WorldWideScience

Sample records for field characterization methods

  1. A method for characterizing photon radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, J.J.; Hsu, H.H.; Hsieh, F.H.; Borak, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    Uncertainty in dosimetric and exposure rate measurements can increase in areas where multi-directional and low-energy photons (< 100 keV) exist because of variations in energy and angular measurement response. Also, accurate measurement of external exposures in spatially non-uniform fields may require multiple dosimetry. Therefore, knowledge of the photon fields in the workplace is required for full understanding of the accuracy of dosimeters and instruments, and for determining the need for multiple dosimeters. This project was designed to develop methods to characterize photon radiation fields in the workplace, and to test the methods in a plutonium facility. The photon field at selected work locations was characterized using TLDs and a collimated NaI(Tl) detector from which spatial variations in photon energy distributions were calculated from measured spectra. Laboratory results showed the accuracy and utility of the method. Field measurement results combined with observed work patterns suggested the following: (1) workers are exposed from all directions, but not isotropically, (2) photon energy distributions were directionally dependent, (3) stuffing nearby gloves into the glovebox reduced exposure rates significantly, (4) dosimeter placement on the front of the chest provided for a reasonable estimate of the average dose equivalent to workers' torsos, (5) justifiable conclusions regarding the need for multiple dosimetry can be made using this quantitative method, and (6) measurements of the exposure rates with ionization chambers pointed with open beta windows toward the glovebox provided the highest measured rates, although absolute accuracy of the field measurements still needs to be assessed

  2. Sheet metals characterization using the virtual fields method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Aleksander; Davis, Frances M.; Pierron, Fabrice

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a characterisation method involving a deep-notched specimen subjected to a tensile loading is introduced. This specimen leads to heterogeneous states of stress and strain, the latter being measured using a stereo DIC system (MatchID). This heterogeneity enables the identification of multiple material parameters in a single test. In order to identify material parameters from the DIC data, an inverse method called the Virtual Fields Method is employed. The method combined with recently developed sensitivity-based virtual fields allows to optimally locate areas in the test where information about each material parameter is encoded, improving accuracy of the identification over the traditional user-defined virtual fields. It is shown that a single test performed at 45° to the rolling direction is sufficient to obtain all anisotropic plastic parameters, thus reducing experimental effort involved in characterisation. The paper presents the methodology and some numerical validation.

  3. Graphene field emitters: A review of fabrication, characterization and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Leifeng, E-mail: chlf@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, Hu; Zhong, Jiasong; Song, Lihui [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Jun, E-mail: wujun@hdu.edu.cn [Institute of Electron Device & Application, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018 (China); Su, Weitao [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The preparation, characterization and field emission properties for Gs are reviewed. • The review provides an updated progress on design and construction of Gs field emitters. • The review offers fundamental insights into understanding and design of Gs emitters. • The review can broach the subject and inspire readers in field of Gs based emitters. - Abstract: Graphenes are beneficial to electrons field emission due to its high aspect ratio, high carrier density, the larger carrier mobility, excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability. In recent years, graphene or reduced oxide graphene field emitters have been successfully constructed by various methods such as chemical vapor deposition, chemical exfoliation, electrophoretic deposition, screen-printing and chemical synthesis methods. Graphene emitters are tried to construct in distribution with some angles or vertical orientation with respect to the substrate surface. The vertical alignment of graphene sheets or edges arrays can facilitate efficient electron emission from the atomically thick sheets. Therefore they have even more a low turn-on and threshold-field electronic field, high field enhancement factor, high current stability and high luminance. In this review, we shortly survey and discuss recent research progress in graphene field emission properties with particular an emphasis on their preparing method, characterization and applications in devices especially for vertical graphene and single layer graphene, also including their challenges and future prospects.

  4. Two numerical methods for mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we consider numerical methods for stationary mean-field games (MFG) and investigate two classes of algorithms. The first one is a gradient flow method based on the variational characterization of certain MFG. The second one uses monotonicity properties of MFG. We illustrate our methods with various examples, including one-dimensional periodic MFG, congestion problems, and higher-dimensional models.

  5. Two numerical methods for mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-01-09

    Here, we consider numerical methods for stationary mean-field games (MFG) and investigate two classes of algorithms. The first one is a gradient flow method based on the variational characterization of certain MFG. The second one uses monotonicity properties of MFG. We illustrate our methods with various examples, including one-dimensional periodic MFG, congestion problems, and higher-dimensional models.

  6. Characterization for elastic constants of fused deposition modelling-fabricated materials based on the virtual fields method and digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Quankun; Xie, Huimin

    2017-12-01

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM), a widely used rapid prototyping process, is a promising technique in manufacturing engineering. In this work, a method for characterizing elastic constants of FDM-fabricated materials is proposed. First of all, according to the manufacturing process of FDM, orthotropic constitutive model is used to describe the mechanical behavior. Then the virtual fields method (VFM) is applied to characterize all the mechanical parameters (Q_{11}, Q_{22}, Q_{12}, Q_{66}) using the full-field strain, which is measured by digital image correlation (DIC). Since the principal axis of the FDM-fabricated structure is sometimes unknown due to the complexity of the manufacturing process, a disk in diametrical compression is used as the load configuration so that the loading angle can be changed conveniently. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, finite element method (FEM) simulation is conducted to obtain the strain field of the disk. The simulation results show that higher accuracy can be achieved when the loading angle is close to 30°. Finally, a disk fabricated by FDM was used for the experiment. By rotating the disk, several tests with different loading angles were conducted. To determine the position of the principal axis in each test, two groups of parameters (Q_{11}, Q_{22}, Q_{12}, Q_{66}) are calculated by two different groups of virtual fields. Then the corresponding loading angle can be determined by minimizing the deviation between two groups of the parameters. After that, the four constants (Q_{11}, Q_{22}, Q_{12}, Q_{66}) were determined from the test with an angle of 27°.

  7. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, John P.; Jr., O' Meara, Daniel J.

    2000-01-12

    The overall objective of this project was to use extensive Gypsy Field Laboratory and data as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. This report describes progress since project report DOE/BC/14970-7 and covers the period June 1997-September 1998 and represents one year of funding originally allocated for the year 1996. During the course of the work previously performed, high resolution geophysical and outcrop data revealed the importance of fractures at the Gypsy site. In addition, personnel changes and alternative funding (OCAST and oil company support of various kinds) allowed the authors to leverage DOE contributions and focus more on geophysical characterization.

  8. Characterizing the spin orbit torque field-like term in in-plane magnetic system using transverse field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Feilong [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Goolaup, Sarjoosing; Li, Sihua; Lim, Gerard Joseph; Tan, Funan; Engel, Christian; Zhang, Senfu; Ma, Fusheng; Lew, Wen Siang, E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhou, Tiejun [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2016-08-28

    In this work, we present an efficient method for characterizing the spin orbit torque field-like term in an in-plane magnetized system using the harmonic measurement technique. This method does not require a priori knowledge of the planar and anomalous hall resistances and is insensitive to non-uniformity in magnetization, as opposed to the conventional harmonic technique. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the field-like term in the Ta/Co/Pt film stack with in-plane magnetic anisotropy can be obtained by an in-plane transverse field sweep as expected, and magnetization non-uniformity is prevented by the application of fixed magnetic field. The experimental results are in agreement with the analytical calculations.

  9. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented

  10. A geologic approach to field methods in fluvial geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Thornbush, Mary J; Allen, Casey D; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    A geologic approach to field methods in fluvial geomorphology is useful for understanding causes and consequences of past, present, and possible future perturbations in river behavior and floodplain dynamics. Field methods include characterizing river planform and morphology changes and floodplain sedimentary sequences over long periods of time along a longitudinal river continuum. Techniques include topographic and bathymetric surveying of fluvial landforms in valley bottoms and describing floodplain sedimentary sequences through coring, trenching, and examining pits and exposures. Historical sediment budgets that include floodplain sedimentary records can characterize past and present sources and sinks of sediment along a longitudinal river continuum. Describing paleochannels and floodplain vertical accretion deposits, estimating long-term sedimentation rates, and constructing historical sediment budgets can assist in management of aquatic resources, habitat, sedimentation, and flooding issues.

  11. The characterization methods for colloids in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Kumpulainen, H.

    1993-11-01

    This literature review deals with characterization methods for colloids in aqueous solutions and in groundwater. The basis for the review has been the needs of nuclear waste disposal studies and methods applicable in such studies. The methods considered include non-destructive laserspectroscopic methods (e.g. TRLFS, LPAS, PALS), several separation methods (e.g. ultrafiltration, dialysis, electrophoresis, field-flow-fractionation) and also some surface analytical methods, as well as some other methods giving additional information on formation and migration properties of colloids. (au.) (71 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.)

  12. Rapid characterization of superconducting wires and tapes in strong pulsed magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockstal, L. van; Keyser, A. de; Deschagt, J.; Hopkins, S.C.; Glowacki, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    A new measurement system for rapid characterization of superconducting wires and tapes is developed. The CryoPulse-BI is a system to provide a direct measurement of critical material parameters for superconducting materials when high long pulsed magnetic fields and strong currents are applied. In the experiments, synchronized magnetic fields up to 30 T and current pulses up to 5 kA are generated with adjustable timing. Varying the magnetic field strength, the current through the sample and the BI timing allows for a thorough characterization of the sample and the determination of critical currents. The rapid cycle time of the experiments yields a rapid and thorough determination of the critical parameters. The method has been tested on low T c as well as high T c materials with the field parallel or perpendicular to the current. The discussion covers the current state of the art including a comparison of our results to classical DC characterization measurements

  13. Chemical and Physical Analysis Methods for Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber Used in Synthetic Turf Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire crumb rubber from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. Recycled crumb rubber is a complex and potentially variable matrix with many metal, VOC, and SVOC constituents, presenting challenges for characterization and ex...

  14. 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration program data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Cromer, M.V.; Newman, G.C.; Beiso, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    The 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration program, hosted by Fernald Environmental Management Project, was established to investigate technologies that are applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. An important part of this effort was evaluating field-screening tools potentially capable of acquiring high-resolution information on uranium contamination distribution in surface soils. Further-more, the information needed to be obtained in a cost- and time-efficient manner. Seven advanced field-screening technologies were demonstrated at a uranium-contaminated site at Fernald, located 29 kilometers northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. The seven technologies tested were: (1) alpha-track detectors, (2) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (3) electret ionization chambers, (4) and (5) two variants of gamma-ray spectrometry, (6) laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and (7) long-range alpha detection. The goals of this field demonstration were to evaluate the capabilities of the detectors and to demonstrate their utility within the US Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration Program. Identical field studies were conducted using four industry-standard characterization tools: (1) a sodium-iodide scintillometer, (2) a low-energy FIDLER scintillometer, (3) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence detector, and (4) standard soil sampling coupled with laboratory analysis. Another important aspect of this program was the application of a cost/risk decision model to guide characterization of the site. This document is a compilation of raw data submitted by the technologies and converted total uranium data from the 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration

  15. A new method for the characterization of micro-/nano-periodic structures based on microscopic Moiré fringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dan; Xie, Huimin, E-mail: xiehm@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Tang, Minjin; Hu, Zhenxing

    2014-01-15

    Linewidth and opening ratio (ratio of linewidth to period) are important parameters in characterizing micro-/nano-periodic and quasi-periodic structures. Periodic structures are conventionally characterized by the direct observation of specimens under a microscope. However, the field of view is relatively small, and only certain details can be acquired under a microscope. Moreover, the non-uniformity of the linewidth in quasi-periodic structures cannot be detected. This paper proposes a new characterization method for determining the linewidth and opening ratio of periodic structures based on Moiré fringe analysis. This method has the advantage of full-field characterization of the linewidth of micro-/nano-structures over a larger area than that afforded by direct observation. To validate the method, the linewidth of scanning electron microscope (SEM) scan lines was first calibrated with a standard grating. Next, a microperiodic structure with known geometry was characterized using this calibrated SEM system. The results indicate that the proposed method is simple and effective, indicating a potential approach for the characterization of gratings over large areas. This technique can be extended to various high-power scanning microscopes to characterize micro-/nano-structures. - Highlights: • A characterization method of the linewidth of high frequency gratings based on the microscope Moiré fringes is introduced. • The principle is according to the geometrical relationship between the gratings and the Moiré fringes. • This method has the potential application in characterization of the micro-/nano-structures. • The advantage of this method is that the micro-/nano-structures can be characterized in large view field under the full field of the microscope. • The microstructure of a butterfly has been characterized to declare the feasibility of this method.

  16. Test plan for FY-94 digface characterization field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josten, N.E.; Roybal, L.G.

    1994-08-01

    The digface characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since fiscal year (FY) 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A digface characterization system conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation digface and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and classifying buried materials and hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes ongoing efforts to test the digface characterization concept at the INEL's Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype deployment apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. FY-94 field experiments will explore problems in object detection and classification. Detection and classification of objects are fundamental to three of the four primary functions of digface characterization during overburden removal. This test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating the digface characterization data sets. Analysis of these data will focus on testing and further developing analysis methods for object detection and classification during overburden removal

  17. Characterization of gamma field in the JSI TRIGA reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrožič, Klemen; Radulović, Vladimir; Snoj, Luka; Gruel, Adrien; Guillou, Mael Le; Blaise, Patrick; Destouches, Christophe; Barbot, Loïc

    2018-01-01

    Research reactors such as the "Jožzef Stefan" Institute TRIGA reactor have primarily been designed for experimentation and sample irradiation with neutrons. However recent developments in incorporating additional instrumentation for nuclear power plant support and with novel high flux material testing reactor designs, γ field characterization has become of great interest for the characterization of the changes in operational parameters of electronic devices and for the evaluation of γ heating of MTR's structural materials in a representative reactor Γ spectrum. In this paper, we present ongoing work on γ field characterization both experimentally, by performing γ field measurements, and by simulations, using Monte Carlo particle transport codes in conjunction with R2S methodology for delayed γ field characterization.

  18. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H.; Hills, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies

  19. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ''standard sites'' located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements

  20. Development of subsurface characterization method for decommissioning site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Suk; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In situ measurement of peak to valley method based on the ratio of counting rate between the full energy peak and Compton region was applied to identify the depth distribution of 137Cs. The In situ measurement and sampling results were applied to evaluate a residual radioactivity before and after remediation in decommissioning KRR site. Spatial analysis based on the Geostatistics method provides a reliable estimating the volume of contaminated soil with a graphical analysis, which was applied to the site characterization in the decommissioning KRR site. The in situ measurement and spatial analysis results for characterization of subsurface contamination are presented. The objective of a remedial action is to reduce risks to human health to acceptable levels by removing the source of contamination. Site characterization of the subsurface contamination is an important factor for planning and implementation of site remediation. Radiological survey and evaluation technology are required to ensure the reliability of the results, and the process must be easily applied during field measurements. In situ gamma-ray spectrometry is a powerful method for site characterization that can be used to identify the depth distribution and quantify radionuclides directly at the measurement site. The in situ measurement and Geostatistics method was applied to the site characterization for remediation and final status survey in decommissioning KRR site.

  1. Computational methods for 2D materials: discovery, property characterization, and application design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J T; Singh, A K; Dong, Z; Zhuang, H; Revard, B C; Rijal, B; Ashton, M; Linscheid, A; Blonsky, M; Gluhovic, D; Guo, J; Hennig, R G

    2017-11-29

    The discovery of two-dimensional (2D) materials comes at a time when computational methods are mature and can predict novel 2D materials, characterize their properties, and guide the design of 2D materials for applications. This article reviews the recent progress in computational approaches for 2D materials research. We discuss the computational techniques and provide an overview of the ongoing research in the field. We begin with an overview of known 2D materials, common computational methods, and available cyber infrastructures. We then move onto the discovery of novel 2D materials, discussing the stability criteria for 2D materials, computational methods for structure prediction, and interactions of monolayers with electrochemical and gaseous environments. Next, we describe the computational characterization of the 2D materials' electronic, optical, magnetic, and superconducting properties and the response of the properties under applied mechanical strain and electrical fields. From there, we move on to discuss the structure and properties of defects in 2D materials, and describe methods for 2D materials device simulations. We conclude by providing an outlook on the needs and challenges for future developments in the field of computational research for 2D materials.

  2. Dynamic characterization of oil fields, complex stratigraphically using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Santiago; Hidrobo, Eduardo A

    2004-01-01

    A novel methodology is presented in this paper for the characterization of highly heterogeneous oil fields by integration of the oil fields dynamic information to the static updated model. The objective of the oil field's characterization process is to build an oil field model, as realistic as possible, through the incorporation of all the available information. The classical approach consists in producing a model based in the oil field's static information, having as the process final stage the validation model with the dynamic information available. It is important to clarify that the term validation implies a punctual process by nature, generally intended to secure the required coherence between productive zones and petrophysical properties. The objective of the proposed methodology is to enhance the prediction capacity of the oil field's model by previously integrating, parameters inherent to the oil field's fluid dynamics by a process of dynamic data inversion through an optimization procedure based on evolutionary computation. The proposed methodology relies on the construction of the oil field's high-resolution static model, escalated by means of hybrid techniques while aiming to preserve the oil field's heterogeneity. Afterwards, using an analytic simulator as reference, the scaled model is methodically modified by means of an optimization process that uses genetic algorithms and production data as conditional information. The process's final product is a model that observes the static and dynamic conditions of the oil field with the capacity to minimize the economic impact that generates production historical adjustments to the simulation tasks. This final model features some petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability and water saturation), as modified to achieve a better adjustment of the simulated production's history versus the real one history matching. Additionally, the process involves a slight modification of relative permeability, which has

  3. A characterization of Markovian homogeneous multicomponent Gaussian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhaguere, G.O.S.

    1980-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a certain class of homogeneous multicomponent Gaussian generalized stochastic fields to possess a Markov property equivalent to Nelson's. The class of Markov fields so characterized has a as a cubclass the class of Markov fields which lead by Nelson's Reconstruction Theorem to some covariant (free) quantum fields. (orig.)

  4. Progress in nano-electro optics characterization of nano-optical materials and optical near-field interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2005-01-01

    This volume focuses on the characterization of nano-optical materials and optical-near field interactions. It begins with the techniques for characterizing the magneto-optical Kerr effect and continues with methods to determine structural and optical properties in high-quality quantum wires with high spatial uniformity. Further topics include: near-field luminescence mapping in InGaN/GaN single quantum well structures in order to interpret the recombination mechanism in InGaN-based nano-structures; and theoretical treatment of the optical near field and optical near-field interactions, providing the basis for investigating the signal transport and associated dissipation in nano-optical devices. Taken as a whole, this overview will be a valuable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nano-electro-optics.

  5. New method for characterizing paper coating structures using argon ion beam milling and field emission scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, C; Allem, R; Uesaka, T

    2011-02-01

    We have developed a new method for characterizing microstructures of paper coating using argon ion beam milling technique and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The combination of these two techniques produces extremely high-quality images with very few artefacts, which are particularly suited for quantitative analyses of coating structures. A new evaluation method has been developed by using marker-controlled watershed segmentation technique of the secondary electron images. The high-quality secondary electron images with well-defined pores makes it possible to use this semi-automatic segmentation method. One advantage of using secondary electron images instead of backscattered electron images is being able to avoid possible overestimation of the porosity because of the signal depth. A comparison was made between the new method and the conventional method using greyscale histogram thresholding of backscattered electron images. The results showed that the conventional method overestimated the pore area by 20% and detected around 5% more pores than the new method. As examples of the application of the new method, we have investigated the distributions of coating binders, and the relationship between local coating porosity and base sheet structures. The technique revealed, for the first time with direct evidence, the long-suspected coating non-uniformity, i.e. binder migration, and the correlation between coating porosity versus base sheet mass density, in a straightforward way. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Electro-Optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-Space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Libelo, Louis Francis; Wu, Qi

    1999-09-14

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric field and a laser beam in an electro-optic crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field--optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  7. Current characterization methods for cellulose nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E Johan; Moon, Robert J; Agarwal, Umesh P; Bortner, Michael J; Bras, Julien; Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Chan, Kathleen J; Clift, Martin J D; Cranston, Emily D; Eichhorn, Stephen J; Fox, Douglas M; Hamad, Wadood Y; Heux, Laurent; Jean, Bruno; Korey, Matthew; Nieh, World; Ong, Kimberly J; Reid, Michael S; Renneckar, Scott; Roberts, Rose; Shatkin, Jo Anne; Simonsen, John; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly; Wanasekara, Nandula; Youngblood, Jeff

    2018-04-23

    A new family of materials comprised of cellulose, cellulose nanomaterials (CNMs), having properties and functionalities distinct from molecular cellulose and wood pulp, is being developed for applications that were once thought impossible for cellulosic materials. Commercialization, paralleled by research in this field, is fueled by the unique combination of characteristics, such as high on-axis stiffness, sustainability, scalability, and mechanical reinforcement of a wide variety of materials, leading to their utility across a broad spectrum of high-performance material applications. However, with this exponential growth in interest/activity, the development of measurement protocols necessary for consistent, reliable and accurate materials characterization has been outpaced. These protocols, developed in the broader research community, are critical for the advancement in understanding, process optimization, and utilization of CNMs in materials development. This review establishes detailed best practices, methods and techniques for characterizing CNM particle morphology, surface chemistry, surface charge, purity, crystallinity, rheological properties, mechanical properties, and toxicity for two distinct forms of CNMs: cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibrils.

  8. Characterization of the acoustic field generated by a horn shaped ultrasonic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B.; Lerch, J. E.; Chavan, A. H.; Weber, J. K. R.; Tamalonis, A.; Suthar, K. J.; DiChiara, A. D.

    2017-09-01

    A horn shaped Langevin ultrasonic transducer used in a single axis levitator was characterized to better understand the role of the acoustic profile in establishing stable traps. The method of characterization included acoustic beam profiling performed by raster scanning an ultrasonic microphone as well as finite element analysis of the horn and its interface with the surrounding air volume. The results of the model are in good agreement with measurements and demonstrate the validity of the approach for both near and far field analyses. Our results show that this style of transducer produces a strong acoustic beam with a total divergence angle of 10°, a near-field point close to the transducer surface and a virtual sound source. These are desirable characteristics for a sound source used for acoustic trapping experiments.

  9. Characterization of the acoustic field generated by a horn shaped ultrasonic transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, B.; Lerch, J. E.; Chavan, A. H.; Weber, J. K. R.; Tamalonis, A.; Suthar, K. J.; DiChiara, A. D.

    2017-09-04

    A horn shaped Langevin ultrasonic transducer used in a single axis levitator was characterized to better understand the role of the acoustic profile in establishing stable traps. The method of characterization included acoustic beam profiling performed by raster scanning an ultrasonic microphone as well as finite element analysis of the horn and its interface with the surrounding air volume. The results of the model are in good agreement with measurements and demonstrate the validity of the approach for both near and far field analyses. Our results show that this style of transducer produces a strong acoustic beam with a total divergence angle of 10 degree, a near-field point close to the transducer surface and a virtual sound source. These are desirable characteristics for a sound source used for acoustic trapping experiments

  10. An adaptive multi-element probabilistic collocation method for statistical EMC/EMI characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2013-12-01

    An adaptive multi-element probabilistic collocation (ME-PC) method for quantifying uncertainties in electromagnetic compatibility and interference phenomena involving electrically large, multi-scale, and complex platforms is presented. The method permits the efficient and accurate statistical characterization of observables (i.e., quantities of interest such as coupled voltages) that potentially vary rapidly and/or are discontinuous in the random variables (i.e., parameters that characterize uncertainty in a system\\'s geometry, configuration, or excitation). The method achieves its efficiency and accuracy by recursively and adaptively dividing the domain of the random variables into subdomains using as a guide the decay rate of relative error in a polynomial chaos expansion of the observables. While constructing local polynomial expansions on each subdomain, a fast integral-equation-based deterministic field-cable-circuit simulator is used to compute the observable values at the collocation/integration points determined by the adaptive ME-PC scheme. The adaptive ME-PC scheme requires far fewer (computationally costly) deterministic simulations than traditional polynomial chaos collocation and Monte Carlo methods for computing averages, standard deviations, and probability density functions of rapidly varying observables. The efficiency and accuracy of the method are demonstrated via its applications to the statistical characterization of voltages in shielded/unshielded microwave amplifiers and magnetic fields induced on car tire pressure sensors. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Spatial characterization of the meltwater field from icebergs in the Weddell Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helly, John J; Kaufmann, Ronald S; Vernet, Maria; Stephenson, Gordon R

    2011-04-05

    We describe the results from a spatial cyberinfrastructure developed to characterize the meltwater field around individual icebergs and integrate the results with regional- and global-scale data. During the course of the cyberinfrastructure development, it became clear that we were also building an integrated sampling planning capability across multidisciplinary teams that provided greater agility in allocating expedition resources resulting in new scientific insights. The cyberinfrastructure-enabled method is a complement to the conventional methods of hydrographic sampling in which the ship provides a static platform on a station-by-station basis. We adapted a sea-floor mapping method to more rapidly characterize the sea surface geophysically and biologically. By jointly analyzing the multisource, continuously sampled biological, chemical, and physical parameters, using Global Positioning System time as the data fusion key, this surface-mapping method enables us to examine the relationship between the meltwater field of the iceberg to the larger-scale marine ecosystem of the Southern Ocean. Through geospatial data fusion, we are able to combine very fine-scale maps of dynamic processes with more synoptic but lower-resolution data from satellite systems. Our results illustrate the importance of spatial cyberinfrastructure in the overall scientific enterprise and identify key interfaces and sources of error that require improved controls for the development of future Earth observing systems as we move into an era of peta- and exascale, data-intensive computing.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles by the method Pechini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoccal, Joao Victor Marques; Arouca, Fabio de Oliveira; Goncalves, Jose Antonio Silveira

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, scientific research showed an increasing interest in the field of nanotechnology, resulting in several techniques for the production of nanoparticles, such as methods of chemical synthesis. Among the various existing methods, the Pechini method has been used to obtain nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). Thus, this work aims to synthesize and characterize nanoparticles of TiO 2 obtained by this method. The technique constitutes in the reaction between citric acid with titanium isopropoxide, resulting as the product the titanium citrate. With the addition of the ethylene glycol polymerization occurs, resulting in a polymeric resin. At the end of the process, the resin is calcined to remove organic matter, creating nanoparticles of TiO 2 . The resulting powders were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermal differential analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction, absorption spectrophotometry in the infrared, method of adsorption nitrogen / helium (BET method) and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained in the characterization techniques showed that the Pechini method is promising in obtaining nanosized TiO 2 . (author)

  13. Characterization of near-field optical probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Brian; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation and collection characteristics of four different near-field optical-fiber probes, namely, three uncoated probes and an aluminium-coated small-aperture probe, are investigated and compared. Their radiation properties are characterized by observation of light-induced topography changes...... in a photo-sensitive film illuminated with the probes, and it is confirmed that the radiated optical field is unambigiously confined only for the coated probe. Near-field optical imaging of a standing evanescent-wave pattern is used to compare the detection characteristics of the probes, and it is concluded...... that, for the imaging of optical-field intensity distributions containing predominantly evanescent-wave components, a sharp uncoated tip is the probe of choice. Complementary results obtained with optical phase-conjugation experiments with he uncoated probes are discussed in relation to the probe...

  14. Method to characterize inorganic particulates in lung tissue biopsies using field emission scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, Heather; Breit, George N.; Strand, Matthew; Pillers, Renee M.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Todorov, Todor I.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Wolf, Ruth E.; Robinson, Maura; Parr, Jane; Miller, Robert J.; Groshong, Steve; Green, Francis; Rose, Cecile

    2018-01-01

    Humans accumulate large numbers of inorganic particles in their lungs over a lifetime. Whether this causes or contributes to debilitating disease over a normal lifespan depends on the type and concentration of the particles. We developed and tested a protocol for in situ characterization of the types and distribution of inorganic particles in biopsied lung tissue from three human groups using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Many distinct particle types were recognized among the 13 000 particles analyzed. Silica, feldspars, clays, titanium dioxides, iron oxides and phosphates were the most common constituents in all samples. Particles were classified into three general groups: endogenous, which form naturally in the body; exogenic particles, natural earth materials; and anthropogenic particles, attributed to industrial sources. These in situ results were compared with those using conventional sodium hypochlorite tissue digestion and particle filtration. With the exception of clays and phosphates, the relative abundances of most common particle types were similar in both approaches. Nonetheless, the digestion/filtration method was determined to alter the texture and relative abundances of some particle types. SEM/EDS analysis of digestion filters could be automated in contrast to the more time intensive in situ analyses.

  15. Near-field characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    simply by changing geometric parameters of the waveguide, keeping in mind the trade-off between confinement and propagation losses. A broad variety of plasmonic waveguides and waveguide components, including antennas for coupling the light in/out of the waveguide, requires correspondent characterization...... capabilities, especially on experimental side. The most straight-forward and powerful technique for such purpose is scanning near-field optical microscopy, which allows to probe and map near-field distribution and therefore becomes the main tool in this project. The detailed description of the used setups...

  16. Method to characterize dielectric properties of powdery substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhkala, M.; Juuti, J.; Jantunen, H.

    2013-07-01

    An open ended coaxial cavity method for dielectric characterization of powdery substance operating at 4.5 GHz in TEM mode is presented. Classical mixing rules and electromagnetic modeling were utilized with measured effective permittivities and Q factors to determine the relative permittivity and dielectric loss tangent of different powders with ɛr up to 30. The modeling enabled determination of the correction factor for the simplified equation for the relative permittivity of an open ended coaxial resonator and mixing rules having the best correlation with experiments. SiO2, Al2O3, LTCC CT 2000, ZrO2, and La2O3 powders were used in the experiments. Based on the measured properties and Bruggeman symmetric and Looyenga mixing rules, the determined dielectric characteristics of the powders exhibited good correlation with values in the literature. The presented characterization method enabled the determination of dielectric properties of powdery substances within the presented range, and therefore could be applied to various research fields and applications where dielectric properties of powders need to be known and controlled.

  17. Characterization of X-ray fields at the center for devices and radiological health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerra, F. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This talk summarizes the process undertaken by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) for establishing reference x-ray fields in its accredited calibration laboratory. The main considerations and their effects on the calibration parameters are discussed. The characterization of fields may be broken down into two parts: (1) the initial setup of the calibration beam spectra and (2) the ongoing measurements and controls which ensure consistency of the reference fields. The methods employed by CDRH for both these stages and underlying considerations are presented. Uncertainties associated with the various parameters are discussed. Finally, the laboratory`s performance, as evidenced by ongoing measurement quality assurance results, is reported.

  18. Methods for initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Brøndsted, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity.......Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity....

  19. Polymeric nanoparticles: A study on the preparation variables and characterization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucho, Carina I C; Barros, Maria Teresa

    2017-11-01

    Since the emergence of Nanotechnology in the past decades, the development and design of nanomaterials has become an important field of research. An emerging component in this field is nanomedicine, wherein nanoscale materials are being developed for use as imaging agents or for drug delivery applications. Much work is currently focused in the preparation of well-defined nanomaterials in terms of size and shape. These factors play a significantly role in the nanomaterial behavior in vivo. In this context, this review focuses on the toolbox of available methods for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles. We highlight some recent examples from the literature that demonstrate the influence of the preparation method on the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles. Additionally, in the second part, the characterization methods for this type of nanoparticles are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Overlay control methodology comparison: field-by-field and high-order methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Chiu, Chui-Fu; Wu, Wen-Bin; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Huang, Healthy; Choi, DongSub; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.

    2012-03-01

    Overlay control in advanced integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing is becoming one of the leading lithographic challenges in the 3x and 2x nm process nodes. Production overlay control can no longer meet the stringent emerging requirements based on linear composite wafer and field models with sampling of 10 to 20 fields and 4 to 5 sites per field, which was the industry standard for many years. Methods that have emerged include overlay metrology in many or all fields, including the high order field model method called high order control (HOC), and field by field control (FxFc) methods also called correction per exposure. The HOC and FxFc methods were initially introduced as relatively infrequent scanner qualification activities meant to supplement linear production schemes. More recently, however, it is clear that production control is also requiring intense sampling, similar high order and FxFc methods. The added control benefits of high order and FxFc overlay methods need to be balanced with the increased metrology requirements, however, without putting material at risk. Of critical importance is the proper control of edge fields, which requires intensive sampling in order to minimize signatures. In this study we compare various methods of overlay control including the performance levels that can be achieved.

  1. Characterization methods of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustillos, O.W.R.; Teixeira, S.R.; Lordello, A.R.; Imakuma, K.; Rodrigues, C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to organize quality control and quality assurance activities for PWR fuel production, the laboratory of IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) has developed various chemical and physical methods to be employed for fuel characterization of UO 2 pellets. The techniques developed are the determination of total residual gases by vacuum fusion method, determination of impurity elements by optical spectrography and characterization methods by X-ray diffraction. The development and the implementation of these techniques under the implementation of these techniques under the general scheme of characterization and quality control is the major theme discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  2. The Plastic Tension Field Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a calculation method for steel plate girders with transverse web stiffeners subjected to shear. It may be used for predicting the failure load or, as a design method, to determine the optimal amount of internal web stiffeners. The new method is called the plastic tension field...... method. The method is based on the theory of plasticity and is analogous to the so-called diagonal compression field method developed for reinforced concrete beams with transverse stirrups, which is adopted in the common European concrete code (Eurocode 2). Many other theories have been developed...

  3. Characterizing gamma fields using isomeric activation ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Fleming, Ronald F.

    1994-12-01

    Isomeric activities were induced in indium by gamma irradiation in three different gamma fields, through the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn. The irradiation fields were (i) the 15 kCi 60Co source available in the University, (ii) the spent fuel gamma irradiator in the pool of the University's Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) and (iii) south face of the core of the FNR during routine shut downs. Isomeric activation ratios can serve to characterize gamma fields, provided the response functions of the two (γ, γ') reactions sample different energy regimes of the gamma spectrum present in the irradiation fields. The response of an isomeric activation detector, in turn, depends on the number of activation energy levels of the nuclide and the probabilities with which the activation levels de-populate to the isomeric level. The reaction rate ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m was measured in the three gamma fields. The measured ratios were (i) 1.210 ± 0.011 in the 60Co source, (ii) 1.314 ± 0.060 in the spent fuel gamma irradiator and (iii) 1.298 ± 0.039 in a location alongside the FNR core during routine shut downs. The measured reaction rate ratios are not only close to each other, but close to unity as well. This indicates that the excitation functions for the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn have similar shapes and that for the nuclides 115In and 113In, the number of activation energy levels and the probabilities with which they populate the isomeric levels are very similar to each other. Thus, the ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m will not yield any information regarding the shape of gamma spectrum in the field of measurement. However by choosing (γ, γ') reactions with different shapes for the excitation functions one can measure a set of isomeric activation ratios that characterize a given gamma field.

  4. Second Harmonic Generation characterization of SOI wafers: Impact of layer thickness and interface electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damianos, D.; Vitrant, G.; Lei, M.; Changala, J.; Kaminski-Cachopo, A.; Blanc-Pelissier, D.; Cristoloveanu, S.; Ionica, I.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we investigate Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) as a non-destructive characterization method for Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) materials. For thick SOI stacks, the SHG signal is related to the thickness variations of the different layers. However, in thin SOI films, the comparison between measurements and optical modeling suggests a supplementary SHG contribution attributed to the electric fields at the SiO2/Si interfaces. The impact of the electric field at each interface of the SOI on the SHG is assessed. The SHG technique can be used to evaluate interfacial electric fields and consequently interface charge density in SOI materials.

  5. RFID Antenna Near-field Characterization Using a New 3D Magnetic Field Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassem Jomaa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the design of a new 3D magnetic field (H-field probe with a near-field scanning system is presented, then the near electromagnetic fields radiated by a Library RFID system is characterized. The proposed system is developed in order to determine the magnetic near-field emitted by electronic devices. The designed isotropic H-field probe consists of three orthogonal and identical loops each of diameter of 6 mm having 3 turns. The antenna factor of the designed probe is presented for a frequency range from 10 MHz to 1 GHz. The designed probe is tested and validated using a standard passive circuit as a device under test. An RFID reader antenna is also designed and simulated on HFSS (high frequency structural simulator and the radiated magnetic field, obtained by simulations, is then compared to the real measured one above the fabricated circuit. The obtained levels are checked if they satisfy the European and ICNIRP Electromagnetic Fields Guidelines.

  6. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  7. High-throughput characterization methods for lithium batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Lyu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of high-performance lithium ion batteries requires the discovery of new materials and the optimization of key components. By contrast with traditional one-by-one method, high-throughput method can synthesize and characterize a large number of compositionally varying samples, which is able to accelerate the pace of discovery, development and optimization process of materials. Because of rapid progress in thin film and automatic control technologies, thousands of compounds with different compositions could be synthesized rapidly right now, even in a single experiment. However, the lack of rapid or combinatorial characterization technologies to match with high-throughput synthesis methods, limit the application of high-throughput technology. Here, we review a series of representative high-throughput characterization methods used in lithium batteries, including high-throughput structural and electrochemical characterization methods and rapid measuring technologies based on synchrotron light sources.

  8. Fabrication and characterization on reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (RGOFET) based biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, A. Diyana [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh, Perlis (Malaysia); Ruslinda, A. Rahim, E-mail: ruslinda@unimap.edu.my; Fatin, M. F. [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh, Perlis (Malaysia); Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    The fabrication and characterization on reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (RGO-FET) were demonstrated using a spray deposition method for biological sensing device purpose. A spray method is a fast, low-cost and simple technique to deposit graphene and the most promising technology due to ideal coating on variety of substrates and high production speed. The fabrication method was demonstrated for developing a label free aptamer reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor biosensor. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was obtained by heating on hot plate fixed at various temperatures of 100, 200 and 300°C, respectively. The surface morphology of RGO were examined via atomic force microscopy to observed the temperature effect of produced RGO. The electrical measurement verify the performance of electrical conducting RGO-FET at temperature 300°C is better as compared to other temperature due to the removal of oxygen groups in GO. Thus, reduced graphene oxide was a promising material for biosensor application.

  9. Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Riordan, Jenifer Ann; Sun, Feng-Guo

    2000-08-29

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric (or magnetic) field and a laser beam in an electro-optic (or magnetic-optic) crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field-optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  10. Novel instrument for characterizing comprehensive physical properties under multi-mechanical loads and multi-physical field coupling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyi; Zhao, Hongwei; Ma, Zhichao; Qiao, Yuansen; Hong, Kun; Ren, Zhuang; Zhang, Jianhai; Pei, Yongmao; Ren, Luquan

    2018-02-01

    Functional materials represented by ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics are widely used in advanced sensor and precision actuation due to their special characterization under coupling interactions of complex loads and external physical fields. However, the conventional devices for material characterization can only provide a limited type of loads and physical fields and cannot simulate the actual service conditions of materials. A multi-field coupling instrument for characterization has been designed and implemented to overcome this barrier and measure the comprehensive physical properties under complex service conditions. The testing forms include tension, compression, bending, torsion, and fatigue in mechanical loads, as well as different external physical fields, including electric, magnetic, and thermal fields. In order to offer a variety of information to reveal mechanical damage or deformation forms, a series of measurement methods at the microscale are integrated with the instrument including an indentation unit and in situ microimaging module. Finally, several coupling experiments which cover all the loading and measurement functions of the instrument have been implemented. The results illustrate the functions and characteristics of the instrument and then reveal the variety in mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the piezoelectric transducer ceramic, TbDyFe alloy, and carbon fiber reinforced polymer under coupling conditions.

  11. Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry in Bright Field Mode for Thin Film Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Pini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thickness characterization of thin films is of primary importance in a variety of nanotechnology applications, either in the semiconductor industry, quality control in nanofabrication processes or engineering of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS because small thickness variability can strongly compromise the device performance. Here, we present an alternative optical method in bright field mode called Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry that allows rapid and non-destructive characterization of thin films over areas of mm2 and with 1 μm of lateral resolution. We demonstrate an accuracy of 0.1% in the thickness characterization through measurements performed on four microcantilevers that expand an area of 1.8 mm2 in one minute of analysis time. The measured thickness variation in the range of few tens of nm translates into a mechanical variability that produces an error of up to 2% in the response of the studied devices when they are used to measure surface stress variations.

  12. Characterization and usage of sexed semen from US field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to characterize sexed semen available and its usage from US field data. This included investigating active Holstein proven bulls with sexed semen available, as well as percentages and frequencies of sexed semen matings for heifers and cows. Herds were also characterized for the...

  13. On a characterization of path connected topological fields

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo, Xavier; Mantilla-Soler, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a characterization of path connected topological fields, inspired by the classic Gelfand's correspondence between a compact Hausdorff topological space $X$ and the space of maximal ideals on the ring of real valued continuous functions $C(X,\\mathbb{R})$. More explicitly, our motivation is the following question: What is the essential property of the topological field $F=\\mathbb{R}$ that makes such correspondence valid for all compact Hausdorff spaces? It turns...

  14. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  15. Compressible cavitation with stochastic field method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Andreas; Dumond, Julien

    2012-11-01

    Non-linear phenomena can often be well described using probability density functions (pdf) and pdf transport models. Traditionally the simulation of pdf transport requires Monte-Carlo codes based on Lagrange particles or prescribed pdf assumptions including binning techniques. Recently, in the field of combustion, a novel formulation called the stochastic field method solving pdf transport based on Euler fields has been proposed which eliminates the necessity to mix Euler and Lagrange techniques or prescribed pdf assumptions. In the present work, part of the PhD Design and analysis of a Passive Outflow Reducer relying on cavitation, a first application of the stochastic field method to multi-phase flow and in particular to cavitating flow is presented. The application considered is a nozzle subjected to high velocity flow so that sheet cavitation is observed near the nozzle surface in the divergent section. It is demonstrated that the stochastic field formulation captures the wide range of pdf shapes present at different locations. The method is compatible with finite-volume codes where all existing physical models available for Lagrange techniques, presumed pdf or binning methods can be easily extended to the stochastic field formulation.

  16. Spectral characterization of plastic scintillation detector response as a function of magnetic field strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiele, E.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Ankerhold, U.; Culberson, W.; DeWerd, L.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize intensity and spectral response changes in a plastic scintillation detector (PSD) as a function of magnetic field strength. Spectra measurements as a function of magnetic field strength were performed using an optical spectrometer. The response of both a PSD and PMMA fiber were investigated to isolate the changes in response from the scintillator and the noise signal as a function of magnetic field strength. All irradiations were performed in water at a photon beam energy of 6 MV. Magnetic field strengths of (0, ±0.35, ±0.70, ±1.05, and  ±1.40) T were investigated. Four noise subtraction techniques were investigated to evaluate the impact on the resulting noise-subtracted scintillator response with magnetic field strength. The noise subtraction methods included direct spectral subtraction, the spectral method, and variants thereof. The PMMA fiber exhibited changes in response of up to 50% with magnetic field strength due to the directional light emission from \\breve{C} erenkov radiation. The PSD showed increases in response of up to 10% when not corrected for the noise signal, which agrees with previous investigations of scintillator response in magnetic fields. Decreases in the \\breve{C} erenkov light ratio with negative field strength were observed with a maximum change at  ‑1.40 T of 3.2% compared to 0 T. The change in the noise-subtracted PSD response as a function of magnetic field strength varied with the noise subtraction technique used. Even after noise subtraction, the PSD exhibited changes in response of up to 5.5% over the four noise subtraction methods investigated.

  17. Preparation and characterization of Grain-Oriented Barium Titanate Ceramics Using Electrophoresis Deposition Method under A High Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, T; Kondo, S; Takei, T; Kumada, N; Nakashima, K; Fujii, I; Wada, S [Material Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medical and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510 (Japan); Suzuki, T S; Uchikoshi, T; Sakka, Y [National Institute for materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Miwa, Y; Kawada, S; Kimura, M, E-mail: swada@yamanashi.ac.jp [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. 2288 Ooshinohara, Yasu, Shiga 520-2393 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) grain-oriented ceramics were prepared using electrophoresis deposition (EPD) method under high magnetic field of 12 T. First, BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with high c/a ratio of 1.008 and size of 84 nm were prepared by two-step thermal decomposition method with barium titanyl oxalate nanoparticles. Using the BaTiO{sub 3} slurry, BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticle accumulations were prepared by EPD method under high magnetic field. After binder burnout, the accumulations were sintered and BaTiO{sub 3} grain-oriented ceramics were prepared. Moreover, dielectric properties of their ceramics were investigated

  18. Geologic and Engineering Characterization of East Ford Field, Reeves County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Guzman, Jose I.; Zirczy, Helena

    1999-08-16

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. The project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit: it contained an estimated 18.4 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place.

  19. Characterization of complementary electric field coupled resonant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Thomas H.; Gollub, Jonah; Sajuyigbe, Soji; Smith, David R.; Cummer, Steven A.

    2008-11-01

    We present angle-resolved free-space transmission and reflection measurements of a surface composed of complementary electric inductive-capacitive (CELC) resonators. By measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a CELC surface with different polarizations and particle orientations, we show that the CELC only responds to in-plane magnetic fields. This confirms the Babinet particle duality between the CELC and its complement, the electric field coupled LC resonator. Characterization of the CELC structure serves to expand the current library of resonant elements metamaterial designers can draw upon to make unique materials and surfaces.

  20. Variational methods for field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Menahem, S.

    1986-09-01

    Four field theory models are studied: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2 + 1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1 + 1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1 + 1) dimensions, and the (1 + 1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path-integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. This includes a better quantitative agreement for the string tensions in the two approaches. Free field theory is used as a laboratory for a new variational blocking-truncation approximation, in which the high-frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background modes (Boron-Oppenheimer approximation). This ''adiabatic truncation'' method gives very accurate results for ground-state energy density and correlation functions. Various adiabatic schemes, with one variable kept per site and then two variables per site, are used. For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. A connection is established with the vortex Coulomb gas of the Euclidean path integral approach. The approximations used are taken from the realms of statistical mechanics (mean field approximation, transfer-matrix methods) and of quantum mechanics (iterative blocking schemes). In developing blocking schemes based on continuous variables, problems due to the periodicity of the model were solved. Our results exhibit an order-disorder phase transition. The transfer-matrix method is used to find a good (non-blocking) trial ground state for the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field in (1 + 1) dimensions.

  1. Methods for magnetostatic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods for magnetostatic field calculation: differential and integrat are considered. Both approaches are shown to have certain merits and drawbacks, choice of the method depend on the type of the solved problem. An opportunity of combination of these tWo methods in one algorithm (hybrid method) is considered

  2. Field Application of Cable Tension Estimation Technique Using the h-SI Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Noh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates field applicability of a new system identification technique of estimating tensile force for a cable of long span bridges. The newly proposed h-SI method using the combination of the sensitivity updating algorithm and the advanced hybrid microgenetic algorithm can allow not only avoiding the trap of local minimum at initial searching stage but also finding the optimal solution in terms of better numerical efficiency than existing methods. First, this paper overviews the procedure of tension estimation through a theoretical formulation. Secondly, the validity of the proposed technique is numerically examined using a set of dynamic data obtained from benchmark numerical samples considering the effect of sag extensibility and bending stiffness of a sag-cable system. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is investigated through actual field data extracted from a cable-stayed Seohae Bridge. The test results show that the existing methods require precise initial data in advance but the proposed method is not affected by such initial information. In particular, the proposed method can improve accuracy and convergence rate toward final values. Consequently, the proposed method can be more effective than existing methods in terms of characterizing the tensile force variation for cable structures.

  3. Inverse method for effects characterization from ultrasonic b-scan images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faur, M.

    1999-02-01

    In service inspections of French nuclear pressure water reactor vessels are carried out automatically in complete immersion from the inside by means of ultrasonic focused probes working in the pulse echo mode. Concern has been expressed about the capabilities of performing non destructive evaluation of the Outer Surface Defects (OSD), i.e. defects located in the vicinity of the outer surface of the inspected components. OSD are insonified by both a direct field that passes through the inner surface (water/steel) of the component containing the defect and a secondary field reflected from the outer surface. Consequently, the Bscan images, containing the signatures of such defects, are complicated and their interpretation is a difficult task. This work deals with extraction of the maximum available information for characterizing OSD from ultrasonic Bscan images. Our main objectives are to obtain the type of OSD and their geometric parameters by means of two specific inverse methods. The first method is used for the identification of the geometrical parameters of the equivalent planar OSD from segmented Bscan images. Ultrasonic equivalent defect sizing model-based methods may be used to size a defect in a material by obtaining a best-fit simple equivalent shape that matches the ultrasonic observed data. We illustrate the application of such an equivalent sizing OSD method that is based on a simplified direct model. The major drawback of this identification method, as used to date, is that only a part of the useful information contained into original Bscan image, i.e. segmented Bscan image, is used for defect characterization. Moreover, it requires the availability of defect classification information (i.e. if the defect is volumetric or planer, e. g. a crack or a lack of fusion), which, generally, may be as difficult to obtain as the defect parameters themselves. Therefore, we propose a parameter estimation method for extracting complementary information on the defect

  4. A method to describe inelastic gamma field distribution in neutron gamma density logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Quanying; Liu, Juntao; Wang, Xinguang; Wu, He; Jia, Wenbao; Ti, Yongzhou; Qiu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2017-11-01

    Pulsed neutron gamma density logging (NGD) is of great significance for radioprotection and density measurement in LWD, however, the current methods have difficulty in quantitative calculation and single factor analysis for the inelastic gamma field distribution. In order to clarify the NGD mechanism, a new method is developed to describe the inelastic gamma field distribution. Based on the fast-neutron scattering and gamma attenuation, the inelastic gamma field distribution is characterized by the inelastic scattering cross section, fast-neutron scattering free path, formation density and other parameters. And the contribution of formation parameters on the field distribution is quantitatively analyzed. The results shows the contribution of density attenuation is opposite to that of inelastic scattering cross section and fast-neutron scattering free path. And as the detector-spacing increases, the density attenuation gradually plays a dominant role in the gamma field distribution, which means large detector-spacing is more favorable for the density measurement. Besides, the relationship of density sensitivity and detector spacing was studied according to this gamma field distribution, therefore, the spacing of near and far gamma ray detector is determined. The research provides theoretical guidance for the tool parameter design and density determination of pulsed neutron gamma density logging technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Introduction to the background field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, L.F.; Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA

    1982-01-01

    The background field approach to calculations in gauge field theories is presented. Conventional functional techniques are reviewed and the background field method is introduced. Feynman rules and renormalization are discussed and, as an example, the Yang-Mills β function is computed. (author)

  6. The Virtual Fields Method Extracting Constitutive Mechanical Parameters from Full-field Deformation Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pierron, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    The Virtual Fields Method: Extracting Constitutive Mechanical Parameters from Full-field Deformation Measurements is the first book on the Virtual Fields Method (VFM), a technique to identify materials mechanical properties from full-field measurements. Firmly rooted with extensive theoretical description of the method, the book presents numerous examples of application to a wide range of materials (composites, metals, welds, biomaterials) and situations (static, vibration, high strain rate). The authors give a detailed training section with examples of progressive difficulty to lead the reader to program the VFM and include a set of commented Matlab programs as well as GUI Matlab-based software for more general situations. The Virtual Fields Method: Extracting Constitutive Mechanical Parameters from Full-field Deformation Measurements is an ideal book for researchers, engineers, and students interested in applying the VFM to new situations motivated by their research.  

  7. Semi-automated potentiometric titration method for uranium characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiano, B.F.G., E-mail: barbara@ird.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Avenida Salvador Allende s/n Recreio dos Bandeirantes, PO Box 37750, Rio de Janeiro, 22780-160 RJ (Brazil); Delgado, J.U.; Silva, J.W.S. da; Barros, P.D. de; Araujo, R.M.S. de [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Avenida Salvador Allende s/n Recreio dos Bandeirantes, PO Box 37750, Rio de Janeiro, 22780-160 RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear (PEN/COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Ilha do Fundao, PO Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    The manual version of the potentiometric titration method has been used for certification and characterization of uranium compounds. In order to reduce the analysis time and the influence of the analyst, a semi-automatic version of the method was developed in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. The method was applied with traceability assured by using a potassium dichromate primary standard. The combined standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed a semi-automatic version of potentiometric titration method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is used for certification and characterization of uranium compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The traceability of the method was assured by a K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} primary standard. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} reference material analyzed was consistent with certified value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uncertainty obtained, near 0.01%, is useful for characterization purposes.

  8. Engineering characterization of ground motion. Task I. Effects of characteristics of free-field motion on structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; Merz, K.L.; Tokarz, F.J.; Idriss, I.M.; Power, M.S.; Sadigh, K.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the results of the first task of a two-task study on the engineering characterization of earthquake ground motion for nuclear power plant design. The overall objective of this study is to develop recommendations for methods for selecting design response spectra or acceleration time histories to be used to characterize motion at the foundation level of nuclear power plants. Task I of the study develops a basis for selecting design response spectra, taking into account the characteristics of free-field ground motion found to be significant in causing structural damage.

  9. Engineering characterization of ground motion. Task I. Effects of characteristics of free-field motion on structural response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; Merz, K.L.; Tokarz, F.J.; Idriss, I.M.; Power, M.S.; Sadigh, K.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the results of the first task of a two-task study on the engineering characterization of earthquake ground motion for nuclear power plant design. The overall objective of this study is to develop recommendations for methods for selecting design response spectra or acceleration time histories to be used to characterize motion at the foundation level of nuclear power plants. Task I of the study develops a basis for selecting design response spectra, taking into account the characteristics of free-field ground motion found to be significant in causing structural damage

  10. Pulsed magnetic flux leakage method for hairline crack detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolo, Chukwunonso K.; Meydan, Turgut

    2018-04-01

    The Magnetic Flux leakage (MFL) method is a well-established branch of electromagnetic Non-Destructive Testing (NDT), extensively used for evaluating defects both on the surface and far-surface of pipeline structures. However the conventional techniques are not capable of estimating their approximate size, location and orientation, hence an additional transducer is required to provide the extra information needed. This research is aimed at solving the inevitable problem of granular bond separation which occurs during manufacturing, leaving pipeline structures with miniature cracks. It reports on a quantitative approach based on the Pulsed Magnetic Flux Leakage (PMFL) method, for the detection and characterization of the signals produced by tangentially oriented rectangular surface and far-surface hairline cracks. This was achieved through visualization and 3D imaging of the leakage field. The investigation compared finite element numerical simulation with experimental data. Experiments were carried out using a 10mm thick low carbon steel plate containing artificial hairline cracks with various depth sizes, and different features were extracted from the transient signal. The influence of sensor lift-off and pulse width variation on the magnetic field distribution which affects the detection capability of various hairline cracks located at different depths in the specimen is explored. The findings show that the proposed technique can be used to classify both surface and far-surface hairline cracks and can form the basis for an enhanced hairline crack detection and characterization for pipeline health monitoring.

  11. Food powders flowability characterization: theory, methods, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Pablo; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of food powders flowability is required for predicting powder flow from hoppers in small-scale systems such as vending machines or at the industrial scale from storage silos or bins dispensing into powder mixing systems or packaging machines. This review covers conventional and new methods used to measure flowability in food powders. The method developed by Jenike (1964) for determining hopper outlet diameter and hopper angle has become a standard for the design of bins and is regarded as a standard method to characterize flowability. Moreover, there are a number of shear cells that can be used to determine failure properties defined by Jenike's theory. Other classic methods (compression, angle of repose) and nonconventional methods (Hall flowmeter, Johanson Indicizer, Hosokawa powder tester, tensile strength tester, powder rheometer), used mainly for the characterization of food powder cohesiveness, are described. The effect of some factors preventing flow, such as water content, temperature, time consolidation, particle composition and size distribution, is summarized for the characterization of specific food powders with conventional and other methods. Whereas time-consuming standard methods established for hopper design provide flow properties, there is yet little comparative evidence demonstrating that other rapid methods may provide similar flow prediction.

  12. Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Guildenbecher, Daniel R; Reu, Phillip L; Chen, Jun

    2013-11-04

    In the detection of particles using digital in-line holography, measurement accuracy is substantially influenced by the hologram processing method. In particular, a number of methods have been proposed to determine the out-of-plane particle depth (z location). However, due to the lack of consistent uncertainty characterization, it has been unclear which method is best suited to a given measurement problem. In this work, depth determination accuracies of seven particle detection methods, including a recently proposed hybrid method, are systematically investigated in terms of relative depth measurement errors and uncertainties. Both synthetic and experimental holograms of particle fields are considered at conditions relevant to particle sizing and tracking. While all methods display a range of particle conditions where they are most accurate, in general the hybrid method is shown to be the most robust with depth uncertainty less than twice the particle diameter over a wide range of particle field conditions.

  13. Eigenfunction method and mass operator in the quantum electrodynamics of a constant field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritus, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of radiative effects in the quantum electrodynamics of an intense constant field. It is based on the application of the mass operator eigenfunctions and on diagonalization of the operator. A compact expression for the proper value of the electron mass operator in an arbitrary constant field and the corresponding elastic scattering amplitude are found. The imaginary part of the amplitude determines the decay rate of various states of the electron in the field; the real part contains the mass shift and the anomalous magnetic and electric moments as functions of the field and electron momentum. THe anomalous electric moment which arises in a field with a pseudoscalar EH not equal to 0 and the anomalous magnetic moment in an electric field which tends to the double Schwinger value with increase of the field strength are found and investigated in detail as are the mass shift and decay rate of the ground state of an electron in an electric field. In a weak field the mass shift contains the linear with respect to the field modulus classical term which characterizes the effect of acceleration on the structure of electron

  14. Recent characterization of steel by surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru

    1996-01-01

    Surface analysis methods, such as Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry and so on, have become indispensable to characterize surface and interface of many kinds of steel. Although a number of studies on characterization of steel by these methods have been carried out, several problems still remain in quantification and depth profiling. Nevertheless, the methods have provided essential information on the concentration and chemical state of elements at the surface and interface. Recent results on characterization of oxide layers, coated films, etc. on the surface of steel are reviewed here. (author). 99 refs

  15. Accuracy limits of the equivalent field method for irregular photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Dario Esteban

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical approach is developed to evaluate the accuracy of the equivalent field method using basic clinical photon beam data. This paper presents an analytical calculation of dose errors arising when field equivalencies, calculated at a certain reference depth, are translated to other depths. The phantom scatter summation is expressed as a Riemann-Stieltjes integral and two categories of irregular fields are introduced: uniform and multiform. It is shown that multiform fields produce errors whose magnitudes are nearly twice those corresponding to uniform fields in extreme situations. For uniform field shapes, the maximum, local, relative dose errors, when the equivalencies are calculated at 10 cm depth on the central axis and translated to a depth of 30 cm, are 3.8% and 8.8% for 6 MV and cobalt-60 photon beams, respectively. In terms of maximum dose those errors are within 1-2%. This supports the conclusion that the equivalencies between rectangular fields, which are examples of uniform fields, are applicable to dose ratio functions irrespective of beam energy. However, the magnitude of such errors could be of importance when assessing the exit dose for in vivo monitoring. This work provides a better understanding of the influence of the irregular field shapes on the accuracy of the equivalent field method. (author)

  16. Characterization of carbon nanotubes and analytical methods for their determination in environmental and biological samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero-Latorre, C., E-mail: carlos.herrero@usc.es; Álvarez-Méndez, J.; Barciela-García, J.; García-Martín, S.; Peña-Crecente, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analytical techniques for characterization of CNTs: classification, description and examples. • Determination methods for CNTs in biological and environmental samples. • Future trends and perspectives for characterization and determination of CNTs. - Abstract: In the present paper, a critical overview of the most commonly used techniques for the characterization and the determination of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is given on the basis of 170 references (2000–2014). The analytical techniques used for CNT characterization (including microscopic and diffraction, spectroscopic, thermal and separation techniques) are classified, described, and illustrated with applied examples. Furthermore, the performance of sampling procedures as well as the available methods for the determination of CNTs in real biological and environmental samples are reviewed and discussed according to their analytical characteristics. In addition, future trends and perspectives in this field of work are critically presented.

  17. Application of geophysical methods for fracture characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.; Majer, E.L.; McEvilly, T.V.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Morrison, H.F.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1990-01-01

    One of the most crucial needs in the design and implementation of an underground waste isolation facility is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of fractures in zones away from boreholes or subsurface workings. Geophysical methods may represent a solution to this problem. If fractures represent anomalies in the elastic properties or conductive properties of the rocks, then the seismic and electrical techniques may be useful in detecting and characterizing fracture properties. 7 refs., 3 figs

  18. Oromucosal film preparations: classification and characterization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Maren; Woertz, Christina; Kleinebudde, Peter; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2013-09-01

    Recently, the regulatory authorities have enlarged the variety of 'oromucosal preparations' by buccal films and orodispersible films. Various film preparations have entered the market and pharmacopoeias. Due to the novelty of the official monographs, no standardized characterization methods and quality specifications are included. This review reports the methods of choice to characterize oromucosal film preparations with respect to biorelevant characterization and quality control. Commonly used dissolution tests for other dosage forms are not transferable for films in all cases. Alternatives and guidance on decision, which methods are favorable for film preparations are discussed. Furthermore, issues about requirements for film dosage forms are reflected. Oromucosal film preparations offer a wide spectrum of opportunities. There are a lot of suggestions in the literature on how to control the quality of these innovative products, but no standardized tests are available. Regulatory authorities need to define the standards and quality requirements more precisely.

  19. Characterization of natural porous media by NMR and MRI techniques. High and low magnetic field studies for estimation of hydraulic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stingaciu, Laura-Roxana

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to apply different NMR techniques for: i) understanding the relaxometric properties of unsaturated natural porous media and ii) for a reliable quantification of water content and its spatial and temporal change in model porous media and soil cores. For that purpose, porous media with increasing complexity and heterogeneity were used (coarse and fine sand and different mixture of sand/clay) to determine the relaxation parameters in order to adapt optimal sequence and parameters for water imaging. Conventional imaging is mostly performed with superconducting high field scanners but low field scanners promise longer relaxation times and therefore smaller loss of signal from water in small and partially filled pores. By this reason high and low field NMR experiments were conducted on these porous media to characterize the dependence on the magnetic field strength. Correlations of the NMR experiments with classical soil physics method like mercury intrusion porosimetry; water retention curves (pF) and multi-step-outflow (MSO) were performed for the characterization of the hydraulic properties of the materials. Due to the extensive research the experiments have been structured in three major parts as follows. In the first part a comparison study between relaxation experiments in high and low magnetic field was performed in order to observe the influence of the magnetic field on the relaxation properties. Due to these results, in the second part of the study only low field relaxation experiments were used in the attempt of correlations with classical soil physics methods (mercury intrusion porosimetry and water retention curves) for characterizing the hydraulic behavior of the samples. Further, the aim was to combine also MRI experiments (2D and 3D NMR) with classical soil physics methods (multi-step-outflow, MSO) for the same purpose of investigating the hydraulic properties. Because low field MRI systems are still under developing for the

  20. Characterization of natural porous media by NMR and MRI techniques. High and low magnetic field studies for estimation of hydraulic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stingaciu, Laura-Roxana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to apply different NMR techniques for: i) understanding the relaxometric properties of unsaturated natural porous media and ii) for a reliable quantification of water content and its spatial and temporal change in model porous media and soil cores. For that purpose, porous media with increasing complexity and heterogeneity were used (coarse and fine sand and different mixture of sand/clay) to determine the relaxation parameters in order to adapt optimal sequence and parameters for water imaging. Conventional imaging is mostly performed with superconducting high field scanners but low field scanners promise longer relaxation times and therefore smaller loss of signal from water in small and partially filled pores. By this reason high and low field NMR experiments were conducted on these porous media to characterize the dependence on the magnetic field strength. Correlations of the NMR experiments with classical soil physics method like mercury intrusion porosimetry; water retention curves (pF) and multi-step-outflow (MSO) were performed for the characterization of the hydraulic properties of the materials. Due to the extensive research the experiments have been structured in three major parts as follows. In the first part a comparison study between relaxation experiments in high and low magnetic field was performed in order to observe the influence of the magnetic field on the relaxation properties. Due to these results, in the second part of the study only low field relaxation experiments were used in the attempt of correlations with classical soil physics methods (mercury intrusion porosimetry and water retention curves) for characterizing the hydraulic behavior of the samples. Further, the aim was to combine also MRI experiments (2D and 3D NMR) with classical soil physics methods (multi-step-outflow, MSO) for the same purpose of investigating the hydraulic properties. Because low field MRI systems are still under developing for the

  1. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  2. The Background-Field Method and Noninvariant Renormalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, L.V.; Kazakov, D.I.; Kalmykov, M.Yu.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the consistency of the background-field formalism when applying various regularizations and renormalization schemes. By an example of a two-dimensional σ model it is demonstrated that the background-field method gives incorrect results when the regularization (and/or renormalization) is noninvariant. In particular, it is found that the cut-off regularization and the differential renormalization belong to this class and are incompatible with the background-field method in theories with nonlinear symmetries. 17 refs

  3. Method Evaluation And Field Sample Measurements For The Rate Of Movement Of The Oxidation Front In Saltstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Kaplan, D. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Stefanko, D. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Spencer, W. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hatfield, A. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Arai, Y. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2012-08-23

    The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate a series of methods and validate their capability to measure differences in oxidized versus reduced saltstone. Validated methods were then applied to samples cured under field conditions to simulate Performance Assessment (PA) needs for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Four analytical approaches were evaluated using laboratory-cured saltstone samples. These methods were X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), chemical redox indicators, and thin-section leaching methods. XAS and thin-section leaching methods were validated as viable methods for studying oxidation movement in saltstone. Each method used samples that were spiked with chromium (Cr) as a tracer for oxidation of the saltstone. The two methods were subsequently applied to field-cured samples containing chromium to characterize the oxidation state of chromium as a function of distance from the exposed air/cementitious material surface.

  4. Sensitivity-based virtual fields for the non-linear virtual fields method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Aleksander; Davis, Frances M.; Pierron, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    The virtual fields method is an approach to inversely identify material parameters using full-field deformation data. In this manuscript, a new set of automatically-defined virtual fields for non-linear constitutive models has been proposed. These new sensitivity-based virtual fields reduce the influence of noise on the parameter identification. The sensitivity-based virtual fields were applied to a numerical example involving small strain plasticity; however, the general formulation derived for these virtual fields is applicable to any non-linear constitutive model. To quantify the improvement offered by these new virtual fields, they were compared with stiffness-based and manually defined virtual fields. The proposed sensitivity-based virtual fields were consistently able to identify plastic model parameters and outperform the stiffness-based and manually defined virtual fields when the data was corrupted by noise.

  5. A new method to characterize dopant profiles in NMOSFETs using conventional transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazuo; Ikeda, Kazuto; Terauchi, Masami

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a new method using conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain two dimensional dopant profiles in silicon and applied it to 40 nm-gate-length N + /p metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The results are consistent with those of selective-chemically etched samples observed by TEM. This method, using focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation and conventional TEM, has the great advantage of simple sample preparation and high spatial resolution compared to other characterization methods, such as atomic capacitance microscopy, spreading resistance microscopy, and TEM combined with selective chemical etching. This indicates that this method can be applicable to the analysis of FETs at the 65 nm or smaller node

  6. Teaching Geographic Field Methods Using Paleoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Field-based undergraduate geography courses provide numerous pedagogical benefits including an opportunity for students to acquire employable skills in an applied context. This article presents one unique approach to teaching geographic field methods using paleoecological research. The goals of this course are to teach students key geographic…

  7. Eigenstates with the auxiliary field method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semay, Claude [Service de Physique Nucleaire et Subnucleaire, Universite de Mons-UMONS, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Silvestre-Brac, Bernard, E-mail: claude.semay@umons.ac.b, E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.f [LPSC Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France)

    2010-07-02

    The auxiliary field method is a powerful technique to obtain approximate closed-form energy formulas for eigenequations in quantum mechanics. Very good results can be obtained for Schroedinger and semirelativistic Hamiltonians with various potentials, even in the case of many-body problems. This method can also provide approximate eigenstates in terms of well-known wavefunctions, for instance harmonic oscillator or hydrogen-like states, but with a characteristic size which depends on quantum numbers. In this paper, we consider two-body Schroedinger equations with linear, logarithmic and exponential potentials and show that analytical approximations of the corresponding eigenstates can be obtained with the auxiliary field method, with very good accuracy in some cases.

  8. Eigenstates with the auxiliary field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The auxiliary field method is a powerful technique to obtain approximate closed-form energy formulas for eigenequations in quantum mechanics. Very good results can be obtained for Schroedinger and semirelativistic Hamiltonians with various potentials, even in the case of many-body problems. This method can also provide approximate eigenstates in terms of well-known wavefunctions, for instance harmonic oscillator or hydrogen-like states, but with a characteristic size which depends on quantum numbers. In this paper, we consider two-body Schroedinger equations with linear, logarithmic and exponential potentials and show that analytical approximations of the corresponding eigenstates can be obtained with the auxiliary field method, with very good accuracy in some cases.

  9. Characterization of cellulose biomass for use as an excipient in pharmaceutical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Keth R.; Turella, Tais C.; Santos, Venina dos; Brandalise, Rosmary N.; Angeli, Valeria W.

    2015-01-01

    Every day the industry of paper and cellulose discards large amounts of waste. An alternative to reuse this kind of biomass is to transform part of it in cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils to be used as excipients in pharmaceutical field. Thus, cellulose fibrils were obtained in nanoscale using mill and fibrils' characterization study were performed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared Fourier transform and X-rays diffraction. Hence, the methodology used to obtain and characterize nanocellulose was effective and the fibers/fibrils lengths are in nanometer dimension with high potential to apply in the pharmaceutical field. (author)

  10. Computational methods for reversed-field equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.; Auerbach, S.P.; Willmann, P.A.; Berk, H.L.; McNamara, B.

    1980-01-01

    Investigating the temporal evolution of reversed-field equilibrium caused by transport processes requires the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation and computation of field-line-averaged quantities. The technique for field-line averaging and the computation of the Grad-Shafranov equation are presented. Application of Green's function to specify the Grad-Shafranov equation boundary condition is discussed. Hill's vortex formulas used to verify certain computations are detailed. Use of computer software to implement computational methods is described

  11. Efficient Calculation of Near Fields in the FDTD Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej

    2011-01-01

    When calculating frequency-domain near fields by the FDTD method, almost 50 % reduction in memory and CPU operations can be achieved if only E-fields are stored during the main time-stepping loop and H-fields computed later. An improved method of obtaining the H-fields from Faraday's Law is prese...

  12. Semi-automated potentiometric titration method for uranium characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, B F G; Delgado, J U; da Silva, J W S; de Barros, P D; de Araújo, R M S; Lopes, R T

    2012-07-01

    The manual version of the potentiometric titration method has been used for certification and characterization of uranium compounds. In order to reduce the analysis time and the influence of the analyst, a semi-automatic version of the method was developed in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. The method was applied with traceability assured by using a potassium dichromate primary standard. The combined standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Field study of alpha characterization of a D ampersand D site using long-range alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Koster, J.E.; MacArthur, D.W.; Sprouse, L.L.; Stout, D.; Vaccarella, J.A.; Vu, T.Q.

    1994-01-01

    A successful and cost-effective D ampersand D effort relies upon an accurate, real-time, in situ, and non-destructive method of characterization of contamination both before and after the decontamination process. Detector systems based on long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technology meet these criteria. Currently, LANL is in the process of investigating, designing, or building various surface monitors, various pipe monitors, and glove-box monitors. This paper describes the field studies conducted using detectors based on LRAD technology

  14. Optical Characterization of Lorentz Force Based CMOS-MEMS Magnetic Field Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, John Ojur; Ahmad, Farooq; Khir, M Haris Bin Md; Bin Hamid, Nor Hisham

    2015-07-27

    Magnetic field sensors are becoming an essential part of everyday life due to the improvements in their sensitivities and resolutions, while at the same time they have become compact, smaller in size and economical. In the work presented herein a Lorentz force based CMOS-MEMS magnetic field sensor is designed, fabricated and optically characterized. The sensor is fabricated by using CMOS thin layers and dry post micromachining is used to release the device structure and finally the sensor chip is packaged in DIP. The sensor consists of a shuttle which is designed to resonate in the lateral direction (first mode of resonance). In the presence of an external magnetic field, the Lorentz force actuates the shuttle in the lateral direction and the amplitude of resonance is measured using an optical method. The differential change in the amplitude of the resonating shuttle shows the strength of the external magnetic field. The resonance frequency of the shuttle is determined to be 8164 Hz experimentally and from the resonance curve, the quality factor and damping ratio are obtained. In an open environment, the quality factor and damping ratio are found to be 51.34 and 0.00973 respectively. The sensitivity of the sensor is determined in static mode to be 0.034 µm/mT when a current of 10 mA passes through the shuttle, while it is found to be higher at resonance with a value of 1.35 µm/mT at 8 mA current. Finally, the resolution of the sensor is found to be 370.37 µT.

  15. Characterization of compact-toroid injection during formation, translation, and field penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.; Roche, T.; Allfrey, I.; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T.; Gota, H.; Cordero, M.; Garate, E.; Kinley, J.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a compact toroid (CT) injector system for particle refueling of the advanced beam-driven C-2U field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The CT injector is a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), and the produced CT must cross the perpendicular magnetic field surrounding the FRC for the refueling of C-2U. To simulate this environment, an experimental test stand has been constructed. A transverse magnetic field of ˜1 kG is established, which is comparable to the C-2U axial magnetic field in the confinement section, and CTs are fired across it. On the test stand we have been characterizing and studying CT formation, ejection/translation from the MCPG, and penetration into transverse magnetic fields.

  16. Characterization of compact-toroid injection during formation, translation, and field penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, T., E-mail: cstd14003@g.nihon-u.ac.jp; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T. [Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Roche, T.; Allfrey, I.; Gota, H.; Cordero, M.; Garate, E.; Kinley, J.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; Binderbauer, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Tajima, T. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have developed a compact toroid (CT) injector system for particle refueling of the advanced beam-driven C-2U field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The CT injector is a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), and the produced CT must cross the perpendicular magnetic field surrounding the FRC for the refueling of C-2U. To simulate this environment, an experimental test stand has been constructed. A transverse magnetic field of ∼1 kG is established, which is comparable to the C-2U axial magnetic field in the confinement section, and CTs are fired across it. On the test stand we have been characterizing and studying CT formation, ejection/translation from the MCPG, and penetration into transverse magnetic fields.

  17. Characterizing Dynamic Walking Patterns and Detecting Falls with Wearable Sensors Using Gaussian Process Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehwan Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available By incorporating a growing number of sensors and adopting machine learning technologies, wearable devices have recently become a prominent health care application domain. Among the related research topics in this field, one of the most important issues is detecting falls while walking. Since such falls may lead to serious injuries, automatically and promptly detecting them during daily use of smartphones and/or smart watches is a particular need. In this paper, we investigate the use of Gaussian process (GP methods for characterizing dynamic walking patterns and detecting falls while walking with built-in wearable sensors in smartphones and/or smartwatches. For the task of characterizing dynamic walking patterns in a low-dimensional latent feature space, we propose a novel approach called auto-encoded Gaussian process dynamical model, in which we combine a GP-based state space modeling method with a nonlinear dimensionality reduction method in a unique manner. The Gaussian process methods are fit for this task because one of the most import strengths of the Gaussian process methods is its capability of handling uncertainty in the model parameters. Also for detecting falls while walking, we propose to recycle the latent samples generated in training the auto-encoded Gaussian process dynamical model for GP-based novelty detection, which can lead to an efficient and seamless solution to the detection task. Experimental results show that the combined use of these GP-based methods can yield promising results for characterizing dynamic walking patterns and detecting falls while walking with the wearable sensors.

  18. Analytical methods of radwaste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.M.

    1994-10-01

    In view of the need to carry out more extensive studies on the design of newly proposed methods for the treatment of radioactive wastes collected at PNRI, this study is aimed to provide a guide in the characterization of wastes which is a preparatory step for a well-planned waste processing. (auth.). 8 refs

  19. Field Tests of the Magnetotelluric Method to Detect Gas Hydrates, Mallik, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, J. A.; Roberts, B.; Bellefleur, G.; Spratt, J.; Wright, F.; Dallimore, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    The magnetotelluric method is not generally utilized at extreme latitudes due primarily to difficulties in making the good electrical contact with the ground required to measure the electric field. As such, the magnetotelluric technique has not been previously investigated to direct detect gas hydrates in on-shore permafrost environments. We present the results of preliminary field tests at Mallik, Northwest Territories, Canada, that demonstrate good quality magnetotelluric data can be obtained in this environment using specialized electrodes and buffer amplifiers similar to those utilized by Wannamaker et al (2004). This result suggests that subsurface images from larger magnetotelluric surveys will be useful to complement other techniques to detect, quantify and characterize gas hydrates.

  20. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.G.; Nowatzki, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  1. Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO 2 that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO 2 samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO 2 samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of the

  2. Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho, E-mail: kellyfisica@gmail.co, E-mail: fernando.lameiras@pq.cnpq.b, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail: flmigliorini@hotmail.co, E-mail: lucsc@hotmail.co, E-mail: egonn@ufmg.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO{sub 2} that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO{sub 2} samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO{sub 2} samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of

  3. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suermann, J.F.

    1996-04-01

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits

  4. The ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring 2007-2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of ISRM suggested methods for testing or measuring properties of rocks and rock masses both in the laboratory and in situ, as well as for monitoring the performance of rock engineering structures. The first collection (Yellow Book) has been published in 1981. In order to provide access to all the Suggested Methods in one volume, the ISRM Blue Book was published in 2007 (by the ISRM via the Turkish National Group) and contains the complete set of Suggested Methods from 1974 to 2006 inclusive. The papers in this most recent volume have been published during the last seven years in international journals, mainly in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. They offer guidance for rock characterization procedures and laboratory and field testing and monitoring in rock engineering. These methods provide a definitive procedure for the identification, measurement and evaluation of one or more qualities, characteristics, or properties of rocks or rock systems that produces a test result.

  5. Spectral methods in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Noah; Quandt, Markus; Weigel, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    This concise text introduces techniques from quantum mechanics, especially scattering theory, to compute the effects of an external background on a quantum field in general, and on the properties of the quantum vacuum in particular. This approach can be succesfully used in an increasingly large number of situations, ranging from the study of solitons in field theory and cosmology to the determination of Casimir forces in nano-technology. The method introduced and applied in this book is shown to give an unambiguous connection to perturbation theory, implementing standard renormalization conditions even for non-perturbative backgrounds. It both gives new theoretical insights, for example illuminating longstanding questions regarding Casimir stresses, and also provides an efficient analytic and numerical tool well suited to practical calculations. Last but not least, it elucidates in a concrete context many of the subtleties of quantum field theory, such as divergences, regularization and renormalization, by connecting them to more familiar results in quantum mechanics. While addressed primarily at young researchers entering the field and nonspecialist researchers with backgrounds in theoretical and mathematical physics, introductory chapters on the theoretical aspects of the method make the book self-contained and thus suitable for advanced graduate students. (orig.)

  6. Efficient Training Methods for Conditional Random Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Charles A

    2008-01-01

    .... In this thesis, I investigate efficient training methods for conditional random fields with complex graphical structure, focusing on local methods which avoid propagating information globally along the graph...

  7. Waste Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  8. Waste Characterization Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.; Naranjo, Felicia Danielle

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream's generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  9. Field mapping measurements to determine spatial and field dependence of critical current density in YBCO tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclerc, J.; Berger, K.; Douine, B.; Lévêque, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for characterizing superconducting tapes from field mapping is presented. • A new and efficient field mapping apparatus has been setup. • This method allows the spatial characterization of superconducting tapes. • The critical current density is obtained as a function of the flux density. • This method has been experimentally tested on an YBCO tape. -- Abstract: In this paper a measurement method that allows the determination of the critical current density of superconducting tape from field mapping measurements is presented. This contact-free method allows obtaining characteristics of the superconductor as a function of the position and of the applied flux density. With some modifications, this technique can be used for reel-to-reel measurements. The determination of the critical current density is based on an inverse calculation. This involves calculating the current distribution in the tape from magnetic measurements. An YBaCuO tape has been characterized at 77 K. A defect in this superconductor has been identified. Various tests were carried out to check the efficiency of the method. The inverse calculation was tested theoretically and experimentally. Comparison with a transport current measurement was also performed

  10. Comparison of different dose calculation methods for irregular photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, G.A.; Schuette, W.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, 4 calculation methods (Wrede method, Clarskon method of sector integration, beam-zone method of Quast and pencil-beam method of Ahnesjoe) are introduced to calculate point doses in different irregular photon fields. The calculations cover a typical mantle field, an inverted Y-field and different blocked fields for 4 and 10 MV photon energies. The results are compared to those of measurements in a water phantom. The Clarkson and the pencil-beam method have been proved to be the methods of equal standard in relation to accuracy. Both of these methods are being distinguished by minimum deviations and applied in our clinical routine work. The Wrede and beam-zone methods deliver useful results to central beam and yet provide larger deviations in calculating points beyond the central axis. (orig.) [de

  11. Numerical methods for characterization of synchrotron radiation based on the Wigner function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical characterization of synchrotron radiation based on the Wigner function method is explored in order to accurately evaluate the light source performance. A number of numerical methods to compute the Wigner functions for typical synchrotron radiation sources such as bending magnets, undulators and wigglers, are presented, which significantly improve the computation efficiency and reduce the total computation time. As a practical example of the numerical characterization, optimization of betatron functions to maximize the brilliance of undulator radiation is discussed.

  12. SRS environmental technology development field test platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    A critical and difficult step in the development and implementation of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is successfully transferring these technologies to industry and government users for routine assessment and compliance activities. The Environmental Sciences Section of the DOE Savannah River Technology Center provides a forum for developers, potential users, and regulatory organizations to evaluate new technologies in comparison with baseline technologies in a well characterized field test bed. The principal objective of this project is to conduct comprehensive, objective field tests of monitoring and characterization technologies that are not currently used in EPA standard methods and evaluate their performance during actual operating conditions against baseline methods. This paper provides an overview of the field test site and a description of some of the technologies demonstrated at the site including their field applications

  13. Multifractal characterizations of nonstationary and intermittency in geophysical fields: Observed, retrieved, or simulated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.; Wiscombe, W.; Cahalan, R.; Marshak, A.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical data rarely show any smoothness at any scale, and this often makes comparison with theoretical model output difficult. However, highly fluctuating signals and fractual structures are typical of open dissipative systems with nonlinear dynamics, the focus of most geophysical research. High levels of variability are excited over a large range of scales by the combined actions of external forcing and internal instability. At very small scales we expect geophysical fields to be smooth, but these are rarely resolved with available instrumentation or simulation tools; nondifferentiable and even discontinuous models are therefore in order. We need methods of statistically analyzing geophysical data, whether measured in situ, remotely sensed or even generated by a computer model, that are adapted to these characteristics. An important preliminary task is to define statistically stationary features in generally nonstationary signals. We first discuss a simple criterion for stationarity in finite data streams that exhibit power law energy spectra and then, guided by developments in turbulence studies, we advocate the use of two ways of analyzing the scale dependence of statistical information: singular measures and qth order structure functions. In nonstationary situations, the approach based on singular measures seeks power law behavior in integrals over all possible scales of a nonnegative stationary field derived from the data, leading to a characterization of the intermittency in this field. In contrast, the approach based on structure functions uses the signal itself, seeking power laws for the statistical moments of absolute increments over arbitrarily large scales, leading to a characterization of the prevailing nonstationarity in both quantitative and qualitative terms. We explain graphically, step by step, both multifractal statistics which are largely complementary to each other. 45 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Algebraic characterization of vector supersymmetry in topological field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, L.C.Q.; Ventura, O.S.; Sasaki, C.A.G.; Sorella, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    An algebraic cohomological characterization of a class of linearly broken Ward identities is provided. The examples of the topological vector supersymmetry and of the Landau ghost equation are discussed in detail. The existence of such a linearly broken Ward identities turns out to be related to BRST exact anti-field dependent cocycles with negative ghost number, according to the cohomological reformulation of the Noether theorem given by M. Henneaux et al. (author)

  15. Simple method for the characterization of intense Laguerre-Gauss vector vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyari, E.; JJ Nivas, J.; Cardano, F.; Bruzzese, R.; Fittipaldi, R.; Marrucci, L.; Paparo, D.; Rubano, A.; Vecchione, A.; Amoruso, S.

    2018-05-01

    We report on a method for the characterization of intense, structured optical fields through the analysis of the size and surface structures formed inside the annular ablation crater created on the target surface. In particular, we apply the technique to laser ablation of crystalline silicon induced by femtosecond vector vortex beams. We show that a rapid direct estimate of the beam waist parameter is obtained through a measure of the crater radii. The variation of the internal and external radii of the annular crater as a function of the laser pulse energy, at fixed number of pulses, provides another way to evaluate the beam spot size through numerical fitting of the obtained experimental data points. A reliable estimate of the spot size is of paramount importance to investigate pulsed laser-induced effects on the target material. Our experimental findings offer a facile way to characterize focused, high intensity complex optical vector beams which are more and more applied in laser-matter interaction experiments.

  16. Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils

    consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [http://www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field_models/IGRF_2005_candidates/], which is based...

  17. Characterization of pinning stability of HTS Gd123 bulks by using a pulsed-field magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, R; Miki, M; Tsuzuki, K; Izumi, M [Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6, Etchujima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Yamaguchi, K [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., ThinkPark Tower, 1-1-2, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-6025 (Japan); Kimura, Y [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Technical Institute System Technology Development Center, 1-1, Kawasaki-cho, Akashi-shi, Hyogo 673-8666 (Japan); Ida, T, E-mail: m084025@kaiyodai.ac.j [Department of Electronic Control Engineering, Hiroshima National College of Maritime Technology, Toyota-gun, Hiroshima 725-0231 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    High-temperature superconductor (HTS) Gd-bulks are used for field-pole magnets of rotating machines. We have conducted a study of pulsed-field magnetization (PFM) for the bulks to be magnetized alternatively on the rotor. Performances of HTS bulks have been qualified on the basis of the field-cooling magnetization (FCM). HTS bulks are a kind of crystals containing lots of tiny crystals boundaries. It is difficult to find comparable data between PFM and FCM results, mainly because of the different pinning stability through both processes. We need to assess an effective method of characterization for the flux pinning stability under PFM. We compared two HTS bulks: one shows a flux flow and relatively small trapped flux while the other is magnetized with a little flux instability and a large integrated trapped flux. These Gd123 bulks are 100 mm in diameter and 20 mm in thickness. After applying PFM at the liquid nitrogen temperature, we measured the trapped field density distribution and introduced a new parameter representing the trapped flux instability at each position on the surface of the bulk. We propose a way of visualization of the flux pinning instability of the HTS bulks.

  18. Field Method for Integrating the First Order Differential Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-qun; ZHENG Shi-wang; ZHANG Yao-yu

    2007-01-01

    An important modern method in analytical mechanics for finding the integral, which is called the field-method, is used to research the solution of a differential equation of the first order. First, by introducing an intermediate variable, a more complicated differential equation of the first order can be expressed by two simple differential equations of the first order, then the field-method in analytical mechanics is introduced for solving the two differential equations of the first order. The conclusion shows that the field-method in analytical mechanics can be fully used to find the solutions of a differential equation of the first order, thus a new method for finding the solutions of the first order is provided.

  19. Reservoir characterization by multiattribute analysis: The Orito field case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Luis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to characterize the Caballos formation reservoir in the Orito field in the Putumayo basin - Colombia, a multiattribute analysis was applied to a 50 km2 seismic volume along with 16 boreholes. Some properties of the reservoir were reliably estimated and very accurate when compared with well data. The porosity, permeability and volume of shale were calculated in the seismic volume by at least second order multivariate polynomial. A good correlation between porosity and acoustic impedance was observed by means of crossplot analysis performed on properties measured and estimated in cores or borehole logs as well as on properties calculated in the seismic volume. The estimated property values were well behaved according to the rocks physics analysis. With the property maps generated and the geological environments of the reservoir a new interpretation of the Caballos formation was established. High correlation coefficients and low estimated errors point out competence to calculate these three reservoir properties in places far from the influence of the wells. The multiple equation system was established through weighted hierarchical grouping of attributes and their coefficients calculated applying the inverse generalized matrix method.

  20. NIS method for uncertainty estimation of airborne sound insulation measurement in field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Basheer Tarek M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In structures, airborne sound insulation is utilized to characterize the acoustic nature of barriers between rooms. However, the assessment of sound insulation index is once in a while troublesome or indeed, even questionable, both in field and laboratory measurements, notwithstanding the way that there are some unified measurement methodology indicated in the ISO 140 series standards. There are issues with the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurement results. A few troubles might be brought on by non-diffuse acoustic fields, non-uniform reverberation time, or blunders of the reverberation time measurements. Some minor issues are additionally postured by flanking transmission. In this paper, investigation of the uncertainties of the above specified measurement parts and their impact on the consolidated uncertainty in 1/3-octave frequency band. The total measurement uncertainty model contributes several different partial uncertainties, which are evaluated by the method of type A or type B. Also, the determination of the sound reduction index decided by ISO 140-4 has been performed.

  1. Method of regulating magnetic field of magnetic pole center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masao; Yamada, Teruo; Kato, Norihiko; Toda, Yojiro; Kaneda, Yasumasa.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject method comprising using a plurality of magnetic metal pieces having different thicknesses, regulating very easily symmetry of the field of the magnetic pole center depending upon the combination of said metal pieces, thereby obtaining a magnetic field of high precision. Method: The regulation of magnetic field at the central part of the magnetic field is not depending only upon processing of the center plug, axial movement of trim coil and ion source but by providing a magnetic metal piece such as an iron ring, primary higher harmonics of the field at the center of the magnetic field can be regulated simply while the position of the ion source slit is on the equipotential surface in the field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  2. PHASE GRADIENT METHOD OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ptitsyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of electric and hybrid vehicles demands real time magnetic field control, for instance, for fire and electromagnetic safety. The article deals with a method of magnetic field measurements onboard electric cars taking into account peculiar features of these fields. The method is based on differential methods of measurements, and minimizes the quantity of magnetic sensors.

  3. Algebraic characterization of vector supersymmetry in topological field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, L.C.Q.; Ventura, O.S.; Sasaki, C.A.G. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sorella, S.P. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Teorica

    1997-01-01

    An algebraic cohomological characterization of a class of linearly broken Ward identities is provided. The examples of the topological vector supersymmetry and of the Landau ghost equation are discussed in detail. The existence of such a linearly broken Ward identities turns out to be related to BRST exact anti-field dependent cocycles with negative ghost number, according to the cohomological reformulation of the Noether theorem given by M. Henneaux et al. (author). 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Monte Carlo method to characterize radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Josenilson B.; Dellamano, Jose C.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive methods for radioactive waste drums characterization have being developed in the Waste Management Department (GRR) at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN. This study was conducted as part of the radioactive wastes characterization program in order to meet specifications and acceptance criteria for final disposal imposed by regulatory control by gamma spectrometry. One of the main difficulties in the detectors calibration process is to obtain the counting efficiencies that can be solved by the use of mathematical techniques. The aim of this work was to develop a methodology to characterize drums using gamma spectrometry and Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo is a widely used mathematical technique, which simulates the radiation transport in the medium, thus obtaining the efficiencies calibration of the detector. The equipment used in this work is a heavily shielded Hyperpure Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with an electronic setup composed of high voltage source, amplifier and multiport multichannel analyzer and MCNP software for Monte Carlo simulation. The developing of this methodology will allow the characterization of solid radioactive wastes packed in drums and stored at GRR. (author)

  5. Three-dimensional Magnetotelluric Characterization of the Xinzhou Geothermal Field, Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Q.; Hu, X.; Cai, J.; Wei, W.

    2016-12-01

    Xinzhou geothermal field is located in the Guangdong province and adjacent to the China South Sea, and its hot springs can reach up to 92 degree Celsius. Yanshanian granite expose widely in the south of this geothermal field and four faults cut across each other over it. A dense grid of 176 magnetotelluric (MT) sites with broadband has been acquired over the Xinzhou geothermal field and its surrounding area. Due to the related electromagnetic (EM) noise one permanent observatory was placed as a remote reference to suppress this cultural EM noise interference. The datasets are processed using the mutual reference technique, static shift correction, and structural strike and dimensionality analysis based on tensor decomposition. Data analysis reveals that the underground conductivity structure has obvious three-dimensional characterization. For the high resolution result ,two and three dimensional inversion are both applied in this area employing the non-linear conjugate gradient method (NLCG).These MT data sets are supposed to detect the deep subsurface resistivity structure correlated to the distribution of geothermal reservoir (such as faults and fractured granite) and investigate the channel of the upwelling magma. The whole and cold granite usually present high resistivity but once it functions as reservoir the resistivity will decrease, sometimes it is hard to separate the reservoir from the cap layer. The 3D inversion results delineate three high resistivity anomalies distributed in different locations. At last we put forward that the large areas of granite form the major thermal source for the study area and discuss whether any melt under these magma intrusions exists.

  6. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-structured Ceramic Powders Synthesized by Emulsion Combustion Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatori, Kazumasa; Tani, Takao; Watanabe, Naoyoshi; Kamiya, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    The emulsion combustion method (ECM), a novel powder production process, was originally developed to synthesize nano-structured metal-oxide powders. Metal ions in the aqueous droplets were rapidly oxidized by the combustion of the surrounding flammable liquid. The ECM achieved a small reaction field and a short reaction period to fabricate the submicron-sized hollow ceramic particles with extremely thin wall and chemically homogeneous ceramic powder. Alumina, zirconia, zirconia-ceria solid solutions and barium titanate were synthesized by the ECM process. Alumina and zirconia powders were characterized to be metastable in crystalline phase and hollow structure. The wall thickness of alumina was about 10 nm. The zirconia-ceria powders were found to be single-phase solid solutions for a wide composition range. These powders were characterized as equiaxed-shape, submicron-sized chemically homogeneous materials. The powder formation mechanism was investigated through the synthesis of barium titanate powder with different metal sources

  8. An analytical-numerical comprehensive method for optimizing the fringing magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Meiqin; Mao Naifeng

    1991-01-01

    The criterion of optimizing the fringing magnetic field is discussed, and an analytical-numerical comprehensive method for realizing the optimization is introduced. The method mentioned above consists of two parts, the analytical part calculates the field of the shims, which corrects the fringing magnetic field by using uniform magnetizing method; the numerical part fulfils the whole calculation of the field distribution by solving the equation of magnetic vector potential A within the region covered by arbitrary triangular meshes with the aid of finite difference method and successive over relaxation method. On the basis of the method, the optimization of the fringing magnetic field for a large-scale electromagnetic isotope separator is finished

  9. Linear–Quadratic Mean-Field-Type Games: A Direct Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone E. Duncan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a multi-person mean-field-type game is formulated and solved that is described by a linear jump-diffusion system of mean-field type and a quadratic cost functional involving the second moments, the square of the expected value of the state, and the control actions of all decision-makers. We propose a direct method to solve the game, team, and bargaining problems. This solution approach does not require solving the Bellman–Kolmogorov equations or backward–forward stochastic differential equations of Pontryagin’s type. The proposed method can be easily implemented by beginners and engineers who are new to the emerging field of mean-field-type game theory. The optimal strategies for decision-makers are shown to be in a state-and-mean-field feedback form. The optimal strategies are given explicitly as a sum of the well-known linear state-feedback strategy for the associated deterministic linear–quadratic game problem and a mean-field feedback term. The equilibrium cost of the decision-makers are explicitly derived using a simple direct method. Moreover, the equilibrium cost is a weighted sum of the initial variance and an integral of a weighted variance of the diffusion and the jump process. Finally, the method is used to compute global optimum strategies as well as saddle point strategies and Nash bargaining solution in state-and-mean-field feedback form.

  10. Hydraulic characterization of rocky subsurface using field infiltrometer measurements coupled with hydrogeophysical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, M. C.; de Carlo, L.; de Benedictis, F.; Vurro, M.

    2009-04-01

    The shallow and/or karstic and fractured aquifers are among the most important water resources. At the same time, they are particularly vulnerable to contamination. A detailed scientific knowledge of the behavior of these aquifers is essential for the development of sustainable groundwater management. Different investigation methods have been developed with the aim to characterize the subsurface and to monitor the flow and solute transport in these hydrogeology systems. This study presents the results of an investigation method, that combine large infiltrometer measurements with elettrical resistivity profiles, carried out in two different experimental sites characterized by different hydrogeology systems. One site, close to Altamura a city in the South of Italy, is represented from karstic and fractured limestone that overlays the deep aquifer. This area has been affected by sludge waste deposits derived from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. The second site, close to San Pancrazio Salentino town in Southern Italy also, is represented from a quarry of calcarenite that has been used as a dump of sludge of mycelium producted from pharmaceutical industry. In both these cases the waste disposal have caused soil-subsoil contamination. Knowledge of the flow rate of the unsaturated zone percolation is needed to investigate the vertical migration of pollutants and the vulnerability of the aquifers. In this study, subsurface electrical resistivity measurements were used to visualize the infiltration of water in the subsoil due to unsaturated water flow. Simultaneously, the vertical flow was investigated by measuring water levels during infiltrometer tests carried out using a large adjustable ring infiltrometer, designed to be installed in the field directly on the outcrop of rock. In addition electrical resistivity azimuthal surveys have been conducted to detect principal fractures strike directions that cause preferential flow. The results obtained

  11. Near-field mapping by laser ablation of PMMA coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, J.; Maibohm, C.; Kostiucenko, O.

    2011-01-01

    The optical near-field of lithography-defined gold nanostructures, arranged into regular arrays on a gold film, is characterized via ablation of a polymer coating by laser illumination. The method utilizes femto-second laser pulses from a laser scanning microscope which induces electrical field...... that the different stages in the ablation process can be controlled and characterized making the technique suitable for characterizing optical near-fields of metal nanostructures....

  12. Characterization of field isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae with mating type, DNA fingerprinting, and pathogenicity assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the harmful nature of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, it is beneficial to characterize field isolates to help aid in the deployment of resistance (R) genes in rice. In the present study, 190 field isolates of M. oryzae, collected from rice fields of Yunnan province in China, were a...

  13. Binary pseudo-random patterned structures for modulation transfer function calibration and resolution characterization of a full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, V. V., E-mail: VVYashchuk@lbl.gov; Chan, E. R.; Lacey, I. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fischer, P. J. [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 94056 (United States); Conley, R. [Advance Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); McKinney, W. R. [Diablo Valley College, 321 Golf Club Road, Pleasant Hill, California 94523 (United States); Artemiev, N. A. [KLA-Tencor Corp., 1 Technology Drive, Milpitas, California 95035 (United States); Bouet, N. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Cabrini, S. [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Calafiore, G.; Peroz, C.; Babin, S. [aBeam Technologies, Inc., Hayward, California 94541 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We present a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) one-dimensional sequences and two-dimensional arrays as an effective method for spectral characterization in the spatial frequency domain of a broad variety of metrology instrumentation, including interferometric microscopes, scatterometers, phase shifting Fizeau interferometers, scanning and transmission electron microscopes, and at this time, x-ray microscopes. The inherent power spectral density of BPR gratings and arrays, which has a deterministic white-noise-like character, allows a direct determination of the MTF with a uniform sensitivity over the entire spatial frequency range and field of view of an instrument. We demonstrate the MTF calibration and resolution characterization over the full field of a transmission soft x-ray microscope using a BPR multilayer (ML) test sample with 2.8 nm fundamental layer thickness. We show that beyond providing a direct measurement of the microscope’s MTF, tests with the BPRML sample can be used to fine tune the instrument’s focal distance. Our results confirm the universality of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  14. Binary pseudo-random patterned structures for modulation transfer function calibration and resolution characterization of a full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, V. V.; Chan, E. R.; Lacey, I.; Fischer, P. J.; Conley, R.; McKinney, W. R.; Artemiev, N. A.; Bouet, N.; Cabrini, S.; Calafiore, G.; Peroz, C.; Babin, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) one-dimensional sequences and two-dimensional arrays as an effective method for spectral characterization in the spatial frequency domain of a broad variety of metrology instrumentation, including interferometric microscopes, scatterometers, phase shifting Fizeau interferometers, scanning and transmission electron microscopes, and at this time, x-ray microscopes. The inherent power spectral density of BPR gratings and arrays, which has a deterministic white-noise-like character, allows a direct determination of the MTF with a uniform sensitivity over the entire spatial frequency range and field of view of an instrument. We demonstrate the MTF calibration and resolution characterization over the full field of a transmission soft x-ray microscope using a BPR multilayer (ML) test sample with 2.8 nm fundamental layer thickness. We show that beyond providing a direct measurement of the microscope’s MTF, tests with the BPRML sample can be used to fine tune the instrument’s focal distance. Our results confirm the universality of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters

  15. Method of valuation of water field capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dancette, C.; Maertens, C.

    1973-01-01

    A method allowing the obtention of an approximation of field capacity, with only the determination of water retention at pF=3, is described. In alluvial soils, the accuracy of this method appears sufficient to satisfy the current needs in agriculture problems [fr

  16. Electromagnetic field computation by network methods

    CERN Document Server

    Felsen, Leopold B; Russer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This monograph proposes a systematic and rigorous treatment of electromagnetic field representations in complex structures. The book presents new strong models by combining important computational methods. This is the last book of the late Leopold Felsen.

  17. Characterization of TLD-100 micro-cubes for use in small field dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña-Jiménez, Salvador, E-mail: zoid-9861@yahoo.com.mx; Gamboa-deBuen, Isabel, E-mail: gamboa@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, 04510 DF (Mexico); Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel, E-mail: jose.larraga.gtz@gmail.com, E-mail: amanda.garcia.g@gmail.com; García-Garduño, Olivia Amanda, E-mail: jose.larraga.gtz@gmail.com, E-mail: amanda.garcia.g@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Av. Insurgentes Sur 3877, 14269 DF (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    At present there are no international regulations for the management of millimeter scale fields and there are no suggestions for a reference detector to perform the characterization and dose determination for unconventional radiation beams (small fields) so that the dosimetry of small fields remains an open research field worldwide because these fields are used in radiotherapy treatments. Sensitivity factors and reproducibility of TLD-100 micro-cubes (1×1×1 mm3) were determinate irradiating the dosimeters with a 6 MV beam in a linear accelerator dedicated to radiosurgery at the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN). Thermoluminescent response as a function of dose was determined for doses in water between 0.5 and 3 Gy and two field sizes (2×2 cm2 and 10×10 cm2). It was found that the response is linear over the dose range studied and it does not depend on field size.

  18. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knápek, Alexandr, E-mail: knapek@isibrno.cz [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic); Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel [Department of Physics, FEEC, Brno University of Technology, Technická 8, Brno (Czech Republic); Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  19. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knápek, Alexandr; Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel; Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  20. Force-free magnetic fields - The magneto-frictional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. H.; Sturrock, P. A.; Antiochos, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    The problem under discussion is that of calculating magnetic field configurations in which the Lorentz force j x B is everywhere zero, subject to specified boundary conditions. We choose to represent the magnetic field in terms of Clebsch variables in the form B = grad alpha x grad beta. These variables are constant on any field line so that each field line is labeled by the corresponding values of alpha and beta. When the field is described in this way, the most appropriate choice of boundary conditions is to specify the values of alpha and beta on the bounding surface. We show that such field configurations may be calculated by a magneto-frictional method. We imagine that the field lines move through a stationary medium, and that each element of magnetic field is subject to a frictional force parallel to and opposing the velocity of the field line. This concept leads to an iteration procedure for modifying the variables alpha and beta, that tends asymptotically towards the force-free state. We apply the method first to a simple problem in two rectangular dimensions, and then to a problem of cylindrical symmetry that was previously discussed by Barnes and Sturrock (1972). In one important respect, our new results differ from the earlier results of Barnes and Sturrock, and we conclude that the earlier article was in error.

  1. Calibration and uncertainty in electromagnetic fields measuring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglesio, L.; Crotti, G.; Borsero, M.; Vizio, G.

    1999-01-01

    Calibration and reliability in electromagnetic field measuring methods are assured by calibration of measuring instruments. In this work are illustrated systems for generation of electromagnetic fields at low and high frequency, calibration standard and accuracy [it

  2. Field screening for hexavalent chromium in soil: A fast-turnaround field method based on water extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCain, R.G.; Baechler, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium dichromate has been identified as a contaminant of concern at several waste sites on the Hanford Site. Although chromium standards for soil are typically stated in terms of total chrome, much of the toxicity and carcinogenicity are attributed to the hexavalent state, which typically exists as a relatively mobile anion. Investigation and removal of crushed drums potentially containing residual sodium dichromate required a field test for hexavalent chromium to support characterization and remediation activities. Previous experience with a commercially available field test kit had been unsuccessful. This stimulated an effort to determine potential sources of error in the field test and led to a number of modifications that significantly improved the reliability of the test

  3. Adaptive and robust statistical methods for processing near-field scanning microwave microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, K J; Imtiaz, A; Wallis, T M; Weber, J C; Berweger, S; Kabos, P

    2015-03-01

    Near-field scanning microwave microscopy offers great potential to facilitate characterization, development and modeling of materials. By acquiring microwave images at multiple frequencies and amplitudes (along with the other modalities) one can study material and device physics at different lateral and depth scales. Images are typically noisy and contaminated by artifacts that can vary from scan line to scan line and planar-like trends due to sample tilt errors. Here, we level images based on an estimate of a smooth 2-d trend determined with a robust implementation of a local regression method. In this robust approach, features and outliers which are not due to the trend are automatically downweighted. We denoise images with the Adaptive Weights Smoothing method. This method smooths out additive noise while preserving edge-like features in images. We demonstrate the feasibility of our methods on topography images and microwave |S11| images. For one challenging test case, we demonstrate that our method outperforms alternative methods from the scanning probe microscopy data analysis software package Gwyddion. Our methods should be useful for massive image data sets where manual selection of landmarks or image subsets by a user is impractical. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Characterizing the marker-dye correction for Gafchromic(®) EBT2 film: a comparison of three analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw, Travis J; Micka, John A; Dewerd, Larry A

    2011-10-01

    Gafchromic(®) EBT2 film has a yellow marker dye incorporated into the active layer of the film that can be used to correct the film response for small variations in thickness. This work characterizes the effect of the marker-dye correction on the uniformity and uncertainty of dose measurements with EBT2 film. The effect of variations in time postexposure on the uniformity of EBT2 is also investigated. EBT2 films were used to measure the flatness of a (60)Co field to provide a high-spatial resolution evaluation of the film uniformity. As a reference, the flatness of the (60)Co field was also measured with Kodak EDR2 films. The EBT2 films were digitized with a flatbed document scanner 24, 48, and 72 h postexposure, and the images were analyzed using three methods: (1) the manufacturer-recommended marker-dye correction, (2) an in-house marker-dye correction, and (3) a net optical density (OD) measurement in the red color channel. The field flatness was calculated from orthogonal profiles through the center of the field using each analysis method, and the results were compared with the EDR2 measurements. Uncertainty was propagated through a dose calculation for each analysis method. The change in the measured field flatness for increasing times postexposure was also determined. Both marker-dye correction methods improved the field flatness measured with EBT2 film relative to the net OD method, with a maximum improvement of 1% using the manufacturer-recommended correction. However, the manufacturer-recommended correction also resulted in a dose uncertainty an order of magnitude greater than the other two methods. The in-house marker-dye correction lowered the dose uncertainty relative to the net OD method. The measured field flatness did not exhibit any unidirectional change with increasing time postexposure and showed a maximum change of 0.3%. The marker dye in EBT2 can be used to improve the response uniformity of the film. Depending on the film analysis method used

  5. Analytical Methods for Biomass Characterization during Pretreatment and Bioconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Yunqiao [ORNL; Meng, Xianzhi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Yoo, Chang Geun; Li, Mi; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been introduced as a promising resource for alternative fuels and chemicals because of its abundance and complement for petroleum resources. Biomass is a complex biopolymer and its compositional and structural characteristics largely vary depending on its species as well as growth environments. Because of complexity and variety of biomass, understanding its physicochemical characteristics is a key for effective biomass utilization. Characterization of biomass does not only provide critical information of biomass during pretreatment and bioconversion, but also give valuable insights on how to utilize the biomass. For better understanding biomass characteristics, good grasp and proper selection of analytical methods are necessary. This chapter introduces existing analytical approaches that are widely employed for biomass characterization during biomass pretreatment and conversion process. Diverse analytical methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for biomass characterization are reviewed. In addition, biomass accessibility methods by analyzing surface properties of biomass are also summarized in this chapter.

  6. An effective parameter optimization technique for vibration flow field characterization of PP melts via LS-SVM combined with SALS in an electromagnetism dynamic extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Guangming

    2018-03-01

    A method for predicting the optimal vibration field parameters by least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) is presented in this paper. One convenient and commonly used technique for characterizing the the vibration flow field of polymer melts films is small angle light scattering (SALS) in a visualized slit die of the electromagnetism dynamic extruder. The optimal value of vibration vibration frequency, vibration amplitude, and the maximum light intensity projection area can be obtained by using LS-SVM for prediction. For illustrating this method and show its validity, the flowing material is used with polypropylene (PP) and fifteen samples are tested at the rotation speed of screw at 36rpm. This paper first describes the apparatus of SALS to perform the experiments, then gives the theoretical basis of this new method, and detail the experimental results for parameter prediction of vibration flow field. It is demonstrated that it is possible to use the method of SALS and obtain detailed information on optimal parameter of vibration flow field of PP melts by LS-SVM.

  7. Bioactive conformational generation of small molecules: A comparative analysis between force-field and multiple empirical criteria based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hualiang

    2010-11-01

    ensemble with high accuracy but approximately the same computational cost in comparison with FFBM method. Our analysis also reveals that the performance of conformational generation is irrelevant to the types of force field adopted in characterization of conformational accessibility. Moreover, post energy minimization is not necessary and may even undermine the diversity of conformational ensemble. All the results guide us to explore more empirical criteria like geometric restraints during the conformational process, which may improve the performance of conformational generation in combination with energetic accessibility, regardless of force field types adopted.

  8. Application of support vector regression for optimization of vibration flow field of high-density polyethylene melts characterized by small angle light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Guangming

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the vibration flow field parameters of polymer melts in a visual slit die are optimized by using intelligent algorithm. Experimental small angle light scattering (SALS) patterns are shown to characterize the processing process. In order to capture the scattered light, a polarizer and an analyzer are placed before and after the polymer melts. The results reported in this study are obtained using high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with rotation speed at 28 rpm. In addition, support vector regression (SVR) analytical method is introduced for optimization the parameters of vibration flow field. This work establishes the general applicability of SVR for predicting the optimal parameters of vibration flow field.

  9. Electrostatic field in inhomogeneous dielectric media. I. Indirect boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, N.S.; Gang, F.; Ko, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A computationally fast method is presented for calculating electrostatic field in arbitrary inhomogeneous dielectric media with open boundary condition. The method involves dividing the whole space into cubical cells and then finding effective dielectric parameters for interfacial cells consisting of several dielectrics. The electrostatic problem is then solved using either the indirect boundary element method described in this paper or the so-called volume element method described in the companion paper. Both methods are tested for accuracy by comparing the numerically calculated electrostatic fields against those analytically obtained for a dielectric sphere and dielectric ellipsoid in a uniform field and for a dielectric sphere in a point charge field

  10. Strategies and Perceptions of Students' Field Note-Taking Skills: Insights from a Geothermal Field Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohaney, Jacqueline; Brogt, Erik; Kennedy, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Field note-taking skills are fundamental in the geosciences but are rarely explicitly taught. In a mixed-method study of an introductory geothermal field lesson, we characterize the content and perceptions of students' note-taking skills to derive the strategies that students use in the field. We collected several data sets: observations of the…

  11. Toward the Experimental Characterization of an Unmanned Air System Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, John-Michael; Connors, Jacob; Glauser, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The velocity flow field around a small unmanned air system (sUAS) is investigated in a series of experiments at Syracuse University. Experiments are conducted in the 2'x2' sub-sonic wind tunnel at Syracuse University and the Indoor Flow Lab. The goal of these experiments is to gain a better understanding of the rich, turbulent flow field that a sUAS creates. Comparison to large, multi-rotor manned vehicles is done to gain a better understanding of the flow physics that could be occurring with the sUAS. Regions of investigation include the downwash, above the vehicle, and far downstream. Characterization of the flow is performed using hotwire anemometry. Investigation of several locations around the sUAS show that dominant frequencies exist within the flow field. Analysis of the flow field using power spectral density will be presented as well as looking at which parameters have an effect on these dominant frequencies.

  12. Optical methods for characterization of surface structures on a nanometer scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    When studying a sample with subwavelength features using conventional microscopy, the diffraction limit sets a lower bound to the resolution achievable. In this work the possiblity of circumventing the diffraction limit by employing a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) to perform...... the characterization is investigated. Experimental SNOM images of the optical field distribution above a deep grating are analyzed with the purpose of identifying the grating topography, and transfer functions describing the coupling of the free-space field to the guided mode of the SNOM fiber are determined...

  13. Determination of the optimal method for the field-in-field technique in breast tangential radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hayashi, Shinya; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported the usefulness of the field-in-field (FIF) technique in breast radiotherapy. However, the methods for the FIF technique used in these studies vary. These methods were classified into three categories. We simulated a radiotherapy plan with each method and analyzed the outcomes. In the first method, a pair of subfields was added to each main field: the single pair of subfields method (SSM). In the second method, three pairs of subfields were added to each main field: the multiple pairs of subfields method (MSM). In the third method, subfields were alternately added: the alternate subfields method (ASM). A total of 51 patients were enrolled in this study. The maximum dose to the planning target volume (PTV) (Dmax) and the volumes of the PTV receiving 100% of the prescription dose (V100%) were calculated. The thickness of the breast between the chest wall and skin surface was measured, and patients were divided into two groups according to the median. In the overall series, the average V100% with ASM (60.3%) was significantly higher than with SSM (52.6%) and MSM (48.7%). In the thin breast group as well, the average V100% with ASM (57.3%) and SSM (54.2%) was significantly higher than that with MSM (43.3%). In the thick breast group, the average V100% with ASM (63.4%) was significantly higher than that with SSM (51.0%) and MSM (54.4%). ASM resulted in better dose distribution, regardless of the breast size. Moreover, planning for ASM required a relatively short time. ASM was considered the most preferred method. (author)

  14. Outdoor characterization of radio frequency electromagnetic fields in a Spanish birth cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvente, I.; Fernández, M.F.; Pérez-Lobato, R.; Dávila-Arias, C.; Ocón, O.; Ramos, R.; Ríos-Arrabal, S.; Villalba-Moreno, J.

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable public concern in many countries about the possible adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation electromagnetic fields, especially in vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental exposure profiles within the frequency range 100 kHz–6 GHz in the immediate surrounds of the dwellings of 123 families from the INMA-Granada birth cohort in Southern Spain, using spot measurements. The arithmetic mean root mean-square electric field (E RMS ) and power density (S RMS ) values were, respectively, 195.79 mV/m (42.3% of data were above this mean) and 799.01 µW/m 2 (30% of values were above this mean); median values were 148.80 mV/m and 285.94 µW/m 2 , respectively. Exposure levels below the quantification limit were assigned a value of 0.01 V/m. Incident field strength levels varied widely among different areas or towns/villages, demonstrating spatial variability in the distribution of exposure values related to the surface area population size and also among seasons. Although recorded values were well below International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels, there is a particular need to characterize incident field strength levels in vulnerable populations (e.g., children) because of their chronic and ever-increasing exposure. The effects of incident field strength have not been fully elucidated; however, it may be appropriate to apply the precautionary principle in order to reduce exposure in susceptible groups. - Highlights: • Spot measurements were performed in the immediate surrounds of children's dwellings. • Mean root mean-square electric field and power density values were calculated. • Most recorded values were far below international standard guideline limits. • Data demonstrate spatial variability in the distribution of exposure levels. • While adverse effects are proven, application of the precautionary principle may be appropriate

  15. Two-Photon Polymerization Metrology: Characterization Methods of Mechanisms and Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N. LaFratta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to create complex three-dimensional microstructures has reached an unprecedented level of sophistication in the last 15 years. For the most part, this is the result of a steady development of the additive manufacturing technique named two-photon polymerization (TPP. In a short amount of time, TPP has gone from being a microfabrication novelty employed largely by laser specialists to a useful tool in the hands of scientists and engineers working in a wide range of research fields including microfluidics. When used in combination with traditional microfabrication processes, TPP can be employed to add unique three-dimensional components to planar platforms, thus enabling the realization of lab-on-a-chip solutions otherwise impossible to create. To take full advantage of TPP, an in-depth understanding is required of the materials photochemistry and the fabricated microstructures’ mechanical and chemical properties. Thus, we review methods developed so far to investigate the underling mechanism involved during TPP and analytical methods employed to characterize TPP microstructures. Furthermore, we will discuss potential opportunities for using optofluidics and lab-on-a-chip systems for TPP metrology.

  16. Accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, M.; Sakai, I.; Someya, H.; Sasaki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We present an accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of the quadrupole magnet. The method of obtaining the information of the field gradient and the effective focussing length is given. A new scheme to obtain the information of the skew field components is also proposed. The relative accuracy of the measurement was 1 x 10 -4 or less. (author)

  17. Application of artificial intelligence to characterize naturally fractured zones in Hassi Messaoud Oil Field, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouahed, Abdelkader Kouider; Mazouzi, Amine [Sonatrach, Rue Djenane Malik, Hydra, Algiers (Algeria); Tiab, Djebbar [Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, 100 East Boyd Street, SEC T310, Norman, OK, 73019 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    In highly heterogeneous reservoirs classical characterization methods often fail to detect the location and orientation of the fractures. Recent applications of Artificial Intelligence to the area of reservoir characterization have made this challenge a possible practice. Such a practice consists of seeking the complex relationship between the fracture index and some geological and geomechanical drivers (facies, porosity, permeability, bed thickness, proximity to faults, slopes and curvatures of the structure) in order to obtain a fracture intensity map using Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network. This paper shows the successful application of Artificial Intelligence tools such as Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. A 2D fracture intensity map and fracture network map in a large block of Hassi Messaoud field have been developed using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic. This was achieved by first building the geological model of the permeability, porosity and shale volume using stochastic conditional simulation. Then by applying some geomechanical concepts first and second structure directional derivatives, distance to the nearest fault, and bed thickness were calculated throughout the entire area of interest. Two methods were then used to select the appropriate fracture intensity index. In the first method well performance was used as a fracture index. In the second method a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) was built. Using this FIS, static and dynamic data were coupled to reduce the uncertainty, which resulted in a more reliable Fracture Index. The different geological and geomechanical drivers were ranked with the corresponding fracture index for both methods using a Fuzzy Ranking algorithm. Only important and measurable data were selected to be mapped with the appropriate fracture index using a feed forward Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). The neural network was then used to obtain a fracture intensity

  18. New Method for Solving Inductive Electric Fields in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhamäki, H.

    2005-12-01

    We present a new method for calculating inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. It is well established that on large scales the ionospheric electric field is a potential field. This is understandable, since the temporal variations of large scale current systems are generally quite slow, in the timescales of several minutes, so inductive effects should be small. However, studies of Alfven wave reflection have indicated that in some situations inductive phenomena could well play a significant role in the reflection process, and thus modify the nature of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. The input to our calculation method are the time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfven wave reflection from uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  19. Nucleation and growth characterization by field-ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inal, O.T.; Scherer, A.

    1985-01-01

    Field-ion microscopy affords atomic resolution and thus is ideally suited for studies involving the nucleation and growth of overlayers on the conical field-emission end forms. The added capability of filed-assisted removal of atomic layers gives this technique a unique three-dimensional capability which is invaluable for the controlled removal of atomic layers and delineation of the depth information. The description of the transition from overlayer to substrate is afforded by a change in the ratio of best image to field evaporation voltages (BIV/FEV). Since the adatom layers are necessarily quite thin (>20 nm) a careful characterization in an SEM and the associated energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) is certainly worthwhile. The modes of deposition utilized in the studies to be presented include in-situ vapor deposition, electroless (cementation) and electrodeposition of metallic and oxide overgrowths. In-situ vapor deposition allows for imaging-coating-reimaging practice without the introduction of artifacts on these small substrate surfaces quite prone to air of humidity induced etching and alteration. Vapor deposition thus affords the only means of full recovery of the imaging surface at thin coverages. The extent of the coverage can be increased by in-situ tip heating and through reduced misfit between the two species of concern. Although electrolytic or electroless depositions afford much thicker overgrowths, the contact of the field-emission end form with an aqueous medium results in a chemical dissolution that increases with the increasing pH of the solution. The recovered surface is a new surface generated through this etching but still containing the imaging features of the substrate and thus is quite easy to distinguish

  20. Electric field control methods for foil coils in high-voltage linear actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes multiple electric field control methods for foil coils in high-voltage coreless linear actuators. The field control methods are evaluated using 2-D and 3-D boundary element methods. A comparison is presented between the field control methods and their ability to mitigate

  1. Method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from graphene field-effect transistors using a physical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscá, A.; Pedrós, J.; Martínez, J.; Calle, F.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its intrinsic high mobility, graphene has proved to be a suitable material for high-speed electronics, where graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has shown excellent properties. In this work, we present a method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from GFET devices using a simple electrical characterization and a model fitting. With experimental data from the device output characteristics, the method allows to calculate parameters such as the mobility, the contact resistance, and the fixed charge. Differentiated electron and hole mobilities and direct connection with intrinsic material properties are some of the key aspects of this method. Moreover, the method output values can be correlated with several issues during key fabrication steps such as the graphene growth and transfer, the lithographic steps, or the metalization processes, providing a flexible tool for quality control in GFET fabrication, as well as a valuable feedback for improving the material-growth process

  2. Method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from graphene field-effect transistors using a physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscá, A., E-mail: alberto.bosca@upm.es [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pedrós, J. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Campus de Excelencia Internacional, Campus Moncloa UCM-UPM, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Martínez, J. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Dpto. de Ciencia de Materiales, E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Calle, F. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Campus de Excelencia Internacional, Campus Moncloa UCM-UPM, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-01-28

    Due to its intrinsic high mobility, graphene has proved to be a suitable material for high-speed electronics, where graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has shown excellent properties. In this work, we present a method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from GFET devices using a simple electrical characterization and a model fitting. With experimental data from the device output characteristics, the method allows to calculate parameters such as the mobility, the contact resistance, and the fixed charge. Differentiated electron and hole mobilities and direct connection with intrinsic material properties are some of the key aspects of this method. Moreover, the method output values can be correlated with several issues during key fabrication steps such as the graphene growth and transfer, the lithographic steps, or the metalization processes, providing a flexible tool for quality control in GFET fabrication, as well as a valuable feedback for improving the material-growth process.

  3. Radiometric method for the characterization of particulate processes in colloidal suspensions. II. Experimental verification of the method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subotic, B. [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1979-09-15

    A radiometric method for the characterization of particulate processes is verified using stable hydrosols of silver iodide. Silver iodide hydrosols satisfy the conditions required for the applications of the proposed method. Comparison shows that the values for the change of particle size measured in silver iodide hydrosols by the proposed method are in excellent agreement with the values obtained by other methods on the same systems (electron microscopy, sedimentation analysis, light scattering). This shows that the proposed method is suitable for the characterization of particulate processes in colloidal suspensions. (Auth.).

  4. Apparatus and procedure to characterize the surface quality of conductors by measuring the rate of cathode emission as a function of surface electric field strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestayer, Mac; Christo, Steve; Taylor, Mark

    2014-10-21

    A device and method for characterizing quality of a conducting surface. The device including a gaseous ionizing chamber having centrally located inside the chamber a conducting sample to be tested to which a negative potential is applied, a plurality of anode or "sense" wires spaced regularly about the central test wire, a plurality of "field wires" at a negative potential are spaced regularly around the sense, and a plurality of "guard wires" at a positive potential are spaced regularly around the field wires in the chamber. The method utilizing the device to measure emission currents from the conductor.

  5. Characterization of field-measured soil-water properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.R.; Reichardt, K.; Wierenga, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a five-year co-ordinated research programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Use of Radiation and Isotope Techniques in Studies of Soil-Water Regimes, soil physicists examined soil-water properties of one or two field sites in 11 different countries (Brazil, Belgium, Cyprus, Chile, Israel, Japan, Madagascar, Nigeria, Senegal, Syria and Thailand). The results indicate that the redistribution method yields values of soil-water properties that have a large degree of uncertainty, and that this uncertainty is not necessarily related to the kind of soil being analysed. Regardless of the fundamental cause of this uncertainty (experimental and computational errors versus natural soil variability), the conclusion is that further developments of field technology depend upon stochastic rather than deterministic concepts

  6. Gypsy Field Project in Reservoir Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John P. Castagna; William J. Lamb; Carlos Moreno; Roger Young; Lynn Soreghan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Gypsy Project was to properly calculate seismic attributes and integrate these into a reservoir characterization project. Significant progress was made on the project in four areas. (1) Attenuation: In order for seismic inversion for rock properties or calculation of seismic attributes used to estimate rock properties to be performed validly, it is necessary to deal with seismic data that has had true amplitude and frequency content restored to account for earth filtering effects that are generally not included in seismic reservoir characterization methodologies. This requires the accurate measurement of seismic attenuation, something that is rarely achieved in practice. It is hoped that such measurements may also provide additional independent seismic attributes for use in reservoir characterization studies. In 2000, we were concerned with the ground truthing of attenuation measurements in the vicinity of wells. Our approach to the problem is one of extracting as time varying wavelet and relating temporal variations in the wavelet to an attenuation model of the earth. This method has the advantage of correcting for temporal variations in the reflectivity spectrum of the earth which confound the spectral ratio methodology which is the most commonly applied means of measuring attenuation from surface seismic data. Part I of the report describes our efforts in seismic attenuation as applied to the Gypsy data. (2) Optimal Attributes: A bewildering array of seismic attributes is available to the reservoir geoscientist to try to establish correlations to rock properties. Ultimately, the use of such a large number of degrees of freedom in the search for correlations with limited well control leads to common misapplication of statistically insignificant results which yields invalid predictions. Cross-validation against unused wells can be used to recognize such problems, but does not offer a solution to the question of which attributes should be used

  7. Relaxation methods for gauge field equilibrium equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.; Piran, T.

    1984-01-01

    This article gives a pedagogical introduction to relaxation methods for the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations, with particular emphasis on treating nonlinear problems with delta-function source terms and axial symmetry, which arise in the context of effective Lagrangian approximations to the dynamics of quantized gauge fields. The authors present a detailed theoretical analysis of three models which are used as numerical examples: the classical Abelian Higgs model (illustrating charge screening), the semiclassical leading logarithm model (illustrating flux confinement within a free boundary or ''bag''), and the axially symmetric Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield monopoles (illustrating the occurrence of p topological quantum numbers in non-Abelian gauge fields). They then proceed to a self-contained introduction to the theory of relaxation methods and allied iterative numerical methods and to the practical aspects of their implementation, with attention to general issues which arise in the three examples. The authors conclude with a brief discussion of details of the numerical solution of the models, presenting sample numerical results

  8. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  9. Genetic Algorithms: A New Method for Neutron Beam Spectral Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David W. Freeman

    2000-01-01

    A revolutionary new concept for solving the neutron spectrum unfolding problem using genetic algorithms (GAs) has recently been introduced. GAs are part of a new field of evolutionary solution techniques that mimic living systems with computer-simulated chromosome solutions that mate, mutate, and evolve to create improved solutions. The original motivation for the research was to improve spectral characterization of neutron beams associated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The GA unfolding technique has been successfully applied to problems with moderate energy resolution (up to 47 energy groups). Initial research indicates that the GA unfolding technique may well be superior to popular unfolding methods in common use. Research now under way at Kansas State University is focused on optimizing the unfolding algorithm and expanding its energy resolution to unfold detailed beam spectra based on multiple foil measurements. Indications are that the final code will significantly outperform current, state-of-the-art codes in use by the scientific community

  10. Four Methods for LIDAR Retrieval of Microscale Wind Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Naini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates four wind retrieval methods for micro-scale meteorology applications with volume and time resolution in the order of 30m3 and 5 s. Wind field vectors are estimated using sequential time-lapse volume images of aerosol density fluctuations. Suitably designed mono-static scanning backscatter LIDAR systems, which are sensitive to atmospheric density aerosol fluctuations, are expected to be ideal for this purpose. An important application is wind farm siting and evaluation. In this case, it is necessary to look at the complicated region between the earth’s surface and the boundary layer, where wind can be turbulent and fractal scaling from millimeter to kilometer. The methods are demonstrated using first a simple randomized moving hard target, and then with a physics based stochastic space-time dynamic turbulence model. In the latter case the actual vector wind field is known, allowing complete space-time error analysis. Two of the methods, the semblance method and the spatio-temporal method, are found to be most suitable for wind field estimation.

  11. Near-field visualization of plasmonic lenses: an overall analysis of characterization errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many factors influence the near-field visualization of plasmonic structures that are based on perforated elliptical slits. Here, characterization errors are experimentally analyzed in detail from both fabrication and measurement points of view. Some issues such as geometrical parameter, probe–sample surface interaction, misalignment, stigmation, and internal stress, have influence on the final near-field probing results. In comparison to the theoretical ideal case of near-field probing of the structures, numerical calculation is carried out on the basis of a finite-difference and time-domain (FDTD algorithm so as to support the error analyses. The analyses performed on the basis of both theoretical calculation and experimental probing can provide a helpful reference for the researchers probing their plasmonic structures and nanophotonic devices.

  12. Properties of field functionals and characterization of local functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouder, Christian; Dang, Nguyen Viet; Laurent-Gengoux, Camille; Rejzner, Kasia

    2018-02-01

    Functionals (i.e., functions of functions) are widely used in quantum field theory and solid-state physics. In this paper, functionals are given a rigorous mathematical framework and their main properties are described. The choice of the proper space of test functions (smooth functions) and of the relevant concept of differential (Bastiani differential) are discussed. The relation between the multiple derivatives of a functional and the corresponding distributions is described in detail. It is proved that, in a neighborhood of every test function, the support of a smooth functional is uniformly compactly supported and the order of the corresponding distribution is uniformly bounded. Relying on a recent work by Dabrowski, several spaces of functionals are furnished with a complete and nuclear topology. In view of physical applications, it is shown that most formal manipulations can be given a rigorous meaning. A new concept of local functionals is proposed and two characterizations of them are given: the first one uses the additivity (or Hammerstein) property, the second one is a variant of Peetre's theorem. Finally, the first step of a cohomological approach to quantum field theory is carried out by proving a global Poincaré lemma and defining multi-vector fields and graded functionals within our framework.

  13. Field characterization plan for the 216-U-8 vitrified clay pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The 216-U-8 Crib was constructed in 1952 and received waste from 1952 to 1960 as described in Appendix A. This description of work details the field activities associated with the characterization of the vitrified clay pipe (VCP) delivery line to the 216-U-8 Crib and subsurface soil sampling along the pipe route in the 200 West Area of Hanford U Plant. It will serves as a field guide for those performing the work. Soil sampling locations will be determined by a combination of radiological surface surveys and internal camera surveys of the VCP line. Depending on the condition of the pipeline and field conditions, the objectives are as follows: examine the internal condition of the VCP with a survey camera to the extent allowed by field conditions; determine precise location and depth of the VCP; document VCP integrity; document gamma radiation profile through the VCP; and correlate any relationships between surface contamination zones at grade above the VCP to identify breaches in the pipe integrity

  14. Renormalization using the background-field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, S.; Omote, M.

    1982-01-01

    Renormalization using the background-field method is examined in detail. The subtraction mechanism of subdivergences is described with reference to multi-loop diagrams and one- and two-loop counter-term formulae are explicitly given. The original one-loop counter-term formula of 't Hooft is thereby improved. The present method of renormalization is far easier to manage than the usual one owing to the fact only gauge-invariant quantities are to be considered when worked in an appropriate gauge. Gravity and Yang-Mills theories are studied as examples. (orig.)

  15. Extensions of the auxiliary field method to solve Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard; Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the auxiliary field method is an interesting tool to compute approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation. This technique can generate the spectrum associated with an arbitrary potential V(r) starting from the analytically known spectrum of a particular potential P(r). In the present work, general important properties of the auxiliary field method are proved, such as scaling laws and independence of the results on the choice of P(r). The method is extended in order to find accurate analytical energy formulae for radial potentials of the form aP(r) + V(r), and several explicit examples are studied. Connections existing between the perturbation theory and the auxiliary field method are also discussed

  16. Extensions of the auxiliary field method to solve Schroedinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France); Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)], E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: fabien.buisseret@umh.ac.be

    2008-10-24

    It has recently been shown that the auxiliary field method is an interesting tool to compute approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation. This technique can generate the spectrum associated with an arbitrary potential V(r) starting from the analytically known spectrum of a particular potential P(r). In the present work, general important properties of the auxiliary field method are proved, such as scaling laws and independence of the results on the choice of P(r). The method is extended in order to find accurate analytical energy formulae for radial potentials of the form aP(r) + V(r), and several explicit examples are studied. Connections existing between the perturbation theory and the auxiliary field method are also discussed.

  17. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems

  18. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  19. 3D electric field calculation with surface charge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an outline and some examples of three dimensional electric field calculations with a computer code developed at NIRS. In the code, a surface charge method is adopted because of it's simplicity in the mesh establishing procedure. The charge density in a triangular mesh is assumed to distribute with a linear function of the position. The electric field distribution is calculated for a pair of drift tubes with the focusing fingers on the opposing surfaces. The field distribution in an acceleration gap is analyzed with a Fourier-Bessel series expansion method. The calculated results excellently reproduces the measured data with a magnetic model. (author)

  20. Semiclassical methods in field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, I.

    1978-10-01

    A new scheme is proposed for semi-classical quantization in field theory - the expansion about the charge (EAC) - which is developed within the canonical formalism. This method is suitable for quantizing theories that are invariant under global gauge transformations. It is used in the treatment of the non relativistic logarithmic theory that was proposed by Bialynicki-Birula and Mycielski - a theory we can formulate in any number of spatial dimensions. The non linear Schroedinger equation is also quantized by means of the EAC. The classical logarithmic theories - both, the non relativistic and the relativistic one - are studied in detail. It is shown that the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule(BSQR) in field theory is, in many cases, equivalent to charge quantization. This rule is then applied to the massive Thirring Model and the logarithmic theories. The BSQR can be see as a simplified and non local version of the EAC [pt

  1. Status report on dosimetry benchmark neutron field development, characterization, and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Grundl, J.A.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Farrar, H. IV.

    1977-01-01

    The report attempts to present a brief, but comprehensive review of the status and future directions of benchmark neutron field development, characterization and application in perspective with two major objectives of reactor dosimetry: (1) fuel fission rate and burn-up passive monitoring, and (2) correlation of materials irradiation damage effects and projection to commercial power plants. The report focuses on the Light Water Reactor and Fast Breeder Reactor program needs

  2. A two-dimensional liquid-filled ionization chamber array prototype for small-field verification: characterization and first clinical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brualla-González, Luis; Vicedo, Aurora; Roselló, Joan V; Gómez, Faustino; González-Castaño, Diego M; Gago-Arias, Araceli; Pazos, Antonio; Zapata, Martín; Pardo-Montero, Juan

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the design, characterization and first clinical tests of an in-house developed two-dimensional liquid-filled ionization chamber prototype for the verification of small radiotherapy fields and treatments containing such small fields as in radiosurgery, which consists of 2 mm × 2 mm pixels arranged on a 16×8 rectangular grid. The ionization medium is isooctane. The characterization of the device included the study of depth, field-size and dose-rate dependences, which are sufficiently moderate for a good operation at therapy radiation levels. However, the detector presents an important anisotropic response, up to ≃ 12% for front versus near-lateral incidence, which can impact the verification of full treatments with different incidences. In such a case, an anisotropy correction factor can be applied. Output factors of small square fields measured with the device show a small systematic over-response, less than 1%, when compared to unshielded diode measurements. An IMRT radiosurgery treatment has been acquired with the liquid-filled ionization chamber device and compared with film dosimetry by using the gamma method, showing good agreement: over 99% passing rates for 1.2% and 1.2 mm for an incidence-per-incidence analysis; 100% passing rates for tolerances 1.8% and 1.8 mm when the whole treatment is analysed and the anisotropy correction factor is applied. The point dose verification for each incidence of the treatment performed with the liquid-filled ionization chamber agrees within 1% with a CC01 ionization chamber. This prototype has shown the utility of this kind of technology for the verification of small fields/treatments. Currently, a larger device covering a 5 cm × 5 cm area is under development. (paper)

  3. Physicochemical characterization of modified clay based composites obtained by a novel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Swati; Dudi, D.; Singh, G. P.; Verma, S. K.; Bhojak, N.

    2018-05-01

    Material science is one of the important fields where, absorption spectra of lanthanide ions have been a subject of several investigations because of their possible use as laser materials, diagnostic tools and sensors. Study of absorption spectra in visible and near infrared regions yields useful information regarding energy and intensity parameters, and nature and probabilities of transitions. Chemical physics provides fundamental tool to develop lanthanide chemistry, which has been increasingly significant in the last few years due to the wide variety of potential applications of their complexes in many important areas of biology and medicines. The present work describes the development of a novel method of composite preparation based on clay and its physiochemical characterization. Simultaneous measurement of some thermal properties has made study more useful. Results match with accepted models.

  4. Outdoor characterization of radio frequency electromagnetic fields in a Spanish birth cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvente, I. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); Fernández, M.F. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Pérez-Lobato, R.; Dávila-Arias, C.; Ocón, O.; Ramos, R. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Ríos-Arrabal, S. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); Villalba-Moreno, J. [CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-04-15

    There is considerable public concern in many countries about the possible adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation electromagnetic fields, especially in vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental exposure profiles within the frequency range 100 kHz–6 GHz in the immediate surrounds of the dwellings of 123 families from the INMA-Granada birth cohort in Southern Spain, using spot measurements. The arithmetic mean root mean-square electric field (E{sub RMS}) and power density (S{sub RMS}) values were, respectively, 195.79 mV/m (42.3% of data were above this mean) and 799.01 µW/m{sup 2} (30% of values were above this mean); median values were 148.80 mV/m and 285.94 µW/m{sup 2}, respectively. Exposure levels below the quantification limit were assigned a value of 0.01 V/m. Incident field strength levels varied widely among different areas or towns/villages, demonstrating spatial variability in the distribution of exposure values related to the surface area population size and also among seasons. Although recorded values were well below International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels, there is a particular need to characterize incident field strength levels in vulnerable populations (e.g., children) because of their chronic and ever-increasing exposure. The effects of incident field strength have not been fully elucidated; however, it may be appropriate to apply the precautionary principle in order to reduce exposure in susceptible groups. - Highlights: • Spot measurements were performed in the immediate surrounds of children's dwellings. • Mean root mean-square electric field and power density values were calculated. • Most recorded values were far below international standard guideline limits. • Data demonstrate spatial variability in the distribution of exposure levels. • While adverse effects are proven, application of the precautionary principle may

  5. Cost comparison of laboratory methods and four field screening technologies for uranium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.

    1994-01-01

    To address the problem of characterizing uranium-contaminated surface soil at federal facilities, the Department of Energy has the development of four uranium field screening technologies, under the direction of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program. These four technologies include: a long-range alpha detector a beta scintillation detector, an in situ gamma detector, and a mobile laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP/AES) laboratory. As part of the performance assessment for these field screening technologies, cost estimates for the development and operation of each technology were created. A cost study was conducted to compare three of the USID field screening technologies to the use of traditional field surveying equipment to adequately characterize surface soils of a one-acre site. The results indicate that the use of traditional equipment costs more than the in situ gamma detector, but less than the beta scintillation detector and LRAD. The use of traditional field surveying equipment results in cost savings of 4% and 34% over the use of the beta scintillation and LRAD technologies, respectively. A study of single-point surface soil sampling and laboratory analysis costs was also conducted. Operational costs of the mobile LA-ICP/AES laboratory were compared with operational costs of traditional sampling and analysis, which consists of collecting soil samples and conducting analysis in a radiochemical laboratory. The cost study indicates that the use of the mobile LA-ICP/AES laboratory results in cost savings of 23% and 40% over traditional field sampling and laboratory analysis conducted by characterization groups at two DOE facilities

  6. On the role of magnetic field intensity for better micro-structural characterization during Barkhausen Noise analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufzai, Mohd Zaheer Khan; Vashista, M.

    2018-04-01

    Barkhausen Noise analysis is a popular and preferred technique for micro-structural characterization. The root mean square value and peak value of Barkhausen Noise burst are important parameters to assess the micro-hardness and residual stress. Barkhausen Noise burst can be enveloped using a curve known as Barkhausen Noise profile. Peak position of profile changes with change in micro-structure. In the present work, raw signal of Barkhausen Noise burst was obtained from Ni based sample at various magnetic field intensity to observe the effect of variation in field intensity on Barkhausen Noise burst. Raw signal was opened using MATLAB to further process for microstructure analysis. Barkhausen Noise analysis parameters such as magnetizing frequency, number of burst, high pass and low pass filter frequency were kept constant and magnetizing field was varied in wide range between 200 Oe to 1200 Oe. The processed profiles of Barkhausen Noise burst obtained at various magnetizing field intensity clearly reveals requirement of optimum magnetic field strength for better characterization of micro-structure.

  7. Wave field restoration using three-dimensional Fourier filtering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, T; Takai, Y; Ikuta, T; Shimizu, R

    2001-11-01

    A wave field restoration method in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was mathematically derived based on a three-dimensional (3D) image formation theory. Wave field restoration using this method together with spherical aberration correction was experimentally confirmed in through-focus images of amorphous tungsten thin film, and the resolution of the reconstructed phase image was successfully improved from the Scherzer resolution limit to the information limit. In an application of this method to a crystalline sample, the surface structure of Au(110) was observed in a profile-imaging mode. The processed phase image showed quantitatively the atomic relaxation of the topmost layer.

  8. Damped time advance methods for particles and EM fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Ambrosiano, J.J.; Boyd, J.K.; Brandon, S.T.; Nielsen, D.E. Jr.; Rambo, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the application of damped time advance methods to plasma simulations include the synthesis of implicit and explicit ''adjustably damped'' second order accurate methods for particle motion and electromagnetic field propagation. This paper discusses this method

  9. Mathematical methods of many-body quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical Methods of Many-Body Quantum Field Theory offers a comprehensive, mathematically rigorous treatment of many-body physics. It develops the mathematical tools for describing quantum many-body systems and applies them to the many-electron system. These tools include the formalism of second quantization, field theoretical perturbation theory, functional integral methods, bosonic and fermionic, and estimation and summation techniques for Feynman diagrams. Among the physical effects discussed in this context are BCS superconductivity, s-wave and higher l-wave, and the fractional quantum Hall effect. While the presentation is mathematically rigorous, the author does not focus solely on precise definitions and proofs, but also shows how to actually perform the computations.Presenting many recent advances and clarifying difficult concepts, this book provides the background, results, and detail needed to further explore the issue of when the standard approximation schemes in this field actually work and wh...

  10. Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Fritzen, C-P

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d 31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material. (paper)

  11. Perspective: Ab initio force field methods derived from quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Guidez, Emilie B.; Bertoni, Colleen; Gordon, Mark S.

    2018-03-01

    It is often desirable to accurately and efficiently model the behavior of large molecular systems in the condensed phase (thousands to tens of thousands of atoms) over long time scales (from nanoseconds to milliseconds). In these cases, ab initio methods are difficult due to the increasing computational cost with the number of electrons. A more computationally attractive alternative is to perform the simulations at the atomic level using a parameterized function to model the electronic energy. Many empirical force fields have been developed for this purpose. However, the functions that are used to model interatomic and intermolecular interactions contain many fitted parameters obtained from selected model systems, and such classical force fields cannot properly simulate important electronic effects. Furthermore, while such force fields are computationally affordable, they are not reliable when applied to systems that differ significantly from those used in their parameterization. They also cannot provide the information necessary to analyze the interactions that occur in the system, making the systematic improvement of the functional forms that are used difficult. Ab initio force field methods aim to combine the merits of both types of methods. The ideal ab initio force fields are built on first principles and require no fitted parameters. Ab initio force field methods surveyed in this perspective are based on fragmentation approaches and intermolecular perturbation theory. This perspective summarizes their theoretical foundation, key components in their formulation, and discusses key aspects of these methods such as accuracy and formal computational cost. The ab initio force fields considered here were developed for different targets, and this perspective also aims to provide a balanced presentation of their strengths and shortcomings. Finally, this perspective suggests some future directions for this actively developing area.

  12. LOMEGA: a low frequency, field implicit method for plasma simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Kamimura, T.

    1982-04-01

    Field implicit methods for low frequency plasma simulation by the LOMEGA (Low OMEGA) codes are described. These implicit field methods may be combined with particle pushing algorithms using either Lorentz force or guiding center force models to study two-dimensional, magnetized, electrostatic plasmas. Numerical results for ωsub(e)deltat>>1 are described. (author)

  13. An approach for characterizing the distribution of shrubland ecosystem components as continuous fields as part of NLCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, George Z.; Homer, Collin G.; Meyer, Debbie; Granneman, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Characterizing and quantifying distributions of shrubland ecosystem components is one of the major challenges for monitoring shrubland vegetation cover change across the United States. A new approach has been developed to quantify shrubland components as fractional products within National Land Cover Database (NLCD). This approach uses remote sensing data and regression tree models to estimate the fractional cover of shrubland ecosystem components. The approach consists of three major steps: field data collection, high resolution estimates of shrubland ecosystem components using WorldView-2 imagery, and coarse resolution estimates of these components across larger areas using Landsat imagery. This research seeks to explore this method to quantify shrubland ecosystem components as continuous fields in regions that contain wide-ranging shrubland ecosystems. Fractional cover of four shrubland ecosystem components, including bare ground, herbaceous, litter, and shrub, as well as shrub heights, were delineated in three ecological regions in Arizona, Florida, and Texas. Results show that estimates for most components have relatively small normalized root mean square errors and significant correlations with validation data in both Arizona and Texas. The distribution patterns of shrub height also show relatively high accuracies in these two areas. The fractional cover estimates of shrubland components, except for litter, are not well represented in the Florida site. The research results suggest that this method provides good potential to effectively characterize shrubland ecosystem conditions over perennial shrubland although it is less effective in transitional shrubland. The fractional cover of shrub components as continuous elements could offer valuable information to quantify biomass and help improve thematic land cover classification in arid and semiarid areas.

  14. Methods of characterization of multiphase Nd-Fe-B melt-spun alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite permanent magnetic materials based on Nd-Fe-B alloys with a low Nd content are a new type of permanent magnetic material. The microstructure of these nanocomposite permanent magnets is composed of a mixture of magnetically soft and hard phases providing the so called exchange coupling effect. Beside the optimization process parameters, methods of characterization have a very important role in the design of an optimal magnetic matrix of multiphase melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloys. Different methods and techniques of characterization were used for observation and study of the microstructure evolution during crystallization. A summary results of measurements using different methods of characterization are presented to enable a better insight into relations between the microstructure and magnetic properties of the investigated melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloys. .

  15. Field radiometric methods of prospecting and exploration for uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbushina, L.V.; Savenko, E.I.; Serdyukova, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The textbook includes two main chapters which describe gamma- and emanation field radiometric methods. The textbook is intended for geology and geophysics students having training practice in field radiometric methods and is additional to the course of lectures. The textbook can be used in the''Radiometry'' course which is studied in appropriate geological and technical colleges

  16. Classification of analysis methods for characterization of magnetic nanoparticle properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, O.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Steinhoff, U.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a roadmap for the standardization of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) characterization. We have assessed common MNP analysis techniques under various criteria in order to define the methods that can be used as either standard techniques for magnetic particle...... characterization or those that can be used to obtain a comprehensive picture of a MNP system. This classification is the first step on the way to develop standards for nanoparticle characterization....

  17. Field portable petroleum analysis for validation of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system petroleum, oil and lubricant sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.M.; Jones, P.; Porter, B.

    1995-01-01

    A petroleum, oil and lubricant (POL) sensor for the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) has been developed by the Tri-Services (e.g. Army, Navy and Air Force) to characterize the distribution of POL contaminants on military sites. The sensor is based on the detection of POL contaminants using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer. The SCAPS POL sensor has been shown to be a valuable tool for the rapid screening of POL contamination in the subsurface. However, many factors can affect the LIF response of a particular fuel at a particular site. These include fuel type, age of spill (e.g. weathering) and soil type. The LIF sensor also detects fluorescence from any naturally occurring fluorophores, including humic substances and fluorescent minerals. These factors lead to the development of an independent procedure for the verification of the POL sensor response. This paper describes a field portable total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbon (TRPH) method based on EPA Method 418.1 and its application to on site validation of the SCAPS POL sensor response at a number of contaminated sites

  18. Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.

  19. Multigrid Methods for the Computation of Propagators in Gauge Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkreuter, Thomas

    Multigrid methods were invented for the solution of discretized partial differential equations in order to overcome the slowness of traditional algorithms by updates on various length scales. In the present work generalizations of multigrid methods for propagators in gauge fields are investigated. Gauge fields are incorporated in algorithms in a covariant way. The kernel C of the restriction operator which averages from one grid to the next coarser grid is defined by projection on the ground-state of a local Hamiltonian. The idea behind this definition is that the appropriate notion of smoothness depends on the dynamics. The ground-state projection choice of C can be used in arbitrary dimension and for arbitrary gauge group. We discuss proper averaging operations for bosons and for staggered fermions. The kernels C can also be used in multigrid Monte Carlo simulations, and for the definition of block spins and blocked gauge fields in Monte Carlo renormalization group studies. Actual numerical computations are performed in four-dimensional SU(2) gauge fields. We prove that our proposals for block spins are “good”, using renormalization group arguments. A central result is that the multigrid method works in arbitrarily disordered gauge fields, in principle. It is proved that computations of propagators in gauge fields without critical slowing down are possible when one uses an ideal interpolation kernel. Unfortunately, the idealized algorithm is not practical, but it was important to answer questions of principle. Practical methods are able to outperform the conjugate gradient algorithm in case of bosons. The case of staggered fermions is harder. Multigrid methods give considerable speed-ups compared to conventional relaxation algorithms, but on lattices up to 184 conjugate gradient is superior.

  20. Computer analysis of multicircuit shells of revolution by the field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The method of analysis developed which has been termed the 'field method' converts the boundary-value problem into two successive initial-value problems. In the first initial-value problem, a forward integration over the shell meridian is made for the 'field functions', which may be interpreted physically as influence functions (plus additional functions to account for external loading) of the structure. The second initial-value problem consists of a backward integration (i.e., in the reverse direction) for the physical force and displacement functions, the differential equations for which are dependent on the already calculated field functions. In this method, no artificial subdivision of the meridian is necessary since both initial-value problems are numerically stable. Also, because the physical response functions are obtained directly from the backward integration, their storage points may be chosen automatically during execution to obtain a uniformly 'dense' description of these functions. Studies comparing the efficiency (i.e., execution time) of the field method with that of a conventional superposition (Zarghamee) method have been made, for the simple case of the linear static response of a clamped cylindrical shell. The field method has been presented previously for shells of revolution with open branched meridians. This work is now extended to the case of meridians which contain circuits. Also, a new method for the treatment of arbitrary kinematic constraints is presented

  1. Characterization of an electroactive polymer simultaneously driven by an electrical field and a mechanical excitation: An easy means of measuring the dielectric constant, the Young modulus and the electrostrictive coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomar, Daniel [Universite de Lyon, LGEF-INSA de Lyon, Batiment Gustave Ferrie, 8 rue de la Physique, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Cottinet, Pierre-Jean, E-mail: Pierre-jean.cottinet@insa-lyon.f [Universite de Lyon, LGEF-INSA de Lyon, Batiment Gustave Ferrie, 8 rue de la Physique, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lebrun, Laurent; Sebald, Gael [Universite de Lyon, LGEF-INSA de Lyon, Batiment Gustave Ferrie, 8 rue de la Physique, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2011-04-18

    An easy method for measuring the dielectric constant, the Young modulus and the electrostrictive coefficients of a polymer film is proposed herein. The approach was based on the determination of the current flowing through the sample when simultaneously driven by an electrical field and a mechanical excitation. The experimental data were in good agreement with published results. In addition, the method rendered it possible to characterize the film sample under real conditions. - Highlights: In this study we model a multiphysic coupling in electroactive polymer (EAP). A new method was developed to determine the different coefficient of the material. The results demonstrated the potential of this method for the characterization of EAP.

  2. Analyzed method for calculating the distribution of electrostatic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.

    1981-01-01

    An analyzed method for calculating the distribution of electrostatic field under any given axial gradient in tandem accelerators is described. This method possesses satisfactory accuracy compared with the results of numerical calculation

  3. A regularization method for extrapolation of solar potential magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, G. A.; Musielak, Z. E.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical basis of a Tikhonov regularization method for extrapolating the chromospheric-coronal magnetic field using photospheric vector magnetograms is discussed. The basic techniques show that the Cauchy initial value problem can be formulated for potential magnetic fields. The potential field analysis considers a set of linear, elliptic partial differential equations. It is found that, by introducing an appropriate smoothing of the initial data of the Cauchy potential problem, an approximate Fourier integral solution is found, and an upper bound to the error in the solution is derived. This specific regularization technique, which is a function of magnetograph measurement sensitivities, provides a method to extrapolate the potential magnetic field above an active region into the chromosphere and low corona.

  4. Detailed characterizations of a Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) instrument: experiments vs. modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, V.; Hansen, R. F.; Locoge, N.; Stevens, P. S.; Dusanter, S.

    2015-04-01

    The Hydroxyl radical (OH) is an important oxidant in the daytime troposphere that controls the lifetime of most trace gases, whose oxidation leads to the formation of harmful secondary pollutants such as ozone (O3) and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). In spite of the importance of OH, uncertainties remain concerning its atmospheric budget and integrated measurements of the total sink of OH can help reducing these uncertainties. In this context, several methods have been developed to measure the first-order loss rate of ambient OH, called total OH reactivity. Among these techniques, the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) is promising and has already been widely used in the field and in atmospheric simulation chambers. This technique relies on monitoring competitive OH reactions between a reference molecule (pyrrole) and compounds present in ambient air inside a sampling reactor. However, artefacts and interferences exist for this method and a thorough characterization of the CRM technique is needed. In this study, we present a detailed characterization of a CRM instrument, assessing the corrections that need to be applied on ambient measurements. The main corrections are, in the order of their integration in the data processing: (1) a correction for a change in relative humidity between zero air and ambient air, (2) a correction for the formation of spurious OH when artificially produced HO2 react with NO in the sampling reactor, and (3) a correction for a deviation from pseudo first-order kinetics. The dependences of these artefacts to various measurable parameters, such as the pyrrole-to-OH ratio or the bimolecular reaction rate constants of ambient trace gases with OH are also studied. From these dependences, parameterizations are proposed to correct the OH reactivity measurements from the abovementioned artefacts. A comparison of experimental and simulation results is then discussed. The simulations were performed using a 0-D box model including either (1) a

  5. Characterization of beta radiation fields using radiochromic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavente, Jhonny A.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the response of radiochromic films for beta radiation fields in terms of absorbed dose. The reliability of the EBT model Gafchromic radiochromic film was studied. A 9800 XL model Microtek, transmission scanner, a 369 model X-Rite optical densitometer and a Mini 1240 Shimadzu UV spectrophotometer were used for measurement comparisons. Calibration of the three systems was done with irradiated samples of radiochromic films with 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.8; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; 4.5 e 5.0 Gy in beta radiation field from a Sr-90/Y-90 source. Calibration was performed by establishing a correlation between the absorbed dose values and the corresponding radiochromic responses. Results showed significant differences in the absorbed dose values obtained with the three methods. Absorbed dose values showed errors from 0.6 to 4.4%, 0.3 to 31.8% and 0.2 to 47.3% for the Microtek scanner, the X-Rite Densitometer and the Shimadzu spectrophotometer, respectively. Due to the easy acquisition and use for absorbed dose measurements, the densitometer and the spectrophotometer showed to be suitable techniques to evaluate radiation dose in relatively homogeneous fields. In the case of inhomogeneous fields or for a two dimension mapping of radiation fields to identify anisotropies, the scanner technique is the most recommended. (author)

  6. Laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera for the temporal characterization of ultrashort processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, Bernd

    2011-09-15

    In this work, a novel laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera is presented. It allows for a pulse length characterization of femtosecond (fs) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by a cross-correlation with terahertz (THz) pulses generated with a Ti:sapphire laser. The XUV pulses are emitted by a source of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in which an intense near-infrared (NIR) fs laser pulse is focused into a gaseous medium. The design and characterization of a high-intensity THz source needed for the streak camera is also part of this thesis. The source is based on optical rectification of the same NIR laser pulse in a lithium niobate crystal. For this purpose, the pulse front of the NIR beam is tilted via a diffraction grating to achieve velocity matching between NIR and THz beams within the crystal. For the temporal characterization of the XUV pulses, both HHG and THz beams are focused onto a gas target. The harmonic radiation creates photoelectron wavepackets which are then accelerated by the THz field depending on its phase at the time of ionization. This principle adopted from a conventional streak camera and now widely used in attosecond metrology. The streak camera presented here is an advancement of a terahertz-field-driven streak camera implemented at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). The advantages of the laser-based streak camera lie in its compactness, cost efficiency and accessibility, while providing the same good quality of measurements as obtained at FLASH. In addition, its flexibility allows for a systematic investigation of streaked Auger spectra which is presented in this thesis. With its fs time resolution, the terahertz-field-driven streak camera thereby bridges the gap between attosecond and conventional cameras. (orig.)

  7. Laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera for the temporal characterization of ultrashort processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, Bernd

    2011-09-01

    In this work, a novel laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera is presented. It allows for a pulse length characterization of femtosecond (fs) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by a cross-correlation with terahertz (THz) pulses generated with a Ti:sapphire laser. The XUV pulses are emitted by a source of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in which an intense near-infrared (NIR) fs laser pulse is focused into a gaseous medium. The design and characterization of a high-intensity THz source needed for the streak camera is also part of this thesis. The source is based on optical rectification of the same NIR laser pulse in a lithium niobate crystal. For this purpose, the pulse front of the NIR beam is tilted via a diffraction grating to achieve velocity matching between NIR and THz beams within the crystal. For the temporal characterization of the XUV pulses, both HHG and THz beams are focused onto a gas target. The harmonic radiation creates photoelectron wavepackets which are then accelerated by the THz field depending on its phase at the time of ionization. This principle adopted from a conventional streak camera and now widely used in attosecond metrology. The streak camera presented here is an advancement of a terahertz-field-driven streak camera implemented at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). The advantages of the laser-based streak camera lie in its compactness, cost efficiency and accessibility, while providing the same good quality of measurements as obtained at FLASH. In addition, its flexibility allows for a systematic investigation of streaked Auger spectra which is presented in this thesis. With its fs time resolution, the terahertz-field-driven streak camera thereby bridges the gap between attosecond and conventional cameras. (orig.)

  8. Development and Analysis of Volume Multi-Sphere Method Model Generation using Electric Field Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, G. J.

    Electrostatic modeling of spacecraft has wide-reaching applications such as detumbling space debris in the Geosynchronous Earth Orbit regime before docking, servicing and tugging space debris to graveyard orbits, and Lorentz augmented orbits. The viability of electrostatic actuation control applications relies on faster-than-realtime characterization of the electrostatic interaction. The Volume Multi-Sphere Method (VMSM) seeks the optimal placement and radii of a small number of equipotential spheres to accurately model the electrostatic force and torque on a conducting space object. Current VMSM models tuned using force and torque comparisons with commercially available finite element software are subject to the modeled probe size and numerical errors of the software. This work first investigates fitting of VMSM models to Surface-MSM (SMSM) generated electrical field data, removing modeling dependence on probe geometry while significantly increasing performance and speed. A proposed electric field matching cost function is compared to a force and torque cost function, the inclusion of a self-capacitance constraint is explored and 4 degree-of-freedom VMSM models generated using electric field matching are investigated. The resulting E-field based VMSM development framework is illustrated on a box-shaped hub with a single solar panel, and convergence properties of select models are qualitatively analyzed. Despite the complex non-symmetric spacecraft geometry, elegantly simple 2-sphere VMSM solutions provide force and torque fits within a few percent.

  9. Lattice field theories: non-perturbative methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, M.

    1978-01-01

    A lecture is given on the possible extraction of interesting physical information from quantum field theories by studying their semiclassical versions. From the beginning the problem of solving for the spectrum states of any given continuum quantum field theory is considered as a giant Schroedinger problem, and then some nonperturbative methods for diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of the theory are explained without recourse to semiclassical approximations. The notion of a lattice appears as an artifice to handle the problems associated with the familiar infrared and ultraviolet divergences of continuum quantum field theory and in fact for all but gauge theories. 18 references

  10. Interferometric methods for mapping static electric and magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzi, Giulio; Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensi......) the model-independent determination of the locations and magnitudes of field sources (electric charges and magnetic dipoles) directly from electron holographic data.......The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensity...... on theoretical models that form the basis of the quantitative interpretation of electron holographic data. We review the application of electron holography to a variety of samples (including electric fields associated with p–n junctions in semiconductors, quantized magnetic flux in superconductors...

  11. Overview of geotechnical methods to characterize rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-12-01

    The methods that are used to characterize discontinuous rock masses from a geotechnical point of view are summarized. Emphasis is put on providing key references on each subject. The topics of exploration, in-situ stresses, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and hydraulic properties are addressed

  12. Optical method for distance and displacement measurements of the probe-sample separation in a scanning near-field optical microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, L.; Siller, H. R.; Garcia-Ortiz, C. E.; Cortes, R.; Coello, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present an alternative optical method to determine the probe-sample separation distance in a scanning near-field optical microscope. The experimental method is based in a Lloyd’s mirror interferometer and offers a measurement precision deviation of ∼100 nm using digital image processing and numerical analysis. The technique can also be strategically combined with the characterization of piezoelectric actuators and stability evaluation of the optical system. It also opens the possibility for the development of an automatic approximation control system valid for probe-sample distances from 5 to 500 μm.

  13. Optical method for distance and displacement measurements of the probe-sample separation in a scanning near-field optical microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaria, L.; Siller, H. R. [Tecnológico de Monterrey, Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Monterrey, N.L., 64849 (Mexico); Garcia-Ortiz, C. E., E-mail: cegarcia@cicese.mx [CONACYT Research Fellow – CICESE, Unidad Monterrey, Alianza Centro 504, Apodaca, NL, 66629 (Mexico); Cortes, R.; Coello, V. [CICESE, Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Alianza Centro 504, Apodaca, NL, 66629 (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    In this work, we present an alternative optical method to determine the probe-sample separation distance in a scanning near-field optical microscope. The experimental method is based in a Lloyd’s mirror interferometer and offers a measurement precision deviation of ∼100 nm using digital image processing and numerical analysis. The technique can also be strategically combined with the characterization of piezoelectric actuators and stability evaluation of the optical system. It also opens the possibility for the development of an automatic approximation control system valid for probe-sample distances from 5 to 500 μm.

  14. Implementation of visual programming methods for numerical techniques used in electromagnetic field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Varan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Field theory is one of the two sub-field theories in electrical and electronics engineering that for creates difficulties for undergraduate students. In undergraduate period, field theory has been taught under the theory of electromagnetic fields by which describes using partial differential equations and integral methods. Analytical methods for solution of field problems on the basis of a mathematical model may result the understanding difficulties for undergraduate students due to their mathematical and physical infrastructure. The analytical methods which can be applied in simple model lose their applicability to more complex models. In this case, the numerical methods are used to solve more complex equations. In this study, by preparing some field theory‘s web-based graphical user interface numerical methods of applications it has been aimed to increase learning levels of field theory problems for undergraduate and graduate students while taking in mind their computer programming capabilities.

  15. The Diagonal Compression Field Method using Circular Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new design method, which is a modification of the diagonal compression field method, the modification consisting of the introduction of circular fan stress fields. The traditional method does not allow changes of the concrete compression direction throughout a given beam...... if equilibrium is strictly required. This is conservative, since it is not possible fully to utilize the concrete strength in regions with low shear stresses. The larger inclination (the smaller -value) of the uniaxial concrete stress the more transverse shear reinforcement is needed; hence it would be optimal...... if the -value for a given beam could be set to a low value in regions with high shear stresses and thereafter increased in regions with low shear stresses. Thus the shear reinforcement would be reduced and the concrete strength would be utilized in a better way. In the paper it is shown how circular fan stress...

  16. A novel background field removal method for MRI using projection onto dipole fields (PDF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Khalidov, Ildar; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Spincemaille, Pascal; Liu, Jing; Tsiouris, A John; Wang, Yi

    2011-11-01

    For optimal image quality in susceptibility-weighted imaging and accurate quantification of susceptibility, it is necessary to isolate the local field generated by local magnetic sources (such as iron) from the background field that arises from imperfect shimming and variations in magnetic susceptibility of surrounding tissues (including air). Previous background removal techniques have limited effectiveness depending on the accuracy of model assumptions or information input. In this article, we report an observation that the magnetic field for a dipole outside a given region of interest (ROI) is approximately orthogonal to the magnetic field of a dipole inside the ROI. Accordingly, we propose a nonparametric background field removal technique based on projection onto dipole fields (PDF). In this PDF technique, the background field inside an ROI is decomposed into a field originating from dipoles outside the ROI using the projection theorem in Hilbert space. This novel PDF background removal technique was validated on a numerical simulation and a phantom experiment and was applied in human brain imaging, demonstrating substantial improvement in background field removal compared with the commonly used high-pass filtering method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Methods to characterize non-Gaussian noise in TAMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki; Arai, K; Takahashi, R; Tatsumi, D; Beyersdorf, P; Kawamura, S; Miyoki, S; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Numata, K; Kanda, N; Aso, Y; Fujimoto, M-K; Tsubono, K; Kuroda, K

    2003-01-01

    We present a data characterization method for the main output signal of the interferometric gravitational-wave detector, in particular targeting at effective detection of burst gravitational waves from stellar core collapse. The time scale of non-Gaussian events is evaluated in this method, and events with longer time scale than real signals are rejected as non-Gaussian noises. As a result of data analysis using 1000 h of real data with the interferometric gravitational-wave detector TAMA300, the false-alarm rate was improved 10 3 times with this non-Gaussian noise evaluation and rejection method

  18. Method to map individual electromagnetic field components inside a photonic crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denis, T.; Reijnders, B.; Lee, J.H.H.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Vos, Willem L.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to map the absolute electromagnetic field strength inside photonic crystals. We apply the method to map the dominant electric field component Ez of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab at microwave frequencies. The slab is placed between two mirrors to select Bloch standing

  19. Characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers using a new polar solvent titration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Di; Zhang, Yagang; Geer, Michael F; Shimizu, Ken D

    2014-07-01

    A new method of characterizing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed and tested, which provides a more accurate means of identifying and measuring the molecular imprinting effect. In the new polar solvent titration method, a series of imprinted and non-imprinted polymers were prepared in solutions containing increasing concentrations of a polar solvent. The polar solvent additives systematically disrupted the templation and monomer aggregation processes in the prepolymerization solutions, and the extent of disruption was captured by the polymerization process. The changes in binding capacity within each series of polymers were measured, providing a quantitative assessment of the templation and monomer aggregation processes in the imprinted and non-imprinted polymers. The new method was tested using three different diphenyl phosphate imprinted polymers made using three different urea functional monomers. Each monomer had varying efficiencies of templation and monomer aggregation. The new MIP characterization method was found to have several advantages. To independently verify the new characterization method, the MIPs were also characterized using traditional binding isotherm analyses. The two methods appeared to give consistent conclusions. First, the polar solvent titration method is less susceptible to false positives in identifying the imprinting effect. Second, the method is able to differentiate and quantify changes in binding capacity, as measured at a fixed guest and polymer concentration, arising from templation or monomer aggregation processes in the prepolymerization solution. Third, the method was also easy to carry out, taking advantage of the ease of preparing MIPs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of organic content in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Seymour, Joseph D.; Kirkland, Catherine; Vogt, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry is a non-invasive technique commonly used to assess hydrogen-bearing fluids in petroleum reservoir rocks. Longitudinal T1 and transverse T2 relaxation time measurements made using LF-NMR on conventional reservoir systems provides information on rock porosity, pore size distributions, and fluid types and saturations in some cases. Recent improvements in LF-SNMR instrument electronics have made it possible to apply these methods to assess highly viscous and even solid organic phases within reservoir rocks. T1 and T2 relaxation responses behave very differently in solids and liquids, therefore the relationship between these two modes of relaxation can be used to differentiate organic phases in rock samples or to characterize extracted organic materials. Using T1-T2 correlation data, organic components present in shales, such as kerogen and bitumen, can be examined in laboratory relaxometry measurements. In addition, implementation of a solid-echo pulse sequence to refocus some types of T2 relaxation during correlation measurements allows for improved resolution of solid phase photons. LF-NMR measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation time correlations were carried out on raw oil shale samples from resources around the world. These shales vary widely in mineralogy, total organic carbon (TOC) content and kerogen type. NMR results were correlcated with Leco TOC and geochemical data obtained from Rock-Eval. There is excellent correlation between NMR data and programmed pyrolysis parameters, particularly TOC and S2, and predictive capability is also good. To better understand the NMR response, the 2D NMR spectra were compared to similar NMR measurements made using high-field (HF) NMR equipment.

  1. An investigation of methods for free-field comparison calibration of measurement microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera-Figueroa, Salvador; Moreno Pescador, Guillermo; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Free-field comparison calibration of measurement microphones requires that a calibrated reference microphone and a test microphone are exposed to the same sound pressure in a free field. The output voltages of the microphones can be measured either sequentially or simultaneously. The sequential...... method requires the sound field to have good temporal stability. The simultaneous method requires instead that the sound pressure is the same in the positions where the microphones are placed. In this paper the results of the application of the two methods are compared. A third combined method...

  2. Investigation of drag effect using the field signature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Zhengjun; Liao, Junbi; Tian, Gui Yun; Cheng, Liang

    2011-01-01

    The potential drop (PD) method is an established non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique. The monitoring of internal corrosion, erosion and cracks in piping systems, based on electrical field mapping or direct current potential drop array, is also known as the field signature method (FSM). The FSM has been applied in the field of submarine pipe monitoring and land-based oil and gas transmission pipes and containers. In the experimental studies, to detect and calculate the degree of pipe corrosion, the FSM analyses the relationships between the electrical resistance and pipe thickness using an electrode matrix. The relevant drag effect or trans-resistance will cause a large margin of error in the application of resistance arrays. It is the first time that the drag effect in the paper is investigated and analysed in resistance networks with the help of the FSM. Subsequently, a method to calculate the drag factors and eliminate its errors is proposed and presented. Theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental results show that the measurement accuracy can be improved by eliminating the errors caused by the drag effect

  3. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4, Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterizations, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J. L.; Fargion, G. S.; McClain, C. R. (Editor); Pegau, S.; Zanefeld, J. R. V.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kahru, M.; Wieland, J.; Stramska, M.

    2003-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparision and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. The document is organized into 6 separate volumes as Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4. Volume I: Introduction, Background, and Conventions; Volume II: Instrument Specifications, Characterization and Calibration; Volume III: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterization, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Volume V: Biogeochemical and Bio-Optical Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume VI: Special Topics in Ocean Optics Protocols and Appendices. The earlier version of Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3 is entirely superseded by the six volumes of Revision 4 listed above.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of silver-copper core-shell nanoparticles using polyol method for antimicrobial agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmah, N.; Idrus, N. F.; Jai, J.; Hadi, A.

    2016-06-01

    Silver and copper nanoparticles are well-known as the good antimicrobial agent. The nano-size of particles influences in enhancing the antimicrobial activity. This paper discusses the effect of molarity on the microstructure and morphology of silver-copper core-shell nanoparticles prepared by a polyol method. In this study, silver-copper nanoparticles are synthesized through the green approach of polyol method using ethylene glycol (EG) as green solvent and reductant, and polyoxyethylene-(80)-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) as a nontoxic stabilizer. The phase and morphology of silver-copper nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results XRD confirm the pure crystalline of silver and copper nanoparticles with face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. FESEM and TEM analysis confirm the existence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles in core-shell shape.

  5. Characterization of an electroactive polymer simultaneously driven by an electrical field and a mechanical excitation: An easy means of measuring the dielectric constant, the Young modulus and the electrostrictive coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyomar, Daniel; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Lebrun, Laurent; Sebald, Gael

    2011-01-01

    An easy method for measuring the dielectric constant, the Young modulus and the electrostrictive coefficients of a polymer film is proposed herein. The approach was based on the determination of the current flowing through the sample when simultaneously driven by an electrical field and a mechanical excitation. The experimental data were in good agreement with published results. In addition, the method rendered it possible to characterize the film sample under real conditions. - Highlights: → In this study we model a multiphysic coupling in electroactive polymer (EAP). → A new method was developed to determine the different coefficient of the material. → The results demonstrated the potential of this method for the characterization of EAP.

  6. Five years of magnetic field management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, C.J.; Fogarty, R.P.; Halleran, T.M.; Mark, Dr. D.A.; Mukhopadhyay, A.

    1995-01-01

    The extensive publicity of epidemiological studies inferring correlation between 60 Hz magnetic fields and childhood leukemia prompted world wide research programs that have as a goal to determine if low frequency magnetic fields represent any risk for the general population, children or utility workers. While supporting this research effort through EPRI, Con Edison embarked on a technical research program aimed to: characterize magnetic fields as to intensity and variation in time; and investigate practical means to manage these magnetic fields through currently known methods. The final goal of these research projects is to establish viable methods to reduce magnetic field intensity to desired values at reasonable distances from the sources. This goal was pursued step by step, starting with an inventory of the main sources of magnetic fields in substations, distribution and transmission facilities and generating plants. The characterization of the sources helped to identify typical cases and select specific cases, far practical applications. The next step was to analyze the specific cases and develop design criteria for managing the magnetic fields in new installations. These criteria included physical arrangement of equipment based oil calculation of magnetic fields, cancellation effect, desired maximum field intensity at specific points and shielding with high magnetic permeability metals (mu-metal and steel). This paper summarizes the authors' experiences and shows the results of the specific projects completed in recent years

  7. Radiological and chemical studies of the ground water at Enewetak Atoll. 1. Sampling, field measurements, and analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Wong, K.M.; Holladay, G.; Noshkin, V.E.; Buddemeier, R.

    1975-01-01

    A research program to study the ground water on several of the islets in the Enewetak Atoll is being conducted jointly by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and the University of Hawaii under the sponsorship of ERDA Division of Biology and Environmental Research. The purpose is to provide data characterizing the ground water for possible use by returning Marshallese and to investigate the hydrology and recycling of radionuclides in an atoll environment. This first of a series of reports describes the sampling locations, field operations, and methods of analysis

  8. Geochemical characterization of supraglacial debris via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Casey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface glacier debris samples and field spectra were collected from the ablation zones of Nepal Himalaya Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers in November and December 2009. Geochemical and mineral compositions of supraglacial debris were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. This composition data was used as ground truth in evaluating field spectra and satellite supraglacial debris composition and mapping methods. Satellite remote sensing methods for characterizing glacial surface debris include visible to thermal infrared hyper- and multispectral reflectance and emission signature identification, semi-quantitative mineral abundance indicies and spectral image composites. Satellite derived supraglacial debris mineral maps displayed the predominance of layered silicates, hydroxyl-bearing and calcite minerals on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Supraglacial mineral maps compared with satellite thermal data revealed correlations between glacier surface composition and glacier surface temperature. Glacier velocity displacement fields and shortwave, thermal infrared false color composites indicated the magnitude of mass flux at glacier confluences. The supraglacial debris mapping methods presented in this study can be used on a broader scale to improve, supplement and potentially reduce errors associated with glacier debris radiative property, composition, areal extent and mass flux quantifications.

  9. Phase microscopy using light-field reconstruction method for cell observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Kuang, Cuifang; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu

    2015-08-01

    The refractive index (RI) distribution can serve as a natural label for undyed cell imaging. However, the majority of images obtained through quantitative phase microscopy is integrated along the illumination angle and cannot reflect additional information about the refractive map on a certain plane. Herein, a light-field reconstruction method to image the RI map within a depth of 0.2 μm is proposed. It records quantitative phase-delay images using a four-step phase shifting method in different directions and then reconstructs a similar scattered light field for the refractive sample on the focus plane. It can image the RI of samples, transparent cell samples in particular, in a manner similar to the observation of scattering characteristics. The light-field reconstruction method is therefore a powerful tool for use in cytobiology studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterizations of maghemite thin films prepared by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, L. N., E-mail: lau7798@gmail.com; Ibrahim, N. B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.edu.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor. Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Iron is one of the abundant elements of Mother Nature and its compound, iron oxide is an interesting material to study since its discovery in the form of magnetite. It can exist in many phases such as hematite and maghemite, this unique nature has put it as a potential candidate in various applications. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different precursor concentrations on the microstructural and magnetic properties of iron oxide thin film. All samples were prepared via the sol-gel method followed by a spin coating technique on quartz substrates. Iron oxide films were confirmed as maghemite phase from X-ray diffraction patterns. The film morphology was examined by a field emission scanning electron microscope and it showed non-systematic value of average grain size and film thickness throughout the study. Hysteresis loop further confirmed that maghemite is a magnetic material when it was characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The coercivity did not show any correlation with molarity. Nevertheless, it increased as the precursor concentration of the film increased due to the domain behaviour. In conclusion, maghemite thin films were successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method with different precursor concentrations in this work.

  11. Minimally invasive three-dimensional site characterization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steedman, D.; Seusy, F.E.; Gibbons, J.; Bratton, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents an improved for hazardous site characterization. The major components of the systems are: (1) an enhanced cone penetrometer test, (2) surface geophysical surveys and (3) a field database and visualization code. The objective of the effort was to develop a method of combining geophysical data with cone penetrometer data in the field to produce a synergistic effect. Various aspects of the method were tested at three sites. The results from each site are discussed and the data compared. This method allows the data to be interpreted more fully with greater certainty, is faster, cheaper and leads to a more accurate site characterization. Utilizing the cone penetrometer test rather than the standard drilling, sampling and laboratory testing reduces the workers exposure to hazardous materials and minimizes the hazardous material disposal problems. The technologies employed in this effort are, for the most part, state-of-the-art procedures. The approach of using data from various measurement systems to develop a synergistic effect was a unique contribution to environmental site characterization. The use of the cone penetrometer for providing ''ground truth'' data and as a platform for subsurface sensors in environmental site characterization represents a significant advancement in environmental site characterization

  12. Comparison of electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpinen, L.; Kuisti, H.; Tarao, H.; Paeaekkoenen, R.; Elovaara, J.

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines. The authors compared two different methods under power lines: in Method A, the sensor was placed on a tripod; and Method B required the measurer to hold the meter horizontally so that the distance from him/her was at least 1.5 m. The study includes 20 measurements in three places under 400 kV power lines. The authors used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300. In statistical analyses, they did not find significant differences between Methods A and B. However, in the future, it is important to take into account that measurement methods can, in some cases, influence ELF electric field measurement results, and it is important to report the methods used so that it is possible to repeat the measurements. (authors)

  13. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  14. Characterizing lentic freshwater fish assemblages using multiple sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Quist, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing fish assemblages in lentic ecosystems is difficult, and multiple sampling methods are almost always necessary to gain reliable estimates of indices such as species richness. However, most research focused on lentic fish sampling methodology has targeted recreationally important species, and little to no information is available regarding the influence of multiple methods and timing (i.e., temporal variation) on characterizing entire fish assemblages. Therefore, six lakes and impoundments (48–1,557 ha surface area) were sampled seasonally with seven gear types to evaluate the combined influence of sampling methods and timing on the number of species and individuals sampled. Probabilities of detection for species indicated strong selectivities and seasonal trends that provide guidance on optimal seasons to use gears when targeting multiple species. The evaluation of species richness and number of individuals sampled using multiple gear combinations demonstrated that appreciable benefits over relatively few gears (e.g., to four) used in optimal seasons were not present. Specifically, over 90 % of the species encountered with all gear types and season combinations (N = 19) from six lakes and reservoirs were sampled with nighttime boat electrofishing in the fall and benthic trawling, modified-fyke, and mini-fyke netting during the summer. Our results indicated that the characterization of lentic fish assemblages was highly influenced by the selection of sampling gears and seasons, but did not appear to be influenced by waterbody type (i.e., natural lake, impoundment). The standardization of data collected with multiple methods and seasons to account for bias is imperative to monitoring of lentic ecosystems and will provide researchers with increased reliability in their interpretations and decisions made using information on lentic fish assemblages.

  15. Improvement of vector compensation method for vehicle magnetic distortion field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hongfeng, E-mail: panghongfeng@126.com; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2014-03-15

    Magnetic distortions such as eddy-current field and low frequency magnetic field have not been considered in vector compensation methods. A new compensation method is proposed to suppress these magnetic distortions and improve compensation performance, in which the magnetic distortions related to measurement vectors and time are considered. The experimental system mainly consists of a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (DM-050), an underwater vehicle and a proton magnetometer, in which the scalar value of magnetic field is obtained with the proton magnetometer and considered to be the true value. Comparing with traditional compensation methods, experimental results show that the magnetic distortions can be further reduced by two times. After compensation, error intensity and RMS error are reduced from 11684.013 nT and 7794.604 nT to 16.219 nT and 5.907 nT respectively. It suggests an effective way to improve the compensation performance of magnetic distortions. - Highlights: • A new vector compensation method is proposed for vehicle magnetic distortion. • The proposed model not only includes magnetometer error but also considers magnetic distortion. • Compensation parameters are computed directly by solving nonlinear equations. • Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is not related with rotation angle rate. • Error intensity and RMS error can be reduced to 1/2 of the error with traditional methods.

  16. Improvement of vector compensation method for vehicle magnetic distortion field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic distortions such as eddy-current field and low frequency magnetic field have not been considered in vector compensation methods. A new compensation method is proposed to suppress these magnetic distortions and improve compensation performance, in which the magnetic distortions related to measurement vectors and time are considered. The experimental system mainly consists of a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (DM-050), an underwater vehicle and a proton magnetometer, in which the scalar value of magnetic field is obtained with the proton magnetometer and considered to be the true value. Comparing with traditional compensation methods, experimental results show that the magnetic distortions can be further reduced by two times. After compensation, error intensity and RMS error are reduced from 11684.013 nT and 7794.604 nT to 16.219 nT and 5.907 nT respectively. It suggests an effective way to improve the compensation performance of magnetic distortions. - Highlights: • A new vector compensation method is proposed for vehicle magnetic distortion. • The proposed model not only includes magnetometer error but also considers magnetic distortion. • Compensation parameters are computed directly by solving nonlinear equations. • Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is not related with rotation angle rate. • Error intensity and RMS error can be reduced to 1/2 of the error with traditional methods

  17. Electric Field Induced Strain in Electrostrictive Polymers Under High Hydrostatic Pressure - System Development and Material Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Q

    2000-01-01

    ... of (i) developing a high performance piezo-bimorph based dilatometer which can be used to characterize the electric field induced strain response in polymer films under high hydrostatic pressure, (ii...

  18. APPLICATION OF A DAMPED LOCALLY OPTIMIZED COMBINATION OF IMAGES METHOD TO THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FAINT COMPANIONS USING AN INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Dekany, Richard; Bouchez, Antonin; Roberts, Jenny; Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Zimmerman, Neil; Parry, Ian; Beichman, Charles; Soummer, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    High-contrast imaging instruments are now being equipped with integral field spectrographs (IFSs) to facilitate the detection and characterization of faint substellar companions. Algorithms currently envisioned to handle IFS data, such as the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm, rely on aggressive point-spread function (PSF) subtraction, which is ideal for initially identifying companions but results in significantly biased photometry and spectroscopy owing to unwanted mixing with residual starlight. This spectrophotometric issue is further complicated by the fact that algorithmic color response is a function of the companion's spectrum, making it difficult to calibrate the effects of the reduction without using iterations involving a series of injected synthetic companions. In this paper, we introduce a new PSF calibration method, which we call 'damped LOCI', that seeks to alleviate these concerns. By modifying the cost function that determines the weighting coefficients used to construct PSF reference images, and also forcing those coefficients to be positive, it is possible to extract companion spectra with a precision that is set by calibration of the instrument response and transmission of the atmosphere, and not by post-processing. We demonstrate the utility of this approach using on-sky data obtained with the Project 1640 IFS at Palomar. Damped LOCI does not require any iterations on the underlying spectral type of the companion, nor does it rely on priors involving the chromatic and statistical properties of speckles. It is a general technique that can readily be applied to other current and planned instruments that employ IFSs.

  19. The Hall coefficient: a tool for characterizing graphene field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrfritz, Peter; Seyller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Graphene field effect transistors are considered as a candidate for future high-frequency applications. For their realization, the optimal combination of substrate, graphene preparation, and insulator deposition and composition is required. This optimization must be based on an in-depth characterization of the obtained graphene insulator metal (GIM) stack. Hall effect measurements are frequently employed to study such systems, thereby focussing primarily on the charge carrier mobility. In this work we show how an analysis of the sheet Hall coefficient can reveal further important properties of the GIM stack, like, e.g., the interface trap density and the spacial charge inhomogeneity. To that end, we provide an extensive description of the GIM diode, which leads to an accurate calculation of the sheet Hall coefficient dependent on temperature and gate voltage. The gate dependent inverse sheet Hall coefficient is discussed in detail before we introduce the concept of an equivalent temperature, which is a measure of the spacial charge inhomogeneity. In order to test the concept, we apply it to evaluate already measured Hall data taken from the literature. This evaluation allows us to determine the Drude mobility, even at the charge neutrality point, which is inaccessible with a simple one band Hall mobility analysis, and to shed light on the spacial charge inhomogeneity. The formalism is easily adaptable and provides experimentalists a powerful tool for the characterization of their graphene field effect devices. (paper)

  20. PIV for the characterization of focused field induced acoustic streaming: seeding particle choice evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haj Slama, Rafika; Gilles, Bruno; Ben Chiekh, Maher; Béra, Jean-Christophe

    2017-04-01

    This research evaluates the use of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique for characterizing acoustic streaming flow generated by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). PIV qualification tests, focusing on the seeding particle size (diameter of 5, 20 and 50μm) were carried out in degassed water subjected to a focused field of 550kHz-frequency with an acoustic pressure amplitude of 5.2, 10.5 and 15.7bar at the focus. This study shows that the ultrasonic field, especially the radiation force, can strongly affect seeding particle behavior. Large particles (50μm-diameter) are repelled from the focal zone and gathered at radiation pressure convergence lines on either side of the focus. The calculation of the acoustic radiation pressure applied on these particles explains the observed phenomenon. PIV measurements do not, therefore, properly characterize the streaming flow in this case. On the contrary, small particles (5μm-diameter) velocity measurements were in good agreement with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the water velocity field. A simple criterion approximating the diameter threshold below which seeding particles are qualified for PIV in presence of focused ultrasound is then proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photoelastic method to quantitatively visualise the evolution of whole-field stress in 3D printed models subject to continuous loading processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yang; Ren, Zhangyu; Wang, Li; Mao, Lingtao; Chiang, Fu-Pen

    2018-01-01

    The combination of three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques and photoelastic testing is a promising way to quantitatively determine the continuous whole-field stress distributions in solids that are characterized by complex structures. However, photoelastic testing produces wrapped isoclinic and isochromatic phase maps, and unwrapping these maps has always been a significant challenge. To realize the visualization and transparentization of the stress fields in complex structures, we report a new approach to quantify the continuous evolution of the whole-field stress in photosensitive material that is applicable to the fabrication of complex structures using 3D printing technology. The stress fringe orders are determined by analyzing a series of continuous frames extracted from a video recording of the fringe changes over the entire loading process. The integer portion of the fringe orders at a specific point on the model can be determined by counting the valleys of the light intensity change curve over the whole loading process, and the fractional portion can be calculated based on the cosine function between the light intensity and retardation. This method allows the fringe orders to be determined from the video itself, which significantly improves characterization accuracy and simplifies the experimental operation over the entire processes. To validate the proposed method, we compare the results of the theoretical calculations to those of experiments based on the diametric compression of a circular disc prepared by a 3D printer with photosensitive resin. The results indicate that the method can accurately determine the stress fringe order, except for points where the deformation is too large to differentiate the fringes pertaining to photoplasticity.

  2. A radiometric method for the characterization of particulate processes in colloidal suspensions. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subotic, B.

    1979-01-01

    A radiometric method for the characterization of particulate processes is verified using stable hydrosols of silver iodide. Silver iodide hydrosols satisfy the conditions required for the applications of the proposed method. Comparison shows that the values for the change of particle size measured in silver iodide hydrosols by the proposed method are in excellent agreement with the values obtained by other methods on the same systems (electron microscopy, sedimentation analysis, light scattering). This shows that the proposed method is suitable for the characterization of particulate processes in colloidal suspensions. (Auth.

  3. Experimental validation of a method characterizing bow tie filters in CT scanners using a real-time dose probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, Sarah E.; Nosratieh, Anita; Gelskey, Dale; Yang Kai; Huang Shinying; Chen Lin; Boone, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Beam-shaping or ''bow tie'' (BT) filters are used to spatially modulate the x-ray beam in a CT scanner, but the conventional method of step-and-shoot measurement to characterize a beam's profile is tedious and time-consuming. The theory for characterization of bow tie relative attenuation (COBRA) method, which relies on a real-time dosimeter to address the issues of conventional measurement techniques, was previously demonstrated using computer simulations. In this study, the feasibility of the COBRA theory is further validated experimentally through the employment of a prototype real-time radiation meter and a known BT filter. Methods: The COBRA method consisted of four basic steps: (1) The probe was placed at the edge of a scanner's field of view; (2) a real-time signal train was collected as the scanner's gantry rotated with the x-ray beam on; (3) the signal train, without a BT filter, was modeled using peak values measured in the signal train of step 2; and (4) the relative attenuation of the BT filter was estimated from filtered and unfiltered data sets. The prototype probe was first verified to have an isotropic and linear response to incident x-rays. The COBRA method was then tested on a dedicated breast CT scanner with a custom-designed BT filter and compared to the conventional step-and-shoot characterization of the BT filter. Using basis decomposition of dual energy signal data, the thickness of the filter was estimated and compared to the BT filter's manufacturing specifications. The COBRA method was also demonstrated with a clinical whole body CT scanner using the body BT filter. The relative attenuation was calculated at four discrete x-ray tube potentials and used to estimate the thickness of the BT filter. Results: The prototype probe was found to have a linear and isotropic response to x-rays. The relative attenuation produced from the COBRA method fell within the error of the relative attenuation measured with the step-and-shoot method

  4. Development of characterization methods applied to radioactive wastes and waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, C.; Bienvenu, Ph.; Comte, J.; Excoffier, E.; Dodi, A.; Gal, O.; Gmar, M.; Jeanneau, F.; Poumarede, B.; Tola, F.; Moulin, V.; Jallu, F.; Lyoussi, A.; Ma, J.L.; Oriol, L.; Passard, Ch.; Perot, B.; Pettier, J.L.; Raoux, A.C.; Thierry, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document is a compilation of R and D studies carried out in the framework of the axis 3 of the December 1991 law about the conditioning and storage of high-level and long lived radioactive wastes and waste packages, and relative to the methods of characterization of these wastes. This R and D work has permitted to implement and qualify new methods (characterization of long-lived radioelements, high energy imaging..) and also to improve the existing methods by lowering detection limits and reducing uncertainties of measured data. This document is the result of the scientific production of several CEA laboratories that use complementary techniques: destructive methods and radiochemical analyses, photo-fission and active photonic interrogation, high energy imaging systems, neutron interrogation, gamma spectroscopy and active and passive imaging techniques. (J.S.)

  5. Method development and strategy for the characterization of complexly faulted and fractured rhyolitic tuffs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Galloway, D. [Geological Survey, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The planned high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would exist in unsaturated, fractured welded tuff. One possible contaminant pathway to the accessible environment is transport by groundwater infiltrating to the water table and flowing through the saturated zone. Therefore, an effort to characterize the hydrology of the saturated zone is being undertaken in parallel with that of the unsaturated zone. As a part of the saturated zone investigation, there wells-UE-25c{number_sign}1, UE-25c{number_sign}2, and UE-25c{number_sign}3 (hereafter called the c-holes)-were drilled to study hydraulic and transport properties of rock formations underlying the planned waste repository. The location of the c-holes is such that the formations penetrated in the unsaturated zone occur at similar depths and with similar thicknesses as at the planned repository site. In characterizing a highly heterogeneous flow system, several issues emerge. (1) The characterization strategy should allow for the virtual impossibility to enumerate and characterize all heterogeneities. (2) The methodology to characterize the heterogeneous flow system at the scale of the well tests needs to be established. (3) Tools need to be developed for scaling up the information obtained at the well-test scale to the larger scale of the site. In the present paper, the characterization strategy and the methods under development are discussed with the focus on the design and analysis of the field experiments at the c-holes.

  6. Characterization of Photovoltaic Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitier, V.; Cressault, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses photovoltaic panel systems and reviews their electrical properties and use in several industrial fields. We explain how different photovoltaic panels may be characterized by undergraduate students at university using simple methods to retrieve their electrical properties (power, current and voltage) and compare these values…

  7. The experimental field work as practical learning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Fernández Losa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a teaching experience about experimental field work as practical learning method implemented in the subject of Organizational Behaviour. With this teaching experience we pretend to change the practical training, as well as in its evaluation process, in order to favour the development of transversal skills of students. For this purpose, the use of a practice plan, tackled through an experimental field work and carried out with the collaboration of a business organization within a work team (as organic unity of learning, arises as an alternative to the traditional method of practical teachings and allows the approach of business reality into the classroom, as well as actively promote the use of transversal skills. In particular, we develop the experience in three phases. Initially, the students, after forming a working group and define a field work project, should get the collaboration of a nearby business organization in which to obtain data on one or more functional areas of organizational behaviour. Subsequently, students carry out the field work with the realization of the scheduled visits and elaboration of a memory to establish a diagnosis of the strategy followed by the company in these functional areas in order to propose and justify alternative actions that improve existing ones. Finally, teachers assess the different field work memories and their public presentations according to evaluation rubrics, which try to objectify and unify to the maximum the evaluation criteria and serve to guide the learning process of students. The results of implementation of this teaching experience, measured through a Likert questionnaire, are very satisfactory for students.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyethylene Glycol Mediated Silver Nanoparticles by the Green Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Abdollahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The roles of green chemistry in nanotechnology and nanoscience fields are very significant in the synthesis of diverse nanomaterials. Herein, we report a green chemistry method for synthesized colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in polymeric media. The colloidal Ag NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and β-d-glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and their size distributions. The Ag NPs were characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD, zeta potential measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR. The use of green chemistry reagents, such as glucose, provides green and economic features to this work.

  9. Eddy currents non-destructive testing. use of a numeric/symbolic method to separate and characterize the transitions of a signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benas, J.C.; Lefevre, F.; Gaillard, P.; Georgel, B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an original numeric/symbolic method for solving an inverse problem in the field of non-destructive testing. The purpose of this method is to characterize the transitions of a signal even when they are superimposed. Its principle is to solve as many direct problems as necessary to obtain the solution, and to use some hypothesis to manage the reasoning of the process. The direct problem calculation yields to a 'model signal', and the solution is reached when the model signal is close to the measured one. This method calculates the directions of minimization thanks to a symbolic reasoning based on the peaks of the residual signal. The results of the method are good and seem very promising. (authors). 13 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Semi-empirical equivalent field method for dose determination in midline block fields for cobalt - 60 beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagoe, S.N.A.; Nani, E.K.; Yarney, J.; Edusa, C.; Quayson-Sackey, K.; Nyamadi, K.M.; Sasu, E.

    2012-01-01

    For teletherapy treatment time calculations, midline block fields are resolved into two fields, but neglecting scattering from other fields, the effective equivalent square field size of the midline block is assumed to the resultant field. Such approach is underestimation, and may be detrimental in achieving the recommended uncertainty of ± 5 % for patient's radiation dose delivery. By comparison, the deviations of effective equivalent square field sizes by calculations and experiments were within 13.2 % for cobalt 60 beams of GWGP80 cobalt 60 teletherapy. Therefore, a modified method incorporating the scatter contributions was adopted to estimate the effective equivalent square field size for midline block field. The measured outputs of radiation beams with the block were compared with outputs of square fields without the blocks (only the block tray) at depths of 5 and 10 cm for the teletherapy machine employing isocentric technique, and the accuracy was within ± 3 % for the cobalt 60 beams. (au)

  11. Nonlinear Ion Harmonics in the Paul Trap with Added Octopole Field: Theoretical Characterization and New Insight into Nonlinear Resonance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Caiqiao; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ning; Zhan, Lingpeng; Chen, Yongtai; Nie, Zongxiu

    2016-02-01

    The nonlinear harmonics within the ion motion are the fingerprint of the nonlinear fields. They are exclusively introduced by these nonlinear fields and are responsible to some specific nonlinear effects such as nonlinear resonance effect. In this article, the ion motion in the quadrupole field with a weak superimposed octopole component, described by the nonlinear Mathieu equation (NME), was studied by using the analytical harmonic balance (HB) method. Good accuracy of the HB method, which was comparable with that of the numerical fourth-order Runge-Kutta (4th RK), was achieved in the entire first stability region, except for the points at the stability boundary (i.e., β = 1) and at the nonlinear resonance condition (i.e., β = 0.5). Using the HB method, the nonlinear 3β harmonic series introduced by the octopole component and the resultant nonlinear resonance effect were characterized. At nonlinear resonance, obvious resonant peaks were observed in the nonlinear 3β series of ion motion, but were not found in the natural harmonics. In addition, both resonant excitation and absorption peaks could be observed, simultaneously. These are two unique features of the nonlinear resonance, distinguishing it from the normal resonance. Finally, an approximation equation was given to describe the corresponding working parameter, q nr , at nonlinear resonance. This equation can help avoid the sensitivity degradation due to the operation of ion traps at the nonlinear resonance condition.

  12. Waste characterization methods at belgoprocess and the importance of NDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botte, J.; Luycx, P.

    2003-01-01

    Waste characterization in the end cycle becomes more and more important. Several methods are available for a radiological characterization: from copying the waste producers declaration over a calculation based on known characteristics or measured values to combinations of several techniques. The decision on what technique(s) to be used will be based on several criteria. One also has to evaluate at what stage of the waste treatment process the characterization has to be performed. Recently belgoprocess has performed large efforts and investments to assure a good waste characterization. These are concentrated in studies on historical and recent waste, resulting in isotopic vectors and the purchase of several NDA devices in order to cover the whole scala of waste the company treats. The measuring results always need to be integrated with isotopic vectors. (orig.)

  13. Near-to far-field transformation in the aperiodic Fourier modal method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, R.; Pisarenco, M.; Setija, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the task of obtaining the far-field spectrum for a finite structure given the near-field calculated by the aperiodic Fourier modal method in contrast-field formulation (AFMM-CFF). The AFMM-CFF efficiently calculates the solution to Maxwell's equations for a finite structure by

  14. Inverse transformation algorithm of transient electromagnetic field and its high-resolution continuous imaging interpretation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Zhipeng; Li, Xiu; Lu, Xushan; Zhang, Yingying; Yao, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new and potentially useful method for wave field inverse transformation and its application in transient electromagnetic method (TEM) 3D interpretation. The diffusive EM field is known to have a unique integral representation in terms of a fictitious wave field that satisfies a wave equation. The continuous imaging of TEM can be accomplished using the imaging methods in seismic interpretation after the diffusion equation is transformed into a fictitious wave equation. The interpretation method based on the imaging of a fictitious wave field could be used as a fast 3D inversion method. Moreover, the fictitious wave field possesses some wave field features making it possible for the application of a wave field interpretation method in TEM to improve the prospecting resolution.Wave field transformation is a key issue in the migration imaging of a fictitious wave field. The equation in the wave field transformation belongs to the first class Fredholm integration equation, which is a typical ill-posed equation. Additionally, TEM has a large dynamic time range, which also facilitates the weakness of this ill-posed problem. The wave field transformation is implemented by using pre-conditioned regularized conjugate gradient method. The continuous imaging of a fictitious wave field is implemented by using Kirchhoff integration. A synthetic aperture and deconvolution algorithm is also introduced to improve the interpretation resolution. We interpreted field data by the method proposed in this paper, and obtained a satisfying interpretation result. (paper)

  15. A measuring system for mechanical characterization of thin films based on a compact in situ micro-tensile tester and SEM moiré method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanjie; Tang, Minjin; Xie, Huimin; Zhu, Ronghua; Luo, Qiang; Gu, Changzhi

    2013-01-01

    A measuring system for mechanical characterization of thin films based on a compact in situ micro-tensile tester and scanning electron microscope (SEM) moiré method is proposed. The load is exerted by the tensile tester and the full field strain is measured by SEM moiré method. The configuration of the tensile tester and the principle of SEM moiré method are introduced. In the tensile tester, a lever structure is designed to amplify the displacement imposed by lead–zirconate–titanate (PZT) actuator. The SEM moiré method is applied to measure the strain of the thin film, including both the average strain in the gage section and the local strain distribution at a specific region. As an application, the measuring system is applied to characterize the mechanical property of the free-standing aluminum thin film. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the system and its good application potential for mechanical behavior analysis of film-like materials. (paper)

  16. Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.

    2013-01-01

    A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier transform and fast multipole method accelerated surface integral equation-based EM simulator to statistically characterize fields from wireless transmitters in complex mine environments. 1536-1225 © 2013 IEEE.

  17. A method to solve the aircraft magnetic field model basing on geomagnetic environment simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chunsheng; Zhou, Jian-jun; Yang, Zhen-yu

    2015-01-01

    In aeromagnetic survey, it is difficult to solve the aircraft magnetic field model by flying for some unman controlled or disposable aircrafts. So a model solving method on the ground is proposed. The method simulates the geomagnetic environment where the aircraft is flying and creates the background magnetic field samples which is the same as the magnetic field arose by aircraft’s maneuvering. Then the aircraft magnetic field model can be solved by collecting the magnetic field samples. The method to simulate the magnetic environment and the method to control the errors are presented as well. Finally, an experiment is done for verification. The result shows that the model solving precision and stability by the method is well. The calculated model parameters by the method in one district can be used in worldwide districts as well. - Highlights: • A method to solve the aircraft magnetic field model on the ground is proposed. • The method solves the model by simulating dynamic geomagnetic environment as in the real flying. • The way to control the error of the method was analyzed. • An experiment is done for verification

  18. Time-resolved ultraviolet near-field scanning optical microscope for characterizing photoluminescence lifetime of light-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Jeong, Hyun; Kim, Yong Hwan; Yim, Sang-Youp; Lee, Hong Seok; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2013-03-01

    We developed a instrument consisting of an ultraviolet (UV) near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) combined with time-correlated single photon counting, which allows efficient observation of temporal dynamics of near-field photoluminescence (PL) down to the sub-wavelength scale. The developed time-resolved UV NSOM system showed a spatial resolution of 110 nm and a temporal resolution of 130 ps in the optical signal. The proposed microscope system was successfully demonstrated by characterizing the near-field PL lifetime of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells.

  19. New method for solving inductive electric fields in the non-uniformly conducting ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vanhamäki

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new calculation method for solving inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. The time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field, together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances serves as the input to this method. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition, no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called the Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS. This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfvén wave reflection from a uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  20. New method for solving inductive electric fields in the non-uniformly conducting ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhamäki, H.; Amm, O.; Viljanen, A.

    2006-10-01

    We present a new calculation method for solving inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. The time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field, together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances serves as the input to this method. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition, no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called the Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfvén wave reflection from a uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  1. Physiochemical characterizations of hydroxyapatite extracted from bovine bones by three different methods: Extraction of biologically desirable HAp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, Nasser A.M.; Khalil, K.A.; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Omran, A.M.; Gaihre, Babita; Khil, Soeb M.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, subcritical water and alkaline hydrolysis methods are proposed methodologies for extraction of natural hydroxyapatite bioceramic from bovine bone. In these processes, the bovine bones powder were treated by high pressure water at 250 deg. C for 1 h and 25% (wt) sodium hydroxide at 250 deg. C for 5 h, respectively. Also the conventional calcination methodology has been utilized as well (T = 850 deg. C for 1 h). The obtained apatites from the three treatment processes have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), electron scanning microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM). FT IR and XRD results affirmed that both the proposed methods and the traditional one can eliminate the collagen and other organic materials present in the bovine bones. The physiochemical characterizations for the obtained apatites have proved that the subcritical water and the alkaline hydrolysis relatively preserve the carbonate content present in the biological apatite, so they yield carbonated hydroxyapatite which is medically preferable. While, the thermal process produces almost hydroxyapatite carbonate-free

  2. Effective-field renormalization-group method for Ising systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittipaldi, I. P.; De Albuquerque, D. F.

    1992-02-01

    A new applicable effective-field renormalization-group (ERFG) scheme for computing critical properties of Ising spins systems is proposed and used to study the phase diagrams of a quenched bond-mixed spin Ising model on square and Kagomé lattices. The present EFRG approach yields results which improves substantially on those obtained from standard mean-field renormalization-group (MFRG) method. In particular, it is shown that the EFRG scheme correctly distinguishes the geometry of the lattice structure even when working with the smallest possible clusters, namely N'=1 and N=2.

  3. Method and system for progressive mesh storage and reconstruction using wavelet-encoded height fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxes, Gregory A. (Inventor); Linger, Timothy C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods are provided for progressive mesh storage and reconstruction using wavelet-encoded height fields. A method for progressive mesh storage includes reading raster height field data, and processing the raster height field data with a discrete wavelet transform to generate wavelet-encoded height fields. In another embodiment, a method for progressive mesh storage includes reading texture map data, and processing the texture map data with a discrete wavelet transform to generate wavelet-encoded texture map fields. A method for reconstructing a progressive mesh from wavelet-encoded height field data includes determining terrain blocks, and a level of detail required for each terrain block, based upon a viewpoint. Triangle strip constructs are generated from vertices of the terrain blocks, and an image is rendered utilizing the triangle strip constructs. Software products that implement these methods are provided.

  4. Copper nanoparticles mediated by chitosan: synthesis and characterization via chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad Sani; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shameli, Kamyar; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2012-12-14

    Herein we report a synthesis of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) in chitosan (Cts) media via a chemical reaction method. The nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous solution in the presence of Cts as stabilizer and CuSO(4)·5H(2)O precursor. The synthesis proceeded with addition of NaOH as pH moderator, ascorbic acid as antioxidant and hydrazine( )as the reducing agent. The characterization of the prepared NPs was done using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which showed a 593 nm copper band. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images were also observed, and found to be in agreement with the UV-Vis result, confirming the formation of metallic Cu-NPs. The mean size of the Cu-NPs was estimated to be in the range of 35-75 nm using X-ray diffraction. XRD was also used in analysis of the crystal structure of the NPs. The interaction between the chitosan and the synthesized NPs was studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, which showed the capping of the NPs by Cts.

  5. The eigenfunction method and the mass operator in intense-field quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritus, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    A method is given for calculating radiation effects in constant intense-field quantum electrodynamics; this method is based on the use of the eigenfunctions of the mass operator and diagonalization of the latter. A compact expression is found for the eigenvalue of the mass operator of the electron in a random constant field together with the corresponding elastic scattering amplitude. The anomalous electric moment that arises in the field with a pseudoscalar EH not equal to O is found and investigated in detail together with the anomalous magnetic moment in the electrical field that approaches the double Schwinger value with an increase in the field together with the mass shift and the rate of decay of the ground state of the electron in the electrical field

  6. X-ray methods for the chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1981-05-01

    The development and use of several x-ray methods for the chemical characterization of atmospherical aerosol particulate samples are described. These methods are based on the emission, absorption, and scattering of x-ray photons with emphasis on the optimization for the non-destructive analysis of dilute specimens. Techniques discussed include photon induced energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation and high-rate x-ray powder diffractometry using a position-sensitive gas proportional counter. These x-ray analysis methods were applied to the measurement of the chemical compositions of size-segregated aerosol particulate samples obtained with dichotomous samplers. The advantages of the various methods for use in such measurements are described and results are presented. In many cases, the complementary nature of the analytical information obtained from the various measurements is an important factor in the characterization of the sample. For example, the multiple elemental analyses obtained from x-ray fluorescence can be used as a cross check on the major compounds observed by powder diffraction

  7. A New Method for Analyzing Near-Field Faraday Probe Data in Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analyzing near-field Faraday probe data obtained from Hall thrusters. Traditional methods spawned from far-field Faraday probe analysis rely on assumptions that are not applicable to near-field Faraday probe data. In particular, arbitrary choices for the point of origin and limits of integration have made interpretation of the results difficult. The new method, called iterative pathfinding, uses the evolution of the near-field plume with distance to provide feedback for determining the location of the point of origin. Although still susceptible to the choice of integration limits, this method presents a systematic approach to determining the origin point for calculating the divergence angle. The iterative pathfinding method is applied to near-field Faraday probe data taken in a previous study from the NASA-300M and NASA-457Mv2 Hall thrusters. Since these two thrusters use centrally mounted cathodes the current density associated with the cathode plume is removed before applying iterative pathfinding. A procedure is presented for removing the cathode plume. The results of the analysis are compared to far-field probe analysis results. This paper ends with checks on the validity of the new method and discussions on the implications of the results.

  8. Strategy for identification & characterization of Bartonella henselae with conventional & molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Diddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Bartonella henselae is a fastidious gram-negative bacterium usually causing self limiting infections in immunocompetent individuals but often causes potentially life threatening infection, such as bacillary angiomatosis in immunocompromised patients. Both diagnosis of infections and research into molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis have been hindered by lack of appropriate and reliable diagnostic techniques. We undertook this study to standardize methods to characterize B. henselae in clinical samples to diagnose Bartonella infection correctly. Methods: B. henselae ATCC 49882 strain was procured from American type culture collection, USA. This strain was revived and maintained in the laboratory, and identification and characterization of this strain was done by conventional and molecular techniques, which included culture on various media, staining by different methods including electron microscopy, biochemical analysis by conventional methods and API, polymerase chain reaction (PCR for amplification of citrate synthase gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Results: This organism was biochemically inert due to slow growth and generated unique identification code with API. The amplification of the citrate-synthase gene with primers yielded a 381 bp product followed by specific RFLP profile for B. henselae. Interpretation & conclusions: Bartonella is fastidious and fragile organism and should be handled carefully. Extra effort and careful observation are required to isolate and characterize this organism.

  9. High-Bandwidth Dynamic Full-Field Profilometry for Nano-Scale Characterization of MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L-C; Huang, Y-T; Chang, P-B

    2006-01-01

    The article describes an innovative optical interferometric methodology to delivery dynamic surface profilometry with a measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher and a vertical resolution up to 1 nm. Previous work using stroboscopic microscopic interferometry for dynamic characterization of micro (opto)electromechanical systems (M(O)EMS) has been limited in measurement bandwidth mainly within a couple of MHz. For high resonant mode analysis, the stroboscopic light pulse is insufficiently short to capture the moving fringes from dynamic motion of the detected structure. In view of this need, a microscopic prototype based on white-light stroboscopic interferometry with an innovative light superposition strategy was developed to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry with a high measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher. The system primarily consists of an optical microscope, on which a Mirau interferometric objective embedded with a piezoelectric vertical translator, a high-power LED light module with dual operation modes and light synchronizing electronics unit are integrated. A micro cantilever beam used in AFM was measured to verify the system capability in accurate characterisation of dynamic behaviours of the device. The full-field seventh-mode vibration at a vibratory frequency of 3.7MHz can be fully characterized and nano-scale vertical measurement resolution as well as tens micrometers of vertical measurement range can be performed

  10. High-Bandwidth Dynamic Full-Field Profilometry for Nano-Scale Characterization of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L-C [Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y-T [Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, P-B [Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China)

    2006-10-15

    The article describes an innovative optical interferometric methodology to delivery dynamic surface profilometry with a measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher and a vertical resolution up to 1 nm. Previous work using stroboscopic microscopic interferometry for dynamic characterization of micro (opto)electromechanical systems (M(O)EMS) has been limited in measurement bandwidth mainly within a couple of MHz. For high resonant mode analysis, the stroboscopic light pulse is insufficiently short to capture the moving fringes from dynamic motion of the detected structure. In view of this need, a microscopic prototype based on white-light stroboscopic interferometry with an innovative light superposition strategy was developed to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry with a high measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher. The system primarily consists of an optical microscope, on which a Mirau interferometric objective embedded with a piezoelectric vertical translator, a high-power LED light module with dual operation modes and light synchronizing electronics unit are integrated. A micro cantilever beam used in AFM was measured to verify the system capability in accurate characterisation of dynamic behaviours of the device. The full-field seventh-mode vibration at a vibratory frequency of 3.7MHz can be fully characterized and nano-scale vertical measurement resolution as well as tens micrometers of vertical measurement range can be performed.

  11. Method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki H.; Xie, Gan Q.

    1994-01-01

    A method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields, and for interpreting the electromagnetic data using ray tomography, in order to determine the earth conductivity with high accuracy and resolution. The imaging method includes the steps of placing one or more transmitters, at various positions in a plurality of transmitter holes, and placing a plurality of receivers in a plurality of receiver holes. The transmitters generate electromagnetic signals which diffuse through a medium, such as earth, toward the receivers. The measured diffusion field data H is then transformed into wavefield data U. The traveltimes corresponding to the wavefield data U, are then obtained, by charting the wavefield data U, using a different regularization parameter .alpha. for each transform. The desired property of the medium, such as conductivity, is then derived from the velocity, which in turn is constructed from the wavefield data U using ray tomography.

  12. Modeling Enzymatic Transition States by Force Field Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Jensen, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The SEAM method, which models a transition structure as a minimum on the seam of two diabatic surfaces represented by force field functions, has been used to generate 20 transition structures for the decarboxylation of orotidine by the orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase enzyme. The dependence...... of the TS geometry on the flexibility of the system has been probed by fixing layers of atoms around the active site and using increasingly larger nonbonded cutoffs. The variability over the 20 structures is found to decrease as the system is made more flexible. Relative energies have been calculated...... by various electronic structure methods, where part of the enzyme is represented by a force field description and the effects of the solvent are represented by a continuum model. The relative energies vary by several hundreds of kJ/mol between the transition structures, and tests showed that a large part...

  13. Visual field examination method using virtual reality glasses compared with the Humphrey perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsapakis S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Stylianos Tsapakis, Dimitrios Papaconstantinou, Andreas Diagourtas, Konstantinos Droutsas, Konstantinos Andreanos, Marilita M Moschos, Dimitrios Brouzas 1st Department of Ophthalmology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece Purpose: To present a visual field examination method using virtual reality glasses and evaluate the reliability of the method by comparing the results with those of the Humphrey perimeter.Materials and methods: Virtual reality glasses, a smartphone with a 6 inch display, and software that implements a fast-threshold 3 dB step staircase algorithm for the central 24° of visual field (52 points were used to test 20 eyes of 10 patients, who were tested in a random and consecutive order as they appeared in our glaucoma department. The results were compared with those obtained from the same patients using the Humphrey perimeter.Results: High correlation coefficient (r=0.808, P<0.0001 was found between the virtual reality visual field test and the Humphrey perimeter visual field.Conclusion: Visual field examination results using virtual reality glasses have a high correlation with the Humphrey perimeter allowing the method to be suitable for probable clinical use. Keywords: visual fields, virtual reality glasses, perimetry, visual fields software, smartphone

  14. Initial Characterization of Colombian High School Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Niño, Lina Viviana; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    We explore the initial characterization of the pedagogical content knowledge of four, in-service, Colombian pre-university secondary education physics teachers on the concept of electric field. Two of them teach the content in English as a second language. The aim of the study was to obtain an image of the participants' teaching of electric field…

  15. Stray-field-induced Faraday contributions in wide-field Kerr microscopy and -magnetometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markó, D.; Soldatov, I.; Tekielak, M.; Schäfer, R.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic domain contrast in wide-field Kerr microscopy on bulk specimens can be substantially distorted by non-linear, field-dependent Faraday rotations in the objective lens that are caused by stray-field components emerging from the specimen. These Faraday contributions, which were detected by Kerr-magnetometry on grain-oriented iron–silicon steel samples, are thoroughly elaborated and characterized. They express themselves as a field-dependent gray-scale offset to the domain contrast and in highly distorted surface magnetization curves if optically measured in a wide field Kerr microscope. An experimental method to avoid such distortions is suggested. In the course of these studies, a low-permeability part in the surface magnetization loop of slightly misoriented (110)-surfaces in iron–silicon sheets was discovered that is attributed to demagnetization effects in direction perpendicular to the sheet surface. - Highlights: • Magnetizing a finite sample in a Kerr microscope leads to sample-generated stray-fields. • They cause non-linear, field- and position-dependent Faraday rotations in the objective. • This leads to a modulation of the Kerr contrast and to distorted MOKE loops. • A method to compensate these Faraday rotations is presented

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles by simple precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankadiya, Siyaram, E-mail: siyaramsankdiya@gmail.com; Oswal, Nidhi, E-mail: oswal03nidhi@gmail.com [Dept. of Applied Physics, Shri Govindram Sakseria Inst. of Tech. and Sci., 23 Park Road, Indore(MP) 452003 (India); Jain, Pranat, E-mail: pranatjain@gmail.com [Dept. of Material Sc. & Metallurgical Eng., Maulana Azad National Inst. of Tech., Bhopal (MP) 4620003 (India); Gupta, Nitish, E-mail: nitish.nidhi75@gmail.com [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Shri Govindram Sakseria Inst. of Tech. and Sci., 23 Park Road, Indore (MP) 452003 (India)

    2016-04-13

    A simple and efficient synthesis of Iron-oxide nanoparticles was carried out by precipitation method using ferric chloride as precursor and ammonium hydroxide as a stabilizing agent at different calcination temperatures. The synthesized powder was characterized by powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction indicated the formation hematite Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} structure. FTIR showed various functional groups of particles and absorption bands related to metal oxygen vibration modes. The heating temperatures were varied at 100 °C, 200°C, and 300°C. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures with the average particle size of about 36.22 nm were prepared at 300°C for 4h. TEM study is also confirming the nanosize of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle. This aqueous precipitation method gives a large scale production of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles easily.

  17. A simplified dynamic method for field capacity estimation and its parameter analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-tao CONG; Hua-fang LÜ; Guang-heng NI

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified dynamic method based on the definition of field capacity. Two soil hydraulic characteristics models, the Brooks-Corey (BC) model and the van Genuchten (vG) model, and four soil data groups were used in this study. The relative drainage rate, which is a unique parameter and independent of the soil type in the simplified dynamic method, was analyzed using the pressure-based method with a matric potential of−1/3 bar and the flux-based method with a drainage flux of 0.005 cm/d. As a result, the relative drainage rate of the simplified dynamic method was determined to be 3% per day. This was verified by the similar field capacity results estimated with the three methods for most soils suitable for cultivating plants. In addition, the drainage time calculated with the simplified dynamic method was two to three days, which agrees with the classical definition of field capacity. We recommend the simplified dynamic method with a relative drainage rate of 3% per day due to its simple application and clearly physically-based concept.

  18. Characterization of nanostructured Mn3O4 thin films grown by SILAR method at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubale, A.U.; Belkhedkar, M.R.; Sakhare, Y.S.; Singh, Arvind; Gurada, Chetan; Kothari, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    A novel successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method has been successfully employed to grow nanostructured conducting nearly transparent thin films of Mn 3 O 4 on to glass substrates at room temperature using MnCl 2 and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors. The structural and morphological characterizations of the as deposited Mn 3 O 4 films have been carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrograph (FESEM), EDAX, Atomic Fore Microscopy (AFM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FTIR) analysis. The optical absorption and electrical resistivity measurements were carried out to investigate optical band gap and activation energy of Mn 3 O 4 films deposited by SILAR method. The optical band gap and activation energy of the as deposited film is found to be 2.70 and 0.14 eV respectively. The thermo-emf measurements of Mn 3 O 4 thin film confirm its p-type semiconducting nature. Highlights: ► Nanostructured Mn 3 O 4 thin film is prepared by SILAR method at room temperature. ► The film is nanocrystalline with orthorhombic structure of Mn 3 O 4 . ► The XRD, FTIR, FESEM, EDX and AFM characterization confirms nanocrystalline nature. ► Optical band gap, electrical resistivity and activation energy of film is reported. ► A thermo-emf measurement confirms p-type conductivity of Mn 3 O 4 films.

  19. Evaluation between ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for characterizing natural dyestuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Ana; van Bommel, Maarten; Hallett, Jessica

    2013-11-29

    An evaluation was undertaken of ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) in comparison to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for characterizing natural dyes in cultural heritage objects. A new UHPLC method was optimized by testing several analytical parameters adapted from prior UHPLC studies developed in diverse fields of research. Different gradient elution programs were tested on seven UHPLC columns with different dimensions and stationary phase compositions by applying several mobile phases, flow rates, temperatures, and runtimes. The UHPLC method successfully provided more improved data than that achieved by the HPLC method. Indeed, even though carminic acid has shown circa 146% higher resolution with HPLC, UHPLC resulted in an increase of 41-61% resolution and a decrease of 91-422% limit of detection, depending on the dye compound. The optimized method was subsequently assigned to analyse 59 natural reference materials, in which 85 different components were ascribed with different physicochemical properties, in order to create a spectral database for future characterization of dyes in cultural heritage objects. The majority of these reference samples could be successfully distinguished with one single method through the examination of these compounds' retention times and their spectra acquired with a photodiode array detector. These results demonstrate that UHPLC analyses are extremely valuable for the acquisition of more precise chromatographic information concerning natural dyes with complex mixtures of different and/or closely related physicochemical properties, essential for distinguishing similar species of plants and animals used to colour cultural heritage objects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolutionary programming-based univector field navigation method for past mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Kim, J H; Kwon, D S

    2001-01-01

    Most of navigation techniques with obstacle avoidance do not consider the robot orientation at the target position. These techniques deal with the robot position only and are independent of its orientation and velocity. To solve these problems this paper proposes a novel univector field method for fast mobile robot navigation which introduces a normalized two dimensional vector field. The method provides fast moving robots with the desired posture at the target position and obstacle avoidance. To obtain the sub-optimal vector field, a function approximator is used and trained by evolutionary programming. Two kinds of vector fields are trained, one for the final posture acquisition and the other for obstacle avoidance. Computer simulations and real experiments are carried out for a fast moving mobile robot to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  1. Initial Characterization of Colombian High School Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Niño, Lina Viviana; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    We explore the initial characterization of the pedagogical content knowledge of four, in-service, Colombian pre-university secondary education physics teachers on the concept of electric field. Two of them teach the content in English as a second language. The aim of the study was to obtain an image of the participants' teaching of electric field and the inherent complexities that go with that. The results revealed that factors which involved their personal educational models, such as, how they interpret their school's curriculum, the relationship they see between physics and mathematics, the most effective strategies for teaching physics, and the time they have available to develop the topic played a significant role. The teachers considered it essential to establish new strategies that would motivate the pupils by helping them visualize the electric field.

  2. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  3. Method of using triaxial magnetic fields for making particle structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E.; Anderson, Robert A.; Williamson, Rodney L.

    2005-01-18

    A method of producing three-dimensional particle structures with enhanced magnetic susceptibility in three dimensions by applying a triaxial energetic field to a magnetic particle suspension and subsequently stabilizing said particle structure. Combinations of direct current and alternating current fields in three dimensions produce particle gel structures, honeycomb structures, and foam-like structures.

  4. Multi-phase-field method for surface tension induced elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedung, Raphael; Steinbach, Ingo; Varnik, Fathollah

    2018-01-01

    A method, based on the multi-phase-field framework, is proposed that adequately accounts for the effects of a coupling between surface free energy and elastic deformation in solids. The method is validated via a number of analytically solvable problems. In addition to stress states at mechanical equilibrium in complex geometries, the underlying multi-phase-field framework naturally allows us to account for the influence of surface energy induced stresses on phase transformation kinetics. This issue, which is of fundamental importance on the nanoscale, is demonstrated in the limit of fast diffusion for a solid sphere, which melts due to the well-known Gibbs-Thompson effect. This melting process is slowed down when coupled to surface energy induced elastic deformation.

  5. Method for solving quantum field theory in the Heisenberg picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Noboru

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a review of the method for solving quantum field theory in the Heisenberg picture, developed by Abe and Nakanishi since 1991. Starting from field equations and canonical (anti) commutation relations, one sets up a (q-number) Cauchy problem for the totality of d-dimensional (anti) commutators between the fundamental fields, where d is the number of spacetime dimensions. Solving this Cauchy problem, one obtains the operator solution of the theory. Then one calculates all multiple commutators. A representation of the operator solution is obtained by constructing the set of all Wightman functions for the fundamental fields; the truncated Wightman functions are constructed so as to be consistent with all vacuum expectation values of the multiple commutators mentioned above and with the energy-positivity condition. By applying the method described above, exact solutions to various 2-dimensional gauge-theory and quantum-gravity models are found explicitly. The validity of these solutions is confirmed by comparing them with the conventional perturbation-theoretical results. However, a new anomalous feature, called the ''field-equation anomaly'', is often found to appear, and its perturbation-theoretical counterpart, unnoticed previously, is discussed. The conventional notion of an anomaly with respect to symmetry is reconsidered on the basis of the field-equation anomaly, and the derivation of the critical dimension in the BRS-formulated bosonic string theory is criticized. The method outlined above is applied to more realistic theories by expanding everything in powers of the relevant parameter, but this expansion is not equivalent to the conventional perturbative expansion. The new expansion is BRS-invariant at each order, in contrast to that in the conventional perturbation theory. Higher-order calculations are generally extremely laborious to perform explicitly. (author)

  6. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne's preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture's Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas

  7. A Simple Transmission Electron Microscopy Method for Fast Thickness Characterization of Suspended Graphene and Graphite Flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Stefano; Akhtar, Sultan; Leifer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    We present a simple, fast method for thickness characterization of suspended graphene/graphite flakes that is based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We derive an analytical expression for the intensity of the transmitted electron beam I 0(t), as a function of the specimen thickness t (tgraphite). We show that in thin graphite crystals the transmitted intensity is a linear function of t. Furthermore, high-resolution (HR) TEM simulations are performed to obtain λ for a 001 zone axis orientation, in a two-beam case and in a low symmetry orientation. Subsequently, HR (used to determine t) and bright-field (to measure I 0(0) and I 0(t)) images were acquired to experimentally determine λ. The experimental value measured in low symmetry orientation matches the calculated value (i.e., λ=225±9 nm). The simulations also show that the linear approximation is valid up to a sample thickness of 3-4 nm regardless of the orientation and up to several ten nanometers for a low symmetry orientation. When compared with standard techniques for thickness determination of graphene/graphite, the method we propose has the advantage of being simple and fast, requiring only the acquisition of bright-field images.

  8. Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Ecke, H.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of solid waste is usually a difficult task because of the heterogeneity of the waste and its spatial as well as temporal variations. This makes waste characterization costly if good and reliable data with reasonable uncertainty is to be obtained. Therefore, a waste characterization...... is often narrowly defined to meet specific needs for information. This may however limit the general usefulness of the information gained, for example, if the specific purpose limited the characterization to a subset of variables. In general, data available in the solid waste area are limited and often...... related to individual treatment processes and waste products are dealt with in the following chapters: Characteristic data on residential waste (Chapter 2.2), commercial and institutional waste (Chapter 2.3), industrial waste (Chapter 2.4) and construction and demolition waste (Chapter 2...

  9. An overview of field-specific designs of microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Fox, S.L.; Jackson, J.D.; Thomas, C.P. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The selection and design of an MEOR process for application in a specific field involves geological, reservoir, and biological characterization. Microbially mediated oil recovery mechanisms (bigenic gas, biopolymers, and biosurfactants) are defined by the types of microorganisms used. The engineering and biological character of a given reservoir must be understood to correctly select a microbial system to enhance oil recovery. This paper discusses the methods used to evaluate three fields with distinct characteristics and production problems for the applicability of MEOR would not be applicable in two of the three fields considered. The development of a microbial oil recovery process for the third field appeared promising. Development of a bacterial consortium capable of producing the desired metabolites was initiated, and field isolates were characterized.

  10. A Bayesian reliability evaluation method with integrated accelerated degradation testing and field information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lizhi; Pan, Rong; Li, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Tongmin

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated degradation testing (ADT) is a common approach in reliability prediction, especially for products with high reliability. However, oftentimes the laboratory condition of ADT is different from the field condition; thus, to predict field failure, one need to calibrate the prediction made by using ADT data. In this paper a Bayesian evaluation method is proposed to integrate the ADT data from laboratory with the failure data from field. Calibration factors are introduced to calibrate the difference between the lab and the field conditions so as to predict a product's actual field reliability more accurately. The information fusion and statistical inference procedure are carried out through a Bayesian approach and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The proposed method is demonstrated by two examples and the sensitivity analysis to prior distribution assumption

  11. Quantitative data analysis methods for 3D microstructure characterization of Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    through percolating networks and reaction rates at the triple phase boundaries. Quantitative analysis of microstructure is thus important both in research and development of optimal microstructure design and fabrication. Three dimensional microstructure characterization in particular holds great promise...... for gaining further fundamental understanding of how microstructure affects performance. In this work, methods for automatic 3D characterization of microstructure are studied: from the acquisition of 3D image data by focused ion beam tomography to the extraction of quantitative measures that characterize...... the microstructure. The methods are exemplied by the analysis of Ni-YSZ and LSC-CGO electrode samples. Automatic methods for preprocessing the raw 3D image data are developed. The preprocessing steps correct for errors introduced by the image acquisition by the focused ion beam serial sectioning. Alignment...

  12. Semi-automatic version of the potentiometric titration method for characterization of uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, Bárbara F.G.; Delgado, José Ubiratan; Wanderley S da Silva, José; Barros, Pedro D. de; Araújo, Radier M.S. de; Dias, Fábio C.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-01-01

    The potentiometric titration method was used for characterization of uranium compounds to be applied in intercomparison programs. The method is applied with traceability assured using a potassium dichromate primary standard. A semi-automatic version was developed to reduce the analysis time and the operator variation. The standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization and compatible with those obtained by manual techniques. - Highlights: ► A semi-automatic potentiometric titration method was developed for U charaterization. ► K 2 Cr 2 O 7 was the only certified reference material used. ► Values obtained for U 3 O 8 samples were consistent with certified. ► Uncertainty of 0.01% was useful for characterization and intercomparison program.

  13. High-resolution digital dosimetric system for spatial characterization of radiation fields using a thermoluminescent CaF2:Dy crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atari, N.A.; Svensson, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    A high-resolution digital dosimetric system has been developed for the spatial characterization of radiation fields. The system comprises the following: 0.5-mm-thick, 25-mm-diam CaF2:Dy thermoluminescent crystal; intensified charge coupled device video camera; video cassette recorder; and a computerized image processing subsystem. The optically flat single crystal is used as a radiation imaging device and the subsequent thermally stimulated phosphorescence is viewed by the intensified camera for further processing and analysis. Parameters governing the performance characteristics of the system were measured. A spatial resolution limit of 31 +/- 2 microns (1 sigma) corresponding to 16 +/- 1 line pairs/mm measured at the 4% level of the modulation transfer function has been achieved. The full width at half maximum of the line spread function measured independently by the slit method or derived from the edge response function was found to be 69 +/- 4 microns (1 sigma). The high resolving power, speed of readout, good precision, wide dynamic range, and the large image storage capacity make the system suitable for the digital mapping of the relative distribution of absorbed doses for various small radiation fields and the edges of larger fields

  14. High-resolution digital dosimetric system for spatial characterization of radiation fields using a thermoluminescent CaF2:Dy crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atari, N.A.; Svensson, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    A high-resolution digital dosimetric system has been developed for the spatial characterization of radiation fields. The system comprises the following: 0.5-mm-thick, 25-mm-diam CaF 2 :Dy thermoluminescent crystal; intensified charge coupled device video camera; video cassette recorder; and a computerized image processing subsystem. The optically flat single crystal is used as a radiation imaging device and the subsequent thermally stimulated phosphorescence is viewed by the intensified camera for further processing and analysis. Parameters governing the performance characteristics of the system were measured. A spatial resolution limit of 31 +- 2 μm (1sigma) corresponding to 16 +- 1 line pair/mm measured at the 4% level of the modulation transfer function has been achieved. The full width at half maximum of the line spread function measured independently by the slit method or derived from the edge response function was found to be 69 +- 4 μm (1sigma). The high resolving power, speed of readout, good precision, wide dynamic range, and the large image storage capacity make the system suitable for the digital mapping of the relative distribution of absorbed doses for various small radiation fields and the edges of larger fields

  15. Characterization of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector for dosimetry in spatially fractionated synchrotron x-ray fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Jayde, E-mail: Jayde.Livingstone@synchrotron.org.au; Häusermann, Daniel [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Stevenson, Andrew W. [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and CSIRO Manufacturing, Clayton South, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Butler, Duncan J. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia); Adam, Jean-François [Equipe d’accueil Rayonnement Synchrotron et Recherche Médicale, Université Grenoble Alpes, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - ID17, Grenoble 38043, France and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, Grenoble 38043 (France)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Modern radiotherapy modalities often use small or nonstandard fields to ensure highly localized and precise dose delivery, challenging conventional clinical dosimetry protocols. The emergence of preclinical spatially fractionated synchrotron radiotherapies with high dose-rate, sub-millimetric parallel kilovoltage x-ray beams, has pushed clinical dosimetry to its limit. A commercially available synthetic single crystal diamond detector designed for small field dosimetry has been characterized to assess its potential as a dosimeter for synchrotron microbeam and minibeam radiotherapy. Methods: Experiments were carried out using a synthetic diamond detector on the imaging and medical beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron. The energy dependence of the detector was characterized by cross-referencing with a calibrated ionization chamber in monoenergetic beams in the energy range 30–120 keV. The dose-rate dependence was measured in the range 1–700 Gy/s. Dosimetric quantities were measured in filtered white beams, with a weighted mean energy of 95 keV, in broadbeam and spatially fractionated geometries, and compared to reference dosimeters. Results: The detector exhibits an energy dependence; however, beam quality correction factors (k{sub Q}) have been measured for energies in the range 30–120 keV. The k{sub Q} factor for the weighted mean energy of the IMBL radiotherapy spectrum, 95 keV, is 1.05 ± 0.09. The detector response is independent of dose-rate in the range 1–700 Gy/s. The percentage depth dose curves measured by the diamond detector were compared to ionization chambers and agreed to within 2%. Profile measurements of microbeam and minibeam arrays were performed. The beams are well resolved and the full width at halfmaximum agrees with the nominal width of the beams. The peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR) calculated from the profiles at various depths in water agrees within experimental error with PVDR calculations from Gafchromic film data

  16. Integration of seismic and petrophysics to characterize reservoirs in "ALA" oil field, Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, P A; Olabode, S O; Opeloye, S A

    2013-01-01

    In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential) reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on "ALA" field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of -2,453 to -3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  17. Improved methods for the measurement and analysis of stellar magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Steven H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents several improved methods for the measurement of magnetic fields on cool stars which take into account simple radiative transfer effects and the exact Zeeman patterns. Using these methods, high-resolution, low-noise data can be fitted with theoretical line profiles to determine the mean magnetic field strength in stellar active regions and a model-dependent fraction of the stellar surface (filling factor) covered by these regions. Random errors in the derived field strength and filling factor are parameterized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, wavelength, spectral resolution, stellar rotation rate, and the magnetic parameters themselves. Weak line blends, if left uncorrected, can have significant systematic effects on the derived magnetic parameters, and thus several methods are developed to compensate partially for them. The magnetic parameters determined by previous methods likely have systematic errors because of such line blends and because of line saturation effects. Other sources of systematic error are explored in detail. These sources of error currently make it difficult to determine the magnetic parameters of individual stars to better than about + or - 20 percent.

  18. Automating the mean-field method for large dynamic gossip networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshi, Rena; Endrullis, Jörg; Endrullis, Stefan; Fokkink, Wan; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    We investigate an abstraction method, called mean- field method, for the performance evaluation of dynamic net- works with pairwise communication between nodes. It allows us to evaluate systems with very large numbers of nodes, that is, systems of a size where traditional performance evaluation

  19. General method for calculating polarization electric fields produced by auroral Cowling mechanism and application examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhamäki, Heikki; Amm, Olaf; Fujii, Ryo; Yoshikawa, Aki; Ieda, Aki

    2013-04-01

    The Cowling mechanism is characterized by the generation of polarization space charges in the ionosphere in consequence of a partial or total blockage of FAC flowing between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. Thus a secondary polarization electric field builds up in the ionosphere, which guarantees that the whole (primary + secondary) ionospheric current system is again in balance with the FAC. In the Earth's ionosphere the Cowling mechanism is long known to operate in the equatorial electrojet, and several studies indicate that it is important also in auroral current systems. We present a general method for calculate the secondary polarization electric field, when the ionospheric conductances, the primary (modeled) or the total (measured) electric field, and the Cowling efficiency are given. Here the Cowling efficiency is defined as the fraction of the divergent Hall current canceled by secondary Pedersen current. In contrast to previous studies, our approach is a general solution which is not limited to specific geometrical setups (like an auroral arc), and all parameters may have any kind of spatial dependence. The solution technique is based on spherical elementary current (vector) systems (SECS). This way, we avoid the need to specify explicit boundary conditions for the searched polarization electric field or its potential, which would be required if the problem was solved in a differential equation approach. Instead, we solve an algebraic matrix equation, for which the implicit boundary condition that the divergence of the polarization electric field vanishes outside our analysis area is sufficient. In order to illustrate the effect of Cowling mechanism on ionospheric current systems, we apply our method to two simple models of auroral electrodynamic situations: 1) a mesoscale strong conductance enhancement in the early morning sector within a relatively weak southward primary electric field, 2) a morning sector auroral arc with only a weak conductance

  20. Power spectrum of the geomagnetic field by the maximum entropy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, I.J.; Trivedi, N.B.

    1980-01-01

    Monthly mean values of Vassouras (state of Rio de Janeiro) geomagnetic field are analyzed us the maximum entropy method. The method is described and compared with other methods of spectral analysis, and its advantages and disadvantages are presented. (Author) [pt

  1. Multiresolution and Explicit Methods for Vector Field Analysis and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a request for a second renewal (3d year of funding) of a research project on the topic of multiresolution and explicit methods for vector field analysis and visualization. In this report, we describe the progress made on this research project during the second year and give a statement of the planned research for the third year. There are two aspects to this research project. The first is concerned with the development of techniques for computing tangent curves for use in visualizing flow fields. The second aspect of the research project is concerned with the development of multiresolution methods for curvilinear grids and their use as tools for visualization, analysis and archiving of flow data. We report on our work on the development of numerical methods for tangent curve computation first.

  2. A modified method of calculating the lateral build-up ratio for small electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, E; McCavana, P; McClean, B

    2006-01-01

    This note outlines an improved method of calculating dose per monitor unit values for small electron fields using Khan's lateral build-up ratio (LBR). This modified method obtains the LBR directly from the ratio of measured, surface normalized, electron beam percentage depth dose curves. The LBR calculated using this modified method more accurately accounts for the change in lateral scatter with decreasing field size. The LBR is used along with Khan's dose per monitor unit formula to calculate dose per monitor unit values for a set of small fields. These calculated dose per monitor unit values are compared to measured values to within 3.5% for all circular fields and electron energies examined. The modified method was further tested using a small triangular field. A maximum difference of 4.8% was found. (note)

  3. A TEM method for analyzing local strain fields in irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennetch, J.I.; Jesser, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Of great interest to the field of fracture mechanics is the strain field in front of a crack tip. In irradiated materials, cavities which naturally form as a result of radiation provide convenient internal markers. If a miniaturized irradiated tensile sample is pulled in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), both the relative displacement of these cavities and their distortion in shape provide information on localized strain on a microscopic level. In addition, the TEM method allows direct correlation of active slip systems with crack propagation characteristics. To illustrate this method a strain field map was constructed about a crack propagating in a helium irradiated type 316 stainless steel sample containing large cavities. (orig.)

  4. A New Method for Coronal Magnetic Field Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sibaek; Choe, Gwang-Son; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Kap-Sung

    2017-08-01

    A precise way of coronal magnetic field reconstruction (extrapolation) is an indispensable tool for understanding of various solar activities. A variety of reconstruction codes have been developed so far and are available to researchers nowadays, but they more or less bear this and that shortcoming. In this paper, a new efficient method for coronal magnetic field reconstruction is presented. The method imposes only the normal components of magnetic field and current density at the bottom boundary to avoid the overspecification of the reconstruction problem, and employs vector potentials to guarantee the divergence-freeness. In our method, the normal component of current density is imposed, not by adjusting the tangential components of A, but by adjusting its normal component. This allows us to avoid a possible numerical instability that on and off arises in codes using A. In real reconstruction problems, the information for the lateral and top boundaries is absent. The arbitrariness of the boundary conditions imposed there as well as various preprocessing brings about the diversity of resulting solutions. We impose the source surface condition at the top boundary to accommodate flux imbalance, which always shows up in magnetograms. To enhance the convergence rate, we equip our code with a gradient-method type accelerator. Our code is tested on two analytical force-free solutions. When the solution is given only at the bottom boundary, our result surpasses competitors in most figures of merits devised by Schrijver et al. (2006). We have also applied our code to a real active region NOAA 11974, in which two M-class flares and a halo CME took place. The EUV observation shows a sudden appearance of an erupting loop before the first flare. Our numerical solutions show that two entwining flux tubes exist before the flare and their shackling is released after the CME with one of them opened up. We suggest that the erupting loop is created by magnetic reconnection between

  5. Methods for production of aluminium powders and their application fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopienko, V.G.; Kiselev, V.P.; Zobnina, N.S. (Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij i Proektnyj Inst. Alyuminievoj, magnievoj i ehlektrodnoj promyshlennosti (USSR))

    1984-12-01

    Different types of powder products made of alluminium and its alloys (powder, fine powders, granules and pastes) as well as their basic physicochemical properties are briefly characterized. The principle methods for alluminium powder production are outlined: physicochemical methods, the melt spraying by compressed gas being the mostly developed among them, and physico-mechanical ones. Main application spheres for powder productions of aluminium and its alloys are reported in short.

  6. Methods for production of aluminium powders and their application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopienko, V.G.; Kiselev, V.P.; Zobnina, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    Different types of powder products made of alluminium and its alloys (powder, fine powders, granules and pastes) as well as their basic physicochemical properties are briefly characterized. The principle methods for alluminium powder production are outlined: physicochemical methods, the melt spraying by compressed gas being the mostly developed among them, and physico-mechanical ones. Main application spheres for powder productions of aluminium and its alloys are reported in short

  7. Characterization of Complex Colloidal Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, J. C.; Guerin, M.; Jackson, B. P.; Ranville, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Surface chemical reactions play a major role in controlling contaminant fate and transport in the subsurface environment. Recent field and laboratory evidence suggests that mobile soil and groundwater colloids may facilitate the migration of sparingly soluble groundwater contaminants. Colloidal suspensions collected in the field or generated in laboratory column experiments tend to be fairly dilute in nature and comprised of relatively small particulates (reserved for studying ideal systems to the characterization of mobile colloids. However, many of these analytical techniques, including total/selective dissolution methods, dynamic light scattering, micro-electrophoresis, streaming potential, and even scanning electron microscopy (SEM), can be biased in of larger size fractions, and therefore, extremely sensitive to sampling, storage, and fractionation artifacts. In addition, surface modifiers such as sorbed oxides or organics can alter particulate appearance, composition, and behavior when compared to synthetic analogues or mineral standards. The current presentation will discuss the limitations and inherent biases associated with a number of analytical characterization techniques that are commonly applied to the study of mobile soil and groundwater colloids, including field flow fractionation (FFF) and acoustic based methods that have only recently become available.

  8. A comparison of inverse boundary element method and near-field acoustical holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Saemann, E.-U.

    1999-01-01

    An inverse boundary element method (IBEM) is used to estimate the surface velocity of a rolling tyre from measurements of the near-field pressure. Subsequently, the sound pressure is calculated over a finite plane surface next to the tyre from the reconstructed velocity field on the tyre surface........ In order to verify the reconstruction process, part of the measurement data is used together with Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH). Estimated distributions of sound pressure and particle velocity over a plane surface obtained from the two methods are compared....

  9. Comparing Hall Effect and Field Effect Measurements on the Same Single Nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Olof; Otnes, Gaute; Borgström, Magnus T; Björk, Mikael; Samuelson, Lars; Storm, Kristian

    2016-01-13

    We compare and discuss the two most commonly used electrical characterization techniques for nanowires (NWs). In a novel single-NW device, we combine Hall effect and back-gated and top-gated field effect measurements and quantify the carrier concentrations in a series of sulfur-doped InP NWs. The carrier concentrations from Hall effect and field effect measurements are found to correlate well when using the analysis methods described in this work. This shows that NWs can be accurately characterized with available electrical methods, an important result toward better understanding of semiconductor NW doping.

  10. The Diagonal Compression Field Method using Circular Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    is a modification of the traditional method, the modification consisting of the introduction of circular fan stress fields. To ensure proper behaviour for the service load the -value ( = cot, where  is the angle relative to the beam axis of the uniaxial concrete compression) chosen should not be too large...

  11. A task specific uncertainty analysis method for least-squares-based form characterization of ultra-precision freeform surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M J; Cheung, C F; Kong, L B

    2012-01-01

    In the measurement of ultra-precision freeform surfaces, least-squares-based form characterization methods are widely used to evaluate the form error of the measured surfaces. Although many methodologies have been proposed in recent years to improve the efficiency of the characterization process, relatively little research has been conducted on the analysis of associated uncertainty in the characterization results which may result from those characterization methods being used. As a result, this paper presents a task specific uncertainty analysis method with application in the least-squares-based form characterization of ultra-precision freeform surfaces. That is, the associated uncertainty in the form characterization results is estimated when the measured data are extracted from a specific surface with specific sampling strategy. Three factors are considered in this study which include measurement error, surface form error and sample size. The task specific uncertainty analysis method has been evaluated through a series of experiments. The results show that the task specific uncertainty analysis method can effectively estimate the uncertainty of the form characterization results for a specific freeform surface measurement

  12. An optimized target-field method for MRI transverse biplanar gradient coil design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rui; Xu, Jing; Huang, Kefu; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing; Fu, Youyi; Li, Yangjing

    2011-01-01

    Gradient coils are essential components of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. In this paper, we present an optimized target-field method for designing a transverse biplanar gradient coil with high linearity, low inductance and small resistance, which can well satisfy the requirements of permanent-magnet MRI systems. In this new method, the current density is expressed by trigonometric basis functions with unknown coefficients in polar coordinates. Following the standard procedures, we construct an objective function with respect to the total square errors of the magnetic field at all target-field points with the penalty items associated with the stored magnetic energy and the dissipated power. By adjusting the two penalty factors and minimizing the objective function, the appropriate coefficients of the current density are determined. Applying the stream function method to the current density, the specific winding patterns on the planes can be obtained. A novel biplanar gradient coil has been designed using this method to operate in a permanent-magnet MRI system. In order to verify the validity of the proposed approach, the gradient magnetic field generated by the resulted current density has been calculated via the Biot–Savart law. The results have demonstrated the effectiveness and advantage of this proposed method

  13. Improved method for measuring the electric fields in microwave cavity resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, J.C.; Herrmann, H.

    1985-01-01

    The electric field distribution in microwave cavities is commonly measured by frequency perturbation techniques. For many cavity modes which are important in accelerator applications, the standard bead-pulling technique cannot provide adequate discrimination between fields parallel and perpendicular to the particle trajectory, leading to inaccurate and ambiguous results. A method is described which substantially increases the directivity of the measurements. The method has been successfully used to determine the accelerator-related cavity parameters at frequencies up to three times the fundamental resonant frequency

  14. Motion Planning for Omnidirectional Wheeled Mobile Robot by Potential Field Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, potential field method has been used to navigate a three omnidirectional wheels’ mobile robot and to avoid obstacles. The potential field method is used to overcome the local minima problem and the goals nonreachable with obstacles nearby (GNRON problem. For further consideration, model predictive control (MPC has been used to incorporate motion constraints and make the velocity more realistic and flexible. The proposed method is employed based on the kinematic model and dynamics model of the mobile robot in this paper. To show the performance of proposed control scheme, simulation studies have been carried to perform the motion process of mobile robot in specific workplace.

  15. Modeling and characterization of field-enhanced corona discharge in ozone-generator diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jagadish G.; Vijayan, T.

    2010-02-01

    Electric field enhanced corona plasma discharge in ozone generator diode of axial symmetry has been investigated and characterized in theory. The cathode K of diode is made of a large number of sharpened nozzles arranged on various radial planes on the axial mast and pervaded in oxygen gas inside the anode cup A, produces high fields over MV/m and aids in the formation of a corona plume of dense ozone cloud over the cathode surface. An r-z finite difference scheme has been devised and employed to numerically determine the potential and electric field distributions inside the diode. The analyses of cathode emissions revealed a field emission domain conformed to modified Child-Langmuir diode-current. Passage of higher currents (over μA) in shorter A-K gaps d gave rise to cathode heated plasma extending from the corona to Saha regimes depending on local temperature. Plasma densities of order 102-106 m-3 are predicted in these. For larger d however, currents are smaller and heating negligible and a negative corona favoring ozone formation is attained. High ozone yields about 20 per cent of oxygen input is predicted in this domain. The generator so developed will be applied to various important applications such as, purification of ambient air /drinking water, ozone therapy, and so on.

  16. Modeling and characterization of field-enhanced corona discharge in ozone-generator diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Jagadish G; Vijayan, T, E-mail: jagdishlove@gmail.co [Mahatma Education Society' s ' Pillai' s Institute of Information Technology, Engineering, Media Studies and Research' Dr. K M Vasudevan Pillai' s Campus, Sector 16, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai - 410 206 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Electric field enhanced corona plasma discharge in ozone generator diode of axial symmetry has been investigated and characterized in theory. The cathode K of diode is made of a large number of sharpened nozzles arranged on various radial planes on the axial mast and pervaded in oxygen gas inside the anode cup A, produces high fields over MV/m and aids in the formation of a corona plume of dense ozone cloud over the cathode surface. An r-z finite difference scheme has been devised and employed to numerically determine the potential and electric field distributions inside the diode. The analyses of cathode emissions revealed a field emission domain conformed to modified Child-Langmuir diode-current. Passage of higher currents (over {mu}A) in shorter A-K gaps d gave rise to cathode heated plasma extending from the corona to Saha regimes depending on local temperature. Plasma densities of order 10{sup 2}-10{sup 6} m{sup -3} are predicted in these. For larger d however, currents are smaller and heating negligible and a negative corona favoring ozone formation is attained. High ozone yields about 20 per cent of oxygen input is predicted in this domain. The generator so developed will be applied to various important applications such as, purification of ambient air /drinking water, ozone therapy, and so on.

  17. Modeling and characterization of field-enhanced corona discharge in ozone-generator diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Jagadish G; Vijayan, T

    2010-01-01

    Electric field enhanced corona plasma discharge in ozone generator diode of axial symmetry has been investigated and characterized in theory. The cathode K of diode is made of a large number of sharpened nozzles arranged on various radial planes on the axial mast and pervaded in oxygen gas inside the anode cup A, produces high fields over MV/m and aids in the formation of a corona plume of dense ozone cloud over the cathode surface. An r-z finite difference scheme has been devised and employed to numerically determine the potential and electric field distributions inside the diode. The analyses of cathode emissions revealed a field emission domain conformed to modified Child-Langmuir diode-current. Passage of higher currents (over μA) in shorter A-K gaps d gave rise to cathode heated plasma extending from the corona to Saha regimes depending on local temperature. Plasma densities of order 10 2 -10 6 m -3 are predicted in these. For larger d however, currents are smaller and heating negligible and a negative corona favoring ozone formation is attained. High ozone yields about 20 per cent of oxygen input is predicted in this domain. The generator so developed will be applied to various important applications such as, purification of ambient air /drinking water, ozone therapy, and so on.

  18. Multigrid methods for the computation of propagators in gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkreuter, T.

    1992-11-01

    In the present work generalizations of multigrid methods for propagators in gauge fields are investigated. We discuss proper averaging operations for bosons and for staggered fermions. An efficient algorithm for computing C numerically is presented. The averaging kernels C can be used not only in deterministic multigrid computations, but also in multigrid Monte Carlo simulations, and for the definition of block spins and blocked gauge fields in Monte Carlo renormalization group studies of gauge theories. Actual numerical computations of kernels and propagators are performed in compact four-dimensional SU(2) gauge fields. (orig./HSI)

  19. A Modified Water-Table Fluctuation Method to Characterize Regional Groundwater Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A modified Water-Table Fluctuation (WTF method is developed to quantitatively characterize the regional groundwater discharge patterns in stressed aquifers caused by intensive agricultural pumping. Two new parameters are defined to express the secondary information in the observed data. One is infiltration efficiency and the other is discharge modulus (recurring head loss due to aquifer discharge. An optimization procedure is involved to estimate these parameters, based on continuous groundwater head measurements and precipitation records. Using the defined parameters and precipitation time series, water level changes are calculated for individual wells with fidelity. The estimated parameters are then used to further address the characterization of infiltration and to better quantify the discharge at the regional scale. The advantage of this method is that it considers recharge and discharge simultaneously, whereas the general WTF methods mostly focus on recharge. In the case study, the infiltration efficiency reveals that the infiltration is regionally controlled by the intrinsic characteristics of the aquifer, and locally distorted by engineered hydraulic structures that alter surface water-groundwater interactions. The seasonality of groundwater discharge is characterized by the monthly discharge modulus. These results from individual wells are clustered into groups that are consistent with the local land use pattern and cropping structures.

  20. An optical method for characterizing carbon content in ceramic pot filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, J Y; Elmore, A C; Salvinelli, C; Reidmeyer, Mary R

    2017-08-01

    Ceramic pot filter (CPF) technology is a relatively common means of household water treatment in developing areas, and performance characteristics of CPFs have been characterized using production CPFs, experimental CPFs fabricated in research laboratories, and ceramic disks intended to be CPF surrogates. There is evidence that CPF manufacturers do not always fire their products according to best practices and the result is incomplete combustion of the pore forming material and the creation of a carbon core in the final CPFs. Researchers seldom acknowledge the existence of potential existence of carbon cores, and at least one CPF producer has postulated that the carbon may be beneficial in terms of final water quality because of the presence of activated carbon in consumer filters marketed in the Western world. An initial step in characterizing the presence and impact of carbon cores is the characterization of those cores. An optical method which may be more viable to producers relative to off-site laboratory analysis of carbon content has been developed and verified. The use of the optical method is demonstrated via preliminary disinfection and flowrate studies, and the results of these studies indicate that the method may be of use in studying production kiln operation.

  1. Hamiltonian lattice field theory: Computer calculations using variational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zako, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    I develop a variational method for systematic numerical computation of physical quantities -- bound state energies and scattering amplitudes -- in quantum field theory. An infinite-volume, continuum theory is approximated by a theory on a finite spatial lattice, which is amenable to numerical computation. I present an algorithm for computing approximate energy eigenvalues and eigenstates in the lattice theory and for bounding the resulting errors. I also show how to select basis states and choose variational parameters in order to minimize errors. The algorithm is based on the Rayleigh-Ritz principle and Kato's generalizations of Temple's formula. The algorithm could be adapted to systems such as atoms and molecules. I show how to compute Green's functions from energy eigenvalues and eigenstates in the lattice theory, and relate these to physical (renormalized) coupling constants, bound state energies and Green's functions. Thus one can compute approximate physical quantities in a lattice theory that approximates a quantum field theory with specified physical coupling constants. I discuss the errors in both approximations. In principle, the errors can be made arbitrarily small by increasing the size of the lattice, decreasing the lattice spacing and computing sufficiently long. Unfortunately, I do not understand the infinite-volume and continuum limits well enough to quantify errors due to the lattice approximation. Thus the method is currently incomplete. I apply the method to real scalar field theories using a Fock basis of free particle states. All needed quantities can be calculated efficiently with this basis. The generalization to more complicated theories is straightforward. I describe a computer implementation of the method and present numerical results for simple quantum mechanical systems

  2. Hamiltonian lattice field theory: Computer calculations using variational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zako, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    A variational method is developed for systematic numerical computation of physical quantities-bound state energies and scattering amplitudes-in quantum field theory. An infinite-volume, continuum theory is approximated by a theory on a finite spatial lattice, which is amenable to numerical computation. An algorithm is presented for computing approximate energy eigenvalues and eigenstates in the lattice theory and for bounding the resulting errors. It is shown how to select basis states and choose variational parameters in order to minimize errors. The algorithm is based on the Rayleigh-Ritz principle and Kato's generalizations of Temple's formula. The algorithm could be adapted to systems such as atoms and molecules. It is shown how to compute Green's functions from energy eigenvalues and eigenstates in the lattice theory, and relate these to physical (renormalized) coupling constants, bound state energies and Green's functions. Thus one can compute approximate physical quantities in a lattice theory that approximates a quantum field theory with specified physical coupling constants. The author discusses the errors in both approximations. In principle, the errors can be made arbitrarily small by increasing the size of the lattice, decreasing the lattice spacing and computing sufficiently long. Unfortunately, the author does not understand the infinite-volume and continuum limits well enough to quantify errors due to the lattice approximation. Thus the method is currently incomplete. The method is applied to real scalar field theories using a Fock basis of free particle states. All needed quantities can be calculated efficiently with this basis. The generalization to more complicated theories is straightforward. The author describes a computer implementation of the method and present numerical results for simple quantum mechanical systems

  3. Methods for studying plasma charge transport across a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative analysis of experimental methods for the diffusion transfer of plasma charged particles accross the magnetic field at the study of its confinement effectiveness, instability effect is carried out. Considered are the methods based on the analysis of particle balance in the charge and possibilities of diffusion coefficient determination according to measuring parameters of density gradient and particle flow on the wall, rate of plasma decay after switching off ionization source radial profile of plasma density outside the active region of stationary charge. Much attension is payed to the research methods of diffusion transfer, connected with the study of propagation of periodic and aperiodic density perturbation in a plasma. Analysed is the Golubev and Granovsky method of diffusion waves and its different modifications, phase analysis method of ''test charges'' movement, as well as different modifications of correlation methods. Considered are physical preconditions of the latter and criticized is unilateral interpretation of correlation measurings, carried out in a number of works. The analysis of study possibilities of independent (non-ambipolar) diffusion of electrons and ions in a plasma in the magnetic field is executed

  4. Application of radiological imaging methods to radioactive waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessaro, Ana Paula Gimenes; Souza, Daiane Cristini B. de; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: aptessaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radiological imaging technologies are most frequently used for medical diagnostic purposes but are also useful in materials characterization and other non-medical applications in research and industry. The characterization of radioactive waste packages or waste samples can also benefit from these techniques. In this paper, the application of some imaging methods is examined for the physical characterization of radioactive wastes constituted by spent ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal beds stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Department of IPEN. These wastes are generated when the filter media of the water polishing system of the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor is no longer able to maintain the required water quality and are replaced. The IEA-R1 is a 5MW pool-type reactor, moderated and cooled by light water, and fission and activation products released from the reactor core must be continuously removed to prevent activity buildup in the water. The replacement of the sorbents is carried out by pumping from the filter tanks into several 200 L drums, each drum getting a variable amount of water. Considering that the results of radioanalytical methods to determine the concentrations of radionuclides are usually expressed on dry basis,the amount of water must be known to calculate the total activity of each package. At first sight this is a trivial problem that demanded, however some effort to be solved. The findings on this subject are reported in this paper. (author)

  5. Advanced Wide-Field Interferometric Microscopy for Nanoparticle Sensing and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Oguzhan

    Nanoparticles have a key role in today's biotechnological research owing to the rapid advancement of nanotechnology. While metallic, polymer, and semiconductor based artificial nanoparticles are widely used as labels or targeted drug delivery agents, labeled and label-free detection of natural nanoparticles promise new ways for viral diagnostics and therapeutic applications. The increasing impact of nanoparticles in bio- and nano-technology necessitates the development of advanced tools for their accurate detection and characterization. Optical microscopy techniques have been an essential part of research for visualizing micron-scale particles. However, when it comes to the visualization of individual nano-scale particles, they have shown inadequate success due to the resolution and visibility limitations. Interferometric microscopy techniques have gained significant attention for providing means to overcome the nanoparticle visibility issue that is often the limiting factor in the imaging techniques based solely on the scattered light. In this dissertation, we develop a rigorous physical model to simulate the single nanoparticle optical response in a common-path wide-field interferometric microscopy (WIM) system. While the fundamental elements of the model can be used to analyze nanoparticle response in any generic wide-field imaging systems, we focus on imaging with a layered substrate (common-path interferometer) where specular reflection of illumination provides the reference light for interferometry. A robust physical model is quintessential in realizing the full potential of an optical system, and throughout this dissertation, we make use of it to benchmark our experimental findings, investigate the utility of various optical configurations, reconstruct weakly scattering nanoparticle images, as well as to characterize and discriminate interferometric nanoparticle responses. This study investigates the integration of advanced optical schemes in WIM with two

  6. Evaluation of Three Field-Based Methods for Quantifying Soil Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rice, Charles W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wielopolski, Lucien [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ebinger, Michael H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Reeves, James B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomson, Allison M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harris, Ron [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Francis, Barry [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitra, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rappaport, Aaron [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Etchevers, Jorge [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sayre, Ken D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Govaerts, Bram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCarty, G. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-31

    Three advanced technologies to measure soil carbon (C) density (g C m22) are deployed in the field and the results compared against those obtained by the dry combustion (DC) method. The advanced methods are: a) Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), b) Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS), and c) Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS). The measurements and soil samples were acquired at Beltsville, MD, USA and at Centro International para el Mejoramiento del Maiz y el Trigo (CIMMYT) at El Bata´n, Mexico. At Beltsville, soil samples were extracted at three depth intervals (0–5, 5–15, and 15–30 cm) and processed for analysis in the field with the LIBS and DRIFTS instruments. The INS instrument determined soil C density to a depth of 30 cm via scanning and stationary measurements. Subsequently, soil core samples were analyzed in the laboratory for soil bulk density (kg m23), C concentration (g kg21) by DC, and results reported as soil C density (kg m22). Results from each technique were derived independently and contributed to a blind test against results from the reference (DC) method. A similar procedure was employed at CIMMYT in Mexico employing but only with the LIBS and DRIFTS instruments. Following conversion to common units, we found that the LIBS, DRIFTS, and INS results can be compared directly with those obtained by the DC method. The first two methods and the standard DC require soil sampling and need soil bulk density information to convert soil C concentrations to soil C densities while the INS method does not require soil sampling. We conclude that, in comparison with the DC method, the three instruments (a) showed acceptable performances although further work is needed to improve calibration techniques and (b) demonstrated their portability and their capacity to perform under field conditions.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Natural Fungal Flora in Black Olives: From Field to Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Ozsoy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, molecular markers were used to determine fungal flora in black olive fruits from field surveys to the table, following the fermentation process. Field samples were collected from different locations of Canakkale province, including Gokceada (Imbros, where organic farming is employed. Some of the fruits from field samples were used for black table olive production and then fungal flora was tracked during the fermentation process. Fungal isolation was also conducted on some commercial samples. Fifty seven isolates from field samples, 56 isolates from the fermentation process and 17 isolates from commercial products were obtained. Among these isolates, 41 Alternaria, 43 Penicillium, 19 Aspergillus, 8 Monascus and 19 other genera were determined using amplified sizes of the Beta-tubulin gene region. Species level identification was carried out based on sequences of Beta-tubulin amplicons, which provided accurate identification, especially where the genera were morphologically highly similar. The occurrence and prevalence of fungal species changed in fungal collections from the field to the fermentation process. While Alternaria alternata was common in field samples, they were absent during fermentation. Many of these identified species, such as Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Monascus pilosus, which are known as potential toxin producers such as aflatoxin, ochratoxin A and citrinin, were found both in natural and fermented samples, even at the end of the fermentation process. These results showed that some fungal species which survive on olives from the field to the table are potential toxin producers and can be successfully characterized by amplification and sequencing of Beta-tubulin gene.

  8. Passive Microwave Precipitation Retrieval Uncertainty Characterized based on Field Campaign Data over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derin, Y.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Anagnostou, M.; Kalogiros, J. A.; Casella, D.; Marra, A. C.; Panegrossi, G.; Sanò, P.

    2017-12-01

    Difficulties in representation of high rainfall variability over mountainous areas using ground based sensors make satellite remote sensing techniques attractive for hydrologic studies over these regions. Even though satellite-based rainfall measurements are quasi global and available at high spatial resolution, these products have uncertainties that necessitate use of error characterization and correction procedures based upon more accurate in situ rainfall measurements. Such measurements can be obtained from field campaigns facilitated by research quality sensors such as locally deployed weather radar and in situ weather stations. This study uses such high quality and resolution rainfall estimates derived from dual-polarization X-band radar (XPOL) observations from three field experiments in Mid-Atlantic US East Coast (NASA IPHEX experiment), the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State (NASA OLYMPEX experiment), and the Mediterranean to characterize the error characteristics of multiple passive microwave (PMW) sensor retrievals. The study first conducts an independent error analysis of the XPOL radar reference rainfall fields against in situ rain gauges and disdrometer observations available by the field experiments. Then the study evaluates different PMW precipitation products using the XPOL datasets (GR) over the three aforementioned complex terrain study areas. We extracted matchups of PMW/GR rainfall based on a matching methodology that identifies GR volume scans coincident with PMW field-of-view sampling volumes, and scaled GR parameters to the satellite products' nominal spatial resolution. The following PMW precipitation retrieval algorithms are evaluated: the NASA Goddard PROFiling algorithm (GPROF), standard and climatology-based products (V 3, 4 and 5) from four PMW sensors (SSMIS, MHS, GMI, and AMSR2), and the precipitation products based on the algorithms Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database (CDRD) for SSMIS and Passive microwave Neural network

  9. Analytical method for the isotopic characterization of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibello Hernandez, Rita; Cozzella, Maria Letizia; Mariani, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an analytical method in order to determine the isotopic composition of different elements in soil samples and to determine the existence of contamination. The method used in the digestion of the samples was the EPA 3050B, and some metal concentration were determined including uranium and thorium. For elements with even lower concentrations such as plutonium and radium a treatment after mineralization by EPA, was necessary. The measurement technique used was mass spectrometry with quadrupole and plasma induced associated (ICP-MS). Results of the analysis performed in two laboratories showed a good correspondence. This method allowed to perform the isotopic characterization of studied soils and results showed that the studied soils do not present any local pollution and that the presence of plutonium-239, is due to global failure

  10. Two Numerical Approaches to Stationary Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Almulla, Noha; Ferreira, Rita; Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we consider numerical methods for stationary mean-field games (MFG) and investigate two classes of algorithms. The first one is a gradient-flow method based on the variational characterization of certain MFG. The second one uses monotonicity properties of MFG. We illustrate our methods with various examples, including one-dimensional periodic MFG, congestion problems, and higher-dimensional models.

  11. Two Numerical Approaches to Stationary Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Almulla, Noha

    2016-10-04

    Here, we consider numerical methods for stationary mean-field games (MFG) and investigate two classes of algorithms. The first one is a gradient-flow method based on the variational characterization of certain MFG. The second one uses monotonicity properties of MFG. We illustrate our methods with various examples, including one-dimensional periodic MFG, congestion problems, and higher-dimensional models.

  12. Field Trip as an Effective Method of Teaching Apiculture/Beekeeping among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja’afar-Furo, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various methods of teaching beekeeping in the very few institutions of higher learning that offer such courses have been studied. This survey attempted to review the numerous methods of instructions applied in achieving better learning outcomes on apiculture in tertiary institutions. Secondary information were mainly used to source for data for the survey. However, interview schedules were conducted to solicit for primary data from the students on their perception on best methodology for learning the subject. Descriptive statistics and percentage score were used to analyse the involvement of institutions in instructing learners, and capture learners’ perception on most preferred teaching methods of the course, respectively. Although findings indicated that a classroom lectures method, a combination of lecture and demonstration methods, field trip method, laboratory method, project methods, among others, existed as pedagogies used for ensuring that learners have had thorough understanding of the subject matter, majority of learners opted for the field trip method of teaching apiculture as the most preferred way of stimulating students toward enhanced learning outcomes. Based on the findings of the study, it’s concluded that a combination of field trip and lecture methods of instruction is the most effective way of teaching beekeeping in tertiary schools. Therefore, institutions and organisations of public and private origins that intend to improve on the knowledge of apiculture among youths and all, should capture field trip and lecture methods in their curricula of learning as the most preferred way of instruction.

  13. A method for online verification of adapted fields using an independent dose monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Jina; Norrlinger, Bernhard D.; Heaton, Robert K.; Jaffray, David A.; Cho, Young-Bin; Islam, Mohammad K.; Mahon, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical implementation of online adaptive radiotherapy requires generation of modified fields and a method of dosimetric verification in a short time. We present a method of treatment field modification to account for patient setup error, and an online method of verification using an independent monitoring system.Methods: The fields are modified by translating each multileaf collimator (MLC) defined aperture in the direction of the patient setup error, and magnifying to account for distance variation to the marked isocentre. A modified version of a previously reported online beam monitoring system, the integral quality monitoring (IQM) system, was investigated for validation of adapted fields. The system consists of a large area ion-chamber with a spatial gradient in electrode separation to provide a spatially sensitive signal for each beam segment, mounted below the MLC, and a calculation algorithm to predict the signal. IMRT plans of ten prostate patients have been modified in response to six randomly chosen setup errors in three orthogonal directions.Results: A total of approximately 49 beams for the modified fields were verified by the IQM system, of which 97% of measured IQM signal agree with the predicted value to within 2%.Conclusions: The modified IQM system was found to be suitable for online verification of adapted treatment fields

  14. Boiling anomaly detection by various signal characterization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, M.; Kozma, R.; Kitamura, M.; Schoonewelle, H.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to detect anomalies in the early stage for complex dynamical systems like nuclear power plants, it is important to characterize various statistical features of the data acquired in normal operating condition. In this paper, concept of hierarchical anomaly monitoring method is outlined, which is based on the diversification principle. In addition to usual time and frequency domain analysis (FFT, APDF, MAR-SPRT), other analysis (wavelet, fractal, etc.) are performed. As soon as any inconsistency arises in the results of the analysis on the upper level, a thorough analysis is initiated. A comparison among these methods is performed and the efficiency of the diversification approach has been demonstrated through simulated boiling anomalies in nuclear reactors. (authors)

  15. Using a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... This work used sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to detect the Bacillus cereus strain in strawberry fields. The purpose was to develop an effective molecular method for detecting the functional target microorganisms applied in agricultural fields. A 3×109. CFU/ml vegetative cell.

  16. Subtask 1.11 - Spectroscopic field screening of hazardous waste and toxic spills. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisanti, A.A.

    1997-10-01

    Techniques for the field characterization of soil contamination due to spillage of hazardous waste or toxic chemicals are time-consuming and expensive. Thus more economical, less time-intensive methods are needed to facilitate rapid field screening of contaminated sites. The overall objective of this project is to study the feasibility of using an evanescent field absorbance sensor Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic sensor coupled with cone penetrometry as a field screening method. The specific objectives of this project are as follows: design an accessory for use with FT-IR that interfaces the spectrometer to a cone penetrometer; characterize the response of the FT-IR accessory to selected hydrocarbons in a laboratory-simulated field environment; and determine the ability of the FT-IR-CPT instrument to measure hydrocarbon contamination in soil by direct comparison with a reference method (e.g., Soxhlet extraction followed by gas chromatography) to quantify hydrocarbons from the same soil

  17. Generalized stress field in granular soils heap with Rayleigh–Ritz method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Bi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The stress field in granular soils heap (including piled coal will have a non-negligible impact on the settlement of the underlying soils. It is usually obtained by measurements and numerical simulations. Because the former method is not reliable as pressure cells instrumented on the interface between piled coal and the underlying soft soil do not work well, results from numerical methods alone are necessary to be doubly checked with one more method before they are extended to more complex cases. The generalized stress field in granular soils heap is analyzed with Rayleigh–Ritz method. The problem is divided into two cases: case A without horizontal constraint on the base and case B with horizontal constraint on the base. In both cases, the displacement functions u(x, y and v(x, y are assumed to be cubic polynomials with 12 undetermined parameters, which will satisfy the Cauchy's partial differential equations, generalized Hooke's law and boundary equations. A function is built with the Rayleigh–Ritz method according to the principle of minimum potential energy, and the problem is converted into solving two undetermined parameters through the variation of the function, while the other parameters are expressed in terms of these two parameters. By comparison of results from the Rayleigh–Ritz method and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that the Rayleigh–Ritz method is feasible to study the generalized stress field in granular soils heap. Solutions from numerical methods are verified before being extended to more complicated cases.

  18. Shallow Reflection Method for Water-Filled Void Detection and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, M. N. H.; Madun, A.; Dahlan, S. H.; Joret, A.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Mohammad, A. H.; Izzaty, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    Shallow investigation is crucial in enhancing the characteristics of subsurface void commonly encountered in civil engineering, and one such technique commonly used is seismic-reflection technique. An assessment of the effectiveness of such an approach is critical to determine whether the quality of the works meets the prescribed requirements. Conventional quality testing suffers limitations including: limited coverage (both area and depth) and problems with resolution quality. Traditionally quality assurance measurements use laboratory and in-situ invasive and destructive tests. However geophysical approaches, which are typically non-invasive and non-destructive, offer a method by which improvement of detection can be measured in a cost-effective way. Of this seismic reflection have proved useful to assess void characteristic, this paper evaluates the application of shallow seismic-reflection method in characterizing the water-filled void properties at 0.34 m depth, specifically for detection and characterization of void measurement using 2-dimensional tomography.

  19. A field-portable supercritical fluid extractor for characterizing sources of waterborne organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Wright, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a viable alternative to current methods of liquid extraction for analyzing semivolatile organic compounds in contaminated solid matrices, such as soil and sediment. Because the SFE method is rapid (less than 30 min), large quantities of glassware and large volumes of solvent are not required, and there are fewer sample-handling and sample-preparation steps than in conventional liquid extraction methods, SFE lends itself to in-the-field extraction of solid samples. Laboratory-scale and portable SFE instruments were designed and tested both in the laboratory and in the field. The SFE method was validated through two recovery studies using individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) standards ranging from two to six rings in size and through two Soxhlet extraction comparison studies. Supercritical fluid extraction followed by gas chromatography was applied to 20 coal-tar-contaminated soil samples from three locations, 10 petroleum-oil-tar-contaminated soil samples, and 20 polychlorinated-biphenyl-contaminated soil samples. The SFE apparatus was transported and used in the field at four locations across the United States. Carbon dioxide was used as the extraction fluid

  20. Systems, computer-implemented methods, and tangible computer-readable storage media for wide-field interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G. (Inventor); Leisawitz, David T. (Inventor); Rinehart, Stephen A. (Inventor); Memarsadeghi, Nargess (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein are systems, computer-implemented methods, and tangible computer-readable storage media for wide field imaging interferometry. The method includes for each point in a two dimensional detector array over a field of view of an image: gathering a first interferogram from a first detector and a second interferogram from a second detector, modulating a path-length for a signal from an image associated with the first interferogram in the first detector, overlaying first data from the modulated first detector and second data from the second detector, and tracking the modulating at every point in a two dimensional detector array comprising the first detector and the second detector over a field of view for the image. The method then generates a wide-field data cube based on the overlaid first data and second data for each point. The method can generate an image from the wide-field data cube.

  1. Hydrogeloogic characterization of fractured rock formations: A guide for groundwater remediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.J.B.

    1995-10-01

    A field site was developed in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California to develop and test a multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of ground water flow and transport in fractured rocks. Nine boreholes were drilled into the granitic bedrock, and a wide variety of new and traditional subsurface characterization tools were implemented. The hydrogeologic structure and properties of the field site were deduced by integrating results from the various geologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and other investigative methods. The findings of this work are synthesized into this report, which is structured in a guidebook format. The applications of the new and traditional technologies, suggestions on how best to use, integrate, and analyze field data, and comparisons of the shortcoming and benefits of the different methods are presented

  2. Hydrogeloogic characterization of fractured rock formations: A guide for groundwater remediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.J.B.

    1995-10-01

    A field site was developed in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California to develop and test a multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of ground water flow and transport in fractured rocks. Nine boreholes were drilled into the granitic bedrock, and a wide variety of new and traditional subsurface characterization tools were implemented. The hydrogeologic structure and properties of the field site were deduced by integrating results from the various geologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and other investigative methods. The findings of this work are synthesized into this report, which is structured in a guidebook format. The applications of the new and traditional technologies, suggestions on how best to use, integrate, and analyze field data, and comparisons of the shortcoming and benefits of the different methods are presented.

  3. Genetic characterization of Italian field strains of Schmallenberg virus based on N and NSs genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Francesca; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Polci, Andrea; Iapaolo, Federica; Pinoni, Chiara; Capobianco Dondona, Andrea; Valleriani, Fabrizia; Monaco, Federica

    2016-08-01

    Following its first identification in Germany in 2011, the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has rapidly spread to many other European countries. Despite the wide dissemination, the molecular characterization of the circulating strains is limited to German, Belgian, Dutch, and Swiss viruses. To fill this gap, partial genetic characterization of 15 Italian field strains was performed, based on S segment genes. Samples were collected in 2012 in two different regions where outbreaks occurred during distinct epidemic seasons. The comparative sequence analysis demonstrated a high molecular stability of the circulating viruses; nevertheless, we identified several variants of the N and NSs proteins not described in other SBV isolates circulating in Europe.

  4. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hee Jang

    Full Text Available The development of methods to monitor manufactured nanomaterials in the environment is one of the crucial areas for the assessment of their risk. More specifically, particle size analysis is a key element, because many properties of nanomaterial are size dependent. The sizing of nanomaterials in real environments is challenging due to their heterogeneity and reactivity with other environmental components. In this study, the fractionation and characterization of a mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs of three different sizes were investigated using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4 coupled with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. In particular, the effects of electrolyte composition and natural organic matter (NOM on the particle size and stability were evaluated. The fractogram peaks (i.e., stability of three different AgNPs decreased in the presence of both 10 mM NaCl and 10 mM CaCl2, while increased with increasing concentration of humic acid (HA. In addition, the hydrodynamic diameters of AgNPs in both electrolytes slightly increased with an increase of HA concentration, suggesting the adsorption (coating of HA onto the particle surface. It is also interesting to note that an increase in the particle size depended on the types of electrolyte, which could be explained by the conformational characteristics of the adsorbed HA layers. Consistent these results, AgNPs suspended in lake water containing relatively high concentration of organic carbon (TOC showed higher particle stability and larger particle size (i.e., by approximately 4 nm than those in river water. In conclusion, the application of AF4 coupled with highly sensitive detectors could be a powerful method to characterize nanoparticles in natural waters.

  5. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Min-Hee; Lee, Seungho; Hwang, Yu Sik

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods to monitor manufactured nanomaterials in the environment is one of the crucial areas for the assessment of their risk. More specifically, particle size analysis is a key element, because many properties of nanomaterial are size dependent. The sizing of nanomaterials in real environments is challenging due to their heterogeneity and reactivity with other environmental components. In this study, the fractionation and characterization of a mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) of three different sizes were investigated using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. In particular, the effects of electrolyte composition and natural organic matter (NOM) on the particle size and stability were evaluated. The fractogram peaks (i.e., stability) of three different AgNPs decreased in the presence of both 10 mM NaCl and 10mM CaCl2, while increased with increasing concentration of humic acid (HA). In addition, the hydrodynamic diameters of AgNPs in both electrolytes slightly increased with an increase of HA concentration, suggesting the adsorption (coating) of HA onto the particle surface. It is also interesting to note that an increase in the particle size depended on the types of electrolyte, which could be explained by the conformational characteristics of the adsorbed HA layers. Consistent these results, AgNPs suspended in lake water containing relatively high concentration of organic carbon (TOC) showed higher particle stability and larger particle size (i.e., by approximately 4nm) than those in river water. In conclusion, the application of AF4 coupled with highly sensitive detectors could be a powerful method to characterize nanoparticles in natural waters. PMID:26575993

  6. Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmarcke, Erik

    1983-03-01

    Random variation over space and time is one of the few attributes that might safely be predicted as characterizing almost any given complex system. Random fields or "distributed disorder systems" confront astronomers, physicists, geologists, meteorologists, biologists, and other natural scientists. They appear in the artifacts developed by electrical, mechanical, civil, and other engineers. They even underlie the processes of social and economic change. The purpose of this book is to bring together existing and new methodologies of random field theory and indicate how they can be applied to these diverse areas where a "deterministic treatment is inefficient and conventional statistics insufficient." Many new results and methods are included. After outlining the extent and characteristics of the random field approach, the book reviews the classical theory of multidimensional random processes and introduces basic probability concepts and methods in the random field context. It next gives a concise amount of the second-order analysis of homogeneous random fields, in both the space-time domain and the wave number-frequency domain. This is followed by a chapter on spectral moments and related measures of disorder and on level excursions and extremes of Gaussian and related random fields. After developing a new framework of analysis based on local averages of one-, two-, and n-dimensional processes, the book concludes with a chapter discussing ramifications in the important areas of estimation, prediction, and control. The mathematical prerequisite has been held to basic college-level calculus.

  7. Homogeneity characterization of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and hydrophobic silica nanocomposite by low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2005-01-01

    This project proposes the characterization of a polymeric matrix composite material using nanometric scale hydrophobic silica as charge element, with the ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), by using the spin-lattice relaxation time measurement applying the low field NMR

  8. Concepts for the Temporal Characterization of Short Optical Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmsley Ian A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the characterization of the time-dependent electric field of short optical pulses are reviewed. The representation of these pulses in terms of correlation functions and time-frequency distributions is discussed, and the strategies for their characterization are explained using these representations. Examples of the experimental implementations of the concepts of spectrography, interferometry, and tomography for the characterization of pulses in the optical telecommunications environment are presented.

  9. Semi-automatic version of the potentiometric titration method for characterization of uranium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Bárbara F G; Delgado, José Ubiratan; da Silva, José Wanderley S; de Barros, Pedro D; de Araújo, Radier M S; Dias, Fábio C; Lopes, Ricardo T

    2012-09-01

    The potentiometric titration method was used for characterization of uranium compounds to be applied in intercomparison programs. The method is applied with traceability assured using a potassium dichromate primary standard. A semi-automatic version was developed to reduce the analysis time and the operator variation. The standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization and compatible with those obtained by manual techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Method for Eddy Current Field Measurement in Permanent Magnet Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Rui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a widely used medical imaging technique. In MRI system, gradient magnetic fields are used to code spatial information. However, the fast-switching electric currents in the gradients coils used to generate gradient fields also induce vortex electric field, often referred as eddy current, in the surrounding metal conductors. In this paper, a method for eddy current field measurement was proposed. Based on the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction, an eddy current field measuring device was designed. Combining hardware acquisition and software processing, the eddy current field was obtained by subtracting the ideal gradient field from the magnetic field measured experimentally, whose waveform could be displayed in real time. The proposed method was verified by experimental results.

  11. A Microwave Method for Dielectric Characterization Measurement of Small Liquids Using a Metamaterial-Based Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weina; Sun, Haoran; Xu, Lei

    2018-05-05

    We present a microwave method for the dielectric characterization of small liquids based on a metamaterial-based sensor The proposed sensor consists of a micro-strip line and a double split-ring resonator (SRR). A large electric field is observed on the two splits of the double SRRs at the resonance frequency (1.9 GHz). The dielectric property data of the samples under test (SUTs) were obtained with two measurements. One is with the sensor loaded with the reference liquid (REF) and the other is with the sensor loaded with the SUTs. Additionally, the principle of extracting permittivity from measured changes of resonance characteristics changes of the sensor loaded with REF and SUTs is given. Some measurements were carried out at 1.9 GHz, and the calculated results of methanol⁻water mixtures with different molar fractions agree well with the time-domain reflectometry method. Moreover, the proposed sensor is compact and highly sensitive for use of sub-wavelength resonance. In comparison with literature data, relative errors are less than 3% for the real parts and 2% for the imaginary parts of complex permittivity.

  12. Local Field Response Method Phenomenologically Introducing Spin Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Tatsuya

    2018-03-01

    The local field response (LFR) method is a way of searching for the ground state in a similar manner to quantum annealing. However, the LFR method operates on a classical machine, and quantum effects are introduced through a priori information and through phenomenological means reflecting the states during the computations. The LFR method has been treated with a one-body approximation, and therefore, the effect of entanglement has not been sufficiently taken into account. In this report, spin correlations are phenomenologically introduced as one of the effects of entanglement, by which multiple tunneling at anticrossing points is taken into account. As a result, the accuracy of solutions for a 128-bit system increases by 31% compared with that without spin correlations.

  13. Collection and analysis of existing information on applicability of investigation methods for characterizing natural events/processes in a coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayasu, Akio; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Doke, Ryosuke; Shigehiro, Michiko; Tanaka, Takenobu; Aoki, Michinori; Sekiya, Ayako

    2011-02-01

    The investigation methods for characterizing natural events and processes in a coastal field have been extracted on the basis of analysis of previous research. Collected information is classified into three groups according to the characteristics of natural events/processes and investigation methods. First group is the methods for evaluation of uplift, subsidence and sedimentation rates. Second group is the methods for evaluation of denudation rates. The third group is the methods for reconstruction of the climatic and sea-level changes. Study area, timeframe of the investigation, work sequences, techniques for age-determination, index and objects for characterizing natural events/processes, etc. in each research example were arranged in an 'information spread sheet'. Information on applicability of the each investigation method was extracted from information spread sheet, and was arranged in tabular form. Based on an analysis of the above information, investigation method that can be applied to a coastal region was extracted. The methods and indices are as follows: Uplift rate: the heights of marine terraces are the most important index in an upheaval region. Subsidence and sedimentation rate: the depths of strata underlying an alluvial plain are main indices in a subsidence region. Denudation rate: the features of marine terrace are main indices and the inspection of denudation processes by the use of a numerical simulation is necessary. Climate change: lacustrine deposits are main object for investigation. Sea-level change: reconstruction of relative sea-level change curve including uplift/subsidence factor and paleogeography based on acoustic exploration and the investigation of marine terraces. (author)

  14. Coherent gradient sensing method for measuring thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.

  15. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor,Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Wire degradation has resulted in aircraft fatalities and critical space launches being delayed. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power is wirelessly provided to the sensing element by using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency, resistance and amplitude has been developed and is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be near the acquisition hardware. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed. Examples of magnetic field response sensors and the respective measurement characterizations are presented. Implementation of this method on an aerospace system is discussed.

  16. Proceedings of national workshop on advanced methods for materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    During the past two decades there had been tremendous growth in the field of material science and a variety of new materials with user specific properties have been developed such as smart shape memory alloys, hybrid materials like glass-ceramics, cermets, met-glasses, inorganic- organic composite layered structures, mixed oxides with negative thermal expansion, functional polymer materials etc. Study of nano-particles and the materials assembled from such particles is another area of active research being pursued all over the world. Preparation and characterization of nano-sized materials is a challenge because of their dimensions and size dependent properties. This has led to the emergence of a variety of advanced techniques, which need to be brought to the attention of the researchers working in the field of material science which requires the expertise of physics, chemistry and process engineering. This volume deals with above aspects and papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  17. Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, B.J., E-mail: bdalton@swin.edu.au [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Jeffers, J. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4ONG (United Kingdom); Barnett, S.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker–Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.

  18. Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, B.J.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker–Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.

  19. Measurements Techniques for Gyrotron characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, P.J. de.

    1987-08-01

    Experiments planned for the characterization of the 35GHz girotron, which is being built at the Plasma Laboratory of INPE, are described. The methods of the measurements are presented and the required instrumentation and devices are specified. Special attention is given to the measurement techniques of the resonator electric field profile. (author) [pt

  20. Application of empirical mode decomposition method for characterization of random vibration signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyamartana Parman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of finite measured signals is a great of importance in dynamical modeling and system identification. This paper addresses an approach for characterization of measured random vibration signals where the approach rests on a method called empirical mode decomposition (EMD. The applicability of proposed approach is tested in one numerical and experimental data from a structural system, namely spar platform. The results are three main signal components, comprising: noise embedded in the measured signal as the first component, first intrinsic mode function (IMF called as the wave frequency response (WFR as the second component and second IMF called as the low frequency response (LFR as the third component while the residue is the trend. Band-pass filter (BPF method is taken as benchmark for the results obtained from EMD method.

  1. Standard test methods for characterizing duplex grain sizes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide simple guidelines for deciding whether a duplex grain size exists. The test methods separate duplex grain sizes into one of two distinct classes, then into specific types within those classes, and provide systems for grain size characterization of each type. 1.2 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to its use.

  2. Measuring methods, registration and signal processing for magnetic field research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagiello, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Some measuring methods and signal processing systems based on analogue and digital technics, which have been applied in magnetic field research using magnetometers with ferromagnetic transducers, are presented. (author)

  3. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter [Energy & Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Harris, Joel [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-05-08

    The aim of this proposal is to develop, through novel high-temperature-tracing approaches, three technologies for characterizing fracture creation within Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The objective of a first task is to identify, develop and demonstrate adsorbing tracers for characterizing interwell reservoir-rock surface areas and fracture spacing. The objective of a second task is to develop and demonstrate a methodology for measuring fracture surface areas adjacent to single wells. The objective of a third task is to design, fabricate and test an instrument that makes use of tracers for measuring fluid flow between newly created fractures and wellbores. In one method of deployment, it will be used to identify qualitatively which fractures were activated during a hydraulic stimulation experiment. In a second method of deployment, it will serve to measure quantitatively the rate of fluid flowing from one or more activated fracture during a production test following a hydraulic stimulation.

  4. An overview of field specific designs of microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Fox, S.L.; Jackson, J.D.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-12-01

    The selection and design of a microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process for application in a specific field involves geological, reservoir, and biological characterization. Microbially mediated oil recovery mechanisms (biogenic gas, biopolymers, and biosurfactants) are defined by the types of microorganisms used. The engineering and biological character of a given reservoir must be understood to correctly select a microbial system to enhance oil recovery. The objective of this paper is to discuss the methods used to evaluate three fields with distinct characteristics and production problems for the applicability of MEOR technology. Reservoir characteristics and laboratory results indicated that MEOR would not be applicable in two of the three fields considered. The development of a microbial oil recovery process for the third field appeared promising. Development of a bacterial consortium capable of producing the desired metabolites was initiated and field isolates were characterized.

  5. Large-scale aligned silicon carbonitride nanotube arrays: Synthesis, characterization, and field emission property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, L.; Xu, Z.; Liu, K. H.; Wang, W. L.; Liu, S.; Bai, X. D.; Wang, E. G.; Li, J. C.; Liu, C.

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale aligned silicon carbonitride (SiCN) nanotube arrays have been synthesized by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition using SiH 4 , CH 4 , and N 2 as precursors. The three elements of Si, C, and N are chemically bonded with each other and the nanotube composition can be adjusted by varying the SiH 4 concentration, as revealed by electron energy loss spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The evolution of microstructure of the SiCN nanotubes with different Si concentrations was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of field emission characteristics of the SiCN nanotubes on the composition has been investigated. With the increasing Si concentration, the SiCN nanotube exhibits more favorable oxidation resistance, which suggests that SiCN nanotube is a promising candidate as stable field emitter

  6. A DATA FIELD METHOD FOR URBAN REMOTELY SENSED IMAGERY CLASSIFICATION CONSIDERING SPATIAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial correlation between pixels is important information for remotely sensed imagery classification. Data field method and spatial autocorrelation statistics have been utilized to describe and model spatial information of local pixels. The original data field method can represent the spatial interactions of neighbourhood pixels effectively. However, its focus on measuring the grey level change between the central pixel and the neighbourhood pixels results in exaggerating the contribution of the central pixel to the whole local window. Besides, Geary’s C has also been proven to well characterise and qualify the spatial correlation between each pixel and its neighbourhood pixels. But the extracted object is badly delineated with the distracting salt-and-pepper effect of isolated misclassified pixels. To correct this defect, we introduce the data field method for filtering and noise limitation. Moreover, the original data field method is enhanced by considering each pixel in the window as the central pixel to compute statistical characteristics between it and its neighbourhood pixels. The last step employs a support vector machine (SVM for the classification of multi-features (e.g. the spectral feature and spatial correlation feature. In order to validate the effectiveness of the developed method, experiments are conducted on different remotely sensed images containing multiple complex object classes inside. The results show that the developed method outperforms the traditional method in terms of classification accuracies.

  7. Precise magnetostatic field using the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Francisco Rogerio Teixeira do

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to simulate electromagnetic fields using the Finite Element Method. Even in the easiest case of electrostatic and magnetostatic numerical simulation some problems appear when the nodal finite element is used. It is difficult to model vector fields with scalar functions mainly in non-homogeneous materials. With the aim to solve these problems two types of techniques are tried: the adaptive remeshing using nodal elements and the edge finite element that ensure the continuity of tangential components. Some numerical analysis of simple electromagnetic problems with homogeneous and non-homogeneous materials are performed using first, the adaptive remeshing based in various error indicators and second, the numerical solution of waveguides using edge finite element. (author)

  8. Morphological Characterization of Nanofibers: Methods and Application in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Širc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical applications such as wound dressing for skin regeneration, stem cell transplantation, or drug delivery require special demands on the three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Besides the biocompatibility and mechanical properties, the morphology is the most important attribute of the scaffold. Specific surface area, volume, and size of the pores have considerable effect on cell adhesion, growth, and proliferation. In the case of incorporated biologically active substances, their release is also influenced by the internal structure of nanofibers. Although many scientific papers are focused on the preparation of nanofibers and evaluation of biological tests, the morphological characterization was described just briefly as service methods. The aim of this paper is to summarize the methods applicable for morphological characterization of nanofibers and supplement it by the results of our research. Needleless electrospinning technique was used to prepare nanofibers from polylactide, poly(ε-caprolactone, gelatin, and polyamide. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the fiber diameters and to reveal eventual artifacts in the nanofibrous structure. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements were employed to measure the specific surface areas. Mercury porosimetry was used to determine total porosities and compare pore size distributions of the prepared samples.

  9. A systematic method for characterizing the time-range performance of ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, A D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental performance of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is linked to the ability to measure the signal time-of-flight in order to provide an accurate radar-to-target range estimate. Having knowledge of the actual time range and timing nonlinearities of a trace is therefore important when seeking to make quantitative range estimates. However, very few practical methods have been formally reported in the literature to characterize GPR time-range performance. This paper describes a method to accurately measure the true time range of a GPR to provide a quantitative assessment of the timing system performance and detect and quantify the effects of timing nonlinearity due to timing jitter. The effect of varying the number of samples per trace on the true time range has also been investigated and recommendations on how to minimize the effects of timing errors are described. The approach has been practically applied to characterize the timing performance of two commercial GPR systems. The importance of the method is that it provides the GPR community with a practical method to readily characterize the underlying accuracy of GPR systems. This in turn leads to enhanced target depth estimation as well as facilitating the accuracy of more sophisticated GPR signal processing methods. (paper)

  10. High-definition, single-scan 2D MRI in inhomogeneous fields using spatial encoding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Eliezer, Noam; Shrot, Yoav; Frydman, Lucio

    2010-01-01

    An approach has been recently introduced for acquiring two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance images in a single scan, based on the spatial encoding of the spin interactions. This article explores the potential of integrating this spatial encoding together with conventional temporal encoding principles, to produce 2D single-shot images with moderate field of views. The resulting "hybrid" imaging scheme is shown to be superior to traditional schemes in non-homogeneous magnetic field environments. An enhancement of previously discussed pulse sequences is also proposed, whereby distortions affecting the image along the spatially encoded axis are eliminated. This new variant is also characterized by a refocusing of T(2)(*) effects, leading to a restoration of high-definition images for regions which would otherwise be highly dephased and thus not visible. These single-scan 2D images are characterized by improved signal-to-noise ratios and a genuine T(2) contrast, albeit not free from inhomogeneity distortions. Simple postprocessing algorithms relying on inhomogeneity phase maps of the imaged object can successfully remove most of these residual distortions. Initial results suggest that this acquisition scheme has the potential to overcome strong field inhomogeneities acting over extended acquisition durations, exceeding 100 ms for a single-shot image.

  11. The reduced basis method for the electric field integral equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, M.; Hesthaven, J.S.; Maday, Y.; Stamm, B.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the reduced basis method (RBM) as an efficient tool for parametrized scattering problems in computational electromagnetics for problems where field solutions are computed using a standard Boundary Element Method (BEM) for the parametrized electric field integral equation (EFIE). This combination enables an algorithmic cooperation which results in a two step procedure. The first step consists of a computationally intense assembling of the reduced basis, that needs to be effected only once. In the second step, we compute output functionals of the solution, such as the Radar Cross Section (RCS), independently of the dimension of the discretization space, for many different parameter values in a many-query context at very little cost. Parameters include the wavenumber, the angle of the incident plane wave and its polarization.

  12. Characterization of nitride hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory by using a random telegraph signal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Heng; Jiang, Cheng-Min; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Wang, Tahui; Tsai, Wen-Jer; Lu, Tao-Cheng; Chen, Kuang-Chao; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    We use a random telegraph signal method to investigate nitride trapped hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory. The concept of this method is to utilize an interface oxide trap and its associated random telegraph signal as an internal probe to detect a local channel potential change resulting from nitride charge lateral movement. We apply different voltages to the drain of a memory cell and vary a bake temperature in retention to study the electric field and temperature dependence of hole lateral movement in a nitride. Thermal energy absorption by trapped holes in lateral transport is characterized. Mechanisms of hole lateral transport in retention are investigated. From the measured and modeled results, we find that thermally assisted trap-to-band tunneling is a major trapped hole emission mechanism in nitride hole lateral transport.

  13. Development of method to characterize emissions from spray polyurethane foam insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation updates symposium participants re EPA progress towards development of SPF insulation emissions characterization methods. The presentation highlights evaluation of experiments investigating emissions after application of SPF to substrates in micro chambers and i...

  14. Optimization of field emission properties of carbon nanotubes by Taguchi method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, J.-H.; Chang, C.-C.; Chen, S.-L.; Lu, D.-S.; Kung, C.-Y.; Huang, F.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to evaluate the field emission property of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) prepared by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. Nickel layer of 5 nm in thickness on 20-nm thickness titanium nitride film was transformed into discrete islands after hydrogen plasma pretreatment. CNTs were then grown up on Ni-coated areas by MPCVD. Through the practice of Taguchi method, superior CNT films with very low emission onset electric field, about 0.7 V/μm (at J = 10 μA/cm 2 ), are attained without post-deposition treatment. It is found that microwave power has the most important influence on the field emission characteristics of CNT films. The increase of methane flow ratio will downgrade the degree of graphitization of CNT and thus its field emission characteristics. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis reveal that CNT growth by MPCVD is based on tip-growth mechanism. TEM micrographs validate the hollow, bamboo-like structure of the multi-walled CNTs

  15. A field method for soil erosion measurements in agricultural and natural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.P. Hsieh; K.T. Grant; G.C. Bugna

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important watershed processes in nature, yet quantifying it under field conditions remains a challenge. The lack of soil erosion field data is a major factor hindering our ability to predict soil erosion in a watershed. We present here the development of a simple and sensitive field method that quantifies soil erosion and the resulting...

  16. Molecular Characterization and Cluster Analysis of Field Isolates of Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Craig

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT is a worldwide infectious disease that causes important economic losses in the poultry industry. Although it is known that ILT virus (ILTV is present in Argentina, there is no information about the circulating strains. With the aim to characterize them, seven different genomic regions (thymidine kinase, glycoproteins D, G, B, C, and J, and infected cell polypeptide 4 were partially sequenced and compared between field samples. The gJ sequence resulted to be the most informative segment, it allowed the differentiation among field sample strains, and also, between wild and vaccine viruses. Specific changes in selected nucleotidic positions led to the definition of five distinct haplotypes. Tests for detection of clustering were run to test the null hypothesis that ILTV haplotypes were randomly distributed in time in Argentina and in space in the most densely populated poultry region of this country, Entre Rios. From this study, it was possible to identify a 46 km radius cluster in which higher proportions of haplotypes 4 and 5 were observed, next to a provincial route in Entre Rios and a significant decline of haplotype 5 between 2009 and 2011. Results here provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of ILT in Argentina, including data on specific genome segments that may be used for rapid characterization of the virus in the field. Ultimately, results will contribute to the surveillance of ILT in the country.

  17. Characterization of an Indian sword: classic and noninvasive methods of investigation in comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzagli, E.; Grazzi, F.; Williams, A.; Edge, D.; Scherillo, A.; Kelleher, J.; Zoppi, M.

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of metallurgy in history is one of the most interesting topics in Archaeometry. The production of steel and its forging methods to make tools and weapons are topics of great interest in the field of the history of metallurgy. In the production of weapons, we find almost always the highest level of technology. These were generally produced by skilled craftsmen who used the best quality materials available. Indian swords are an outstanding example in this field and one of the most interesting classes of objects for the study of the evolution of metallurgy. This work presents the study of a Shamsheer (a sword with a curved blade with single edge) made available by the Wallace Collection in London. The purpose of this study was to determine the composition, the microstructure, the level and the direction of residual strain and their distribution in the blade. We have used two different approaches: the classical one (metallography) and a nondestructive technique (neutron diffraction): In this way, we can test differences and complementarities of these two techniques. To obtain a good characterization of artifacts studied by traditional analytical methods, an invasive approach is required. However, the most ancient objects are scarce in number, and the most interesting ones are usually in an excellent state of conservation, so it is unthinkable to apply techniques with a destructive approach. The analysis of blades that has been performed by metallographic microscopy has demonstrated the specificity of the production of this type of steel. However, metallographic analysis can give only limited information about the structural characteristics of these artifacts of high quality, and it is limited to the sampled areas. The best approach for nondestructive analysis is therefore to use neutron techniques.

  18. MEASUREMENTS OF STRAIN FIELDS DUE TO NANOSCALE PRECIPITATES USING THE PHASE IMAGE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Donnadieu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing the phase image method (Hytch, 1998, strain fields can be derived from HREM images. The method is here applied to the nanoscale precipitates responsible for hardening in Aluminum alloys. Since the method is a very sensitive one, we have examined the impact of several aspects of the image quality (noise, fluctuations, distortion. The strain field information derived from the HREM image analysis is further introduced in a simulation of the dislocation motion in the matrix.

  19. Dosimetry Characterization of the Neutron Fields of the Intermediate Temporary Storage of the Trillo Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo Blanco, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT, in collaboration with the Trillo Nuclear Power Plant, has conducted a detailed dosimetric and spectrometric characterization of the neutron fields at the Intermediate Temporary Storage of the Trillo Nuclear Power Plant, as well as the neutron fields of ENSA-DPT spent fuel casks. For neutron measurements, neutron monitors and a Bonner spheres spectrometry system have been used. In addition, a Monte Carlo model of the installation and the cask has been developed and validated.

  20. Research on Visualization Design Method in the Field of New Media Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deqiang, Hu

    2018-03-01

    In the new period of increasingly developed science and technology, with the increasingly fierce competition in the market and the increasing demand of the masses, new design and application methods have emerged in the field of new media software engineering, that is, the visualization design method. Applying the visualization design method to the field of new media software engineering can not only improve the actual operation efficiency of new media software engineering but more importantly the quality of software development can be enhanced by means of certain media of communication and transformation; on this basis, the progress and development of new media software engineering in China are also continuously promoted. Therefore, the application of visualization design method in the field of new media software engineering is analysed concretely in this article from the perspective of the overview of visualization design methods and on the basis of systematic analysis of the basic technology.

  1. Field simulation of axisymmetric plasma screw pinches by alternating-direction-implicit methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    An axisymmetric plasma screw pinch is an axisymmetric column of ionized gaseous plasma radially confined by forces from axial and azimuthal currents driven in the plasma and its surroundings. This dissertation is a contribution to detailed, high resolution computer simulation of dynamic plasma screw pinches in 2-d rz-coordinates. The simulation algorithm combines electron fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) ion models to represent the plasma in a hybrid fashion. The plasma is assumed to be quasineutral; along with the Darwin approximation to the Maxwell equations, this implies application of Ampere's law without displacement current. Electron inertia is assumed negligible so that advective terms in the electron momentum equation are ignored. Electrons and ions have separate scalar temperatures, and a scalar plasma electrical resistivity is assumed. Altemating-direction-implicit (ADI) methods are used to advance the electron fluid drift velocity and the magnetic fields in the simulation. The ADI methods allow time steps larger than allowed by explicit methods. Spatial regions where vacuum field equations have validity are determined by a cutoff density that invokes the quasineutral vacuum Maxwell equations (Darwin approximation). In this dissertation, the algorithm was first checked against ideal MM stability theory, and agreement was nicely demonstrated. However, such agreement is not a new contribution to the research field. Contributions to the research field include new treatments of the fields in vacuum regions of the pinch simulation. The new treatments predict a level of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence near the bulk plasma surface that is higher than predicted by other methods

  2. The Quantum N-Body Problem and the Auxiliary Field Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, C.; Buisseret, F.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    2011-01-01

    Approximate analytical energy formulas for N-body semirelativistic Hamiltonians with one- and two-body interactions are obtained within the framework of the auxiliary field method. We first review the method in the case of nonrelativistic two-body problems. A general procedure is then given for N-body systems and applied to the case of baryons in the large-N c limit. (author)

  3. Geologic and engineering characterization of Geraldine Ford field, Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Topical report -- 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Malik, M.A.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. The study focused on Geraldine Ford field, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon formation (Ramsey sandstone). Petrophysical characterization of the Ford Geraldine unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobile oil saturation, and other reservoir properties. Once the reservoir-characterization study was completed, a demonstration area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in the northern part of the unit was chosen for reservoir modeling/simulation. A quarter of a five-spot injection pattern in the demonstration area was selected for flow simulations, and two cases of permeability distribution were considered, one using stochastic permeability distribution generated by conditional simulation and the other using layered permeabilities. Flow simulations were performed using UTCOMP, an isothermal, three-dimensional, compositional simulator for miscible gas flooding. Results indicate that 10--30% (1 to 3 MMbbl) of remaining oil in place in the demonstration area can be produced by CO{sub 2} injection.

  4. Characterization of NiSi nanowires as field emitters and limitations of Fowler-Nordheim model at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkadi, Amina B.; Gale, E.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2015-03-01

    Nanoscale field emitters are of technological interest because of the anticipated faster turn-on time, better sustainability and compactness. This report focuses on NiSi nanowires as field emitters for two reasons: (a) possible enhancement of field emission in nanoscale field emitters over bulk, and (b) achieving the same field emission properties as in bulk, but at a lower energy cost. To this end, we have grown, fabricated and characterized NiSi nanowires as field emitters. Depending on the geometry of the NiSi nanowires (aspect ratio, shape etc.), the relevant major field emission parameters, such as (1) the turn-on field, (2) the work function, and (3) the field enhancement factor, can be comparable or even superior to other recently explored nanoscale field emitters, such as CdS and ZnO. We also report on a comparative performance of various nanoscale field emitters and on the difficulties in the performance comparison in the light of relatively poor applicability of the standard Folwer-Nordheim model for field emission analysis for the case of the nanoscale field emitters. Proposed modifications are discussed. This work is supported through SRC-ATIC Grant 2011-KJ-2190. We also acknoweldge BNL-CFN and Cornell CNF facilities and staff.

  5. Advances in computational methods for Quantum Field Theory calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijl, B.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we describe three methods to improve the performance of Quantum Field Theory calculations. First, we simplify large expressions to speed up numerical integrations. Second, we design Forcer, a program for the reduction of four-loop massless propagator integrals. Third, we extend the R*

  6. Analysing radio-frequency coil arrays in high-field magnetic resonance imaging by the combined field integral equation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shumin; Duyn, Jeff H [Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, 10/B1D728, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2006-06-21

    We present the combined field integral equation (CFIE) method for analysing radio-frequency coil arrays in high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three-dimensional models of coils and the human body were used to take into account the electromagnetic coupling. In the method of moments formulation, we applied triangular patches and the Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions to model arbitrarily shaped geometries. We first examined a rectangular loop coil to verify the CFIE method and also demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy. We then studied several eight-channel receive-only head coil arrays for 7.0 T SENSE functional MRI. Numerical results show that the signal dropout and the average SNR are two major concerns in SENSE coil array design. A good design should be a balance of these two factors.

  7. Verification of the ISO calibration method for field pyranometers under tropical sky conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjai, Serm; Tohsing, Korntip; Pattarapanitchai, Somjet; Detkhon, Pasakorn

    2017-02-01

    Field pyranomters need to be annually calibrated and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has defined a standard method (ISO 9847) for calibrating these pyranometers. According to this standard method for outdoor calibration, the field pyranometers have to be compared to a reference pyranometer for the period of 2 to 14 days, depending on sky conditions. In this work, the ISO 9847 standard method was verified under tropical sky conditions. To verify the standard method, calibration of field pyranometers was conducted at a tropical site located in Nakhon Pathom (13.82o N, 100.04o E), Thailand under various sky conditions. The conditions of the sky were monitored by using a sky camera. The calibration results for different time periods used for the calibration under various sky conditions were analyzed. It was found that the calibration periods given by this standard method could be reduced without significant change in the final calibration result. In addition, recommendation and discussion on the use of this standard method in the tropics were also presented.

  8. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Caldwell, J.T. (Pajarito Scientific Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Integrals of random fields treated by the model correction factor method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchin, P.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Kiureghian, Armen Der

    2002-01-01

    The model correction factor method (MCFM) is used in conjunction with the first-order reliability method (FORM) to solve structural reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields. The approach replaces the limit-state function with an idealized one, in which the integrals ...

  11. Review of laser-induced fluorescence methods for measuring rf- and microwave electric fields in discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilenko, V.; Oks, E.

    1994-01-01

    Development of methods for measuring rf- or μ-wave electric fields E(t) = E 0 cosωt in discharge plasmas is of a great practical importance. First, these are fields used for producing rf- or μ-wave discharges. Second, the fields E(t) may represent electromagnetic waves penetrating into a plasma from the outside. This paper reviews methods for diagnostics of the fields E(t) in low temperature plasmas based on Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF). Compared to emission (passive) methods, LIF-methods have a higher sensitivity as well as higher spatial and temporal resolutions. Underlying physical effects may be highlighted by an example of LIF of hydrogen atoms in a plasma. After a presentation of the underlying physical principles, the review focuses on key experiments where these principles were implemented for measurements of rf- and μ-wave electric fields in various discharges

  12. Neutron Field Characterization of Irradiation Locations Applied to the Slovenian TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbot, Loic; Domergue, Christophe; Breaud, Stephane; Destouches, Christophe; Villard, Jean-Francois; Snoj, Luka; Stancar, Ziga; Radulovic, Vladimir; Trkov, Andrej

    2013-06-01

    This work deals with several neutron flux measurement instruments and particle transport calculations combined in a method to assess the neutron field in experimental locations in nuclear reactor core or reflector. First test of this method in the TRIGA Mark II of Slovenia led to the assessment of three energy groups neutron fluxes in central irradiation locations within reactor core. (authors)

  13. Methods for Characterization of the Diesel Combustion and Emission Formation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, Mikael

    2011-07-01

    In this thesis various aspects of the diesel engine fuel injection, combustion and emission formation processes have been evaluated. Several types of evaluation tools and methods have been applied. Fuel spray momentum was used to characterize injection rate and hole-to-hole variations in fuel injectors. Using both instantaneous fuel impulse rates and instantaneous mass flow measurements, spray velocity and nozzle flow parameters were evaluated. Several other hole-to-hole resolved injector characterization methods were used to characterize a set of fuel injectors subjected to long term testing. Fuel injector nozzle hole-to-hole variations were found to have a large influence on engine efficiency and emissions. The degree of hole-to-hole variations for an injector has been shown to correlate well with the performance deterioration of that injector. The formation and atomization of fuel sprays, ignition onset and the development of diffusion flames were studied using an optical engine. Flame temperature evaluations have been made using two different methods. NO-formation depends strongly on flame temperature. By applying a NO-formation evaluation method based on both heat release rate and flame and gas temperature it was possible to achieve a reasonable degree of correlation with measured exhaust emissions for very varying operating conditions. The prediction capability of the NO-formation evaluation method was utilized to evaluate spatially and temporally resolved NO-formation from flame temperature distributions. This made it possible to pinpoint areas with a high degree of NO-formation. It was found that small hot zones in the flames can be responsible for a large part of the total amount of NO that is produced, especially in combustion cases where no EGR is used to lower the flame temperature. By applying optical diagnostics methods the combustion and emission formation phenomena encountered during production engine transients were evaluated. The transient

  14. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler....... For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance...... of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal...

  15. Field Sample Preparation Method Development for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibman, C.; Weisbrod, K.; Yoshida, T.

    2015-01-01

    Non-proliferation and International Security (NA-241) established a working group of researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to evaluate the utilization of in-field mass spectrometry for safeguards applications. The survey of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) mass spectrometers (MS) revealed no instrumentation existed capable of meeting all the potential safeguards requirements for performance, portability, and ease of use. Additionally, fieldable instruments are unlikely to meet the International Target Values (ITVs) for accuracy and precision for isotope ratio measurements achieved with laboratory methods. The major gaps identified for in-field actinide isotope ratio analysis were in the areas of: 1. sample preparation and/or sample introduction, 2. size reduction of mass analyzers and ionization sources, 3. system automation, and 4. decreased system cost. Development work in 2 through 4, numerated above continues, in the private and public sector. LANL is focusing on developing sample preparation/sample introduction methods for use with the different sample types anticipated for safeguard applications. Addressing sample handling and sample preparation methods for MS analysis will enable use of new MS instrumentation as it becomes commercially available. As one example, we have developed a rapid, sample preparation method for dissolution of uranium and plutonium oxides using ammonium bifluoride (ABF). ABF is a significantly safer and faster alternative to digestion with boiling combinations of highly concentrated mineral acids. Actinides digested with ABF yield fluorides, which can then be analyzed directly or chemically converted and separated using established column chromatography techniques as needed prior to isotope analysis. The reagent volumes and the sample processing steps associated with ABF sample digestion lend themselves to automation and field

  16. Evaluation Method for Fieldlike-Torque Efficiency by Modulation of the Resonance Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Dongseuk; Chun, Byong Sun; Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Hwang, Chanyong

    2018-05-01

    The spin Hall effect has attracted a lot of interest in spintronics because it offers the possibility of a faster switching route with an electric current than with a spin-transfer-torque device. Recently, fieldlike spin-orbit torque has been shown to play an important role in the magnetization switching mechanism. However, there is no simple method for observing the fieldlike spin-orbit torque efficiency. We suggest a method for measuring fieldlike spin-orbit torque using a linear change in the resonance field in spectra of direct-current (dc)-tuned spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance. The fieldlike spin-orbit torque efficiency can be obtained in both a macrospin simulation and in experiments by simply subtracting the Oersted field from the shifted amount of resonance field. This method analyzes the effect of fieldlike torque using dc in a normal metal; therefore, only the dc resistivity and the dimensions of each layer are considered in estimating the fieldlike spin-torque efficiency. The evaluation of fieldlike-torque efficiency of a newly emerging material by modulation of the resonance field provides a shortcut in the development of an alternative magnetization switching device.

  17. A multidisciplinary fractured rock characterization study at Raymond field site, Raymond, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Freifeld, Barry; Cohen, Andrew; Cook, Paul; Vasco, Don; Grossenbacher, Ken

    2001-01-01

    A dedicated field site was developed and a suite of experiments were conducted in the Sierra Nevada foothills, near the town of Raymond, California to develop and test a multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of groundwater flow and transport in fractured rocks. A wealth of geologic, hydrologic and geophysical data was collected at the site using a variety of unique tools. A cluster of nine approximately 90 m deep boreholes were drilled at the site in a V-shaped pattern with an angle of 60 degrees. The boreholes are spaced 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 meters from the central borehole. Various geophysical and hydrologic tests were conducted in and between these boreholes. Integration of cross-hole radar and seismic tomography, borehole flow surveys and images from a new digital borehole scanner indicated that groundwater flow is mainly confined to a few sub-horizontal fracture zones. A unique suite of hydraulic tests were conducted, in which three to four intervals in each of the nine boreholes were isolated using pneumatic packers. Some 130 injection tests were conducted, and more than 4,100 cross-hole transient pressure measurements were obtained. A computer algorithm was developed to analyze such massive interference data systematically. As a result of the analysis, an image of the fracture connections emerged, which is consistent with the geophysical data. High precision tiltmeters were effective in remotely characterizing the preferential flow path. Several radial convergent tracer tests were conducted by injecting a mixture of several conservative tracers and one sorbing tracer: deuterium, fluorescein, lithium bromide and polystyrene micro-spheres. Some differences between the breakthrough curves are observed, which may be due to possible differences among so-called 'conservative' tracers. Some characterization tools were found to be more effective than others in locating flowing fractures. However, no single tool was almighty. Characterization of

  18. Nuclear energy - Reference beta-particle radiation - Part 2: Calibration fundamentals related to basic quantities characterizing the radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ISO 6980 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear energy - Reference beta-particle radiation: Part 1: Method of production; Part 2: Calibration fundamentals related to basic quantities characterizing the radiation field; Part 3: Calibration of area and personal dosimeters and determination of their response as a function of energy and angle of incidence. This part 2 of ISO 6980 specifies methods for the measurement of the directional absorbed-dose rate in a tissue-equivalent slab phantom in the ISO 6980 reference beta-particle radiation fields. The energy range of the beta-particle-emitting isotopes covered by these reference radiations is 0.066 to 3.54 MeV (maximum energy). Radiation energies outside this range are beyond the scope of this standard. While measurements in a reference geometry (depth of 0.07 mm at perpendicular incidence in a tissue-equivalent slab phantom) with a reference class extrapolation chamber are dealt with in detail, the use of other measurement systems and measurements in other geometries are also described, although in less detail. The ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) as used for area monitoring of strongly penetrating radiation, is not an appropriate quantity for any beta radiation, even for that penetrating a 10 mm thick layer of ICRU tissue (i.e. E max > 2 MeV). If adequate protection is provided at 0.07 mm, only rarely will one be concerned with other depths, for example 3 mm. This document is geared towards organizations wishing to establish reference-class dosimetry capabilities for beta particles, and serves as a guide to the performance of dosimetry with the reference class extrapolation chamber for beta-particle dosimetry in other fields. Guidance is also provided on the statement of measurement uncertainties

  19. Lattice Field Theory with the Sign Problem and the Maximum Entropy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Imachi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Although numerical simulation in lattice field theory is one of the most effective tools to study non-perturbative properties of field theories, it faces serious obstacles coming from the sign problem in some theories such as finite density QCD and lattice field theory with the θ term. We reconsider this problem from the point of view of the maximum entropy method.

  20. Field method for detemining thorium-230 in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechant, G.

    1989-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology established the Technical Measurements Center at the DOE Grand Junction, Colorado, Projects Office to develop and/or recommend measurement methods for use in support of its remedial action programs. This report describes a field method for the determination of Th-230 in soils for remedial action projects. The method involves a cold acid digestion, organic extraction, and precipitation of Th-230 for counting by alpha spectrometry. An internal Th-228 spike is added early in the method to eliminate the need to determine losses through the separation steps. A step-by-step procedure is included in the report. The method requires a small portable or mobile laboratory equipped with electrical power and ventilation. All additional equipment is commercially available and no special equipment is required. Chemical wastes for each analysis are stored for appropriate disposal off site. A chemist or chemical technician can complete 15--30 analyses per day depending primarily on the number of alpha spectrometers available. 8 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Field Science Ethnography: Methods For Systematic Observation on an Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Haughton-Mars expedition is a multidisciplinary project, exploring an impact crater in an extreme environment to determine how people might live and work on Mars. The expedition seeks to understand and field test Mars facilities, crew roles, operations, and computer tools. I combine an ethnographic approach to establish a baseline understanding of how scientists prefer to live and work when relatively unemcumbered, with a participatory design approach of experimenting with procedures and tools in the context of use. This paper focuses on field methods for systematically recording and analyzing the expedition's activities. Systematic photography and time-lapse video are combined with concept mapping to organize and present information. This hybrid approach is generally applicable to the study of modern field expeditions having a dozen or more multidisciplinary participants, spread over a large terrain during multiple field seasons.

  2. Cross-comparison and evaluation of air pollution field estimation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haofei; Russell, Armistead; Mulholland, James; Odman, Talat; Hu, Yongtao; Chang, Howard H.; Kumar, Naresh

    2018-04-01

    Accurate estimates of human exposure is critical for air pollution health studies and a variety of methods are currently being used to assign pollutant concentrations to populations. Results from these methods may differ substantially, which can affect the outcomes of health impact assessments. Here, we applied 14 methods for developing spatiotemporal air pollutant concentration fields of eight pollutants to the Atlanta, Georgia region. These methods include eight methods relying mostly on air quality observations (CM: central monitor; SA: spatial average; IDW: inverse distance weighting; KRIG: kriging; TESS-D: discontinuous tessellation; TESS-NN: natural neighbor tessellation with interpolation; LUR: land use regression; AOD: downscaled satellite-derived aerosol optical depth), one using the RLINE dispersion model, and five methods using a chemical transport model (CMAQ), with and without using observational data to constrain results. The derived fields were evaluated and compared. Overall, all methods generally perform better at urban than rural area, and for secondary than primary pollutants. We found the CM and SA methods may be appropriate only for small domains, and for secondary pollutants, though the SA method lead to large negative spatial correlations when using data withholding for PM2.5 (spatial correlation coefficient R = -0.81). The TESS-D method was found to have major limitations. Results of the IDW, KRIG and TESS-NN methods are similar. They are found to be better suited for secondary pollutants because of their satisfactory temporal performance (e.g. average temporal R2 > 0.85 for PM2.5 but less than 0.35 for primary pollutant NO2). In addition, they are suitable for areas with relatively dense monitoring networks due to their inability to capture spatial concentration variabilities, as indicated by the negative spatial R (lower than -0.2 for PM2.5 when assessed using data withholding). The performance of LUR and AOD methods were similar to

  3. Geophysical methods for fracture characterization in and around potential sites for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, E.L.; Lee, K.H.; Morrison, H.F.

    1992-08-01

    Historically, geophysical methods have been used extensively to successfully explore the subsurface for petroleum, gas, mineral, and geothermal resources. Their application, however, for site characterization, and monitoring the performance of near surface waste sites or repositories has been somewhat limited. Presented here is an overview of the geophysical methods that could contribute to defining the subsurface heterogeneity and extrapolating point measurements at the surface and in boreholes to volumetric descriptions in a fractured rock. In addition to site characterization a significant application of geophysical methods may be in performance assessment and in monitoring the repository to determine if the performance is as expected

  4. N3 Bias Field Correction Explained as a Bayesian Modeling Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Thode; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Although N3 is perhaps the most widely used method for MRI bias field correction, its underlying mechanism is in fact not well understood. Specifically, the method relies on a relatively heuristic recipe of alternating iterative steps that does not optimize any particular objective function. In t...

  5. Helpful and Hindering Factors in Psychodrama Field Training: A Longitudinal Mixed Methods Study of Student Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha Azoulay

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the literature indicates that students in mental health professions start to form their professional identity and competence in graduate school, there are few studies on the in-training experience of creative arts therapies students. This mixed methods study examined how five first-year students in a psychodrama master’s degree program in Israel experienced their field training, with the aim of identifying the factors likely to promote or hinder the development of their professional identity and sense of professional ability. Longitudinal data were collected weekly throughout the 20-week field training experience. The students reported qualitatively on helpful and hindering factors and were assessed quantitatively on questionnaires measuring professional identity, perceived demands-abilities fit, client involvement, and therapy session evaluations. A thematic analysis of the students’ reports indicated that a clear and defined setting and structure, observing the instructor as a role model, actively leading parts of the session, and observing fellow students were all helpful factors. The hindering factors included role confusion, issues related to coping with client resistance and disciplinary problems, as well as school end-of-year activities that disrupted the continuity of therapy. The quantitative results indicated that students’ professional identity did not significantly change over the year, whereas a U-shaped curve trajectory characterized the changes in demands-abilities fit and other measures. Students began their field training with an overstated sense of ability that soon declined and later increased. These findings provide indications of which helping and hindering factors should be maximized and minimized, to enhance students’ field training.

  6. Helpful and Hindering Factors in Psychodrama Field Training: A Longitudinal Mixed Methods Study of Student Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, Bracha; Orkibi, Hod

    2018-01-01

    Although the literature indicates that students in mental health professions start to form their professional identity and competence in graduate school, there are few studies on the in-training experience of creative arts therapies students. This mixed methods study examined how five first-year students in a psychodrama master's degree program in Israel experienced their field training, with the aim of identifying the factors likely to promote or hinder the development of their professional identity and sense of professional ability. Longitudinal data were collected weekly throughout the 20-week field training experience. The students reported qualitatively on helpful and hindering factors and were assessed quantitatively on questionnaires measuring professional identity, perceived demands-abilities fit, client involvement, and therapy session evaluations. A thematic analysis of the students' reports indicated that a clear and defined setting and structure, observing the instructor as a role model, actively leading parts of the session, and observing fellow students were all helpful factors. The hindering factors included role confusion, issues related to coping with client resistance and disciplinary problems, as well as school end-of-year activities that disrupted the continuity of therapy. The quantitative results indicated that students' professional identity did not significantly change over the year, whereas a U-shaped curve trajectory characterized the changes in demands-abilities fit and other measures. Students began their field training with an overstated sense of ability that soon declined and later increased. These findings provide indications of which helping and hindering factors should be maximized and minimized, to enhance students' field training.

  7. The adjoint method for general EEG and MEG sensor-based lead field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallaghe, Sylvain; Papadopoulo, Theodore; Clerc, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Most of the methods for the inverse source problem in electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) use a lead field as an input. The lead field is the function which relates any source in the brain to its measurements at the sensors. For complex geometries, there is no analytical formula of the lead field. The common approach is to numerically compute the value of the lead field for a finite number of point sources (dipoles). There are several drawbacks: the model of the source space is fixed (a set of dipoles), and the computation can be expensive for as much as 10 000 dipoles. The common idea to bypass these problems is to compute the lead field from a sensor point of view. In this paper, we use the adjoint method to derive general EEG and MEG sensor-based lead field equations. Within a simple framework, we provide a complete review of the explicit lead field equations, and we are able to extend these equations to non-pointlike sensors.

  8. Monotone numerical methods for finite-state mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Saude, Joao

    2017-01-01

    Here, we develop numerical methods for finite-state mean-field games (MFGs) that satisfy a monotonicity condition. MFGs are determined by a system of differential equations with initial and terminal boundary conditions. These non-standard conditions are the main difficulty in the numerical approximation of solutions. Using the monotonicity condition, we build a flow that is a contraction and whose fixed points solve the MFG, both for stationary and time-dependent problems. We illustrate our methods in a MFG modeling the paradigm-shift problem.

  9. Method of a covering space in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serebryanyj, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    To construct the Green function of the Laplace operator in the domain M bounded by conducting surfaces the generalized method of images is used. It is based on replacement of the domain M by its discrete bundle and that is why the term ''method of covering space'' is used. Continuing one of the coordinates to imaginary values the euclidean Green function is transformed into the causal one. This allows one to compute vacuum stress-energy tensor of the scalar massless field if the vacuum is stable [ru

  10. Monotone numerical methods for finite-state mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2017-04-29

    Here, we develop numerical methods for finite-state mean-field games (MFGs) that satisfy a monotonicity condition. MFGs are determined by a system of differential equations with initial and terminal boundary conditions. These non-standard conditions are the main difficulty in the numerical approximation of solutions. Using the monotonicity condition, we build a flow that is a contraction and whose fixed points solve the MFG, both for stationary and time-dependent problems. We illustrate our methods in a MFG modeling the paradigm-shift problem.

  11. Perturbative versus Schwinger-propagator method for the calculation of amplitudes in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, Jose F.; Pal, Palash B.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the calculation of amplitudes for processes that take place in a constant background magnetic field, first using the standard method for the calculation of an amplitude in an external field, and second utilizing the Schwinger propagator for charged particles in a magnetic field. We show that there are processes for which the Schwinger-propagator method does not yield the total amplitude. We explain why the two methods yield equivalent results in some cases and indicate when we can expect the equivalence to hold. We show these results in fairly general terms and illustrate them with specific examples as well

  12. Characterization of Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Nanobiomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emul, E.; Saglam, S.; Ates, H.; Korkusuz, F.; Saglam, N.

    2016-08-01

    The electrospinning method is employed in the production of porous fiber scaffolds, and the usage of electrospun scaffolds especially as drug carrier and bone reconstructive material such as implants is promising for future applications in tissue engineering. The number of publications has grown very rapidly in this field through the fabrication of complex scaffolds, novel approaches in nanotechnology, and improvements of imaging methods. Hence, characterization of these materials has also grown significantly important for getting satisfied and accurate results. This advantageous and versatile method is ideal for mimicking bone extracellular matrix, and many biodegradable and biocompatible polymers are preferred in the field of bone reconstruction. In this study, gelatin, gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and gelatin/PLLA/nHAp scaffolds were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These composite fibers showed clear and continuous morphology according to observation through a scanning electron microscope and their component analyses were also determined by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analyses. These characterization experiments revealed the great effects of the electrospinning method for biomedical applications and have an especially important role in bone reconstruction and production of implant coating material.

  13. Characterization of Fabricated Photonic Crystal Fibers Using Effective Index Method

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz E. Seraji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), which have been experimentally determined in the last few years in Iran's Telecom Research Center are analyzed and compared theoretically using an effective index method. The PCFs under investigation are fabricated with a high speed drawing process that has not yet been reported elsewhere. It was shown that at higher wavelengths in PCFs; the light field is confined in the core where in shorter wavelengths the field spread...

  14. Spatial characterization of Bessel-like beams for strong-field physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Adam M; Yu, Xiaoming; Wang, Xinya; Raoul, Maxime; Nelson, Josh; Todd, Daniel; Zigo, Stefan; Lei, Shuting; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos A

    2017-02-06

    We present a compact, simple design for the generation and tuning of both the spot size and effective focal length of Bessel-like beams. In particular, this setup provides an important tool for the use of Bessel-like beams with high-power, femtosecond laser systems. Using a shallow angle axicon in conjunction with a spherical lens, we show that it is possible to focus Bessel-like modes to comparable focal spot sizes to sharp axicons while maintaining a long effective focal length. The resulting focal profiles are characterized in detail using an accurate high dynamic range imaging technique. Quantitatively, we introduce a metric (R0.8) which defines the spot-size containing 80% of the total energy. Our setup overcomes the typical compromise between long working distances and small spot sizes. This is particularly relevant for strong-field physics where most experiments must operate in vacuum.

  15. Electrospinning of Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers and Simulation of Electric Field via Finite Element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Samadian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Since the electric field is the main driving force in electrospinning systems, the modeling and analysis of electric field distribution are critical to the nanofibers production. The aim of this study was modeling of the electric field and investigating the various parameters on polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibers morphology and diameter. Methods: The electric field profile at the nozzle and electrospinning zone was evaluated by Finite Element Method. The morphology and diameter of nanofibers were examined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results: The results of the electric field analysis indicated that the electric field was concentrated at the tip of the nozzle. Moreover, in the spinning direction, the electric field was concentrated at the surface of the spinneret and decayed rapidly toward the surface of the collector. Increasing polymer solution concentration from 7 to 11wt.% led to increasing nanofibers diameter form 77.76 ± 19.44 to 202.42 ± 36.85. Conclusions: Base on our results, it could be concluded that concentration of the electric field at the tip of the nozzle is high and initiates jet and nanofibers formation. PAN nanofibers can be transformed to carbon nanofibers which have various applications in biomedicine.

  16. A two-step method for rapid characterization of electroosmotic flows in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; He, Muyi; Yuan, Tao; Xu, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The measurement of electroosmotic flow (EOF) is important in a capillary electrophoresis (CE) experiment in terms of performance optimization and stability improvement. Although several methods exist, there are demanding needs to accurately characterize ultra-low electroosmotic flow rates (EOF rates), such as in coated capillaries used in protein separations. In this work, a new method, called the two-step method, was developed to accurately and rapidly measure EOF rates in a capillary, especially for measuring the ultra-low EOF rates in coated capillaries. In this two-step method, the EOF rates were calculated by measuring the migration time difference of a neutral marker in two consecutive experiments, in which a pressure driven was introduced to accelerate the migration and the DC voltage was reversed to switch the EOF direction. Uncoated capillaries were first characterized by both this two-step method and a conventional method to confirm the validity of this new method. Then this new method was applied in the study of coated capillaries. Results show that this new method is not only fast in speed, but also better in accuracy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. RECONSTRUCTING THE INITIAL DENSITY FIELD OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE: METHODS AND TESTS WITH MOCK CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Yang Xiaohu; Van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Our research objective in this paper is to reconstruct an initial linear density field, which follows the multivariate Gaussian distribution with variances given by the linear power spectrum of the current cold dark matter model and evolves through gravitational instabilities to the present-day density field in the local universe. For this purpose, we develop a Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to obtain the linear density field from a posterior probability function that consists of two components: a prior of a Gaussian density field with a given linear spectrum and a likelihood term that is given by the current density field. The present-day density field can be reconstructed from galaxy groups using the method developed in Wang et al. Using a realistic mock Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, obtained by populating dark matter halos in the Millennium simulation (MS) with galaxies, we show that our method can effectively and accurately recover both the amplitudes and phases of the initial, linear density field. To examine the accuracy of our method, we use N-body simulations to evolve these reconstructed initial conditions to the present day. The resimulated density field thus obtained accurately matches the original density field of the MS in the density range 0.3∼ –1 , much smaller than the translinear scale, which corresponds to a wavenumber of ∼0.15 h Mpc –1

  18. Computer analysis of multicircuit shells of revolution by the field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The field method has been presented previously for shells of revolution with open branched meridians. The main purpose of the present paper is to extend this work to the case of meridians which contain circuits. Also, a new method for the treatment of arbitrary kinematic constraints is presented. (Auth.)

  19. Calculation of an axisymmetric current coil field with the bounding contour integration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, Alexander P.; Klevets, Nickolay I. E-mail: pmsolution@mail.ru

    2004-06-01

    Method for the economic and stable (in the sense of calculation errors) analysis of an induction of a magnetic field created with axisymmetric coils in arbitrary points of space, including points located inside a coil or on its border, is obtained. The basic idea of the method is to replace a current coil with continuous distribution of current density by magnetization distributed in the volume of the coil and creating the equivalent magnetic field. This allows to use field surface sources at calculation of the fields. Consequently, the range of integration is reduced resulting in reduction of calculation volume by an order in most cases. Besides, the calculation of improper integrals in internal points and on the border is completely excluded.

  20. Calculation of an axisymmetric current coil field with the bounding contour integration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, Alexander P.; Klevets, Nickolay I.

    2004-01-01

    Method for the economic and stable (in the sense of calculation errors) analysis of an induction of a magnetic field created with axisymmetric coils in arbitrary points of space, including points located inside a coil or on its border, is obtained. The basic idea of the method is to replace a current coil with continuous distribution of current density by magnetization distributed in the volume of the coil and creating the equivalent magnetic field. This allows to use field surface sources at calculation of the fields. Consequently, the range of integration is reduced resulting in reduction of calculation volume by an order in most cases. Besides, the calculation of improper integrals in internal points and on the border is completely excluded

  1. Optimal Magnetic Field Shielding Method by Metallic Sheets in Wireless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To meet the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs such as the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP guidelines, thin metallic sheets are often used to shield magnetic field leakage in high power applications of wireless power transfer (WPT systems based on magnetic field coupling. However, the metals in the vicinity of the WPT coils cause the decrease of self and mutual inductances and increase of effective series resistance; as such, the electric performance including transmission power and the efficiency of the system is affected. With the research objective of further investigating excellent shielding effectiveness associated with system performance, the utilization of the optimal magnetic field shielding method by metallic sheets in magnetic field coupling WPT is carried out in this paper. The circuit and 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA models are combined to predict the magnetic field distribution and electrical performance. Simulation and experiment results show that the method is very effective by obtaining the largest possible coupling coefficient of the WPT coils within the allowable range and then reducing the value nearest to and no smaller than the critical coupling coefficient via geometric unbroken metallic sheets. The optimal magnetic field shielding method which considers the system efficiency, transmission power, transmission distance, and system size is also achieved using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The results can benefit WPT by helping to achieve efficient energy transfer and safe use in metal shielded equipment.

  2. Development and characterization of vertical double-gate MOS field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trellenkamp, S.

    2004-07-01

    Planar MOS-field-effect transistors are common devices today used by the computer industry. When their miniaturization reaches its limit, alternate transistor concepts become necessary. In this thesis the development of vertical Double-Gate-MOS-field-effect transistors is presented. These types of transistors have a vertically aligned p-n-p junction (or n-p-n junction, respectively). Consequently, the source-drain current flows perpendicular with respect to the surface of the wafer. A Double-Gate-field-effect transistor is characterized by a very thin channel region framed by two parallel gates. Due to the symmetry of the structure and less bulk volume better gate control and hence better short channel behavior is expected, as well as an improved scaling potential. Nanostructuring of the transistor's active region is very challenging. Approximately 300 nm high and down to 30 nm wide silicon ridges are requisite. They can be realized using hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) as inorganic high resolution resist for electron beam lithography. Structures defined in HSQ are then transferred with high anisotropy and selectivity into silicon using ICP-RIE (reactive ion etching with inductive coupled plasma). 25 nm wide and 330 nm high silicon ridges are achieved. Different transistor layouts are realized. The channel length is defined by epitaxial growth of doped silicon layers before or by ion implantation after nanostructuring, respectively. The transistors show source-drain currents up to 380 μA/μm and transconductances up to 480 μS/μm. Improved short channel behavior for decreasing width of the silicon ridges is demonstrated. (orig.)

  3. Strontium isotopic signatures of oil-field waters: Applications for reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Oetting, G.C.; Gao, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 87Sr/86Sr compositions of formation waters that were collected from 71 wells producing from a Pennsylvanian carbonate reservoir in New Mexico display a well-defined distribution, with radiogenic waters (up to 0.710129) at the updip western part of the reservoir, grading downdip to less radiogenic waters (as low as 0.708903 to the east. Salinity (2800-50,000 mg/L) displays a parallel trend; saline waters to the west pass downdip to brackish waters. Elemental and isotopic data indicate that the waters originated as meteoric precipitation and acquired their salinity and radiogenic 87Sr through dissolution of Upper Permian evaporites. These meteoric-derived waters descended, perhaps along deeply penetrating faults, driven by gravity and density, to depths of more than 7000 ft (2100 m). The 87 Sr/86Sr and salinity trends record influx of these waters along the western field margin and downdip flow across the field, consistent with the strong water drive, potentiometric gradient, and tilted gas-oil-water contacts. The formation water 87Sr/86Sr composition can be useful to evaluate subsurface flow and reservoir behavior, especially in immature fields with scarce pressure and production data. In mature reservoirs, Sr Sr isotopes can be used to differentiate original formation water from injected water for waterflood surveillance. Strontium isotopes thus provide a valuable tool for both static and dynamic reservoir characterization in conjunction with conventional studies using seismic, log, core, engineering, and production data. Copyright ??2004. The American Association of Petroleum Geologist. All rights reserved.

  4. Integration of Seismic and Petrophysics to Characterize Reservoirs in “ALA” Oil Field, Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Alao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on “ALA” field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of −2,453 to −3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  5. New method for the exact determination of the effective conductivity and the local field in RLC networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, L.; Zekri, N.; Bouamrane, R.

    1999-10-01

    We present a new numerical method for determining exactly the effective conductivity and the local field for random RLC networks. This method is compared to a real space renormalization group method and the Frank and Lobb method. Although our method is slower than the Frank and Lobb method, it also computes exactly the local field for large size systems. We also show that the renormalization group method fails in determining the local field. (author)

  6. EXPLORATION BY MEANS OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS OF GEOTHERMAL FIELDS AND CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züheyr KAMACI

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy which is one of the reuseable energy resources, can save as much as 77 million barrels of petroleum equivalent annually when used in the production of electricity and heating-environment. Geophysical exploration methods plays in important role in the fields of geothermal exploration, development and observational studies. Thermal and geoelectrical methods are the most effective methods which shows the temperature variation anomalies and mechanical drilling places. But, when the other methods of gravity, magnetic, radiometric, well geophysics and well logs can be used in conjunction with seismic tomography, apart from the mentioned geophysical exploration method, better results could be obtained. From the above mentioned facts various case history reports are given from our country and worldwide to determine geothermal energy resources by using geophysical exploration technique application. From these results of studies a 55 °C hot water artessian aquifer is found in the Uşak-Banaz geothermal field by applying geoelectrical methods.

  7. Metrological characterization methods for confocal chromatic line sensors and optical topography sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Jeremias; Niemelä, Karri; Lassila, Antti

    2018-05-01

    The increasing use of chromatic confocal technology for, e.g. fast, in-line optical topography, and measuring thickness, roughness and profiles implies a need for the characterization of various aspects of the sensors. Single-point, line and matrix versions of chromatic confocal technology, encoding depth information into wavelength, have been developed. Of these, line sensors are particularly suitable for in-line process measurement. Metrological characterization and development of practical methods for calibration and checking is needed for new optical methods and devices. Compared to, e.g. tactile methods, optical topography measurement techniques have limitations related to light wavelength and coherence, optical properties of the sample including reflectivity, specularity, roughness and colour, and definition of optical versus mechanical surfaces. In this work, metrological characterization methods for optical line sensors were developed for scale magnification and linearity, sensitivity to sample properties, and dynamic characteristics. An accurate depth scale calibration method using a single prototype groove depth sample was developed for a line sensor and validated with laser-interferometric sample tracking, attaining (sub)micrometre level or better than 0.1% scale accuracy. Furthermore, the effect of different surfaces and materials on the measurement and depth scale was studied, in particular slope angle, specularity and colour. In addition, dynamic performance, noise, lateral scale and resolution were measured using the developed methods. In the case of the LCI1200 sensor used in this study, which has a 11.3 mm  ×  2.8 mm measurement range, the instrument depth scale was found to depend only minimally on sample colour, whereas measuring steeply sloped specular surfaces in the peripheral measurement area, in the worst case, caused a somewhat larger relative sample-dependent change (1%) in scale.

  8. Method of synthesizing small-diameter carbon nanotubes with electron field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie (Inventor); Du, Chunsheng (Inventor); Qian, Cheng (Inventor); Gao, Bo (Inventor); Qiu, Qi (Inventor); Zhou, Otto Z. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube material having an outer diameter less than 10 nm and a number of walls less than ten are disclosed. Also disclosed are an electron field emission device including a substrate, an optionally layer of adhesion-promoting layer, and a layer of electron field emission material. The electron field emission material includes a carbon nanotube having a number of concentric graphene shells per tube of from two to ten, an outer diameter from 2 to 8 nm, and a nanotube length greater than 0.1 microns. One method to fabricate carbon nanotubes includes the steps of (a) producing a catalyst containing Fe and Mo supported on MgO powder, (b) using a mixture of hydrogen and carbon containing gas as precursors, and (c) heating the catalyst to a temperature above 950.degree. C. to produce a carbon nanotube. Another method of fabricating an electron field emission cathode includes the steps of (a) synthesizing electron field emission materials containing carbon nanotubes with a number of concentric graphene shells per tube from two to ten, an outer diameter of from 2 to 8 nm, and a length greater than 0.1 microns, (b) dispersing the electron field emission material in a suitable solvent, (c) depositing the electron field emission materials onto a substrate, and (d) annealing the substrate.

  9. Recover Act. Verification of Geothermal Tracer Methods in Highly Constrained Field Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Matthew W. [California State University, Long Beach, CA (United States)

    2014-05-16

    The prediction of the geothermal system efficiency is strong linked to the character of the flow system that connects injector and producer wells. If water flow develops channels or “short circuiting” between injection and extraction wells thermal sweep is poor and much of the reservoir is left untapped. The purpose of this project was to understand how channelized flow develops in fracture geothermal reservoirs and how it can be measured in the field. We explored two methods of assessing channelization: hydraulic connectivity tests and tracer tests. These methods were tested at a field site using two verification methods: ground penetrating radar (GPR) images of saline tracer and heat transfer measurements using distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The field site for these studies was the Altona Flat Fractured Rock Research Site located in northeastern New York State. Altona Flat Rock is an experimental site considered a geologic analog for some geothermal reservoirs given its low matrix porosity. Because soil overburden is thin, it provided unique access to saturated bedrock fractures and the ability image using GPR which does not effectively penetrate most soils. Five boreholes were drilled in a “five spot” pattern covering 100 m2 and hydraulically isolated in a single bedding plane fracture. This simple system allowed a complete characterization of the fracture. Nine small diameter boreholes were drilled from the surface to just above the fracture to allow the measurement of heat transfer between the fracture and the rock matrix. The focus of the hydraulic investigation was periodic hydraulic testing. In such tests, rather than pumping or injection in a well at a constant rate, flow is varied to produce an oscillating pressure signal. This pressure signal is sensed in other wells and the attenuation and phase lag between the source and receptor is an indication of hydraulic connection. We found that these tests were much more effective than constant

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and hydrogen uptake studies of magnesium nanoparticles by solution reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rather, Sami ullah

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of magnesium nanoparticles synthesized by solution reduction method with and without TOPO. - Highlights: • Simple and convenient method of preparing Mg nanoparticles. • Characterized by XRD, SEM, FESEM and TEM. • Trioctylphosphine oxide offers a greater control over the size of the particles. • Hydrogen uptake of samples at different temperatures and pressure of 4.5 MPa. - Abstract: Facile and simple, surfactant-mediated solution reduction method was used to synthesize monodisperse magnesium nanoparticles. Little amount of magnesium oxide nanoparticles were also formed due to the presence of TOPO and easy oxidation of magnesium, eventhough, all precautions were taken to avoid oxidation of the sample. Precise size control of particles was achieved by carefully varying the concentration ratio of two different types of surfactants, – trioctylphosphine oxide and hexadecylamine. Recrystallized magnesium nanoparticle samples with and without TOPO were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The peak diameters of particles were estimated from size distribution analysis of the morphological data. The particles synthesized in the presence and absence of TOPO found to have diameters 46.5 and 34.8 nm, respectively. This observed dependence of particle size on the presence of TOPO offers a convenient method to control the particle size by simply using appropriate surfactant concentrations. Exceptional enhancement in hydrogen uptake and kinetics in synthesized magnesium nanoparticles as compared to commercial magnesium sample was due to the smaller particle size and improved morphology. Overall hydrogen uptake not affected by the little variation in particle size with and without TOPO

  11. Trends in Polymer and Particle Characterization by Microfluidic Field-Flow Fractionation Methods: Science or Business?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janča, Josef; Sobota, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, 16 May (2014), s. 296-308 ISSN 1023-666X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Asymmetrical flow FFF * Electrical FFF * Field-flow fractionation * Flow FFF * Microelectrical FFF * Microfluidic channels * Microthermal FFF * Miniaturization and resolution * Polymers and particles separation * Sedimentation FFF * Technical benefits of microchannels * Thermal FFF Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2014

  12. New numerical methods for quantum field theories on the continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emirdag, P.; Easter, R.; Guralnik, G.S.; Hahn, S.C

    2000-03-01

    The Source Galerkin Method is a new numerical technique that is being developed to solve Quantum Field Theories on the continuum. It is not based on Monte Carlo techniques and has a measure to evaluate relative errors. It promises to increase the accuracy and speed of calculations, and takes full advantage of symmetries of the theory. The application of this method to the non-linear {sigma} model is outlined.

  13. General Anisotropy Identification of Paperboard with Virtual Fields Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Considine; F. Pierron; K.T. Turner; D.W. Vahey

    2014-01-01

    This work extends previous efforts in plate bending of Virtual Fields Method (VFM) parameter identification to include a general 2-D anisotropicmaterial. Such an extension was needed for instances in which material principal directions are unknown or when specimen orientation is not aligned with material principal directions. A new fixture with a multiaxial force...

  14. Projection and nested force-gradient methods for quantum field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbakov, Dmitry

    2017-07-26

    For the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm (HMC), often used to study the fundamental quantum field theory of quarks and gluons, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), on the lattice, one is interested in efficient numerical time integration schemes which preserve geometric properties of the flow and are optimal in terms of computational costs per trajectory for a given acceptance rate. High order numerical methods allow the use of larger step sizes, but demand a larger computational effort per step; low order schemes do not require such large computational costs per step, but need more steps per trajectory. So there is a need to balance these opposing effects. In this work we introduce novel geometric numerical time integrators, namely, projection and nested force-gradient methods in order to improve the efficiency of the HMC algorithm in application to the problems of quantum field theories.

  15. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  16. A novel method for unsteady flow field segmentation based on stochastic similarity of direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu

    2018-04-01

    Recent developments in fluid dynamics research have opened up the possibility for the detailed quantitative understanding of unsteady flow fields. However, the visualization techniques currently in use generally provide only qualitative insights. A method for dividing the flow field into physically relevant regions of interest can help researchers quantify unsteady fluid behaviors. Most methods at present compare the trajectories of virtual Lagrangian particles. The time-invariant features of an unsteady flow are also frequently of interest, but the Lagrangian specification only reveals time-variant features. To address these challenges, we propose a novel method for the time-invariant spatial segmentation of an unsteady flow field. This segmentation method does not require Lagrangian particle tracking but instead quantitatively compares the stochastic models of the direction of the flow at each observed point. The proposed method is validated with several clustering tests for 3D flows past a sphere. Results show that the proposed method reveals the time-invariant, physically relevant structures of an unsteady flow.

  17. Characterizing Slow Chemical Exchange in Nucleic Acids by Carbon CEST and Low Spin-Lock Field R1ρ NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Hansen, Alexandar L.; Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of dynamic exchange between various conformational states provides essential insights into the molecular basis of many regulatory RNA functions. Here, we present an application of nucleic-acid-optimized carbon chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and low spin-lock field R1ρ relaxation dispersion (RD) NMR experiments in characterizing slow chemical exchange in nucleic acids that is otherwise difficult if not impossible to be quantified by the ZZ-exchange NMR experiment. We demonstrated the application on a 47-nucleotide fluoride riboswitch in the ligand-free state, for which CEST and R1ρ RD profiles of base and sugar carbons revealed slow exchange dynamics involving a sparsely populated (p ~ 10%) and shortly lived (τ ~ 10 ms) NMR “invisible” state. The utility of CEST and low spin-lock field R1ρ RD experiments in studying slow exchange was further validated in characterizing an exchange as slow as ~60 s−1. PMID:24299272

  18. Characterizing slow chemical exchange in nucleic acids by carbon CEST and low spin-lock field R(1ρ) NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Hansen, Alexandar L; Zhang, Qi

    2014-01-08

    Quantitative characterization of dynamic exchange between various conformational states provides essential insights into the molecular basis of many regulatory RNA functions. Here, we present an application of nucleic-acid-optimized carbon chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and low spin-lock field R(1ρ) relaxation dispersion (RD) NMR experiments in characterizing slow chemical exchange in nucleic acids that is otherwise difficult if not impossible to be quantified by the ZZ-exchange NMR experiment. We demonstrated the application on a 47-nucleotide fluoride riboswitch in the ligand-free state, for which CEST and R(1ρ) RD profiles of base and sugar carbons revealed slow exchange dynamics involving a sparsely populated (p ~ 10%) and shortly lived (τ ~ 10 ms) NMR "invisible" state. The utility of CEST and low spin-lock field R(1ρ) RD experiments in studying slow exchange was further validated in characterizing an exchange as slow as ~60 s(-1).

  19. Preliminary research on finite difference method to solve radon field distribution over sandstone-type uranium ore body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bihong; Shuang Na; Liu Qingcheng

    2006-01-01

    The principle of finite difference method is introduced, and the radon field distribution over sandstone-type uranium deposit is narrated. The radon field distribution theory equation is established. To solve radon field distribution equation using finite difference algorithm is to provide the value computational method for forward calculation about radon field over sandstone-type uranium mine. Study on 2-D finite difference method on the center of either high anomaly radon fields in view of the character of radon field over sandstone-type uranium provide an algorithm for further research. (authors)

  20. Process system and method for fabricating submicron field emission cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.

    1998-01-01

    A process method and system for making field emission cathodes exists. The deposition source divergence is controlled to produce field emission cathodes with height-to-base aspect ratios that are uniform over large substrate surface areas while using very short source-to-substrate distances. The rate of hole closure is controlled from the cone source. The substrate surface is coated in well defined increments. The deposition source is apertured to coat pixel areas on the substrate. The entire substrate is coated using a manipulator to incrementally move the whole substrate surface past the deposition source. Either collimated sputtering or evaporative deposition sources can be used. The position of the aperture and its size and shape are used to control the field emission cathode size and shape.

  1. Field Measurements to Characterize Turbulent Inflow for Marine Hydrokinetic Devices - Marrowstone Island, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, M. C.; Thomson, J. M.; Durgesh, V.; Polagye, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Field measurements are essential for developing an improved understanding of turbulent inflow conditions that affect the design and operation of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The Marrowstone Island site in Puget Sound, Washington State is a potential location for installing MHK devices, as it experiences strong tides and associated currents. Here, field measurements from Nodule Point on the eastern side of Marrowstone Island are used to characterize the turbulence in terms of velocity variance as a function of length and time scales. The field measurements were performed using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) instruments. Both were deployed on a bottom-mounted tripod at the site by the Applied Physics Lab at the University of Washington (APL-UW). The ADV acquired single point, temporally resolved velocity data from 17-21 Feb 2011, at a height of 4.6 m above the seabed at a sampling frequency of 32 Hz. The ADCP measured the velocity profile over the water column from a height of 2.6 m above the seabed up to the sea-surface in 36 bins, with each bin of 0.5 m size. The ADCP acquired data from 11-27 Feb 2011 at a sampling frequency of 2 Hz. Analysis of the ADV measurements shows distinct dynamic regions by scale: anisotropic eddies at large scales, an isotropic turbulent cascade (-5/3 slope in frequency spectra) at mesoscales, and contamination by Doppler noise at small scales. While Doppler noise is an order of magnitude greater for the ADCP measurements, the turbulence bulk statistics are consistent between the two instruments. There are significant variations in turbulence statistics with stage of the tidal currents (i.e., from slack to non-slack tidal conditions), however an average turbulent intensity of 10% is a robust, canonical value for this site. The ADCP velocity profiles are useful in quantifying the variability in velocity along the water column, and the ensemble averaged velocity profiles may be

  2. Towards a method to characterize temporary groundwater dynamics during droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorfer, Benedikt; Stahl, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    In order to improve our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in the development, propagation and termination of drought events, a major challenge is to grasp the role of groundwater systems. Research on how groundwater responds to meteorological drought events (i.e. short-term climate anomalies) is still limited. Part of the problem is that there is as yet no generic method to characterize the response of different groundwater systems to extreme climate anomalies. In order to explore possibilities for such a methodology, we evaluate two statistical approaches to characterize groundwater dynamics on short time scales by applying them on observed groundwater head data from different pre- and peri-mountainous groundwater systems in humid central Europe (Germany). The first method is based on the coefficient of variation in moving windows of various lengths, the second method is based on streamflow recession characteristics applied on groundwater data. With these methods, the gauges behavior during low head events and its response to precipitation was explored. Findings regarding the behavior of the gauges make it possible to distinguish between gauges with a dominance of cyclic patterns, and gauges with a dominance of patterns on seasonal or event scale (commonly referred to as slow/fast responding gauges, respectively). While some clues on what factors that might control these patterns are present, the specific controls are general unclear for the gauges in this study. However as the key conclusion stands the question if the variety of manifestations of groundwater dynamics, as they occur in real systems, is subsumable with one unique method. Further studies on the topic are in progress.

  3. An Equivalent Source Method for Modelling the Global Lithospheric Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kother, Livia Kathleen; Hammer, Magnus Danel; Finlay, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We present a new technique for modelling the global lithospheric magnetic field at Earth's surface based on the estimation of equivalent potential field sources. As a demonstration we show an application to magnetic field measurements made by the CHAMP satellite during the period 2009-2010 when...... are also employed to minimize the influence of the ionospheric field. The model for the remaining lithospheric magnetic field consists of magnetic point sources (monopoles) arranged in an icosahedron grid. The corresponding source values are estimated using an iteratively reweighted least squares algorithm...... in the CHAOS-4 and MF7 models using more conventional spherical harmonic based approaches. Advantages of the equivalent source method include its local nature, allowing e.g. for regional grid refinement, and the ease of transforming to spherical harmonics when needed. Future applications will make use of Swarm...

  4. An efficient and accurate method for calculating nonlinear diffraction beam fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyun Jo; Cho, Sung Jong; Nam, Ki Woong; Lee, Jang Hyun [Division of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    This study develops an efficient and accurate method for calculating nonlinear diffraction beam fields propagating in fluids or solids. The Westervelt equation and quasilinear theory, from which the integral solutions for the fundamental and second harmonics can be obtained, are first considered. A computationally efficient method is then developed using a multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) model that easily separates the diffraction effects from the plane wave solution. The MGB models provide accurate beam fields when compared with the integral solutions for a number of transmitter-receiver geometries. These models can also serve as fast, powerful modeling tools for many nonlinear acoustics applications, especially in making diffraction corrections for the nonlinearity parameter determination, because of their computational efficiency and accuracy.

  5. Method for confining the magnetic field of the cross-tail current inside the magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirelis, T.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Stern, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for analytically representing the magnetic field due to the cross-tail current and its closure on the magnetopause. It is an extension of a method used by Tsyganenko (1989b) to confine the dipole field inside an ellipsoidal magnetopause using a scalar potential. Given a model of the cross-tail current, the implied net magnetic field is obtained by adding to the cross-tail current field a potential field B = - del gamma, which makes all field lines divide into two disjoint groups, separated by the magnetopause (i.e., the combined field is made to have zero normal component with the magnetopause). The magnetopause is assumed to be an ellipsoid of revolution (a prolate spheroid) as an approximation to observations (Sibeck et al., 1991). This assumption permits the potential gamma to be expressed in spheroidal coordinates, expanded in spheroidal harmonics and its terms evaluated by performing inversion integrals. Finally, the field outside the magnetopause is replaced by zero, resulting in a consistent current closure along the magnetopause. This procedure can also be used to confine the modeled field of any other interior magnetic source, though the model current must always flow in closed circuits. The method is demonstrated on the T87 cross-tail current, examples illustrate the effect of changing the size and shape of the prescribed magnetopause and a comparison is made to an independent numerical scheme based on the Biot-Savart equation.

  6. Operator algebras and conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbiani, F.; Froehlich, J.

    1993-01-01

    We define and study two-dimensional, chiral conformal field theory by the methods of algebraic field theory. We start by characterizing the vacuum sectors of such theories and show that, under very general hypotheses, their algebras of local observables are isomorphic to the unique hyperfinite type III 1 factor. The conformal net determined by the algebras of local observables is proven to satisfy Haag duality. The representation of the Moebius group (and presumably of the entire Virasoro algebra) on the vacuum sector of a conformal field theory is uniquely determined by the Tomita-Takesaki modular operators associated with its vacuum state and its conformal net. We then develop the theory of Mebius covariant representations of a conformal net, using methods of Doplicher, Haag and Roberts. We apply our results to the representation theory of loop groups. Our analysis is motivated by the desire to find a 'background-independent' formulation of conformal field theories. (orig.)

  7. Three-dimensional wake field analysis by boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, K.

    1987-01-01

    A computer code HERTPIA was developed for the calculation of electromagnetic wake fields excited by charged particles travelling through arbitrarily shaped accelerating cavities. This code solves transient wave problems for a Hertz vector. The numerical analysis is based on the boundary element method. This program is validated by comparing its results with analytical solutions in a pill-box cavity

  8. Comparison of field screening techniques with fuel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopp, C.; Turriff, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison of four field screening techniques. Field screenings, is an important part of conducting cost-effective and comprehensive site investigations. Regulators limit the use of field screening in lieu of laboratory analyses, in part, because there is little information on the accuracy and precision of field screening techniques. The results here represent a step forward towards a better understanding of the accuracy and practicality of field screening methods. The authors hope that the role of field screening in site investigation will increase as this type of information becomes more available. Innovative techniques for homogenizing soils were used to allow simultaneous analysis of hydrocarbon contaminated soils using field GCs, immunoassays, ''jar headspace'' and ''Lab in a Bag.'' The results shown here illustrate the variability of field screening results and the importance of good method development and operator competency. Certainly more work in this area is needed to truly characterize field screening techniques

  9. Finite-State Mean-Field Games, Crowd Motion Problems, and its Numerical Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Machado Velho, Roberto

    2017-09-10

    In this dissertation, we present two research projects, namely finite-state mean-field games and the Hughes model for the motion of crowds. In the first part, we describe finite-state mean-field games and some applications to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community and the consumer choice behavior in a free market. The corresponding finite-state mean-field game models are hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, for which we propose and validate a new numerical method. Next, we consider the dual formulation to two-state mean-field games, and we discuss numerical methods for these problems. We then depict different computational experiments, exhibiting a variety of behaviors, including shock formation, lack of invertibility, and monotonicity loss. We conclude the first part of this dissertation with an investigation of the shock structure for two-state problems. In the second part, we consider a model for the movement of crowds proposed by R. Hughes in [56] and describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an Eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. We first establish a priori estimates for the solutions. Next, we consider radial solutions, and we identify a shock formation mechanism. Subsequently, we illustrate the existence of congestion, the breakdown of the model, and the trend to the equilibrium. We also propose a new numerical method for the solution of Fokker-Planck equations and then to systems of PDEs composed by a Fokker-Planck equation and a potential type equation. Finally, we illustrate the use of the numerical method both to the Hughes model and mean-field games. We also depict cases such as the evacuation of a room and the movement of persons around Kaaba (Saudi Arabia).

  10. Influence of 3D particle shape on the mechanical behaviour through a novel characterization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouhbi Noura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of the mechanical behaviour of railway ballast to particle shape variation is studied through Discrete Element Method (DEM numerical simulations, focusing on some basic parameters such as solid fraction, coordination number, or force distribution. We present an innovative method to characterize 3D particle shape using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD of scanned ballast grains with a high accuracy. The method enables not only shape characterization but also the generation of 3D distinct and angular shapes. Algorithms are designed for face and edge recognition.

  11. ATLAS-TPX: a two-layer pixel detector setup for neutron detection and radiation field characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.; Caicedo, I.; Pospisil, S.; Vykydal, Z.; Leroy, C.

    2016-01-01

    A two-layer pixel detector setup (ATLAS-TPX), designed for thermal and fast neutron detection and radiation field characterization is presented. It consists of two segmented silicon detectors (256 × 256 pixels, pixel pitch 55 μm, thicknesses 300 μm and 500 μm) facing each other. To enhance the neutron detection efficiency a set of converter layers is inserted in between these detectors. The pixelation and the two-layer design allow a discrimination of neutrons against γs by pattern recognition and against charged particles by using the coincidence and anticoincidence information. The neutron conversion and detection efficiencies are measured in a thermal neutron field and fast neutron fields with energies up to 600 MeV. A Geant4 simulation model is presented, which is validated against the measured detector responses. The reliability of the coincidence and anticoincidence technique is demonstrated and possible applications of the detector setup are briefly outlined.

  12. Dynamic Time Warping Distance Method for Similarity Test of Multipoint Ground Motion Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingmin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reasonability of artificial multi-point ground motions and the identification of abnormal records in seismic array observations, are two important issues in application and analysis of multi-point ground motion fields. Based on the dynamic time warping (DTW distance method, this paper discusses the application of similarity measurement in the similarity analysis of simulated multi-point ground motions and the actual seismic array records. Analysis results show that the DTW distance method not only can quantitatively reflect the similarity of simulated ground motion field, but also offers advantages in clustering analysis and singularity recognition of actual multi-point ground motion field.

  13. Filtration Characterization Method as Tool to Assess Membrane Bioreactor Sludge Filterability—The Delft Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lousada-Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and removal of fouling is often the most energy intensive process in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs, responsible for 40% to 50% of the total specific energy consumed in submerged MBRs. In the past decade, methods were developed to quantify and qualify fouling, aiming to support optimization in MBR operation. Therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the lessons learned and how to proceed. In this article, five different methods for measuring MBR activated sludge filterability and critical flux are described, commented and evaluated. Both parameters characterize the fouling potential in full-scale MBRs. The article focuses on the Delft Filtration Characterization method (DFCm as a convenient tool to characterize sludge properties, namely on data processing, accuracy, reproducibility, reliability, and applicability, defining the boundaries of the DFCm. Significant progress was made concerning fouling measurements in particular by using straight forward approaches focusing on the applicability of the obtained results. Nevertheless, a fouling measurement method is still to be defined which is capable of being unequivocal, concerning the fouling parameters definitions; practical and simple, in terms of set-up and operation; broad and useful, in terms of obtained results. A step forward would be the standardization of the aforementioned method to assess the sludge filtration quality.

  14. NMR system and method having a permanent magnet providing a rotating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Ross D [Berkeley, CA; Budinger, Thomas F [Berkeley, CA

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for generating a rotating magnetic field. The rotating magnetic field can be used to obtain rotating-field NMR spectra, such as magic angle spinning spectra, without having to physically rotate the sample. This result allows magic angle spinning NMR to be conducted on biological samples such as live animals, including humans.

  15. Determination of the maximum-depth to potential field sources by a maximum structural index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, M.; Florio, G.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and fast determination of the limiting depth to the sources may represent a significant help to the data interpretation. To this end we explore the possibility of determining those source parameters shared by all the classes of models fitting the data. One approach is to determine the maximum depth-to-source compatible with the measured data, by using for example the well-known Bott-Smith rules. These rules involve only the knowledge of the field and its horizontal gradient maxima, and are independent from the density contrast. Thanks to the direct relationship between structural index and depth to sources we work out a simple and fast strategy to obtain the maximum depth by using the semi-automated methods, such as Euler deconvolution or depth-from-extreme-points method (DEXP). The proposed method consists in estimating the maximum depth as the one obtained for the highest allowable value of the structural index (Nmax). Nmax may be easily determined, since it depends only on the dimensionality of the problem (2D/3D) and on the nature of the analyzed field (e.g., gravity field or magnetic field). We tested our approach on synthetic models against the results obtained by the classical Bott-Smith formulas and the results are in fact very similar, confirming the validity of this method. However, while Bott-Smith formulas are restricted to the gravity field only, our method is applicable also to the magnetic field and to any derivative of the gravity and magnetic field. Our method yields a useful criterion to assess the source model based on the (∂f/∂x)max/fmax ratio. The usefulness of the method in real cases is demonstrated for a salt wall in the Mississippi basin, where the estimation of the maximum depth agrees with the seismic information.

  16. Application of an analytical method for the field calculation in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.

    1983-01-01

    Superconducting magnets are taking on ever-growing importance due to their increasing prospects of utilization in electrical machines, nuclear fusion, MHD conversion and high-energy physics. These magnets are generally composed of cylindrical or saddle coils, while a ferromagnetic shield is generally situated outside them. This paper uses an analytical method for calculating the magnetic field at every point in a superconducting magnet composed of cylindrical or saddle coils. The method takes into account the real lengths and finite thickness of the coils as well as their radial and axial ferromagnetic shields, if present. The values and distribution of the flux density for some superconducting magnets of high dimensions and high magnetic field, composed of cylindrical or saddle coils, are also given. The results obtained with analytical method are compared with those obtained using numerical methods

  17. Method and apparatus for wavefront sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Seung-Whan

    2018-03-20

    A method for performing optical wavefront sensing includes providing an amplitude transmission mask having a light input side, a light output side, and an optical transmission axis passing from the light input side to the light output side. The amplitude transmission mask is characterized by a checkerboard pattern having a square unit cell of size .LAMBDA.. The method also includes directing an incident light field having a wavelength $ \\lamda $ to be incident on the light input side and propagating the incident light field through the amplitude transmission mask. The method further includes producing a plurality of diffracted light fields on the light output side and detecting, at a detector disposed a distance L from the amplitude transmission mask, an interferogram associated with the plurality of diffracted light fields.

  18. Frequency Methods Applied to the Characterization of the Thermophysical Properties of a Granular Material with a Cylindrical Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Olivier; Defer, Didier; Antczak, Emmanuel; Chartier, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    In many fields, such as in the agri-food industry or in the building industry, it is important to be able to monitor the thermophysical properties of granular materials. Regular thermal probes allow for the determination of one or several thermophysical factors. The success of the method used depends in part on the nature of the signal sent, on the type of physical model applied and eventually on the type of probe used and its implantation in the material. Although efficacious for most applications, regular thermal probes do present some limitations. It is the case, for example, when one has to know precisely the thermal contact resistance or the nature of the signal sent. In this article is presented a characterization method based on thermal impedance formalism. This method allows for the determination of the thermal conductivity, the thermal diffusivity, and the contact thermal resistance in one single test. The application of this method requires the use of a specific probe developed to enable measurement of heat flux and temperature at the interface of the probe and the studied material. Its practical application is presented for dry sand.

  19. A brain MRI bias field correction method created in the Gaussian multi-scale space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingsheng; Qin, Mingxin

    2017-07-01

    A pre-processing step is needed to correct for the bias field signal before submitting corrupted MR images to such image-processing algorithms. This study presents a new bias field correction method. The method creates a Gaussian multi-scale space by the convolution of the inhomogeneous MR image with a two-dimensional Gaussian function. In the multi-Gaussian space, the method retrieves the image details from the differentiation of the original image and convolution image. Then, it obtains an image whose inhomogeneity is eliminated by the weighted sum of image details in each layer in the space. Next, the bias field-corrected MR image is retrieved after the Υ correction, which enhances the contrast and brightness of the inhomogeneity-eliminated MR image. We have tested the approach on T1 MRI and T2 MRI with varying bias field levels and have achieved satisfactory results. Comparison experiments with popular software have demonstrated superior performance of the proposed method in terms of quantitative indices, especially an improvement in subsequent image segmentation.

  20. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  1. Size characterization by Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation of silica particles used as food additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contado, Catia; Ravani, Laura; Passarella, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Four types of SiO 2 particles were characterized by SdFFF, PCS and EM techniques. •Clusters of 10 nm nanoparticles were found in some SiO 2 samples. •A method was set up to extract SiO 2 particles from food matrices. •The effects of the carrier solution composition on SdFFF separations were evaluated. •Particle size distributions were obtained from SiO 2 particles extracted from foodstuffs. -- Abstract: Four types of SiO 2 , available on the market as additives in food and personal care products, were size characterized using Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF), SEM, TEM and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). The synergic use of the different analytical techniques made it possible, for some samples, to confirm the presence of primary nanoparticles (10 nm) organized in clusters or aggregates of different dimension and, for others, to discover that the available information is incomplete, particularly that regarding the presence of small particles. A protocol to extract the silica particles from a simple food matrix was set up, enriching (0.25%, w w −1 ) a nearly silica-free instant barley coffee powder with a known SiO 2 sample. The SdFFF technique, in conjunction with SEM observations, made it possible to identify the added SiO 2 particles and verify the new particle size distribution. The SiO 2 content of different powdered foodstuffs was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS); the concentrations ranged between 0.006 and 0.35% (w w −1 ). The protocol to isolate the silica particles was so applied to the most SiO 2 -rich commercial products and the derived suspensions were separated by SdFFF; SEM and TEM observations supported the size analyses while GFAAS determinations on collected fractions permitted element identification

  2. Overview of the most commonly used methods in allergen characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANJA CIRKOVIC VELICKOVIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of an allergen is a troublesome and difficult process, as it requires both the precise biochemical characterization of a (glycoprotein molecule and the establishment of its susceptibility to IgE antibodies, as they are themain link to histamine release in some hypersensitivity states (type I allergies. As the characterization of an allergen includes molecular weight determination of the allergenic molecule, its structure determination, physicochemical properties, IgE binding properties of the allergen molecule, and its allergenicity, an overal review of which biochemical and immunochemical methods are used in achieving this goal are presented in this paper. The information on the molecular level on the stuctures of allergens indicates that allergens are considerably heterogeneous protein structures, and that there is no particular aminoacid sequence which is responsible for the allergenicity. Therefore, information gained from detailed structural, functional and immunochemical studies of these intriguing molecules, which nowadaysmodulate a variety of pathophysiological conditions, would greatly improve our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms, and the way to handle them.

  3. Current measurement method for characterization of fast switching power semiconductors with Silicon Steel Current Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel current measurement method with Silicon Steel Current Transformer (SSCT) for the characterization of fast switching power semiconductors. First, the existing current sensors for characterization of fast switching power semiconductors are experimentally evaluated...

  4. Characterization of nephelium mutabile blume-like structure of carbon nanotubes prepared from palm oil by CVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam, M.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Rusop, M.

    2017-09-01

    A new structure of carbon nanotube was produced from the Single furnace Aerosol-assisted Catalytic CVD (SFAACVD) method using Palm Oil (PO) as the precursor and Ferrocene (Fe) as the catalyst. A nephelium mutabile blume (rambutan)-like structure of CNTs was found from the black substance collected from the Alumina boat substrate placed inside the furnace. Temperature of furnace which was heated at 600 °C - 800 °C plays an important role in determining the formation of structure. The formation rambutan-like structure of CNTs was optimized at 700 °C and the samples collected were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) to obtain the surface morphologies. Raman Spectroscopy (RS) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were then used to further study the Raman Spectra and purity of samples.

  5. Characterizing Sorghum Panicles using 3D Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonesome, M.; Popescu, S. C.; Horne, D. W.; Pugh, N. A.; Rooney, W.

    2017-12-01

    To address demands of population growth and impacts of global climate change, plant breeders must increase crop yield through genetic improvement. However, plant phenotyping, the characterization of a plant's physical attributes, remains a primary bottleneck in modern crop improvement programs. 3D point clouds generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) based structure from motion (SfM) are a promising data source to increase the efficiency of screening plant material in breeding programs. This study develops and evaluates methods for characterizing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) panicles (heads) in field plots from both TLS and UAS-based SfM point clouds. The TLS point cloud over experimental sorghum field at Texas A&M farm in Burleston County TX were collected using a FARO Focus X330 3D laser scanner. SfM point cloud was generated from UAS imagery captured using a Phantom 3 Professional UAS at 10m altitude and 85% image overlap. The panicle detection method applies point cloud reflectance, height and point density attributes characteristic of sorghum panicles to detect them and estimate their dimensions (panicle length and width) through image classification and clustering procedures. We compare the derived panicle counts and panicle sizes with field-based and manually digitized measurements in selected plots and study the strengths and limitations of each data source for sorghum panicle characterization.

  6. Characterization of nanostructured Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films grown by SILAR method at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubale, A.U., E-mail: ashokuu@yahoo.com [Nanostructure Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, VMV Road, Amravati 444604, Maharashtra (India); Belkhedkar, M.R. [Department of Physics, Shri Shivaji College, Akola 444003, Maharashtra (India); Sakhare, Y.S. [Nanostructure Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, VMV Road, Amravati 444604, Maharashtra (India); Singh, Arvind [National Centre for Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Santacruz, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Gurada, Chetan; Kothari, D.C. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Santacruz, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2012-10-15

    A novel successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method has been successfully employed to grow nanostructured conducting nearly transparent thin films of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} on to glass substrates at room temperature using MnCl{sub 2} and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors. The structural and morphological characterizations of the as deposited Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} films have been carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrograph (FESEM), EDAX, Atomic Fore Microscopy (AFM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FTIR) analysis. The optical absorption and electrical resistivity measurements were carried out to investigate optical band gap and activation energy of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} films deposited by SILAR method. The optical band gap and activation energy of the as deposited film is found to be 2.70 and 0.14 eV respectively. The thermo-emf measurements of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin film confirm its p-type semiconducting nature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin film is prepared by SILAR method at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film is nanocrystalline with orthorhombic structure of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The XRD, FTIR, FESEM, EDX and AFM characterization confirms nanocrystalline nature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical band gap, electrical resistivity and activation energy of film is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thermo-emf measurement confirms p-type conductivity of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} films.

  7. Investigation by perturbative and analytical method of electronic properties of square quantum well under electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal BAHAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of applied electric field on the isolated square quantum well was investigated by analytic and perturbative method. The energy eigen values and wave functions in quantum well were found by perturbative method. Later, the electric field effects were investigated by analytic method, the results of perturbative and analytic method were compared. As well as both of results fit with each other, it was observed that externally applied electric field changed importantly electronic properties of the system.

  8. Elementary methods for statistical systems, mean field, large-n, and duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzykson, C.

    1983-01-01

    Renormalizable field theories are singled out by such precise restraints that regularization schemes must be used to break these invariances. Statistical methods can be adapted to these problems where asymptotically free models fail. This lecture surveys approximation schemes developed in the context of statistical mechanics. The confluence point of statistical mechanics and field theory is the use of discretized path integrals, where continuous space time has been replaced by a regular lattice. Dynamic variables, a Boltzman weight factor, and boundary conditions are the ingredients. Mean field approximations --field equations, Random field transform, and gauge invariant systems--are surveyed. Under Large-N limits vector models are found to simplify tremendously. The reasons why matrix models drawn from SU (n) gauge theories do not simplify are discussed. In the epilogue, random curves versus random surfaces are offered as an example where global and local symmetries are not alike

  9. On Jacobi-fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruening, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a Jacobi-field is introduced as such a field for which the field-operators have the form of a generalized Jacobi-matrix with respect to the n-field-sector decomposition of the state-space. It is argued that the class of Jacobi-fields is of interest for relativistic quantum field theory for two reasons: (a) Jacobi-fields allow a direct association of particles (charges etc.) with fields. The concept of (generalized) creation- and annihilation-operators is thus available. (b) Jacobi-fields belong to that class of fields which can be characterized in terms of finitely many vacuum expectation values. A characterization of Jacobi-fields in terms of continuity and hermiticity properties of their system of vacuum expectation values is derived. Furthermore it is argued that all examples of relativistic quantum fields in a four-dimensional space-time are Jacobi-fields. This is evident for generalized free fields and Wick-powers of free fields, but is also true for a class of generalized Wick-powers of generalized free fields. (Auth.)

  10. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring

  11. FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR SOLVING THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paţiuc V.I.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a new approach to finite volume method which is used to calculate the electric field spatially homogeneous three-dimensional environment. It is formulated the problem Dirihle with building of the computational grid on base of space partition, which is known as Delone triangulation with the use of Voronoi cells. It is proposed numerical algorithm for calculating the potential and electric field strength in the space formed by a cylinder placed in the air. It is developed algorithm and software which were for the case, when the potential on the inner surface of the cylinder has been assigned and on the outer surface and the bottom of cylinder it was assigned zero potential. There are presented results of calculations of distribution in the potential space and electric field strength.

  12. Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

    2012-12-21

    Within the Illinois Basin, most of the oilfields are mature and have been extensively waterflooded with water cuts that range up to 99% in many of the larger fields. In order to maximize production of significant remaining mobile oil from these fields, new recovery techniques need to be researched and applied. The purpose of this project was to conduct reservoir characterization studies supporting Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Floods in two distinct sandstone reservoirs in Lawrence Field, Lawrence County, Illinois. A project using alkaline-surfactantpolymer (ASP) has been established in the century old Lawrence Field in southeastern Illinois where original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at over a billion barrels and 400 million barrels have been recovered leaving more than 600 million barrels as an EOR target. Radial core flood analysis using core from the field demonstrated recoveries greater than 20% of OOIP. While the lab results are likely optimistic to actual field performance, the ASP tests indicate that substantial reserves could be recovered even if the field results are 5 to 10% of OOIP. Reservoir characterization is a key factor in the success of any EOR application. Reservoirs within the Illinois Basin are frequently characterized as being highly compartmentalized resulting in multiple flow unit configurations. The research conducted on Lawrence Field focused on characteristics that define reservoir compartmentalization in order to delineate preferred target areas so that the chemical flood can be designed and implemented for the greatest recovery potential. Along with traditional facies mapping, core analyses and petrographic analyses, conceptual geological models were constructed and used to develop 3D geocellular models, a valuable tool for visualizing reservoir architecture and also a prerequisite for reservoir simulation modeling. Cores were described and potential permeability barriers were correlated using geophysical logs. Petrographic analyses

  13. Reconstructing the Initial Density Field of the Local Universe: Methods and Tests with Mock Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Yang, Xiaohu; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2013-07-01

    Our research objective in this paper is to reconstruct an initial linear density field, which follows the multivariate Gaussian distribution with variances given by the linear power spectrum of the current cold dark matter model and evolves through gravitational instabilities to the present-day density field in the local universe. For this purpose, we develop a Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to obtain the linear density field from a posterior probability function that consists of two components: a prior of a Gaussian density field with a given linear spectrum and a likelihood term that is given by the current density field. The present-day density field can be reconstructed from galaxy groups using the method developed in Wang et al. Using a realistic mock Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, obtained by populating dark matter halos in the Millennium simulation (MS) with galaxies, we show that our method can effectively and accurately recover both the amplitudes and phases of the initial, linear density field. To examine the accuracy of our method, we use N-body simulations to evolve these reconstructed initial conditions to the present day. The resimulated density field thus obtained accurately matches the original density field of the MS in the density range 0.3 \\lesssim \\rho /\\bar{\\rho } \\lesssim 20 without any significant bias. In particular, the Fourier phases of the resimulated density fields are tightly correlated with those of the original simulation down to a scale corresponding to a wavenumber of ~1 h Mpc-1, much smaller than the translinear scale, which corresponds to a wavenumber of ~0.15 h Mpc-1.

  14. Molecular characterization of field infectious bursal disease virus isolates from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma O. Nwagbo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV from outbreaks in nine states in Nigeria through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and sequence analysis of portions of the VP2 and VP1 genes and to determine the presence or absence of reassortant viruses. Materials and Methods: A total of 377 bursa samples were collected from 201 suspected IBD outbreaks during 2009 to 2014 from nine states in Nigeria. Samples were subjected to RT-PCR using VP2 and VP1 gene specific primers, and the resulting PCR products were sequenced. Results: A total of 143 samples were positive for IBDV by RT-PCR. These assays amplified a 743 bp fragment from nt 701 to 1444 in the IBDV VP2 hypervariable region (hvVP2 of segment A and a 722 bp fragment from nt 168 to 889 in the VP1 gene of segment B. RT-PCR products were sequenced, aligned and compared with reference IBDV sequences obtained from GenBank. All but one hvVP2 sequence showed similarity to very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV reference strains, yet only 3 of the VP1 67 VP1 sequences showed similarity to the VP1 gene of vvIBDV. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new lineage of Nigerian reassortant IBDV strains. Conclusion: Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of genome segment A and B of IBDV in Nigeria confirmed the existence of vvIBDV in Nigeria. In addition, we noted the existence of reassortant IBDV strains with novel triplet amino acid motifs at positions 145, 146 and 147 in the reassorted Nigerian IBDV.

  15. Stress Characterization of 4H-SiC Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) using Raman Spectroscopy and the Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Kosaka, Kenichi; Seki, Hirohumi; Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2016-07-01

    We measured the depolarized and polarized Raman spectra of a 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and found that compressive stress of approximately 20 MPa occurs under the source and gate electrodes and tensile stress of approximately 10 MPa occurs between the source and gate electrodes. The experimental result was in close agreement with the result obtained by calculation using the finite element method (FEM). A combination of Raman spectroscopy and FEM provides much data on the stresses in 4H-SiC MOSFET. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Transverse Space-Charge Field-Induced Plasma Dynamics for Ultraintense Electron-Beam Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tarkeshian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Similarly to laser or x-ray beams, the interaction of sufficiently intense particle beams with neutral gases will result in the creation of plasma. In contrast to photon-based ionization, the strong unipolar field of a particle beam can generate a plasma where the electron population receives a large initial momentum kick and escapes, leaving behind unshielded ions. Measuring the properties of the ensuing Coulomb exploding ions—such as their kinetic energy distribution, yield, and spatial distribution—can provide information about the peak electric fields that are achieved in the electron beams. Particle-in-cell simulations and analytical models are presented for high-brightness electron beams of a few femtoseconds or even hundreds of attoseconds, and transverse beam sizes on the micron scale, as generated by today’s free electron lasers. Different density regimes for the utilization as a potential diagnostics are explored, and the fundamental differences in plasma dynamical behavior for e-beam or photon-based ionization are highlighted. By measuring the dynamics of field-induced ions for different gas and beam densities, a lower bound on the beam charge density can be obtained in a single shot and in a noninvasive way. The exponential dependency of the ionization yield on the beam properties can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution, at the submicrometer and subfemtosecond scales, respectively, offering a practical and powerful approach to characterizing beams from accelerators at the frontiers of performance.

  17. A high precision extrapolation method in multiphase-field model for simulating dendrite growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cong; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng

    2018-05-01

    The phase-field method coupling with thermodynamic data has become a trend for predicting the microstructure formation in technical alloys. Nevertheless, the frequent access to thermodynamic database and calculation of local equilibrium conditions can be time intensive. The extrapolation methods, which are derived based on Taylor expansion, can provide approximation results with a high computational efficiency, and have been proven successful in applications. This paper presents a high precision second order extrapolation method for calculating the driving force in phase transformation. To obtain the phase compositions, different methods in solving the quasi-equilibrium condition are tested, and the M-slope approach is chosen for its best accuracy. The developed second order extrapolation method along with the M-slope approach and the first order extrapolation method are applied to simulate dendrite growth in a Ni-Al-Cr ternary alloy. The results of the extrapolation methods are compared with the exact solution with respect to the composition profile and dendrite tip position, which demonstrate the high precision and efficiency of the newly developed algorithm. To accelerate the phase-field and extrapolation computation, the graphic processing unit (GPU) based parallel computing scheme is developed. The application to large-scale simulation of multi-dendrite growth in an isothermal cross-section has demonstrated the ability of the developed GPU-accelerated second order extrapolation approach for multiphase-field model.

  18. Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin: reservoir characterization for improved well completion and oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Morgan, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    Bluefield Field is the largest oil-producing area in the Unita basin of northern Utah. The field inclucdes over 300 wells and has produced 137 Mbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10 500-13 000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta Basin withi reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.Bluebell field is the largest oil-producing area in the Uinta basin of northern Utah. The field includes over 300 wells and has produced 137 MMbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine

  19. A comparison between progressive extension method (PEM) and iterative method (IM) for magnetic field extrapolations in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Sun, M. T.; Sakurai, Takashi

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between two numerical methods for the extrapolation of nonlinear force-free magnetic fields, viz the Iterative Method (IM) and the Progressive Extension Method (PEM). The advantages and disadvantages of these two methods are summarized, and the accuracy and numerical instability are discussed. On the basis of this investigation, it is claimed that the two methods do resemble each other qualitatively.

  20. Introduction to optical methods for characterizing liquid crystals at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel S; Carlton, Rebecca J; Mushenheim, Peter C; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2013-03-12

    This Instructional Review describes methods and underlying principles that can be used to characterize both the orientations assumed spontaneously by liquid crystals (LCs) at interfaces and the strength with which the LCs are held in those orientations (so-called anchoring energies). The application of these methods to several different classes of LC interfaces is described, including solid and aqueous interfaces as well as planar and nonplanar interfaces (such as those that define a LC-in-water emulsion droplet). These methods, which enable fundamental studies of the ordering of LCs at polymeric, chemically functionalized, and biomolecular interfaces, are described in this Instructional Review on a level that can be easily understood by a nonexpert reader such as an undergraduate or graduate student. We focus on optical methods because they are based on instrumentation that is found widely in research and teaching laboratories.

  1. More than a century of bathymetric observations and present-day shallow sediment characterization in Belfast Bay, Maine, USA: implications for pockmark field longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Laura L.; Kelley, Joseph T.; Belknap, Daniel F.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Andrews, Brian D.; Maynard, Melissa Landon

    2011-08-01

    Mechanisms and timescales responsible for pockmark formation and maintenance remain uncertain, especially in areas lacking extensive thermogenic fluid deposits (e.g., previously glaciated estuaries). This study characterizes seafloor activity in the Belfast Bay, Maine nearshore pockmark field using (1) three swath bathymetry datasets collected between 1999 and 2008, complemented by analyses of shallow box-core samples for radionuclide activity and undrained shear strength, and (2) historical bathymetric data (report and smooth sheets from 1872, 1947, 1948). In addition, because repeat swath bathymetry surveys are an emerging data source, we present a selected literature review of recent studies using such datasets for seafloor change analysis. This study is the first to apply the method to a pockmark field, and characterizes macro-scale (>5 m) evolution of tens of square kilometers of highly irregular seafloor. Presence/absence analysis yielded no change in pockmark frequency or distribution over a 9-year period (1999-2008). In that time pockmarks did not detectably enlarge, truncate, elongate, or combine. Historical data indicate that pockmark chains already existed in the 19th century. Despite the lack of macroscopic changes in the field, near-bed undrained shear-strength values of less than 7 kPa and scattered downcore 137Cs signatures indicate a highly disturbed setting. Integrating these findings with independent geophysical and geochemical observations made in the pockmark field, it can be concluded that (1) large-scale sediment resuspension and dispersion related to pockmark formation and failure do not occur frequently within this field, and (2) pockmarks can persevere in a dynamic estuarine setting that exhibits minimal modern fluid venting. Although pockmarks are conventionally thought to be long-lived features maintained by a combination of fluid venting and minimal sediment accumulation, this suggests that other mechanisms may be equally active in

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles by Chemical Precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, R Aruna; Latha, M; Velumani, S; Oza, Goldie; Reyes-Figueroa, P; Rohini, M; Becerril-Juarez, I G; Lee, Jae-Hyeong; Yi, Junsin

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical precipitation method using cadmium chloride (CdCl2), sodium sulfide (Na2S) and water as a solvent by varying temperatures from 20-80 degrees C. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. XRD pattern revealed cubic crystal structure for all the synthesized CdS nanoparticles. Raman spectra showed first and second order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon vibrational modes of CdS. The size of CdS nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 15-80 nm by FE-SEM analysis, in all cases. The atomic percentage of cadmium and sulfur was confirmed to be 1:1 from EDS analysis. TEM micrograph depicts the spherical shape of the particles and the size is in the range of 15-85 nm while HR-TEM images of CdS nanoparticles exhibit well-resolved lattice fringes of the cubic structure of CdS. The optical properties of CdS were examined by UV-Visible spectroscopy which showed variation in absorption band from 460-480 nm. The band gap was calculated from the absorption edge and found to be in the range of 3.2-3.5 eV which is greater than the bulk CdS.

  3. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    soil before and during the measurement. Due to the commonly found high variability, natural or induced by land management, of the soil surface and subsurface hydrological properties, and to the limitations imposed by the requirements of water for the measurements, there is proposed a simple and handy method, which do not use high volumes of water, adaptable to very different soil and land conditions, and that allow many repeated measurements with acceptable accuracy for most of the purposes. References Pla, I., 1997. A soil water balance model for monitoring soil erosion processes and effects on steep lands in the tropics. Soil Technology. 11(1):17-30. Elsevier Pla, I., 2006. Hydrological approach for assessing desertification processes in the Mediterranean region. In W.G. Kepner et al. (Editors), Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue. 579-600 Springer. Heidelberg (Germany) Reynolds W.D., B.T. Bowman, R.R. Brunke, C.F. Drury and C.S. Tan. 2000. Comparison of Tension Infiltrometer, Pressure Infiltrometer, and Soil Core Estimates of Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity . Soil Science Society of America Journal 64:478-484 Segal, E., S.A.Bradford, P. Shouse; N. Lazarovich, and D. Corwin. 2008. Integration of Hard and Soft Data to Characterize Field-Scale Hydraulic Properties for Flow and Transport Studies. Vadose Zone J 7:878-889 Young, E. 1991. Infiltration measurements, a review. Hydrological processes 5: 309-320.

  4. Characterizing Traffic Conditions from the Perspective of Spatial-Temporal Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peichao Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conditions are usually characterized from the perspective of travel time or the average vehicle speed in the field of transportation, reflecting the congestion degree of a road network. This article provides a method from a new perspective to characterize traffic conditions; the perspective is based on the heterogeneity of vehicle speeds. A novel measurement, the ratio of areas (RA in a rank-size plot, is included in the proposed method to capture the heterogeneity. The proposed method can be performed from the perspective of both spatial heterogeneity and temporal heterogeneity, being able to characterize traffic conditions of not only a road network but also a single road. Compared with methods from the perspective of travel time, the proposed method can characterize traffic conditions at a higher frequency. Compared to methods from the perspective of the average vehicle speed, the proposed method takes account of the heterogeneity of vehicle speeds. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated with real-life traffic data of Shenzhen (a coastal urban city in China, and the advantage of the proposed RA has been verified by comparisons to similar measurements such as the ht-index and the CRG index.

  5. Testing the isotropic boundary algorithms method to evaluate the magnetic field configuration in the tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, V.A.; Malkov, M.; Mursula, K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes tests done on one model system for studying the magnetic field in the magneotail, called the isotropic boundary algorithm method. The tail field lines map into the ionosphere, and there have been two direct methods applied to study tail fields, one a global model, and the other a local model. The global models are so broad in scope that they have a hard time dealing with specific field configurations at some time and some location. Local models rely upon field measurements being simultaneously available over a large region of space to study simultaneously the field configurations. In general this is either very fortuitous or very expensive. The isotropic boundary algorithm method relys upon measuring energetic particles, here protons with energies greater than 30 keV, in the isotropic boundary at low altitudes and interpreting them as representing the boundary between stochastic and adiabatic particle motion regions in the equatorial tail current sheet. The authors have correlated particle measurements by NOAA spacecraft to study the isotropic boundary, with magnetic measurements of tail magnetic fields by the geostationary GOES 2 spacecraft. Positive correlations are observed

  6. A multi-method approach toward de novo glycan characterization: a Man-5 case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prien, Justin M; Prater, Bradley D; Cockrill, Steven L

    2010-05-01

    Regulatory agencies' expectations for biotherapeutic approval are becoming more stringent with regard to product characterization, where minor species as low as 0.1% of a given profile are typically identified. The mission of this manuscript is to demonstrate a multi-method approach toward de novo glycan characterization and quantitation, including minor species at or approaching the 0.1% benchmark. Recently, unexpected isomers of the Man(5)GlcNAc(2) (M(5)) were reported (Prien JM, Ashline DJ, Lapadula AJ, Zhang H, Reinhold VN. 2009. The high mannose glycans from bovine ribonuclease B isomer characterization by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS). J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 20:539-556). In the current study, quantitative analysis of these isomers found in commercial M(5) standard demonstrated that they are in low abundance (2-aminobenzoic acid to detect and chromatographically resolve multiple M(5) isomers in bovine ribonuclease B. With this multi-method approach, we have the capabilities to comprehensively characterize a biotherapeutic's glycan array in a de novo manner, including structural isomers at >/=0.1% of the total chromatographic peak area.

  7. σ-SCF: A direct energy-targeting method to mean-field excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hong-Zhou; Welborn, Matthew; Ricke, Nathan D; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2017-12-07

    The mean-field solutions of electronic excited states are much less accessible than ground state (e.g., Hartree-Fock) solutions. Energy-based optimization methods for excited states, like Δ-SCF (self-consistent field), tend to fall into the lowest solution consistent with a given symmetry-a problem known as "variational collapse." In this work, we combine the ideas of direct energy-targeting and variance-based optimization in order to describe excited states at the mean-field level. The resulting method, σ-SCF, has several advantages. First, it allows one to target any desired excited state by specifying a single parameter: a guess of the energy of that state. It can therefore, in principle, find all excited states. Second, it avoids variational collapse by using a variance-based, unconstrained local minimization. As a consequence, all states-ground or excited-are treated on an equal footing. Third, it provides an alternate approach to locate Δ-SCF solutions that are otherwise hardly accessible by the usual non-aufbau configuration initial guess. We present results for this new method for small atoms (He, Be) and molecules (H 2 , HF). We find that σ-SCF is very effective at locating excited states, including individual, high energy excitations within a dense manifold of excited states. Like all single determinant methods, σ-SCF shows prominent spin-symmetry breaking for open shell states and our results suggest that this method could be further improved with spin projection.

  8. σ-SCF: A direct energy-targeting method to mean-field excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hong-Zhou; Welborn, Matthew; Ricke, Nathan D.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2017-12-01

    The mean-field solutions of electronic excited states are much less accessible than ground state (e.g., Hartree-Fock) solutions. Energy-based optimization methods for excited states, like Δ-SCF (self-consistent field), tend to fall into the lowest solution consistent with a given symmetry—a problem known as "variational collapse." In this work, we combine the ideas of direct energy-targeting and variance-based optimization in order to describe excited states at the mean-field level. The resulting method, σ-SCF, has several advantages. First, it allows one to target any desired excited state by specifying a single parameter: a guess of the energy of that state. It can therefore, in principle, find all excited states. Second, it avoids variational collapse by using a variance-based, unconstrained local minimization. As a consequence, all states—ground or excited—are treated on an equal footing. Third, it provides an alternate approach to locate Δ-SCF solutions that are otherwise hardly accessible by the usual non-aufbau configuration initial guess. We present results for this new method for small atoms (He, Be) and molecules (H2, HF). We find that σ-SCF is very effective at locating excited states, including individual, high energy excitations within a dense manifold of excited states. Like all single determinant methods, σ-SCF shows prominent spin-symmetry breaking for open shell states and our results suggest that this method could be further improved with spin projection.

  9. Characterization of the neutron field of the 241AmBe in a calibration room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.

    2003-01-01

    The field of neutrons produced by an isotopic source of neutrons of 241 Am Be had been characterized. The characterization was carried out modeling those relevant details of the calibration room and simulating the neutron transport at different distances of the source. The calculated spectra were used to determine the equivalent environmental dose rate. A series of experiments were carried out with the Bonner sphere spectrometric system to measure the spectra in the same points where the calculations were carried out and with these spectra the rates of environmental dose were calculated. By means of a one sphere dosemeter type Berthold the rates of environmental dose were measured. To the one to compare the calculated spectra and measured its were found small differences in the group of the thermal neutrons due to the elementary composition used during the simulation. When comparing the derived rates starting from the calculated spectra with those measured it was found a maxim difference smaller to 13%. (Author)

  10. Characterization of chlorinated solvent contamination in limestone using innovative FLUTe® technologies in combination with other methods in a line of evidence approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Janniche, Gry Sander; Mosthaf, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones in limestone aquifers/bedrock is essential to develop accurate site-specific conceptual models and perform risk assessment. Here innovative field methods were combined to improve determination of source zone architecture......, hydrogeology and contaminant distribution. The FACT™ is a new technology and it was applied and tested at a contaminated site with a limestone aquifer, together with a number of existing methods including wire-line coring with core subsampling, FLUTe® transmissivity profiling and multilevel water sampling...... groundwater sampling (under two flow conditions) and FACT™ sampling and analysis combined with FLUTe® transmissivity profiling and modeling were used to provide a line of evidence for the presence of DNAPL, dissolved and sorbed phase contamination in the limestone fractures and matrix. The combined methods...

  11. Methods for the physical characterization and quantification of extracellular vesicles in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Déborah L M; Claudio, Virginia; Lässer, Cecilia; Bally, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Our body fluids contain a multitude of cell-derived vesicles, secreted by most cell types, commonly referred to as extracellular vesicles. They have attracted considerable attention for their function as intercellular communication vehicles in a broad range of physiological processes and pathological conditions. Extracellular vesicles and especially the smallest type, exosomes, have also generated a lot of excitement in view of their potential as disease biomarkers or as carriers for drug delivery. In this context, state-of-the-art techniques capable of comprehensively characterizing vesicles in biological fluids are urgently needed. This review presents the arsenal of techniques available for quantification and characterization of physical properties of extracellular vesicles, summarizes their working principles, discusses their advantages and limitations and further illustrates their implementation in extracellular vesicle research. The small size and physicochemical heterogeneity of extracellular vesicles make their physical characterization and quantification an extremely challenging task. Currently, structure, size, buoyant density, optical properties and zeta potential have most commonly been studied. The concentration of vesicles in suspension can be expressed in terms of biomolecular or particle content depending on the method at hand. In addition, common quantification methods may either provide a direct quantitative measurement of vesicle concentration or solely allow for relative comparison between samples. The combination of complementary methods capable of detecting, characterizing and quantifying extracellular vesicles at a single particle level promises to provide new exciting insights into their modes of action and to reveal the existence of vesicle subpopulations fulfilling key biological tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of magnetic colloids by means of magnetooptics

    OpenAIRE

    Baraban, Larysa; Erbe, Artur; Leiderer, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new, efficient method for the characterization of magnetic colloids based on the Faraday effect is proposed. According to the main principles of this technique, it is possible to detect the stray magnetic field of the colloidal particles induced inside the magnetooptical layer. The magnetic properties of individual particles can be determined providing measurements in a wide range of magnetic fields. The magnetization curves of capped colloids and paramagnetic colloids were measured by mean...

  13. Technical and economic evaluation of selected technologies of the Landfill Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floran, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    In 1992 and 1993, numerous innovative and emerging technologies for characterizing metal and mixed waste contaminants and their migration beneath landfills in and environments were field tested at Sandia`s Chemical Waste Landfill. Many of these technologies are being evaluated as part of the Landfill Characterization System (LCS). The LCS emphasizes minimally intrusive technologies and downhole sensors that strive to be cheaper, better, safer and faster than conventional methods. Major aims of the LCS are to demonstrate, test and evaluate these technologies, and determine whether substantial cost saving over traditional baseline methods can be realized. To achieve these goals, the LCS uses an integrated systems approach that stresses the application of complementary and compatible technologies. Successful field demonstrations combined with favorable economics, will greatly assist the commercialization of these technologies to the private sector and to Environmental Restoration groups throughout the DOE Complex. In this paper, a technical and economic evaluation of selected technologies that comprise the LCS is presented. Because sampling and analysis is the most costly part of a characterization effort, the economic evaluation presented here focuses specifically on these activities. LCS technologies discussed include the ``Smart Sampling Methodology`` and two field screening analytical methods, stripping voltammetry and x-ray fluorescence.

  14. Development of a shear-force scanning near-field cathodoluminescence microscope for characterization of nanostructures' optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercu, N B; Troyon, M; Molinari, M

    2016-09-01

    An original scanning near-field cathodoluminescence microscope for nanostructure characterization has been developed and successfully tested. By using a bimorph piezoelectric stack both as actuator and detector, the developed setup constitutes a real improvement compared to previously reported SEM-based solutions. The technique combines a scanning probe and a scanning electron microscope in order to simultaneously offer near-field cathodoluminescence and topographic images of the sample. Share-force topography and cathodoluminescence measurements on GaN, SiC and ZnO nanostructures using the developed setup are presented showing a nanometric resolution in both topography and cathodoluminescence images with increased sensitivity compared to classical luminescence techniques. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. Investigation of Polarization Phase Difference Related to Forest Fields Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, M.; Maghsoudi, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The information content of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data significantly included in the radiometric polarization channels, hence polarimetric SAR data should be analyzed in relation with target structure. The importance of the phase difference between two co-polarized scattered signals due to the possible association between the biophysical parameters and the measured Polarization Phase Difference (PPD) statistics of the backscattered signal recorded components has been recognized in geophysical remote sensing. This paper examines two Radarsat-2 images statistics of the phase difference to describe the feasibility of relationship with the physical properties of scattering targets and tries to understand relevance of PPD statistics with various types of forest fields. As well as variation of incidence angle due to affecting on PPD statistics is investigated. The experimental forest pieces that are used in this research are characterized white pine (Pinus strobus L.), red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.), poplar (Populus L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.) , aspen and ground vegetation. The experimental results show that despite of biophysical parameters have a wide diversity, PPD statistics are almost the same. Forest fields distributions as distributed targets have close to zero means regardless of the incidence angle. Also, The PPD distribution are function of both target and sensor parameters, but for more appropriate examination related to PPD statistics the observations should made in the leaf-off season or in bands with lower frequencies.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF POLARIZATION PHASE DIFFERENCE RELATED TO FOREST FIELDS CHARACTERIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majidi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The information content of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data significantly included in the radiometric polarization channels, hence polarimetric SAR data should be analyzed in relation with target structure. The importance of the phase difference between two co-polarized scattered signals due to the possible association between the biophysical parameters and the measured Polarization Phase Difference (PPD statistics of the backscattered signal recorded components has been recognized in geophysical remote sensing. This paper examines two Radarsat-2 images statistics of the phase difference to describe the feasibility of relationship with the physical properties of scattering targets and tries to understand relevance of PPD statistics with various types of forest fields. As well as variation of incidence angle due to affecting on PPD statistics is investigated. The experimental forest pieces that are used in this research are characterized white pine (Pinus strobus L., red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait., jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill B.S.P., poplar (Populus L., red oak (Quercus rubra L. , aspen and ground vegetation. The experimental results show that despite of biophysical parameters have a wide diversity, PPD statistics are almost the same. Forest fields distributions as distributed targets have close to zero means regardless of the incidence angle. Also, The PPD distribution are function of both target and sensor parameters, but for more appropriate examination related to PPD statistics the observations should made in the leaf-off season or in bands with lower frequencies.

  17. Obtaining source current density related to irregularly structured electromagnetic target field inside human body using hybrid inverse/FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jijun; Yang, Deqiang; Sun, Houjun; Xin, Sherman Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    Inverse method is inherently suitable for calculating the distribution of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field. However, the present form of inverse method cannot calculate complex field-tissue interactions. A novel hybrid inverse/finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method that can calculate the complex field-tissue interactions for the inverse design of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field is proposed. A Huygens' equivalent surface is established as a bridge to combine the inverse and FDTD method. Distribution of the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field on the Huygens' equivalent surface is obtained using the FDTD method by considering the complex field-tissue interactions within the human body model. The obtained magnetic field distributed on the Huygens' equivalent surface is regarded as the next target. The current density on the designated source surface is derived using the inverse method. The homogeneity of target magnetic field and specific energy absorption rate are calculated to verify the proposed method.

  18. Mitigation of Power frequency Magnetic Fields. Using Scale Invariant and Shape Optimization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, Ener; Yueqiang Liu; Daalder, Jaap; Cruz, Pedro; Antunez de Souza, Paulo Roberto Jr; Atalaya, Juan Carlos; Paula Marciano, Fabianna de; Eskinasy, Alexandre

    2006-10-15

    The present report describes the development and application of two novel methods for implementing mitigation techniques of magnetic fields at power frequencies. The first method makes use of scaling rules for electromagnetic quantities, while the second one applies a 2D shape optimization algorithm based on gradient methods. Before this project, the first method had already been successfully applied (by some of the authors of this report) to electromagnetic designs involving pure conductive Material (e.g. copper, aluminium) which implied a linear formulation. Here we went beyond this approach and tried to develop a formulation involving ferromagnetic (i.e. non-linear) Materials. Surprisingly, we obtained good equivalent replacement for test-transformers by varying the input current. In spite of the validity of this equivalence constrained to regions not too close to the source, the results can still be considered useful, as most field mitigation techniques are precisely developed for reducing the magnetic field in regions relatively far from the sources. The shape optimization method was applied in this project to calculate the optimal geometry of a pure conductive plate to mitigate the magnetic field originated from underground cables. The objective function was a weighted combination of magnetic energy at the region of interest and dissipated heat at the shielding Material. To our surprise, shapes of complex structure, difficult to interpret (and probably even harder to anticipate) were the results of the applied process. However, the practical implementation (using some approximation of these shapes) gave excellent experimental mitigation factors.

  19. Calorimetric method of ac loss measurement in a rotating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshal, P. K. [Oxford Instruments NanoScience, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX13 5QX (United Kingdom); Coombs, T. A.; Campbell, A. M. [Department of Engineering, Electrical Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    A method is described for calorimetric ac-loss measurements of high-T{sub c} superconductors (HTS) at 80 K. It is based on a technique used at 4.2 K for conventional superconducting wires that allows an easy loss measurement in parallel or perpendicular external field orientation. This paper focuses on ac loss measurement setup and calibration in a rotating magnetic field. This experimental setup is to demonstrate measuring loss using a temperature rise method under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. The slight temperature increase of the sample in an ac-field is used as a measure of losses. The aim is to simulate the loss in rotating machines using HTS. This is a unique technique to measure total ac loss in HTS at power frequencies. The sample is mounted on to a cold finger extended from a liquid nitrogen heat exchanger (HEX). The thermal insulation between the HEX and sample is provided by a material of low thermal conductivity, and low eddy current heating sample holder in vacuum vessel. A temperature sensor and noninductive heater have been incorporated in the sample holder allowing a rapid sample change. The main part of the data is obtained in the calorimetric measurement is used for calibration. The focus is on the accuracy and calibrations required to predict the actual ac losses in HTS. This setup has the advantage of being able to measure the total ac loss under the influence of a continuous moving field as experienced by any rotating machines.

  20. Development of methods to control radiation field and corrosion in PHWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) is the mainstay of Indian Nuclear Power Program. There are 18 PHWRs (220 MWe and 540 MWe) in operation and 4 X 700 MWe PHWRs are under construction. In these reactors, as far as radiation field is concerned, the philosophy of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) is followed. The primary coolant system chemistry control is given due consideration during operation so that corrosion of structural material is minimized which in turn controls the radiation field. Development and application of full system Dilute Chemical Decontamination (DCD) process helped to reduce the radiation field in MAPS-1 and 2, RAPS-1 and 2, NAPS-1 and 2 and KAPS-1. PHWR being a tube type reactor, it enables application of full system decontamination to its heavy water primary coolant system. Significant reduction in radiation field and consequent savings in MANREM could be achieved. Attempts are being made to understand