with use directly in the OR and from remote sites.

  1. The evolution of whole field optical diagnostics for external transonic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, K. A.; Bryanston-Cross, P.

    1992-09-01

    The diagnostic use of quantitative laser flow visualization techniques has increased rapidly over recent years. The limitations imposed by conventional single point techniques such as laser Doppler anemometry are addressed and how they have been overcome by the development of a new family of whole field measurement techniques is demonstrated. In particular near instantaneous whole field velocity data was obtained in a relatively hostile, industrial 2.74 m x 2.44 m transonic wind tunnel (TWT) at the Aircraft Research Association (ARA). The techniques were evaluated for their suitability for making quantitative measurements in the wing/pylon region of a model wing and engine combination. Three optical diagnostic techniques were successfully developed within the context of the ARA facility. The first technique, laser light sheet (LLS), combines the operation of a pulse laser and video capture system to provide a 'real time' visualization of the flow, whereas a second pulse laser technique, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) can be used to make specific quantitative whole field instantaneous velocity measurements. The third method, holography, was used to produce a stored three dimensional visualization of the unsteady and shock wave features of the transonic flow in the gully region. A description is made of their installation and operation, and examples are presented of current test results.

  2. Magnetic Field Diagnostics and Spatio-Temporal Variability of the Solar Transition Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, H.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic field diagnostics of the transition region from the chromosphere to the corona faces us with the problem that one has to apply extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectro-polarimetry. While for the coronal diagnostics techniques already exist in the form of infrared coronagraphy above the limb and radio observations on the disk, one has to investigate EUV observations for the transition region. However, so far the success of such observations has been limited, but various current projects aim to obtain spectro-polarimetric data in the extreme UV in the near future. Therefore it is timely to study the polarimetric signals we can expect from these observations through realistic forward modeling. We employ a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) forward model of the solar corona and synthesize the Stokes I and Stokes V profiles of C iv (1548 Å). A signal well above 0.001 in Stokes V can be expected even if one integrates for several minutes to reach the required signal-to-noise ratio, and despite the rapidly changing intensity in the model (just as in observations). This variability of the intensity is often used as an argument against transition region magnetic diagnostics, which requires exposure times of minutes. However, the magnetic field is evolving much slower than the intensity, and therefore the degree of (circular) polarization remains rather constant when one integrates in time. Our study shows that it is possible to measure the transition region magnetic field if a polarimetric accuracy on the order of 0.001 can be reached, which we can expect from planned instrumentation.

  3. Field-testing of the ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for classical trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Sørensen, Morten Togo; Gozalov, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We aimed to field-test the beta version of the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) diagnostic criteria for classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The proposed beta draft of the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases...... (ICD-11 beta) is almost exclusively based on the ICHD-3 beta classification structure although slightly abbreviated. We compared sensitivity and specificity to ICHD-2 criteria, and evaluated the needs for revision. METHODS: Clinical characteristics were systematically and prospectively collected from...

  4. Low field-low cost: Can low-field magnetic resonance systems replace high-field magnetic resonance systems in the diagnostic assessment of multiple sclerosis patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Reith, W.; Sartor, K.

    2001-01-01

    As low-field MR imaging is becoming a widely used imaging technique, we aimed at a prospective assessment of differences in imaging quality between low- and high-field MR imaging in multiple sclerosis patients possibly interfering with diagnostic or therapeutic decision making. Twenty patients with clinically proven multiple sclerosis were examined with optimized imaging protocols in a 1.5- and a 0.23-T MR scanner within 48 h. Images were assessed independently by two neuroradiologists. No statistically significant interrater discrepancies were observed. A significantly lower number of white matter lesions could be identified in low-field MR imaging both on T1- and on T2-weighted images (T2: high field 700, low field 481; T1: high field 253, low field 177). A total of 114 enhancing lesions were discerned in the high-field MR imaging as opposed to 45 enhancing lesions in low-field MR imaging. Blood-brain barrier disruption was identified in 11 of 20 patients in the high-field MR imaging, but only in 4 of 20 patients in low-field MR imaging. Since a significantly lower lesion load is identified in low-field MR imaging than in high-field MR imaging, and blood-brain barrier disruption is frequently missed, caution must be exercised in interpreting a normal low-field MR imaging scan in a patient with clinical signs of multiple sclerosis and in interpreting a scan without enhancing lesions in a patient with known multiple sclerosis and clinical signs of exacerbation. (orig.)

  5. Diagnosis of TIA (DOT) score--design and validation of a new clinical diagnostic tool for transient ischaemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dipankar

    2016-02-09

    The diagnosis of Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) can be difficult and 50-60% of patients seen in TIA clinics turn out to be mimics. Many of these mimics have high ABCD2 scores and fill urgent TIA clinic slots inappropriately. A TIA diagnostic tool may help non-specialists make the diagnosis with greater accuracy and improve TIA clinic triage. The only available diagnostic score (Dawson et al) is limited in scope and not widely used. The Diagnosis of TIA (DOT) Score is a new and internally validated web and mobile app based diagnostic tool which encompasses both brain and retinal TIA. The score was derived retrospectively from a single centre TIA clinic database using stepwise logistic regression by backwards elimination to find the best model. An optimum cutpoint was obtained for the score. The derivation and validation cohorts were separate samples drawn from the years 2010/12 and 2013 respectively. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated and the diagnostic accuracy of DOT was compared to the Dawson score. A web and smartphone calculator were designed subsequently. The derivation cohort had 879 patients and the validation cohort 525. The final model had seventeen predictors and had an AUC of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.89-0.93). When tested on the validation cohort, the AUC for DOTS was 0.89 (0.86-0.92) while that of the Dawson score was 0.77 (0.73-0.81). The sensitivity and specificity of the DOT score were 89% (CI: 84%-93%) and 76% (70%-81%) respectively while those of the Dawson score were 83% (78%-88%) and 51% (45%-57%). Other diagnostic accuracy measures (DOT vs. Dawson) include positive predictive values (75% vs. 58%), negative predictive values (89% vs. 79%), positive likelihood ratios (3.67 vs. 1.70) and negative likelihood ratios (0.15 vs. 0.32). The DOT score shows promise as a diagnostic tool for TIA and requires independent external validation before it can be widely used. It could potentially improve the

  6. It's time to change perspective! New diagnostic tools for lateral elbow pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, P; Cucchi, D; Menon, A; Randelli, P

    2017-12-01

    The presence of intra-articular findings that may complement the extra-articular pathology in lateral epicondilytis has been suggested, and a role for minor instability of the elbow as part of the causative process of this disease has been postulated. This study was designed to describe two new clinical tests, aimed at detecting intra-articular pathology in patients affected by recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis and investigate their diagnostic performance. Ten patients suffering of atraumatic lateral elbow pain unresponsive to conservative treatment were considered in this study. Two clinical tests were developed and administrated prior to arthroscopy: Supination and Antero-Lateral pain Test (SALT); Posterior Elbow Pain by Palpation-Extension of the Radiocapitellar joint (PEPPER). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy of SALT and PEPPER as diagnostic tests for seven intra-articular findings were calculated. In 90% of the patients, at least one test was positive. All patients with signs of lateral ligamentous patholaxity or intra-articular abnormal findings had a positive response to at least one of the two tests. SALT proved to have a high sensitivity but a low specificity and is accurate in detecting the presence of intra-articular abnormal findings, especially synovitis. PEPPER test was sensible, specific and accurate in the detection of radial head chondropathy. Two new diagnostic tests (SALT and PEPPER) were specifically designed to evoke pain from intra-articular structures. These tests could be a valid support in the diagnostic algorithm of recalcitrant lateral elbow pain. Positive findings may be indicative of a minor instability of the lateral elbow condition. Diagnostic study, development of diagnostic criteria on basis of consecutive patients, level II.

  7. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Resistance and Exhaust Air Dust PCR as a Diagnostic Tool in Mice Enzootically Infected with Aspiculuris tetraptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Pratibha; Hayes, Yumiko O; Jarrell, Leslie T; Bellinger, Dwight A; Thomas, Rhiannon D; Lawson, Gregory W; Arkema, Jaclyn D; Fletcher, Craig A; Nielsen, Judith N

    2017-01-01

    diagnostic tool for antemortem detection of A. tetraptera infection, in conjunction with fecal PCR and FCF. PMID:28535863

  8. Documentation: an effective tool in Farmer Field Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, den E.; Garcia, M.; Jansen, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the “Sustainable Coffee Project Peru”, relevant and well documented data has played an important role in supporting the learning processes of the Farmer Field Schools. This is illustrated here with three examples: a survey of the coffee farmers’ situation as a basis for developing the content of

  9. A field guide for well site geologists: Cable tool drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Liikala, T.L.

    1987-12-01

    This field is intended for use by Pacific Northwest Laboratory well site geologists who are responsible for data collection during the drilling and construction of monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. This guide presents standardized methods for geologic sample collection and description, and well construction documentation. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Comparison of different stains in imprint cytology with the conventional diagnostic tools in detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikant Adlekha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is one of the most common causes of gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis of infection is imperative for the cure of distressing symptoms and prevention of complications. Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate imprint cytology of gastric biopsy specimens as a rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool and its comparison with conventional diagnostic tests. Materials and Methods: Antral biopsies were collected from 130 patients and evaluated for H. pylori infection by imprint cytology and histopathological examination by different stains and rapid urease test (RUT. Histopathological features of gastric biopsy specimens were also assessed. Results: A total of 118 patients showed H. pylori infection by two or more methods. Giemsa histology showed highest sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Youden′s Index (YI. Among imprint cytology stain methods, toluidine blue showed highest sensitivity and highest YI was obtained for PAP stain. Conclusion: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastric mucosa changes like chronic active gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, ulceration and carcinoma. Imprint cytology has high sensitivity and comparable predictive values to conventional diagnostic tools-histopathological examination and RUT in the detection of H. pylori infection.

  11. A Quasi-Universal Nonword Repetition Task as a Diagnostic Tool for Bilingual Children Learning Dutch as a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Tessel; Chiat, Shula; Leseman, Paul; Timmermeister, Mona; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated a newly developed quasi-universal nonword repetition task (Q-U NWRT) as a diagnostic tool for bilingual children with language impairment (LI) who have Dutch as a 2nd language. The Q-U NWRT was designed to be minimally influenced by knowledge of 1 specific language in contrast to a language-specific NWRT with which it was compared. One hundred twenty monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI participated (30 per group). A mixed-design analysis of variance was used to investigate the effects of LI and bilingualism on the NWRTs. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted to evaluate the instruments' diagnostic value. Large negative effects of LI were found on both NWRTs, whereas negative effects of bilingualism only occurred on the language-specific NWRT. Both instruments had high clinical accuracy in the monolingual group, but only the Q-U NWRT had high clinical accuracy in the bilingual group. This study indicates that the Q-U NWRT is a promising diagnostic tool to help identify LI in bilingual children learning Dutch as a 2nd language. The instrument was clinically accurate in both a monolingual and bilingual group of children and seems better able to disentangle LI from language disadvantage than more language-specific measures.

  12. Magnetic diagnostics for the proto-eta Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.; Aso, Y.; Ueda, M.; Ferreira, J.G.

    1991-04-01

    This work gives a general view of the magnetic diagnostics rat will be used in the Proto-Eta Tokamak. These diagnostics will be useful tools to measure currents, electric and magnetic fields involved in the plasma magnetic confinement. (author)

  13. Demise of Polymerase Chain Reaction/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry as an Infectious Diseases Diagnostic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özenci, Volkan; Patel, Robin; Ullberg, Måns; Strålin, Kristoffer

    2018-01-18

    Although there are several US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved/cleared molecular microbiology diagnostics for direct analysis of patient samples, all are single target or panel-based tests. There is no FDA-approved/cleared diagnostic for broad microbial detection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS), commercialized as the IRIDICA system (Abbott) and formerly PLEX-ID, had been under development for over a decade and had become CE-marked and commercially available in Europe in 2014. Capable of detecting a large number of microorganisms, it was under review at the FDA when, in April 2017, Abbott discontinued it. This turn of events represents not only the loss of a potential diagnostic tool for infectious diseases but may be a harbinger of similar situations with other emerging and expensive microbial diagnostics, especially genomic tests. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Does Radar Technology Support the Diagnosis of Pneumothorax? PneumoScan—A Diagnostic Point-of-Care Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lindner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A nonrecognized pneumothorax (PTX may become a life-threatening tension PTX. A reliable point-of-care diagnostic tool could help in reduce this risk. For this purpose, we investigated the feasibility of the use of the PneumoScan, an innovative device based on micropower impulse radar (MIR. Patients and Methods. addition to a standard diagnostic protocol including clinical examination, chest X-ray (CXR, and computed tomography (CT, 24 consecutive patients with chest trauma underwent PneumoScan testing in the shock trauma room to exclude a PTX. Results. The application of the PneumoScan was simple, quick, and reliable without functional disorder. Clinical examination and CXR each revealed one and PneumoScan three out of altogether four PTXs (sensitivity 75%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 95%. The undetected PTX did not require intervention. Conclusion. The PneumoScan as a point-of-care device offers additional diagnostic value in patient management following chest trauma. Further studies with more patients have to be performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the device.

  15. Light extinction method for diagnostics of particles sizes formed in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshkin, Vyacheslav; Izhoykin, Dmitry; Grigoriev, Alexander; Gamov, Denis; Leonteva, Daria

    2018-03-01

    The results of laser diagnostics of dispersed particles formed upon cooling of Zn vapor are presented. The radiation attenuation in the wavelength range 420-630 nm with a step of 0.3 nm was registered. The attenuation coefficients spectral dependence was processed using known algorithms for integral equation solving. The 10 groups of 8 attenuation coefficients were formed. Each group was processed taking with considering of previous decisions. After processing of the 10th group of data, calculations were repeated from the first one. Data of the particles sizes formed in a magnetic field of 0, 44 and 76 mT are given. A model of physical processes in a magnetic field is discussed.

  16. Visualizing and measuring the temperature field produced by medical diagnostic ultrasound using thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachutka, J; Grec, P; Mornstein, V; Caruana, C J

    2008-01-01

    The heating of tissues by diagnostic ultrasound can pose a significant hazard particularly in the imaging of the unborn child. The demonstration of the temperature field in tissue is therefore an important objective in the teaching of biomedical physics to healthcare professionals. The temperature field in a soft tissue model was made visible and measured using thermography. Temperature data from the images were used to investigate the dependence of temperature increase within the model on ultrasound exposure time and distance from the transducer. The experiment will be used within a multi-professional biomedical physics teaching laboratory for enhancing learning regarding the principles of thermography and the thermal effects of ultrasound to medical and healthcare students and also for demonstrating the quantitative use of thermographic imaging to students of biophysics, medical physics and medical technology

  17. Diagnostics of Coronal Magnetic Fields through the Hanle Effect in UV and IR Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raouafi, Nour E. [The John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD (United States); Riley, Pete [Predictive Science Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Gibson, Sarah [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Fineschi, Silvano [The Astrophysical Observatory of Turin, National Institute for Astrophysics, Turin (Italy); Solanki, Sami K., E-mail: noureddine.raouafi@jhuapl.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen (Germany); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, South (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-22

    The plasma thermodynamics in the solar upper atmosphere, particularly in the corona, are dominated by the magnetic field, which controls the flow and dissipation of energy. The relative lack of knowledge of the coronal vector magnetic field is a major handicap for progress in coronal physics. This makes the development of measurement methods of coronal magnetic fields a high priority in solar physics. The Hanle effect in the UV and IR spectral lines is a largely unexplored diagnostic. We use magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to study the magnitude of the signal to be expected for typical coronal magnetic fields for selected spectral lines in the UV and IR wavelength ranges, namely the H i Ly-α and the He i 10,830 Å lines. We show that the selected lines are useful for reliable diagnosis of coronal magnetic fields. The results show that the combination of polarization measurements of spectral lines with different sensitivities to the Hanle effect may be most appropriate for deducing coronal magnetic properties from future observations.

  18. Magnetic field vector and electron density diagnostics from linear polarization measurements in 14 solar prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, V.

    1986-01-01

    The Hanle effect is the modification of the linear polarization parameters of a spectral line due to the effect of the magnetic field. It has been successfully applied to the magnetic field vector diagnostic in solar prominences. The magnetic field vector is determined by comparing the measured polarization to the polarization computed, taking into account all the polarizing and depolarizing processes in line formation and the depolarizing effect of the magnetic field. The method was applied to simultaneous polarization measurements in the Helium D3 line and in the hydrogen beta line in 14 prominences. Four polarization parameters are measured, which lead to the determination of the three coordinates of the magnetic field vector and the electron density, owing to the sensitivity of the hydrogen beta line to the non-negligible effect of depolarizing collisions with electrons and protons of the medium. A mean value of 1.3 x 10 to the 10th power cu. cm. is derived in 14 prominences.

  19. Lanthanides in molecular magnetism: old tools in a new field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, Lorenzo; Benelli, Cristiano; Gatteschi, Dante

    2011-06-01

    In this tutorial review we discuss some basic aspects concerning the magnetic properties of rare-earth ions, which are currently the subject of a renovated interest in the field of molecular magnetism, after the discovery that slow relaxation of the magnetization at liquid nitrogen temperature can occur in mononuclear complexes of these ions. Focusing on Dy(III) derivatives a tutorial discussion is given of the relation of the crystal field parameters, which determine the anisotropy of these systems and consequently their interesting magnetic properties, with the geometry of the coordination sphere around the lanthanide centre and with the pattern of f orbitals. The problem of systems of low point symmetry is also addressed by showing how detailed single crystal investigation, coupled to more sophisticated calculation procedures, is an absolute necessity to obtain meaningful structure-property relationships in these systems.

  20. A new molecular diagnostic tool for quantitatively detecting and genotyping “Candidatus Liberibacter species”

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new molecular diagnostic method was developed for quantitative detection of “Candidatus Liberibacter” species associated with citrus Huanglongbing (“Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”, “Ca. Liberibacter africanus” and “Ca. Liberibacter americanus”) and potato zebra chip disorder (“Ca. Liberibacter solana...

  1. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jilek, Brook Anton; Kohl, Ian Thomas; Farrow, Darcie; Urayama, Junji

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties during shock compression of condensed phase materials at micron spatial scales and picosecond time scales. The report is structured into three main chapters, which each focus on a different diagnostic devel opment effort. Direct picosecond laser drive is used to introduce shock waves into thin films of energetic and inert materials. The resulting laser - driven shock properties are probed via Ultrafast Time Domain Interferometry (UTDI), which can additionally be used to generate shock Hugoniot data in tabletop experiments. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is developed as a temperature diagnostic. A transient absorption spectroscopy setup has been developed to probe shock - induced changes during shock compressio n. UTDI results are presented under dynamic, direct - laser - drive conditions and shock Hugoniots are estimated for inert polystyrene samples and for the explosive hexanitroazobenzene, with results from both Sandia and Lawrence Livermore presented here. SRS a nd transient absorption diagnostics are demonstrated on static thin - film samples, and paths forward to dynamic experiments are presented.

  2. ULTRASONOGRAPHY, AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN DIAGNOSING PLANTAR FASCIITIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF DIAGNOSTIC TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyland, Matthew; Applequist, Lee; Bolowsky, Erin; Klingensmith, Heather; Virag, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Background Plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common cause of heel pain that affects 10% of the general population, whether living an athletic or sedentary lifestyle. The most frequent mechanism of injury is an inflammatory response that is caused by repetitive micro trauma. Many techniques are available to diagnose PF, including the use of ultrasonography (US). Purpose The purpose of this study is to systematically review and appraise previously published articles published between the years 2000 and 2015 that evaluated the effectiveness of using US in the process of diagnosing PF, as compared to alternative diagnostic methods. Methods A total of eight databases were searched to systematically review scholarly (peer reviewed) diagnostic and intervention articles pertaining to the ability of US to diagnose PF. Results Using specific key words the preliminary search yielded 264 articles, 10 of which were deemed relevant for inclusion in the study. Two raters independently scored each article using the 15 point modified QUADAS scale. Discussion Six studies compared the diagnostic efficacy of US to another diagnostic technique to diagnose PF, and four studies focused on comparing baseline assessment of plantar fascia before subsequent intervention. The most notable US outcomes measured were plantar fascia thickness, enthesopathy, and hypoechogenicity. Conclusion US was found to be accurate and reliable compared to alternative reference standards like MRI in the diagnosis of PF. The general advantages of US (e.g. cost efficient, ease of administration, non-invasive, limited contraindications) make it a superior diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of PF. US should be considered in rehabilitation clinics to effectively diagnose PF and to accurately monitor improvement in the disease process following rehabilitation interventions. Level of Evidence 1A PMID:27757279

  3. Positivity of magnetic resonance imaging the GIROIMAG-01: Diagnostic tools in injuries of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda Guerra, Manuel Ernesto; Corujo Torres, Pedro A.; Gonzalez Ferro, Idalia; Daudinot Gomez, Barbara; Montoya Pedron, Arquimedes

    2001-01-01

    A study was made to compare the positivity of magnetic resonance imaging with that of other imaging and neuropsychological diagnostic tools in injuries of the central nervous system in order to determine the sensitivity, specificity, strength and the test error with the GIROIMAG-01 Cuban tomograph in the diagnostic of these injuries. An intentional sample of 398 patients was selected. Only those patients who had undergone computed axial tomography, electroencephalogram or evoked multimodal potentials or both, whose results were registered in the study requests, could be selected. The most representative injuries among the diagnoses made were the degenerative diseases, the brain and cerebellar tumors, the cerebrovascular accidents, the demyelinizating diseases and hydrocephalous. It was demonstrated that this tomograph has an elevated sensitivity and specificity for the detection of injuries of the central nervous system

  4. Using three-dimensional-computerized tomography as a diagnostic tool for temporo-mandibular joint ankylosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, S Y; Chou, J; Lo, J; Yang, J; Chou, A P; Joe, C J; Chang, R C

    1999-04-01

    Roentgenographic examination has long been a useful diagnostic tool for temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) disease. The methods include TMJ tomography, panoramic radiography and computerized tomography (CT) scan with or without injection of contrast media. Recently, three-dimensional CT (3D-CT), reconstructed from the two-dimensional image of a CT scan to simulate the soft tissue or bony structure of the real target, was proposed. In this report, a case of TMJ ankylosis due to traumatic injury is presented. 3D-CT was employed as one of the presurgical roentgenographic diagnostic tools. The conventional radiographic examination including panoramic radiography and tomography showed lesions in both sides of the mandible. CT scanning further suggested that the right-sided lesion was more severe than that on the left. With 3D-CT image reconstruction the size and extent of the lesions were clearly observable. The decision was made to proceed with an initial surgical approach on the right side. With condylectomy and condylar replacement using an autogenous costochondral graft on the right side, the range of mouth opening improved significantly. In this case report, 3D-CT demonstrates its advantages as a tool for the correct and precise diagnosis of TMJ ankylosis.

  5. Image analysis as an adjunct to manual HER-2 immunohistochemical review: a diagnostic tool to standardize interpretation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dobson, Lynne

    2010-07-01

    AIMS: Accurate determination of HER-2 status is critical to identify patients for whom trastuzumab treatment will be of benefit. Although the recommended primary method of evaluation is immunohistochemistry, numerous reports of variability in interpretation have raised uncertainty about the reliability of results. Recent guidelines have suggested that image analysis could be an effective tool for achieving consistent interpretation, and this study aimed to assess whether this technology has potential as a diagnostic support tool. METHODS AND RESULTS: Across a cohort of 275 cases, image analysis could accurately classify HER-2 status, with 91% agreement between computer-aided classification and the pathology review. Assessment of the continuity of membranous immunoreactivity in addition to intensity of reactivity was critical to distinguish between negative and equivocal cases and enabled image analysis to report a lower referral rate of cases for confirmatory fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing. An excellent concordance rate of 95% was observed between FISH and the automated review across 136 informative cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study has validated that image analysis can robustly and accurately evaluate HER-2 status in immunohistochemically stained tissue. Based on these findings, image analysis has great potential as a diagnostic support tool for pathologists and biomedical scientists, and may significantly improve the standardization of HER-2 testing by providing a quantitative reference method for interpretation.

  6. Delving into cornerstones of hypersensitivity to antineoplastic and biological agents: value of diagnostic tools prior to desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Cuesta, E; Madrigal-Burgaleta, R; Angel-Pereira, D; Ureña-Tavera, A; Zamora-Verduga, M; Lopez-Gonzalez, P; Berges-Gimeno, M P

    2015-07-01

    Evidence regarding drug provocation test (DPT) with antineoplastic and biological agents is scarce. Our aim was to assess the usefulness of including DPT as a paramount gold standard diagnostic tool (prior to desensitization). Prospective, observational, longitudinal study with patients who, during a 3-year period, were referred to the Desensitization Program at Ramon y Cajal University Hospital. Patients underwent a structured diagnostic protocol by means of anamnesis, skin tests (ST), risk assessment, and DPT. Oxaliplatin-specific IgE was determined in oxaliplatin-reactive patients (who underwent DPT regardless of oxaliplatin-specific IgE results). Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were used to identify predictors of the final diagnosis among several variables. A total of 186 patients were assessed. A total of 104 (56%) patients underwent DPT. Sixty-four percent of all DPTs were negative (i.e., hypersensitivity was excluded). Sensitivity for oxaliplatin-specific IgE (0.35 UI/l cutoff point) was 34%, specificity 90.3%, negative predictive value 45.9%, positive predictive value 85%, negative likelihood ratio 0.7, and positive likelihood ratio 3.5. These are the first reported data based on more than 100 DPTs with antineoplastic and biological agents (paclitaxel, oxaliplatin, rituximab, infliximab, irinotecan, and other drugs). Implementation of DPT in diagnostic protocols helps exclude hypersensitivity (in 36% of all referred patients), and avoids unnecessary desensitizations in nonhypersensitive patients (30-56% of patients, depending on culprit-drug). Drug provocation test is vital to validate diagnostic tools; consequently, quality data are shown on oxaliplatin-specific IgE and oxaliplatin-ST in the largest series of oxaliplatin-reactive patients reported to date (74 oxaliplatin-reactive patients). Identifying phenotypes and predictors of a diagnosis of hypersensitivity may be helpful for tailored plans. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by

  7. Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

  8. A malaria diagnostic tool based on computer vision screening and visualization of Plasmodium falciparum candidate areas in digitized blood smears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Linder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. METHODS: Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27 and uninfected controls (n = 20 were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls. From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. CONCLUSION: We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for

  9. Magnetic field pitch angle diagnostic using the motional Stark effect (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinton, F.M.; Gammel, G.M.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; Roberts, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Stark effect has been employed in a novel technique for obtaining the pitch angle profile and q(r) using polarimetry measurements of the Doppler shifted H α emission from a hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. As a neutral beam propagates through a plasma, collisions of the beam particles with the background ions and electrons will excite beam atoms, leading to emission of radiation. The motional Stark effect, which arises from the electric field induced in the atom's rest frame due to the beam motion across the magnetic field (E=V beam xB), causes a wavelength splitting of several angstroms and polarization of the emitted radiation. The Δm=±1 transitions, or σ components, from the beam fluorescence are linearly polarized parallel to the direction of the local magnetic field when viewed transverse to the fields. Since the hydrogen beam provides good spatial localization and penetration, the pitch angle can be obtained anywhere in the plasma. A photoelastic modulator (PEM) is used to modulate the linearly polarized light. Depending on the orientation of the PEM, it can measure the sine or cosine of the angle of polarization. Two PEM's are used to measure both components simultaneously. Results of q(r) for both Ohmic and NBI heated discharges have been obtained in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX-M) tokamak, with an uncertainty of ∼6% for q(0)

  10. Magnetic shielding for FEL microwave electric field diagnostic in MTX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shinichi; Odajima, Kazuo; Ishida, Hiroyasu

    1991-07-01

    A diagnostic system for measurement of microwave electric field from free electron laser (FEL) is in preparation at JAERI under JAERI-DOE collaborative program in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) being held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in U.S.A.. That is called LAPPS (Laser Aided Particle Probe Spectroscopy). This is consist of helium neutral beam source, a dye laser and viewing optics. It is required that 1000 gauss of the magnetic field must be shielded to less than 1 gauss in order to operate these LAPPS components. New high performance soft ferrous magnetic material 'FERROPERM' and PERMALLOY are used on this purpose. This paper proposes a new method to estimate a required thickness of the magnetic shielding in a saturated region of B-H curve, that is, 'magnetic shielding calculation by Virtual Divided Layers Method (VDLM)', where the shielding layer is virtually divided in many layers in the calculation. The results are compared with a computer simulation using 'three dimensional static magnetic field code' and with experimental results in a uniform static field. (author)

  11. System decontamination as a tool to control radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, R.; Bertholdt, H.O. [Siemens Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    Since chemical decontamination of the Reactor Coolant Systems (RCS) and subsystems has the highest potential to reduce radiation fields in a short term this technology has gained an increasing importance. The available decontamination process at Siemens, i.e., the CORD processes, will be described. It is characterized by using permanganic acid for preoxidation and diluted organic acid for the decontamination step. It is a regenerative process resulting in very low waste volumes. This technology has been used frequently in Europe and Japan in both RCS and subsystems. An overview will be given i.e. on the 1993 applications. This overview will include plant, scope, date of performance, system volume specal features of the process removed activities, decon factor time, waste volumes, and personnel dose during decontamination. This overview will be followed by an outlook on future developments in this area.

  12. Nanomaterials—Tools, Technology and Methodology of Nanotechnology Based Biomedical Systems for Diagnostics and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schmidt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine helps to fight diseases at the cellular and molecular level by utilizing unique properties of quasi-atomic particles at a size scale ranging from 1 to 100 nm. Nanoparticles are used in therapeutic and diagnostic approaches, referred to as theranostics. The aim of this review is to illustrate the application of general principles of nanotechnology to select examples of life sciences, molecular medicine and bio-assays. Critical aspects relating to those examples are discussed.

  13. Nanomaterials-Tools, Technology and Methodology of Nanotechnology Based Biomedical Systems for Diagnostics and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Storsberg, Joachim

    2015-07-20

    Nanomedicine helps to fight diseases at the cellular and molecular level by utilizing unique properties of quasi-atomic particles at a size scale ranging from 1 to 100 nm. Nanoparticles are used in therapeutic and diagnostic approaches, referred to as theranostics. The aim of this review is to illustrate the application of general principles of nanotechnology to select examples of life sciences, molecular medicine and bio-assays. Critical aspects relating to those examples are discussed.

  14. Lessons learned developing a diagnostic tool for HIV-associated dementia feasible to implement in resource-limited settings: pilot testing in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kwasa

    Full Text Available To conduct a preliminary evaluation of the utility and reliability of a diagnostic tool for HIV-associated dementia (HAD for use by primary health care workers (HCW which would be feasible to implement in resource-limited settings.In resource-limited settings, HAD is an indication for anti-retroviral therapy regardless of CD4 T-cell count. Anti-retroviral therapy, the treatment for HAD, is now increasingly available in resource-limited settings. Nonetheless, HAD remains under-diagnosed likely because of limited clinical expertise and availability of diagnostic tests. Thus, a simple diagnostic tool which is practical to implement in resource-limited settings is an urgent need.A convenience sample of 30 HIV-infected outpatients was enrolled in Western Kenya. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic tool for HAD as administered by a primary HCW. This was compared to an expert clinical assessment which included examination by a physician, neuropsychological testing, and in selected cases, brain imaging. Agreement between HCW and an expert examiner on certain tool components was measured using Kappa statistic.The sample was 57% male, mean age was 38.6 years, mean CD4 T-cell count was 323 cells/µL, and 54% had less than a secondary school education. Six (20% of the subjects were diagnosed with HAD by expert clinical assessment. The diagnostic tool was 63% sensitive and 67% specific for HAD. Agreement between HCW and expert examiners was poor for many individual items of the diagnostic tool (K = .03-.65. This diagnostic tool had moderate sensitivity and specificity for HAD. However, reliability was poor, suggesting that substantial training and formal evaluations of training adequacy will be critical to enable HCW to reliably administer a brief diagnostic tool for HAD.

  15. WE-FG-207A-05: Dedicated Breast CT as a Diagnostic Imaging Tool: Physics and Clinical Feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karellas, A.

    2016-01-01

    investigating dedicated breast CT. The development of large-area flat-panel detectors with field-of-view sufficient to image the entire breast in each projection enabled development of flat-panel cone-beam breast CT. More recently, the availability of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors with lower system noise and finer pixel pitch, combined with the development of x-ray tubes with focal spot dimensions similar to mammography systems, has shown improved spatial resolution and could improve visualization of microcalcifications. These technological developments promise clinical translation of low-dose cone-beam breast CT. Dedicated photon-counting breast CT (pcBCT) systems represent a novel detector design, which provide high spatial resolution (∼ 100µm) and low mean glandular dose (MGD). The CdTe-based direct conversion detector technology was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups [Kalender et al., Eur Radiol 22: 1–8, 2012]. Measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters, and surgical specimens on a pcBCT scanner have been completed. Comparative evaluation of surgical specimens showed that pcBCT outperformed mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with respect to 3D spatial resolution, detectability of calcifications, and soft tissue delineation. Major barriers to widespread clinical use of BCT relate to radiation dose, imaging of microcalcifications, and adequate coverage of breast tissue near the chest wall. Adequate chest wall coverage is also technically challenging but recent progress in x-ray tube, detector and table design now enables full breast coverage in the majority of patients. At this time, BCT has been deemed to be suitable for diagnostic imaging but not yet for screening. The mean glandular dose (MGD) from BCT has been reported to be between 5.7 to 27.8 mGy, and this range is comparable to, and within the range of, the MGD of 2.6 to 31.6 mGy in diagnostic mammography

  16. WE-FG-207A-05: Dedicated Breast CT as a Diagnostic Imaging Tool: Physics and Clinical Feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karellas, A. [University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States)

    2016-06-15

    investigating dedicated breast CT. The development of large-area flat-panel detectors with field-of-view sufficient to image the entire breast in each projection enabled development of flat-panel cone-beam breast CT. More recently, the availability of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors with lower system noise and finer pixel pitch, combined with the development of x-ray tubes with focal spot dimensions similar to mammography systems, has shown improved spatial resolution and could improve visualization of microcalcifications. These technological developments promise clinical translation of low-dose cone-beam breast CT. Dedicated photon-counting breast CT (pcBCT) systems represent a novel detector design, which provide high spatial resolution (∼ 100µm) and low mean glandular dose (MGD). The CdTe-based direct conversion detector technology was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups [Kalender et al., Eur Radiol 22: 1–8, 2012]. Measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters, and surgical specimens on a pcBCT scanner have been completed. Comparative evaluation of surgical specimens showed that pcBCT outperformed mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with respect to 3D spatial resolution, detectability of calcifications, and soft tissue delineation. Major barriers to widespread clinical use of BCT relate to radiation dose, imaging of microcalcifications, and adequate coverage of breast tissue near the chest wall. Adequate chest wall coverage is also technically challenging but recent progress in x-ray tube, detector and table design now enables full breast coverage in the majority of patients. At this time, BCT has been deemed to be suitable for diagnostic imaging but not yet for screening. The mean glandular dose (MGD) from BCT has been reported to be between 5.7 to 27.8 mGy, and this range is comparable to, and within the range of, the MGD of 2.6 to 31.6 mGy in diagnostic mammography

  17. A small noncoding RNA signature found in exosomes of GBM patient serum as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterola, Lorea; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime; González-Huarriz, Marisol; Jauregui, Patricia; Tejada, Sonia; Diez-Valle, Ricardo; Segura, Victor; Samprón, Nicolás; Barrena, Cristina; Ruiz, Irune; Agirre, Amaia; Ayuso, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Alvaro; Xipell, Enric; Matheu, Ander; López de Munain, Adolfo; Tuñón, Teresa; Zazpe, Idoya; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Paris, Sophie; Delattre, Jean Yves; Alonso, Marta M

    2014-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in adults, and its prognosis remains dismal despite intensive research and therapeutic advances. Diagnostic biomarkers would be clinically meaningful to allow for early detection of the tumor and for those cases in which surgery is contraindicated or biopsy results are inconclusive. Recent findings show that GBM cells release microvesicles that contain a select subset of cellular proteins and RNA. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to assess the diagnostic potential of miRNAs found in microvesicles isolated from the serum of GBM patients. To control disease heterogeneity, we used patients with newly diagnosed GBM. In the discovery stage, PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays followed by individual quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to test the differences in the miRNA expression levels of serum microvesicles among 25 GBM patients and healthy controls paired by age and sex. The detected noncoding RNAs were then validated in another 50 GBM patients. We found that the expression levels of 1 small noncoding RNA (RNU6-1) and 2 microRNAs (miR-320 and miR-574-3p) were significantly associated with a GBM diagnosis. In addition, RNU6-1 was consistently an independent predictor of a GBM diagnosis. Altogether our results uncovered a small noncoding RNA signature in microvesicles isolated from GBM patient serum that could be used as a fast and reliable differential diagnostic biomarker.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF SIGNAL PROCESSING TOOLS AND HARDWARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR DIAGNOSTIC PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OVERLY, TIMOTHY G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PARK, GYUHAE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; FARRAR, CHARLES R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-02-09

    This paper presents a piezoelectric sensor diagnostic and validation procedure that performs in -situ monitoring of the operational status of piezoelectric (PZT) sensor/actuator arrays used in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The validation of the proper function of a sensor/actuator array during operation, is a critical component to a complete and robust SHM system, especially with the large number of active sensors typically involved. The method of this technique used to obtain the health of the PZT transducers is to track their capacitive value, this value manifests in the imaginary part of measured electrical admittance. Degradation of the mechanical/electric properties of a PZT sensor/actuator as well as bonding defects between a PZT patch and a host structure can be identified with the proposed procedure. However, it was found that temperature variations and changes in sensor boundary conditions manifest themselves in similar ways in the measured electrical admittances. Therefore, they examined the effects of temperature variation and sensor boundary conditions on the sensor diagnostic process. The objective of this study is to quantify and classify several key characteristics of temperature change and to develop efficient signal processing techniques to account for those variations in the sensor diagnostis process. In addition, they developed hardware capable of making the necessary measurements to perform the sensor diagnostics and to make impedance-based SHM measurements. The paper concludes with experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  19. Optimizations for the EcoPod field identification tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu YuanYuan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sketch our species identification tool for palm sized computers that helps knowledgeable observers with census activities. An algorithm turns an identification matrix into a minimal length series of questions that guide the operator towards identification. Historic observation data from the census geographic area helps minimize question volume. We explore how much historic data is required to boost performance, and whether the use of history negatively impacts identification of rare species. We also explore how characteristics of the matrix interact with the algorithm, and how best to predict the probability of observing a previously unseen species. Results Point counts of birds taken at Stanford University's Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve between 2000 and 2005 were used to examine the algorithm. A computer identified species by correctly answering, and counting the algorithm's questions. We also explored how the character density of the key matrix and the theoretical minimum number of questions for each bird in the matrix influenced the algorithm. Our investigation of the required probability smoothing determined whether Laplace smoothing of observation probabilities was sufficient, or whether the more complex Good-Turing technique is required. Conclusion Historic data improved identification speed, but only impacted the top 25% most frequently observed birds. For rare birds the history based algorithms did not impose a noticeable penalty in the number of questions required for identification. For our dataset neither age of the historic data, nor the number of observation years impacted the algorithm. Density of characters for different taxa in the identification matrix did not impact the algorithms. Intrinsic differences in identifying different birds did affect the algorithm, but the differences affected the baseline method of not using historic data to exactly the same degree. We found that Laplace smoothing

  20. About the Big Graphs Arising when Forming the Diagnostic Models in a Reconfigurable Computing Field of Functional Monitoring and Diagnostics System of the Spacecraft Onboard Control Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Savkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in implementation of the multipurpose complete systems based on the reconfigurable computing fields (RCF is the problem of optimum redistribution of logicalarithmetic resources in growing scope of functional tasks. Irrespective of complexity, all of them are transformed into an orgraph, which functional and topological structure is appropriately imposed on the RCF based, as a rule, on the field programmable gate array (FPGA.Due to limitation of the hardware configurations and functions realized by means of the switched logical blocks (SLB, the abovementioned problem becomes even more critical when there is a need, within the strictly allocated RCF fragment, to realize even more complex challenge in comparison with the problem which was solved during the previous computing step. In such cases it is possible to speak about graphs of big dimensions with respect to allocated RCF fragment.The article considers this problem through development of diagnostic algorithms to implement diagnostics and control of an onboard control complex of the spacecraft using RCF. It gives examples of big graphs arising with respect to allocated RCF fragment when forming the hardware levels of a diagnostic model, which, in this case, is any hardware-based algorithm of diagnostics in RCF.The article reviews examples of arising big graphs when forming the complicated diagnostic models due to drastic difference in formation of hardware levels on closely located RCF fragments. It also pays attention to big graphs emerging when the multichannel diagnostic models are formed.Three main ways to solve the problem of big graphs with respect to allocated RCF fragment are given. These are: splitting the graph into fragments, use of pop-up windows with relocating and memorizing intermediate values of functions of high hardware levels of diagnostic models, and deep adaptive update of diagnostic model.It is shown that the last of three ways is the most efficient

  1. Infrared Dual-Line Hanle Diagnostic of the Coronal Vector Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dima, Gabriel I.; Kuhn, Jeffrey R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Pukalani, HI (United States); Berdyugina, Svetlana V., E-mail: gdima@hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Pukalani, HI (United States); Kiepenheuer Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, Freiburg (Germany); Predictive Science Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Measuring the coronal vector magnetic field is still a major challenge in solar physics. This is due to the intrinsic weakness of the field (e.g., ~4G at a height of 0.1R⊙ above an active region) and the large thermal broadening of coronal emission lines. We propose using concurrent linear polarization measurements of near-infrared forbidden and permitted lines together with Hanle effect models to calculate the coronal vector magnetic field. In the unsaturated Hanle regime both the direction and strength of the magnetic field affect the linear polarization, while in the saturated regime the polarization is insensitive to the strength of the field. The relatively long radiative lifetimes of coronal forbidden atomic transitions implies that the emission lines are formed in the saturated Hanle regime and the linear polarization is insensitive to the strength of the field. By combining measurements of both forbidden and permitted lines, the direction and strength of the field can be obtained. For example, the SiX 1.4301 μm line shows strong linear polarization and has been observed in emission over a large field-of-view (out to elongations of 0.5 R⊙). Here we describe an algorithm that combines linear polarization measurements of the SiX 1.4301 μm forbidden line with linear polarization observations of the HeI 1.0830 μm permitted coronal line to obtain the vector magnetic field. To illustrate the concept we assume that the emitting gas for both atomic transitions is located in the plane of the sky. The further development of this method and associated tools will be a critical step toward interpreting the high spectral, spatial and temporal infrared spectro-polarimetric measurements that will be possible when the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is completed in 2019.

  2. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity in Swiss Albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Chidambaram; Sankar, Renu; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Sivasindhuja, Gnanasambantham; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study is to establish Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for allethrin-based mosquito coil smoke inhalation induced toxicity in mice. Primarily, we confirmed mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity in mice via reduced the body, organ weight and major vital organ tissue morphological structure changes. Furthermore, FTIR spectra was collected from control and mosquito coil smoke inhalation (8 h per day for 30 days) mice various tissues like liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain, to investigate the functional groups and their corresponding biochemical content variations. The FTIR spectra result shown major bio macromolecules such as protein and lipid functional peaks were shifted (decreased) in the mosquito coil smoke inhalation group as compared to control. The drastic peak shift was noticed in the liver, kidney followed by lung and brain. It is therefore concluded that the FTIR spectroscopy can be a successful detection tool in mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity.

  3. Evanescent field: A potential light-tool for theranostics application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Nabarun; Singh, Soumendra; Giri, Anupam; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A noninvasive or minimally invasive optical approach for theranostics, which would reinforce diagnosis, treatment, and preferably guidance simultaneously, is considered to be major challenge in biomedical instrument design. In the present work, we have developed an evanescent field-based fiber optic strategy for the potential theranostics application in hyperbilirubinemia, an increased concentration of bilirubin in the blood and is a potential cause of permanent brain damage or even death in newborn babies. Potential problem of bilirubin deposition on the hydroxylated fiber surface at physiological pH (7.4), that masks the sensing efficacy and extraction of information of the pigment level, has also been addressed. Removal of bilirubin in a blood-phantom (hemoglobin and human serum albumin) solution from an enhanced level of 77 μM/l (human jaundice >50 μM/l) to ˜30 μM/l (normal level ˜25 μM/l in human) using our strategy has been successfully demonstrated. In a model experiment using chromatography paper as a mimic of biological membrane, we have shown efficient degradation of the bilirubin under continuous monitoring for guidance of immediate/future course of action.

  4. A new beam emission polarimetry diagnostic for measuring the magnetic field line angle at the plasma edge of ASDEX Upgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezzer, E; Dux, R; Dunne, M G

    2016-11-01

    A new edge beam emission polarimetry diagnostic dedicated to the measurement of the magnetic field line angle has been installed on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The new diagnostic relies on the motional Stark effect and is based on the simultaneous measurement of the polarization direction of the linearly polarized π (parallel to the electric field) and σ (perpendicular to the electric field) lines of the Balmer line D α . The technical properties of the system are described. The calibration procedures are discussed and first measurements are presented.

  5. The "Metaphorical Collage" as a Research Tool in the Field of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a research tool in the field of education--the "metaphorical collage." This tool facilitates the understanding of concepts and processes in education through the analysis of metaphors in collage works that include pictorial images and verbal images. We believe the "metaphorical collage" to be…

  6. Field application of SD bioline malaria Ag Pf/Pan rapid diagnostic test for malaria in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseroni, Maria; Pervanidou, Danai; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Rachiotis, George; Pinaka, Ourania; Baka, Agoritsa; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Vakali, Annita; Dionysopoulou, Martha; Terzaki, Irene; Marka, Andriani; Detsis, Marios; Evlampidou, Zafiroula; Mpimpa, Anastasia; Vassalou, Evdokia; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece, a malaria-free country since 1974, has experienced re-emergence of Plasmodium vivax autochthonous malaria cases in some agriculture areas over the last three years. In early 2012, an integrated control programme (MALWEST Project) was launched in order to prevent re-establishment of the disease. In the context of this project, the rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) of SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf/Pan that detects hrp-2 and pan-LDH antigens were used. The aim of this study was to assess the field application of the RDT for the P. vivax diagnosis in comparison to light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 955 samples were tested with all three diagnostic tools. Agreement of RDT against microscopy and PCR for the diagnosis of P. vivax was satisfactory (K value: 0.849 and 0.976, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of RDT against PCR was 95.6% (95% C.I.: 84.8-99.3), 100% (95% C.I.: 99.6-100.0) and 100% (95% CI: 91.7-100.0) respectively, while the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of RDT against microscopic examination was 97.4% (95% C.I.: 86.1-99.6), 99.4% (95% C.I.: 98.6-99.8) and 86.1% (95% CI: 72.1-94.7), respectively. Our results indicate that RDT performed satisfactory in a non-endemic country and therefore is recommended for malaria diagnosis, especially in areas where health professionals lack experience on light microscopy.

  7. Bacterial clonal diagnostics as a tool for evidence-based empiric antibiotic selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Tchesnokova

    Full Text Available Despite the known clonal distribution of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria, empiric (pre-culture antibiotic selection still relies heavily on species-level cumulative antibiograms, resulting in overuse of broad-spectrum agents and excessive antibiotic/pathogen mismatch. Urinary tract infections (UTIs, which account for a large share of antibiotic use, are caused predominantly by Escherichia coli, a highly clonal pathogen. In an observational clinical cohort study of urgent care patients with suspected UTI, we assessed the potential for E. coli clonal-level antibiograms to improve empiric antibiotic selection. A novel PCR-based clonotyping assay was applied to fresh urine samples to rapidly detect E. coli and the urine strain's clonotype. Based on a database of clonotype-specific antibiograms, the acceptability of various antibiotics for empiric therapy was inferred using a 20%, 10%, and 30% allowed resistance threshold. The test's performance characteristics and possible effects on prescribing were assessed. The rapid test identified E. coli clonotypes directly in patients' urine within 25-35 minutes, with high specificity and sensitivity compared to culture. Antibiotic selection based on a clonotype-specific antibiogram could reduce the relative likelihood of antibiotic/pathogen mismatch by ≥ 60%. Compared to observed prescribing patterns, clonal diagnostics-guided antibiotic selection could safely double the use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and minimize fluoroquinolone use. In summary, a rapid clonotyping test showed promise for improving empiric antibiotic prescribing for E. coli UTI, including reversing preferential use of fluoroquinolones over trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The clonal diagnostics approach merges epidemiologic surveillance, antimicrobial stewardship, and molecular diagnostics to bring evidence-based medicine directly to the point of care.

  8. Bacterial clonal diagnostics as a tool for evidence-based empiric antibiotic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchesnokova, Veronika; Avagyan, Hovhannes; Rechkina, Elena; Chan, Diana; Muradova, Mariya; Haile, Helen Ghirmai; Radey, Matthew; Weissman, Scott; Riddell, Kim; Scholes, Delia; Johnson, James R; Sokurenko, Evgeni V

    2017-01-01

    Despite the known clonal distribution of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria, empiric (pre-culture) antibiotic selection still relies heavily on species-level cumulative antibiograms, resulting in overuse of broad-spectrum agents and excessive antibiotic/pathogen mismatch. Urinary tract infections (UTIs), which account for a large share of antibiotic use, are caused predominantly by Escherichia coli, a highly clonal pathogen. In an observational clinical cohort study of urgent care patients with suspected UTI, we assessed the potential for E. coli clonal-level antibiograms to improve empiric antibiotic selection. A novel PCR-based clonotyping assay was applied to fresh urine samples to rapidly detect E. coli and the urine strain's clonotype. Based on a database of clonotype-specific antibiograms, the acceptability of various antibiotics for empiric therapy was inferred using a 20%, 10%, and 30% allowed resistance threshold. The test's performance characteristics and possible effects on prescribing were assessed. The rapid test identified E. coli clonotypes directly in patients' urine within 25-35 minutes, with high specificity and sensitivity compared to culture. Antibiotic selection based on a clonotype-specific antibiogram could reduce the relative likelihood of antibiotic/pathogen mismatch by ≥ 60%. Compared to observed prescribing patterns, clonal diagnostics-guided antibiotic selection could safely double the use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and minimize fluoroquinolone use. In summary, a rapid clonotyping test showed promise for improving empiric antibiotic prescribing for E. coli UTI, including reversing preferential use of fluoroquinolones over trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The clonal diagnostics approach merges epidemiologic surveillance, antimicrobial stewardship, and molecular diagnostics to bring evidence-based medicine directly to the point of care.

  9. Comparison between different methods of magnetic field diagnostics in beam emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voslamber, D.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic field diagnostics in tokamaks using the motional Stark effect in fast neutral beams have been based on two kinds of polarimetry which are called 'static' and 'dynamic'. It is shown that static polarimetry presents a number of advantages over dynamic polarimetry, provided it is made complete in the sense that a sufficient number of polarisation analysers is installed and different parts of the spectrum are explored to yield full information on the set of unknowns inherent in the problem. A detailed scheme of self-calibrating static polarimetry is proposed, including the case where an in-vessel mirror with changing characteristics (coating by impurities) is placed in front of the optical detection system. (author) 5 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Problem of diagnostics of motive capabilities of man in the field of mass physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khor'yakov V.A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of diagnostics of motive functions of man is examined in the field of mass physical culture. In research 246 girls and 180 youths took part in age 17 - 19 years. For them determined the quickness of motions; «explosive» force of muscles - extensor of feet and hands; co-ordinating capabilities; absolute force; static, dynamic and speed endurance; physical ability and mobility in a rachis. The test program of estimation of psychomotor functions of man is offered on the different stages of ontogenesis. Rotined necessity of measuring of power and capacity of mechanisms of energy-supply on each of the stages and estimation of ability of individual to the management motions in space and time. It is suggested to decide optimum program of testing development exceptionally from biological positions, taking into account conformities to the law of development and involution of motive functions on each of the stages of ontogenesis.

  11. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  12. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Laboratory for Micro and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Philips Technologie GmbH, Roentgenstrasse 24, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Interdisciplinary Breast Center Baden, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  13. Conflict management, Part 1. Conflict management checklist: a diagnostic tool for assessing conflict in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siders, C T; Aschenbrener, C A

    1999-01-01

    Complex interpersonal conflicts are inevitable in the high speed, high stakes, pressured work of health care. Poorly managed, conflict saps productivity, erodes trust, and spawns additional disputes. Well managed, conflict can enhance the self-confidence and self-esteem of the parties, build relationships, and engender creative solutions beyond expectations. Just as thoughtful differential diagnosis precedes optimum treatment in the doctor-patient relationship, management of conflict is greatly enhanced when preceded by careful assessment. In the first of two articles, the authors present a diagnostic approach, the Conflict Management Checklist, to increase self-awareness and decrease anxiety around conflict.

  14. Visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh: the value of DAT as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Masum, M A; Evans, D A; Minter, D M; el Harith, A

    1995-01-01

    The direct agglutination test (DAT) was performed on 480 serum samples from suspected cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in different parts of Bangladesh. Significant titres (> or = 1:3200) were found in 257 sera (53.5%). All patients with positive bone-marrow aspirates also had significant DAT titres. The male:female seroprevalence ratio was 2:1 and the age-group 0-20 years was the most affected. The DAT proved a simple, economical and reliable diagnostic test for VL.

  15. Ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy can be used as a diagnostic tool for gamma irradiation detection in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K-Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar; Moussa, Sherif A-Abdelmottaleb

    2016-09-01

    The spectroscopic properties can indicate important features about the nature and severity of the disease. However, no earlier studies have been used the spectroscopic properties as a diagnostic tool for radiation detection. This study was aimed to use ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for gamma irradiation detection in rats in vivo. Adult male rats were exposed to 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gray as single dose, using Cobalt-60 (Co-60) source with a dose rate of 0.883 centi Gray/sec (cGy/s). Ultraviolet and fluorescence spectroscopy of rat's blood serum were measured. After gamma irradiation of rats in vivo, the blood serum absorbance peaks for 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gray (Gy) decreased and shifted towards the ultra violet wavelength. A maximal change in fluorescence intensity of blood serum at 350 nm was obtained when exciting light at 194 nm after irradiation. The fluorescence intensity also decreased with the dose. The highest radiation gamma dose might be accompanied with the highest oxidative stress. This study suggests that at the above mentioned gamma radiation doses, the blood is highly fragmented; with low aggregation at 25 Gy and with high aggregation at 50-100 Gy.

  16. Critical Pitfalls in the use of BRAF Mutation as a Diagnostic Tool in Thyroid Nodules: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Elisabetta; Ragazzi, Moira; Zini, Michele; Giordano, Davide; Nicoli, Davide; Piana, Simonetta

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the primary tool for the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules. BRAF mutation analysis is employed as an ancillary tool in indeterminate cases, as recommended by the American Thyroid Association management guidelines. Hereby, we report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented an 8-mm-size, ill-defined, left thyroid nodule. FNA resulted "suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma". BRAF mutation status was analyzed, and somatic BRAF (V600E) mutation identified. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. At histological examination, the nodule was composed of Langerhans cells, admixed with many eosinophils. A final diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid was made. Our case emphasizes the critical diagnostic pitfalls due to the use of BRAF (V600E) mutation analysis in thyroid FNA. Notably, BRAF (V600E) mutation is common in melanoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, brain tumors, hairy cell leukemia, multiple myeloma, and histiocytoses. Therefore, in cases of indeterminate FNA with unclassifiable atypical cells BRAF (V600E) mutated, the possibility of a localization of hystiocytosis or a secondary thyroid malignancy should be taken into account.

  17. Application of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique as an efficient diagnostic tool for ciliate communities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Alexandre; Lara, Enrique; Nikolausz, Marcell; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2010-02-01

    Ciliates (or Ciliophora) are ubiquitous organisms which can be widely used as bioindicators in ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic and industrial influences. The evaluation of the environmental impact on soil ciliate communities with methods relying on morphology-based identification may be hampered by the large number of samples usually required for a statistically supported, reliable conclusion. Cultivation-independent molecular-biological diagnostic tools are a promising alternative to greatly simplify and accelerate such studies. In this present work a ciliate-specific fingerprint method based on the amplification of a phylogenetic marker gene (i.e. the 18S ribosomal RNA gene) with subsequent analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was developed and used to monitor community shifts in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soil. The semi-nested approach generated ciliate-specific amplification products from all soil samples and allowed to distinguish community profiles from a PAH-polluted and a non-polluted control soil. Subsequent sequence analysis of excised bands provided evidence that polluted soil samples are dominated by organisms belonging to the class Colpodea. The general DGGE approach presented in this study might thus in principle serve as a fast and reproducible diagnostic tool, complementing and facilitating future ecological and ecotoxicological monitoring of ciliates in polluted habitats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone SPECT-CT: An additional diagnostic tool for undiagnosed wrist pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, R A; Dhawan, R T; Rodrigues, J N; Evans, D M

    2016-10-01

    Diagnosis of wrist pain can be difficult to determine with clinical examination and conventional imaging techniques alone. Bone SPECT-CT (single-photon emission tomography with computerized tomography) is a hybrid imaging technique that overlays functional bone scintigraphy in tomographic/3D mode with conventional CT. Data from the two modalities are complementary; areas of abnormal bone metabolism can be localized with anatomical precision, hitherto lacking in conventional bone scans, while structural information from the CT scan further embellishes the diagnostic information. Over the last 6 years, one surgeon (David Evans) has used bone SPECT and later bone SPECT-CT as an additional line of investigation. This is a series of 21 consecutive patients with wrist pain that could not be diagnostically resolved with the usual combination of history, examination, and conventional imaging, and therefore underwent bone SPECT-CT. Clinical and imaging findings, management, and outcomes of these cases are discussed to explore the potential role of this hybrid functional modality in hand and wrist surgical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Exploiting the Campylobacter jejuni protein glycosylation system for glycoengineering vaccines and diagnostic tools directed against brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwashkiw Jeremy A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune responses directed towards surface polysaccharides conjugated to proteins are effective in preventing colonization and infection of bacterial pathogens. Presently, the production of these conjugate vaccines requires intricate synthetic chemistry for obtaining, activating, and attaching the polysaccharides to protein carriers. Glycoproteins generated by engineering bacterial glycosylation machineries have been proposed to be a viable alternative to traditional conjugation methods. Results In this work we expressed the C. jejuni oligosaccharyltansferase (OTase PglB, responsible for N-linked protein glycosylation together with a suitable acceptor protein (AcrA in Yersinia enterocolitica O9 cells. MS analysis of the acceptor protein demonstrated the transfer of a polymer of N-formylperosamine to AcrA in vivo. Because Y. enterocolitica O9 and Brucella abortus share an identical O polysaccharide structure, we explored the application of the resulting glycoprotein in vaccinology and diagnostics of brucellosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases with over half a million new cases annually. Injection of the glycoprotein into mice generated an IgG response that recognized the O antigen of Brucella, although this response was not protective against a challenge with a virulent B. abortus strain. The recombinant glycoprotein coated onto magnetic beads was efficient in differentiating between naïve and infected bovine sera. Conclusion Bacterial engineered glycoproteins show promising applications for the development on an array of diagnostics and immunoprotective opportunities in the future.

  20. Quantified light-induced fluorescence, review of a diagnostic tool in prevention of oral disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Higham, Susan M.; Smith, Philip W.; van Daelen, Catherina J.; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2009-05-01

    Diagnostic methods for the use in preventive dentistry are being developed continuously. Few of these find their way into general practice. Although the general trend in medicine is to focus on disease prevention and early diagnostics, in dentistry this is still not the case. Nevertheless, in dental research some of these methods seem to be promising for near future use by the general dental professional. In this paper an overview is given of a method called quantitative light-induced fluorescence or (QLF) in which visible and harmless light excites the teeth in the patient's mouth to produce fluorescent images, which can be stored on disk and computer analyzed. White spots (early dental caries) are detected and quantified as well as bacterial metabolites on and in the teeth. An overview of research to validate the technique and modeling to further the understanding of the technique by Monte Carlo simulation is given and it is shown that the fluorescence phenomena can be described by the simulation model in a qualitative way. A model describing the visibility of red fluorescence from within the dental tissue is added, as this was still lacking in current literature. An overview is given of the clinical images made with the system and of the extensive research which has been done. The QLF™ technology has been shown to be of importance when used in clinical trials with respect to the testing of toothpastes and preventive treatments. It is expected that the QLF™ technology will soon find its way into the general dental practice.

  1. From diagnostics to metagenomics: Applications of DNA-based tools in forest pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; Mee-Sook Kim; Jane E. Stewart; John W. Hanna; John D. Shaw; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2013-01-01

    Advances in molecular technology provide an accessible set of tools to 1) help forest pathologists detect, identify, and monitor forest pathogens, 2) examine the evolutionary relationships and global distributions of forest pathogens and their hosts, 3) assess the diversity and structure of host and pathogen populations, and 4) evaluate the structure and function of...

  2. Salivary glucose as a diagnostic tool in Type II diabetes mellitus: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing steadily in India. Understanding blood glucose level is the key to both diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. However, there is an on‑going need for improvements in noninvasive, point‑of‑care tools for the diagnosis and prognosis of ...

  3. MatchingTools: A Python library for symbolic effective field theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Juan C.

    2018-06-01

    MatchingTools is a Python library for doing symbolic calculations in effective field theory. It provides the tools to construct general models by defining their field content and their interaction Lagrangian. Once a model is given, the heavy particles can be integrated out at the tree level to obtain an effective Lagrangian in which only the light particles appear. After integration, some of the terms of the resulting Lagrangian might not be independent. MatchingTools contains functions for transforming these terms to rewrite them in terms of any chosen set of operators.

  4. Importance of radial profiles in spectroscopic diagnostics applied to the EXTRAP-T2R reversed-field pinch

    OpenAIRE

    Gravestijn, Bob

    2003-01-01

    The determination of the plasma confinement propertiesdemand data as the electron temperature, the ionic and electrondensity profiles and the radiative emissivity profiles. Thefocus of this thesis is the importance of radial profiles inspectroscopic diagnostics applied to the EXTRAP-T2Rreversed-field pinch. EXTRAP-T2R is a resistive shell reversed-field pinch with amagnetic field shell penetration time much longer than therelaxation cycle time scale. Significant improvements inconfinement pro...

  5. Molecular tools for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, C M; van der Veer, C; Leeflang, M M G; Deborggraeve, S; Lucas, C; Adams, E R

    2014-09-01

    Molecular methods have been proposed as highly sensitive tools for the detection of Leishmania parasites in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Here, we evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these tools in a meta-analysis of the published literature. The selection criteria were original studies that evaluate the sensitivities and specificities of molecular tests for diagnosis of VL, adequate classification of study participants, and the absolute numbers of true positives and negatives derivable from the data presented. Forty studies met the selection criteria, including PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The sensitivities of the individual studies ranged from 29 to 100%, and the specificities ranged from 25 to 100%. The pooled sensitivity of PCR in whole blood was 93.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.0 to 95.2), and the specificity was 95.6% (95% CI, 87.0 to 98.6). The specificity was significantly lower in consecutive studies, at 63.3% (95% CI, 53.9 to 71.8), due either to true-positive patients not being identified by parasitological methods or to the number of asymptomatic carriers in areas of endemicity. PCR for patients with HIV-VL coinfection showed high diagnostic accuracy in buffy coat and bone marrow, ranging from 93.1 to 96.9%. Molecular tools are highly sensitive assays for Leishmania detection and may contribute as an additional test in the algorithm, together with a clear clinical case definition. We observed wide variety in reference standards and study designs and now recommend consecutively designed studies. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Development, validation and psychometric properties of a diagnostic/prognostic tool for breakthrough pain in mixed chronic-pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolsky Dekel, Boaz Gedaliahu; Remondini, Francesca; Gori, Alberto; Vasarri, Alessio; Di Nino, GianFranco; Melotti, Rita Maria

    2016-02-01

    Breakthrough pain (BTP) shows variable prevalence in different clinical contexts of cancer and non-cancer patients. BTP diagnostic tools with demonstrated reliability, validation and prognostic capability are lacking. We report the development, psychometric and validation properties of a diagnostic/prognostic tool, the IQ-BTP, for BTP recognition, its likelihood and clinical features among chronic-pain (CP) patients. n=120 consecutive mixed cancer/non-cancer CP in/outpatients. Development, psychometric analyses and formal validation included: Face/Content validity (by 'experts' opinion and assessing the relationship between the IQ-BTP classes and criteria derived from BTP operational-case-definition); Construct validity, by Principle Component Analysis (PCA); and the strength of Spearman correlation between IQ-BTP classes and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) items; Reliability, by Cronbach's alpha statistics. Associations with clinical/demographic moderators were assessed applying χ(2) analysis. Potential-BTP was found in 36.7% of patients (38.4% of non-cancer and 32.4% of cancer patients). Among these the likelihood for BTP diagnosis was 'high' in 25%, 'intermediate' in 41% and, 'low' 34% of patients. Analyses showed significant differences between IQ-BTP classes and between the latter BPI pain-item scores. Correlation between IQ-BTP classes and BPI items was moderate. PCA and scree test identified 3 components accounting for 62.3% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.71. The IQ-BTP showed satisfactory psychometric and validation properties. With adequate feasibility it enabled the allocating of cancer/non-cancer CP patients in three prognostic classes. Results are sufficient to warrant a subsequent impact study of the IQ-BTP as prognostic model and screening tool for BTP in both CP populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Tools for Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, C. M.; van der Veer, C.; Leeflang, M. M. G.; Deborggraeve, S.; Lucas, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular methods have been proposed as highly sensitive tools for the detection of Leishmania parasites in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Here, we evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these tools in a meta-analysis of the published literature. The selection criteria were original studies that evaluate the sensitivities and specificities of molecular tests for diagnosis of VL, adequate classification of study participants, and the absolute numbers of true positives and negatives derivable from the data presented. Forty studies met the selection criteria, including PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The sensitivities of the individual studies ranged from 29 to 100%, and the specificities ranged from 25 to 100%. The pooled sensitivity of PCR in whole blood was 93.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.0 to 95.2), and the specificity was 95.6% (95% CI, 87.0 to 98.6). The specificity was significantly lower in consecutive studies, at 63.3% (95% CI, 53.9 to 71.8), due either to true-positive patients not being identified by parasitological methods or to the number of asymptomatic carriers in areas of endemicity. PCR for patients with HIV-VL coinfection showed high diagnostic accuracy in buffy coat and bone marrow, ranging from 93.1 to 96.9%. Molecular tools are highly sensitive assays for Leishmania detection and may contribute as an additional test in the algorithm, together with a clear clinical case definition. We observed wide variety in reference standards and study designs and now recommend consecutively designed studies. PMID:24829226

  8. Database with web interface and search engine as a diagnostics tool for electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Paluoja, Priit

    2017-01-01

    During 2016 data collection, the Compact Muon Solenoid Data Acquisition (CMS DAQ) system has shown a very good reliability. Nevertheless, the high complexity of the hardware and the software involved is, by its nature, prone to some occasional problems. As CMS subdetector, electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is affected in the same way. Some of the issues are not predictable and can appear during the year more than once such as components getting noisy, power shortcuts or failing communication between machines. The chain detection-diagnosis-intervention must be as fast as possible to minimise the downtime of the detector. The aim of this project was to create a diagnostic software for ECAL crew, which consists of database and its web interface that allows to search, add and edit the contents of the database.

  9. Preoperative Duplex Scanning is a Helpful Diagnostic Tool in Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Megan S; Likes, Kendall C; Mirza, Serene; Cao, Yue; Cohen, Anne; Lum, Ying Wei; Freischlag, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic role of venous and arterial duplex scanning in neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). Retrospective review of patients who underwent duplex ultrasonography prior to first rib resection and scalenectomy (FRRS) for NTOS from 2005 to 2013. Abnormal scans included ipsilateral compression (IC) with abduction of the symptomatic extremity (>50% change in subclavian vessel flow), contralateral (asymptomatic side) compression (CC) or bilateral compression (BC). A total of 143 patients (76% female, average age 34, range 13-59) underwent bilateral preoperative duplex scanning. Ipsilateral compression was seen in 44 (31%), CC in 12 (8%), and BC in 14 (10%). Seventy-three (51%) patients demonstrated no compression. Patients with IC more often experienced intraoperative pneumothoraces (49% vs. 25%, P duplex ultrasonography can assist in NTOS diagnosis. Ipsilateral compression on abduction often correlates with Adson testing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Hemoglobin A1c May Be an Inadequate Diagnostic Tool for Diabetes Mellitus in Anemic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Il Son

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecently, a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c level of 6.5% has been determined to be a criterion for diabetes mellitus (DM, and it is a widely used marker for the diagnosis of DM. However, HbA1c may be influenced by a number of factors. Anemia is one of the most prevalent diseases with an influence on HbA1c; however, its effect on HbA1c varies based on the variable pathophysiology of anemia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anemia on HbA1c levels.MethodsAnemic subjects (n=112 and age- and sex-matched controls (n=217 who were drug naive and suspected of having DM were enrolled. The subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and HbA1c simultaneously. We compared mean HbA1c and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DM between each subgroup.ResultsClinical characteristics were found to be similar between each subgroup. Also, when glucose levels were within the normal range, the difference in mean HbA1c was not significant (P=0.580. However, when plasma glucose levels were above the diagnostic cutoff for prediabetes and DM, the mean HbA1c of the anemic subgroup was modestly higher than in the nonanemic group. The specificity of HbA1c for diagnosis of DM was significantly lower in the anemic subgroup (P<0.05.ConclusionThese results suggest that the diagnostic significance of HbA1c might be limited in anemic patients.

  11. The use of different diagnostic tools for Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle in Menofia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayel, Mohamed; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Elsify, Ahmed; Hassan, Hany; Ibrahim, Elsayed; Salama, Akram; Yanai, Tokuma

    2012-09-01

    Bovine piroplasmosis is caused by tick-borne hemoprotozoans of the genera Babesia and Theileria and is the most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, causing a major economic impact worldwide. In the current study, a total of 405 cattle of different ages, sexes, and breeds were randomly sampled for surveying and diagnosis of babesiosis and theileriosis using three methods: direct microscopy (blood smears), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed that, out of 405 examined cattle, 33 (8.15 %) were infected with Babesia sp. and 65 (16.05 %) with Theileria sp. (total number of infected cattle was 98). Mixed infection was seen in 11 (2.72 %) animals. Moreover, application of the three diagnostic assays on 158 randomly sampled cattle indicated that 17 (10.76 %) and 33 (20.89 %) were positive for Babesia and Theileria spp. by the direct smear technique, 25 (15.82 %) and 33 (20.89 %) by IFAT (fluorescence was greenish yellow for Babesia and yellowish for Theileria), and 20 (12.66 %) and 38 (24.05 %) by PCR. Using primers specific for Babesia and Theileria spp., we found that diagnostic bands appeared at ~350 and ~370 bp, respectively indicating the presence of these piroplasms. Statistically, there was a non-significant difference of the positivity in response to the three techniques; thus, any of these methods can be described as useful for diagnosing blood parasites in both domesticated animals and birds. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that direct microscopy can be used in acute infections, whereas IFAT and PCR are useful in chronicity.

  12. State of the art on nailfold capillaroscopy: a reliable diagnostic tool and putative biomarker in rheumatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Smith, Vanessa

    2013-11-01

    Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive and safe tool to morphologically study the microcirculation. In rheumatology it has a dual use. First, it has a role in differential diagnosis of patients with RP. Second, it may have a role in the prediction of clinical complications in CTDs. In SSc, pilot studies have shown predictive associations with peripheral vascular and lung involvement hinting at a role of capillaroscopy as putative biomarker. Also and logically, in SSc, microangiopathy, as assessed by capillaroscopy, has been associated with markers of the disease such as angiogenic/static factors and SSc-specific antibodies. Moreover, morphological assessments of the microcirculation (capillaroscopy) seem to correlate with functional assessments (such as laser Doppler). Because of its clinical and research role, eyes are geared in Europe to expand the knowledge of this tool. Both the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the ACR are stepping forward to this need.

  13. Diagnostic relevance of high field MRI in clinical neuroradiology: the advantages and challenges of driving a sports car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    High field MRI operating at 3 T is increasingly being used in the field of neuroradiology on the grounds that higher magnetic field strength should theoretically lead to a higher diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of several disease entities. This Editorial discusses the exhaustive review by Wardlaw and colleagues of research comparing 3 T MRI with 1.5 T MRI in the field of neuroradiology. Interestingly, the authors found no convincing evidence of improved image quality, diagnostic accuracy, or reduced total examination times using 3 T MRI instead of 1.5 T MRI. These findings are highly relevant since a new generation of high field MRI systems operating at 7 T has recently been introduced. (orig.)

  14. Neutral Beam Source and Target Plasma for Development of a Local Electric Field Fluctuation Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, M. R.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Rhodes, A. T.; Winz, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    A new diagnostic measuring local E-> (r , t) fluctuations is being developed for plasma turbulence studies in tokamaks. This is accomplished by measuring fluctuations in the separation of the π components in the Hα motional Stark spectrum. Fluctuations in this separation are expected to be Ẽ / ẼEMSE 10-3EMSE 10-3 . In addition to a high throughput, high speed spectrometer, the project requires a low divergence (Ω 0 .5°) , 80 keV, 2.5 A H0 beam and a target plasma test stand. The beam employs a washer-stack arc ion source to achieve a high species fraction at full energy. Laboratory tests of the ion source demonstrate repeatable plasmas with Te 10 eV and ne 1.6 ×1017 m-3, sufficient for the beam ion optics requirements. Te and ne scalings of the ion source plasma are presented with respect to operational parameters. A novel three-phase resonant converter power supply will provide 6 mA/cm2 of 80 keV H0 at the focal plane for pulse lengths up to 15 ms, with low ripple δV / 80 keV 0.05 % at 280 kHz. Diagnostic development and validation tests will be performed on a magnetized plasma test stand with 0.5 T field. The test chamber will utilize a washer-stack arc source to produce a target plasma comparable to edge tokamak plasmas. A bias-plate with programmable power supply will be used to impose Ẽ within the target plasma. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-89ER53296.

  15. Auditory brainstem response as a diagnostic tool for patients suffering from schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and bipolar disorder: protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Viktor; Åhlander, Fredrik; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-02-12

    Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and bipolar disorder, may sometimes be difficult to diagnose. There is a great need for a valid and reliable diagnostic tool to aid clinicians in arriving at the diagnoses in a timely and accurate manner. Prior studies have suggested that patients suffering from schizophrenia and ADHD may process certain sound stimuli in the brainstem in an unusual manner. When these patient groups have been examined with the electrophysiological method of brainstem audiometry, some studies have found illness-specific aberrations. Such aberrations may also exist for patients suffering from bipolar disorder. In this study, we will examine whether the method of brainstem audiometry can be used as a diagnostic tool for patients suffering from schizophrenia, ADHD, and bipolar disorder. The method includes three steps: (1) auditory stimulation with specific sound stimuli, (2) simultaneous measurement of brainstem activity, and (3) automated interpretation of the resulting brain stem audiograms with data-based signal analysis. We will compare three groups of 12 individuals with confirmed diagnoses of schizophrenia, ADHD, or bipolar disorder with 12 healthy subjects under blinded conditions for a total of 48 participants. The extent to which the method can be used to reach the correct diagnosis will be investigated. The project is now in a recruiting phase. When all patients and controls have been recruited and the measurements have been performed, the data will be analyzed according to a previously arranged algorithm. We expect the recruiting phase and measurements to be completed in early 2015, the analyses to be performed in mid-2015, and the results of the study to be published in early 2016. If the results support previous findings, this will lend strength to the idea that brainstem audiometry can offer objective diagnostic support for patients suffering from schizophrenia, ADHD, and

  16. Functional imaging - a new tool for X-ray functional diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.; Erbe, W.; Sonne, B.; Hoehne, K.H.; Nicolae, G.C.; Pfeiffer, G.

    1978-05-01

    The method of functional imaging is applied to X-ray angiograms. Functional images are generated by inserting at each point of an X-ray image a computed grey value proportional to a dynamic parameter (such as blood velocity) instead of the recorded X-ray absorption value. For this purpose a new system for angiographic image processing has been developed. First results show that the method is a tool to extract more information about the blood dynamics in organs in an easier and faster way than with the conventional angiographic technique. (orig.)

  17. Classification of windfields: a diagnostic tool for real-time determination of local air pollution dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, W.K.; Buerki, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In the framework of the project `WINDBANK unteres Aaretal` local winds over complex terrain were measured over a 4 month period and a cluster analysis is used to identify 13 different typical wind fields. A subset of representative stations is established to identify the classes for future applications in emergency planning. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  18. Methods for the field evaluation of quantitative G6PD diagnostics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Benedikt; Bancone, Germana; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Thriemer, Kamala; Richards, Jack S; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Price, Ric N

    2017-09-11

    Individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk of severe haemolysis following the administration of 8-aminoquinoline compounds. Primaquine is the only widely available 8-aminoquinoline for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. Tafenoquine is under development with the potential to simplify treatment regimens, but point-of-care (PoC) tests will be needed to provide quantitative measurement of G6PD activity prior to its administration. There is currently a lack of appropriate G6PD PoC tests, but a number of new tests are in development and are likely to enter the market in the coming years. As these are implemented, they will need to be validated in field studies. This article outlines the technical details for the field evaluation of novel quantitative G6PD diagnostics such as sample handling, reference testing and statistical analysis. Field evaluation is based on the comparison of paired samples, including one sample tested by the new assay at point of care and one sample tested by the gold-standard reference method, UV spectrophotometry in an established laboratory. Samples can be collected as capillary or venous blood; the existing literature suggests that potential differences in capillary or venous blood are unlikely to affect results substantially. The collection and storage of samples is critical to ensure preservation of enzyme activity, it is recommended that samples are stored at 4 °C and testing occurs within 4 days of collection. Test results can be visually presented as scatter plot, Bland-Altman plot, and a histogram of the G6PD activity distribution of the study population. Calculating the adjusted male median allows categorizing results according to G6PD activity to calculate standard performance indicators and to perform receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

  19. Poynting flux measurements on a satellite: A diagnostic tool for space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.; Knudsen, D.J.; Vickery, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The first satellite observations of the total field-aligned component of the quasi-dc Poynting flux are presented for two passes over the polar region, one in the noon sector and one in the afternoon. The energy input due to electron precipitation is also presented. In the noon pass the downward Poynting flux in the auroral oval was comparable to the kinetic energy input rate. The peak electromagnetic energy input rate of 6 ergs/(cm 2 s) equaled the peak particle input while the integrated electromagnetic value along the trajectory was 60% that of the particles. In the afternoon pass the peak electromagnetic energy input was also about 6 ergs/(cm 2 s), but the peak particle energy was 6 times this value. The average electromagnetic input was 10% of the particle input for the pass. In this study, the authors can measure the Poynting flux only over a limited range of scale sizes; thus the contribution to the total energy budget in the polar cap cannot be determined. Both passes show small regions characterized by upward Poynting flux suggesting a neutral wind dynamo. There is also evidence during part of the noontime pass that the external generator acted in opposition to an existing wind field since the Poynting flux was greater than the estimate of Joule heating from the electric field measurement alone (i.e., from Σ p E 2 ). In the course of deriving Poynting's theorem for the geophysical case they also present a proof that ground magnetometer systems respond primarily to the Hall current which does not depend upon geometric cancellation between the field generated by Pedersen and field-aligned currents

  20. Reverse iontophoresis of urea in health and chronic kidney disease: a potential diagnostic and monitoring tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebah, Leonard M; Read, Ian; Sayce, Andrew; Morgan, Jane; Chaloner, Christopher; Brenchley, Paul; Mitra, Sandip

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) need regular monitoring, usually by blood urea and creatinine measurements, needing venepuncture, frequent attendances and a healthcare professional, with significant inconvenience. Noninvasive monitoring will potentially simplify and improve monitoring. We tested the potential of transdermal reverse iontophoresis of urea in patients with CKD and healthy controls. Methods Using a MIC 2® Iontophoresis Controller, reverse iontophoresis was applied on the forearm of five healthy subjects (controls) and 18 patients with CKD for 3–5 h. Urea extracted at the cathode was measured and compared with plasma urea. Results Reverse iontophoresis at 250 μA was entirely safe for the duration. Cathodal buffer urea linearly correlated with plasma urea after 2 h (r = 0·82, P urea (y) from cathodal urea after 2 and 3 h, respectively. Cathodal urea concentration in controls was significantly lower than in patients with CKD after a minimum current application of 2 h (P urea cut-off of 30 μM gave a sensitivity of 83·3% and positive predictive value of 87% CKD. During haemodialysis, the fall in cathodal urea was able to track that of blood urea. Conclusion Reverse iontophoresis is safe, can potentially discriminate patients with CKD and healthy subjects and is able to track blood urea changes on dialysis. Further development of the technology for routine use can lead to an exciting opportunity for its use in diagnostics and monitoring. PMID:22409780

  1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH as a diagnostic tool for Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Helena de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with commercial probes covering the elastin gene (ELN was used to determine the frequency of the 7q11.23 deletion in 18 children clinically diagnosed with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS. A de novo deletion was detected in 15 of the children (83%. Diagnostic investigation for WBS started late in childhood (median = 5.8 years. All the children showed facial features typical of the syndrome, mental retardation and developmental delay. Over-friendliness was observed in the majority of cases. Clinodactyly of the 5th finger (n = 13, cardiovascular disease (n = 9, loquacity (n = 9, low birthweight (n = 8, and failure to thrive (n = 9 were observed only in those children with the deletion. Respiratory problems (n = 9, though not previously reported in the literature, was a common finding in the group studied. Our results confirmed that FISH is useful in identifying 7q11.23 deletions in cases of WBS. Clinical manifestations were more evident in the deletion-positive children.

  2. Palmar dermatoglyphics as diagnostic tool: Mayer-rokintansky-kuster-hauser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar A

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The congential anomalies involving Mullerian duct dysgenesis, the MRKH (Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome overlaps a ′community of syndromes′ which share, apart from a complete absence of uterus and vagina, associated presentations that include developmental abnormalities of skeletal, renal, dental and other dysmorphias. First described more than 400 years ago, this complement of anomalies now rechristened, the MRKH syndrome has been extensively studied. Found to occur once in every 4000 females; estimated on its incidence vary from 1/5000 to 1/20,000. Despite its fairly wide prevalence, this syndrome has remained largely underdiagnosed or cryptic. Social and cultural perceptions have perforce driven, the wide existence of the very personal handicap underground and unacceptable. Accidentally discovered during routine examination, during secondarily associated medical problems, the mullerian agenecies syndrome has been subject of a wide range of clinical and laboratory investigations. The oddity in the syndrome is that the patient appears absolutely normal and that it presents with no genetic marker. We herein report the palmar dermatoglyphic and doctylographic features of a patient with MRKH syndrome. However interpretation, show conclusively, at least in this single case that the MRKH syndrome can be diagnosed through its characteristic dermatography patterns. In our view, routine dermatographic study of all live females births may lead to not only an early but also a cost effective diagnostic method.

  3. Digital capillaroscopy as important tool for early diagnostics of arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; Sasonko, M. L.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The study is aimed to determine the digital capillaroscopy possibilities in early diagnostics of an arterial hypertension. A total of 123 adult persons were examined in the study. The first group consisted of 40 patients with prehypertension (BP 130-139/85-89 mm Hg). The second group included 36 patients with 1-2 stage of hypertension (mean systolic BP 152.7±12 mm Hg). Patients in both groups did not receive regular drug therapy. The group of volunteers (n=47) included healthy adults without signs of cardiovascular pathology. The capillary circulation was examined on the nailbed using the optical digital capillaroscope developed by the company "AET", Russia. Diameters of the arterial and venous segments, perivascular zone size, capillary blood velocity, the degree of arterial loops narrowing and the density of the capillary network were estimated. In patients with arterial hypertension and even in patients with prehypertension remodeling and rarefaction of capillaries and the expressed narrowing their arterial loops were manifested. The results of the study revealed the presence of abnormalities of microcirculation parameters in patients of both groups. The capillaries density in both groups of patients was significantly lower than in healthy persons. The significant narrowing of arterial loops was revealed in patients with both arterial hypertension and prehypertension, in comparison with healthy volunteers. Capillary blood velocity did not differ significantly between healthy volunteers group and the group of prehypertensive patients. However in patients with hypertension this parameter was significantly lower in comparison with control group.

  4. Schistosoma real-time PCR as diagnostic tool for international travellers and migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnops, Lieselotte; Tannich, Egbert; Polman, Katja; Clerinx, Jan; Van Esbroeck, Marjan

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the use of a genus-specific PCR that combines high sensitivity with the detection of different Schistosoma species for diagnosis in international travellers and migrants in comparison to standard microscopy. The genus-specific real-time PCR was developed to target the 28S ribosomal RNA gene of the major human Schistosoma species. It was validated for analytical specificity and reproducibility and demonstrated an analytical sensitivity of 0.2 eggs per gram of faeces. Its diagnostic performance was further evaluated on 152 faecal, 32 urine and 38 serum samples from patients presenting at the outpatient clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp (Belgium). We detected Schistosoma DNA in 76 faecal (50.0%) and five urine (15.6%) samples of which, respectively, nine and one were not detected by standard microscopy. Only two of the 38 serum samples of patients with confirmed schistosomiasis were positive with the presently developed PCR. Sequence analysis on positive faecal samples allowed identification of the Schistosoma species complex. The real-time PCR is highly sensitive and may offer added value in diagnosing imported schistosomiasis. The genus-specific PCR can detect all schistosome species that are infectious to humans and performs very well with faeces and urine, but not in serum. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rodriguez-Hidalgo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether technique. Following treatment and recovery of tapeworm fragments these were all identified as T. solium. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed in 3.56% of the pigs by tongue inspection. In addition, enzyme linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB was performed on a subset group of 100 humans to confirm the results of the Ag-ELISA. One hundred serum samples from pigs were also analysed by EITB. It appeared that 43 and 74% of humans and pigs had antibodies against T. solium cysticerci, respectively. It is concluded that contrary to the high exposure of the human population to T. solium that is suggested by EITB, the number of active cysticercosis cases, diagnosed by Ag-ELISA, was low, which may indicate endemic stability. The further use of complementary diagnostic methods for a better understanding of the epidemiology of T. solium is suggested.

  6. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Southern Ecuador: assessment of infection status using multiple laboratory diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, R; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Praet, N; Saa, L R; Vercruysse, J; Brandt, J; Dorny, P

    2006-11-01

    Taenia solium-taeniasis and cysticercosis were studied in the human and porcine populations of a rural community in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. From the 1059 inhabitants, 800 serum samples and 958 stool samples could be collected. In addition, 646 from the estimated 1148 pigs were tongue inspected. Circulating antigen was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) in 2.25% of the human population, whereas intestinal taeniasis was detected in 1.46% by the formalin-ether technique. Following treatment and recovery of tapeworm fragments these were all identified as T. solium. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed in 3.56% of the pigs by tongue inspection. In addition, enzyme linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was performed on a subset group of 100 humans to confirm the results of the Ag-ELISA. One hundred serum samples from pigs were also analysed by EITB. It appeared that 43 and 74% of humans and pigs had antibodies against T. solium cysticerci, respectively. It is concluded that contrary to the high exposure of the human population to T. solium that is suggested by EITB, the number of active cysticercosis cases, diagnosed by Ag-ELISA, was low, which may indicate endemic stability. The further use of complementary diagnostic methods for a better understanding of the epidemiology of T. solium is suggested.

  7. Performance of in silico prediction tools for the classification of rare BRCA1/2 missense variants in clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Corinna; Hahnen, Eric; Engel, Christoph; Nothnagel, Michael; Weber, Jonas; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hauke, Jan

    2018-03-27

    The use of next-generation sequencing approaches in clinical diagnostics has led to a tremendous increase in data and a vast number of variants of uncertain significance that require interpretation. Therefore, prediction of the effects of missense mutations using in silico tools has become a frequently used approach. Aim of this study was to assess the reliability of in silico prediction as a basis for clinical decision making in the context of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer. We tested the performance of four prediction tools (Align-GVGD, SIFT, PolyPhen-2, MutationTaster2) using a set of 236 BRCA1/2 missense variants that had previously been classified by expert committees. However, a major pitfall in the creation of a reliable evaluation set for our purpose is the generally accepted classification of BRCA1/2 missense variants using the multifactorial likelihood model, which is partially based on Align-GVGD results. To overcome this drawback we identified 161 variants whose classification is independent of any previous in silico prediction. In addition to the performance as stand-alone tools we examined the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of combined approaches. PolyPhen-2 achieved the lowest sensitivity (0.67), specificity (0.67), accuracy (0.67) and MCC (0.39). Align-GVGD achieved the highest values of specificity (0.92), accuracy (0.92) and MCC (0.73), but was outperformed regarding its sensitivity (0.90) by SIFT (1.00) and MutationTaster2 (1.00). All tools suffered from poor specificities, resulting in an unacceptable proportion of false positive results in a clinical setting. This shortcoming could not be bypassed by combination of these tools. In the best case scenario, 138 families would be affected by the misclassification of neutral variants within the cohort of patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. We show that due to low specificities state-of-the-art in silico

  8. System Diagnostic Builder - A rule generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation. [applied to Shuttle Mission Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieten, Joseph; Burke, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the System Diagnostic Builder (SDB), an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state-of-the-art AI technologies. The SDB employs an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert. Thus, data are captured from the subject system, classified, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The knowledge bases captured from the Shuttle Mission Simulator can be used as black box simulations by the Intelligent Computer Aided Training devices. The SDB can also be used to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production or oil and gas production.

  9. Nuclear/Nucleolar morphometry and DNA image cytometry as a combined diagnostic tool in pathology of prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavantzas, N.; Agapitos, E.; Lazaris, A. C.; Pavlopulos, P.M.; Sofikitis, N.; Davaris, P. [National University of Athens, Dept. of Pathology, Medical School, Athens (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    Paraffin tissue sections from 50 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma were used to study nuclear and nucleolar morphometric features by image analysis. The results were compared to DNA ploidy and Gleason grade. In the examined histological samples nuclear and nucleolar areas were positively interrelated. It was also noticed that the higher the percentage of nucleolated nuclei, the bigger the nuclear and nucleolar areas. The morphometric characteristics did not differ significantly among the four grades of the examined specimens. In well-differentiated carcinomas the DNA index was lower than in the rest at a statistically significant level. Hypodiploid carcinomas were found to possess significantly bigger nuclear areas than any other DNA index group. Morphonuclear evidence of anaplasia and DNA aneuploidy may be used as diagnostic tools in prostate cancer in addition to Gleason grade.

  10. Nuclear/Nucleolar morphometry and DNA image cytometry as a combined diagnostic tool in pathology of prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavantzas, N.; Agapitos, E.; Lazaris, A. C.; Pavlopulos, P.M.; Sofikitis, N.; Davaris, P.

    2001-01-01

    Paraffin tissue sections from 50 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma were used to study nuclear and nucleolar morphometric features by image analysis. The results were compared to DNA ploidy and Gleason grade. In the examined histological samples nuclear and nucleolar areas were positively interrelated. It was also noticed that the higher the percentage of nucleolated nuclei, the bigger the nuclear and nucleolar areas. The morphometric characteristics did not differ significantly among the four grades of the examined specimens. In well-differentiated carcinomas the DNA index was lower than in the rest at a statistically significant level. Hypodiploid carcinomas were found to possess significantly bigger nuclear areas than any other DNA index group. Morphonuclear evidence of anaplasia and DNA aneuploidy may be used as diagnostic tools in prostate cancer in addition to Gleason grade

  11. Can teledermatology be a useful diagnostic tool in dermatology practice in remote areas? An Egyptian experience with 600 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Nadia; Abdel Hay, Rania; Hegazy, Rehab; Hussein, Marwa; Gomaa, Dalia

    2017-02-01

    Introduction The paucity of studies evaluating teledermatology (TD) in developing countries was the impetus behind conducting this work. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of TD in remote areas where medical facilities and consultant dermatologists are not available, through measurement of diagnostic concordance rates between face-to-face diagnosis and store-and-forward (SAF) TD diagnosis. Methods A total of 600 patients with dermatological ailments who attended Abshway Hospital were recruited into the study, examined by an on-site dermatology resident, and offered a diagnosis. The clinical images and patients' history were collected and transferred (through the Dropbox application) to two remote consultant dermatologists. The reliability of the three physicians' agreement rates was assessed. Results Diagnostic agreement rates between the face-to-face dermatologist and the two teledermatologists were 86.7% and 87% respectively. Of the cases, 97% had complete or partial agreement and 81.3% of cases showed complete agreement between the three physicians. The reliability of the three physicians' agreement rates was assessed statistically using Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) and this showed a range of 0.46-0.52. Conclusion This study might aid in enhancing the utilization of this tool in our country, especially in remote areas with a lack of a proper dermatological service. The simplicity and low cost of the adopted technique might facilitate its use over large sectors. It opens the door for gaining the benefit of this technology in other aspects such as teaching and monitoring health care providers.

  12. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool in assessing deltoid ligament injury in supination external rotation fractures of the ankle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henari, Shwan

    2011-10-01

    The medial deltoid ligament is the primary stabilizing structure in the ankle joint following lateral malleolar fracture. However, medial deltoid ligament ruptures are difficult to diagnose using current imaging modalities. We hypothesized that ultrasonography can be used to accurately allow early clinical assessment of ankle fracture stability, thereby negating the need to perform plain film stress views of the acutely injured ankle. This prospective study included 12 patients (age range, 18-72) with supination external rotation fractures requiring operative fixation. Following induction of anesthesia, ultrasonography examination was performed, followed by an arthrogram under fluoroscopic screening. Radiographs, ultrasonography, and arthrographic findings were compared. There was 100% correlation between ultrasonography and arthrogram findings. Ultrasonography accurately diagnosed medial deltoid rupture with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%. Plain film radiographs of the ankle had a sensitivity of 57.1% and a specificity of 60%. The difference between these was significant (χ(2)=.0091). This study demonstrates diagnostic ultrasonography to be an accurate diagnostic modality in assessing medial deltoid ligament integrity in patients with supination external rotation fractures. It offers the same sensitivity and specificity as arthrography without the need for additional invasive procedures. Its relative ease of use and lack of ionizing radiation make it a potentially useful tool, particularly in a busy trauma service.

  13. Algorithms for optimized maximum entropy and diagnostic tools for analytic continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Dominic; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-08-01

    Analytic continuation of numerical data obtained in imaginary time or frequency has become an essential part of many branches of quantum computational physics. It is, however, an ill-conditioned procedure and thus a hard numerical problem. The maximum-entropy approach, based on Bayesian inference, is the most widely used method to tackle that problem. Although the approach is well established and among the most reliable and efficient ones, useful developments of the method and of its implementation are still possible. In addition, while a few free software implementations are available, a well-documented, optimized, general purpose, and user-friendly software dedicated to that specific task is still lacking. Here we analyze all aspects of the implementation that are critical for accuracy and speed and present a highly optimized approach to maximum entropy. Original algorithmic and conceptual contributions include (1) numerical approximations that yield a computational complexity that is almost independent of temperature and spectrum shape (including sharp Drude peaks in broad background, for example) while ensuring quantitative accuracy of the result whenever precision of the data is sufficient, (2) a robust method of choosing the entropy weight α that follows from a simple consistency condition of the approach and the observation that information- and noise-fitting regimes can be identified clearly from the behavior of χ2 with respect to α , and (3) several diagnostics to assess the reliability of the result. Benchmarks with test spectral functions of different complexity and an example with an actual physical simulation are presented. Our implementation, which covers most typical cases for fermions, bosons, and response functions, is available as an open source, user-friendly software.

  14. Serum biomarkers reflecting specific tumor tissue remodeling processes are valuable diagnostic tools for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willumsen, Nicholas; Bager, Cecilie L; Leeming, Diana J; Smith, Victoria; Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten A; Dornan, David; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagen type I and elastin, and intermediate filament (IMF) proteins, such as vimentin are modified and dysregulated as part of the malignant changes leading to disruption of tissue homeostasis. Noninvasive biomarkers that reflect such changes may have a great potential for cancer. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) generated fragments of type I collagen (C1M), of elastin (ELM), and of citrullinated vimentin (VICM) were measured in serum from patients with lung cancer (n = 40), gastrointestinal cancer (n = 25), prostate cancer (n = 14), malignant melanoma (n = 7), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 13), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 10), as well as in age-matched controls (n = 33). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) was calculated and a diagnostic decision tree generated from specific cutoff values. C1M and VICM were significantly elevated in lung cancer patients as compared with healthy controls (AUROC = 0.98, P < 0.0001) and other cancers (AUROC = 0.83 P < 0.0001). A trend was detected when comparing lung cancer with COPD+IPF. No difference could be seen for ELM. Interestingly, C1M and VICM were able to identify patients with lung cancer with a positive predictive value of 0.9 and an odds ratio of 40 (95% CI = 8.7–186, P < 0.0001). Biomarkers specifically reflecting degradation of collagen type I and citrullinated vimentin are applicable for lung cancer patients. Our data indicate that biomarkers reflecting ECM and IMF protein dysregulation are highly applicable in the lung cancer setting. We speculate that these markers may aid in diagnosing and characterizing patients with lung cancer

  15. FANCD2 Western blot as a diagnostic tool for Brazilian patients with Fanconi anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Pilonetto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia is a rare hereditary disease showing genetic heterogeneity due to a variety of mutations in genes involved in DNA repair pathways, which may lead to different clinical manifestations. Phenotypic variability makes diagnosis difficult based only on clinical manifestations, therefore laboratory tests are necessary. New advances in molecular pathogenesis of this disease led researchers to develop a diagnostic test based on Western blot for FANCD2. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of this method for the diagnosis of 84 Brazilian patients with Fanconi anemia, all of whom tested positive for the diepoxybutane test, and 98 healthy controls. The FANCD2 monoubiquitinated isoform (FANCDS+/FANCD2L- was not detected in 77 patients (91.7%. In 2 patients (2.4%, there was an absence of both the monoubiquitinated and the non-ubiquitinated proteins (FANCD2S-/FANCD2L- and 5 patients (5.9% had both isoforms (FANCD2S+/FANCD2L+. This last phenotype suggests downstream subtypes or mosaicism. All controls were diepoxybutane negative and were also negative on the FANCD2 Western blot. The Western blot for FANCD2 presented a sensitivity of 94% (79/84 and specificity of 100% (98/98. This method was confirmed as an efficient approach to screen Brazilian patients with deleterious mutations on FANCD2 (FANCD2S-/FANCD2L- or other upstream genes of the FA/BRCA pathway (FANCDS+/FANCD2L-, to confirm the chromosome breakage test and to classify patients according to the level of FA/BRCA pathway defects. However, patients showing both FANCD2 isoforms (FANCD2S+/FANCD2L+ require additional studies to confirm mutations on downstream Fanconi anemia genes or the presence of mosaicism.

  16. Serum Steroid Ratio Profiles in Prostate Cancer: A New Diagnostic Tool Toward a Personalized Medicine Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Adriana; Bruno, Antonino; Bassani, Barbara; D'Ambrosio, Gioacchino; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Consonni, Paolo; Castellani, Laura; Conti, Matteo; Cristoni, Simone; Noonan, Douglas M

    2018-01-01

    Serum steroids are crucial molecules altered in prostate cancer (PCa). Mass spectrometry (MS) is currently the elected technology for the analysis of steroids in diverse biological samples. Steroids have complex biological pathways and stoichiometry and it is important to evaluate their quantitative ratio. MS applications to patient hormone profiling could lead to a diagnostic approach. Here, we employed the Surface Activated Chemical Ionization-Electrospray-NIST (SANIST) developed in our laboratories, to obtain quantitative serum steroid ratio relationship profiles with a machine learning Bayesian model to discriminate patients with PCa. The approach is focused on steroid relationship profiles and disease association. A pilot study on patients affected by PCa, benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH), and control subjects [prostate-specific antigen (PSA) lower than 2.5 ng/mL] was done in order to investigate the classification performance of the SANIST platform. The steroid profiles of 71 serum samples (31 controls, 20 patients with PCa and 20 subjects with benign prostate hyperplasia) were evaluated. The levels of 10 steroids were quantitated on the SANIST platform: Aldosterone, Corticosterone, Cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, Androstenedione, Testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 17-OH-Progesterone and Progesterone. We performed both traditional and a machine learning analysis. We show that the machine learning approach based on the steroid relationships developed here was much more accurate than the PSA, DHEAS, and direct absolute value match method in separating the PCa, BPH and control subjects, increasing the sensitivity to 90% and specificity to 84%. This technology, if applied in the future to a larger number of samples will be able to detect the individual enzymatic disequilibrium associated with the steroid ratio and correlate it with the disease. This learning machine approach could be valid in a personalized medicine

  17. Stereo-EEG: Diagnostic and therapeutic tool for periventricular nodular heterotopia epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Laura; Mai, Roberto F; Francione, Stefano; Pelliccia, Veronica; Gozzo, Francesca; Sartori, Ivana; Nobili, Lino; Cardinale, Francesco; Cossu, Massimo; Meletti, Stefano; Tassi, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopias (PNHs) are malformations of cortical development related to neuronal migration disorders, frequently associated with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) is considered a very effective step of the presurgical evaluation, providing the recognition of the epileptogenic zone (EZ). At the same time, via the intracerebral electrodes it is possible to perform radiofrequency thermocoagulation (SEEG-guided RF-TC) with the aim of ablating and/or disrupting the EZ. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the relationships between PNH and the EZ, and the efficacy of SEEG-guided RF-TC. Twenty patients with DRE related to PNHs were studied. Inclusion criteria were the following: (1) patients with epilepsy and PNHs (unilateral or bilateral, single or multiple nodules) diagnosed on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (2) SEEG recordings available as part of the presurgical investigations, with at least one intracerebral electrode inside the heterotopia; (3) complete surgical workup with SEEG-guided RF-TC and/or with traditional neurosurgery, with a follow-up of at least 12 months. Complex and heterogenic epileptic networks were found in these patients. SEEG-guided RF-TC both into the nodules and/or the cortex was efficacious in the 76% of patients. Single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral PNHs are the most suitable for this procedure, whereas patients with PNHs associated with complex cortical malformations obtained excellent outcome only with traditional resective surgery. Each patient had a specific epileptogenic network, independent from the number, size, or location of nodules and from the cortical malformation associated with. SEEG-guided RF-TC appears as a new and very effective diagnostic and therapeutic approach for DRE related to PNHs. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. Measured parental height in Turner syndrome-a valuable but underused diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouarezki, Yasmine; Cizmecioglu, Filiz Mine; Mansour, Chourouk; Jones, Jeremy Huw; Gault, Emma Jane; Mason, Avril; Donaldson, Malcolm D C

    2018-02-01

    Early diagnosis of Turner syndrome (TS) is necessary to facilitate appropriate management, including growth promotion. Not all girls with TS have overt short stature, and comparison with parental height (Ht) is needed for appropriate evaluation. We examined both the prevalence and diagnostic sensitivity of measured parental Ht in a dedicated TS clinic between 1989 and 2013. Lower end of parental target range (LTR) was calculated as mid-parental Ht (correction factor 12.5 cm minus 8.5 cm) and converted to standard deviation scores (SDS) using UK 1990 data, then compared with patient Ht SDS at first accurate measurement aged > 1 year. Information was available in 172 girls of whom 142 (82.6%) were short at first measurement. However, both parents had been measured in only 94 girls (54.6%). In 92 of these girls age at measurement was 6.93 ± 3.9 years, Ht SDS vs LTR SDS - 2.63 ± 0.94 vs - 1.77 ± 0.81 (p Turner syndrome are short in relation to parental heights, with untreated final height approximately 20 cm below female population mean. • Measured parental height is more accurate than reported height. What is New: • In a dedicated Turner clinic, there was 85% sensitivity when comparing patient height standard deviation score at first accurate measurement beyond 1 year of age with the lower end of the parental target range standard deviation. • However, measured height in both parents had been recorded in only 54.6% of the Turner girls attending the clinic. This indicates the need to improve the quality of growth assessment in tertiary care.

  19. Children’s Sleep Comic: development of a new diagnostic tool for children with sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwerdtle B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Schwerdtle,1 Julia Kanis,1 Lena Kahl,1 Andrea Kübler,1,2 Angelika A Schlarb3,41Institute of Psychology, Department of Psychology I, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, 2Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, 3Faculty of Science, Clinical and Developmental Psychology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, 4Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, GermanyBackground: A solid diagnosis of sleep disorders in children should include both self-ratings and parent ratings. However, there are few standardized self-assessment instruments to meet this need. The Children’s Sleep Comic is an adapted version of the unpublished German questionnaire “Freiburger Kinderschlafcomic” and provides pictures for items and responses. Because the drawings were outdated and allowed only for qualitative analysis, we revised the comic, tested its applicability in a target sample, and suggest a procedure for quantitative analysis.Methods: All items were updated and pictures were newly drawn. We used a sample of 201 children aged 5–10 years to test the applicability of the Children’s Sleep Comic in young children and to run a preliminary analysis.Results: The Children’s Sleep Comic comprises 37 items covering relevant aspects of sleep disorders in children. Application took on average 30 minutes. The procedure was well accepted by the children, as reflected by the absence of any dropouts. First comparisons with established questionnaires indicated moderate correlations.Conclusion: The Children’s Sleep Comic is appropriate for screening sleep behavior and sleep problems in children. The interactive procedure can foster a good relationship between the investigator and the child, and thus establish the basis for successful intervention if necessary.Keywords: children, sleep, sleep disorders, diagnostic, assessment, self-rating

  20. Evaluation of Ultrasonography as a Diagnostic Tool in Maxillofacial Space Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the study was to establish the role of ultrasonography in determining the involvement of specific fascial spaces in maxillofacial region and the stage of infection, in indicating the appropriate time for surgical intervention and to compare clinical and ultrasonographic findings.Material and Methods: Twenty five patients with fascial space infection in maxillofacial region were subjected to ultrasonographic examination following a detailed clinical and radiological examination. Ultrasonography guided needle aspiration was performed. Based on the findings, patients diagnosed with abscess were subjected to incision and drainage and those with cellulitis were subjected to medical line of treatment.Results: More than one fascial space was involved in all patients. On clinical examination 64 spaces were involved, of them 34 spaces had abscess formation and 30 spaces were in the stage of cellulitis. On ultrasonography examination, 28 spaces were reported to have abscess formation and 36 spaces were diagnosed to be in the stage of cellulitis. On comparative analysis of both clinical and ultrasonographic findings, ultrasonography was found to be sensitive in 65% of the cases and having specificity of 80%. It was registered statistically significant (P < 0.001 agreement between these two methods of assessment (kappa index = 0.814.Conclusions: Ultrasonography is a quick, widely available, relatively inexpensive, and painless procedure and can be repeated as often as necessary without risk to the patient. Thus ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic aid to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon for early and accurate diagnosis of fascial space infection, their appropriate treatment and to limit their further spread.

  1. Non-Metropolitan Drinking Water Suppliers’ Response to the Diagnostic Tool for Non-Technical Compliance in Limpopo, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avhashoni Dorcas Nefale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Without the planning of non-technical issues, water treatment plants may face challenges in sustaining safe drinking water. Parameters such as the planning of financial resources, human resources, a lack of professional process controllers, poor working conditions, staff shortages and a lack of appropriate training of process controllers contribute to the underperformance of drinking water treatment plants. This study aimed at applying the Diagnostic Tool for Non-Technical Compliance to assess the compliance of small drinking water plants with management norms. Six water treatments (Vondo water scheme, Malamulele, Mutshedzi, Mutale regional water treatment plant, Tshedza and Tshedza package plant were selected from the Vhembe district municipality of the Limpopo province in South Africa. From the abovementioned non-technical parameters, the results showed that during the first assessment period (August 2008 and June 2009 selected water treatment plants scored between 53% and 68% and fell under Class 2, indicating serious challenges requiring attention and improvement. During the second assessment period (November and December 2010, a slight improvement was observed as all plants scored between 72% and 80%, falling under the Class 2 category. Even after corrective actions and remeasurement, none of the plants met the compliance standards, which range from 90% to 100% to obtain the Class 1 compliance standard. The study recommended that tactical and strategic plans that clearly define the operational procedures, process controlling, financial planning, maintenance culture, emergency preparedness and regular monitoring and evaluation should be entrenched for the smooth running of the small water treatment plants. Furthermore, all water services providers and water services authorities should apply the diagnostic tools as developed, which provides guidance on a stepwise procedure on plant operations and management on a daily basis.

  2. The high voltage divider - a tool for comparison of measurement equipment in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavchev, A.; Litchev, A.; Constantinov, B.

    2004-01-01

    The high voltage divider (HVD) is designed for control and analysis of the characteristics of the X-ray generator. The low voltage analogous signals produced by the divider are proportional to the high voltage (kVp) applied to the x-ray tube by a ratio 1:1000 or 1:10000 and can be measured with external test devices like storage oscilloscope (or digital multimeter). The exposure duration and the wave form may be visualized, too. Apart of this invasive way the high voltage also may be measured non-invasively by means of appropriate devices as well as indirectly through calculations. Since the invasive method of measurement with the high voltage divider is distinguished by a high accuracy, it may be utilized as an effective tool for calibration of different devices and for comparison of the measurement methods. (authors)

  3. DIAGNOSTICS OF WORKPIECE SURFACE CONDITION BASED ON CUTTING TOOL VIBRATIONS DURING MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents functional relationships between surface geometry parameters, feed and vibrations level in the radial direction of the workpiece. Time characteristics of the acceleration of cutting tool vibration registered during C45 steel and stainless steel machining for separate axes (X, Y, Z were presented as a function of feedrate f. During the tests surface geometric accuracy assessment was performed and 3D surface roughness parameters were determined. The Sz parameter was selected for the analysis, which was then collated with RMS vibration acceleration and feedrate f. The Sz parameter indirectly provides information on peak to valley height and is characterised by high generalising potential i.e. it is highly correlated to other surface and volume parameters of surface roughness. Test results presented in this paper may constitute a valuable source of information considering the influence of vibrations on geometric accuracy of elements for engineers designing technological processes.

  4. CALDoseX: a software tool for absorbed dose calculations in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Khourya, H.J.; Vieira, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Conversion coefficients (CCs) between absorbed dose to organs and tissues at risk and measurable quantities commonly used in X-ray diagnosis have been calculated for the last 30 years mostly with mathematical MIRD5-type phantoms, in which organs are represented by simple geometrical bodies, like ellipsoids, tori, truncated cylinders, etc. In contrast, voxel-based phantoms are true to nature representations of human bodies. The purpose of this study is therefore to calculate CCs for common examinations in X-ray diagnosis with the recently developed MAX06 (Male Adult voXel) and FAX06 (Female Adult voXel) phantoms for various projections and different X-ray spectra and to make these CCs available to the public through a software tool, called CALDose X (CALculation of Dose for X-ray diagnosis). (author)

  5. Evaluation of colonoscopic allergen provocation as a diagnostic tool in dogs with proven food hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenspach, K; Vaden, S L; Harris, T S; Gröne, A; Doherr, M G; Griot-Wenk, M E; Bischoff, S C; Gaschen, F

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the colonoscopic allergen provocation (COLAP) test as a new tool for the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy. Oral food challenges as well as COLAP testing were performed in a colony of nine research dogs with proven immediate-type food allergic reactions. In addition, COLAP was performed in five healthy dogs. When compared with the oral challenge test, COLAP accurately determined 18 of 23 (73 per cent) positive oral challenge reactions (73 per cent) in dogs with food allergies and was negative in the healthy dogs. The accuracy of this new test may be higher than that for gastric sensitivity testing. Therefore, COLAP holds promise as a new test to confirm the diagnosis of suspect IgE-mediated food allergy in dogs.

  6. Measurements with magnetic field in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using the motional Stark effect with laser induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) has been installed and tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. The MSE-LIF diagnostic will be capable of measuring radially resolved profiles of magnetic field magnitude or pitch angle in NSTX plasmas. The system includes a diagnostic neutral hydrogen beam and a laser which excites the n = 2 to n = 3 transition. A viewing system has been implemented which will support up to 38 channels from the plasma edge to past the magnetic axis. First measurements of MSE-LIF signals in the presence of small applied magnetic fields in neutral gas are reported.

  7. Measurements with magnetic field in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using the motional Stark effect with laser induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M.

    2013-04-01

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) has been installed and tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. The MSE-LIF diagnostic will be capable of measuring radially resolved profiles of magnetic field magnitude or pitch angle in NSTX plasmas. The system includes a diagnostic neutral hydrogen beam and a laser which excites the n = 2 to n = 3 transition. A viewing system has been implemented which will support up to 38 channels from the plasma edge to past the magnetic axis. First measurements of MSE-LIF signals in the presence of small applied magnetic fields in neutral gas are reported.

  8. Design and field test of collaborative tools in the service of an innovative organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Beler, N.; Parfouru, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design process of collaborative tools, based on ICT, aiming at supporting the tasks of the team that manages an outage of an energy production plant for maintenance activities. The design process follows an iterative and multidisciplinary approach, based on a collective tasks modeling of the outage management team in the light of Socio Organizational and Human (SOH) field studies, and on the state of the art of ICT. Field test of the collaborative tools designed plays a great place in this approach, allowing taking into account the operational world but involves also some risks which must be managed. To implement tools on all the production plants, we build an 'operational concept' with a level of description which authorizes the evolution of tools and allows some local adaptations. The field tests provide lessons on the ICT topics. For examples: the status of the remote access tools, the potential of use of a given information input by an actor for several individual and collective purposes, the actors perception of the tools meaning, and the requirements for supporting the implementation of change. (authors)

  9. Managing uncertainty: a qualitative study of GPs' views on the diagnosis and immediate management of transient ischaemic attack and the potential of a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Priyanka; Tarrant, Carolyn; Mistri, Amit K; Wilson, Andrew

    2018-04-12

    Most patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) present to their GP. Early identification and treatment reduces the risk of subsequent stroke and consequent disability and mortality. To explore GPs' views on the diagnosis and immediate management of suspected TIA, and the potential utility of a diagnostic tool. This is a qualitative interview study based in Leicestershire, UK. A purposive sample of 10 GPs participated in 30-minute semi-structured telephone interviews. Data were analysed thematically. GPs reported that TIA was more likely to be suspected when patients were more obvious candidates for TIA based on their history, characteristics and symptom presentation. Referrals were in part a strategy to manage risk under conditions of uncertainty and to seek reassurance. GPs valued using a TIA risk stratification tool but felt this did not inform their diagnostic decision making. A diagnostic tool for TIA in primary care was seen to have potential to improve the decision-making process about diagnosis and management and enhance confidence of GPs, particularly in ruling out TIAs. GPs saw benefits of using hard thresholds, but remained concerned about missing TIAs and saw a tool as an adjunct to clinical judgement. GPs weigh up the likelihood of TIA in the context of assessments of candidacy and diverse, often vague, symptoms. A diagnostic tool could support GPs in this process and help reduce reliance on referrals to TIA clinics for reassurance, provided the tool was designed to support decision making in cases of less 'typical' presentations.

  10. CSF lactate level: a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abro, Ali Hassan; Abdou, Ahmed Saheh; Ustadi, Abdulla M; Saleh, Ahmed Alhaj; Younis, Nadeem Javeed; Doleh, Wafa F

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the potential role of CSF lactate level in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and in the differentiation between viral and bacterial meningitis. This was a hospital based observational study, conducted at Infectious Diseases Unit, Rashid Hospital Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from July 2004 to June 2007. The patients with clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and who had CSF Gram stain/culture positive, CSF analysis suggestive of bacterial meningitis with negative Gram stain and culture but blood culture positive for bacteria and patients with clinical diagnosis suggestive of viral meningitis supported by CSF chemical analysis with negative Gram stain and culture as well as negative blood culture for bacteria were included in the study. CT scan brain was done for all patients before lumber puncture and CSF and blood samples were collected immediately after admission. CSF chemical analysis including lactate level was done on first spinal tap. The CSF lactate level was tested by Enzymatic Colorimetric method. A total 95 adult patients of acute meningitis (53 bacterial and 42 viral) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among 53 bacterial meningitis patients, Neisseria meningitides were isolated in 29 (54.7%), Strept. Pneumoniae in 18 (33.96%), Staph. Aureus in 2 (3.77%), Klebsiell Pneumoniae in 2 (3.77%), Strept. Agalactiae in 1 (1.8%) and E. Coli in 1 (1.8%). All the patients with bacterial meningitis had CSF lactate > 3.8 mmol/l except one, whereas none of the patients with viral meningitis had lactate level > 3.8 mmol/l. The mean CSF lactate level in bacterial meningitis cases amounted to 16.51 +/- 6.14 mmol/l, whereas it was significantly lower in viral group 2.36 +/- 0.6 mmol/l, p < .0001. CSF lactate level was significantly high in bacterial than viral meningitis and it can provide pertinent, rapid and reliable diagnostic information. Furthermore, CSF lactate level can also differentiate bacterial meningitis from viral one in a quick

  11. Evaluation of modified Alvarado scoring system and RIPASA scoring system as diagnostic tools of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Abdullah; Shuaib, Ali; Fakhra, Zainab; Marafi, Bader; Alsharaf, Khalid; Behbehani, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical condition presented in emergency departments worldwide. Clinical scoring systems, such as the Alvarado and modified Alvarado scoring systems, were developed with the goal of reducing the negative appendectomy rate to 5%-10%. The Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Appendicitis (RIPASA) scoring system was established in 2008 specifically for Asian populations. The aim of this study was to compare the modified Alvarado with the RIPASA scoring system in Kuwait population. This study included 180 patients who underwent appendectomies and were documented as having "acute appendicitis" or "abdominal pain" in the operating theatre logbook (unit B) from November 2014 to March 2016. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), diagnostic accuracy, predicted negative appendectomy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems were derived using SPSS statistical software. A total of 136 patients were included in this study according to our criteria. The cut-off threshold point of the modified Alvarado score was set at 7.0, which yielded a sensitivity of 82.8% and a specificity of 56%. The PPV was 89.3% and the NPV was 42.4%. The cut-off threshold point of the RIPASA score was set at 7.5, which yielded a 94.5% sensitivity and an 88% specificity. The PPV was 97.2% and the NPV was 78.5%. The predicted negative appendectomy rates were 10.7% and 2.2% for the modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems, respectively. The negative appendectomy rate decreased significantly, from 18.4% to 10.7% for the modified Alvarado, and to 2.2% for the RIPASA scoring system, which was a significant difference (PAsian populations. It consists of 14 clinical parameters that can be obtained from a good patient history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. The RIPASA scoring system is more accurate and specific than the modified Alvarado

  12. Plasma diagnostics by electron guns and electric field probes on ISEE-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, A.

    1982-01-01

    The use of electron guns to control the potential of a satellite with conductive surfaces is discussed with reference to the results of the ISEE-1 satellite experiment. The two electron guns carried by the satellite can emit electrons with energies up to 48 eV, and the emitted electron current has a maximum value of 0.5-1.0 mA. The satellite potential, with or without gun operation, can be measured with reference to one or two spherical electric field probes positioned on booms at a distance of 36 m from the satellite. The probes are biased with a negative current from a high-impedance source to be slightly positive (0.5-1.0 V) relative to the plasma, and the spacecraft is normally several volts more positive and can be further positively charged by operating the electron gun. Plasma diagnostics can be carried out by appropriate sweeps of gun currents and energy of emitted electrons to obtain information about density and characteristic energy of ambient electrons. 9 references

  13. Diagnostics of hand-arm system disorders in workers who use vibrating tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemne, G

    1997-02-01

    A hand-arm vibration syndrome occurs in some workers who use hand held vibrating tools. It is recognised to consist of white fingers, diffusely distributed finger neuropathy, pain in the arm and hand, and a small excess risk of osteoarthrosis from percussion to the wrist and elbow. Carpal tunnel syndrome is mainly due to ergonomic factors other than vibration, but certain factors related to vibration may contribute to its development. A decrease in muscle power induced by vibration, and excessive hearing deficit have been postulated. The assessment of a disorder suspected of being induced by vibration includes deciding whether there is a disorder and, if so, whether the symptoms can be caused by vibration. To decide whether the symptoms can be caused by vibration epidemiological documentation and pathogenically reasonable theories must exist. A causal diagnosis finally requires and epidemiological decision whether or not the factual exposure has elicited the patient's symptoms. Epidemiological data on the quantitative association between vibration and excessive risks of white fingers and diffusely distributed neuropathy are incomplete. The symptomatic diagnosis of white fingers is still mainly based on anamnestic information. Available laboratory tests are incapable of grading the severity of individual cases. Recording the finger systolic blood pressure during cold provocation is a method of symptomatic diagnosis with reasonable levels of specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value. For diffusely distributed neuropathy these levels are lower than desired. Electrodiagnostic tests for carpal tunnel syndrome have sufficient validity. Proper exposure evaluation must be based on an appreciation of the character of the vibration as well as effective duration and intermittency. If this is not taken into account, the number of hours of exposure and intensity of vibration are likely to be non-commensurable variables, and the simple product of them is a questionable dose

  14. Rare splenic complications and specific serology: decisive diagnostic tools in two cases of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Celestini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a major endemic vector-borne disease in Southern Europe. We present two cases of VL, both characterized by splenic complications. Methods and results: Case 1: A 47-year-old female presented with effort angina, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. The clinical course was complicated by splenic infarction. Although bone marrow biopsy failed to show amastigotes, diagnosis was performed by a fast agglutinating screening test (FAST and confirmed by a direct agglutinating test (DAT. The patient was treated successfully with AmBisome. Case 2: A 22-year-old male who had undergone a splenectomy to treat splenic rupture related to a minor trauma four months earlier presented with fever, nocturnal sweats and weight loss. The lack of pancytopenia was due to the absence of the spleen. The first biopsy did not identify parasites, but because the FAST had been positive, another bone marrow biopsy was performed, which demonstrated leishmaniasis. This patient was treated with the same schedule of AmBisome infusion. Discussion: 1 The clinical presentation of VL can be atypical, 2 splenic complications can characterize this disease, and 3 specific serology may be an important tool to reach a diagnosis.

  15. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina De Smet

    Full Text Available The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.

  16. Novel diagnostic tools for Asian (Apis cerana) and European (Apis mellifera) honey authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sónia; Grazina, Liliana; Mafra, Isabel; Costa, Joana; Pinto, M Alice; Duc, Hanh Pham; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Amaral, Joana S

    2018-03-01

    Honey can be produced by different species of honeybees, with two being of economic importance due to their use in apiculture, namely Apis mellifera (known as European honeybee) and Apis cerana (known as Asian honeybee). Due to the decline of the wild populations of the Asian honeybee, this honey generally attains much higher market value, being prone to adulteration. This work aims at proposing new tools, based on the use of molecular markers, for the entomological authentication of honey. To this end, new species-specific primers were designed targeting the tRNA leu -cox2 intergenic region and allowing the detection of A. cerana DNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, a novel real-time PCR method with high resolution melting analysis was developed to target the 16S rRNA gene of both bee species, allowing their discrimination in different clusters. The proposed methodologies were further applied with success in the authentication of Asian and European honey samples by the identification of honeybee DNA, demonstrating the usefulness of these simple and cost-effective new approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Lina; Ravoet, Jorgen; de Miranda, Joachim R; Wenseleers, Tom; Mueller, Matthias Y; Moritz, Robin F A; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.

  18. Bioimpedance Harmonic Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Assess Regional Circulation and Neural Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudraya, I S; Revenko, S V; Khodyreva, L A; Markosyan, T G; Dudareva, A A; Ibragimov, A R; Romich, V V; Kirpatovsky, V I

    2013-01-01

    The novel technique based on harmonic analysis of bioimpedance microvariations with original hard- and software complex incorporating a high-resolution impedance converter was used to assess the neural activity and circulation in human urinary bladder and penis in patients with pelvic pain, erectile dysfunction, and overactive bladder. The therapeutic effects of shock wave therapy and Botulinum toxin detrusor injections were evaluated quantitatively according to the spectral peaks at low 0.1 Hz frequency (M for Mayer wave), respiratory (R) and cardiac (C) rhythms with their harmonics. Enhanced baseline regional neural activity identified according to M and R peaks was found to be presumably sympathetic in pelvic pain patients, and parasympathetic – in patients with overactive bladder. Total pulsatile activity and pulsatile resonances found in the bladder as well as in the penile spectrum characterised regional circulation and vascular tone. The abnormal spectral parameters characteristic of the patients with genitourinary diseases shifted to the norm in the cases of efficient therapy. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis seems to be a potent tool to assess regional peculiarities of circulatory and autonomic nervous activity in the course of patient treatment.

  19. Bioimpedance Harmonic Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Assess Regional Circulation and Neural Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudraya, I. S.; Revenko, S. V.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Markosyan, T. G.; Dudareva, A. A.; Ibragimov, A. R.; Romich, V. V.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.

    2013-04-01

    The novel technique based on harmonic analysis of bioimpedance microvariations with original hard- and software complex incorporating a high-resolution impedance converter was used to assess the neural activity and circulation in human urinary bladder and penis in patients with pelvic pain, erectile dysfunction, and overactive bladder. The therapeutic effects of shock wave therapy and Botulinum toxin detrusor injections were evaluated quantitatively according to the spectral peaks at low 0.1 Hz frequency (M for Mayer wave), respiratory (R) and cardiac (C) rhythms with their harmonics. Enhanced baseline regional neural activity identified according to M and R peaks was found to be presumably sympathetic in pelvic pain patients, and parasympathetic - in patients with overactive bladder. Total pulsatile activity and pulsatile resonances found in the bladder as well as in the penile spectrum characterised regional circulation and vascular tone. The abnormal spectral parameters characteristic of the patients with genitourinary diseases shifted to the norm in the cases of efficient therapy. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis seems to be a potent tool to assess regional peculiarities of circulatory and autonomic nervous activity in the course of patient treatment.

  20. Realising the Potential of Urine and Saliva as Diagnostic Tools in Sport and Exercise Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Costello, Joseph T

    2017-01-01

    Accurate monitoring of homeostatic perturbations following various psychophysiological stressors is essential in sports and exercise medicine. Various biomarkers are routinely used as monitoring tools in both clinical and elite sport settings. Blood collection and muscle biopsies, both invasive in nature, are considered the gold standard for the analysis of these biomarkers in exercise science. Exploring non-invasive methods of collecting and analysing biomarkers that are capable of providing accurate information regarding exercise-induced physiological and psychological stress is of obvious practical importance. This review describes the potential benefits, and the limitations, of using saliva and urine to ascertain biomarkers capable of identifying important stressors that are routinely encountered before, during, or after intense or unaccustomed exercise, competition, over-training, and inappropriate recovery. In particular, we focus on urinary and saliva biomarkers that have previously been used to monitor muscle damage, inflammation, cardiovascular stress, oxidative stress, hydration status, and brain distress. Evidence is provided from a range of empirical studies suggesting that urine and saliva are both capable of identifying various stressors. Although additional research regarding the efficacy of using urine and/or saliva to indicate the severity of exercise-induced psychophysiological stress is required, it is likely that these non-invasive biomarkers will represent "the future" in sports and exercise medicine.

  1. Power-Production Diagnostic Tools for Low-Density Wind Farms with Applications to Wake Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takle, E. S.; Herzmann, D.; Rajewski, D. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Rhodes, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Hansen (2011) provided guidelines for wind farm wake analysis with applications to "high density" wind farms (where average distance between turbines is less than ten times rotor diameter). For "low-density" (average distance greater than fifteen times rotor diameter) wind farms, or sections of wind farms we demonstrate simpler sorting and visualization tools that reveal wake interactions and opportunities for wind farm power prediction and wake steering. SCADA data from a segment of a large mid-continent wind farm, together with surface flux measurements and lidar data are subjected to analysis and visualization of wake interactions. A time-history animated visualization of a plan view of power level of individual turbines provides a quick analysis of wake interaction dynamics. Yaw-based sectoral histograms of enhancement/decline of wind speed and power from wind farm reference levels reveals angular width of wake interactions and identifies the turbine(s) responsible for the power reduction. Concurrent surface flux measurements within the wind farm allowed us to evaluate stability influence on wake loss. A one-season climatology is used to identify high-priority candidates for wake steering based on estimated power recovery. Typical clearing prices on the day-ahead market are used to estimate the added value of wake steering. Current research is exploring options for identifying candidate locations for wind farm "build-in" in existing low-density wind farms.

  2. Application of Infrared Thermography as a Diagnostic Tool of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaoui, Ahlem; Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Pron, Hervé; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    This paper aimed to study the feasibility of application of infrared thermography to detect osteoarthritis of the knee and to compare the distribution of skin temperature between participants with osteoarthritis and those without pathology. All tests were conducted at LACM (Laboratory of Mechanical Stresses Analysis) and the gymnasium of the University of Reims Champagne Ardennes. IR thermography was performed using an IR camera. Ten participants with knee osteoarthritis and 12 reference healthy participants without OA participated in this study. Questionnaires were also used. The participants with osteoarthritis of the knee were selected on clinical examination and a series of radiographs. The level of pain was recorded by using a simple verbal scale (0-4). Infrared thermography reveals relevant disease by highlighting asymmetrical behavior in thermal color maps of both knees. Moreover, a linear evolution of skin temperature in the knee area versus time has been found whatever the participant group is in the first stage following a given effort. Results clearly show that the temperature can be regarded as a key parameter for evaluating pain. Thermal images of the knee were taken with an infrared camera. The study shows that with the advantage of being noninvasive and easily repeatable, IRT appears to be a useful tool to detect quantifiable patterns of surface temperatures and predict the singular thermal behavior of this pathology. It also seems that this non-intrusive technique enables to detect the early clinical manifestations of knee OA.

  3. IR and FIR laser polarimetry as a diagnostic tool in high-. beta. and Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, D; Machida, M; Scalabrin, A

    1986-03-01

    The change of the polarization state of an electromagnetic wave (EMW) propagating across a magnetized plasma may be used to determine plasma parameters. In a plasma machine of the Tokamak type, the Faraday rotation of the EMW allows for the determination of the product of the plasma electronic density by the poloidal magnetic field. A novel optical configuration which permits simultaneous measurements of these two parameters without the use of an auxiliary interferometric set up is proposed. By choosing appropriate laser wave length this method can be used in Tokamaks (lambda >= 1mm) and also in theta-pinch plasmas (lambda approx. 10..mu..m). The application of these results is discussed to plasma machines now in operation in Brazil, like the Tokamak/USP and theta-pinch/UNICAMP, using lasers developed at UNICAMP.

  4. Characterizing the intrinsic bioremediation potential of 1,4-dioxane and trichloroethene using innovative environmental diagnostic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Mora, Rebecca; Diguiseppi, William H; Davis, Greg; Sublette, Kerry; Gedalanga, Phillip; Mahendra, Shaily

    2012-09-01

    An intrinsic biodegradation study involving the design and implementation of innovative environmental diagnostic tools was conducted to evaluate whether monitored natural attenuation (MNA) could be considered as part of the remedial strategy to treat an aerobic aquifer contaminated with 1,4-dioxane and trichloroethene (TCE). In this study, advanced molecular biological and stable isotopic tools were applied to confirm in situ intrinsic biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane and TCE. Analyses of Bio-Trap® samplers and groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells verified the abundance of bacteria and enzymes capable of aerobically degrading TCE and 1,4-dioxane. Furthermore, phospholipid fatty acid analysis with stable isotope probes (PLFA-SIP) of the microbial community validated the ability for microbial degradation of TCE and 1,4-dioxane. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of groundwater samples for TCE resulted in δ(13)C values that indicated likely biodegradation of TCE in three of the four monitoring wells sampled. Results of the MNA evaluation showed that enzymes capable of aerobically degrading TCE and 1,4-dioxane were present, abundant, and active in the aquifer. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence of the occurrence of TCE and 1,4-dioxane biodegradation at the study site, supporting the selection of MNA as part of the final remedy at some point in the future.

  5. Comparison of the time behavior in the separation of light and heavy materials in X-ray backscattered method as a diagnostic tool in inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faezeh, Rahmani; Sepideh Sadat, Azimi; Esmaiel, Bayat; Vahid, Dost Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    X-ray backscattered method based on Compton backscattering is used in the inspection field. In contrast to transmission method, source and detectors are positioned on one side of the target, so in the situation that transmission inspection is difficult, X-ray backscattered method can be provided suitable data in the inspection field. Also, detection of hidden explosives and narcotic materials are very difficult or impossible in transmission methods. High intensity backscattered beam from light materials (low-Z), such as explosives and narcotics, in comparison to the heavy materials (high-Z), made this method as the strong technique in inspection. X-ray and gamma photons scattered by the light material (such as PE and PTFE) as well as heavy material (such as Fe and Cu) were studied using MCNPX2.6 Monte Carlo code. The results showed that rise time of pulse from light materials are slower than that of from heavy materials due to multi scattering of low energy photons in the light ones, so time expansion would occur in signals from light elements. If measurement is possible, the difference in time behavior can be used as a novel method in complementary diagnostic tool beside the use of pulse height in X-ray backscattered method.

  6. Corneal K-Values as a Diagnostic Screening Tool for Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Jan; Boehringer, Daniel; Eberwein, Philipp; Reinhard, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is diagnosed based on Ghent nosology, including major and minor criteria such as increased axial length (AXL) and flattened corneal curvature (higher K-values) or myopia of more than -3 diopters (D) in its latest revision. Because corneal flattening may, in part, be caused by AXL increase, it may be helpful to consider K-values separately. We present statistical evaluation of using corneal K-values for identifying MFS. A retrospective study of K-values of 74 right eyes of 74 patients with MFS, who were compared with an age- and AXL-matched group of 74 right eyes of 74 patients without MFS. After multivariate analysis, receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated. Mean age was 44.1 years versus 44.9 years (P = 0.834). Mean AXL was 25.22 mm versus 25.47 mm (P = 0.661). K-values showed significant differences: mean Kmax was 8.25 mm (40.91 D) versus 7.9 mm (42.72 D) (P < 0.001) and mean Kmin was 8.22 mm (41.06 D) versus 7.69 mm (43.89 D) (P < 0.001). The area under the curve in receiver operating characteristic analysis was 0.82 for Kmax and 0.78 for Kmin; the best cutoff was seen at a Kmax of at least 8.16 mm (41.36 D; sensitivity 73% and specificity 81%). Although both K-values differ significantly, Kmax is the better marker to identify MFS. A Kmax of more than 8.16 mm (41.36 D) seems to be a reasonable cutoff (specificity of 81% and sensitivity of 73%). Because this biometric value is easily obtained and standardized, we see it as a good supporting screening tool for MFS suspects.

  7. A novel diagnostic tool for detecting functional patency of the small bowel: the Given patency capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, C; Spera, G; Riccioni, M; Biancone, L; Petruzziello, L; Tringali, A; Familiari, P; Marchese, M; Onder, G; Mutignani, M; Perri, V; Petruzziello, C; Pallone, F; Costamagna, G

    2005-09-01

    The current visualization of small-bowel strictures using traditional radiological methods is associated with high radiation doses and false-negative results. These methods do not always reveal small-bowel patency for solids. The aim is to assess the safety of the Given patency system and its ability to detect intestinal strictures in patients with strictures that are known or suspected radiologically. The Given patency capsule is composed of lactose, remains intact in the gastrointestinal tract for 40-100 hours post ingestion, and disintegrates thereafter. A total of 34 patients with small-bowel stricture were prospectively enrolled; 30 had a previous diagnosis of Crohn's disease, three had adhesion syndrome and in one ischemic enteritis was suspected. Of the patients, 15 (44.1 %) had previously undergone surgery. Following ingestion, the capsule was monitored for integrity and transit time, using a specially designed Given scanner and also radiologically. Seventeen patients had been enrolled with the intent of using the patency capsule as a preliminary test in patients with small-bowel strictures before undergoing video capsule endoscopy. 30 patients (88.2 %) retrieved the capsule in the stool; it was intact in 20 (median transit time 22 hours), and disintegrated in 10 patients (median transit time 53 hours). Six patients complained of abdominal pain which disappeared within 24 hours. The scanner successfully indicated the presence of the capsule in 94 % of cases. Ten patients underwent video capsule endoscopy following the patency capsule examination; in all of these the video capsule passed through the small-bowel stricture. This feasibility study has shown that the Given patency capsule is a safe, effective, and convenient tool for assessment of functional patency of the small bowel. It can indicate functional patency even in cases where traditional radiology indicates stricture.

  8. Measurements of the internal magnetic field using the B-Stark motional Stark effect diagnostic on DIII-D (inivited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablant, N. A. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Kaplan, D. H. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Holcomb, C. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Results are presented from the B-Stark diagnostic installed on the DIII-D tokamak. This diagnostic provides measurements of the magnitude and direction of the internal magnetic field. The B-Stark system is a version of a motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic based on the relative line intensities and spacing of the Stark split D{sub {alpha}} emission from injected neutral beams. This technique may have advantages over MSE polarimetry based diagnostics in future devices, such as the ITER. The B-Stark diagnostic technique and calibration procedures are discussed. The system is shown to provide accurate measurements of B{sub {theta}}/B{sub T} and |B| over a range of plasma conditions. Measurements have been made with toroidal fields in the range of 1.2-2.1 T, plasma currents in the range 0.5-2.0 MA, densities between 1.7 and 9.0x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, and neutral beam voltages between 50 and 81 keV. The viewing direction and polarization dependent transmission properties of the collection optics are found using an in situ beam into gas calibration. These results are compared to values found from plasma equilibrium reconstructions and the MSE polarimetry system on DIII-D.

  9. Measurements of the internal magnetic field using the B-Stark motional Stark effect diagnostic on DIII-D (inivited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablant, N A; Burrell, K H; Groebner, R J; Holcomb, C T; Kaplan, D H

    2010-10-01

    Results are presented from the B-Stark diagnostic installed on the DIII-D tokamak. This diagnostic provides measurements of the magnitude and direction of the internal magnetic field. The B-Stark system is a version of a motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic based on the relative line intensities and spacing of the Stark split D(α) emission from injected neutral beams. This technique may have advantages over MSE polarimetry based diagnostics in future devices, such as the ITER. The B-Stark diagnostic technique and calibration procedures are discussed. The system is shown to provide accurate measurements of B(θ)/B(T) and ∣B∣ over a range of plasma conditions. Measurements have been made with toroidal fields in the range of 1.2-2.1 T, plasma currents in the range 0.5-2.0 MA, densities between 1.7 and 9.0×10(19) m(-3), and neutral beam voltages between 50 and 81 keV. The viewing direction and polarization dependent transmission properties of the collection optics are found using an in situ beam into gas calibration. These results are compared to values found from plasma equilibrium reconstructions and the MSE polarimetry system on DIII-D.

  10. Soluble Fas might serve as a diagnostic tool for gastric adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroumand-Noughabi, Samaneh; Mashhadinejad, Mojtaba; Tavakkol-Afshari, Jalil; Sima, Hamid Reza; Ghaffarzadehgan, Kamran; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Raziee, Hamid Reza; Hosseinnezhad, Hanieh; Moaven, Omeed; Rajabi-Mashhadi, Mohammad Taghi; Azarian, Amir Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Fas (Apo-1/CD95) and its specific ligand (FasL) are key elements in apoptosis. They have been studied in different malignancies but there are few published studies about the soluble forms of these markers (i.e. sFas/sFasL) in gastric cancer. We have compared the serum levels of sFas/sFasL in gastric adenocarcinoma patients and cases with pre-neoplastic lesions as potential markers for early diagnosis, and investigated their relation with clinicopathological characteristics. Fifty-nine newly-diagnosed cases of gastric adenocarcinoma who had undergone gastrectomy, along with 62 endoscopically- and histologically-confirmed non-cancer individuals were enrolled in this study. sFas/sFasL serum levels were detected by Enzyme Linked Immunosurbent Assay. Mean serum sFas level was significantly higher in gastric cancer patients than in control group (305.97 ± 63.71 (pg/ml) vs. 92.98 ± 4.95 (pg/ml), P < 0.001); while the mean serum level of sFasL was lower in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (0.138 ± 0.04 (pg/ml) vs. 0.150 ± 0.02 (pg/ml), P < 0.001). Mean serum levels of sFas/sFasL were significantly different in both intestinal/diffuse and cardiac/non-cardiac subtypes when compared to the control group (P < 0.001). There was an increase in the serum level of sFas from the first steps of pre-neoplastic lesions to gastric adenocarcinoma (P < 0.001). Patients who had no lymph node involvement (N 0 ) showed significantly higher serum levels of sFas compared to others (P = 0.044). Production of sFas may play a critical role in the carcinogenesis of intestinal-type gastric cancer. sFas serum level may serve as a non-invasive tool for early diagnosis of gastric cancer

  11. A European Quality Control Programme as a cooperative tool between users and a diagnostic company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costongs, G M; Janson, P C

    1993-12-01

    Achievement of appropriate precision is a major challenge for the clinical laboratory, particularly in specialized fields such as enzymology and immunochemistry. Especially in immunochemistry, where accuracy can only poorly be checked because of a lack of reference methods and a multitude of detectable epitopes, precision remains an important index of quality. In immunochemical methods there are three main sources of variation: differences in methodology, lot-to-lot variation and performance of the assay, the latter including the skill of the technicians and instrument performance. The results of a European Quality Control Programme for the users of one type of automated immunoassay analyser were compared with a similar Italian Quality Control Programme for users of different immunometric techniques. The precisions (%CV) of the two programmes were compared, as well as the number of values lying within one half of the biological variation of the analysed serum components. Feedback between users and manufacturers leads to a clear improvement in analysis performance, so that most of the considered values come to lie within the acceptable limits of 1/2 of the biological variation. It is concluded that both national and international quality control programmes are very useful for indicating the intrinsic quality of the quantities used in the clinical laboratory.

  12. Electron plasmas as a diagnostic tool for hyperfine spectroscopy of antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, T.; Thompson, R. I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Amole, C.; Capra, A.; Menary, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Fajans, J.; Little, A.; So, C.; Wurtele, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester, UK and The Cockcroft Institute, WA4 4AD Warrington (United Kingdom); Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Rasmussen, C. O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cesar, C. L.; Silveira, D. M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Charlton, M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-03-19

    Long term magnetic confinement of antihydrogen atoms has recently been demonstrated by the ALPHA collaboration at CERN, opening the door to a range of experimental possibilities. Of particular interest is a measurement of the antihydrogen spectrum. A precise comparison of the spectrum of antihydrogen with that of hydrogen would be an excellent test of CPT symmetry. One prime candidate for precision CPT tests is the ground-state hyperfine transition; measured in hydrogen to a precision of nearly one part in 10{sup 12}. Effective execution of such an experiment with trapped antihydrogen requires precise knowledge of the magnetic environment. Here we present a solution that uses an electron plasma confined in the antihydrogen trapping region. The cyclotron resonance of the electron plasma is probed with microwaves at the cyclotron frequency and the subsequent heating of the electron plasma is measured through the plasma quadrupole mode frequency. Using this method, the minimum magnetic field of the neutral trap can be determined to within 4 parts in 10{sup 4}. This technique was used extensively in the recent demonstration of resonant interaction with the hyperfine levels of trapped antihydrogen atoms.

  13. Raman Tweezers as a Diagnostic Tool of Hemoglobin-Related Blood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Rusciano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the development of a Raman Tweezers system for detecting hemoglobin-related blood disorders at a single cell level. The study demonstrates that the molecular fingerprint insight provided by Raman analysis holds great promise for distinguishing between healthy and diseased cells in the field of biomedicine. Herein a Raman Tweezers system has been applied to investigate the effects of thalassemia, a blood disease quite diffuse in the Mediterranean Sea region. By resonant excitation of hemoglobin Raman bands, we examined the oxygenation capability of normal, alpha- and beta-thalassemic erythrocytes. A reduction of this fundamental red blood cell function, particularly severe for beta-thalassemia, has been found. Raman spectroscopy was also used to draw hemoglobin distribution inside single erythrocytes; the results confirmed the characteristic anomaly (target shape, occurring in thalassemia and some other blood disorders. The success of resonance Raman spectroscopy for thalassemia detection reported in this review provide an interesting starting point to explore the application of a Raman Tweezers system in the analysis of several blood disorders.

  14. Maximizing microscopy as a diagnostic tool in peripheral health centres of BU endemic areas in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Enid; Newman, Mercy Jemima; Akumwena, Amos; Ofosu-Appiah, Lawrence; Pluschke, Gerd

    2015-09-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) disease, a skin condition caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans) is endemic in remote rural areas. Disease diagnosis on clinical basis alone can be misleading, requiring definitive diagnosis based on laboratory tests. Resource constraints in BU endemic areas make microscopy for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB) an important and useful method. It is rapid, user-friendly, convenient and cheap. Despite its usefulness, its performance is relatively low. This study investigated modifications of the current method aimed at improving its performance. Forty (IS) 2404 polymerase chain reactions (PCR) positive BU samples were processed by eight physical (centrifugation and overnight sedimentation) and chemical (phenol ammonium sulphate and sodium hypochlorite) modifications of the current direct method. Assessments were based on standard AFB evaluation coupled with in house criteria; positivity (P), clarity and contrast (C) release of bacilli from specimen (R). Overall AFB positivity rate was 64% (409/640). Each protocol had 80 smears. The percentage positivity (P) for the conventional method was 58% (46/80) smears. The highest positivity rate of 57/80 (%) was by protocol 7 (5% phenol in 4% ammonium sulphate (PhAS) and concentrated by overnight gravitational sedimentation). The least positivity rate at 35% (28/80) was by protocol 1 (smears from direct application of swab tips). The differences in performance between the two chemical tested; 5% phenol in 4% ammonium sulphate (PhAS) and 3.5% NaHOCl was significant (p0.05). This study concluded that BU samples treated with a solution of 5% phenol in 4% ammonium sulphate and concentrated by either centrifugation or overnight sedimentation is useful for maximizing AFB detection by bright field microscopy. This can be useful in rural health facilities with resource constraints. Copyright © 2015 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maximizing microscopy as a diagnostic tool in peripheral health centres of BU endemic areas in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enid Owusu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buruli ulcer (BU disease, a skin condition caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans is endemic in remote rural areas. Disease diagnosis on clinical basis alone can be misleading, requiring definitive diagnosis based on laboratory tests. Resource constraints in BU endemic areas make microscopy for the detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB an important and useful method. It is rapid, user-friendly, convenient and cheap. Despite its usefulness, its performance is relatively low. This study investigated modifications of the current method aimed at improving its performance. Forty (IS 2404 polymerase chain reactions (PCR positive BU samples were processed by eight physical (centrifugation and overnight sedimentation and chemical (phenol ammonium sulphate and sodium hypochlorite modifications of the current direct method. Assessments were based on standard AFB evaluation coupled with in house criteria; positivity (P, clarity and contrast (C release of bacilli from specimen (R. Overall AFB positivity rate was 64% (409/640. Each protocol had 80 smears. The percentage positivity (P for the conventional method was 58% (46/80 smears. The highest positivity rate of 57/80 (% was by protocol 7 (5% phenol in 4% ammonium sulphate (PhAS and concentrated by overnight gravitational sedimentation. The least positivity rate at 35% (28/80 was by protocol 1 (smears from direct application of swab tips. The differences in performance between the two chemical tested; 5% phenol in 4% ammonium sulphate (PhAS and 3.5% NaHOCl was significant (p 0.05. This study concluded that BU samples treated with a solution of 5% phenol in 4% ammonium sulphate and concentrated by either centrifugation or overnight sedimentation is useful for maximizing AFB detection by bright field microscopy. This can be useful in rural health facilities with resource constraints.

  16. ADRIA: A summary of different tools for motor and generator field service activities in the international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krell, M.; Wuehler, H.

    2012-01-01

    AREVA Drive In Application (ADRIA) – is an innovative program for use at sites all over the world. ADRIA is a full package for medium voltage motor and generator services growth in the long-term, which presents a wide range of applications for nuclear- , thermal- , renewable hydro power plants and all industrial plants. ADRIA support our customers with an optimized product in MV motor management systems e.g., dismantling, maintenance, repair, tools, containers with full equipped working tools or measure equipment. Are you planning to open a site? You will need special equipment and very special diagnostic methods for electrical analysis for preventive maintenance scheduling and planning; special support from experts, ADRIA is a good, unitized, and flexible solution which can be adapted to different customer requirements. • Technical modules show low service and maintenance costs due to the life time of electrical machines. • Measurement module – a solution for the actual condition of the MV motors and generators (vibration, partial discharge, infrared technology, cable analysis, motor – current – analysis) • Documentation module – for all projects in joining with quality management • Tools module – support for all activities in service (working tools, office / store containers) • Man power module – for all service in the field (Experts with world wide experience) • For pre-maintenance we use, for example, infrared technology. Experts monitor different cycles and find out which parts are creating problems. The maintenance strategy will be clear, shorter and more effective for the next outage. ADRIA offers great advantages for the global maintenance market providing time, efficiency and preventive scheduling, efforts and saving of costs. This new technology method has been successfully applied in various motor refurbishment projects in German, Spain or Brazil nuclear power plants since 2010. Further follow-up orders in German and

  17. Rapid, sensitive and effective diagnostic tools for foot-and-mouth disease virus in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Speed is paramount in the diagnosis of highly infectious diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, as well as for emerging diseases; however, simplicity is required if a test is to be deployed in the field. Recent developments in molecular biology have enabled the specific detection of FMD virus (FMDV by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP, real-time  reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and sequencing. RT-LAMP enables amplification of the FMDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3D(pol gene at 63 °C (in the presence of a primer mixture and both reverse transcriptase and Bst DNA polymerase for 1 h, whilst RT-qPCR amplifies the same gene in approximately 2 h 30 min. In this study, we compared the sensitivity and effectiveness of RT-LAMP against RT-qPCR for the detection of the FMDV 3D(pol gene in 179 oesophageal-pharyngeal scraping samples (collected by probang obtained from clinically healthy cattle and buffalo in Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania in 2010. The FMDV detection rate was higher with RT-LAMP (30.2%; n = 54 than with RT-qPCR (17.3%; n = 31. All samples positive by RT-qPCR (Cq ≤ 32.0 were also positive for the RT-LAMP assay; and both assays proved to be highly specific for the FMDV target sequence. In addition, the VP1 sequences of 10 viruses isolated from positive samples corresponded to the respective FMDV serotypes and genotypes. Our findings indicate that the performance of RT-LAMP is superior to RT-qPCR. Accordingly, we consider this test to have great potential with regard to the specific detection and surveillance of infectious diseases of humans and animals in resource-compromised developing countries.

  18. Memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer's disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundstroem, Torbjoern; Riklund, Katrine Aa. [Umeaa University, Umeaa University Hospital, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umeaa (Sweden); Elgh, Eva; Naesman, Birgitta [Umeaa University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeaa (Sweden); Larsson, Anne [Umeaa University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, Umeaa (Sweden); Nyberg, Lars [Umeaa University, Department of Psychology, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease that progressively affects all brain functions, with devastating consequences for the patient, the patient's family and society. Rest regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) could have a strategic role in differentiating between AD patients and normal controls, but its use for this purpose has a low discriminatory capacity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the diagnostic sensitivity of rCBF single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be increased by using an episodic memory task provocation, i.e. memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT (MP-SPECT). Eighteen persons (73.2{+-}4.8 years) with mild AD and 18 healthy elderly (69.4{+-}3.9 years) were included in the study. The subjects were injected with{sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) during memory provocation with faces and names, followed by an rCBF-SPECT study. The rCBF{sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Peaks with a false discovery rate corrected value of 0.05 were considered significant. On MP-SPECT, the AD group showed a significant rCBF reduction in the left parietal cortex in comparison with healthy elderly. At rest, no significant group differences were seen. Memory provocation increased the sensitivity of rCBF-SPECT for the detection of AD-related blood flow changes in the brain at the group level. Further studies are needed to evaluate MP-SPECT as a diagnostic tool at the individual level. If a higher sensitivity for AD at the individual level is verified in future studies, a single MP-SPECT study might be sufficient in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  19. Comparative evaluation of bivalent malaria rapid diagnostic tests versus traditional methods in field with special reference to heat stability testing in Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in areas where both Plasmodium falciparum and P.vivax are co-endemic. Bivalent Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDTs showed promise as diagnostic tools for P.falciparum and P.vivax. To assist national malaria control programme in the selection of RDTs, commercially available seven malaria RDTs were evaluated in terms of their performance with special reference to heat stability.This study was undertaken in four forested districts of central India (July, 2011- March, 2012. All RDTs were tested simultaneously in field along with microscopy as gold standard. These RDTs were stored in their original packing at 25°C before transport to the field or they were stored at 35°C and 45°C upto 100 days for testing the performance of RDTs at high temperature. In all 2841 patients with fever were screened for malaria of which 26% were positive for P.falciparum, and 17% for P.vivax. The highest sensitivity of any RDT for P.falciparum was 98% (95% CI; 95.9-98.8 and lowest sensitivity was 76% (95% CI; 71.7-79.6. For P.vivax highest and lowest sensitivity for any RDT was 80% (95% CI; 94.9 - 83.9 and 20% (95% CI; 15.6-24.5 respectively. Heat stability experiments showed that most RDTs for P.falciparum showed high sensitivity at 45°C upto 90 days. While for P.vivax only two RDTs maintained good sensitivity upto day 90 when compared with RDTs kept at room temperature. Agreement between observers was excellent for positive and negative readings for both P.falciparum and P.vivax (Kappa >0.6-0.9.This is first field evaluation of RDTs regarding their temperature stability. Although RDTs are useful as diagnostic tool for P.falciparum and P.vivax even at high temperature, the quality of RDTs should be regulated and monitored more closely.

  20. Field evaluation of a dual rapid diagnostic test for HIV infection and syphilis in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Leon, Segundo R; Huang, Emily; Brown, Brandon J; Ramos, Lourdes B; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    Screening for HIV and syphilis in key populations is recommended by the WHO to reduce the morbidity, mortality and transmission associated with undiagnosed and untreated infections. Rapid point-of-care tests that can detect multiple infections with a single fingerprick whole blood specimen using a single device are gaining popularity. We evaluated the field performance of a rapid dual HIV and syphilis test in people at high risk of HIV and syphilis infections. Participants included men who have sex with men and transgender women recruited in Lima, Peru. Reference standard testing for detection of HIV and syphilis infections, conducted using blood samples from venipuncture, included Treponema pallidum particle agglutination and fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay for which positive results had a confirmation HIV Western blot test. For the evaluation test, SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test (Standard Diagnostics, Korea), a fingerprick blood specimen was used. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and the exact binomial method was used to determine 95% CIs. A total of 415 participants were recruited for the study. The dual test sensitivity for detection of T. pallidum infection was 89.2% (95% CI 83.5% to 93.5%) and specificity 98.8% (95% CI 96.5% to 99.8%). For detection of HIV infection, the sensitivity of the dual test was 99.1% (95% CI 94.8% to 100%) and specificity 99.4% (95% CI 97.7% to 99.9%). This high performing dual test should be considered for the use in clinical settings to increase uptake of simultaneous testing of HIV and syphilis and accelerate time to treatment for those who need it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Tools and setups for experiments with AC and rotating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponikvar, D

    2010-01-01

    A rotating magnetic field is the basis for the transformation of electrical energy to mechanical energy. School experiments on the rotating magnetic field are rare since they require the use of specially prepared mechanical setups and/or relatively large, three-phase power supplies to achieve strong magnetic fields. This paper proposes several experiments and describes setups and tools which are easy to obtain and work with. Free software is offered to generate the required signals by a personal computer. The experiments can be implemented in introductory physics courses on electromagnetism for undergraduates or specialized courses at high schools.

  2. Technical note: Validation of the BHBCheck blood β-hydroxybutyrate meter as a diagnostic tool for hyperketonemia in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, K J; Pralle, R S; Oliveira, R C; Erb, S J; Oetzel, G R; White, H M

    2018-02-01

    Accurate cow-side blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) detection meters are valuable tools for rapid diagnosis of hyperketonemia. The main objective of this study was to compare the blood BHB measured in whole blood by the BHBCheck meter (PortaCheck, Moorestown, NJ) to a previously validated meter, Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) and a colorimetric laboratory assay. Samples (n = 426) were collected from postpartum primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows (n = 79 cows) enrolled in 1 of 2 experiments (Exp) with different sampling schedules (Exp 1: n = 39 cows, 58 samples; Exp 2: n = 40 cows, 368 samples). In both Exp, whole-blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vessels after morning milking, before morning feeding. Blood samples were used immediately for BHB quantification via the BHBCheck meter and the Precision Xtra meter. Blood was also collected into evacuated tubes containing no additive (Exp 1) or potassium oxalate/sodium fluoride (Exp 2), which were centrifuged for serum or plasma separation and stored at -20°C for subsequent analysis. Laboratory quantification of BHB concentration was done by the BHB LiquiColor Assay (EKF Diagnostics-Stanbio, Boerne, TX; certified for serum and plasma). Data were analyzed by UNIVARIATE, CORR, FREQ, REG, and LOGISTIC procedures of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Within this sample set, average parity was 3.3 lactations and DIM was 14 d. The proportion of samples classified as hyperketonemia (BHB ≥1.2 mmol/L) was 25, 28, and 31% as determined by the colorimetric assay, BHBCheck meter, and Precision Xtra meter, respectively. The correlation for BHBCheck meter BHB concentration compared with the colorimetric assay concentrations was r = 0.96, with a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 93%. Correlation, sensitivity, and specificity of the Precision Xtra meter concentrations were 0.97, 98%, and 92%, respectively. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated minimal bias for both meters. Area under

  3. Magnetic Field Considerations for the Design and Location of a Diagnostic Neutral Beam Injector for the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Lopez Fraguas, A.; Balbin, R.

    2004-01-01

    A diagnostic neutral beam injection system is being developed for the TJ-II stellarator. The principal goal is to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to provide spatial resolution along the plasma minor radius in Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis diagnostics, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies. After summarizing the compact diagnostic neutral beam injector system selected as well as the TJ-II vacuum vessel and coil geometry, we address the sensitivity of TJ-II magnetic configurations to the ferromagnetic materials that shield the ion source and neutralizer tubing of the neutral beam injection system using a popular approach in which the field is approximated via magnetic dipole moments, finally, the scientific and design trade-offs made to minimize the impact are discussed. (Author) 24 refs

  4. AstrodyToolsWeb an e-Science project in Astrodynamics and Celestial Mechanics fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; San-Juan, J. F.

    2013-05-01

    Astrodynamics Web Tools, AstrodyToolsWeb (http://tastrody.unirioja.es), is an ongoing collaborative Web Tools computing infrastructure project which has been specially designed to support scientific computation. AstrodyToolsWeb provides project collaborators with all the technical and human facilities in order to wrap, manage, and use specialized noncommercial software tools in Astrodynamics and Celestial Mechanics fields, with the aim of optimizing the use of resources, both human and material. However, this project is open to collaboration from the whole scientific community in order to create a library of useful tools and their corresponding theoretical backgrounds. AstrodyToolsWeb offers a user-friendly web interface in order to choose applications, introduce data, and select appropriate constraints in an intuitive and easy way for the user. After that, the application is executed in real time, whenever possible; then the critical information about program behavior (errors and logs) and output, including the postprocessing and interpretation of its results (graphical representation of data, statistical analysis or whatever manipulation therein), are shown via the same web interface or can be downloaded to the user's computer.

  5. Use of real-time tools to support field operations of NSF's Lower Atmosphere Observing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, M.; Stossmeister, G.; Johnson, E.; Martin, C.; Webster, C.; Dixon, M.; Maclean, G.

    2012-12-01

    NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) operates Lower Atmosphere Observing Facilities (LAOF) for the scientific community, under sponsorship of the National Science Foundation. In order to obtain the highest quality dataset during field campaigns, real-time decision-making critically depends on the availability of timely data and reliable communications between field operations staff and instrument operators. EOL incorporates the latest technologies to monitor the health of instrumentation, facilitate remote operations of instrumentation and keep project participants abreast of changing conditions in the field. As the availability of bandwidth on mobile communication networks and the capabilities of their associated devices (smart phone, tablets, etc.) improved, so has the ability of researchers to respond to rapidly changing conditions and coordinate ever more detailed measurements from multiple remote fixed, portable and airborne platforms. This presentation will describe several new tools that EOL is making available to project investigators and how these tools are being used in a mobile computing environment to support enhanced data collection during field campaigns. LAOF platforms such as radars, aircraft, sondes, balloons and surface stations all rely on displays of real-time data for their operations. Data from sondes are ingested into the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) for assimilation into regional forecasting models that help guide project operations. Since many of EOL's projects occur around the globe and at the same time instrument complexity has increased, automated monitoring of instrumentation platforms and systems has become essential. Tools are being developed to allow remote instrument control of our suite of observing systems where feasible. The Computing, Data and Software (CDS) Facility of EOL develops and supports a Field Catalog used in field campaigns for nearly two decades. Today, the Field Catalog serves as a hub for the

  6. Profile of children with urinary tract infection and the utility of urine dipstick as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, A R; Aryal, U R

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common problem in children and its early diagnosis and treatment is important to prevent long-term complications. Urine dipstick can be an important tool in this respect. The aim of this study is to look at the utility of urine dipstick as a diagnostic tool for UTI and will also see the clinical profile of children with UTI and sensitivity pattern of antibiotics among the isolates of urine culture. Urine samples of all children below 14 years of age who were suspected of urinary tract infection were sent for routine microscopic examination and dipstick testing. Urine culture and sensitivity were sent for those samples that were tested positive for nitrite, leucocyte esterase activity or both. For every fifth sample, which is dipstick negative, a culture and sensitivity testing was done. Among 110 children enrolled, 32(29%) cases had significant bacteriuria. Out of 32 culture positive cases 18(56%) were female. Fever was the main complaint (62.5%)). Escherichia Coli was isolated in 81.25% of cases. Amikacin was sensitive in 93% and amoxicillinwas resistant in 82%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of nitrite test was 65%, 80%, 58%, 85% respectively; those of leucocyte esterase are 84%, 55%, 43%, 89% respectively; those for significant microscopic pyuria >10/hpf were 65%, 74%, 51%, 84% respectively. E. Coli is the commonest uropathogen in children with UTI. Amikacin is the most sensitive antibiotic against all the isolates. A positive dipstick both for nitrite and leucocyte esterase is associated with high sensitivity and specificity for urinary tract infection as compared to either of them positive alone. In addition, urine WBC ≥10/hpf is associated with high probability of UTI.

  7. Hypersensitivity and desensitization to antineoplastic agents: outcomes of 189 procedures with a new short protocol and novel diagnostic tools assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Burgaleta, R; Berges-Gimeno, M P; Angel-Pereira, D; Ferreiro-Monteagudo, R; Guillen-Ponce, C; Pueyo, C; Gomez de Salazar, E; Alvarez-Cuesta, E

    2013-07-01

    Desensitization to antineoplastic agents is becoming a standard of care. Efforts to establish and improve these techniques are being made at many institutions. Our aims are to evaluate a new rapid desensitization protocol designed to be shorter (approximately 4 h) and safer (reducing hazardous drugs exposure risks) and to assess the oxaliplatin-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) as a novel diagnostic tool. Prospective, observational, longitudinal study with patients who, for a 1-year period, suffered reactions to antineoplastic agents and were referred to the Desensitization Program at Ramon y Cajal University Hospital (RCUH). Patients were included or excluded as desensitization candidates after anamnesis, skin testing, risk assessment, and graded challenge. Specific IgE was determined in oxaliplatin-reactive patients. Candidate patients were desensitized using the new RCUH rapid desensitization protocol. Of 189 intravenous rapid desensitizations, 188 were successfully accomplished in the 23 patients who met inclusion criteria for desensitization (of 58 referred patients). No breakthrough reactions occurred in 94% of desensitizations, and most breakthrough reactions were mild. In 10 oxaliplatin-reactive patients, 38 desensitizations were successfully accomplished. Sensitivity for oxaliplatin-specific IgE was 38% (0.35UI/l cutoff point) and 54% (0.10UI/l cutoff point); specificity was 100% for both cutoff points. In the hands of a Desensitization Program, managed by drug desensitization experts, this new protocol has proven an effective therapeutic tool for hypersensitivity to several antineoplastic agents (oxaliplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab); moreover, it improves safety handling of hazardous drugs. We report the first large series of oxaliplatin desensitizations. Oxaliplatin-specific IgE determination could be helpful. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Simple Evaluation Tool (ET-CET) Indicates Increase of Diagnostic Skills From Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy Training Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J.G.; Humbla, O.; McAlindon, M.E.; Davison, C.; Seitz, U.; Fraser, C.; Hagenmüller, F.; Noetzel, E.; Spada, C.; Riccioni, M.E.; Barnert, J.; Filmann, N.; Keuchel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has become a first line diagnostic tool. Several training courses with a similar format have been established in Europe; however, data on learning curve and training in SBCE remain sparse. Between 2008 and 2011, different basic SBCE training courses were organized internationally in UK (n = 2), Italy (n = 2), Germany (n = 2), Finland (n = 1), and nationally in Germany (n = 10), applying similar 8-hour curricula with 50% lectures and 50% hands-on training. The Given PillCam System was used in 12 courses, the Olympus EndoCapsule system in 5, respectively. A simple evaluation tool for capsule endoscopy training (ET-CET) was developed using 10 short SBCE videos including relevant lesions and normal or irrelevant findings. For each video, delegates were required to record a diagnosis (achievable total score from 0 to 10) and the clinical relevance (achievable total score 0 to 10). ET-CET was performed at baseline before the course and repeated, with videos in altered order, after the course. Two hundred ninety-four delegates (79.3% physicians, 16.3% nurses, 4.4% others) were included for baseline analysis, 268 completed the final evaluation. Forty percent had no previous experience in SBCE, 33% had performed 10 or less procedures. Median scores for correct diagnosis improved from 4.0 (IQR 3) to 7.0 (IQR 3) during the courses (P endoscopy may be useful before attending an SBCE course. PMID:26512623

  9. FIELD-DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-09-12

    Methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of aqueous spent fuel storage basins and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials were developed to assess the corrosion potential of a basin. this assessment can then be used to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to ascertain if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations and assist in evaluating general storage basin operations. The test kit was developed based on the identification of key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters identified using a review of the scientific and basin operations literature. The parameters were used to design bench scale test cells for additional corrosion analyses, and then tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters. The tools were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The sampling kit consisted of a total organic carbon analyzer, an YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

  10. Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) as a tool in coverage with evidence development: the case of the 70-gene prognosis signature for breast cancer diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retel, Valesca; Retèl, Valesca P.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Douma, Kirsten F.L.; Karsenberg, Kim; van Dam, Frits S.A.M.; van Krimpen, Cees; Bellot, Frank E.; Roumen, Rudi M.H.; Linn, Sabine C.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is a means to guide early implementation of new developments in society, and can be used as an evaluation tool for Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). We used CTA for the introduction of a new diagnostic test in the Netherlands, the 70-gene

  11. Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) as a tool in Coverage with Evidence Development: The case of the 70-gene prognosis signature for breast cancer diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M.; Hummel, Marjan J. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Douma, Kirsten F. L.; Karsenberg, Kim; van Dam, Frits S. A. M.; van Krimpen, Cees; Bellot, Frank E.; Roumen, Rudi M. H.; Linn, Sabine C.; van Harten, Wim H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is a means to guide early implementation of new developments in society, and can be used as an evaluation tool for Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). We used CTA for the introduction of a new diagnostic test in the Netherlands, the 70-gene

  12. A potential new diagnostic tool to aid DNA analysis from heat compromised bone using colorimetry: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Jamie D; Ringrose, Trevor J; Dicken, Anthony; Williams, Anna; Bennett, Phil

    2015-03-01

    Extracting viable DNA from many forensic sample types can be very challenging, as environmental conditions may be far from optimal with regard to DNA preservation. Consequently, skeletal tissue can often be an invaluable source of DNA. The bone matrix provides a hardened material that encapsulates DNA, acting as a barrier to environmental insults that would otherwise be detrimental to its integrity. However, like all forensic samples, DNA in bone can still become degraded in extreme conditions, such as intense heat. Extracting DNA from bone can be laborious and time-consuming. Thus, a lot of time and money can be wasted processing samples that do not ultimately yield viable DNA. We describe the use of colorimetry as a novel diagnostic tool that can assist DNA analysis from heat-treated bone. This study focuses on characterizing changes in the material and physical properties of heated bone, and their correlation with digitally measured color variation. The results demonstrate that the color of bone, which serves as an indicator of the chemical processes that have occurred, can be correlated with the success or failure of subsequent DNA amplification. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial.

  14. Development of an Internal Real-Time Wireless Diagnostic Tool for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tsai, Chao-Hsuan; Wang, Yu-Syuan

    2018-01-13

    To prolong the operating time of unmanned aerial vehicles which use proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), the performance of PEMFC is the key. However, a long-term operation can make the Pt particles of the catalyst layer and the pollutants in the feedstock gas bond together (e.g., CO), so that the catalyst loses reaction activity. The performance decay and aging of PEMFC will be influenced by operating conditions, temperature, flow and CO concentration. Therefore, this study proposes the development of an internal real-time wireless diagnostic tool for PEMFC, and uses micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to develop a wireless and thin (PEMFC; (5) customized design and development. The flexible integrated microsensor is embedded in the PEMFC, three important physical quantities in the PEMFC, which are the temperature, flow and CO, can be measured simultaneously and instantly, so as to obtain the authentic and complete reaction in the PEMFC to enhance the performance of PEMFC and to prolong the service life.

  15. Development of an Internal Real-Time Wireless Diagnostic Tool for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yuan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To prolong the operating time of unmanned aerial vehicles which use proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC, the performance of PEMFC is the key. However, a long-term operation can make the Pt particles of the catalyst layer and the pollutants in the feedstock gas bond together (e.g., CO, so that the catalyst loses reaction activity. The performance decay and aging of PEMFC will be influenced by operating conditions, temperature, flow and CO concentration. Therefore, this study proposes the development of an internal real-time wireless diagnostic tool for PEMFC, and uses micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology to develop a wireless and thin (<50 μm flexible integrated (temperature, flow and CO microsensor. The technical advantages are (1 compactness and three wireless measurement functions; (2 elastic measurement position and accurate embedding; (3 high accuracy and sensitivity and quick response; (4 real-time wireless monitoring of dynamic performance of PEMFC; (5 customized design and development. The flexible integrated microsensor is embedded in the PEMFC, three important physical quantities in the PEMFC, which are the temperature, flow and CO, can be measured simultaneously and instantly, so as to obtain the authentic and complete reaction in the PEMFC to enhance the performance of PEMFC and to prolong the service life.

  16. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Abadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group. Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V than did the control group (P=0.001. These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001; however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001. The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients’ improvement after treatment.

  17. Flow Cytometry Method as a Diagnostic Tool for Pleural Fluid Involvement in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUZAFFER KEKLIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells that mainly affects bone marrow. Pleural effusions secondary to pleural myelomatous involvement have rarely been reported in the literature. As it is rarely detected, we aimed to report a case in which pleural effusion of a multiple myeloma was confirmed as true myelomatous involvement by flow cytometry method. A 52-years old man presented to our clinic with chest and back pain lasting for 3 months. On the chest radiography, pleural fluid was detected in left hemithorax. Pleural fluid flow cytometry was performed. In the flow cytometry, CD56, CD38 and CD138 found to be positive, while CD19 was negative. True myelomatous pleural effusions are very uncommon, with fewer than 100 cases reported worldwide. Flow cytometry is a potentially useful diagnostic tool for clinical practice. We presented our case; as it has been rarely reported, although flow cytometer is a simple method for detection of pleural fluid involvement in multiple myeloma.

  18. Flow Cytometry Method as a Diagnostic Tool for Pleural Fluid Involvement in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Keklik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells that mainly affects bone marrow. Pleural effusions secondary to pleural myelomatous involvement have rarely been reported in the literature. As it is rarely detected, we aimed to report a case in which pleural effusion of a multiple myeloma was confirmed as true myelomatous involvement by flow cytometry method. A 52-years old man presented to our clinic with chest and back pain lasting for 3 months. On the chest radiography, pleural fluid was detected in left hemithorax. Pleural fluid flow cytometry was performed. In the flow cytometry, CD56, CD38 and CD138 found to be positive, while CD19 was negative. True myelomatous pleural effusions are very uncommon, with fewer than 100 cases reported worldwide. Flow cytometry is a potentially useful diagnostic tool for clinical practice. We presented our case; as it has been rarely reported, although flow cytometer is a simple method for detection of pleural fluid involvement in multiple myeloma.

  19. Comprehensive Clinical Audits of Diagnostic Radiology Practices: A Tool for Quality Improvement. Quality Assurance Audit for Diagnostic Radiology Improvement and Learning (QUAADRIL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Interest in quality assurance processes and quality improvement in diagnostic radiology is being driven by a number of factors. These include the high cost and complexity of radiological equipment, acknowledgement of the possibility of increasing doses to patients, and the importance of radiological diagnosis to patient management within the health care environment. To acknowledge these interests, clinical audits have been introduced and, in Europe, mandated under a European Directive (Council Directive 97/47/EURATOM). Comprehensive clinical audits focus on clinical management and infrastructure, patient related and technical procedures, and education and research. This publication includes a structured set of standards appropriate for diagnostic radiology, an audit guide to their clinical review, and data collection sheets for the rapid production of reports in audit situations. It will be a useful guide for diagnostic radiology facilities wishing to improve their service to patients through timely diagnosis with minimal radiation dose.

  20. Comprehensive Clinical Audits of Diagnostic Radiology Practices: A Tool for Quality Improvement. Quality Assurance Audit for Diagnostic Radiology Improvement and Learning (QUAADRIL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Interest in quality assurance processes and quality improvement in diagnostic radiology is being driven by a number of factors. These include the high cost and complexity of radiological equipment, acknowledgement of the possibility of increasing doses to patients, and the importance of radiological diagnosis to patient management within the health care environment. To acknowledge these interests, clinical audits have been introduced and, in Europe, mandated under a European Directive (Council Directive 97/47/EURATOM). Comprehensive clinical audits focus on clinical management and infrastructure, patient related and technical procedures, and education and research. This publication includes a structured set of standards appropriate for diagnostic radiology, an audit guide to their clinical review, and data collection sheets for the rapid production of reports in audit situations. It will be a useful guide for diagnostic radiology facilities wishing to improve their service to patients through timely diagnosis with minimal radiation dose.

  1. The rebirth of the morphogenetic field as an explanatory tool in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss two uses of the concept of the morphogenetic field, a tool of the 19th century biology motivated by particular ontological views of the time, which has been re-emerging and increasingly relevant in explaining microbiological phenomena. I also consider the relation of these uses to the Central Dogma of modern biology as well as Modern Synthesis of Darwinism and genetics. An induced morphogenetic field is determined by a physical (e.g., gravitational field, or it acquires a physical (e.g., visco-elastic field’s characteristics. Such a morphogenetic field presents only a weak challenge to the Central Dogma of Modern Synthesis by indirectly, albeit severely, constraining variability at the molecular level. I discuss explanations that introduce structural inheritance in ciliate protozoa, as well as the experimental evidence on which these arguments are based. The global cellular morphogenetic field is a unit of such inheritance. I discuss relevant cases of structural inheritance in ciliates that bring about internal cellular as well as functional changes and point out that DNA is absent in the cortex and that RNA controls neither intermediary nor the global level of the field. I go on to argue that utilizing knowledge of known physical fields may advance explanations and understanding of the morphogenetic field in ciliates as the unit of both development and inheritance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dynamic Systems in nature and society: Philosophical and empirical aspects

  2. Approach and tool for computer animation of fields in electrical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miltchev, Radoslav; Yatchev, Ivan S.; Ritchie, Ewen

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a technical approach and post-processing tool for creating and displaying computer animation. The approach enables handling of two- and three-dimensional physical field phenomena results obtained from finite element software or to display movement processes in electrical apparatus simulations. The main goal of this work is to extend auxiliary features built in general-purpose CAD software working in the Windows environment. Different storage techniques were examined and the one employing image capturing was chosen. The developed tool provides benefits of independent visualisation, creating scenarios and facilities for exporting animations in common file fon-nats for distribution on different computer platforms. It also provides a valuable educational tool.(Author)

  3. Vergnaud s Theory of Conceptual Fields as a tool for the didactic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Dias de Carvalho Júnior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present Vergnaud s Theory of Conceptual Fields (1990 as a tool for the design and analysis of Science teaching sequences. The classroom study was conducted in a Brazilian High School working with Thermal Physics. It was part of a Master Degree Thesis presented by one of the authors (CARVALHO JR., 2005, in which we followed up the learning pathways of 7 students. The results of this study were analyzed using the Theory of Conceptual Fields. We shall emphasize the main concepts and categories of Vergnaud s Theory and the appropriation we have done about them in this particular research.

  4. The IDEA Assessment Tool: Assessing the Reporting, Diagnostic Reasoning, and Decision-Making Skills Demonstrated in Medical Students' Hospital Admission Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth A; Ledford, Cynthia H; Fogg, Louis; Way, David P; Park, Yoon Soo

    2015-01-01

    Construct: Clinical skills are used in the care of patients, including reporting, diagnostic reasoning, and decision-making skills. Written comprehensive new patient admission notes (H&Ps) are a ubiquitous part of student education but are underutilized in the assessment of clinical skills. The interpretive summary, differential diagnosis, explanation of reasoning, and alternatives (IDEA) assessment tool was developed to assess students' clinical skills using written comprehensive new patient admission notes. The validity evidence for assessment of clinical skills using clinical documentation following authentic patient encounters has not been well documented. Diagnostic justification tools and postencounter notes are described in the literature (1,2) but are based on standardized patient encounters. To our knowledge, the IDEA assessment tool is the first published tool that uses medical students' H&Ps to rate students' clinical skills. The IDEA assessment tool is a 15-item instrument that asks evaluators to rate students' reporting, diagnostic reasoning, and decision-making skills based on medical students' new patient admission notes. This study presents validity evidence in support of the IDEA assessment tool using Messick's unified framework, including content (theoretical framework), response process (interrater reliability), internal structure (factor analysis and internal-consistency reliability), and relationship to other variables. Validity evidence is based on results from four studies conducted between 2010 and 2013. First, the factor analysis (2010, n = 216) yielded a three-factor solution, measuring patient story, IDEA, and completeness, with reliabilities of .79, .88, and .79, respectively. Second, an initial interrater reliability study (2010) involving two raters demonstrated fair to moderate consensus (κ = .21-.56, ρ =.42-.79). Third, a second interrater reliability study (2011) with 22 trained raters also demonstrated fair to moderate agreement

  5. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis: a case report of a patient with mitral valve infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Pedersen, Line; Calum, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A case of infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva is presented. The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis is discussed.......A case of infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva is presented. The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis is discussed....

  6. Field modeling for transcranial magnetic stimulation: A useful tool to understand the physiological effects of TMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielscher, Axel; Antunes, Andre; Saturnino, Guilherme B

    2015-01-01

    Electric field calculations based on numerical methods and increasingly realistic head models are more and more used in research on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). However, they are still far from being established as standard tools for the planning and analysis in practical applications of TMS. Here, we start by delineating three main challenges that need to be addressed to unravel their full potential. This comprises (i) identifying and dealing with the model uncertainties, (ii) establishing a clear link between the induced fields and the physiological stimulation effects, and (iii) improving the usability of the tools for field calculation to the level that they can be easily used by non-experts. We then introduce a new version of our pipeline for field calculations (www.simnibs.org) that substantially simplifies setting up and running TMS and tDCS simulations based on Finite-Element Methods (FEM). We conclude with a brief outlook on how the new version of SimNIBS can help to target the above identified challenges.

  7. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  8. A focused ethnographic study of Sri Lankan government field veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sawford

    Full Text Available The global public health community is facing the challenge of emerging infectious diseases. Historically, the majority of these diseases have arisen from animal populations at lower latitudes where many nations experience marked resource constraints. In order to minimize the impact of future events, surveillance of animal populations will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Many surveillance systems targeting animals rely on veterinarians to submit cases to a diagnostic laboratory or input clinical case data. Therefore understanding veterinarians' decision-making process that guides laboratory case submission and their perceptions of infectious disease surveillance is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance initiatives. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with twelve field veterinary surgeons that participated in a mobile phone-based surveillance pilot project in Sri Lanka. Each participant agreed to an individual in-depth interview that was recorded and later transcribed to enable thematic analysis of the interview content. Results found that field veterinarians in Sri Lanka infrequently submit cases to laboratories--so infrequently that common case selection principles could not be described. Field veterinarians in Sri Lanka have a diagnostic process that operates independently of laboratories. Participants indicated a willingness to take part in surveillance initiatives, though they highlighted a need for incentives that satisfy a range of motivations that vary among field veterinarians. This study has implications for the future of animal health surveillance, including interpretation of disease patterns reported, system design and implementation, and engagement of data providers.

  9. ANLIZE: a molecular mechanics force field visualization tool and its application to 18-crown-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolworthy, L D; Shirts, R B

    1997-03-01

    We describe a software tool that allows one to visualize and analyze the importance of each individual steric interaction in a molecular mechanics force field. ANLIZE is presently implemented for the Dreiding force field for use with the Cerius2 software package, but could be implemented in any molecular mechanics package with a graphical user interface. ANLIZE calculates individual interactions in the force field, sorts them by size, and displays them in several ways from a menu of choices. This allows the user to scan through selected interactions to visualize which interactions are the primary determinants of preferred conformations. The features of ANLIZE are illustrated using 18-crown-6 as an example, and the factors governing conformational preference in 18-crown-6 are demonstrated. Users of molecular mechanics packages are encouraged to demand this functionality from commercial software producers.

  10. Electric Field Encephalography as a tool for functional brain research: a modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Petrov

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of Electric Field Encephalography (EFEG based on measuring electric fields of the brain and demonstrate, using computer modeling, that given the appropriate electric field sensors this technique may have significant advantages over the current EEG technique. Unlike EEG, EFEG can be used to measure brain activity in a contactless and reference-free manner at significant distances from the head surface. Principal component analysis using simulated cortical sources demonstrated that electric field sensors positioned 3 cm away from the scalp and characterized by the same signal-to-noise ratio as EEG sensors provided the same number of uncorrelated signals as scalp EEG. When positioned on the scalp, EFEG sensors provided 2-3 times more uncorrelated signals. This significant increase in the number of uncorrelated signals can be used for more accurate assessment of brain states for non-invasive brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback applications. It also may lead to major improvements in source localization precision. Source localization simulations for the spherical and Boundary Element Method (BEM head models demonstrated that the localization errors are reduced two-fold when using electric fields instead of electric potentials. We have identified several techniques that could be adapted for the measurement of the electric field vector required for EFEG and anticipate that this study will stimulate new experimental approaches to utilize this new tool for functional brain research.

  11. Faraday-effect polarimeter diagnostic for internal magnetic field fluctuation measurements in DIII-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Ding, W X; Brower, D L; Finkenthal, D; Muscatello, C; Taussig, D; Boivin, R

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the need to measure fast equilibrium temporal dynamics, non-axisymmetric structures, and core magnetic fluctuations (coherent and broadband), a three-chord Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system with fast time response and high phase resolution has recently been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. A novel detection scheme utilizing two probe beams and two detectors for each chord results in reduced phase noise and increased time response [δb ∼ 1G with up to 3 MHz bandwidth]. First measurement results were obtained during the recent DIII-D experimental campaign. Simultaneous Faraday and density measurements have been successfully demonstrated and high-frequency, up to 100 kHz, Faraday-effect perturbations have been observed. Preliminary comparisons with EFIT are used to validate diagnostic performance. Principle of the diagnostic and first experimental results is presented.

  12. Faraday-effect polarimeter diagnostic for internal magnetic field fluctuation measurements in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Finkenthal, D.; Muscatello, C.; Taussig, D.; Boivin, R.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the need to measure fast equilibrium temporal dynamics, non-axisymmetric structures, and core magnetic fluctuations (coherent and broadband), a three-chord Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system with fast time response and high phase resolution has recently been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. A novel detection scheme utilizing two probe beams and two detectors for each chord results in reduced phase noise and increased time response [δb ∼ 1G with up to 3 MHz bandwidth]. First measurement results were obtained during the recent DIII-D experimental campaign. Simultaneous Faraday and density measurements have been successfully demonstrated and high-frequency, up to 100 kHz, Faraday-effect perturbations have been observed. Preliminary comparisons with EFIT are used to validate diagnostic performance. Principle of the diagnostic and first experimental results is presented.

  13. Technology and Information Tool Preferences of Academics in the Field of Anaesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Akcan; Bilgi, Murat; Demirhan, Abdullah; Kurt, Adem Deniz; Tekelioğlu, Ümit Yaşar; Akkaya, Kadir; Koçoğlu, Hasan; Tekçe, Hikmet

    2014-12-01

    Researchers use a large number of information technology tools from the beginning until the publication of a scientific study. The aim of the study is to investigate the technology and data processing tool usage preferences of academics who produce scientific publications in the field of anaesthesiology. A multiple-choice survey, including 18 questions regarding the use of technology to assess the preferences of academicians, was performed. PubMed has been the most preferred article search portal, and the second is Google Academic. Medscape has become the most preferred medical innovation tracking website. Only 12% of academicians obtain a clinical trial registration number for their randomized clinical research. In total, 28% of respondents used the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials checklist in their clinical trials. Of all participants, 21% was using Dropbox and 9% was using Google-Drive for sharing files. Google Chrome was the most preferred internet browser (32.25%) for academic purposes. English language editing service was obtained from the Scribendi (21%) and Textcheck (12%) websites. Half of the academics were getting help from their specialist with a personal relationship, 27% was doing it themselves, and 24% was obtaining professional assistance for statistical requirements. Sixty percent of the participants were not using a reference editing program, and 21% was using EndNote. Nine percent of the academics were spending money for article writing, and the mean cost was 1287 Turkish Liras/year. Academics in the field of anaesthesiology significantly benefit from technology and informatics tools to produce scientific publications.

  14. Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography as a Diagnosis Tool: Recent Progress with Multimodal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Thouvenin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT is a variant of OCT that is able to register 2D en face views of scattering samples at a given depth. Thanks to its superior resolution, it can quickly reveal information similar to histology without the need to physically section the sample. Sensitivity and specificity levels of diagnosis performed with FF-OCT are 80% to 95% of the equivalent histological diagnosis performances and could therefore benefit from improvement. Therefore, multimodal systems have been designed to increase the diagnostic performance of FF-OCT. In this paper, we will discuss which contrasts can be measured with such multimodal systems in the context of ex vivo biological tissue examination. We will particularly emphasize three multimodal combinations to measure the tissue mechanics, dynamics, and molecular content respectively.

  15. Casting the Coronal Magnetic Field Reconstruction Tools in 3D Using the MHD Bifrost Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleishman, Gregory D.; Loukitcheva, Maria [Physics Department, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, NJ, 07102-1982 (United States); Anfinogentov, Sergey; Mysh’yakov, Ivan [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISZF), Lermontov st., 126a, Irkutsk, 664033 (Russian Federation); Stupishin, Alexey [Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-10

    Quantifying the coronal magnetic field remains a central problem in solar physics. Nowadays, the coronal magnetic field is often modeled using nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) reconstructions, whose accuracy has not yet been comprehensively assessed. Here we perform a detailed casting of the NLFFF reconstruction tools, such as π -disambiguation, photospheric field preprocessing, and volume reconstruction methods, using a 3D snapshot of the publicly available full-fledged radiative MHD model. Specifically, from the MHD model, we know the magnetic field vector in the entire 3D domain, which enables us to perform a “voxel-by-voxel” comparison of the restored and the true magnetic fields in the 3D model volume. Our tests show that the available π -disambiguation methods often fail in the quiet-Sun areas dominated by small-scale magnetic elements, while they work well in the active region (AR) photosphere and (even better) chromosphere. The preprocessing of the photospheric magnetic field, although it does produce a more force-free boundary condition, also results in some effective “elevation” of the magnetic field components. This “elevation” height is different for the longitudinal and transverse components, which results in a systematic error in absolute heights in the reconstructed magnetic data cube. The extrapolations performed starting from the actual AR photospheric magnetogram are free from this systematic error, while other metrics are comparable with those for extrapolations from the preprocessed magnetograms. This finding favors the use of extrapolations from the original photospheric magnetogram without preprocessing. Our tests further suggest that extrapolations from a force-free chromospheric boundary produce measurably better results than those from a photospheric boundary.

  16. A Computationally Efficient Tool for Assessing the Depth Resolution in Potential-Field Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoletti, V.; Hansen, Per Christian; Hansen, Mads Friis

    In potential-field inversion problems, it can be dicult to obtain reliable information about the source distribution with respect to depth. Moreover, spatial resolution of the reconstructions decreases with depth, and in fact the more ill-posed the problem - and the more noisy the data - the less...... reliable the depth information. Based on earlier work using the singular value decomposition, we introduce a tool ApproxDRP which uses approximations of the singular vectors obtained by the iterative Lanczos bidiagonalization algorithm, making it well suited for large-scale problems. This tool allows...... successfully show the limitations of depth resolution resulting from noise in the data. This allows a reliable analysis of the retrievable depth information and effectively guides the user in choosing the optimal number of iterations, for a given problem....

  17. The impact of software and CAE tools on SEU in field programmable gate arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Wang, J.; McCollum, J.; Cronquist, B.

    1999-01-01

    Field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, heavily used in spacecraft electronics, have grown substantially in size over the past few years, causing designers to work at a higher conceptual level, with computer aided engineering (CAE) tools synthesizing and optimizing the logic from a description. It is shown that the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) CAE tools can produce unreliable circuit designs when the device is used in a radiation environment and a flip-flop is upset. At a lower level, software can be used to improve the SEU performance of a flip-flop, exploiting the configurable nature of FPGA technology and on-chip delay, parasitic resistive, and capacitive circuit elements

  18. Vulnerability analysis of DT fusion diagnostics for laser Megajoule facility. A new tool: Diacad; Analyse de vulnerabilite de chaines de diagnostic pour la fusion DT dans le cadre du laser megajoule. Un nouvel outil: diacad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' hose, C.; Baggio, J.; Musseau, O. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    1999-07-01

    The Megajoule laser (LMJ) project is a major component of the French simulation program to study inertial confinement. This new facility will provide an energy 60 times greater than the largest lasers presently available (Phebus, Nova, Omega). Many diagnostic links will have to be developed in order to acquire complementary knowledge in this domain. A computer based tool has been defined. This paper presents the most recent developments of this new CAD (computer assisted diagnosis) tool. We first describe LMJ context, and then the analysis methodology developed to address the sensitivity to transient radiation of nuclear diagnosis links. This tool takes into account the vulnerability of individual parts and the global structure of the link. (A.C.)

  19. Development of Methodology and Field Deployable Sampling Tools for Spent Nuclear Fuel Interrogation in Liquid Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-01-01

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-06-04

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  1. MRI characteristics in focal hepatic disease before and after administration of MnDPDP: discriminant analysis as a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Jung, Gregor; Sievers, Klaus; Doehring, Wilfried; Meurer, Karoline

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if different types of focal hepatic lesions can be differentiated by specific quantitative and qualitative imaging characteristics pre- and post-Mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP) administration using a computerized multivariable, discriminant analysis (DA). In a multicenter trial, 151 patients with focal liver disease were studied at 1.5 and 1.0 T using gradient-recalled echo T1 and fast spin-echo T2-weighted images pre and post MnDPDP (0.005 mmol/kg b.w.) i.v. administration. Analysis could be performed in 141 of 151 of the patients. The variables used in both single variable analysis and DA included contrast-to-noise ratios pre and post MnDPDP, presence of rim enhancement, margin, and heterogeneity of a lesion pre and post MnDPDP. The classification of diagnoses using DA was compared with a standard of reference (HCC in 23%, metastases in 25%, cyst in 13%, FNH in 10%, hemangioma in 11%, and other or no lesion in 18% of the patients; histology in 49%, long-term follow-up in 51% of the cases). In the differentiation of the various hepatic lesions, CNR together with the presence of heterogeneity or rim enhancement as variables for DA gave the highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy which ranged between 65 and 93, 44 and 83, and 65 and 86%, respectively. The DA models based on post-MnDPDP variables showed better classification results than the models based on pre-MnDPDP variables. An improvement of accuracy was observed when differentiating HCC from FNH lesion groups (48.9-67.4%; p≤0.05), and when differentiating HCC from metastasis lesion groups (68.3-84.1%; p≤0.01). In all regards there was no difference for T2-weighted images pre and post MnDPDP. By combining quantitative and qualitative variables, DA proved to be a useful tool in lesion discrimination. Due to considerable heterogeneity within some of the lesion type groups, the definite diagnostic impact of MnDPDP cannot be completely established yet, and further

  2. Field surveys for the humanization in hospital buildings: tools and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Montacchini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The international scientific literature supports the great interest to the evidence-based design, focused on the relationship between the spatial arrangement of hospital environment and the potential support to the healing process. According to this approach, the paper deals with field surveys in hospital departments of oncology; the research is aimed at evaluating the environmental perceived quality by the end users. The analysis carried out through questionnaires and interviews was useful to develop tools for the assessment of the relationship among environmental factors and psycho-emotional reactions and to validate the patients and staff’s needs.

  3. Legal directives in the X-ray regulation for the field of X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhn, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The operation of each X-ray device is subject to the requirements of the X-ray regulations (RoeV); for different operational modes or applications like curative diagnostics, X-ray serial examinations, X-ray radiotherapy and teleradiology different directives exist and have to be respected. The report discusses the issues licensing and notification procedures, radiation protection representative, requirements for the commissioning (teleradiology, serial X.ray examinations), technical qualification and radiation protection knowledge of physicians, technical qualification of the assistant personnel.

  4. RADIOGRAPHY IN THE FIELD: ASSESSING A LIGHTWEIGHT, HANDHELD, BATTERY-POWERED DENTISTRY UNIT FOR FIELD DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilern-Moy, Katharina; Vielgrader, Hanna; Gerritsmann, Hanno; Walzer, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Radiography units are not used commonly in wildlife medicine field settings, primarily because of their weight and requirement for a power supply. In this study, a portable, battery-powered, and lightweight radiography unit, originally developed for dentistry, was assessed for its potential field applications. Radiographs of various animal species (ranging in weight from 14 g to 1,000 kg) were imaged using varying source image distance (SID) and exposure time. The quality of these images was evaluated for their resolution, image noise, and motion blur. When required, image resolutions were further enhanced using computed radiography postprocessing. Other parameters evaluated were the freehand use of the device, its battery durability, the maximum obtainable image size, and multiple use of a single computed radiography cassette. Using an SID of 60 cm, radiographs delivered adequate image quality. The quality, however, was found deteriorated in images of larger animals (>50 kg) or thicker tissues (>15 cm). The use of a tripod proved unnecessary in most cases, and its exclusion greatly facilitated equipment handling. Under field conditions, the battery was depleted after a total running time of 1.6 hr or 36 radiographs. The maximum size of a radiographic image reached a diameter of 40 cm, and radiation shielding allowed the multiple use of a single computed radiography cassette. Taken together, the radiography unit evaluated in this study presented a balanced compromise between portability and radiograph quality for field use. However, the unit image resolution cannot replace those of the fixed standard radiography units commonly used in veterinary medicine.

  5. Muscle-fiber conduction velocity and electromyography as diagnostic tools in patients with suspected inflammatory myopathy: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijham, P.J.; Hengstman, G.J.D.; Laak, H.J. ter; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Zwarts, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Combinations of different techniques can increase the diagnostic yield from neurophysiological examination of muscle. In 25 patients with suspected inflammatory myopathy, we prospectively performed needle electromyography (EMG) and measured muscle-fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) in a single muscle,

  6. Design standards for experimental and field studies to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of tests for infectious diseases in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, E; Thakur, K K; Gardner, I A; Hick, P; Moody, N J G; Crane, M S J; Ernst, I

    2018-05-01

    Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. Of the 56 DAS identified, 41 were based on field testing, eight on experimental challenge studies and seven on both. Also, we adapted human and terrestrial-animal standards and guidelines for DAS structure for use in aquatic animal diagnostic research. Through this process, we identified and addressed important metrics for consideration at the design phase: study purpose, targeted disease state, selection of appropriate samples and specimens, laboratory analytical methods, statistical methods and data interpretation. These recommended design standards for DAS are presented as a checklist including risk-of-failure points and actions to mitigate bias at each critical step. Adherence to standards when designing DAS will also facilitate future systematic review and meta-analyses of DAS research literature. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Investigation of the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in reproductive medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Homann, Christian; Leeb, R.; Doering, D.; Kuznetsova, J.; Reese, S.; Stief, C. G.; Koelle, S.; Sroka, R.

    2015-02-01

    Introduction and objective: In Europe, nearly every sixth couple in the reproductive age is involuntarily childless. In about 30%, both male and female reveal fertility problems. In about 10% of infertile men, azoospermia is the underlying cause. As conventional therapeutic options are limited, surgical testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is necessary to obtain sperms for assisted reproductive techniques. Regarding the females, up to 30% of all idiopathic infertilities are due to alterations of the uterine tube So far, no imaging technique, which does not require any labelling, is available to evaluate the male and female genital tract at a microscopic level under in vivo conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in gynaecology and andrology. Material and Methods: Tissues samples from the bovine testis, epididymis, vas deferens, ovary, oviduct (ampulla and isthmus) and uterus were obtained immediately after slaughter (14 cows aged 3 to 8 years and 14 bulls aged 3 to 6 years; breeds: Holstein- Friesian, and Deutsches Fleckvieh). Imaging was done by using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved probe-based Niris Imaging System (Imalux, Cleveland, Ohio, USA) and the Telesto 1325 nm OCT System and Ganymede 930 nm OCT System (Thorlabs Inc., Dachau, Germany). All images obtained were compared to histological images after paraffin embedding and HE staining. Results: OCT imaging visualized the microarchitecture of the testis, epididymis, spermatic duct and the ovary, oviduct and uterus. Using the Thorlabs systems a axial resolution of approx. 5μm and lateral resolution of 8- 15μm could be achieved. Different optical tissue volumes could be visualized, which depends on the optical penetration depth of the wavelength of the system used. While the tissue volume observed by probe based Imalux-OCT is similar to the used Thorlabs systems, the optical resolution is

  8. Tools and technologies needed for conducting planetary field geology while on EVA: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kelsey; Hurtado, José M.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Brent Garry, W.; Bleisath, Scott; Buffington, Jesse; Rice, James W.

    2013-10-01

    The tools used by crews while on extravehicular activity during future missions to other bodies in the Solar System will be a combination of traditional geologic field tools (e.g. hammers, rakes, sample bags) and state-of-the-art technologies (e.g. high definition cameras, digital situational awareness devices, and new geologic tools). In the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) field test, four crews, each consisting of an astronaut/engineer and field geologist, tested and evaluated various technologies during two weeks of simulated spacewalks in the San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona. These tools consisted of both Apollo-style field geology tools and modern technological equipment not used during the six Apollo lunar landings. The underlying exploration driver for this field test was to establish the protocols and technology needed for an eventual manned mission to an asteroid, the Moon, or Mars. The authors of this paper represent Desert RATS geologist crewmembers as well as two engineers who worked on technology development. Here we present an evaluation and assessment of these tools and technologies based on our first-hand experience of using them during the analog field test. We intend this to serve as a basis for continued development of technologies and protocols used for conducting planetary field geology as the Solar System exploration community moves forward into the next generation of planetary surface exploration.

  9. Application of laser diagnostics to sodium-water chemical reaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Kenta; Muranaka, Ryota; Kusano, Koji; Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu

    2013-01-01

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes in a steam generator. Therefore the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for safety reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using laser diagnostics. The sodium-water counter-flow reactions were measured using laser diagnostics such as laser induced fluorescence, CARS, Raman scattering and photo-fragmentation. The measurement results show that the sodium-water reaction proceeds mainly by the reaction Na + H 2 O → NaOH + H and the main product is NaOH in this reaction. Its forward and backward reaction rates tend to balance with each other and the whole reaction rate reduces as temperature increases. (author)

  10. Evaluation of written patient educational materials in the field of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhaenen, A.M.; Johansson, K.; Virtanen, H.; Salo, S.; Salanterae, S.; Leino-Kilpi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the quality of written educational materials for diagnostic imaging (radiological and nuclear medicine) patients. Materials and methods: Written educational materials (n = 70) for diagnostic imaging patients were analysed. The materials were evaluated based on their external appearance (9 criteria), instructiveness (7), content (7), language and structure (8) and readability (1). Deductive content analysis was used. Quantified parts of the analyses were analysed by SAS for Windows. Dependence between criteria (32) was tested by Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: The external appearance fulfilled almost completely the criteria of good written education materials. The instructiveness was addressed clearly, except for the purpose of the material. The contents of materials dealt with bio-physiological, functional and cognitive dimensions of knowledge, while financial dimensions of knowledge were hardly dealt with at all. The language and the structure were reasonably good, but the language was partly in passive voice and the text contained strange words. Most of the education material was moderately easy to read. Conclusions: The results show that the quality of material was quite good in all dimensions. Only a small number of criteria were unsatisfactory. The results can be used to further improve written patient education materials and patient education in the imaging unit.

  11. The two most popular malnutrition screening tools in the light of the new ESPEN consensus definition of the diagnostic criteria for malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna; Klek, Stanislaw; Doundoulakis, Ioannis; Bouras, Emmanouil; Karayiannis, Dimitrios; Baschali, Aristea; Passakiotou, Marili; Chourdakis, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The new definition of malnutrition in adults proposed recently by The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) changed the view on the issue and raised the question of the reliability of available diagnostic tools. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of the two most commonly used screening tools by comparing their findings with the new ESPEN criteria. Nutritional screening was performed in 1146 (median age 60 years, interquartile range: 44-73 years, 617 males, 529 females) patients on admission to hospitals with two nutritional screening tools: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). The screening results were then compared to the ESPEN new diagnostic criteria for malnutrition. According to the NRS2002 13.5% and 27.9% of the outpatients and hospitalized patients respectively were found to be at moderate/high risk of malnutrition. With the use of MUST 9.1% and 14.9% of the outpatients and hospitalized patients respectively were found to be at moderate/high risk of malnutrition. According to the ESPEN diagnostic criteria 6.4% and 11.3% of outpatients and hospitalized patients respectively were classified as malnourished. MUST was found to be better correlated to the latter for both outpatients (K = 0.777, p malnutrition screening tool in the light of the new ESPEN definition for malnutrition. According to our results, MUST was better correlated with ESPEN criteria for the definition of malnutrition, leading us to the conclusion that it can more efficiently identify the malnourished patients, during the screening process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Acidity field of soils as ion-exchange systems and the diagnostics of genetic soil horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotov, Yu. A.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Aparin, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    For the comprehensive description of the acidity of a two-phase ion-exchange system, we should analyze two curves of the ionite titration by a strong base in water and salt solutions and find the quantitative relationships between the corresponding pH characteristics. An idea of the three-dimensional field of acidity of ion-exchange systems (the phase space of the soil acidity characteristics) and its three two-dimensional projections is suggested. For soils, three interrelated characteristics—the pH values of the salt and water extracts and the degree of base saturation—can serve as spatial coordinates for the acidity field. Representation of factual data in this field makes it possible to compare and analyze the acidity characteristics of different soils and soil horizons and to determine their specific features. Differentiation of the field into separate volumes allows one to present the data in a discrete form. We have studied the distribution patterns of the groups of soil horizons from Leningrad oblast and other regions of northwestern Russia in the acidity field. The studied samples are grouped in different partially overlapping areas of the projections of the acidity field. The results of this grouping attest to the correctness of the modern classification of Russian soils. A notion of the characteristic soil area in the acidity field is suggested; it can be applied to all the soils with a leaching soil water regime.

  13. The Use of Faraday Rotation Sign Maps as a Diagnostic for Helical Jet Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichstein, Andrea; Gabuzda, Denise

    2012-01-01

    We present maps of the sign of the Faraday Rotation measure obtained from multi-frequency radio observations made with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) considered have B-field structures with a central 'spine' of B-field orthogonal to the jet and/or a longitudinal B-field near one or both edges of the jet. This structure can plausibly be interpreted as being caused by a helical/toroidal jet magnetic field. Faraday Rotation is a rotation of the plane of polarization that occurs when the polarized radiation passes through a magnetized plasma. The sign of the RM is determined by the direction of the line-of-sight B-field in the region causing the Faraday Rotation, and an ordered toroidal or helical magnetic field associated with an AGN jet will thus produce a distinctive bilateral distribution of the RMs across the jet. We present and discuss RM-sign maps and their possible interpretation regarding the magnetic field geometries for several sources.

  14. Glaucoma Diagnostic Capabilities of Foveal Avascular Zone Parameters Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography According to Visual Field Defect Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junki; Choi, Jaewan; Shin, Joong Won; Lee, Jiyun; Kook, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic ability of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters to discriminate glaucomatous eyes with visual field defects (VFDs) in different locations (central vs. peripheral) from normal eyes. Totally, 125 participants were separated into 3 groups: normal (n=45), glaucoma with peripheral VFD (PVFD, n=45), and glaucoma with central VFD (CVFD, n=35). The FAZ area, perimeter, and circularity and parafoveal vessel density were calculated from optical coherence tomography angiography images. The diagnostic ability of the FAZ parameters and other structural parameters was determined according to glaucomatous VFD location. Associations between the FAZ parameters and central visual function were evaluated. A larger FAZ area and longer FAZ perimeter were observed in the CVFD group than in the PVFD and normal groups. The FAZ area, perimeter, and circularity were better in differentiating glaucomatous eyes with CVFDs from normal eyes [areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), 0.78 to 0.88] than in differentiating PVFDs from normal eyes (AUC, 0.51 to 0.64). The FAZ perimeter had a similar AUC value to the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness for differentiating eyes with CVFDs from normal eyes (all P>0.05, the DeLong test). The FAZ area was significantly correlated with central visual function (β=-112.7, P=0.035, multivariate linear regression). The FAZ perimeter had good diagnostic capability in differentiating glaucomatous eyes with CVFDs from normal eyes, and may be a potential diagnostic biomarker for detecting glaucomatous patients with CVFDs.

  15. Evaluation of subjective image quality in relation to diagnostic task for cone beam computed tomography with different fields of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthag-Hansen, Sara; Thilander-Klang, Anne; Gröndahl, Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate subjective image quality for two diagnostic tasks, periapical diagnosis and implant planning, for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using different exposure parameters and fields of view (FOVs). Examinations were performed in posterior part of the jaws on a skull phantom with 3D Accuitomo (FOV 3 cm×4 cm) and 3D Accuitomo FPD (FOVs 4 cm×4 cm and 6 cm×6 cm). All combinations of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80 kV and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mA with a rotation of 180° and 360° were used. Dose-area product (DAP) value was determined for each combination. The images were presented, displaying the object in axial, cross-sectional and sagittal views, without scanning data in a random order for each FOV and jaw. Seven observers assessed image quality on a six-point rating scale. Intra-observer agreement was good (κw=0.76) and inter-observer agreement moderate (κw=0.52). Stepwise logistic regression showed kV, mA and diagnostic task to be the most important variables. Periapical diagnosis, regardless jaw, required higher exposure parameters compared to implant planning. Implant planning in the lower jaw required higher exposure parameters compared to upper jaw. Overall ranking of FOVs gave 4 cm×4 cm, 6 cm×6 cm followed by 3 cm×4 cm. This study has shown that exposure parameters should be adjusted according to diagnostic task. For this particular CBCT brand a rotation of 180° gave good subjective image quality, hence a substantial dose reduction can be achieved without loss of diagnostic information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of subjective image quality in relation to diagnostic task for cone beam computed tomography with different fields of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofthag-Hansen, Sara; Thilander-Klang, Anne; Groendahl, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate subjective image quality for two diagnostic tasks, periapical diagnosis and implant planning, for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using different exposure parameters and fields of view (FOVs). Materials and methods: Examinations were performed in posterior part of the jaws on a skull phantom with 3D Accuitomo (FOV 3 cm x 4 cm) and 3D Accuitomo FPD (FOVs 4 cm x 4 cm and 6 cm x 6 cm). All combinations of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80 kV and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mA with a rotation of 180 o and 360 o were used. Dose-area product (DAP) value was determined for each combination. The images were presented, displaying the object in axial, cross-sectional and sagittal views, without scanning data in a random order for each FOV and jaw. Seven observers assessed image quality on a six-point rating scale. Results: Intra-observer agreement was good (κ w = 0.76) and inter-observer agreement moderate (κ w = 0.52). Stepwise logistic regression showed kV, mA and diagnostic task to be the most important variables. Periapical diagnosis, regardless jaw, required higher exposure parameters compared to implant planning. Implant planning in the lower jaw required higher exposure parameters compared to upper jaw. Overall ranking of FOVs gave 4 cm x 4 cm, 6 cm x 6 cm followed by 3 cm x 4 cm. Conclusions: This study has shown that exposure parameters should be adjusted according to diagnostic task. For this particular CBCT brand a rotation of 180 o gave good subjective image quality, hence a substantial dose reduction can be achieved without loss of diagnostic information.

  17. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Bottaro, Márcio; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador; Rosendo, Danilo Cabral

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naïve human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according t...

  18. Development of a numerical modelling tool for combined near field and far field wave transformations using a coupling of potential flow solvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbrugghe, Tim; Troch, Peter; Kortenhaus, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy converters (WECs) need to be deployed in large numbers in an array layout in order to have a significant power production. Each WEC has an impact on the incoming wave field, diffracting, reflecting and radiating waves. Simulating the wave transformations within and around a WEC farm...... of a wave-structure interaction solver and a wave propagation model, both based on the potential flow theory. This paper discusses the coupling method and illustrates the functionality with a proof-of-concept. Additionally, a projection of the evolution of the numerical tool is given. It can be concluded...... is complex; it is difficult to simulate both near field and far field effects with a single numerical model, with relatively fast computing times. Within this research a numerical tool is developed to model near-field and far-field wave transformations caused by WECs. The tool is based on the coupling...

  19. Mosquitoes meet microfluidics: High-throughput microfluidic tools for insect-parasite ecology in field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Manu; Mukundarajan, Haripriya

    2013-11-01

    A simple bite from an insect is the transmission mechanism for many deadly diseases worldwide--including malaria, yellow fever, west nile and dengue. Very little is known about how populations of numerous insect species and disease-causing parasites interact in their natural habitats due to a lack of measurement techniques. At present, vector surveillance techniques involve manual capture by using humans as live bait, which is hard to justify on ethical grounds. Individual mosquitoes are manually dissected to isolate salivary glands to detect sporozites. With typical vector infection rates being very low even in endemic areas, it is almost impossible to get an accurate picture of disease distribution, in both space and time. Here we present novel high-throughput microfluidic tools for vector surveillance, specifically mosquitoes. A two-dimensional high density array with baits provide an integrated platform for multiplex PCR for detection of both vector and parasite species. Combining techniques from engineering and field ecology, methods and tools developed here will enable high-throughput measurement of infection rates for a number of diseases in mosquito populations in field conditions. Pew Foundation.

  20. An energy confinement study of the MST [Madison Symmetric Torus] reversed field pinch using a Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, D.J.

    1989-11-01

    Thomson scattering measurements of the central electron temperature and density during the plasma current peak have been performed on the MST Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). This Thomson scattering diagnostic was calibrated for absolute electron density measurements. These measurements of T e and n e , when combined with profile assumptions, were used to calculate estimates of energy confinement time (τ E ) and poloidal beta (β θ ). A standard discharge with I p ∼ 400 kA, F ∼ -0.1, and θ ∼ 1.6 typically exhibited T e ∼ 275 eV, n e ∼ 2.0 x 10 13 cm -3 , τ E ≤ 1 ms, and β θ ≤ 8%. The results of a limited plasma current scaling study did not indicate a strong scaling of T e or τ E with I p . The Thomson scattering diagnostic was used in conjunction with a bolometer, VUV radiation monitor, and edge magnetic coils to study the loss of energy from the plasma. Results indicate that thermal transport from stochastic magnetic fields, particle loss, and radiation are important energy loss processes. The experiments done for this study included an F-scan, a paddle limiter insertion series, and an argon doping series. The plasma maintained a constant βτ during these perturbation experiments, suggesting that increases in one energy loss channel are compensated by drops in other channels and increases in input power to the plasma

  1. Novel Infiltration Diagnostics based on Laser-line Scanning and Infrared Temperature Field Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-12-08

    This project targets the building energy efficiency problems induced by building infiltration/leaks. The current infiltration inspection techniques often require extensive visual inspection and/or whole building pressure test. These current techniques cannot meet more than three of the below five criteria of ideal infiltration diagnostics: 1. location and extent diagnostics, 2. building-level application, 3. least surface preparation, 4. weather-proof, and 5. non-disruption to building occupants. These techniques are either too expensive or time consuming, and often lack accuracy and repeatability. They are hardly applicable to facades/facades section. The goal of the project was to develop a novel infiltration diagnostics technology based on laser line-scanning and simultaneous infrared temperature imaging. A laboratory scale experimental setup was designed to mimic a model house of well-defined pressure difference below or above the outside pressure. Algorithms and Matlab-based programs had been developed for recognition of the hole location in infrared images. Our experiment based on laser wavelengths of 450 and 1550 nm and laser beam diameters of 4-25 mm showed that the location of the holes could be identified using laser heating; the diagnostic approach however could not readily distinguish between infiltration and non-infiltration points. To significantly improve the scanning throughput and recognition accuracy, a second approach was explored, developed, and extensively tested. It incorporates a liquid spray on the surface to induce extra phase change cooling effect. In this spray method, we termed it as PECIT (Phase-change Enhanced Cooling Infrared Thermography), phase-change enhanced cooling was used, which significantly amplifies the effect of air flow (infiltration and exfiltration). This heat transfer method worked extremely well to identify infiltration and exfiltration locations with high accuracy and increased throughput. The PECIT technique was

  2. Pre-ionization and spectroscopic diagnostic of plasma generated and confined by magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, R.Y.

    1980-01-01

    A θ-pinch system has been constructed with pre-heating devices with a total energy of 2 kJ. During this experiment a He Plasma was studied using the following three different diagnostics. a) Magnetic Probes b) Visible Spectroscopy using the Optical Multichannel Analyser - OMA c) Image Converter Camera. The experimental results have been checked with existing theoretical models. The electrical characteristics of the system were determined with the magnetic probe. The Doppler and Stark broadening effects of the λ o = 4686 (angstrom) (HeII) have been used to determine the ionic temperature and electronic density respectively. The time evolution of these parameters was obtained using the OMA. The dynamics of the plasma were observed by high speed photography. Instabilities in the plasma columm have been observed. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical values was obtained. (author) [pt

  3. Lichtheimia Infection in a Lymphoma Patient: Case Report and a Brief Review of the Available Diagnostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Stefan; Bialek, Ralf; Blau, Igor W; Christe, Andreas; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Presterl, Elisabeth

    2016-08-01

    We describe the case of a patient with a T-lymphoblastic lymphoma whose disseminated mucormycosis was diagnosed with delay, and we address the diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making process and review the diagnostic workup of patients with potential IFD. The diagnosis was delayed despite a suggestive radiological presentation of the patient's pulmonary lesion. The uncommon risk profile (T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, short neutropenic phases) wrongly led to a low level of suspicion. The diagnosis was also hampered by the lack of indirect markers for infections caused by Mucorales, the low sensitivity of both fungal culture and panfungal PCR, and the limited availability of species-specific PCR. A high level of suspicion of IFD is needed, and aggressive diagnostic procedures should be promptly initiated even in apparently low-risk patients with uncommon presentations. The extent of the analytical workup should be decided on a case-by-case base. Diagnostic tests such as the galactomannan and β-D-glucan test and/or PCR on biological material followed by sequencing should be chosen according to their availability and after evaluation of their specificity and sensitivity. In high-risk patients, preemptive therapy with a broad-spectrum mould-active antifungal agent should be started before definitive diagnostic findings become available.

  4. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Bottaro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naïve human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according to their own determination. Different interpretations of the contrast were then calculated and compared. Results In contrast to automated measurements of edge definition and detection, measurements by human observers showed large inter-observer variation independent of their training with X-ray equipment. Different contrast calculations considering the different edge definitions gave very different contrast values. Conclusion As the main conclusion, we propose a more exact edge definition of the X-ray light field, corresponding well to the average human observer’s edge determination. The new edge definition method with automated systems would reduce human variability in edge determination. Such errors could potentially affect the approval of X-ray equipment, and also increase the radiation dose. The automated measurement based on human observers’ edge definition and the corresponding contrast calculation may lead to a more precise light field calibration, which enables reduced irradiation doses on radiology patients.

  5. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottaro, Marcio; Nagy, Balazs Vince; Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador; Rosendo, Danilo Cabral

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods: Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naive human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according to their own determination. Different interpretations of the contrast were then calculated and compared. Results: In contrast to automated measurements of edge definition and detection, measurements by human observers showed large inter-observer variation independent of their training with X-ray equipment. Different contrast calculations considering the different edge definitions gave very different contrast values. Conclusion: As the main conclusion, we propose a more exact edge definition of the X-ray light field, corresponding well to the average human observer's edge determination. The new edge definition method with automated systems would reduce human variability in edge determination. Such errors could potentially affect the approval of X-ray equipment, and also increase the radiation dose. The automated measurement based on human observers’ edge definition and the corresponding contrast calculation may lead to a more precise light field calibration, which enables reduced irradiation doses on radiology patients. (author)

  6. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottaro, Marcio; Nagy, Balazs Vince; Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador; Rosendo, Danilo Cabral, E-mail: marcio@iee.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Optics and Engineering Informatics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-04-15

    Introduction: To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods: Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naive human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according to their own determination. Different interpretations of the contrast were then calculated and compared. Results: In contrast to automated measurements of edge definition and detection, measurements by human observers showed large inter-observer variation independent of their training with X-ray equipment. Different contrast calculations considering the different edge definitions gave very different contrast values. Conclusion: As the main conclusion, we propose a more exact edge definition of the X-ray light field, corresponding well to the average human observer's edge determination. The new edge definition method with automated systems would reduce human variability in edge determination. Such errors could potentially affect the approval of X-ray equipment, and also increase the radiation dose. The automated measurement based on human observers’ edge definition and the corresponding contrast calculation may lead to a more precise light field calibration, which enables reduced irradiation doses on radiology patients. (author)

  7. Metabolomics for laboratory diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, Renata; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Markuszewski, Michał J; Kaliszan, Roman

    2015-09-10

    Metabolomics is an emerging approach in a systems biology field. Due to continuous development in advanced analytical techniques and in bioinformatics, metabolomics has been extensively applied as a novel, holistic diagnostic tool in clinical and biomedical studies. Metabolome's measurement, as a chemical reflection of a current phenotype of a particular biological system, is nowadays frequently implemented to understand pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression as well as to search for new diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of various organism's disorders. In this review, we discussed the research strategies and analytical platforms commonly applied in the metabolomics studies. The applications of the metabolomics in laboratory diagnostics in the last 5 years were also reviewed according to the type of biological sample used in the metabolome's analysis. We also discussed some limitations and further improvements which should be considered taking in mind potential applications of metabolomic research and practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of magnetic polarity on surface roughness during magnetic field assisted EDM of tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendee, A. M.; Saifuldin, M.; Gebremariam, MA; Azhari, A.

    2018-04-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the non-traditional machining techniques where the process offers wide range of parameters manipulation and machining applications. However, surface roughness, material removal rate, electrode wear and operation costs were among the topmost issue within this technique. Alteration of magnetic device around machining area offers exciting output to be investigated and the effects of magnetic polarity on EDM remain unacquainted. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of magnetic polarity on surface roughness during magnetic field assisted electrical discharge machining (MFAEDM) on tool steel material (AISI 420 mod.) using graphite electrode. A Magnet with a force of 18 Tesla was applied to the EDM process at selected parameters. The sparks under magnetic field assisted EDM produced better surface finish than the normal conventional EDM process. At the presence of high magnetic field, the spark produced was squeezed and discharge craters generated on the machined surface was tiny and shallow. Correct magnetic polarity combination of MFAEDM process is highly useful to attain a high efficiency machining and improved quality of surface finish to meet the demand of modern industrial applications.

  9. 60 GHz Antenna Diagnostics from Planar Near Field Antenna Measurement Without External Frequency Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2015-01-01

    ,J.M. Nielsen, O. Breinbjerg, 60 GHz Antenna Measurement Setup using a VNA without External Frequency Conversion,36th Annual Symposium of the Antenna Measurement Technique Association ,October 12-17,Tucson, Arizona, 2014]. In this work we extend the validation of this 60 GHz planar near-field (PNF) set...

  10. Free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity diagnostics for the quality of NLFF field extrapolations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Kostas; Archontis, Vasilis; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    We calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity of solar active regions using two independent approaches: a) a non-linear force-free (NLFF) method that requires only a single photospheric vector magnetogram, and b) well known semi-analytical formulas that require the full three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field structure. The 3D field is obtained either from MHD simulations, or from observed magnetograms via respective NLFF field extrapolations. We find qualitative agreement between the two methods and, quantitatively, a discrepancy not exceeding a factor of 4. The comparison of the two methods reveals, as a byproduct, two independent tests for the quality of a given force-free field extrapolation. We find that not all extrapolations manage to achieve the force-free condition in a valid, divergence-free, magnetic configuration. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  11. Diagnostic performance of a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the apicoplast genome for malaria diagnosis in a field setting in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriero, Eniyou C; Okebe, Joseph; Jacobs, Jan; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Nwakanma, Davis; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2015-10-09

    New diagnostic tools to detect reliably and rapidly asymptomatic and low-density malaria infections are needed as their treatment could interrupt transmission. Isothermal amplification techniques are being explored for field diagnosis of malaria. In this study, a novel molecular tool (loop-mediated isothermal amplification-LAMP) targeting the apicoplast genome of Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated for the detection of asymptomatic malaria-infected individuals in a rural setting in The Gambia. A blood was collected from 341 subjects (median age 9 years, range 1-68 years) screened for malaria. On site, a rapid diagnostic test (RDT, SD Bioline Malaria Antigen P.f) was performed, thick blood films (TBF) slides for microscopy were prepared and dry blood spots (DBS) were collected on Whatman(®) 903 Specimen collection paper. The TBF and DBS were transported to the field laboratory where microscopy and LAMP testing were performed. The latter was done on DNA extracted from the DBS using a crude (methanol/heating) extraction method. A laboratory-based PCR amplification was done on all the samples using DNA extracted with the Qiagen kit and its results were taken as reference for all the other tests. Plasmodium falciparum malaria prevalence was 37 % (127/341) as detected by LAMP, 30 % (104/341) by microscopy and 37 % (126/341) by RDT. Compared to the reference PCR method, sensitivity was 92 % for LAMP, 78 % for microscopy, and 76 % for RDT; specificity was 97 % for LAMP, 99 % for microscopy, and 88 % for RDT. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve in comparison with the reference standard was 0.94 for LAMP, 0.88 for microscopy and 0.81 for RDT. Turn-around time for the entire LAMP assay was approximately 3 h and 30 min for an average of 27 ± 9.5 samples collected per day, compared to a minimum of 10 samples an hour per operator by RDT and over 8 h by microscopy. The LAMP assay could produce reliable results the same day of the screening. It could

  12. VIBRATION DIAGNOSTICS AND VIBRATION ALIGNMENT – EFFECTIVE TOOL TO REDUCE THE COST OF REPAIRS AND MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Parkhomenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discribes the following types of adjusting rotary equipment such as: balancing in own bearings, on-center alignment and shaft alignment, elimination of soft foot. The vibration alignment is based on the results of vibration diagnostics at production run of OJSC «BSW – Management Company of Holding «BMC». 

  13. Vibration diagnostics and vibration alignment – effective tool to reduce the cost of repairs and maintenance of equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Пархоменко, Ю. В.

    2017-01-01

    The article discribes the following types of adjusting rotary equipment such as: balancing in own bearings, on-center alignment and shaft alignment, elimination of soft foot. The vibration alignment is based on the results of vibration diagnostics at production run of OJSC «BSW – Management Company of Holding «BMC». 

  14. Experimental guinea pig model of dermatophytosis: a simple and useful tool for the evaluation of new diagnostics and antifungals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunte, D.M.; Hasselby, J.P.; Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a simple guinea pig model for the purpose of evaluating diagnostic principles and treatment modalities for dermatophytic infections. The following variables were evaluated; pre-treatment of the skin by shaving versus tape stripping, Microsporum canis...

  15. Optimized T1- and T2-weighted volumetric brain imaging as a diagnostic tool in very preterm neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nossin-Manor, Revital; Chung, Andrew D.; Morris, Drew; Thomas, Bejoy; Shroff, Manohar M.; Soares-Fernandes, Joao P.; Cheng, Hai-Ling M.; Whyte, Hilary E.A.; Taylor, Margot J.; Sled, John G.

    2011-01-01

    T1- and T2-W MR sequences used for obtaining diagnostic information and morphometric measurements in the neonatal brain are frequently acquired using different imaging protocols. Optimizing one protocol for obtaining both kinds of information is valuable. To determine whether high-resolution T1- and T2-W volumetric sequences optimized for preterm brain imaging could provide both diagnostic and morphometric value. Thirty preterm neonates born between 24 and 32 weeks' gestational age were scanned during the first 2 weeks after birth. T1- and T2-W high-resolution sequences were optimized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and scan time and compared to conventional spin-echo-based sequences. No differences were found between conventional and high-resolution T1-W sequences for diagnostic confidence, image quality and motion artifacts. A preference for conventional over high-resolution T2-W sequences for image quality was observed. High-resolution T1 images provided better delineation of thalamic myelination and the superior temporal sulcus. No differences were found for detection of myelination and sulcation using conventional and high-resolution T2-W images. High-resolution T1- and T2-W volumetric sequences can be used in clinical MRI in the very preterm brain to provide both diagnostic and morphometric information. (orig.)

  16. MULTI-LINE STOKES INVERSION FOR PROMINENCE MAGNETIC-FIELD DIAGNOSTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, R.; Lopez Ariste, A.; Paletou, F.; Leger, L.

    2009-01-01

    We present test results on the simultaneous inversion of the Stokes profiles of the He I lines at 587.6 nm (D 3 ) and 1083.0 nm in prominences (90 deg. scattering). We created data sets of synthetic Stokes profiles for the case of quiescent prominences (B -3 of the peak intensity for the polarimetric sensitivity of the simulated observations. In this work, we focus on the error analysis for the inference of the magnetic field vector, under the usual assumption that the prominence can be assimilated to a slab of finite optical thickness with uniform magnetic and thermodynamic properties. We find that the simultaneous inversion of the two lines significantly reduces the errors on the inference of the magnetic field vector, with respect to the case of single-line inversion. These results provide a solid justification for current and future instrumental efforts with multi-line capabilities for the observations of solar prominences and filaments.

  17. On the Lamb vector divergence as a momentum field diagnostic employed in turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, Curtis W.; Kirby, Robert M.; Klewicki, Joseph C.

    2006-11-01

    Vorticity, enstrophy, helicity, and other derived field variables provide invaluable information about the kinematics and dynamics of fluids. However, whether or not derived field variables exist that intrinsically identify spatially localized motions having a distinct capacity to affect a time rate of change of linear momentum is seldom addressed in the literature. The purpose of the present study is to illustrate the unique attributes of the divergence of the Lamb vector in order to qualify its potential for characterizing such spatially localized motions. Toward this aim, we describe the mathematical properties, near-wall behavior, and scaling characteristics of the divergence of the Lamb vector for turbulent channel flow. When scaled by inner variables, the mean divergence of the Lamb vector merges to a single curve in the inner layer, and the fluctuating quantities exhibit a strong correlation with the Bernoulli function throughout much of the inner layer.

  18. Principles of spectroscopic diagnostics of a plasma with oscillating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three types of main principles of spectroscopic diagnosis of the plasma with quasimonochromatic electric fields (QEF) are considered. Principles based on the effects intersectionally depending on the parameters of QEF and the plasma medium are considered. Occurrence of depressions or dips in the profiles of spectral lines is the most important effect among others. Principles based on the nonlinear theory of plasma and laser sattelites of spectral lines as well as laser-spectroscopic diagnosis of QEF in the plasma are considered

  19. A Novel Field Deployable Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    could enhance the success of the RPA method in the field, including 1) isolation of DNA from clinical samples using a mini (portable) extractor at...the POC or FTA Whatman filter paper specially designed to improve DNA preservation and purification at POC. Aim 1: To optimize the analytical...sensitivity and specificity of the genus- and complex-specific RPA-LF tests using Leishmania isolates and clinical samples from collaborating study sites. We

  20. Ultrasound elastography as an objective diagnostic measurement tool for lymphoedema of the treated breast in breast cancer patients following breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriaenssens, Nele; Belsack, Dries; Buyl, Ronald; Ruggiero, Leonardo; Breucq, Catherine; De Mey, Johan; Lievens, Pierre; Lamote, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Lymphoedema of the operated and irradiated breast is a common complication following early breast cancer treatment. There is no consensus on objective diagnostic criteria and standard measurement tools. This study investigates the use of ultrasound elastography as an objective quantitative measurement tool for the diagnosis of parenchymal breast oedema. The elasticity ratio of the subcutis, measured with ultrasound elastography, was compared with high-frequency ultrasound parameters and subjective symptoms in twenty patients, bilaterally, prior to and following breast conserving surgery and breast irradiation. Elasticity ratio of the subcutis of the operated breast following radiation therapy increased in 88.9% of patients, was significantly higher than prior to surgery, unlike the non operated breast and significantly higher than the non operated breast, unlike preoperative results. These results were significantly correlated with visibility of the echogenic line, measured with high-frequency ultrasound. Big preoperative bra cup size was a significant risk factor for the development of breast oedema. Ultrasound elastography is an objective quantitative measurement tool for the diagnosis of parenchymal breast oedema, in combination with other objective diagnostic criteria. Further research with longer follow-up and more patients is necessary to confirm our findings

  1. Mini-FLOTAC, an innovative direct diagnostic technique for intestinal parasitic infections: experience from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barda, Beatrice Divina; Rinaldi, Laura; Ianniello, Davide; Zepherine, Henry; Salvo, Fulvio; Sadutshang, Tsetan; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Clementi, Massimo; Albonico, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infection are widespread in developing countries, yet an accurate diagnosis is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed mini-FLOTAC method and to compare with currently more widely used techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections in different settings. The study was carried out in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and in Bukumbi, Tanzania. A total of 180 pupils from two primary schools had their stool analyzed (n = 80 in Dharamsala and n = 100 in Bukumbi) for intestinal parasitic infections with three diagnostic methods: direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method (FECM) and mini-FLOTAC. Overall, 72% of the pupils were positive for any intestinal parasitic infection, 24% carried dual infections and 11% three infections or more. The most frequently encountered intestinal parasites were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, hookworm, (and Schistosoma mansoni, in Tanzania). Statistically significant differences were found in the detection of parasitic infections among the three methods: mini-FLOTAC was the most sensitive method for helminth infections (90% mini-FLOTAC, 60% FECM, and 30% direct fecal smear), whereas FECM was most sensitive for intestinal protozoa infections (88% FECM, 70% direct fecal smear, and 68% mini-FLOTAC). We present the first experiences with the mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Our results suggest that it is a valid, sensitive and potentially low-cost alternative technique that could be used in resource-limited settings--particularly for helminth diagnosis.

  2. Development and experimental validation of a tool to determine out-of-field dose in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessieres, I.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, many technical developments have been achieved on intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and allow a better conformation of the dose to the tumor and consequently increase the success of cancer treatments. These techniques often reduce the dose to organs at risk close to the target volume; nevertheless they increase peripheral dose levels. In this situation, the rising of the survival rate also increases the probability of secondary effects expression caused by peripheral dose deposition (second cancers for instance). Nowadays, the peripheral dose is not taken into account during the treatment planning and no reliable prediction tool exists. However it becomes crucial to consider the peripheral dose during the planning, especially for pediatric cases. Many steps of the development of an accurate and fast Monte Carlo out-of-field dose prediction tool based on the PENELOPE code have been achieved during this PhD work. To this end, we demonstrated the ability of the PENELOPE code to estimate the peripheral dose by comparing its results with reference measurements performed on two experimental configurations (metrological and pre-clinical). During this experimental work, we defined a protocol for low doses measurement with OSL dosimeters. In parallel, we highlighted the slow convergence of the code for clinical use. Consequently, we accelerated the code by implementing a new variance reduction technique called pseudo-deterministic transport which is specifically with the objective of improving calculations in areas far away from the beam. This step improved the efficiency of the peripheral doses estimation in both validation configurations (by a factor of 20) in order to reach reasonable computing times for clinical application. Optimization works must be realized in order improve the convergence of our tool and consider a final clinical use. (author) [fr

  3. A Navigation Analysis Tool (NAT) to assess spatial behavior in open-field and structured mazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlier, Frédéric; Arleo, Angelo; Petit, Géraldine H; Lefort, Julie M; Fouquet, Céline; Burguière, Eric; Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2013-05-15

    Spatial navigation calls upon mnemonic capabilities (e.g. remembering the location of a rewarding site) as well as adaptive motor control (e.g. fine tuning of the trajectory according to the ongoing sensory context). To study this complex process by means of behavioral measurements it is necessary to quantify a large set of meaningful parameters on multiple time scales (from milliseconds to several minutes), and to compare them across different paradigms. Moreover, the issue of automating the behavioral analysis is critical to cope with the consequent computational load and the sophistication of the measurements. We developed a general purpose Navigation Analysis Tool (NAT) that provides an integrated architecture consisting of a data management system (implemented in MySQL), a core analysis toolbox (in MATLAB), and a graphical user interface (in JAVA). Its extensive characterization of trajectories over time, from exploratory behavior to goal-oriented navigation with decision points using a wide range of parameters, makes NAT a powerful analysis tool. In particular, NAT supplies a new set of specific measurements assessing performances in multiple intersection mazes and allowing navigation strategies to be discriminated (e.g. in the starmaze). Its user interface enables easy use while its modular organization provides many opportunities of extension and customization. Importantly, the portability of NAT to any type of maze and environment extends its exploitation far beyond the field of spatial navigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Meta-analysis diagnostic accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools: a case of UTG1A1 gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galehdari, Hamid; Saki, Najmaldin; Mohammadi-Asl, Javad; Rahim, Fakher

    2013-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome (CNS) type I and type II are usually inherited as autosomal recessive conditions that result from mutations in the UGT1A1 gene. The main objective of the present review is to summarize results of all available evidence on the accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools compared to published clinical result for the prediction of in nsSNPs that leads to disease using prediction performance method. A comprehensive search was performed to find all mutations related to CNS. Database searches included dbSNP, SNPdbe, HGMD, Swissvar, ensemble, and OMIM. All the mutation related to CNS was extracted. The pathogenicity prediction was done using SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools include SIFT, PHD-SNP, PolyPhen2, fathmm, Provean, and Mutpred. Overall, 59 different SNPs related to missense mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, were reviewed. Comparing the diagnostic OR, PolyPhen2 and Mutpred have the highest detection 4.983 (95% CI: 1.24 - 20.02) in both, following by SIFT (diagnostic OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.07 - 9.83). The highest MCC of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools, was belong to SIFT (34.19%) followed by Provean, PolyPhen2, and Mutpred (29.99%, 29.89%, and 29.89%, respectively). Hence the highest SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools ACC, was fit to SIFT (62.71%) followed by PolyPhen2, and Mutpred (61.02%, in both). Our results suggest that some of the well-established SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools can appropriately reflect the role of a disease-associated SNP in both local and global structures.

  5. Pig producer perspectives on the use of meat inspection as an animal health and welfare diagnostic tool in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Catherine; Boyle, Laura; Teixeira, D L; O'Connell, N E; Hawe, M; Hanlon, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is growing interest in developing ante and post mortem meat inspection (MI) to incorporate measures of pig health and welfare for use as a diagnostic tool on pig farms. However, the success of the development of the MI process requires stakeholder engagement with the process. Knowledge gaps and issues of trust can undermine the effective exchange and utilisation of information across the supply chain. A social science research methodology was employed to establish stakeholder perspectives towards the development of MI to include measures of pig health and welfare. In this paper the findings of semi-structured telephone interviews with 18 pig producers from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland are presented. Producers recognised the benefit of the utilisation of MI data as a health and welfare diagnostic tool. This acknowledgment, however, was undermined for some by dissatisfaction with the current system of MI information feedback, by trust and fairness concerns, and by concerns regarding the extent to which data would be used in the producers' interests. Tolerance of certain animal welfare issues may also have a negative impact on how producers viewed the potential of MI data. The private veterinary practitioner was viewed as playing a vital role in assisting them with the interpretation of MI data for herd health planning. The development of positive relationships based on trust, commitment and satisfaction across the supply chain may help build a positive environment for the effective utilisation of MI data in improving pig health and welfare. The utilisation of MI as a diagnostic tool would benefit from the development of a communication strategy aimed at building positive relationships between stakeholders in the pig industry.

  6. Prevalence of pain and relative diagnostic performance of screening tools for neuropathic pain in cancer patients: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, C; Sánchez-Martínez, N; Ballesteros, A; Blanco, T; Collazo, A; González, F; Villoria, J

    2015-07-01

    Neuropathic pain can be overlooked in cancer patients. The advent of screening tools can help in recognizing it. However, little is known about their relative diagnostic performance and factors that affect it. This study evaluated the prevalence of neuropathic pain using several diagnostic strategies in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Patients attending the Oncology Unit of the investigators' site to continue their chemotherapy schedule were systematically screened for this cross-sectional study. Before starting chemotherapy drugs, pain specialists made a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic pain (either disease related, treatment related or comorbid) and medical oncologists administered three validated screening tools. Their relative diagnostic performance and the impact of some pain features on it were analysed using multivariate statistical methods. From a total of 358 patients, 194 (54.2%) suffered from pain and 73 (20.4%) had a clinical diagnosis of pure neuropathic or mixed pain. Among the screening tools, the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) was more specific (93.4%), although less sensitive (68.1%) than the Douleur Neuropathique in 4 Questions (DN4) (sensitivity: 87.5%, specificity: 88.4%). Interestingly, the specificities of these two instruments did not differ in patients with mild pain, while the DN4 remained to be more sensitive than the LANSS regardless of pain severity. Neuropathic pain is common in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The DN4 might be of great help for the early detection of patients at risk because of incipient chemotherapy-related neuropathies and the LANSS to rule out neuropathic pain in patients with complex pain conditions. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Pain published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  7. High magnetic field measurement utilizing Faraday rotation in SF11 glass in simplified diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Premananda; Shukla, Rohit; Venkateswarlu, D

    2017-04-01

    With the commercialization of powerful solid-state lasers as pointer lasers, it is becoming simpler nowadays for the launch and free-space reception of polarized light for polarimetric applications. Additionally, because of the high power of such laser diodes, the alignment of the received light on the small sensor area of a photo-diode with a high bandwidth response is also greatly simplified. A plastic sheet polarizer taken from spectacles of 3D television (commercially available) is simply implemented as an analyzer before the photo-receiver. SF11 glass is used as a magneto-optic modulating medium for the measurement of the magnetic field. A magnetic field of magnitude more than 8 Tesla, generated by a solenoid has been measured using this simple assembly. The measured Verdet constant of 12.46 rad/T-m is obtained at the wavelength of 672 nm for the SF11 glass. The complete measurement system is a cost-effective solution.

  8. FNAC as Preoperative Diagnostic Tool for Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Breast Lesions: A Teaching Hospital Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Palak Modi; Haren Oza; Jignasa Bhalodia

    2014-01-01

    "Aims and objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology is a quick, simple and accurate method for diagnosing different breast lesions. To study the role of FNAC as alternative to open surgical biopsy and accordingly to decide management of breast lump and also to study various cyto morphological patterns of breast lesions and compared them with histopathological examination, to determine the diagnostic accuracy of cytology. Materials and methods: 293 cases of palpable breast lump patie...

  9. Two non-invasive diagnostic tools for invasive aspergilosis: (1-3)-beta-D-glucan and the galactomannan assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Prompt and non-invasive methods for diagnosing IA are needed to improve the management of this life-threatening infection in patients with hematological disorders. In summary, this retrospective review of studies performed on the two assays finds that both assays have high sensitivity and specificity but are more useful when used together as a diagnostic strategy for patients with invasive aspergillosis.

  10. Acoustic holography as a metrological tool for characterizing medical ultrasound sources and fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Tsysar, Sergey A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Kreider, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic holography is a powerful technique for characterizing ultrasound sources and the fields they radiate, with the ability to quantify source vibrations and reduce the number of required measurements. These capabilities are increasingly appealing for meeting measurement standards in medical ultrasound; however, associated uncertainties have not been investigated systematically. Here errors associated with holographic representations of a linear, continuous-wave ultrasound field are studied. To facilitate the analysis, error metrics are defined explicitly, and a detailed description of a holography formulation based on the Rayleigh integral is provided. Errors are evaluated both for simulations of a typical therapeutic ultrasound source and for physical experiments with three different ultrasound sources. Simulated experiments explore sampling errors introduced by the use of a finite number of measurements, geometric uncertainties in the actual positions of acquired measurements, and uncertainties in the properties of the propagation medium. Results demonstrate the theoretical feasibility of keeping errors less than about 1%. Typical errors in physical experiments were somewhat larger, on the order of a few percent; comparison with simulations provides specific guidelines for improving the experimental implementation to reduce these errors. Overall, results suggest that holography can be implemented successfully as a metrological tool with small, quantifiable errors. PMID:26428789

  11. The Hall coefficient: a tool for characterizing graphene field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrfritz, Peter; Seyller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Graphene field effect transistors are considered as a candidate for future high-frequency applications. For their realization, the optimal combination of substrate, graphene preparation, and insulator deposition and composition is required. This optimization must be based on an in-depth characterization of the obtained graphene insulator metal (GIM) stack. Hall effect measurements are frequently employed to study such systems, thereby focussing primarily on the charge carrier mobility. In this work we show how an analysis of the sheet Hall coefficient can reveal further important properties of the GIM stack, like, e.g., the interface trap density and the spacial charge inhomogeneity. To that end, we provide an extensive description of the GIM diode, which leads to an accurate calculation of the sheet Hall coefficient dependent on temperature and gate voltage. The gate dependent inverse sheet Hall coefficient is discussed in detail before we introduce the concept of an equivalent temperature, which is a measure of the spacial charge inhomogeneity. In order to test the concept, we apply it to evaluate already measured Hall data taken from the literature. This evaluation allows us to determine the Drude mobility, even at the charge neutrality point, which is inaccessible with a simple one band Hall mobility analysis, and to shed light on the spacial charge inhomogeneity. The formalism is easily adaptable and provides experimentalists a powerful tool for the characterization of their graphene field effect devices. (paper)

  12. Acoustic holography as a metrological tool for characterizing medical ultrasound sources and fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Tsysar, Sergey A; Khokhlova, Vera A; Kreider, Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Acoustic holography is a powerful technique for characterizing ultrasound sources and the fields they radiate, with the ability to quantify source vibrations and reduce the number of required measurements. These capabilities are increasingly appealing for meeting measurement standards in medical ultrasound; however, associated uncertainties have not been investigated systematically. Here errors associated with holographic representations of a linear, continuous-wave ultrasound field are studied. To facilitate the analysis, error metrics are defined explicitly, and a detailed description of a holography formulation based on the Rayleigh integral is provided. Errors are evaluated both for simulations of a typical therapeutic ultrasound source and for physical experiments with three different ultrasound sources. Simulated experiments explore sampling errors introduced by the use of a finite number of measurements, geometric uncertainties in the actual positions of acquired measurements, and uncertainties in the properties of the propagation medium. Results demonstrate the theoretical feasibility of keeping errors less than about 1%. Typical errors in physical experiments were somewhat larger, on the order of a few percent; comparison with simulations provides specific guidelines for improving the experimental implementation to reduce these errors. Overall, results suggest that holography can be implemented successfully as a metrological tool with small, quantifiable errors.

  13. Translational and functional oncogenomics. From cancer-oriented genomic screenings to new diagnostic tools and improved cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medico, Enzo

    2008-01-01

    We present here an experimental pipeline for the systematic identification and functional characterization of genes with high potential diagnostic and therapeutic value in human cancer. Complementary competences and resources have been brought together in the TRANSFOG Consortium to reach the following integrated research objectives: 1) execution of cancer-oriented genomic screenings on tumor tissues and experimental models and merging of the results to generate a prioritized panel of candidate genes involved in cancer progression and metastasis; 2) setup of systems for high-throughput delivery of full-length cDNAs, for gain-of-function analysis of the prioritized candidate genes; 3) collection of vectors and oligonucleotides for systematic, RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of the candidate genes; 4) adaptation of existing cell-based and model organism assays to a systematic analysis of gain and loss of function of the candidate genes, for identification and preliminary validation of novel potential therapeutic targets; 5) proteomic analysis of signal transduction and protein-protein interaction for better dissection of aberrant cancer signaling pathways; 6) validation of the diagnostic potential of the identified cancer genes towards the clinical use of diagnostic molecular signatures; 7) generation of a shared informatics platform for data handling and gene functional annotation. The results of the first three years of activity of the TRANSFOG Consortium are also briefly presented and discussed.

  14. Diagnostic value of low-field MRI for acute poisoning brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Lianrong; He Qinyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of low-field MIR in diagnosis of acute CO poisoning brain injury. Methods: The brain MIR and clinical data of 110 patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury confirmed by clinical examination were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Long T1 and T2 signal intensity was showed on MRI in cerebral hemispheres and globus pallidus symmetrically. There were three basic types of MIR manifestations, white matter of brain type, globus pallidus type and brain mixed type. Conclusions: MRI could be used for confirming the degree and range of acute CO poisoning brain injury. It has important clinical value in the diagnosis, staging and prognosis of patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury. (authors)

  15. Dermoscopy, Digital Dermoscopy and Other Diagnostic Tools in the Early Detection of Melanoma and Follow-up of High-risk Skin Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Luc; Puig, Susana

    2017-07-05

    Early detection is a key strategy for reducing the mortality and economic burden associated with melanoma. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive and cost-effective tool for melanoma diagnosis, which has been shown to be a reliable and sensitive method for detecting early-stage skin cancer and reducing the number of unnecessary excisions. Patients at high risk of developing melanoma require long-term surveillance. Use of digital dermoscopy follow-up of these patients has led to improved outcomes. Combined follow-up programmes using total-body photography and digital dermoscopy have led to further improvements in early diagnosis and diagnostic accuracy. Dermoscopy is now widely used by dermatologists, but the public health impact of this tool is yet to be evaluated. Despite the clear advantages of dermoscopy and digital follow-up meth-ods, dermoscopy training and access to digital dermoscopy among dermatologists and general practitioners needs to be improved.

  16. [Assessment of IDC-Pal as a Diagnostic Tool for Family Physicians to Identify Patients with Complex Palliative Care Needs in Germany: a Pilot Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, María Rosa Salvador; Garcia, Victor Regife; López, Maria Auxiliadora Fernández; Feddersen, Berend; Roselló, María Luisa Martin; Sanftenberg, Linda; Schelling, Jörg

    2017-07-11

    Background Palliative medicine is an essential component of the health care system. Basic palliative care should be provided by primary care services (family physician and home nursing) with palliative-medical basic qualification. Often it is very difficult to identify patients that would profit from a specialized palliative care team. For the evaluation of the case complexity of a palliative patient, we present a Spanish diagnostic tool IDC-Pal, which tries to specify when, why and where a palliative patient should be referred. The aims of this study were the translation and cultural adaptation of the diagnostic tool for complexity in palliative care IDC-Pal to the German language, and the measurement of its feasibility and face validity. Methods During the first phase, a forward-backward translation with linguistic and cultural adaptation of the tool IDC-Pal as well as the validation of its content by a review committee was performed. During the second phase, the preliminary version of the tool was tested by 38 family physicians that were asked for a qualitative assessment using a 10-points Likert scale (1 = "strongly disagree" and 10 = "totally agree"). Finally, a definitive version was developed. Results The translation and adaptation were achieved without major problems. Both feasibility and apparent validity of the tool IDC-Pal were rated as high. The mean response in the Likert scale was 7.79, with a SD of 0.36. Participants strongly agreed on the apparent validity of the tool with a mean of 7.82 and a SD of 0.26 and on its feasibility with a mean of 7.79, and a SD of 0.39. Conclusions A conceptually, culturally and linguistically equivalent version of the original instrument IDC-Pal was obtained. German family physicians agreed on the usability of IDC-Pal as a tool for rating the case complexity of palliative patients. These results indicate that physicians in Bavaria and eventually in Germany could benefit of the full validation of IDC-Pal. © Georg Thieme

  17. The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance urography using a balanced turbo field echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifci, Egemen; Coban, Goekcen [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey); Cicek, Tufan; Goenuelalan, Umut [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, Konya (Turkey)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the inter-observer variability and the accuracy of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using a thin sectional balanced-turbo field echo (B-TFE) sequence for detecting ureteral calculi and to determine the effect of additional factors (size, density and location of the calculus) on the sensitivity and specificity of the MRU. MRU and CT images were evaluated independently by two radiologists according to presence, density and localization of calculi. The degrees of inter-rater agreement for categorical items were evaluated by the Kappa coefficient. According to the 1st and 2nd observers, the sensitivity of MRU was 65.9 %, 71.8 % and the specificity of MRU was 95.9 %, 100 %, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was 84.6 % for stone detection. The larger size had a better effect on detectability (p < 0.05). Also, the higher density had a better impact on detectability (p < 0.05). Our study has shown that B-TFE MRU was useful to detect ureteral calculi. However, B-TFE MRU has low sensitivity and high specificity in comparison with CT images. MRU is a reasonable alternative imaging technique for follow-up periods of selective groups like patients with large urinary stones, children or pregnant patients when ionizing radiation is undesirable. (orig.)

  18. Non-invasive diagnostics of ion beams in strong toroidal magnetic fields with standard CMOS cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Adem; Ates, Yakup; Niebuhr, Heiko; Ratzinger, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    A superconducting Figure-8 stellarator type magnetostatic Storage Ring (F8SR) is under investigation at the Institute for Applied Physics (IAP) at Goethe University Frankfurt. Besides numerical simulations on an optimized design for beam transport and injection a scaled down (0.6T) experiment with two 30°toroidal magnets is set up for further investigations. A great challenge is the development of a non-destructive, magnetically insensitive and flexible detector for local investigations of an ion beam propagating through the toroidal magnetostatic field. This paper introduces a new way of beam path measurement by residual gas monitoring. It uses a single board camera connected to a standard single board computer by a camera serial interface all placed inside the vacuum chamber. First experiments with one camera were done and in a next step two under 90 degree arranged cameras were installed. With the help of the two cameras which are moveable along the beam pipe the theoretical predictions are experimentally verified successfully. Previous experimental results have been confirmed. The transport of H+ and H2+ ion beams with energies of 7 keV and at beam currents of about 1 mA is investigated successfully.

  19. [Usefulness of (18)FDG PET-CT scan as a diagnostic tool of fever of unknown origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Acevedo-Báñez, Irene; Martínez-Castillo, Rubén; García-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Tirado-Hospital, Juan Luis; Borrego-Dorado, Isabel

    2015-07-20

    Classic fever of unknown origin (FUO) is defined as the presence of fever greater than 38.3°C of at least 3 weeks with an uncertain diagnosis. Identification of the etiology is crucial in guiding further diagnostic procedures and subsequent patient management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) in the diagnostic orientation of FUO. An observational retrospective study was performed, including 30 consecutive patients who had been studied between March 2010 and September 2013. Twenty-six out of 30 patients (86.67%) had a definitive diagnosis after pathologic confirmation in 15 cases, microbiological findings in one patient and clinical and radiological follow-up in 10 patients (mean: 16.38 months). Among the positive scans, malignancy (n=10), inflammatory (n=8), infectious (n=4) and miscellaneous causes (n=1) were identified. (18)F-FDG PET/CT had a diagnostic accuracy of 90.00%, sensitivity of 88.46% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 76-101), specificity of 100.00% (95% CI 100-100), positive predictive values of 100.00% (95% CI100-100) and negative predictive value of 57.14% (95% CI 20-91). (18)F-FDG PET/CT provided useful for the etiologic diagnosis of FUO, with high sensitivity and specificity. (18)F-FDG PET/CT has an incremental morphological and functional value, especially indicating the best biopsy site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. From field to cloud: a collaborative software tool to manage hydrological observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Philipp; Weber, Chris P.; Windhorst, David; Breuer, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Managing data collection, assessment, storage, and analysis in hydrological observatories is challenging: Many processes can only be detected when long-term time series are being analysed, but temporary staff like postgraduates perform the measurements. Naturally the students focus on the data needed for their project and do not particularly care about the long-term availability of the data. Data providing new process insights gets often lost in unmaintainable spreadsheets with no clear distinction between raw, error controlled and derived data. Data warehouse systems, like the one developed by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science (CUAHSI) and strict data management guide lines by funding institutions, intend to mediate this effect. However, data warehouse structures are optimized for write once / read often use and require rigorous quality control and metadata description prior to the upload. Our experience shows a risk for data loss at this stage: Data collected at the end of a project is not reviewed and never enters the database and gets lost with the expiring position. As a solution to this kind of problems, we suggest to enter observation early, if possible online, and perform the review process in the system. We are presenting a new collaborative tool for managing hydrological observatories in a standardized and well documented manner directly from the point of data production, the field. Beside the observation data the system stores the observatory management tasks to ensure regular sampling or sensor maintenance. A second benefit of logging management actions together with observations, is the possibility to interpret side effects of sampling or maintenance actions on measurements. In difference to data warehouse systems, the users do data quality control and sensor calibration directly in the online system. The raw data is not changed but augmented by calibration equations and faulty data points are not deleted but

  1. Stakeholder perspectives on the use of pig meat inspection as a health and welfare diagnostic tool in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland; a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C; Boyle, L; Teixeira, D L; O'Connell, N E; Hawe, M; Hanlon, A

    2016-01-01

    A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a strategic management tool applied to policy planning and decision-making. This short report presents the results of a SWOT analysis, carried out with n  = 16 stakeholders i) involved in the pig industry in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, and ii) in general animal welfare and food safety policy areas. As part of a larger study called PIGWELFIND, the analysis sought to explore the potential development of pig meat inspection as an animal welfare and diagnostic tool. The final SWOT framework comprised two strengths, three opportunities, six weaknesses, and five threats. Issues around relationships and communication between producers and their veterinary practitioner, processors and producers were common to both the strengths and weakness clusters. Practical challenges within the processing plant were also named. Overall, the SWOT framework complements results reported in Devitt et al. (Ir Vet J 69:2, 2016) regarding problematic issues within the current system of information feedback on meat inspection especially within the Republic of Ireland, and the wider challenges of communication and problems of distrust. The results of the SWOT analysis support the conclusions from Devitt et al. (Ir Vet J 69:2, 2016), that trust between all stakeholders across the supply chain will be essential for the development of an effective environment in which to realise the full diagnostic potential of MI data. Further stakeholder engagement could seek to apply the findings of the SWOT analysis to a policy Delphi methodology, as used elsewhere.

  2. New bone post-processing tools in forensic imaging: a multi-reader feasibility study to evaluate detection time and diagnostic accuracy in rib fracture assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glemser, Philip A; Pfleiderer, Michael; Heger, Anna; Tremper, Jan; Krauskopf, Astrid; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Yen, Kathrin; Simons, David

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this multi-reader feasibility study was to evaluate new post-processing CT imaging tools in rib fracture assessment of forensic cases by analyzing detection time and diagnostic accuracy. Thirty autopsy cases (20 with and 10 without rib fractures in autopsy) were randomly selected and included in this study. All cases received a native whole body CT scan prior to the autopsy procedure, which included dissection and careful evaluation of each rib. In addition to standard transverse sections (modality A), CT images were subjected to a reconstruction algorithm to compute axial labelling of the ribs (modality B) as well as "unfolding" visualizations of the rib cage (modality C, "eagle tool"). Three radiologists with different clinical and forensic experience who were blinded to autopsy results evaluated all cases in a random manner of modality and case. Rib fracture assessment of each reader was evaluated compared to autopsy and a CT consensus read as radiologic reference. A detailed evaluation of relevant test parameters revealed a better accordance to the CT consensus read as to the autopsy. Modality C was the significantly quickest rib fracture detection modality despite slightly reduced statistic test parameters compared to modalities A and B. Modern CT post-processing software is able to shorten reading time and to increase sensitivity and specificity compared to standard autopsy alone. The eagle tool as an easy to use tool is suited for an initial rib fracture screening prior to autopsy and can therefore be beneficial for forensic pathologists.

  3. Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity following Acute Brain Injuries Using a Consensus-Based Diagnostic Tool: A Single Institutional Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godo, Shigeo; Irino, Shigemi; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Kawazoe, Yu; Fujita, Motoo; Kudo, Daisuke; Nomura, Ryosuke; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2017-09-01

    Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a distinct syndrome of episodic sympathetic hyperactivities following severe acquired brain injury, characterized by paroxysmal transient fever, tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, excessive diaphoresis and specific posturing. PSH remains to be an under-recognized condition with a diagnostic pitfall especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) settings due to the high prevalence of concomitant diseases that mimic PSH. A consensus set of diagnostic criteria named PSH-Assessment Measure (PSH-AM) has been developed recently, which is consisted of two components: a diagnosis likelihood tool derived from clinical characteristics of PSH, and a clinical feature scale assigned to the severity of each sympathetic hyperactivity. We herein present a case series of patients with PSH who were diagnosed and followed by using PSH-AM in our tertiary institutional medical and surgical ICU between April 2015 and March 2017 in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of PSH-AM. Among 394 survivors of 521 patients admitted with acquired brain injury defined as acute brain injury at all levels of severity regardless of the presence of altered consciousness, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, infectious disease, and encephalopathy, 6 patients (1.5%) were diagnosed as PSH by using PSH-AM. PSH-AM served as a useful scoring system for early objective diagnosis, assessment of severity, and serial evaluation of treatment efficacy in the management of PSH in the ICU settings. In conclusion, critical care clinicians should consider the possibility of PSH and can use PSH-AM as a useful diagnostic and guiding tool in the management of PSH.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphism array karyotyping: a diagnostic and prognostic tool in myelodysplastic syndromes with unsuccessful conventional cytogenetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Leonor; Mallo, Mar; Ramos, Fernando; Guinta, Kathryn; Barragán, Eva; Lumbreras, Eva; Larráyoz, María-José; De Paz, Raquel; Tormo, Mar; Abáigar, María; Pedro, Carme; Cervera, José; Such, Esperanza; José Calasanz, María; Díez-Campelo, María; Sanz, Guillermo F; Hernández, Jesús María; Luño, Elisa; Saumell, Sílvia; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Florensa, Lourdes; Solé, Francesc

    2013-12-01

    Cytogenetic aberrations identified by metaphase cytogenetics (MC) have diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, in some MDS patients MC study is unsuccesful. Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A) based karyotyping could be helpful in these cases. We performed SNP-A in 62 samples from bone marrow or peripheral blood of primary MDS with an unsuccessful MC study. SNP-A analysis enabled the detection of aberrations in 31 (50%) patients. We used the copy number alteration information to apply the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and we observed differences in survival between the low/intermediate-1 and intermediate-2/high risk patients. We also saw differences in survival between very low/low/intermediate and the high/very high patients when we applied the revised IPSS (IPSS-R). In conclusion, SNP-A can be used successfully in PB samples and the identification of CNA by SNP-A improve the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of this group of MDS patients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Success Is an Open Book: Online Diagnostic Tools and Learning Outcomes in Introduction to American Government Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Ryan; Smith, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    This project examines the utility of a particular course enhancement, Cengage's Aplia, and more generally interactive tools designed to facilitate reading in the introductory American government course. Using two control and two treatment sections of the course (one section each for two instructors) during the Fall 2013 term, we measured student…

  6. Development of a Three-Tier Test as a Valid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Misconceptions Related to Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Dusica D.; Hrin, Tamara N.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Horvat, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and application of a three-tier test as a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing students' misconceptions regarding some basic concepts about carbohydrates. The test was administrated to students of the Pharmacy Department at the University of Bijeljina (Serb Republic). The results denoted construct and content…

  7. Intelligent Information Retrieval: Diagnosing Information Need. Part II. Uncertainty Expansion in a Prototype of a Diagnostic IR Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles; Cantero, Pablo; Sauve, Diane

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a prototype of an intelligent information-retrieval tool to facilitate information access for an undergraduate seeking information for a term paper. Topics include diagnosing the information need, Kuhlthau's information-search-process model, Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, and principles of uncertainty expansion and…

  8. Computational assessment of hemodynamics-based diagnostic tools using a database of virtual subjects: Application to three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemet, Marie; Vennin, Samuel; Alastruey, Jordi

    2016-12-08

    Many physiological indexes and algorithms based on pulse wave analysis have been suggested in order to better assess cardiovascular function. Because these tools are often computed from in-vivo hemodynamic measurements, their validation is time-consuming, challenging, and biased by measurement errors. Recently, a new methodology has been suggested to assess theoretically these computed tools: a database of virtual subjects generated using numerical 1D-0D modeling of arterial hemodynamics. The generated set of simulations encloses a wide selection of healthy cases that could be encountered in a clinical study. We applied this new methodology to three different case studies that demonstrate the potential of our new tool, and illustrated each of them with a clinically relevant example: (i) we assessed the accuracy of indexes estimating pulse wave velocity; (ii) we validated and refined an algorithm that computes central blood pressure; and (iii) we investigated theoretical mechanisms behind the augmentation index. Our database of virtual subjects is a new tool to assist the clinician: it provides insight into the physical mechanisms underlying the correlations observed in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. A Next Generation Sequencing custom gene panel as first line diagnostic tool for atypical cases of syndromic obesity: Application in a case of Alström syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, Paolo E; Iarossi, Giancarlo; Ziccardi, Lucia; Colombo, Leonardo; Buzzonetti, Luca; Crinò, Antonino; Tezzele, Silvia; Bertelli, Matteo

    2018-02-01

    Obesity phenotype can be manifested as an isolated trait or accompanied by multisystem disorders a