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Sample records for field affect malaria

  1. Does Magnetic Field Affect Malaria Parasite Replication in Human Red Blood Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanturiya, Alexandr N.; Glushakova, Svetlana; Yin, Dan; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Digestion of red blood cell (RBC) hemoglobin by the malaria parasite results in the formation of paramagnetic hemazoin crystals inside the parasite body. A number of reports suggest that magnetic field interaction with hamazoin crystals significantly reduces the number of infected cells in culture, and thus magnetic field can be used to combat malaria. We studies the effects of magnetic filed on the Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle inside RBCs under various experimental conditions. No effect was found during prolonged exposure of infected RBCs to constant magnetic fields up to 6000 Gauss. Infected RBCs were also exposed, under temperature-controlled conditions, to oscillating magnetic fields with frequencies in the range of 500-20000 kHz, and field strength 30-600 Gauss. This exposure often changed the proportion of different parasite stages in treated culture compared to controls. However, no significant effect on parasitemia was observed in treated cultures. This result indicates that the magnetic field effect on Plasmodium falciparum is negligible, or that hypothetical negative and positive effects on different stages within one 48-hour compensate each other.

  2. Identification of candidate volatiles that affect the behavioural response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to an active kairomone blend: laboratory and semi-field assays

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    Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine Kiss, G.; Otieno, B.; Mbadi, P.A.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting the lives of millions of people. Existing tools such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual sprays are not only effective, but also have limitations as a

  3. Malaria vaccines: lessons from field trials

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    Claudio J. Struchiner

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine candidates have already been tested and new trials are being carried out. We present a brief description of specific issues of validity that are relevant when assessing vaccine efficacy in the field and illustrate how the application of these principles might improve our interpretation of the data being gathered in actual malaria vaccine field trials. Our discussion assumes that vaccine evaluation shares the same general principles of validity with epidemiologic causal inference, i.e., the process of drawing inferences from epidemiologic data aiming at the identification of causes of diseases. Judicious exercise of these principles indicates that, for meaningful interpretation, measures of vaccine efficacy require definitions based upon arguments conditional on the amount of exposure to infection, and specification of the initial and final states in which one believes the effect of interest takes place.

  4. Composition of human skin microbiota affects attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

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    Niels O Verhulst

    Full Text Available The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  5. Malaria diagnosis under field conditions in the Venezuelan Amazon.

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    Metzger, W G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Rodriguez, I; Gonçalves, J; Bongard, E; Fanello, C I; Vivas, L; Magris, M

    2008-01-01

    To improve practical, accurate diagnosis of malaria in the Amazon rainforest of Venezuela, two rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) (OptiMAL-IT) and FalciVax) and a laboratory light microscope, used in the field with a battery-operated head lamp as an external light source, were evaluated against the standard laboratory microscope procedure for malaria detection. One hundred and thirty-six Yanomami patients were studied for the presence of malaria parasites. Thirty-three patients (24%) were positive for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae). Twenty-one (64%) of the positive patients had <100 parasites/microl. Both RDTs showed poor sensitivity (24.2% for OptiMAL-IT) and 36.4% for FalciVax) but good specificity (99% both for OptiMAL-IT) and FalciVax). Field and laboratory microscopy showed sensitivities of 94% and 91%, respectively. The kappa coefficient was 0.90, indicating a high agreement between field and laboratory microscopy. We conclude that (i) adequate slide reading cannot be substituted by either of the two RDTs in the Venezuelan Amazon and (ii) the use of a light source such as that described above makes slide reading more feasible than hitherto in remote areas without electricity.

  6. Altered environment and risk of malaria outbreak in South Andaman, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India affected by tsunami disaster

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    Shriram AN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pools of salt water and puddles created by giant waves from the sea due to the tsunami that occurred on 26th December 2004 would facilitate increased breeding of brackish water malaria vector, Anopheles sundaicus. Land uplifts in North Andaman and subsidence in South Andaman have been reported and subsidence may lead to environmental disturbances and vector proliferation. This warrants a situation analysis and vector surveillance in the tsunami hit areas endemic for malaria transmitted by brackish water mosquito, An. sundaicus to predict the risk of outbreak. Methods An extensive survey was carried out in the tsunami-affected areas in Andaman district of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India to assess the extent of breeding of malaria vectors in the habitats created by seawater flooding. Types of habitats in relation to source of seawater inundation and frequency were identified. The salinity of the water samples and the mosquito species present in the larval samples collected from these habitats were recorded. The malaria situation in the area was also analysed. Results South Andaman, covering Port Blair and Ferrargunj sub districts, is still under the recurring phenomenon of seawater intrusion either directly from the sea or through a network of creeks. Both daily cycles of high tides and periodical spring tides continue to cause flooding. Low-lying paddy fields and fallow land, with a salinity ranging from 3,000 to 42,505 ppm, were found to support profuse breeding of An. sundaicus, the local malaria vector, and Anopheles subpictus, a vector implicated elsewhere. This area is endemic for both vivax and falciparum malaria. Malaria slide positivity rate has started increasing during post-tsunami period, which can be considered as an indication of risk of malaria outbreak. Conclusion Paddy fields and fallow land with freshwater, hitherto not considered as potential sites for An. sundaicus, are now major breeding sites due to

  7. Malaria.

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    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  8. Does malaria affect placental development? Evidence from in vitro models.

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    Alexandra J Umbers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria in early pregnancy is difficult to study but has recently been associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying malarial FGR are poorly characterized, but may include impaired placental development. We used in vitro methods that model migration and invasion of placental trophoblast into the uterine wall to investigate whether soluble factors released into maternal blood in malaria infection might impair placental development. Because trophoblast invasion is enhanced by a number of hormones and chemokines, and is inhibited by pro-inflammatory cytokines, many of which are dysregulated in malaria in pregnancy, we further compared concentrations of these factors in blood between malaria-infected and uninfected pregnancies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured trophoblast invasion, migration and viability in response to treatment with serum or plasma from two independent cohorts of Papua New Guinean women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in early pregnancy. Compared to uninfected women, serum and plasma from women with P. falciparum reduced trophoblast invasion (P = .06 and migration (P = .004. P. vivax infection did not alter trophoblast migration (P = .64. The P. falciparum-specific negative effect on placental development was independent of trophoblast viability, but associated with high-density infections. Serum from P. falciparum infected women tended to have lower levels of trophoblast invasion promoting hormones and factors and higher levels of invasion-inhibitory inflammatory factors. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that in vitro models of placental development can be adapted to indirectly study the impact of malaria in early pregnancy. These infections could result in impaired trophoblast invasion with reduced transformation of maternal spiral arteries due to maternal hormonal and inflammatory disturbances, which may contribute to FGR by

  9. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... less than the risk of catching this infection. Chloroquine has been the drug of choice for protecting against malaria. But because of resistance, it is now only suggested for use in areas where Plasmodium vivax , P. oval , and ...

  10. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites you, the parasite can get into your blood. The parasite lays eggs, which develop into more parasites. They ... cells until you get very sick. Because the parasites live in the blood, malaria can also be spread through other ways. ...

  11. malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children who presented with malaria symptoms at the same clinic and tested positive or ... phagocytes immunity and induce anti-inflammatory immune response ...... treatment gap, Malawi will be ready to submit a validation request for virtual .... Conclusions. Vaccination and quarantine are the important disease preventive.

  12. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    dividing and are far more noticeable than the small amount of clear cyto- plasm surrounding them (Figs 10.6a & 10.6b). Mature schizonts contain 8...edema Same as P. vivax 16 10 • Topics on The paThology of proTozoan and invasive arThropod diseases Figure 10.38 Transmission electron micrograph of...mesangiopathic glo- merulonephropathy caused by quartan malaria, deposition of immune complexes may be demonstrated by electron or immunofluorescence microscopy

  13. Field application of SD bioline malaria Ag Pf/Pan rapid diagnostic test for malaria in Greece.

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    Tseroni, Maria; Pervanidou, Danai; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Rachiotis, George; Pinaka, Ourania; Baka, Agoritsa; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Vakali, Annita; Dionysopoulou, Martha; Terzaki, Irene; Marka, Andriani; Detsis, Marios; Evlampidou, Zafiroula; Mpimpa, Anastasia; Vassalou, Evdokia; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece, a malaria-free country since 1974, has experienced re-emergence of Plasmodium vivax autochthonous malaria cases in some agriculture areas over the last three years. In early 2012, an integrated control programme (MALWEST Project) was launched in order to prevent re-establishment of the disease. In the context of this project, the rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) of SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf/Pan that detects hrp-2 and pan-LDH antigens were used. The aim of this study was to assess the field application of the RDT for the P. vivax diagnosis in comparison to light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 955 samples were tested with all three diagnostic tools. Agreement of RDT against microscopy and PCR for the diagnosis of P. vivax was satisfactory (K value: 0.849 and 0.976, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of RDT against PCR was 95.6% (95% C.I.: 84.8-99.3), 100% (95% C.I.: 99.6-100.0) and 100% (95% CI: 91.7-100.0) respectively, while the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of RDT against microscopic examination was 97.4% (95% C.I.: 86.1-99.6), 99.4% (95% C.I.: 98.6-99.8) and 86.1% (95% CI: 72.1-94.7), respectively. Our results indicate that RDT performed satisfactory in a non-endemic country and therefore is recommended for malaria diagnosis, especially in areas where health professionals lack experience on light microscopy.

  14. Plasmodium species differentiation by non-expert on-line volunteers for remote malaria field diagnosis.

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    Ortiz-Ruiz, Alejandra; Postigo, María; Gil-Casanova, Sara; Cuadrado, Daniel; Bautista, José M; Rubio, José Miguel; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Linares, María

    2018-01-30

    Routine field diagnosis of malaria is a considerable challenge in rural and low resources endemic areas mainly due to lack of personnel, training and sample processing capacity. In addition, differential diagnosis of Plasmodium species has a high level of misdiagnosis. Real time remote microscopical diagnosis through on-line crowdsourcing platforms could be converted into an agile network to support diagnosis-based treatment and malaria control in low resources areas. This study explores whether accurate Plasmodium species identification-a critical step during the diagnosis protocol in order to choose the appropriate medication-is possible through the information provided by non-trained on-line volunteers. 88 volunteers have performed a series of questionnaires over 110 images to differentiate species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium knowlesi) and parasite staging from thin blood smear images digitalized with a smartphone camera adapted to the ocular of a conventional light microscope. Visual cues evaluated in the surveys include texture and colour, parasite shape and red blood size. On-line volunteers are able to discriminate Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. knowlesi) and stages in thin-blood smears according to visual cues observed on digitalized images of parasitized red blood cells. Friendly textual descriptions of the visual cues and specialized malaria terminology is key for volunteers learning and efficiency. On-line volunteers with short-training are able to differentiate malaria parasite species and parasite stages from digitalized thin smears based on simple visual cues (shape, size, texture and colour). While the accuracy of a single on-line expert is far from perfect, a single parasite classification obtained by combining the opinions of multiple on-line volunteers over the same smear, could improve accuracy and reliability of Plasmodium species

  15. Semi-field assessment of the BG-Malaria trap for monitoring the African malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis.

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    Elis P A Batista

    Full Text Available Odour-baited technologies are increasingly considered for effective monitoring of mosquito populations and for the evaluation of vector control interventions. The BG-Malaria trap (BGM, which is an upside-down variant of the widely used BG-Sentinel trap (BGS, has been demonstrated to be effective to sample the Brazilian malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi. We evaluated the BGM as an improved method for sampling the African malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis. Experiments were conducted inside a large semi-field cage to compare trapping efficiencies of BGM and BGS traps, both baited with the synthetic attractant, Ifakara blend, supplemented with CO2. We then compared BGMs baited with either of four synthetic mosquito lures, Ifakara blend, Mbita blend, BG-lure or CO2, and an unbaited BGM. Lastly, we compared BGMs baited with the Ifakara blend dispensed via either nylon strips, BG cartridges (attractant-infused microcapsules encased in cylindrical plastic cartridge or BG sachets (attractant-infused microcapsules encased in plastic sachets. All tests were conducted between 6P.M. and 7A.M., with 200-600 laboratory-reared An. arabiensis released nightly in the test chamber. The median number of An. arabiensis caught by the BGM per night was 83, IQR:(73.5-97.75, demonstrating clear superiority over BGS (median catch = 32.5 (25.25-37.5. Compared to unbaited controls, BGMs baited with Mbita blend caught most mosquitoes (45 (29.5-70.25, followed by BGMs baited with CO2 (42.5 (27.5-64, Ifakara blend (31 (9.25-41.25 and BG lure (16 (4-22. BGM caught 51 (29.5-72.25 mosquitoes/night, when the attractants were dispensed using BG-Cartridges, compared to BG-Sachet (29.5 (24.75-40.5, and nylon strips (27 (19.25-38.25, in all cases being significantly superior to unbaited controls (p < 000.1. The findings demonstrate potential of the BGM as a sampling tool for African malaria vectors over the standard BGS trap. Its efficacy can be optimized by selecting

  16. The Farmer Field School: a method for enhancing the role of rural communities in malaria control ?

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria has strong linkages with agriculture, and farmers in malarious regions have a central position in creating or controlling the conditions that favour disease transmission. An interdisciplinary and integrated approach is needed to involve farmers and more than one sector in control efforts. It is suggested that malaria control can benefit from a complementary intervention in rural development, the Farmer Field School (FFS on Integrated Pest Management (IPM. This is a form of education that uses experiential learning methods to build farmers' expertise, and has proven farm-level and empowerment effects. The benefits of incorporating malaria control into the IPM curriculum are discussed. An example of a combined health-agriculture curriculum, labeled Integrated Pest and Vector Management (IPVM, developed in Sri Lanka is presented. Institutional ownership and support for IPVM could potentially be spread over several public sectors requiring a process for institutional learning and reform.

  17. A field-deployable mobile molecular diagnostic system for malaria at the point of need.

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    Choi, Gihoon; Song, Daniel; Shrestha, Sony; Miao, Jun; Cui, Liwang; Guan, Weihua

    2016-11-01

    In response to the urgent need of a field-deployable and highly sensitive malaria diagnosis, we developed a standalone, "sample-in-answer-out" molecular diagnostic system (AnyMDx) to enable quantitative molecular analysis of blood-borne malaria in low resource areas. The system consists of a durable battery-powered analyzer and a disposable microfluidic compact disc loaded with reagents ready for use. A low power thermal module and a novel fluorescence-sensing module are integrated into the analyzer for real-time monitoring of loop-mediated isothermal nucleic acid amplification (LAMP) of target parasite DNA. With 10 μL of raw blood sample, the AnyMDx system automates the nucleic acid sample preparation and subsequent LAMP and real-time detection. Under laboratory conditions with whole-blood samples spiked with cultured Plasmodium falciparum, we achieved a detection limit of ∼0.6 parasite per μL, much lower than those for the conventional microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (∼50-100 parasites per μL). The turnaround time from sample to answer is less than 40 minutes. The AnyMDx is user-friendly requiring minimal technological training. The analyzer and the disposable reagent compact discs are cost-effective, making AnyMDx a potential tool for malaria molecular diagnosis under field settings for malaria elimination.

  18. Factors affecting adherence to national malaria treatment guidelines in management of malaria among public healthcare workers in Kamuli District, Uganda.

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    Bawate, Charles; Callender-Carter, Sylvia T; Nsajju, Ben; Bwayo, Denis

    2016-02-24

    Malaria remains a major public health threat accounting for 30.4 % of disease morbidity in outpatient clinic visits across all age groups in Uganda. Consequently, malaria control remains a major public health priority in endemic countries such as Uganda. Experiences from other countries in Africa that revised their malaria case management suggest that health workers adherence may be problematic. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used and collected information on health system, health workers and patients. Using log-binomial regression model, adjusted prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) and their associated 95 % confidence intervals were determined in line with adherence to new treatment guidelines of parasitological diagnosis and prompt treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). Nine health centres, 24 health workers and 240 patient consultations were evaluated. Overall adherence to national malaria treatment guidelines (NMTG) was 50.6 % (122/241). It was significantly high at HC III [115 (53 %)] than at HC IV (29 %) [PRR = 0.28 (95 % CI 0.148 0.52), p = 0.000]. Compared to the nursing aide, the adherence level was 1.57 times higher among enrolled nurses (p = 0.004) and 1.68 times higher among nursing officers, p = 0.238, with statistical significance among the former. No attendance of facility malaria-specific continuing medical education (CME) sessions [PRR = 1.9 (95 % CI 1.29 2.78), p = 0.001] and no display of malaria treatment job aides in consultation rooms [PRR = 0.64 (95 % CI 0.4 1.03), p = 0.07] was associated with increased adherence to guidelines with the former showing a statistical significance and the association of the latter borderline statistical significance. The adherence was higher when the laboratory was functional [PRR = 0.47 (95 % CI 0.35 0.63)] when the laboratory was functional in previous 6 months. Age of health worker, duration of employment, supervision, educational level, and age of patient were found not associated with

  19. Comparative evaluation of two rapid field tests for malaria diagnosis: Partec Rapid Malaria Test® and Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test.

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    Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel Ek; Ibrahim, Lukeman; May, Juergen; Brattig, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

    2011-05-23

    About 90% of all malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur in children under five years. Fast and reliable diagnosis of malaria requires confirmation of the presence of malaria parasites in the blood of patients with fever or history suggestive of malaria; hence a prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to effective disease management. Confirmation of malaria infection requires the availability of a rapid, sensitive, and specific testing at an affordable cost. We compared two recent methods (the novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test® (PT) and the Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (BN RDT) with the conventional Giemsa stain microscopy (GM) for the diagnosis of malaria among children in a clinical laboratory of a hospital in a rural endemic area of Ghana. Blood samples were collected from 263 children admitted with fever or a history of fever to the pediatric clinic of the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The three different test methods PT, BN RDT and GM were performed independently by well trained and competent laboratory staff to assess the presence of malaria parasites. Results were analyzed and compared using GM as the reference standard. In 107 (40.7%) of 263 study participants, Plasmodium sp. was detected by GM. PT and BN RDT showed positive results in 111 (42.2%) and 114 (43.4%), respectively. Compared to GM reference standard, the sensitivities of the PT and BN RDT were 100% (95% CI: 96.6-100) and 97.2% (95% CI: 92.0-99.4), respectively, specificities were 97.4% (95% CI: 93.6-99.3) and 93.6% (95% CI: 88.5-96.9), respectively. There was a strong agreement (kappa) between the applied test methods (GM vs PT: 0.97; p < 0.001 and GM vs BN RDT: 0.90; p < 0.001). The average turnaround time per tests was 17 minutes. In this study two rapid malaria tests, PT and BN RDT, demonstrated a good quality of their performance compared to conventional GM. Both methods require little training, have short turnaround times, are applicable as well as affordable and

  20. Malaria morbidity and mortality in Ebola-affected countries caused by decreased health-care capacity, and the potential effect of mitigation strategies: a modelling analysis.

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    Walker, Patrick G T; White, Michael T; Griffin, Jamie T; Reynolds, Alison; Ferguson, Neil M; Ghani, Azra C

    2015-07-01

    The ongoing Ebola epidemic in parts of west Africa largely overwhelmed health-care systems in 2014, making adequate care for malaria impossible and threatening the gains in malaria control achieved over the past decade. We quantified this additional indirect burden of Ebola virus disease. We estimated the number of cases and deaths from malaria in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone from Demographic and Health Surveys data for malaria prevalence and coverage of malaria interventions before the Ebola outbreak. We then removed the effect of treatment and hospital care to estimate additional cases and deaths from malaria caused by reduced health-care capacity and potential disruption of delivery of insecticide-treated bednets. We modelled the potential effect of emergency mass drug administration in affected areas on malaria cases and health-care demand. If malaria care ceased as a result of the Ebola epidemic, untreated cases of malaria would have increased by 45% (95% credible interval 43-49) in Guinea, 88% (83-93) in Sierra Leone, and 140% (135-147) in Liberia in 2014. This increase is equivalent to 3·5 million (95% credible interval 2·6 million to 4·9 million) additional untreated cases, with 10,900 (5700-21,400) additional malaria-attributable deaths. Mass drug administration and distribution of insecticide-treated bednets timed to coincide with the 2015 malaria transmission season could largely mitigate the effect of Ebola virus disease on malaria. These findings suggest that untreated malaria cases as a result of reduced health-care capacity probably contributed substantially to the morbidity caused by the Ebola crisis. Mass drug administration can be an effective means to mitigate this burden and reduce the number of non-Ebola fever cases within health systems. UK Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2015 Walker et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY

  1. Factors likely to affect community acceptance of a malaria vaccine in two districts of Ghana: a qualitative study.

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    Arantza Meñaca

    Full Text Available Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in Ghana. As part of the effort to inform local and national decision-making in preparation for possible malaria vaccine introduction, this qualitative study explored community-level factors that could affect vaccine acceptance in Ghana and provides recommendations for a health communications strategy. The study was conducted in two purposively selected districts: the Ashanti and Upper East Regions. A total of 25 focus group discussions, 107 in-depth interviews, and 21 semi-structured observations at Child Welfare Clinics were conducted. Malaria was acknowledged to be one of the most common health problems among children. While mosquitoes were linked to the cause and bed nets were considered to be the main preventive method, participants acknowledged that no single measure prevented malaria. The communities highly valued vaccines and cited vaccination as the main motivation for taking children to Child Welfare Clinics. Nevertheless, knowledge of specific vaccines and what they do was limited. While communities accepted the idea of minor vaccine side effects, other side effects perceived to be more serious could deter families from taking children for vaccination, especially during vaccination campaigns. Attendance at Child Welfare Clinics after age nine months was limited. Observations at clinics revealed that while two different opportunities for counseling were offered, little attention was given to addressing mothers' specific concerns and to answering questions related to child immunization. Positive community attitudes toward vaccines and the understanding that malaria prevention requires a comprehensive approach would support the introduction of a malaria vaccine. These attitudes are bolstered by a well-established child welfare program and the availability in Ghana of active, flexible structures for conveying health information to communities. At the same time, it would

  2. Conflict-affected displaced persons need to benefit more from HIV and malaria national strategic plans and Global Fund grants

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    Paik Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to HIV and malaria control programmes for refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs is not only a human rights issue but a public health priority for affected populations and host populations. The primary source of funding for malaria and HIV programmes for many countries is the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund. This article analyses the current HIV and malaria National Strategic Plans (NSPs and Global Fund approved proposals from rounds 1-8 for countries in Africa hosting populations with refugees and/or IDPs to document their inclusion. Methods The review was limited to countries in Africa as they constitute the highest caseload of refugees and IDPs affected by HIV and malaria. Only countries with a refugee and/or IDP population of ≥ 10,000 persons were included. NSPs were retrieved from primary and secondary sources while approved Global Fund proposals were obtained from the organisation's website. Refugee figures were obtained from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees' database and IDP figures from the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. The inclusion of refugees and IDPs was classified into three categories: 1 no reference; 2 referenced; and 3 referenced with specific activities. Findings A majority of countries did not mention IDPs (57% compared with 48% for refugees in their HIV NSPs. For malaria, refugees were not included in 47% of NSPs compared with 44% for IDPs. A minority (21-29% of HIV and malaria NSPs referenced and included activities for refugees and IDPs. There were more approved Global Fund proposals for HIV than malaria for countries with both refugees and IDPs, respectively. The majority of countries with ≥10,000 refugees and IDPs did not include these groups in their approved proposals (61%-83% with malaria having a higher rate of exclusion than HIV. Interpretation Countries that have signed the 1951 refugee convention have an obligation

  3. MHC-I affects infection intensity but not infection status with a frequent avian malaria parasite in blue tits.

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    Helena Westerdahl

    Full Text Available Host resistance against parasites depends on three aspects: the ability to prevent, control and clear infections. In vertebrates the immune system consists of innate and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is particularly important for preventing infection and eradicating established infections at an early stage while adaptive immunity is slow, but powerful, and essential for controlling infection intensities and eventually clearing infections. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC molecules are central in adaptive immunity, and studies on parasite resistance and MHC in wild animals have found effects on both infection intensity (parasite load and infection status (infected or not. It seems MHC can affect both the ability to control infection intensities and the ability to clear infections. However, these two aspects have rarely been considered simultaneously, and their relative importance in natural populations is therefore unclear. Here we investigate if MHC class I genotype affects infection intensity and infection status with a frequent avian malaria infection Haemoproteus majoris in a natural population of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus. We found a significant negative association between a single MHC allele and infection intensity but no association with infection status. Blue tits that carry a specific MHC allele seem able to suppress H. majoris infection intensity, while we have no evidence that this allele also has an effect on clearance of the H. majoris infection, a result that is in contrast with some previous studies of MHC and avian malaria. A likely explanation could be that the clearance rate of avian malaria parasites differs between avian malaria lineages and/or between avian hosts.

  4. MHC-I affects infection intensity but not infection status with a frequent avian malaria parasite in blue tits.

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    Westerdahl, Helena; Stjernman, Martin; Råberg, Lars; Lannefors, Mimi; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2013-01-01

    Host resistance against parasites depends on three aspects: the ability to prevent, control and clear infections. In vertebrates the immune system consists of innate and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is particularly important for preventing infection and eradicating established infections at an early stage while adaptive immunity is slow, but powerful, and essential for controlling infection intensities and eventually clearing infections. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules are central in adaptive immunity, and studies on parasite resistance and MHC in wild animals have found effects on both infection intensity (parasite load) and infection status (infected or not). It seems MHC can affect both the ability to control infection intensities and the ability to clear infections. However, these two aspects have rarely been considered simultaneously, and their relative importance in natural populations is therefore unclear. Here we investigate if MHC class I genotype affects infection intensity and infection status with a frequent avian malaria infection Haemoproteus majoris in a natural population of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus. We found a significant negative association between a single MHC allele and infection intensity but no association with infection status. Blue tits that carry a specific MHC allele seem able to suppress H. majoris infection intensity, while we have no evidence that this allele also has an effect on clearance of the H. majoris infection, a result that is in contrast with some previous studies of MHC and avian malaria. A likely explanation could be that the clearance rate of avian malaria parasites differs between avian malaria lineages and/or between avian hosts.

  5. Lack of association of interferon regulatory factor 1 with severe malaria in affected child-parental trio studies across three African populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina D Mangano

    Full Text Available Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF-1 is a member of the IRF family of transcription factors, which have key and diverse roles in the gene-regulatory networks of the immune system. IRF-1 has been described as a critical mediator of IFN-gamma signalling and as the major player in driving TH1 type responses. It is therefore likely to be crucial in both innate and adaptive responses against intracellular pathogens such as Plasmodium falciparum. Polymorphisms at the human IRF1 locus have been previously found to be associated with the ability to control P. falciparum infection in populations naturally exposed to malaria. In order to test whether genetic variation at the IRF1 locus also affects the risk of developing severe malaria, we performed a family-based test of association for 18 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs across the gene in three African populations, using genotype data from 961 trios consisting of one affected child and his/her two parents (555 from The Gambia, 204 from Kenya and 202 from Malawi. No significant association with severe malaria or severe malaria subphenotypes (cerebral malaria and severe malaria anaemia was observed for any of the SNPs/haplotypes tested in any of the study populations. Our results offer no evidence that the molecular pathways regulated by the transcription factor IRF-1 are involved in the immune-based pathogenesis of severe malaria.

  6. Effectiveness of methoprene, an insect growth regulator, against malaria vectors in Fars, Iran: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, H; Vatandoost, H; Abaei, M R; Gharibi, O; Pakbaz, F

    2011-01-01

    Methoprene, an insect growth regulator, was evaluated under field conditions against the main malaria vectors in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The effect of 5, 10 and 20 kg ha(-1) concentration ofmethoprene granule formulation and 100 and 200 mL ha(-1) concentration of EC formulation was measured to determine any changes in Anophelini larval abundance and IE ratio in both rice fields and artificial ponds. In artificial ponds, granular methoprene at a dose of 20 kg ha(-1) inhibited adult emergence by 77.1% after 1 day and 65.9% after 3 days. The emulsifiable concentrate formulation of methoprene at 200 mL ha(-1) inhibited adult emergence by 83.7% after 1 day and 32.2% after 3 days. In rice fields, inhibition of emergence was 44.3% at 20 kg ha(-1) granule and 35.8% for emulsifiable concentrate at 200 mL ha(-1) after 3 days. The results vary depending on the mosquito species, treatment methods, breeding places and type of formulation.

  7. A histidine-rich protein 2-based malaria drug sensitivity assay for field use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noedl, Harald; Attlmayr, Bernhard; Wernsdorfer, Walther H; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Miller, Robert S

    2004-12-01

    With the spread of antimalarial drug resistance, simple and reliable tools for the assessment of antimalarial drug resistance, particularly in endemic regions and under field conditions, have become more important than ever before. We therefore developed a histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based drug sensitivity assay for testing of fresh isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in the field. In contrast to the HRP2 laboratory assay, the field assay uses a procedure that further simplifies the handling and culturing of malaria parasites by omitting centrifugation, washing, the use of serum, and dilution with uninfected red blood cells. A total of 40 fresh Plasmodium falciparum isolates were successfully tested for their susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin, mefloquine, quinine, and chloroquine (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 3.43, 61.89, 326.75, and 185.31 nM, respectively). Results very closely matched those obtained with a modified World Health Organization schizont maturation assay (R2 = 0.96, P < 0.001; mean log difference at IC50 = 0.054).

  8. Field evaluation of ZeroFly--an insecticide incorporated plastic sheeting against malaria vectors & its impact on malaria transmission in tribal area of northern Orissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S K; Upadhyay, A K; Haque, M A; Tyagi, P K; Mohanty, S S; Mittal, P K; Dash, A P

    2009-10-01

    Insecticide incorporated plastic sheeting is a new technology to control mosquitoes in emergency shelter places and also temporary habitations in different locations. Therefore, field studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of ZeroFly plastic sheeting treated with deltamethrin on prevailing disease vectors Anopheles culicifacies and An. fluviatilis and its impact on malaria transmission in one of the highly endemic areas of Orissa. The study was conducted in Birkera block of Sundargarh district, Orissa state. The study area comprised 3 villages, which were randomized as ZeroFly plastic sheet, untreated plastic sheet and no sheet area. ZeroFly plastic sheets and untreated plastic sheets were fixed in study and control villages respectively covering all the rooms in each household. Longitudinal studies were conducted on the bioefficacy with the help of cone bioassays, monitoring of the mosquito density through hand catch, floor sheet and exit trap collections and fortnightly domiciliary active surveillance in all the study villages. In ZeroFly plastic sheeting area, there was a significant reduction of 84.7 per cent in the entry rate of total mosquitoes in comparison to pre-intervention phase. There was 56.2 per cent immediate mortality in total mosquitoes in houses with ZeroFly sheeting. The overall feeding success rate of mosquitoes in the trial village was only 12.5 per cent in comparison to 49.7 and 51.1 per cent in villages with untreated plastic sheet and no sheet respectively. There was a significant reduction of 65.0 and 70.5 per cent in malaria incidence in ZeroFly plastic sheeting area as compared to untreated plastic sheet and no sheet area respectively. Our study showed that introduction of ZeroFly plastic sheets in a community-based intervention programme is operationally feasible to contain malaria especially in the high transmission difficult areas.

  9. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  10. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Van Roey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the

  11. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roey, Karel; Sokny, Mao; Denis, Leen; Van den Broeck, Nick; Heng, Somony; Siv, Sovannaroth; Sluydts, Vincent; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2014-12-01

    Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological

  12. Larval nutrition differentially affects adult fitness and Plasmodium development in the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Smallegange, R.C.; Vigneau, A.J.; Johnston, V.; Brown, M.; Mordue-Luntz, A.J.; Billingsley, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mosquito fitness is determined largely by body size and nutritional reserves. Plasmodium infections in the mosquito and resultant transmission of malaria parasites might be compromised by the vector's nutritional status. We studied the effects of nutritional stress and malaria parasite

  13. Impacts of Climate Change on Malaria Transmission in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Endo, N.; Yamana, T. K.

    2017-12-01

    Malaria is a major vector-borne parasitic disease transmitted to humans by Anopheles spp mosquitoes. Africa is the hotspot for malaria transmission where more than 90% of malaria deaths occur every year. Malaria transmission is an intricate function of climatic factors, which non-linearly affect the development of vectors and parasites. We project that the risk of malaria will increase towards the end of the 21st century in east Africa, but decrease in west Africa. We combine a novel malaria transmission simulator, HYDREMATS, that has been developed based on comprehensive multi-year field surveys both in East Africa and West Africa, and the most reliable climate projections through regional dynamical downscaling and rigorous selection of GCMs from among CMIP5 models. We define a bell-shaped relation between malaria intensity and temperature, centered around a temperature of 30°C. Future risks of malaria are projected for two highly populated regions in Africa: the highlands in East Africa and the fringes of the desert in West Africa. In the highlands of East Africa, temperature is substantially colder than this optimal temperature; warmer future climate exacerbate malaria conditions. In the Sahel fringes in West Africa, temperature is around this optimal temperature; warming is not likely to exacerbate and might even reduce malaria burden. Unlike the highlands of East Africa, which receive significant amounts of annual rainfall, dry conditions also limit malaria transmission in the Sahel fringes in West Africa. This disproportionate risk of malaria due to climate change should guide strategies for climate adaptation over Africa.

  14. The farmer field school: a method for enhancing the role of rural communities in malaria control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Malaria has strong linkages with agriculture, and farmers in malarious regions have a central position in creating or controlling the conditions that favour disease transmission. An interdisciplinary and integrated approach is needed to involve farmers and more than one sector in control efforts. It

  15. Field evaluation of a push-pull system to reduce malaria transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Menger

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to place a disease burden on millions of people throughout the tropics, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Although efforts to control mosquito populations and reduce human-vector contact, such as long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying, have led to significant decreases in malaria incidence, further progress is now threatened by the widespread development of physiological and behavioural insecticide-resistance as well as changes in the composition of vector populations. A mosquito-directed push-pull system based on the simultaneous use of attractive and repellent volatiles offers a complementary tool to existing vector-control methods. In this study, the combination of a trap baited with a five-compound attractant and a strip of net-fabric impregnated with micro-encapsulated repellent and placed in the eaves of houses, was tested in a malaria-endemic village in western Kenya. Using the repellent delta-undecalactone, mosquito house entry was reduced by more than 50%, while the traps caught high numbers of outdoor flying mosquitoes. Model simulations predict that, assuming area-wide coverage, the addition of such a push-pull system to existing prevention efforts will result in up to 20-fold reductions in the entomological inoculation rate. Reductions of such magnitude are also predicted when mosquitoes exhibit a high resistance against insecticides. We conclude that a push-pull system based on non-toxic volatiles provides an important addition to existing strategies for malaria prevention.

  16. The trial detection of malaria sporozoit in field-collected mosquito by immunoradiometric assay in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemsuth, R.; Asavanich, A.; Sucharit, S.; Vutikes, S.; Vutikes, M.; Patamatum, S.

    1988-01-01

    The sporozoite rate, species of parasite and vector are important in the epidemiology of malaria. The investigation of sporozoite by dissection and examination under a microscope is time-consuming and it could be done only on freshly killed mosquitoes. Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) that can detect, identify and quantify malaria sporozoite (Zavala et al., 1982) was therefore applied to detect sporozoite in laboratory-maintained Anopheles dirus and wild-caught mosquitoes. Study on P. falciparum-infected An. dirus showed that the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen was first found in the abdomen on the 10th day post-infection, whilst the sporozoites were examined in salivary glands from day 15 onwards. The malaria infection in wild-caught mosquitoes were investigated in Anopheles spp collected by human baites from three endemic areas in Thailand. Since the sporozoite rate refers to the presence of sporozoite in the salivary gland, then only head-thorax part of the specimens were detected by IRMA to prevent an exaggeration over the true results. It was found that none of mosquitoes collected from Phrae was positive for malaria. Four out of 1243 An. dirus among eight species collected from Chantaburi were positive for P. falciparum with sporozoites ranged from 270 to 3875. Of all ten species collected from Kanchanaburi, two and one out of 3123 An. minimus were positive for P. falciparum and P. vivax with sporozoites found in head-thorax portions were 1880, 2380 and 1026 respectively. It is evident that the IRMA is suitable for the investigation of malaria sporozoites in this region. The application of this technique in the further epidemiological study is in progress

  17. First report of the infection of insecticide-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes with an entomopathogenic fungus under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Insecticide-resistant mosquitoes are compromising the ability of current mosquito control tools to control malaria vectors. A proposed new approach for mosquito control is to use entomopathogenic fungi. These fungi have been shown to be lethal to both insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. The goal of this study was to see whether entomopathogenic fungi could be used to infect insecticide-resistant malaria vectors under field conditions, and to see whether the virulence and viability of the fungal conidia decreased after exposure to ambient African field conditions. Methods This study used the fungus Beauveria bassiana to infect the insecticide-resistant malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s (Diptera: Culicidae) VKPER laboratory colony strain. Fungal conidia were applied to polyester netting and kept under West African field conditions for varying periods of time. The virulence of the fungal-treated netting was tested 1, 3 and 5 days after net application by exposing An. gambiae s.s. VKPER mosquitoes in WHO cone bioassays carried out under field conditions. In addition, the viability of B. bassiana conidia was measured after up to 20 days exposure to field conditions. Results The results show that B. bassiana infection caused significantly increased mortality with the daily risk of dying being increased by 2.5× for the fungus-exposed mosquitoes compared to the control mosquitoes. However, the virulence of the B. bassiana conidia decreased with increasing time spent exposed to the field conditions, the older the treatment on the net, the lower the fungus-induced mortality rate. This is likely to be due to the climate because laboratory trials found no such decline within the same trial time period. Conidial viability also decreased with increasing exposure to the net and natural abiotic environmental conditions. After 20 days field exposure the conidial viability was 30%, but the viability of control

  18. About Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us About Malaria Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Malaria is ... from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. About Malaria Topics FAQs Frequently Asked Question, Incubation period, uncomplicated & ...

  19. Malaria control in humanitarian emergencies: An interagency field handbook, 2nd Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, N; Clements-Hunt, A

    2013-01-01

    This second edition represents a thorough updating and revision of the first edition. The structure remains similar, but includes an additional chapter on humanitarian coordination. All chapters have been revised to reflect changes in best practices, improvements in technologies, availability of new tools, and changes in WHO recommendations. The interagency handbook was developed to set out effective malaria control responses in humanitarian emergencies, particularly during the acute phase wh...

  20. Lack of patient risk counselling and a broader provider training affect malaria control in remote Somalia Kenya border: Qualitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Grigoryan, Zoya; Naderi, Ramesh; Allan, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of providing health education solely via mass media and the providers' targeted training in malaria control needs further exploration. During pre-epidemic season, we conducted a qualitative study of 40 providers and community leaders using focus groups, comprehensive semi-structured interviews and consultation observations. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed for major themes. Community leaders believe that they can acquire malaria from contaminated water, animal products, air or garbage. Consequently, they under-utilise bed nets and other protective measures due to perceived continued exposure to other potential malaria sources. Practitioners do not provide individualised health counselling and risk assessment to patients during sick visits, leading to a range of misconceptions about malaria based on limited knowledge from rumours and mass media, and a strong belief in the curative power of traditional medicine. Providers overdiagnose malaria clinically and underutilise available tests due to time constraints, and the lack of training and resources to correctly diagnose other illnesses. Subsequently, misdiagnoses lead them to question the efficacy of recommended treatments. Promoting counselling during clinical encounters to address patient misconception and change risky behaviour is warranted. Wider-ranging ongoing training could enable providers to properly diagnose and manage differential diagnoses to manage malaria better.

  1. factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate ...

  2. A geographic information system applied to a malaria field study in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, A W; Ombok, M; Otieno, R; Odhiambo, R; Oloo, A J; Lal, A A; Nahlen, B L; Hawley, W A

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes use of the global positioning system (GPS) in differential mode (DGPS) to obtain highly accurate longitudes, latitudes, and altitudes of 1,169 houses, 15 schools, 40 churches, four health care centers, 48 major mosquito breeding sites, 10 borehole wells, seven shopping areas, major roads, streams, the shore of Lake Victoria, and other geographic features of interest associated with a longitudinal study of malaria in 15 villages in western Kenya. The area mapped encompassed approximately 70 km2 and included 42.0 km of roads, 54.3 km of streams, and 15.0 km of lake shore. Location data were entered into a geographic information system for map production and linkage with various databases for spatial analyses. Spatial analyses using parasitologic and entomologic data are presented as examples. Background information on DGPS is presented along with estimates of effort and expense to produce the map information.

  3. Maximizing research study effectiveness in malaria elimination settings: a mixed methods study to capture the experiences of field-based staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; Quintero, Cesia E; Haller, Britt; Lek, Dysoley; Yok, Sovann; Richards, Jack S; Whittaker, Maxine Anne

    2017-09-11

    In a drug-resistant, malaria elimination setting like Western Cambodia, field research is essential for the development of novel anti-malarial regimens and the public health solutions necessary to monitor the spread of resistance and eliminate infection. Such field studies often face a variety of similar implementation challenges, but these are rarely captured in a systematic way or used to optimize future study designs that might overcome similar challenges. Field-based research staff often have extensive experience and can provide valuable insight regarding these issues, but their perspectives and experiences are rarely documented and seldom integrated into future research protocols. This mixed-methods analysis sought to gain an understanding of the daily challenges encountered by research field staff in the artemisinin-resistant, malaria elimination setting of Western Cambodia. In doing so, this study seeks to understand how the experiences and opinions of field staff can be captured, and used to inform future study designs. Twenty-two reports from six field-based malaria studies conducted in Western Cambodia were reviewed using content analysis to identify challenges to conducting the research. Informal Interviews, Focus Group Discussions and In-depth Interviews were also conducted among field research staff. Thematic analysis of the data was undertaken using Nvivo 9 ® software. Triangulation and critical case analysis was also used. There was a lack of formalized avenues through which field workers could report challenges experienced when conducting the malaria studies. Field research staff faced significant logistical barriers to participant recruitment and data collection, including a lack of available transportation to cover long distances, and the fact that mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) are usually excluded from studies because of challenges in follow-up. Cultural barriers to communication also hindered participant recruitment and created

  4. The economic burden of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, J L; Sachs, J D

    2001-01-01

    Malaria and poverty are intimately connected. Controlling for factors such as tropical location, colonial history, and geographical isolation, countries with intensive malaria had income levels in 1995 of only 33% that of countries without malaria, whether or not the countries were in Africa. The high levels of malaria in poor countries are not mainly a consequence of poverty. Malaria is geographically specific. The ecological conditions that support the more efficient malaria mosquito vectors primarily determine the distribution and intensity of the disease. Intensive efforts to eliminate malaria in the most severely affected tropical countries have been largely ineffective. Countries that have eliminated malaria in the past half century have all been either subtropical or islands. These countries' economic growth in the 5 years after eliminating malaria has usually been substantially higher than growth in the neighboring countries. Cross-country regressions for the 1965-1990 period confirm the relationship between malaria and economic growth. Taking into account initial poverty, economic policy, tropical location, and life expectancy, among other factors, countries with intensive malaria grew 1.3% less per person per year, and a 10% reduction in malaria was associated with 0.3% higher growth. Controlling for many other tropical diseases does not change the correlation of malaria with economic growth, and these diseases are not themselves significantly negatively correlated with economic growth. A second independent measure of malaria has a slightly higher correlation with economic growth in the 1980-1996 period. We speculate about the mechanisms that could cause malaria to have such a large impact on the economy, such as foreign investment and economic networks within the country.

  5. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  6. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.

  7. Comparative decline in funding of European Commission malaria vaccine projects: what next for the European scientists working in this field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoukhuede Egeruan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2000, under the Fifth and subsequent Framework Programmes, the European Commission has funded research to spur the development of a malaria vaccine. This funding has contributed to the promotion of an integrated infrastructure consisting of European basic, applied and clinical scientists in academia and small and medium enterprises, together with partners in Africa. Research has added basic understanding of what is required of a malaria vaccine, allowing selected candidates to be prioritized and some to be moved forward into clinical trials. To end the health burden of malaria, and its economic and social impact on development, the international community has now essentially committed itself to the eventual eradication of malaria. Given the current tentative advances towards elimination or eradication of malaria in many endemic areas, malaria vaccines constitute an additional and almost certainly essential component of any strategic plan to interrupt transmission of malaria. However, funding for malaria vaccines has been substantially reduced in the Seventh Framework Programme compared with earlier Framework Programmes, and without further support the gains made by earlier European investment will be lost.

  8. Comparative decline in funding of European Commission malaria vaccine projects: what next for the European scientists working in this field?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Regitze L; Holder, Anthony A; Hill, Adrian Vs

    2011-01-01

    scientists in academia and small and medium enterprises, together with partners in Africa. Research has added basic understanding of what is required of a malaria vaccine, allowing selected candidates to be prioritized and some to be moved forward into clinical trials. To end the health burden of malaria...

  9. Malaria Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Malaria Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: NIAID Colorized ... for the disease. Why Is the Study of Malaria a Priority for NIAID? Roughly 3.2 billion ...

  10. Disruption of IL-21 signaling affects T cell-B cell interactions and abrogates protective humoral immunity to malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Pérez-Mazliah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-21 signaling is important for germinal center B-cell responses, isotype switching and generation of memory B cells. However, a role for IL-21 in antibody-mediated protection against pathogens has not been demonstrated. Here we show that IL-21 is produced by T follicular helper cells and co-expressed with IFN-γ during an erythrocytic-stage malaria infection of Plasmodium chabaudi in mice. Mice deficient either in IL-21 or the IL-21 receptor fail to resolve the chronic phase of P. chabaudi infection and P. yoelii infection resulting in sustained high parasitemias, and are not immune to re-infection. This is associated with abrogated P. chabaudi-specific IgG responses, including memory B cells. Mixed bone marrow chimeric mice, with T cells carrying a targeted disruption of the Il21 gene, or B cells with a targeted disruption of the Il21r gene, demonstrate that IL-21 from T cells signaling through the IL-21 receptor on B cells is necessary to control chronic P. chabaudi infection. Our data uncover a mechanism by which CD4+ T cells and B cells control parasitemia during chronic erythrocytic-stage malaria through a single gene, Il21, and demonstrate the importance of this cytokine in the control of pathogens by humoral immune responses. These data are highly pertinent for designing malaria vaccines requiring long-lasting protective B-cell responses.

  11. Discrete space charge affected field emission: Flat and hemisphere emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Kevin L., E-mail: kevin.jensen@nrl.navy.mil [Code 6854, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Shiffler, Donald A.; Tang, Wilkin [Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Rittersdorf, Ian M. [Code 6770, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lebowitz, Joel L. [Department of Mathematics and Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Harris, John R. [U.S. Navy Reserve, New Orleans, Louisiana 70143 (United States); Lau, Y. Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Petillo, John J. [Leidos, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821 (United States); Luginsland, John W. [Physics and Electronics Directorate, AFOSR, Arlington, Virginia 22203 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Models of space-charge affected thermal-field emission from protrusions, able to incorporate the effects of both surface roughness and elongated field emitter structures in beam optics codes, are desirable but difficult. The models proposed here treat the meso-scale diode region separate from the micro-scale regions characteristic of the emission sites. The consequences of discrete emission events are given for both one-dimensional (sheets of charge) and three dimensional (rings of charge) models: in the former, results converge to steady state conditions found by theory (e.g., Rokhlenko et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014904 (2010)]) but show oscillatory structure as they do. Surface roughness or geometric features are handled using a ring of charge model, from which the image charges are found and used to modify the apex field and emitted current. The roughness model is shown to have additional constraints related to the discrete nature of electron charge. The ability of a unit cell model to treat field emitter structures and incorporate surface roughness effects inside a beam optics code is assessed.

  12. Diagnostic performance of a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the apicoplast genome for malaria diagnosis in a field setting in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriero, Eniyou C; Okebe, Joseph; Jacobs, Jan; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Nwakanma, Davis; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2015-10-09

    New diagnostic tools to detect reliably and rapidly asymptomatic and low-density malaria infections are needed as their treatment could interrupt transmission. Isothermal amplification techniques are being explored for field diagnosis of malaria. In this study, a novel molecular tool (loop-mediated isothermal amplification-LAMP) targeting the apicoplast genome of Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated for the detection of asymptomatic malaria-infected individuals in a rural setting in The Gambia. A blood was collected from 341 subjects (median age 9 years, range 1-68 years) screened for malaria. On site, a rapid diagnostic test (RDT, SD Bioline Malaria Antigen P.f) was performed, thick blood films (TBF) slides for microscopy were prepared and dry blood spots (DBS) were collected on Whatman(®) 903 Specimen collection paper. The TBF and DBS were transported to the field laboratory where microscopy and LAMP testing were performed. The latter was done on DNA extracted from the DBS using a crude (methanol/heating) extraction method. A laboratory-based PCR amplification was done on all the samples using DNA extracted with the Qiagen kit and its results were taken as reference for all the other tests. Plasmodium falciparum malaria prevalence was 37 % (127/341) as detected by LAMP, 30 % (104/341) by microscopy and 37 % (126/341) by RDT. Compared to the reference PCR method, sensitivity was 92 % for LAMP, 78 % for microscopy, and 76 % for RDT; specificity was 97 % for LAMP, 99 % for microscopy, and 88 % for RDT. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve in comparison with the reference standard was 0.94 for LAMP, 0.88 for microscopy and 0.81 for RDT. Turn-around time for the entire LAMP assay was approximately 3 h and 30 min for an average of 27 ± 9.5 samples collected per day, compared to a minimum of 10 samples an hour per operator by RDT and over 8 h by microscopy. The LAMP assay could produce reliable results the same day of the screening. It could

  13. Factors affecting the delivery, access, and use of interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jenny; Hoyt, Jenna; van Eijk, Anna Maria; D'Mello-Guyett, Lauren; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Steketee, Rick; Smith, Helen; Webster, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy has important consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the World Health Organization-recommended prevention strategy for pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is low. We conducted a systematic review to explore factors affecting delivery, access, and use of IPTp and ITNs among healthcare providers and women. We searched the Malaria in Pregnancy Library and Global Health Database from 1 January 1990 to 23 April 2013, without language restriction. Data extraction was performed by two investigators independently, and data was appraised for quality and content. Data on barriers and facilitators, and the effect of interventions, were explored using content analysis and narrative synthesis. We conducted a meta-analysis of determinants of IPTp and ITN uptake using random effects models, and performed subgroup analysis to evaluate consistency across interventions and study populations, countries, and enrolment sites. We did not perform a meta-ethnography of qualitative data. Ninety-eight articles were included, of which 20 were intervention studies. Key barriers to the provision of IPTp and ITNs were unclear policy and guidance on IPTp; general healthcare system issues, such as stockouts and user fees; health facility issues stemming from poor organisation, leading to poor quality of care; poor healthcare provider performance, including confusion over the timing of each IPTp dose; and women's poor antenatal attendance, affecting IPTp uptake. Key determinants of IPTp coverage were education, knowledge about malaria/IPTp, socio-economic status, parity, and number and timing of antenatal clinic visits. Key determinants of ITN coverage were employment status, education, knowledge about malaria/ITNs, age, and marital status. Predictors showed regional variations. Delivery of ITNs through antenatal clinics presents fewer problems than delivery of IPTp. Many

  14. Factors affecting the delivery, access, and use of interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hill

    Full Text Available Malaria in pregnancy has important consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the World Health Organization-recommended prevention strategy for pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs is low. We conducted a systematic review to explore factors affecting delivery, access, and use of IPTp and ITNs among healthcare providers and women.We searched the Malaria in Pregnancy Library and Global Health Database from 1 January 1990 to 23 April 2013, without language restriction. Data extraction was performed by two investigators independently, and data was appraised for quality and content. Data on barriers and facilitators, and the effect of interventions, were explored using content analysis and narrative synthesis. We conducted a meta-analysis of determinants of IPTp and ITN uptake using random effects models, and performed subgroup analysis to evaluate consistency across interventions and study populations, countries, and enrolment sites. We did not perform a meta-ethnography of qualitative data. Ninety-eight articles were included, of which 20 were intervention studies. Key barriers to the provision of IPTp and ITNs were unclear policy and guidance on IPTp; general healthcare system issues, such as stockouts and user fees; health facility issues stemming from poor organisation, leading to poor quality of care; poor healthcare provider performance, including confusion over the timing of each IPTp dose; and women's poor antenatal attendance, affecting IPTp uptake. Key determinants of IPTp coverage were education, knowledge about malaria/IPTp, socio-economic status, parity, and number and timing of antenatal clinic visits. Key determinants of ITN coverage were employment status, education, knowledge about malaria/ITNs, age, and marital status. Predictors showed regional variations.Delivery of ITNs through antenatal clinics presents fewer problems than delivery

  15. Field type, trap type and field-edge characteristics affect Rhagoletis mendax captures in lowbush blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Justin M; Cutler, G Christopher; Gaul, Sonia O

    2014-11-01

    Blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of blueberries in eastern North America. Insecticide use in fruit-bearing lowbush blueberry fields could be reduced with management strategies focused on vegetative fields. Fly distribution and fruit infestation levels were assessed where fruit-bearing and vegetative fields adjoin and along forested edges of vegetative fields. Along adjoining edges, immature female flies were captured in fruiting fields and mature females in vegetative fields throughout the season. Male fly captures and fruit infestation levels were greater at 5 m than at 30 m from the edge. Along forested edges, fly captures were best predicted by densities of ripe lowbush blueberries and large coniferous trees. Maggot infestation level in lowbush blueberries was best predicted by blueberry density and small deciduous trees. Bunchberry, Cornus canadensis L., was the only non-crop host in which blueberry maggot was found. We have shown that relatively high numbers of flies occur in vegetative fields and at edges of fruiting fields. Ripe blueberries and certain vegetation in forested edges affect fly distribution and probably maintain populations. These results may help to predict where controls for blueberry maggot should be targeted and suggest that management strategies focused on vegetative fields and field edges may be worthwhile. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Comparative field performance and adherence to test results of four malaria rapid diagnostic tests among febrile patients more than five years of age in Blantyre, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Joaquin Miguel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs can increase availability of laboratory-based diagnosis and improve the overall management of febrile patients in malaria endemic areas. In preparation to scale-up RDTs in health facilities in Malawi, an evaluation of four RDTs to help guide national-level decision-making was conducted. Methods A cross sectional study of four histidine rich-protein-type-2- (HRP2 based RDTs at four health centres in Blantyre, Malawi, was undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs, assess prescriber adherence to RDT test results and explore operational issues regarding RDT implementation. Three RDTs were evaluated in only one health centre each and one RDT was evaluated in two health centres. Light microscopy in a reference laboratory was used as the gold standard. Results A total of 2,576 patients were included in the analysis. All of the RDTs tested had relatively high sensitivity for detecting any parasitaemia [Bioline SD (97%, First response malaria (92%, Paracheck (91%, ICT diagnostics (90%], but low specificity [Bioline SD (39%, First response malaria (42%, Paracheck (68%, ICT diagnostics (54%]. Specificity was significantly lower in patients who self-treated with an anti-malarial in the previous two weeks (odds ratio (OR 0.5; p-value 15 years old (OR 0.4, p-value Conclusions The results of this evaluation, combined with other published data and global recommendations, have been used to select RDTs for national scale-up. In addition, the study identified some key issues that need to be further delineated: the low field specificity of RDTs, variable RDT performance by different cadres of health workers and the need for a robust quality assurance system. Close monitoring of RDT scale-up will be needed to ensure that RDTs truly improve malaria case management.

  17. Setting research priorities to reduce malaria burden in a post graduate training programme: lessons learnt from the Nigeria field epidemiology and laboratory training programme scientific workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although several research groups within institutions in Nigeria have been involved in extensive malaria research, the link between the research community and policy formulation has not been optimal. The workshop aimed to assist post graduate students to identify knowledge gaps and to develop relevant Malaria-related research proposals in line with identified research priorities. A training needs assessment questionnaire was completed by 22 students two week prior to the workshop. Also, a one page concept letter was received from 40 residents. Thirty students were selected based the following six criteria: - answerability and ethics; efficacy and impact; deliverability, affordability; scalability, sustainability; health systems, partnership and community involvement; and equity in achieved disease burden reduction. The workshop was over a three day period. The participants at the workshop were 30 Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (NFELTP) residents from cohorts 4 and 5. Ten technical papers were presented by the experts from the academia, National Malaria Elimination (NMEP) Programme, NFELTP Faculty and Implementing partners including CDC/PMI. Draft proposals were developed and presented by the residents. The "strongest need" for training was on malaria prevention, followed by malaria diagnosis. Forty seven new research questions were generated, while the 19 developed by the NMEP were shared. Evaluation revealed that all (100%) students either "agreed" that the workshop objectives were met. Full proposals were developed by some of the residents. A debriefing meeting was held with the NMEP coordinator to discuss funding of the projects. Future collaborative partnership has developed as the residents have supported NMEP to develop a research protocol for a national evaluation. Research prioritization workshops are required in most training programmes to ensure that students embark on studies that address the research needs of their country

  18. Renewed mobilization against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    1 million people die in the world from malaria annually, 800,000 of whom are 5 year old children in Sub-Sahara Africa. Further it affects 270 million people. In fact, 110 million develop malaria, 90 million of whom are from Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus WHO has introduced a new world initiative for malaria control to reverse the worsening trend that began in the mid 1970s. In October 1991, 150 officials from 50 African, Asian, and Latin American countries and participants from UN cooperation and development agencies and bilateral agencies attended an interregional conference at the WHO Regional office for Africa in Brazzaville, Congo. It strove to evaluate malaria situations specific to Africa, to update the malaria control plan in Africa, and to contribute to the development of an implementable world strategy. This world strategy needs to consider the local situation and encourage participation of the government and people of affected countries. Further individuals, communities, and various sectors of the national economy including those involved in health, education, development, and agriculture need to participate in malaria control. In addition, for this strategy to work, most countries must strengthen the management and financing of health services to meet their needs. For example, local populations must share local operating costs such as those for essential drugs and mosquito control operations. Community participation must also include personal protection such as impregnated bed nets and environmental measures. Besides malaria control must be integrated into the existing health system at country, provincial, and peripheral levels. In sum, improved case management, control of malaria transmission, and prevention and control of epidemics form the basis for the new strategy.

  19. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah J; Darling, Samuel T; Sihuincha, Moisés; Padilla, Norma; Devine, Gregor J

    2007-08-01

    The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD) and lemongrass oil (LG). To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p 46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p < 0.0001). In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.

  20. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihuincha Moisés

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD and lemongrass oil (LG. Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. Results In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p 46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p Conclusion In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.

  1. Simultaneous dense coding affected by fluctuating massless scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming; Ye, Yiyong; Luo, Darong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the simultaneous dense coding (SDC) protocol affected by fluctuating massless scalar field. The noisy model of SDC protocol is constructed and the master equation that governs the SDC evolution is deduced. The success probabilities of SDC protocol are discussed for different locking operators under the influence of vacuum fluctuations. We find that the joint success probability is independent of the locking operators, but other success probabilities are not. For quantum Fourier transform and double controlled-NOT operators, the success probabilities drop with increasing two-atom distance, but SWAP operator is not. Unlike the SWAP operator, the success probabilities of Bob and Charlie are different. For different noisy interval values, different locking operators have different robustness to noise.

  2. The phenology of malaria mosquitos in irrigated rice fields in Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E.; Takken, W.; Huibers, F.P.; Touré, Y.T.

    2003-01-01

    A field study was carried out in the large-scale rice irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in Mali to investigate the relation between anopheline mosquito larval development and small-scale differences in irrigation practices, such as water level, irrigation application and irrigation frequency.

  3. Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Latorre, Jose Manuel; Escosa, Raul; Masià, Montserrat; Fuentes, Marius Vicent; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, Maria Dolores

    2010-07-31

    International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it presented when malaria was present, in a situation which pronouncedly differs from already assessed potential resurgence areas in other Mediterranean countries, such as France and Italy, where many different Anopheles species coexist and a different vector species dominates. The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1) climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2) monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR) index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3) ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 4) evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics. Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields. The Ebro Delta presents the ecological characteristics that favour

  4. A Standardized and Portable Field Bioassay to Evaluate Interior Residual Sprays for Control of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Center - 15mL of 40% concentration + 100ml water ), lambda cyhalothrin (Control Solutions, Inc. - one half of pest tab™ + 100ml of water ), and...from fresh and salt water swamps, ditches, rice fields, edges of streams and rivers, to ponds 6 and borrow pits (Service 2000). They are also...albimanus (Manguin et al. 1996; Roberts et al. 1993; Grieco 2001). 7 An. albimanus tends to breed in fresh or brackish waters such as pools, puddles

  5. Treatment for Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in French Soldiers Deployed in Sub-Saharan Africa: Gaps Between Policy and Field Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisse, Anne; Velut, Guillaume; Javelle, Emilie; Loarer, Gwion; Michel, Remy; Simon, F

    2018-02-07

    Malaria prevention and treatment are big challenges for the French forces deployed in sub-Saharan Africa. Since December 2013, 1,800 French soldiers have been deployed at any one time in the Central African Republic in the framework of "Operation Sangaris" and European Union Force (EUFOR). Over the 2014-2015 period, about 500 cases of malaria were notified in these troops during the operation or after their return (annual incidence: 13.4 p.100 person-year). The recommendation to use dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) as the first-line treatment for French soldiers suffering from uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in endemic areas is not always followed in practice in the field by French military general practitioners (GPs). We conduced a retrospective Knowledge-Attitude-Practice study by self-administered questionnaire, to all military French doctors who were in mission in Central African Republic from January 2014 to July 2015 to try to understand what were the reasons for the GP not to prescribe DHA-PQ on the field. Thirty-six GPs (53%) answered to the questionnaire. Eighty-three percent of them knew about the recommendation to use DHA-PQ for un uncomplicated Pf malaria. Fifty-eight percent had a favorable attitude toward DHA-PQ. The factors associated with the prescription of another drug (Atovaquone-proguanil) were: the habit (odds ratio [OR] 0.1, confidence interval (CI) 0-0.6], the fact that Atovaquone-proguanil is more practical to use [OR 0.01, CI 0-0.1]. In practice, only 37.5% prescribed DHA-PQ the most of the time during their mission. Factors associated with a non-favorable attitude toward DHA-PQ were: the necessity to calculate a QTc interval during the treatment [OR 0.2, confidence interval 0-0.9], and the fact that DHA-PQ must be taken on an empty stomach [OR 0.3, CI 0.1-0.8]. GP who received a formation before their mission about malaria and treatment had a favorable attitude toward DHA-PQ. There is very satisfactory knowledge by the

  6. Field evaluation of two commercial mosquito traps baited with different attractants and colored lights for malaria vector surveillance in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Khongtak, Patcharee; Jaichapor, Boonsong; Pongsiri, Arissara; Evans, Brian P

    2017-08-07

    Sampling for adult mosquito populations is a means of evaluating the efficacy of vector control operations. The goal of this study was to evaluate and identify the most efficacious mosquito traps and combinations of attractants for malaria vector surveillance along the Thai-Myanmar border. In the first part of the study, the BG-Sentinel™ Trap (BGS Trap) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light trap (CDC LT) baited with different attractants (BG-lure® and CO 2 ) were evaluated using a Latin square experimental design. The six configurations were BGS Trap with BG-lure, BGS Trap with BG-lure plus CO 2 , BGS Trap with CO 2 , CDC LT with BG-lure, CDC LT with BG lure plus CO 2 , and CDC LT with CO 2 . The second half of the study evaluated the impact of light color on malaria vector collections. Colors included the incandescent bulb, ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED), green light stick, red light stick, green LED, and red LED. A total of 8638 mosquitoes consisting of 42 species were captured over 708 trap-nights. The trap types, attractants, and colored lights affected numbers of female anopheline and Anopheles minimus collected (GLM, P surveillance when baited with CO 2 and the BG-lure in combination and can be effectively used as the new gold standard technique for collecting malaria vectors in Thailand.

  7. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC. Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia.

  8. Metabolomic Profiling of the Malaria Box Reveals Antimalarial Target Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Erik L.; Painter, Heather J.; Samra, Jasmeet; Carrasquilla, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The threat of widespread drug resistance to frontline antimalarials has renewed the urgency for identifying inexpensive chemotherapeutic compounds that are effective against Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite species responsible for the greatest number of malaria-related deaths worldwide. To aid in the fight against malaria, a recent extensive screening campaign has generated thousands of lead compounds with low micromolar activity against blood stage parasites. A subset of these leads has been compiled by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) into a collection of structurally diverse compounds known as the MMV Malaria Box. Currently, little is known regarding the activity of these Malaria Box compounds on parasite metabolism during intraerythrocytic development, and a majority of the targets for these drugs have yet to be defined. Here we interrogated the in vitro metabolic effects of 189 drugs (including 169 of the drug-like compounds from the Malaria Box) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). The resulting metabolic fingerprints provide information on the parasite biochemical pathways affected by pharmacologic intervention and offer a critical blueprint for selecting and advancing lead compounds as next-generation antimalarial drugs. Our results reveal several major classes of metabolic disruption, which allow us to predict the mode of action (MoA) for many of the Malaria Box compounds. We anticipate that future combination therapies will be greatly informed by these results, allowing for the selection of appropriate drug combinations that simultaneously target multiple metabolic pathways, with the aim of eliminating malaria and forestalling the expansion of drug-resistant parasites in the field. PMID:27572391

  9. Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification for asymptomatic malaria detection in challenging field settings: Technical performance and pilot implementation in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Serra-Casas

    Full Text Available Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP methodology offers an opportunity for point-of-care (POC molecular detection of asymptomatic malaria infections. However, there is still little evidence on the feasibility of implementing this technique for population screenings in isolated field settings.Overall, we recruited 1167 individuals from terrestrial ('road' and hydric ('riverine' communities of the Peruvian Amazon for a cross-sectional survey to detect asymptomatic malaria infections. The technical performance of LAMP was evaluated in a subgroup of 503 samples, using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR as reference standard. The operational feasibility of introducing LAMP testing in the mobile screening campaigns was assessed based on field-suitability parameters, along with a pilot POC-LAMP assay in a riverine community without laboratory infrastructure.LAMP had a sensitivity of 91.8% (87.7-94.9 and specificity of 91.9% (87.8-95.0, and the overall accuracy was significantly better among samples collected during road screenings than riverine communities (p≤0.004. LAMP-based diagnostic strategy was successfully implemented within the field-team logistics and the POC-LAMP pilot in the riverine community allowed for a reduction in the turnaround time for case management, from 12-24 hours to less than 5 hours. Specimens with haemolytic appearance were regularly observed in riverine screenings and could help explaining the hindered performance/interpretation of the LAMP reaction in these communities.LAMP-based molecular malaria diagnosis can be deployed outside of reference laboratories, providing similar performance as qPCR. However, scale-up in remote field settings such as riverine communities needs to consider a number of logistical challenges (e.g. environmental conditions, labour-intensiveness in large population screenings that can influence its optimal implementation.

  10. Malaria Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast gives an overview of malaria, including prevention and treatment, and what CDC is doing to help control and prevent malaria globally.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/18/2008.

  11. Effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on house-entry by malaria mosquitoes: The flight response recorded in a semi-field study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Teun; Mukabana, W Richard; Takken, Willem

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated nets are currently a major tool to reduce malaria transmission. Their level of repellency affects contact of the mosquito with the net, but may also influence the mosquito's entry into the house. The response of host-seeking malaria mosquitoes approaching the eave of an experimental house was recorded within a large screen house. We compared entry- and exit rates in relation to the presence in the house of different insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) with an untreated net. Mosquitoes were lured towards the house by dispensing a synthetic host-odour blend from within the net in the house. Complementary WHO bioassays revealed that the treated nets caused high knock-down- and mortality responses to the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto strain tested. The proportion of mosquitoes that came into view of the cameras and subsequently entered the house did not differ between treated nets and the untreated net. Treated nets did not affect proportions of mosquitoes that exited the house and departed from view around the eave. However, the percentage of house-leaving and re-entering mosquitoes when an insecticide- treated net was present, was lower than in the presence of an untreated net. Our results indicated that there was no spatial repellent effect from pyrethroid-treated nets that influences house-entry at eave level. It is argued that the toxic effect of treated bed nets resulted in a reduced number of mosquitoes re-entering the house, which could thereby affect malaria transmission in neighbouring, unprotected houses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. First report of the infection of insecticide-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes with an entomopathogenic fungus under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Annabel F. V.; N'Guessan, Raphael; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Asidi, Alex; Farenhorst, Marit; Akogbéto, Martin; Knols, Bart G. J.; Takken, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Insecticide-resistant mosquitoes are compromising the ability of current mosquito control tools to control malaria vectors. A proposed new approach for mosquito control is to use entomopathogenic fungi. These fungi have been shown to be lethal to both insecticide-susceptible and

  13. First report of the infection of insecticide-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes with an entomopathogenic fungus under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; N'Guessan, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Asidi, A.; Farenhorst, M.; Akogbeto, M.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Insecticide-resistant mosquitoes are compromising the ability of current mosquito control tools to control malaria vectors. A proposed new approach for mosquito control is to use entomopathogenic fungi. These fungi have been shown to be lethal to both insecticide-susceptible and

  14. Immunoinformatics of Placental Malaria Vaccine Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Leon Eyrich

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium, which is transferred by female Anopheles mosquitos. WHO estimates that in 2012 there were 207 million cases of malaria, of which 627,000 were fatal. People living in malaria-endemic areas, gradually acquire...... immunity with multiple infections. Placental malaria (PM) is caused by P. falciparum sequestering in the placenta of pregnant women due to the presence of novel receptors in the placenta. An estimated 200,000 infants die a year as a result of PM. In 2004 the specific protein responsible...... and development in the field of placental malaria vaccine development....

  15. Malaria in Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela: current challenges in malaria control and elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recht, Judith; Siqueira, André M; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Herrera, Sonia M; Herrera, Sócrates; Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2017-07-04

    In spite of significant progress towards malaria control and elimination achieved in South America in the 2000s, this mosquito-transmitted tropical disease remains an important public health concern in the region. Most malaria cases in South America come from Amazon rain forest areas in northern countries, where more than half of malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence has decreased in recent years. This review discusses current malaria data, policies and challenges in four South American Amazon countries: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Challenges to continuing efforts to further decrease malaria incidence in this region include: a significant increase in malaria cases in recent years in Venezuela, evidence of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections, peri-urban malaria, gold mining-related malaria, malaria in pregnancy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and primaquine use, and possible under-detection of Plasmodium malariae. Some of these challenges underscore the need to implement appropriate tools and procedures in specific regions, such as a field-compatible molecular malaria test, a P. malariae-specific test, malaria diagnosis and appropriate treatment as part of regular antenatal care visits, G6PD test before primaquine administration for P. vivax cases (with weekly primaquine regimen for G6PD deficient individuals), single low dose of primaquine for P. falciparum malaria in Colombia, and national and regional efforts to contain malaria spread in Venezuela urgently needed especially in mining areas. Joint efforts and commitment towards malaria control and elimination should be strategized based on examples of successful regional malaria fighting initiatives, such as PAMAFRO and RAVREDA/AMI.

  16. Systematic assessment of factors affecting the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 31 million pregnancies occur in areas of stable malaria Plasmodium falciparum transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria in pregnancy can have serious adverse consequences on maternal, newborn and child health, including maternal anaemia, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and

  17. An analysis of the influence of the local effects of climatic and hydrological factors affecting new malaria cases in riverine areas along the Rio Negro and surrounding Puraquequara Lake, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Paulo Eduardo Guzzo; Candido, Luiz Antonio; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; da Silva Junior, Urbano Lopes; Correa, Honorly Katia Mestre

    2018-04-26

    A study was conducted at three sampling regions along the Rio Negro and surrounding Puraquequara Lake, Amazonas, Brazil. The aim was to determine the influence of the local effects of climatic and hydrological variables on new malaria cases. Data was gathered on the river level, precipitation, air temperature, and the number of new cases of autochthonous malaria between January 2003 and December 2013. Monthly averages, time series decompositions, cross-correlations, and multiple regressions revealed different relationships at each location. The sampling region in the upper Rio Negro indicated no statistically significant results. However, monthly averages suggest that precipitation and air temperature correlate positively with the occurrence of new cases of malaria. In the mid Rio Negro and Puraquequara Lake, the river level positively correlated, and temperature negatively correlated with new transmissions, while precipitation correlated negatively in the mid Rio Negro and positively on the lake. Overall, the river level is a key variable affecting the formation of breeding sites, while precipitation may either develop or damage them. A negative temperature correlation is associated with the occurrence of new annual post-peak cases of malaria, when the monthly average exceeds 28.5 °C. This suggests that several factors contribute to the occurrence of new malaria cases as higher temperatures are reached at the same time as precipitation and the river levels are lowest. Differences between signals and correlation lags indicate that local characteristics have an impact on how different variables influence the disease vector's life cycle, pathogens, and consequently, new cases of malaria.

  18. Factors affecting the species composition of arable field boundary vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Verbeek, M.

    2000-01-01

    1. In recent decades the botanical diversity of arable field boundaries has declined drastically. To determine the most important factors related to the species composition of arable field boundaries, the vegetation composition of 105 herbaceous boundaries, 1-m wide, in the central and eastern

  19. Comparative evaluation of bivalent malaria rapid diagnostic tests versus traditional methods in field with special reference to heat stability testing in Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in areas where both Plasmodium falciparum and P.vivax are co-endemic. Bivalent Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDTs showed promise as diagnostic tools for P.falciparum and P.vivax. To assist national malaria control programme in the selection of RDTs, commercially available seven malaria RDTs were evaluated in terms of their performance with special reference to heat stability.This study was undertaken in four forested districts of central India (July, 2011- March, 2012. All RDTs were tested simultaneously in field along with microscopy as gold standard. These RDTs were stored in their original packing at 25°C before transport to the field or they were stored at 35°C and 45°C upto 100 days for testing the performance of RDTs at high temperature. In all 2841 patients with fever were screened for malaria of which 26% were positive for P.falciparum, and 17% for P.vivax. The highest sensitivity of any RDT for P.falciparum was 98% (95% CI; 95.9-98.8 and lowest sensitivity was 76% (95% CI; 71.7-79.6. For P.vivax highest and lowest sensitivity for any RDT was 80% (95% CI; 94.9 - 83.9 and 20% (95% CI; 15.6-24.5 respectively. Heat stability experiments showed that most RDTs for P.falciparum showed high sensitivity at 45°C upto 90 days. While for P.vivax only two RDTs maintained good sensitivity upto day 90 when compared with RDTs kept at room temperature. Agreement between observers was excellent for positive and negative readings for both P.falciparum and P.vivax (Kappa >0.6-0.9.This is first field evaluation of RDTs regarding their temperature stability. Although RDTs are useful as diagnostic tool for P.falciparum and P.vivax even at high temperature, the quality of RDTs should be regulated and monitored more closely.

  20. Effective autodissemination of pyriproxyfen to breeding sites by the exophilic malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in semi-field settings in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwetoijera, Dickson; Harris, Caroline; Kiware, Samson; Dongus, Stefan; Devine, Gregor J; McCall, Philip J; Majambere, Silas

    2014-04-29

    Malaria vector control strategies that target adult female mosquitoes are challenged by the emergence of insecticide resistance and behavioural resilience. Conventional larviciding is restricted by high operational costs and inadequate knowledge of mosquito-breeding habitats in rural settings that might be overcome by the juvenile hormone analogue, Pyriproxyfen (PPF). This study assessed the potential for Anopheles arabiensis to pick up and transfer lethal doses of PPF from contamination sites to their breeding habitats (i.e. autodissemination of PPF). A semi-field system (SFS) with four identical separate chambers was used to evaluate PPF-treated clay pots for delivering PPF to resting adult female mosquitoes for subsequent autodissemination to artificial breeding habitats within the chambers. In each chamber, a tethered cow provided blood meals to laboratory-reared, unfed female An. arabiensis released in the SFS. In PPF-treated chambers, clay pot linings were dusted with 0.2 - 0.3 g AI PPF per pot. Pupae were removed from the artificial habitats daily, and emergence rates calculated. Impact of PPF on emergence was determined by comparing treatment with an appropriate control group. Mean (95% CI) adult emergence rates were (0.21 ± 0.299) and (0.95 ± 0.39) from PPF-treated and controls respectively (p clay pot reduced adult emergence in six habitats to (0.34 ± 0.13) compared to (0.98 ± 0.02) in the controls (p < 0.0001), showing a high level of habitats coverage amplification of the autodissemination event. The study provides proof of principle for the autodissemination of PPF to breeding habitats by malaria vectors. These findings highlight the potential for this technique for outdoor control of malaria vectors and call for the testing of this technique in field trials.

  1. Host-seeking behaviors of mosquitoes experimentally infected with sympatric field isolates of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: no evidence for host manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eVantaux

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that Plasmodium parasites can manipulate mosquito feeding behaviours such as motivation and avidity to feed on vertebrate hosts, in ways that increase the probability of parasite transmission. These studies, however, have been mainly carried out on non-natural and/or laboratory based model systems and hence may not reflect what occurs in the field. We now need to move closer to the natural setting, if we are to fully capture the ecological and evolutionary consequences of these parasite-induced behavioral changes. As part of this effort, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the long and short-range behavioural responses to human stimuli in the mosquito Anopheles coluzzii during different stages of infection with sympatric field isolates of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in Burkina Faso. First, we used a dual-port olfactometer designed to take advantage of the whole body odor to gauge mosquito long-range host-seeking behaviors. Second, we used a locomotor activity monitor system to assess mosquito short-range behaviors. Compared to control uninfected mosquitoes, P. falciparum infection had no significant effect neither on long-range nor on short-range behaviors both at the immature and mature stages. This study, using a natural mosquito-malaria parasite association, indicates that manipulation of vector behavior may not be a general phenomenon. We speculate that the observed contrasting phenotypes with model systems might result from coevolution of the human parasite and its natural vector. Future experiments, using other sympatric malaria mosquito populations or species are required to test this hypothesis. In conclusion, our results highlight the importance of following up discoveries in laboratory model systems with studies on natural parasite–mosquito interactions to accurately predict the epidemiological, ecological and evolutionary consequences of parasite manipulation of vector

  2. Field assessment of a novel spatial repellent for malaria control: a feasibility and acceptability study in Mondulkiri, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Marco; Charlwood, Jacques Derek; Lawford, Harriet; Yeung, Shunmay

    2017-10-13

    Large-scale use of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying have contributed to a significant decrease in malaria transmission worldwide. Further reduction and progress towards elimination, however, require complementary control measures which can address the remaining gaps in protection from mosquito bites. Following the development of novel pyrethroids with high knockdown effects on malaria vectors, programmatic use of spatial repellents has been suggested as one potential strategy to fill the gaps. This report explores social and contextual factors that may influence the relevance, uptake and sustainable use of a spatial repellent in two remote villages in Mondulkiri province, Cambodia, with endemic malaria transmission. The repellent consisted of polyethylene emanators, held in an open plastic frame and impregnated with 10% metofluthrin. In a baseline survey, 90.9% of households in Ou Chra (n = 30/33) and 96.6% in Pu Cha (n = 57/59) were interviewed. Behavioural data were collected for all household occupants (n = 448). In both villages, there were times and places in which people remained exposed to mosquito bites. Prior to the installation of the repellent, 50.6 and 59.5% of respondents noted that bites occurred "very often" inside the house and in the outdoor area surrounding the house, respectively. Indoor biting was reported to occur more frequently in the evening, followed by at night, while outdoor biting occurred more frequently in the early morning. In a follow-up survey, spatial repellents were well received in both villages, although 63.2% of respondents would not replace bed nets with repellents. Most participants (96.6%) were willing to use the product again; the mean willingness to pay was US$ 0.3 per unit. A preference for local procurement methods emerged. Widespread use of spatial repellents would not fill all protective gaps, but, if their entomological efficacy can be ascertained, outdoor application has the potential to

  3. Utility of health facility-based malaria data for malaria surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A Afrane

    Full Text Available Currently, intensive malaria control programs are being implemented in Africa to reduce the malaria burden. Clinical malaria data from hospitals are valuable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating the impacts of these interventions. However, the reliability of hospital-based data for true malaria incidence is often questioned because of diagnosis accuracy issues and variation in access to healthcare facilities among sub-groups of the population. This study investigated how diagnosis and treatment practices of malaria cases in hospitals affect reliability of hospital malaria data.The study was undertaken in health facilities in western Kenya. A total of 3,569 blood smears were analyzed after being collected from patients who were requested by clinicians to go to the hospital's laboratory for malaria testing. We applied several quality control measures for clinical malaria diagnosis. We compared our slide reading results with those from the hospital technicians. Among the 3,390 patients whose diagnoses were analyzed, only 36% had clinical malaria defined as presence of any level of parasitaemia and fever. Sensitivity and specificity of clinicians' diagnoses were 60.1% (95% CI: 61.1-67.5 and 75.0% (95% CI: 30.8-35.7, respectively. Among the 980 patients presumptively treated with an anti-malarial by the clinicians without laboratory diagnosis, only 47% had clinical malaria.These findings revealed substantial over-prescription of anti-malarials and misdiagnosis of clinical malaria. More than half of the febrile cases were not truly clinical malaria, but were wrongly diagnosed and treated as such. Deficiency in malaria diagnosis makes health facility data unreliable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating impacts of malaria interventions. Improving malaria diagnosis should be a top priority in rural African health centers.

  4. Diffusion affected magnetic field effect in exciplex fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burshtein, Anatoly I.; Ivanov, Anatoly I.

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence of the exciplex, 1 [D +δ A −δ ], formed at contact of photoexcited acceptor 1 A * with an electron donor 1 D, is known to be very sensitive to an external magnetic field, reducing the spin conversion efficiency in the resulting geminate radical ion pair, 1,3 [D + …A − ]. The relative increase of the exciplex fluorescence in the highest magnetic field compared to the lowest one, known as the magnetic field effect, crucially depends on the viscosity of the solvent. This phenomenon first studied experimentally is at first reproduced here theoretically. The magnetic field effect is shown to vanish in both limits of high and low solvent diffusivity reaching a maximum in between. It is also very sensitive to the solvent dielectric constant and to the exciplex and radical-ion pair conversion rates

  5. Diffusion affected magnetic field effect in exciplex fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burshtein, Anatoly I. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Ivanov, Anatoly I., E-mail: Anatoly.Ivanov@volsu.ru [Volgograd State University, University Avenue, 100, Volgograd 400062 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-14

    The fluorescence of the exciplex, {sup 1}[D{sup +δ}A{sup −δ}], formed at contact of photoexcited acceptor {sup 1}A{sup *} with an electron donor {sup 1}D, is known to be very sensitive to an external magnetic field, reducing the spin conversion efficiency in the resulting geminate radical ion pair, {sup 1,3}[D{sup +}…A{sup −}]. The relative increase of the exciplex fluorescence in the highest magnetic field compared to the lowest one, known as the magnetic field effect, crucially depends on the viscosity of the solvent. This phenomenon first studied experimentally is at first reproduced here theoretically. The magnetic field effect is shown to vanish in both limits of high and low solvent diffusivity reaching a maximum in between. It is also very sensitive to the solvent dielectric constant and to the exciplex and radical-ion pair conversion rates.

  6. Diffusion affected magnetic field effect in exciplex fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burshtein, Anatoly I.; Ivanov, Anatoly I.

    2014-07-01

    The fluorescence of the exciplex, 1[D+δA-δ], formed at contact of photoexcited acceptor 1A* with an electron donor 1D, is known to be very sensitive to an external magnetic field, reducing the spin conversion efficiency in the resulting geminate radical ion pair, 1, 3[D+…A-]. The relative increase of the exciplex fluorescence in the highest magnetic field compared to the lowest one, known as the magnetic field effect, crucially depends on the viscosity of the solvent. This phenomenon first studied experimentally is at first reproduced here theoretically. The magnetic field effect is shown to vanish in both limits of high and low solvent diffusivity reaching a maximum in between. It is also very sensitive to the solvent dielectric constant and to the exciplex and radical-ion pair conversion rates.

  7. Malaria prophylaxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria D:lay still be contracted despite good cOD:lpliance with ... true that prophylaxis is always better than no prophy- laxis, nor is ... If used during pregnancy, a folic acid supplement ... include folate deficiency, agranulocytosis, illegaloblastic.

  8. Field evaluation of a PfHRP-2/pLDH rapid diagnostic test and light microscopy for diagnosis and screening of falciparum malaria during the peak seasonal transmission in an endemic area in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alareqi, Lina M Q; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Ali, Arwa A; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Tawfek, Rehab; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-28

    Malaria is a public health threat in Yemen, with 149,451 cases being reported in 2013. Of these, Plasmodium falciparum represents 99%. Prompt diagnosis by light microscopy (LM) and rapid diagnostic tests (RTDs) is a key element in the national strategy of malaria control. The heterogeneous epidemiology of malaria in the country necessitates the field evaluation of the current diagnostic strategies, especially RDTs. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate LM and an RDT, combining both P. falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), for falciparum malaria diagnosis and survey in a malaria-endemic area during the transmission season against nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method. A household-based, cross-sectional malaria survey was conducted in Mawza District, a malaria-endemic area in Taiz governorate. A total of 488 participants were screened using LM and PfHRP-2/pLDH RDT. Positive samples (160) and randomly selected negative samples (52) by both RDT and LM were further analysed using 18S rRNA-based nested PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RDT were 96.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 90.9-98.3), 56.0% (95% CI: 44.7-66.8), 76.3% (95% CI: 69.0-82.3), and 90.4% (95% CI: 78.8-96.8), respectively. On the other hand, LM showed sensitivity of 37.6% (95% CI: 29.6-46.3), specificity of 97.6% (95% CI: 91.7-99.7), PPV of 95.9% (95% CI: 86.3-98.9), and NPV of 51.3% (95% CI: 43.2-59.2). The sensitivity of LM dropped to 8.5% for detecting asymptomatic malaria. Malaria prevalence was 32.8% (32.1 and 37.5% for ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with the RDT compared with 10.7% (10.8 and 9.4% for age groups of ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with LM. Among asymptomatic malaria individuals, LM and RDT-based prevalence rates were 1.6 and 25.6%, respectively. However, rates of 88.2 and 94.1% of infection with P. falciparum were found

  9. Prevalence and pattern of malaria parasitaemia among under-five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-07

    Aug 7, 2015 ... malaria control programs while ensuring proper ... cent of global infectious diseases burden.1 According to the World Malaria ... Maiduguri Teaching Hospital is a centre of excellence ... 100 oil-immersion fields. For positive ...

  10. Malaria: toxins, cytokines and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Bate, C A; Taverne, J

    1995-01-01

    In this review the old concept of severe malaria as a toxic disease is re-examined in the light of recent discoveries in the field of cytokines. Animal studies suggest that the induction of TNF by parasite-derived molecules may be partly responsible for cerebral malaria and anemia, while...... hypoglycaemia may be due to direct effects of similar molecules on glucose metabolism. These molecules appear to be phospholipids and we suggest that when fully characterized they might form the basis of antitoxic therapy for malaria....

  11. Factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    colloidal material is illustrated through the evaluation of thermal diffusion coefficient of PS ... Field-flow fractionation (FFF) is a separation method introduced by Giddings in 1966 [1]. It is a ... no stationary phase is used in FFF. .... that the inversion diameter (diameter at which order of retention changes) can be shifted up or.

  12. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  13. Current vector control challenges in the fight against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Beier, John C

    2017-10-01

    The effective and eco-friendly control of Anopheles vectors plays a key role in any malaria management program. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) suggests making use of the full range of vector control tools available. The strategies for IVM require novel technologies to control outdoor transmission of malaria. Despite the wide number of promising control tools tested against mosquitoes, current strategies for malaria vector control used in most African countries are not sufficient to achieve successful malaria control. The majority of National Malaria Control Programs in Africa still rely on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). These methods reduce malaria incidence but generally have little impact on malaria prevalence. In addition to outdoor transmission, growing levels of insecticide resistance in targeted vectors threaten the efficacy of LLINs and IRS. Larvicidal treatments can be useful, but are not recommended for rural areas. The research needed to improve the quality and delivery of mosquito vector control should focus on (i) optimization of processes and methods for vector control delivery; (ii) monitoring of vector populations and biting activity with reliable techniques; (iii) the development of effective and eco-friendly tools to reduce the burden or locally eliminate malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases; (iv) the careful evaluation of field suitability and efficacy of new mosquito control tools to prove their epidemiological impact; (v) the continuous monitoring of environmental changes which potentially affect malaria vector populations; (vi) the cooperation among different disciplines, with main emphasis on parasitology, tropical medicine, ecology, entomology, and ecotoxicology. A better understanding of behavioral ecology of malaria vectors is required. Key ecological obstacles that limit the effectiveness of vector control include the variation in mosquito behavior, development of insecticide resistance

  14. DNA Sensors for Malaria Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Fjelstrup, Søren; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of malaria diagnosis much effort is put into the development of faster and easier alternatives to the gold standard, blood smear microscopy. Nucleic acid amplification based techniques pose some of the most promising upcoming diagnostic tools due to their potential for high sensitivity......, robustness and user-friendliness. In the current review, we will discuss some of the different DNA-based sensor systems under development for the diagnosis of malaria....

  15. Panic! Affect Contagion, Mimesis and Suggestion in the Social Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gibbs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes the phenomenon of panic from both neurological and affective points of view. It draws on the work of Japp Panksepp, who argues for the importance of distinguishing between fear as a response to physical threat, and panic as a response to the loss of the attachment object. While fear flees, panic, perhaps contrary to appearances, seeks security. This view of panic throws a new light on classic analyses of crowd behaviour, among them those of Le Bon, Tarde and Canetti, but it also has implications for how panic takes hold via electronic media, and for how outbreaks may be calmed. Finally, the essay argues that mediatised panic is a distraction from fear—in which anything at all may represent physical danger, but which at least offers a range of possible responses for addressing the problem, and offers the opportunity for the transformative work performed by cognition on affect. Here the paper draws on the script theory of Silvan Tomkins to provoke questions of the social usefulness of fear in the face of some current arguments to the contrary.

  16. Malaria chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Peter; Ward, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Most malaria control strategies today depend on safe and effective drugs, as they have done for decades. But sensitivity to chloroquine, hitherto the workhorse of malaria chemotherapy, has rapidly declined throughout the tropics since the 1980s, and this drug is now useless in many high-transmission areas. New options for resource-constrained governments are few, and there is growing evidence that the burden from malaria has been increasing, as has malaria mortality in Africa. In this chapter, we have tried to outline the main pharmacological properties of current drugs, and their therapeutic uses and limitations. We have summarised the ways in which these drugs are employed, both in the formal health sector and in self-medication. We have briefly touched on the limitations of current drug development, but have tried to pick out a few promising drugs that are under development. Given that Plasmodium falciparum is the organism that kills, and that has developed multi-drug resistance, we have tended to focus upon it. Similarly, given that around 90% of global mortality from malaria occurs in Africa, there is the tendency to dwell on this continent. We give no apology for placing our emphasis upon the use of antimalarial drugs in endemic populations rather than their use for prophylaxis in travellers.

  17. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M; Tan, Kathrine R

    2018-05-04

    malaria cases diagnosed in the United States has been increasing since the mid-1970s, the number of cases decreased by 208 from 2014 to 2015. Among the regions of acquisition (Africa, West Africa, Asia, Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Oceania, and the Middle East), the only region with significantly fewer imported cases in 2015 compared with 2014 was West Africa (781 versus 969). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 67.4%, 11.7%, 4.1%, and 3.1% of cases, respectively. Less than 1% of patients were infected by two species. The infecting species was unreported or undetermined in 12.9% of cases. CDC provided diagnostic assistance for 13.1% of patients with confirmed cases and tested 15.0% of P. falciparum specimens for antimalarial resistance markers. Of the U.S. resident patients who reported purpose of travel, 68.4% were visiting friends or relatives. A lower proportion of U.S. residents with malaria reported taking any chemoprophylaxis in 2015 (26.5%) compared with 2014 (32.5%), and adherence was poor in this group. Among the U.S residents for whom information on chemoprophylaxis use and travel region were known, 95.3% of patients with malaria did not adhere to or did not take a CDC-recommended chemoprophylaxis regimen. Among women with malaria, 32 were pregnant, and none had adhered to chemoprophylaxis. A total of 23 malaria cases occurred among U.S. military personnel in 2015. Three cases of malaria were imported from the approximately 3,000 military personnel deployed to an Ebola-affected country; two of these were not P. falciparum species, and one species was unspecified. Among all reported cases in 2015, 17.1% were classified as severe illnesses and 11 persons died, compared with an average of 6.1 deaths per year during 2000-2014. In 2015, CDC received 153 P. falciparum-positive samples for surveillance of antimalarial resistance markers (although certain loci were untestable for some samples); genetic

  18. Emotions Are Rising: The Growing Field of Affect Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Skye

    2017-10-01

    Thirty years ago, the neuropsychology of emotion started to emerge as a mainstream topic. Careful examination of individual patients showed that emotion, like memory, language, and so on, could be differentially affected by brain disorders, especially in the right hemisphere. Since then, there has been accelerating interest in uncovering the neural architecture of emotion, and the major steps in this process of discovery over the past 3 decades are detailed in this review. In the 1990s, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans provided precise delineation of lesions in the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, insula and somatosensory cortex as underpinning emotion disorders. At the same time, functional MRI revealed activation that was bilateral and also lateralized according to task demands. In the 2000s, converging evidence suggested at least two routes to emotional responses: subcortical, automatic and autonomic responses and slower, cortical responses mediating cognitive processing. The discovery of mirror neurons in the 1990s reinvigorated older views that simulation was the means to recognize emotions and empathize with others. More recently, psychophysiological research, revisiting older Russian paradigms, has contributed new insights into how autonomic and other physiological indices contribute to decision making (the somatic marker theory), emotional simulation, and social cognition. Finally, this review considers the extent to which these seismic changes in understanding emotional processes in clinical disorders have been reflected in neuropsychological practice. (JINS, 2017, 23, 719-731).

  19. A sub-microscopic gametocyte reservoir can sustain malaria transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Karl

    Full Text Available Novel diagnostic tools, including PCR and high field gradient magnetic fractionation (HFGMF, have improved detection of asexual Plasmodium falciparum parasites and especially infectious gametocytes in human blood. These techniques indicate a significant number of people carry gametocyte densities that fall below the conventional threshold of detection achieved by standard light microscopy (LM.To determine how low-level gametocytemia may affect transmission in present large-scale efforts for P. falciparum control in endemic areas, we developed a refinement of the classical Ross-Macdonald model of malaria transmission by introducing multiple infective compartments to model the potential impact of highly prevalent, low gametocytaemic reservoirs in the population. Models were calibrated using field-based data and several numerical experiments were conducted to assess the effect of high and low gametocytemia on P. falciparum transmission and control. Special consideration was given to the impact of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLIN, presently considered the most efficient way to prevent transmission, and particularly LLIN coverage similar to goals targeted by the Roll Back Malaria and Global Fund malaria control campaigns. Our analyses indicate that models which include only moderate-to-high gametocytemia (detectable by LM predict finite eradication times after LLIN introduction. Models that include a low gametocytemia reservoir (requiring PCR or HFGMF detection predict much more stable, persistent transmission. Our modeled outcomes result in significantly different estimates for the level and duration of control needed to achieve malaria elimination if submicroscopic gametocytes are included.It will be very important to complement current methods of surveillance with enhanced diagnostic techniques to detect asexual parasites and gametocytes to more accurately plan, monitor and guide malaria control programs aimed at eliminating malaria.

  20. Exploiting the behaviour of wild malaria vectors to achieve high infection with fungal biocontrol agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Control of mosquitoes that transmit malaria has been the mainstay in the fight against the disease, but alternative methods are required in view of emerging insecticide resistance. Entomopathogenic fungi are candidate alternatives, but to date, few trials have translated the use of these agents to field-based evaluations of their actual impact on mosquito survival and malaria risk. Mineral oil-formulations of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were applied using five different techniques that each exploited the behaviour of malaria mosquitoes when entering, host-seeking or resting in experimental huts in a malaria endemic area of rural Tanzania. Results Survival of mosquitoes was reduced by 39-57% relative to controls after forcing upward house-entry of mosquitoes through fungus treated baffles attached to the eaves or after application of fungus-treated surfaces around an occupied bed net (bed net strip design). Moreover, 68 to 76% of the treatment mosquitoes showed fungal growth and thus had sufficient contact with fungus treated surfaces. A population dynamic model of malaria-mosquito interactions shows that these infection rates reduce malaria transmission by 75-80% due to the effect of fungal infection on adult mortality alone. The model also demonstrated that even if a high proportion of the mosquitoes exhibits outdoor biting behaviour, malaria transmission was still significantly reduced. Conclusions Entomopathogenic fungi strongly affect mosquito survival and have a high predicted impact on malaria transmission. These entomopathogens represent a viable alternative for malaria control, especially if they are used as part of an integrated vector management strategy. PMID:22449130

  1. slide positivity rate of malaria among patients attending two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Key words: malaria, slide positivity rate, Kano metropolis. INTRODUCTION. Malaria has a worldwide distribution, affecting people of all ages, with an enormous burden amounting to. 300-500 million clinical cases per year, 80% of which occur in Africa (Lucas & Gills, 2003). Globally ten (10) new cases of malaria occur every ...

  2. Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a chronic parasitic disease that affects everybody but with pregnant women and children under the age of 5 years as its main target. The adverse complications of malaria in pregnancy makes it of immense public health importance. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of malaria among antenatal ...

  3. Prevalence of malaria and human blood factors among patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria has been and is still a major protozoan disease affecting the human population. Erythrocyte polymorphisms (mainly in blood groups and genotypes) influence the susceptibility to severe malaria. Aim: This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence malaria in relation to human blood factor and to ...

  4. T-cell responses in malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Jakobsen, P H; Abu-Zeid, Y A

    1992-01-01

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It remains one of the most severe health problems in tropical regions of the world, and the rapid spread of resistance to drugs and insecticides has stimulated intensive research aimed at the development of a malaria...... vaccine. Despite this, no efficient operative vaccine is currently available. A large amount of information on T-cell responses to malaria antigens has been accumulated, concerning antigens derived from all stages of the parasite life cycle. The present review summarizes some of that information......, and discusses factors affecting the responses of T cells to malaria antigens....

  5. Kompliceret malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Jacobsen, E

    1989-01-01

    An increasing number of cases of malaria, imported to Denmark, are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and severe and complicated cases are more often seen. In the Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, 23 out of 32 cases, hospitalized from 1.1-30.6.1988, i.e. 72%, were caused by P...

  6. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.

  7. Malaria vaccines: immunity, models and monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars; Barfod, Lea

    2008-01-01

    Although experts in the field have agreed on the malaria vaccine technology roadmap that should be followed (http://www.malariavaccineroadmap.net/), the path towards an effective malaria vaccine remains littered with intellectual and practical pot-holes. The animal models that are currently...

  8. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-01-24

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.  Created: 1/24/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/13/2007.

  9. Factors affecting the delivery, access, and use of interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, Jenny; Hoyt, Jenna; van Eijk, Anna Maria; D'Mello-Guyett, Lauren; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Steketee, Rick; Smith, Helen; Webster, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy has important consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the World Health Organization-recommended prevention strategy for pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is low. We conducted

  10. Social and cultural factors affecting uptake of interventions for malaria in pregnancy in Africa: a systematic review of the qualitative research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pell, C.; Straus, L.; Andrew, E.V.W.; Meñaca, A.; Pool, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria during pregnancy (MiP) results in adverse birth outcomes and poor maternal health. MiP-related morbidity and mortality is most pronounced in sub-Saharan Africa, where recommended MiP interventions include intermittent preventive treatment, insecticide-treated bednets and

  11. Laboratory indicators of the diagnosis and course of imported malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Ida E; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Møller, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    When travellers return from malaria-endemic areas and present to hospital with fever, microscopy of blood smears remains the leading method to verify a suspected diagnosis of malaria. Additional laboratory abnormalities may, however, also be indicative of acute malaria infection. We monitored....... For comparison, admission values of a group of febrile patients with suspected malaria, but with negative blood slides, were also assessed (n=66). The thrombocyte, leucocyte counts and coagulation factor II-VII-X were significantly lower in the malaria group compared to the non-malaria group, whereas the C......-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin were significantly higher in the malaria group. The differences were particularly strong with falciparum malaria. By contrast, haemoglobin levels were not affected. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the role of a few commonly analysed laboratory parameters...

  12. Hysteresis in simulations of malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, Teresa K.; Qiu, Xin; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2017-10-01

    Malaria transmission is a complex system and in many parts of the world is closely related to climate conditions. However, studies on environmental determinants of malaria generally consider only concurrent climate conditions and ignore the historical or initial conditions of the system. Here, we demonstrate the concept of hysteresis in malaria transmission, defined as non-uniqueness of the relationship between malaria prevalence and concurrent climate conditions. We show the dependence of simulated malaria transmission on initial prevalence and the initial level of human immunity in the population. Using realistic time series of environmental variables, we quantify the effect of hysteresis in a modeled population. In a set of numerical experiments using HYDREMATS, a field-tested mechanistic model of malaria transmission, the simulated maximum malaria prevalence depends on both the initial prevalence and the initial level of human immunity in the population. We found the effects of initial conditions to be of comparable magnitude to the effects of interannual variability in environmental conditions in determining malaria prevalence. The memory associated with this hysteresis effect is longer in high transmission settings than in low transmission settings. Our results show that efforts to simulate and forecast malaria transmission must consider the exposure history of a location as well as the concurrent environmental drivers.

  13. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  14. [Current malaria situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismil'din, F B; Shapieva, Zh Zh; Anpilova, E N

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is situated in the northern hemisphere on the boundary of two continents--Europe and Asia--at a longitude of 45 degrees E--87 degrees E and a latitude of 40 degrees N--55 degrees N. The total area of the republic is 2,724,900 square kilometers. Kazakhstan shares a border with the Russian Federation to the north-west, north and east: the border between the two countries is almost 6500 km long. To the south, Kazakhstan shares a border with the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan (380 km), Uzbekistan (2300 km) and Kyrgystan (980 km). To the south-east, it shares a border with China (1460 km): to the west is the Caspian Sea (600 km). Thus, the total length of Kazakhstan's external borders is 12,000 km. Because of the geographical, natural and climatic features prevailing throughout most of the Republic, there is a potential danger that local transmission of malaria may begin again if the disease is imported from abroad. The areas most at risk are the Panfilov and Uigur raions of Almaty oblast, which share a border with malaria-endemic regions of China, and the Saryagash and Makhtaral' raions of South Kazakhstan oblast along the border with Uzbekistan. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan places particular emphasis on malaria prevention and control, taking into account the historical data about the prevalence of malaria from the late 1920s to the early 1940s, amounting to hundreds of thousands of cases every year. Government Decree No. 840 entitled "Urgent Measures to Protect the Population from Blood-Sucking Insects and Ticks Dangerous to Humans", which lays down measures for the control of malarial mosquitoes in the areas most susceptible to malaria resurgence, was adopted in 1996. The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan issued instructions in 1998 and 1999 which were designed to motivate all health facilities in the field of malaria prevention and control. At present, as part of the directives developed by the

  15. Research Into the Role of Students’ Affective Domain While Learning Geology in Field Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Existing research programs in field-based geocognition include assessment of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains. Assessment of the affective domain often involves the use of instruments and techniques uncommon to the geosciences. Research regarding the affective domain also commonly results in the collection and production of qualitative data that is difficult for geoscientists to analyze due to their lack of familiarity with these data sets. However, important information about students’ affective responses to learning in field environments can be obtained by using these methods. My research program focuses on data produced by students’ affective responses to field-based learning environments, primarily among students at the introductory level. For this research I developed a Likert-scale Novelty Space Survey, which presents student ‘novelty space’ (Orion and Hofstien, 1993) as a polygon; the larger the polygons, the more novelty students are experiencing. The axises for these polygons correspond to novelty domains involving geographic, social, cognitive, and psychological factors. In addition to the Novelty Space Survey, data which I have collected/generated includes focus group interviews on the role of recreational experiences in geology field programs. I have also collected data concerning the motivating factors that cause students to take photographs on field trips. The results of these studies give insight to the emotional responses students have to learning in the field and are important considerations for practitioners of teaching in these environments. Collaborative investigations among research programs that cross university departments and include multiple institutions is critical at this point in development of geocognition as a field due to unfamiliarity with cognitive science methodology by practitioners teaching geosciences and the dynamic nature of field work by cognitive scientists. However, combining the efforts of cognitive

  16. APPLICATION OF MALARIA DETECTION OF DRAWING BLOOD CELLS USING MICROSCOPIC OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Herusutopo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research is to produce an application, which can detect malaria on patient through microscopic digital image of blood sample. The research methods are data collection, design analysis, testing and evaluation. The used application methods are image pre-processing, morphology and image segmentation using OpenCV. The expected result is a creation of application, which can be able to detect malaria on a microscopic digital image of patient blood sample. The conclusion is that the application can detect malaria from young trophozoites stadium and gametesocytes from the picture.Keywords: Detection; Malaria; Computer Vision; OpenCVINTRODUCTIONSystem technology of computer-based with artificial intelligence already can be used in medicine field, for example, to resolve the problems: detecting specific disease and its symptoms, analyzing the content of a sample, monitoring the condition of an organ, and others. Nevertheless, the medical field is very wide, so for detecting diseases problems, not yet much disease that detection can be done with a computer-based system. One example of the issues is well-known disease detection, which is malaria. Malaria is classified as a serious disease because it can cause death if it is not treated properly. Malaria has various types and can affect anyone anywhere. The symptoms of malaria is really common as it may appear in daily life, but cannot always indicate that a person infected with malaria. Indications, which can show that a person infected with malaria, are the clinical examination and blood tests.With the blood test, the treatment of malaria can be implemented correctly and precisely. It needs technology that can detect malaria correctly and precisely. The solution is the method of support vector machine that can detect malaria in humans by viewing image of appearance blood cells.METHODThe methods used in this research are data collection, analysis and design. The data collection includes

  17. Multipurpose effectiveness of Couroupita guianensis-synthesized gold nanoparticles: high antiplasmodial potential, field efficacy against malaria vectors and synergy with Aplocheilus lineatus predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. According to recent estimates, about 3.2 billion people, almost half of the world's population, are at risk of malaria. Malaria control is particularly challenging due to a growing number of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium and pesticide-resistant Anopheles vectors. Newer and safer control tools are required. In this research, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were biosynthesized using a cheap flower extract of Couroupita guianensis as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biofabrication of AuNP was confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, and particle size analysis. AuNP showed different shapes including spheres, ovals, and triangles. AuNPs were crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry; mean size was 29.2-43.8 nm. In laboratory conditions, AuNPs were toxic against Anopheles stephensi larvae, pupae, and adults. LC50 was 17.36 ppm (larva I), 19.79 ppm (larva II), 21.69 ppm (larva III), 24.57 ppm (larva IV), 28.78 ppm (pupa), and 11.23 ppm (adult). In the field, a single treatment with C. guianensis flower extract and AuNP (10 × LC50) led to complete larval mortality after 72 h. In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of golden wonder killifish, Aplocheilus lineatus, against A. stephensi IV instar larvae was 56.38 %, while in an aquatic environment treated with sub-lethal doses of the flower extract or AuNP, predation efficiency was boosted to 83.98 and 98.04 %, respectively. Lastly, the antiplasmodial activity of C. guianensis flower extract and AuNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. IC50 of C. guianensis flower extract was 43.21 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 51.16 μg/ml (CQ-r). AuNP IC50 was 69.47 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 76

  18. Conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Denis; Clark, James

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale forest conservation projects are underway in the Brazilian Amazon but little is known regarding their public health impact. Current literature emphasizes how land clearing increases malaria incidence, leading to the conclusion that forest conservation decreases malaria burden. Yet, there is also evidence that proximity to forest fringes increases malaria incidence, which implies the opposite relationship between forest conservation and malaria. We compare the effect of these environmental factors on malaria and explore its implications. Using a large malaria dataset (~1,300,000 positive malaria tests collected over ~4.5 million km(2)), satellite imagery, permutation tests, and hierarchical Bayesian regressions, we show that greater forest cover (as a proxy for proximity to forest fringes) tends to be associated with higher malaria incidence, and that forest cover effect was 25 times greater than the land clearing effect, the often cited culprit of malaria in the region. These findings have important implications for land use/land cover (LULC) policies in the region. We find that cities close to protected areas (PA's) tend to have higher malaria incidence than cities far from PA's. Using future LULC scenarios, we show that avoiding 10% of deforestation through better governance might result in an average 2-fold increase in malaria incidence by 2050 in urban health posts. Our results suggest that cost analysis of reduced carbon emissions from conservation efforts in the region should account for increased malaria morbidity, and that conservation initiatives should consider adopting malaria mitigation strategies. Coordinated actions from disparate science fields, government ministries, and global initiatives (e.g., Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation; Millenium Development Goals; Roll Back Malaria; and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria), will be required to decrease malaria toll in the region while preserving these

  19. Management of malaria in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Rogerson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are especially susceptible to malaria infection. Without existing immunity, severe malaria can develop requiring emergency treatment, and pregnancy loss is common. In semi-immune women, consequences of malaria for the mother include anaemia while stillbirth, premature delivery and foetal growth restriction affect the developing foetus. Preventive measures include insecticide-treated nets and (in some African settings intermittent preventive treatment. Prompt management of maternal infection is key, using parenteral artemisinins for severe malaria, and artemisinin combination treatments (ACTs in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. ACTs may soon also be recommended as an alternative to quinine as a treatment in the first trimester of pregnancy. Monitoring the safety of antimalarials and understanding their pharmacokinetics is particularly important in pregnancy with the altered maternal physiology and the risks to the developing foetus. As increasing numbers of countries embrace malaria elimination as a goal, the special needs of the vulnerable group of pregnant women and their infants should not be overlooked.

  20. HUBUNGAN ANOPHELES BARBIROSTRIS DENGAN MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisna Iryani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a disease caused by intercellular obligate protozoa genus of Plasmodium which is a parasite carried by female Anopheles mosquito. One of them is Anopheles barbirostris. Research in several places already proved that Anopheles barbirostris acts as a vector of malaria. One case that occurred in Cineam district, Tasikmalaya regency showed that Anopheles barbirostris is suspected as vector of malaria. This is proven through a research on the relationship between Anopheles barbirostris with malaria. Data was taken from the larvae and adult mosquitoes captured around Cineam village, Tasikmalaya. The observation was done in the open field and laboratory. Data and identification by pictorial key for female Anopheles showed that the population of Anopheles barbirostris was always a dominant population compared to another Anopheles species. Because of the breeding ponds and the resting places were around the village, it is suspected that they mainly bit humans. The result of the observation in laboratory showed the life cycle of Anopheles barbirostris are around 20-27 days, and the longevity of 20 days. Morphological identification of Anopheles barbirostris by pictorial key for female Anopheles showed that there is no any significant difference. This research showed that Anopheles barbirostris was suspected as vector of malaria in Cineam village, Tasikmalaya.

  1. Dose-response tests and semi-field evaluation of lethal and sub-lethal effects of slow release pyriproxyfen granules (Sumilarv®0.5G) for the control of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbare, Oscar; Lindsay, Steven W; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2013-03-14

    Recently research has shown that larviciding can be an effective tool for integrated malaria vector control. Nevertheless, the uptake of this intervention has been hampered by the need to re-apply larvicides frequently. There is a need to explore persistent, environmentally friendly larvicides for malaria vector control to reduce intervention efforts and costs by reducing the frequency of application. In this study, the efficacy of a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule (Surmilarv®0.5G, Sumitomo Chemicals) was assessed for the control of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis, the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Dose-response and standardized field tests were implemented following standard procedures of the World Health Organization's Pesticide Evaluation Scheme to determine: (i) the susceptibility of vectors to this formulation; (ii) the residual activity and appropriate retreatment schedule for field application; and, (iii) sub-lethal impacts on the number and viability of eggs laid by adults after exposure to Sumilarv®0.5G during larval development. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis were highly susceptible to Sumilarv®0.5G. Estimated emergence inhibition (EI) values were very low and similar for both species. The minimum dosage that completely inhibited adult emergence was between 0.01-0.03 parts per million (ppm) active ingredient (ai). Compared to the untreated control, an application of 0.018 ppm ai prevented 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82%-88%) of adult emergence over six weeks under standardized field conditions. A fivefold increase in dosage of 0.09 ppm ai prevented 97% (95% CI 94%-98%) emergence. Significant sub-lethal effects were observed in the standardized field tests. Female An. gambiae s.s. that were exposed to 0.018 ppm ai as larvae laid 47% less eggs, and females exposed to 0.09 ppm ai laid 74% less eggs than females that were unexposed to the treatment. Furthermore, 77% of eggs laid by females exposed to 0

  2. Establishment of a large semi-field system for experimental study of African malaria vector ecology and control in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, H.M.; Ng'habi, K.R.; Walder, T.; Kadungula, D.; Moore, S.J.; Lyimo, I.; Russell, T.L.; Urassa, H.; Mshinda, H.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background - Medical entomologists increasingly recognize that the ability to make inferences between laboratory experiments of vector biology and epidemiological trends observed in the field is hindered by a conceptual and methodological gap occurring between these approaches which prevents

  3. Novel strategies lead to pre-elimination of malaria in previously high-risk areas in Suriname, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat, H.; Hardjopawiro, L.S.; Takken, W.; Villegas, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Suriname was a high malaria risk country before the introduction of a new five-year malaria control program in 2005, the Medical Mission Malaria Programme (MM-MP). Malaria was endemic in the forested interior, where especially the stabile village communities were affected. Case

  4. Prevalence of malaria and use of malaria risk reduction measures among resettled pregnant women in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study assessed aspects of malaria infection, prevention and treatment in a population of resettled pregnant women in South Sudan. Methods: During April and May 2008, a cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate malaria prevalence and to assess the use of malaria risk...... ¼ 3.20, 95% CI 1.26–8.16; p ¼ 0.015). Conclusions: The results suggest that educational attainment need not be very advanced to affect practices of malaria prevention and treatment. Primary school attendance was a stronger predictor for use of malaria risk reduction measures than any of the other...... selected background characteristics. Educational attainment, information and communication about malaria prevention and control play a pivotal role in increasing and improving use of malaria risk reduction measures....

  5. Important advances in malaria vaccine research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jadhav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most widespread parasitic infection in Asian countries affecting the poor of the poor. In an effort to develop an effective vaccine for the treatment of malaria, various attempts are being made worldwide. If successful, such a vaccine can be effective for treatment of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. This would also be able to avoid complications such as drug resistance, resistance to insecticides, nonadherence to the treatment schedule, and eventually high cost of treatment in the resource-limited settings. In the current compilation, the details from the literature were collected by using PubMed and Medline as search engines and searched for terms such as malaria, vaccine, and malaria treatment. This review collates and provides glimpses of the information on the recent malaria vaccine development. The reader will be taken through the historical perspective followed by the approaches to the malaria vaccine development from pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines, asexual stage vaccines, transmission blocking vaccines, etc. Looking at the current scenario of the malaria and treatment strategies, it is an absolute need of an hour that an effective malaria vaccine should be developed. This would bring a revolutionary breakthrough in the treatment modalities especially when there is increasing emergence of resistance to existing drug therapy. It would be of great purpose to serve those living in malaria endemic region and also for travelers which are nonimmune and coming to malaria endemic region. As infection by P. vivax is more prevalent in India and other Asian subcontinent and is often prominent in areas where elimination is being attempted, special consideration is required of the role of vaccines in blocking transmission, regardless of the stages being targeted. Development of vaccines is feasible but with the support of private sector and government organization in terms of regulatory and most importantly

  6. Long-term impact of childhood malaria infection on school performance among school children in a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorasan, Nutchavadee; Pan-Ngum, Wirichada; Jittamala, Podjanee; Maneeboonyang, Wanchai; Rukmanee, Prasert; Lawpoolsri, Saranath

    2015-10-09

    Children represent a high-risk group for malaria worldwide. Among people in Thailand who have malaria during childhood, some may have multiple malaria attacks during their lifetime. Malaria may affect neurological cognition in children, resulting in short-term impairment of memory and language functions. However, little is known regarding the long-term effects of malaria infection on cognitive function. This study examines the long-term impact of malaria infection on school performance among school children living in a malaria-endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among school children aged 6-17 years in a primary-secondary school of a sub-district of Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. History of childhood malaria infection was obtained from the medical records of the sole malaria clinic in the area. School performance was assessed by using scores for the subjects Thai Language and Mathematics in 2014. Other variables, such as demographic characteristics, perinatal history, nutritional status, and emotional intelligence, were also documented. A total of 457 students were included, 135 (30 %) of whom had a history of uncomplicated malaria infection. About half of the malaria-infected children had suffered infection before the age of four years. The mean scores for both Mathematics and Thai Language decreased in relation to the increasing number of malaria attacks. Most students had their last malaria episode more than two years previously. The mean scores were not associated with duration since the last malaria attack. The association between malaria infection and school performance was not significant after adjusting for potential confounders, including gender, school absenteeism over a semester term, and emotional intelligence. This study characterizes the long-term consequences of uncomplicated malaria disease during childhood. School performance was not associated with a history of malaria infection, considering that

  7. Factors affecting the field performance of an attracticide against the codling moth Cydia pomonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lösel, P.M.; Potting, R.P.J.; Ebbinghaus, D.; Scherkenbeck, J.

    2002-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficacy of an attracticide strategy for the control of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were investigated using laboratory and field experiments. The sex-pheromone-based insect-control strategy utilises 100-?l droplets of a sticky, paste-like

  8. Static high-gradient magnetic fields affect the functionality of monocytic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syrovets, T.; Schmidt, Z.; Buechele, B.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Dempsey, N.; Simmet, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-2 ISSN 0892-6638 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : static high-gradient * magnet ic fields * affect the functionality * monocytic cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  9. Earthworm assemblages as affected by field margin strips and tillage intensity: An on-farm approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.; Huerta, E.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Earthworm species contribute to soil ecosystem functions in varying ways. Important soil functions like structural maintenance and nutrient cycling are affected by earthworms, thus it is essential to understand how arable farm management influences earthworm species. One aim of arable field margin

  10. Does the Unemployement Benefit Institution Affect the Productivity of Workers? Evidence from a Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, M.; Dalton, P.S.; Vargas, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We investigate whether and how the type of unemployment bene t institution affects productivity. We designed a field experiment to compare workers' productivity under a welfare system, where the unemployed receive an unconditional monetary transfer, with their productivity under a workfare

  11. Clinical malaria case definition and malaria attributable fraction in the highlands of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrane, Yaw A; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2014-10-15

    malaria attributable fever cases. For individuals older than 14 years, the cut-off parasite density was 3,000 parasites per μl of blood. Clinical malaria case definitions are affected by age and endemicity, which needs to be taken into consideration during evaluation of interventions.

  12. Women's status in disasters: A gap between experts' desk and affected fields of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz

    Although international agreements have achieved significant milestones in the improvement of women's status, experiences from the fields show a discrepancy between words and actions. The aim of this brief communication was to identify the gap between experts' perceptions and the findings of a large qualitative field survey on women's status in the recent natural disasters of Iran. A total of 10 experts were asked to fill a checklist, which consisted of the concepts extracted from field data. The range of agreement between experts' perceptions and field data was between 40 and 100 percent. In conclusion, although literature review and international research papers can provide appropriate information for both experts and managers, meeting the various needs of women living in the affected regions requires field-based surveys.

  13. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Smith, David L; Guerra, Carlos A; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Johnston, Geoffrey L; Tatem, Andrew J; Hay, Simon I

    2011-12-20

    Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR) and the basic reproductive number (PfR). Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG) prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The maps presented here contribute to a rational basis for control and

  14. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gething Peter W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR and the basic reproductive number (PfR. Methods Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. Results An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. Conclusions The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The

  15. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  16. Malaria and Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria and Travelers for U.S. Residents Recommend on Facebook ... may be at risk for infection. Determine if malaria transmission occurs at the destinations Obtain a detailed ...

  17. STATUS HEMATOLOGI PENDERITA MALARIA SEREBRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMalaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat dunia. Berdasarkan klasifikasi klinis, malaria dibedakan atas malaria berat dan malaria tanpa komplikasi. Malaria serebral merupakan komplikasi terberat dari malaria falsiparum.Telah dilakukan penelitian seksi silang terhadap penderita malaria falciparum yang dirawat inap di Bangsal Penyakit Dalam RS. Perjan. Dr. M. Djamil Padang dari bulan Juni 2002 sampai Juni 2006. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan jumlah sampel sebanyak 60 orang, terdiri dari 16 orang penderita malaria serebral dan 44 orang penderita malaria tanpa komplikasi.Data penelitian menunjukan terdapat perbedaan bermakna nilai hematokrit (p<0,05 dan jumlah leukosit (p<0,05 antara penderita malaria serebral dengan penderita malaria tanpa komplikasi. Dan terdapat korelasi positif antara nilai hemoglobin dengan hematokrit (r=0,864; p<0,05 pada penderita malaria falsiparum.Kata kunci: malaria serebral, malaria tanpa komplikasi, malaria falsiparumAbstract Malaria is still a problem of health of world society. Based on the clinical classification, are distinguished on severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Cerebral malaria is the worst complication of falciparum malaria. Cross section of the research done at the Hospital Dr. M. Djamil Padang againts medical record of malaria patients who are hospitalized in the Internal Medicine from June 2002 until June 2004. In this study, a total sample of 60 people, consisting of 16 cerebral malaria and 44 uncomplicated malaria. Data showed there were significant differences for hematocrit values (p <0.05 and total leukocytes values (p <0.05 between cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria patients. There is a positive correlation between hemoglobin with hematocrit values (r = 0.864; p <0.05 of falciparum malaria patients. Keywords: cerebral malaria, uncomplicated malaria, falciparum malaria

  18. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  19. An epidemiological overview of malaria in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazrul; Bonovas, Stefanos; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the four major malaria-endemic countries in South-East Asia having approximately 34% of its population at risk of malaria. This paper aims at providing an overview of the malaria situation in this country. Relevant information was retrieved from published articles and reports in PubMed and Google Scholar. Malaria in Bangladesh is concentrated in 13 districts with a prevalence ranging between 3.1% and 36%, and is mostly caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Geographical conditions pose a potential risk for Plasmodium knowlesi malaria. Resistance to a number of drugs previously recommended for treatment has been reported. Low socio-economic status, poor schooling and close proximity to water bodies and forest areas comprise important risk factors. Despite the significant steps in Long Lasting Insecticide Net (LLIN)/Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) coverage in Bangladesh, there are still many challenges including the extension of malaria support to the remote areas of Bangladesh, where malaria prevalence is higher, and further improvements in the field of referral system and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Laboratory and field efficacy of Pedalium murex and predatory copepod, Mesocyclops longisetus on rural malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangadurai Chitra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the potentiality of the leaf extract of Pedalium murex (P. murex and predatory copepod Mesocyclops longisetus (M. longisetus in individual and combination in controlling the rural malarial vector, Anopheles culicifacies (An. culicifacies in laboratory and field studies. Methods: P. murex leaves were collected from in and around Erode, Tamilnadu, India. The active compounds were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. Laboratory studies on larvicidal and pupicidal effects of methanolic extract of P. murex tested against the rural malarial vector, An. culicifacies were significant. Results: Evaluated lethal concentrations (LC50 of P. murex extract were 2.68, 3.60, 4.50, 6.44 and 7.60 mg/L for I, II, III, IV and pupae of An. culicifacies, respectively. Predatory copepod, M. longisetus was examined for their predatory efficacy against the malarial vector, An. culicifacies. M. longisetus showed effective predation on the early instar (47% and 36% on I and II instar when compared with the later ones (3% and 1% on III and IV instar. Predatory efficacy of M. longisetus was increased (70% and 45% on I and II instar when the application was along with the P. murex extract. Conclusions: Predator survival test showed that the methanolic extract of P. murex is non-toxic to the predatory copepod, M. longisetus. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract of P. murex and M. longisetus in the direct breeding sites (paddy fields of An. culicifacies. Reduction in larval density was very high and sustained for a long time in combined treatment of P. murex and M. longisetus.

  1. Malaria control in a forest camp in an oil exploration area of Upper Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Anil; Bhattacharyya, D R; Mohapatra, P K; Barua, U; Phukan, Anjan; Mahanta, J

    2003-01-01

    Assam, in north-east India, is extremely rich in hydrocarbon deposits and the oil industry is the major contributor to its economy. A large number of oil fields and related installations in Assam are located in forest areas or on their fringes where malaria is a serious problem among field staff and security personnel, adversely affecting oil production. We carried out an operational research study for one year in a forest-based industrial security camp of Dibrugarh district and developed an effective malaria control strategy for such areas. The specific strategy was formulated and implemented after taking into account the local epidemiology of malaria, vector's ecology and malaria risk behaviour of the camp inmates. The strategy was based on reducing the man-vector contact, using deltamethrin-treated mosquito nets in conjunction with mosquito repellent cream and weekly chemoprophylaxis with 300 mg chloroquine. The impact of the strategy was monitored entomologically and epidemiologically for one year after implementation. The mean landing rate of Anopheles dirus, the vector mosquito in the camp area, was 5.03 per person per night during the monitoring. In spite of such a high density of the vector, the man-vector contact was effectively checked by the intervention measures adopted. As a result, the incidence of malaria in the camp was reduced by > 90% as compared to previous years and the number of malaria cases came down from 6.7 per 1000 man-nights in 1998-99 to 0.06 in 2000-01. Mortality due to malaria was completely eliminated. Control of malaria should be based on the local determinants of transmission. The use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets in conjunction with a mosquito repellent cream is a good intervention for controlling Anopheles dirus-transmitted malaria in the forests of north-east India. The control module developed on the principle of reducing man-mosquito contact is easy to implement, cost-effective and replicable in similar forest

  2. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Protopopoff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. CONCLUSIONS: In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  3. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Baza, Dismas; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc

    2009-11-25

    Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  4. Malaria in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohee, Lauren M; Laufer, Miriam K

    2017-08-01

    Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, leading to an estimated 438,000 deaths in 2015. Malaria is also an important health threat to travelers to endemic countries and should be considered in evaluation of any traveler returning from a malaria-endemic area who develops fever. Considering the diagnosis of malaria in patients with potential exposure is critical. Prompt provision of effective treatment limits the complications of malaria and can be life-saving. Understanding Plasmodium species variation, epidemiology, and drug-resistance patterns in the geographic area where infection was acquired is important for determining treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mating competitiveness of sterile genetic sexing strain males (GAMA) under laboratory and semi-field conditions: Steps towards the use of the Sterile Insect Technique to control the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhenga, Givemore; Brooke, Basil D; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Slabbert, Kobus; Kemp, Alan; Dandalo, Leonard C; Wood, Oliver R; Lobb, Leanne N; Govender, Danny; Renke, Marius; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2016-03-02

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton is primarily responsible for malaria transmission in South Africa after successful suppression of other major vector species using indoor spraying of residual insecticides. Control of An. arabiensis using current insecticide based approaches is proving difficult owing to the development of insecticide resistance, and variable feeding and resting behaviours. The use of the sterile insect technique as an area-wide integrated pest management system to supplement the control of An. arabiensis was proposed for South Africa and is currently under investigation. The success of this technique is dependent on the ability of laboratory-reared sterile males to compete with wild males for mates. As part of the research and development of the SIT technique for use against An. arabiensis in South Africa, radio-sensitivity and mating competitiveness of a local An. arabiensis sexing strain were assessed. The optimal irradiation dose inducing male sterility without compromising mating vigour was tested using Cobalt 60 irradiation doses ranging from 70-100 Gy. Relative mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory-reared males (GAMA strain) compared to fertile wild-type males (AMAL strain) for virgin wild-type females (AMAL) was investigated under laboratory and semi-field conditions using large outdoor cages. Three different sterile male to fertile male to wild-type female ratios were evaluated [1:1:1, 5:1:1 and 10:1:1 (sterile males: fertile, wild-type males: fertile, wild-type females)]. Irradiation at the doses tested did not affect adult emergence but had a moderate effect on adult survivorship and mating vigour. A dose of 75 Gy was selected for the competitiveness assays. Mating competitiveness experiments showed that irradiated GAMA male mosquitoes are a third as competitive as their fertile AMAL counterparts under semi-field conditions. However, they were not as competitive under laboratory conditions. An inundative ratio of 10:1 induced the

  6. Malaria vaccine offers hope. International / Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-13

    Colombian professor Manuel Patarroyo developed a new malaria vaccine (SPF66). In February 1995, WHO and the Colombian government agreed to establish a manufacturing plant in Colombia for mass production of SPF66. This vaccine is likely to be available to persons in Africa, where 90% of all annual global cases live. In fact, Africa witnesses one million of 1.5 million annual malaria cases. Many children die from malaria. An extensive clinical trial of the SPF66 vaccine in Colombia achieved a 22-77% protection rate. The young and the very old had the high protection rates. A series of human clinical trials in the Gambia and Tanzania indicate that SPF66 produces a strong immune response against malaria without any harmful side effects. The results of field tests in the Gambia and Thailand and of trials in Colombia are expected in 1995. If the vaccine could reduce the incidence of malaria by just 50%, the lives of as many as 500,000 African children could be saved. SPF66 contains a combination of synthetic peptides (=or 2 amino acids). Mass production would make it affordable (estimated $5/injection). At least five other malaria vaccines hold promise and are ready for human testing in endemic countries. SPF66 is approximately three years ahead of all other promising malaria vaccines. 20 more vaccines are in the development stage. The large scale production of SPF66 in Colombia could begin within three years. Professor Patarroyo has financed his 12-year-old research himself because he wants to protect the lives of persons in developing countries. In 1992, the Congo's president petitioned the international community at the WHO summit in Amsterdam to join the fight against malaria since it is now in a position to defeat malaria since it finished the cold war.

  7. Economic burden of malaria on businesses in Ghana: a case for private sector investment in malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonvignon, Justice; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Malm, Keziah L; Agyemang, Samuel Agyei; Aubyn, Vivian N A; Peprah, Nana Yaw; Bart-Plange, Constance N; Aikins, Moses

    2016-09-06

    Despite the significant gains made globally in reducing the burden of malaria, the disease remains a major public health challenge, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Ghana. There is a significant gap in financing malaria control globally. The private sector could become a significant source of financing malaria control. To get the private sector to appreciate the need to invest in malaria control, it is important to provide evidence of the economic burden of malaria on businesses. The objective of this study, therefore, was to estimate the economic burden on malaria on businesses in Ghana, so as to stimulate the sector's investment in malaria control. Data covering 2012-2014 were collected from 62 businesses sampled from Greater Accra, Ashanti and Western Regions of Ghana, which have the highest concentration of businesses in the country. Data on the cost of businesses' spending on treatment and prevention of malaria in staff and their dependants as well as staff absenteeism due to malaria and expenditure on other health-related activities were collected. Views of business leaders on the effect of malaria on their businesses were also compiled. The analysis was extrapolated to cover 5828 businesses across the country. The results show that businesses in Ghana lost about US$6.58 million to malaria in 2014, 90 % of which were direct costs. A total of 3913 workdays were lost due to malaria in firms in the study sample during the period 2012-2014. Businesses in the study sample spent an average of 0.5 % of the annual corporate returns on treatment of malaria in employees and their dependants, 0.3 % on malaria prevention, and 0.5 % on other health-related corporate social responsibilities. Again business leaders affirmed that malaria affects their businesses' efficiency, employee attendance and productivity and expenses. Finally, about 93 % of business leaders expressed the need private sector investment in malaria control. The economic burden of

  8. Malaria og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, A L; Rønn, A M; Langhoff-Roos, J

    1992-01-01

    In regions where malaria is endemism, the disease is a recognised cause of complications of pregnancy such as spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation and foetal death. Malaria is seldom seen in pregnant women in Denmark but, during the past two years, the authors...... the patients but also their practitioners were unaware that malaria can occur several years after exposure. Three out of the four patients had employed malaria prophylaxis. As resistance to malarial prophylactics in current use is increasing steadily, chemoprophylaxis should be supplemented by mechanical...... protection against malaria and insect repellents. As a rule, malaria is treated with chloroquine. In cases of Falciparum malaria in whom chloroquine resistance is suspected, treatment with mefloquine may be employed although this should only be employed in cases of dire necessity in pregnant patients during...

  9. Comparison of Malaria Simulations Driven by Meteorological Observations and Reanalysis Products in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Ibrahima; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Deme, Abdoulaye; Caminade, Cyril; Morse, Andrew P; Cisse, Moustapha; Sy, Ibrahima; Dia, Ibrahima; Ermert, Volker; Ndione, Jacques-André; Gaye, Amadou Thierno

    2017-09-25

    The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of climate parameters is crucial to study the impact of climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases such as malaria. The use of malaria models is an alternative way of producing potential malaria historical data for Senegal due to the lack of reliable observations for malaria outbreaks over a long time period. Consequently, here we use the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM), driven by different climatic datasets, in order to study and validate simulated malaria parameters over Senegal. The findings confirm that the risk of malaria transmission is mainly linked to climate variables such as rainfall and temperature as well as specific landscape characteristics. For the whole of Senegal, a lag of two months is generally observed between the peak of rainfall in August and the maximum number of reported malaria cases in October. The malaria transmission season usually takes place from September to November, corresponding to the second peak of temperature occurring in October. Observed malaria data from the Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme (PNLP, National Malaria control Programme in Senegal) and outputs from the meteorological data used in this study were compared. The malaria model outputs present some consistencies with observed malaria dynamics over Senegal, and further allow the exploration of simulations performed with reanalysis data sets over a longer time period. The simulated malaria risk significantly decreased during the 1970s and 1980s over Senegal. This result is consistent with the observed decrease of malaria vectors and malaria cases reported by field entomologists and clinicians in the literature. The main differences between model outputs and observations regard amplitude, but can be related not only to reanalysis deficiencies but also to other environmental and socio-economic factors that are not included in this mechanistic malaria model framework. The present study can be considered as a

  10. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial to determine the efficacy and safety of Malarone (atovaquone/proguanil) for the prophylaxis of malaria in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukwa, T Y; Mulenga, M; Chisdaka, N; Roskell, N S; Scott, T R

    1999-04-01

    Malaria poses a major health risk to people who are exposed to infection in malaria-endemic areas. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of Malarone (250 mg of atovaquone/100 mg of proguanil hydrochloride per tablet) for the chemoprophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Zambia. Adult volunteers received a three-day treatment course of Malarone to eliminate pre-existing parasitemia and were then immediately randomized to treatment with either one Malarone tablet daily (n = 136), or one placebo tablet daily (n = 138) for at least 10 weeks. Malaria blood smears were prepared on a weekly basis and a failure of chemoprophylaxis was defined as any subject who had a positive blood smear, or who withdrew from the study due to a treatment-related adverse event. The prophylaxis success rates in the Malarone and placebo groups were 98% and 63%, respectively (P < 0.001). The most commonly reported adverse events with at least a possible causal relationship to study medication were headache and abdominal pain, which occurred with a higher incidence in the placebo group. No subjects were withdrawn from the study due to a treatment-related adverse event. Thus, Malarone appears to have an excellent safety and efficacy profile for the chemoprophylaxis of P. falciparum infection.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in the glutamate-rich protein of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from a malaria-endemic area of Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Perce-da-Silva, Daiana de Souza; Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The genetic diversity displayed by Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly Plasmodium species, is a significant obstacle for effective malaria vaccine development. In this study, we identified genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum glutamate-rich protein (GLURP), which is currently being tested in...

  12. Water-molecular emission from cavitation bubbles affected by electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang-Bok; Choi, Pak-Kon

    2018-04-01

    Orange emission was observed during multibubble sonoluminescence at 1 MHz in water saturated with noble gas. The emission arose in the vicinity of the peeled ground electrode of a piezoceramic transducer exposed to water, suggesting that cavitation bubbles were affected by the electric fields that leaked from the transducer. The spectrum of the emission exhibited a broad component whose intensity increased towards the near-infrared region with peaks at 713 and 813 nm. The spectral shape was independent of the saturation gas of He, Ne, or Kr. The broad component was attributed to the superposition of lines due to vibration-rotation transitions of water molecules, each of which was broadened by the high pressure and electric fields at bubble collapse. An emission mechanism based on charge induction by electric fields and the charged droplet model is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence Of Demographic Factors And History Of Malaria With The Incidence Malaria In MORU PHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudirman Manumpa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria morbidity in Moru health center, with parameter Annual Parasite Incident (API, amounted to 16.9% in 2014. This figure was still high when compared to the target of eliminating malaria in Indonesia about <1% in 2030. Incidence of malaria is more common in children aged 5 months - <12 years. This high rates of malaria leads to poverty, low level of learning achievement of children and in pregnant women causing low birth weight in babies and death. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence the incidence of tertian and Tropikana malaria or combined Tropikana and tertian (mix in Moru PHC in sub-district Alor Southwestern, Alor Regency.This study used a cross-sectional design, the population of study were all patients undergoing peripheral blood examination in Moru PHC’s laboratory from June to October 2015. The number of samples in this study was 173 respondents. The sampling technique was Simple Random Sampling. Instruments of data collection were a questionnaire and observation sheet.Results of the study by Chi-Square test showed that the factors influencing the incidence of malaria were socioeconomic status (sig 0,000, education level (sig 0.001. By using multivariate analysis with logistic regression test, results were obtained the age of 5 months - <12 value (sig 0.025 and socioeconomic status (sig 0,000 influencing the incidence of malaria.Variables that affect the incidence of malaria were demographic factors such as age, education level, socioeconomic status. It is advisable to harness swamp thus improving the economic status of society and build permanent house. Keywords: incidence malaria, demographic factors, history of malaria

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of falciparum malaria in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hualiang

    2009-06-01

    characterized by the predominance of adult men cases. Imported falciparum malaria in the non-endemic area of China, affected mainly by the malaria transmission in Yunnan, has increased both spatially and temporally. Specific intervention measures targeted at the mobile population groups are warranted.

  15. Will malaria return to Europe under the greenhouse effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Wege, van de J.; Jetten, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    Malaria risk is determined by environmental and socio-economic factors. The predicted climate change under the greenhouse effect is likely to affect the epidemic potential of malaria due to a change in vector mosquito phenology and distribution. This effect was simulated using a computer model

  16. Effect of malaria parasitaemia on materno-foetal transfer of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neonatal protection from diphtheria is dependent on maternally transferred antibodies.4 Placental malaria has been reported to affect transplacental transfer of antibodies. Nigeria is endemic for malaria. In the face of recent reports of diphtheria including an epidemic in Nigeria, this study aimed to determine the ...

  17. Review Article: Morphological Changes in Malaria | Buhari | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria remains a global health problem. Several organs of the body are affected by the Plasmodium species which parasitized erythrocytes. The small blood vessels of all the major organs of the body are usually filled with parasitized red cells and this represents the major morphological changes seen in malaria.

  18. Affective priming of emotional pictures in parafoveal vision: left visual field advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Avero, Pedro

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated whether stimulus affective content can be extracted from visual scenes when these appear in parafoveal locations of the visual field and are foveally masked, and whether there is lateralization involved. Parafoveal prime pleasant or unpleasant scenes were presented for 150 msec 2.5 degrees away from fixation and were followed by a foveal probe scene that was either congruent or incongruent in emotional valence with the prime. Participants responded whether the probe was emotionally positive or negative. Affective priming was demonstrated by shorter response latencies for congruent than for incongruent prime-probe pairs. This effect occurred when the prime was presented in the left visual field at a 300-msec prime-probe stimulus onset asynchrony, even when the prime and the probe were different in physical appearance and semantic category. This result reveals that the affective significance of emotional stimuli can be assessed early through covert attention mechanisms, in the absence of overt eye fixations on the stimuli, and suggests that right-hemisphere dominance is involved.

  19. Mangifera indica extract (Vimang) impairs aversive memory without affecting open field behaviour or habituation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Thales; Martins, Márcio Rodrigo; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Quevedo, João; Delgado, Rene; Roesler, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L, used in Cuba for the treatment of immunopathological disorders. Increasing evidence from preclinical studies indicates that Vimang displays antioxidant, antiallergic, analgesic and antiinflammatory actions. The present study investigated the effects of systemic administration of Vimang on behavioural outcomes of neurological function in rats. A single oral administration of Vimang produced an impairment of short- and long-term retention of memory for aversive training when given either 1 h pretraining or immediately posttraining, but not 8 h posttraining. Vimang did not affect open field behaviour or habituation. The results indicate that Vimang might induce deficits of emotionally motivated memory without affecting nonassociative memory, locomotion, exploratory behaviour or anxiety. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The dog that did not bark: malaria vaccines without antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heppner, D.G.; Schwenk, R.J.; Arnot, D.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Luty, A.J.F.

    2007-01-01

    To date, the only pre-blood stage vaccine to confer protection against malaria in field trials elicits both antigen-specific antibody and T-cell responses. Recent clinical trials of new heterologous prime-boost malaria vaccine regimens using DNA, fowlpox or MVA, have chiefly elicited T-cell

  1. Congenital malaria in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Tao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congenital malaria, in which infants are directly infected with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs at relatively low rates in malaria-endemic regions. It is recognized as a serious problem in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where recent data suggests that it is more common than previously believed. In such regions where malaria transmission is high, neonates may be protected from disease caused by congenital malaria through the transfer of maternal antibodies against the parasite. However, in low P. vivax-endemic regions, immunity to vivax malaria is low; thus, there is the likelihood that congenital vivax malaria poses a more significant threat to newborn health. Malaria had previously been a major parasitic disease in China, and congenital malaria case reports in Chinese offer valuable information for understanding the risks posed by congenital malaria to neonatal health. As most of the literature documenting congenital malaria cases in China are written in Chinese and therefore are not easily accessible to the global malaria research community, we have undertaken an extensive review of the Chinese literature on this subject. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we reviewed congenital malaria cases from three major searchable Chinese journal databases, concentrating on data from 1915 through 2011. Following extensive screening, a total of 104 cases of congenital malaria were identified. These cases were distributed mainly in the eastern, central, and southern regions of China, as well as in the low-lying region of southwest China. The dominant species was P. vivax (92.50%, reflecting the malaria parasite species distribution in China. The leading clinical presentation was fever, and other clinical presentations were anaemia, jaundice, paleness, diarrhoea, vomiting, and general weakness. With the exception of two cases, all patients

  2. High-intensity pulsed electric field variables affecting Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino-López, A; Raybaudi-Massilia, R; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important milk-related pathogen that is inactivated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF). In this study, inactivation of Staph. aureus suspended in milk by HIPEF was studied using a response surface methodology, in which electric field intensity, pulse number, pulse width, pulse polarity, and the fat content of milk were the controlled variables. It was found that the fat content of milk did not significantly affect the microbial inactivation of Staph. aureus. A maximum value of 4.5 log reductions was obtained by applying 150 bipolar pulses of 8 mus each at 35 kV/cm. Bipolar pulses were more effective than those applied in the monopolar mode. An increase in electric field intensity, pulse number, or pulse width resulted in a drop in the survival fraction of Staph. aureus. Pulse widths close to 6.7 micros lead to greater microbial death with a minimum number of applied pulses. At a constant treatment time, a greater number of shorter pulses achieved better inactivation than those treatments performed at a lower number of longer pulses. The combined action of pulse number and electric field intensity followed a similar pattern, indicating that the same fraction of microbial death can be reached with different combinations of the variables. The behavior and relationship among the electrical variables suggest that the energy input of HIPEF processing might be optimized without decreasing the microbial death.

  3. Dose–response tests and semi-field evaluation of lethal and sub-lethal effects of slow release pyriproxyfen granules (Sumilarv®0.5G) for the control of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu lato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently research has shown that larviciding can be an effective tool for integrated malaria vector control. Nevertheless, the uptake of this intervention has been hampered by the need to re-apply larvicides frequently. There is a need to explore persistent, environmentally friendly larvicides for malaria vector control to reduce intervention efforts and costs by reducing the frequency of application. In this study, the efficacy of a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule (Surmilarv®0.5G, Sumitomo Chemicals) was assessed for the control of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis, the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Dose–response and standardized field tests were implemented following standard procedures of the World Health Organization’s Pesticide Evaluation Scheme to determine: (i) the susceptibility of vectors to this formulation; (ii) the residual activity and appropriate retreatment schedule for field application; and, (iii) sub-lethal impacts on the number and viability of eggs laid by adults after exposure to Sumilarv®0.5G during larval development. Results Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis were highly susceptible to Sumilarv®0.5G. Estimated emergence inhibition (EI) values were very low and similar for both species. The minimum dosage that completely inhibited adult emergence was between 0.01-0.03 parts per million (ppm) active ingredient (ai). Compared to the untreated control, an application of 0.018 ppm ai prevented 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82%-88%) of adult emergence over six weeks under standardized field conditions. A fivefold increase in dosage of 0.09 ppm ai prevented 97% (95% CI 94%-98%) emergence. Significant sub-lethal effects were observed in the standardized field tests. Female An. gambiae s.s. that were exposed to 0.018 ppm ai as larvae laid 47% less eggs, and females exposed to 0.09 ppm ai laid 74% less eggs than females that were unexposed to the treatment. Furthermore, 77

  4. Malaria in South Asia: Prevalence and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2013-01-01

    The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528

  5. Effective autodissemination of pyriproxyfen to breeding sites by the exophilic malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in semi-field settings in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lwetoijera, Dickson; Harris, Caroline; Kiware, Samson; Dongus, Stefan; Devine, Gregor J; McCall, Philip; Majambere, Silas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND\\ud Malaria vector control strategies that target adult female mosquitoes are challenged by the emergence of insecticide resistance and behavioural resilience. Conventional larviciding is restricted by high operational costs and inadequate knowledge of mosquito-breeding habitats in rural settings that might be overcome by the juvenile hormone analogue, Pyriproxyfen (PPF). This study assessed the potential for Anopheles arabiensis to pick up and transfer lethal doses of PPF from cont...

  6. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  7. Simulation of the Impact of Climate Variability on Malaria Transmission in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomblies, A.; Eltahir, E.; Duchemin, J.

    2007-12-01

    A coupled hydrology and entomology model for simulation of malaria transmission and malaria transmitting mosquito population dynamics is presented. Model development and validation is done using field data and observations collected at Banizoumbou and Zindarou, Niger spanning three wet seasons, from 2005 through 2007. The primary model objective is the accurate determination of climate variability effects on village scale malaria transmission. Malaria transmission dependence on climate variables is highly nonlinear and complex. Temperature and humidity affect mosquito longevity, temperature controls parasite development rates in the mosquito as well as subadult mosquito development rates, and precipitation determines the formation and persistence of adequate breeding pools. Moreover, unsaturated zone hydrology influences overland flow, and climate controlled evapotranspiration rates and root zone uptake therefore also influence breeding pool formation. High resolution distributed hydrologic simulation allows representation of the small-scale ephemeral pools that constitute the primary habitat of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the dominant malaria vectors in the Niger Sahel. Remotely sensed soil type, vegetation type, and microtopography rasters are used to assign the distributed parameter fields for simulation of the land surface hydrologic response to precipitation and runoff generation. Predicted runoff from each cell flows overland and into topographic depressions, with explicit representation of infiltration and evapotranspiration. The model's entomology component interacts with simulated pools. Subadult (aquatic stage) mosquito breeding is simulated in the pools, and water temperature dependent stage advancement rates regulate adult mosquito emergence into the model domain. Once emerged, adult mosquitoes are tracked as independent individual agents that interact with their immediate environment. Attributes relevant to malaria transmission such as gonotrophic

  8. Assessing the social vulnerability to malaria in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizimana, Jean-Pierre; Twarabamenye, Emmanuel; Kienberger, Stefan

    2015-01-07

    Since 2004, malaria interventions in Rwanda have resulted in substantial decline of malaria incidence. However, this achievement is fragile as potentials for local malaria transmissions remain. The risk of getting malaria infection is partially explained by social conditions of vulnerable populations. Since vulnerability to malaria is both influenced by social and environmental factors, its complexity cannot be measured by a single value. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to apply a composite indicator approach for assessing social vulnerability to malaria in Rwanda. This assessment informs the decision-makers in targeting malaria interventions and allocating limited resources to reduce malaria burden in Rwanda. A literature review was used to conceptualize the social vulnerability to malaria and to select the appropriate vulnerability indicators. Indicators used in the index creation were classified into susceptibility and lack of resilience vulnerability domains. The main steps followed include selection of indicators and datasets, imputation of missing values, descriptive statistics, normalization and weighting of indicators, local sensitivity analysis and indicators aggregation. Correlation analysis helped to empirically evidence the association between the indicators and malaria incidence. The high values of social vulnerability to malaria are found in Gicumbi, Rusizi, Nyaruguru and Gisagara, and low values in Muhanga, Nyarugenge, Kicukiro and Nyanza. The most influential susceptibility indicators to increase malaria are population change (r = 0.729), average number of persons per bedroom (r = 0.531), number of households affected by droughts and famines (r = 0.591), and area used for irrigation (r = 0.611). The bed net ownership (r = -0.398) and poor housing wall materials (0.378) are the lack of resilience indicators that significantly correlate with malaria incidence. The developed composite index social vulnerability to malaria

  9. Management intensity at field and landscape levels affects the structure of generalist predator communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Adrien; Birkhofer, Klaus; Bommarco, Riccardo; Smith, Henrik G; Ekbom, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Agricultural intensification is recognised as a major driver of biodiversity loss in human-modified landscapes. Several agro-environmental measures at different spatial scales have been suggested to mitigate the negative impact of intensification on biodiversity and ecosystem services. The effect of these measures on the functional structure of service-providing communities remains, however, largely unexplored. Using two distinct landscape designs, we examined how the management options of organic farming at the field scale and crop diversification at the landscape level affect the taxonomic and functional structure of generalist predator communities and how these effects vary along a landscape complexity gradient. Organic farming as well as landscapes with longer and more diversified crop rotations enhanced the activity-density of spiders and rove beetles, but not the species richness or evenness. Our results indicate that the two management options affected the functional composition of communities, as they primarily enhanced the activity-density of functionally similar species. The two management options increased the functional similarity between spider species in regards to hunting mode and habitat preference. Organic farming enhanced the functional similarity of rove beetles. Management options at field and landscape levels were generally more important predictors of community structure when compared to landscape complexity. Our study highlights the importance of considering the functional composition of generalist predators in order to understand how agro-environmental measures at various scales shape community assemblages and ecosystem functioning in agricultural landscapes.

  10. Shifting the burden or expanding access to care? Assessing malaria trends following scale-up of community health worker malaria case management and reactive case detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David A; Winters, Anna; Cheelo, Sanford; Hamainza, Busiku; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Miller, John M; Bridges, Daniel J

    2017-11-02

    Malaria is a significant burden to health systems and is responsible for a large proportion of outpatient cases at health facilities in endemic regions. The scale-up of community management of malaria and reactive case detection likely affect both malaria cases and outpatient attendance at health facilities. Using health management information data from 2012 to 2013 this article examines health trends before and after the training of volunteer community health workers to test and treat malaria cases in Southern Province, Zambia. An estimated 50% increase in monthly reported malaria infections was found when community health workers were involved with malaria testing and treating in the community (incidence rate ratio 1.52, p malaria testing and treating in the community. These results suggest a large public health benefit to both community case management of malaria and reactive case detection. First, the capacity of the malaria surveillance system to identify malaria infections was increased by nearly one-third. Second, the outpatient attendance at health facilities was modestly decreased. Expanding the capacity of the malaria surveillance programme through systems such as community case management and reactive case detection is an important step toward malaria elimination.

  11. Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2006-01-01

    One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most...... districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country) in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. However, surveillance was somewhat affected by the tsunami in some coastal areas and the actual incidence in these areas may...... have been higher than recorded, although there were no indications of this and it is unlikely to have affected the overall trend significantly. The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets...

  12. Prospects for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sócrates; Ochoa-Orozco, Sergio Andrés; González, Iveth J.; Peinado, Lucrecia; Quiñones, Martha L.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains endemic in 21 countries of the American continent with an estimated 427,000 cases per year. Approximately 10% of these occur in the Mesoamerican and Caribbean regions. During the last decade, malaria transmission in Mesoamerica showed a decrease of ~85%; whereas, in the Caribbean region, Hispaniola (comprising the Dominican Republic [DR] and Haiti) presented an overall rise in malaria transmission, primarily due to a steady increase in Haiti, while DR experienced a significant transmission decrease in this period. The significant malaria reduction observed recently in the region prompted the launch of an initiative for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola (EMMIE) with the active involvement of the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs) of nine countries, the Regional Coordination Mechanism (RCM) for Mesoamerica, and the Council of Health Ministries of Central America and Dominican Republic (COMISCA). The EMMIE initiative is supported by the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) with active participation of multiple partners including Ministries of Health, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as research centers. EMMIE’s main goal is to achieve elimination of malaria transmission in the region by 2020. Here we discuss the prospects, challenges, and research needs associated with this initiative that, if successful, could represent a paradigm for other malaria-affected regions. PMID:25973753

  13. Development of replication-deficient adenovirus malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingdale, Michael R; Sedegah, Martha; Limbach, Keith

    2017-03-01

    Malaria remains a major threat to endemic populations and travelers, including military personnel to these areas. A malaria vaccine is feasible, as radiation attenuated sporozoites induce nearly 100% efficacy. Areas covered: This review covers current malaria clinical trials using adenoviruses and pre-clinical research. Heterologous prime-boost regimens, including replication-deficient human adenovirus 5 (HuAd5) carrying malaria antigens, are efficacious. However, efficacy appears to be adversely affected by pre-existing anti-HuAd5 antibodies. Current strategies focus on replacing HuAd5 with rarer human adenoviruses or adenoviruses isolated from non-human primates (NHPs). The chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 is undergoing evaluation in clinical trials including infants in malaria-endemic areas. Key antigens have been identified and are being used alone, in combination, or with protein subunit vaccines. Gorilla adenoviruses carrying malaria antigens are also currently being evaluated in preclinical models. These replacement adenovirus vectors will be successfully used to develop vaccines against malaria, as well as other infectious diseases. Expert commentary: Simplified prime-boost single shot regimens, dry-coated live vector vaccines or silicon microneedle arrays could be developed for malaria or other vaccines. Replacement vectors with similar or superior immunogenicity have rapidly advanced, and several are now in extensive Phase 2 and beyond in malaria as well as other diseases, notably Ebola.

  14. Reviewing the literature on access to prompt and effective malaria treatment in Kenya: implications for meeting the Abuja targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetteh Gladys

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective case management is central to reducing malaria mortality and morbidity worldwide, but only a minority of those affected by malaria, have access to prompt effective treatment. In Kenya, the Division of Malaria Control is committed to ensuring that 80 percent of childhood fevers are treated with effective anti-malarial medicines within 24 hours of fever onset, but this target is largely unmet. This review aimed to document evidence on access to effective malaria treatment in Kenya, identify factors that influence access, and make recommendations on how to improve prompt access to effective malaria treatment. Since treatment-seeking patterns for malaria are similar in many settings in sub-Saharan Africa, the findings presented in this review have important lessons for other malaria endemic countries. Methods Internet searches were conducted in PUBMED (MEDLINE and HINARI databases using specific search terms and strategies. Grey literature was obtained by soliciting reports from individual researchers working in the treatment-seeking field, from websites of major organizations involved in malaria control and from international reports. Results The review indicated that malaria treatment-seeking occurs mostly in the informal sector; that most fevers are treated, but treatment is often ineffective. Irrational drug use was identified as a problem in most studies, but determinants of this behaviour were not documented. Availability of non-recommended medicines over-the-counter and the presence of substandard anti-malarials in the market are well documented. Demand side determinants of access include perception of illness causes, severity and timing of treatment, perceptions of treatment efficacy, simplicity of regimens and ability to pay. Supply side determinants include distance to health facilities, availability of medicines, prescribing and dispensing practices and quality of medicines. Policy level factors are around

  15. Spatio-Temporal Analysis to Predict Environmental Influence on Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, S.; Sarfraz, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    Malaria is a vector borne disease which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is one of the major diseases in the category of infectious diseases. The survival and bionomics of malaria is affected by environmental factors such as climatic, demographic and land-use/land-cover etc. Currently, a very few under developing countries are using Geo-informatics approaches to control this disease. Gujrat a district of Pakistan, is still under threat of malaria disease. Current research is carried on malaria incidents obtained from District Executive Officer of Health Gujrat. The objective of this study was to explore the spatio-temporal patterns of malaria in district Gujrat and to identify the areas being affected by Malaria. Furthermore, it has been also analyzed the relationship between malaria incident and environmental factors in highly favorable zones. Data is analyzed based on spatial and temporal patterns using (Moran's I). Moreover cluster and hot spots analysis were performed on the incident data. This study shows positive correlation with rainfall, vegetation index, population density and water bodies; while it shows positive and negative correlation with temperature in different seasons. However, variation between amount of vegetation and water bodies were observed. Finding of this research can help the decision makers to take preventive measures and reduce the morbidity and mortality related with malaria in Gujrat, Pakistan.

  16. Environmental temperature affects physiology and survival of nanosecond pulsed electric field-treated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shengyong; Miao, Xudong; Zhang, Xueming; Chen, Xinhua; Wen, Hao

    2018-02-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a novel non-thermal tumor ablation technique. However, how nsPEF affect cell physiology at different environmental temperature is still kept unknown. But this issue is of critical clinical practice relevance. This work aim to investigate how nsPEF treated cancer cells react to different environmental temperatures (0, 4, 25, and 37°C). Their cell viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined. Lower temperature resulted in higher apoptosis rate, decreased mitochondria membrane potential, and increased ROS levels. Sucrose and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pre-incubation inhibit ROS generation and increase cell survival, protecting nsPEF-treated cells from low temperature-caused cell death. This work provides an experimental basis for hypothermia and fluid transfusion during nsPEF ablation with anesthesia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Advances in the study of far-field phenomena affecting repository performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Studies of far-field phenomena affecting repository performance have focussed on the role of fractures and other heterogeneities in the potential transport of radioactive solutes from the repository to the biosphere. The present paper summarizes two recent advances in the subject: the channeling model for the understanding and analysis tracer transport in variable-aperture fractures and the modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in geologic formation around a repository. The paper concludes with remarks on the need for duality in the approach to performance assessment. One line of the duality is fundamental studies and the other, goal-oriented assessment to satisfy regulatory requirements. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  18. How psychological framing affects economic market prices in the lab and field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, Ulrich; Camerer, Colin F; Fox, Craig R; Langer, Thomas

    2013-07-16

    A fundamental debate in social sciences concerns how individual judgments and choices, resulting from psychological mechanisms, are manifested in collective economic behavior. Economists emphasize the capacity of markets to aggregate information distributed among traders into rational equilibrium prices. However, psychologists have identified pervasive and systematic biases in individual judgment that they generally assume will affect collective behavior. In particular, recent studies have found that judged likelihoods of possible events vary systematically with the way the entire event space is partitioned, with probabilities of each of N partitioned events biased toward 1/N. Thus, combining events into a common partition lowers perceived probability, and unpacking events into separate partitions increases their perceived probability. We look for evidence of such bias in various prediction markets, in which prices can be interpreted as probabilities of upcoming events. In two highly controlled experimental studies, we find clear evidence of partition dependence in a 2-h laboratory experiment and a field experiment on National Basketball Association (NBA) and Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA World Cup) sports events spanning several weeks. We also find evidence consistent with partition dependence in nonexperimental field data from prediction markets for economic derivatives (guessing the values of important macroeconomic statistics) and horse races. Results in any one of the studies might be explained by a specialized alternative theory, but no alternative theories can explain the results of all four studies. We conclude that psychological biases in individual judgment can affect market prices, and understanding those effects requires combining a variety of methods from psychology and economics.

  19. Do the venous blood samples replicate malaria parasite densities found in capillary blood? A field study performed in naturally-infected asymptomatic children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeu, Maurice M; Bayibéki, Albert N; Tchioffo, Majoline T; Abate, Luc; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Awono-Ambéné, Parfait H; Nsango, Sandrine E; Diallo, Diadier; Berry, Antoine; Texier, Gaétan; Morlais, Isabelle

    2017-08-17

    The measure of new drug- or vaccine-based approaches for malaria control is based on direct membrane feeding assays (DMFAs) where gametocyte-infected blood samples are offered to mosquitoes through an artificial feeder system. Gametocyte donors are identified by the microscopic detection and quantification of malaria blood stages on blood films prepared using either capillary or venous blood. However, parasites are known to sequester in the microvasculature and this phenomenon may alter accurate detection of parasites in blood films. The blood source may then impact the success of mosquito feeding experiments and investigations are needed for the implementation of DMFAs under natural conditions. Thick blood smears were prepared from blood obtained from asymptomatic children attending primary schools in the vicinity of Mfou (Cameroon) over four transmission seasons. Parasite densities were determined microscopically from capillary and venous blood for 137 naturally-infected gametocyte carriers. The effect of the blood source on gametocyte and asexual stage densities was then assessed by fitting cumulative link mixed models (CLMM). DMFAs were performed to compare the infectiousness of gametocytes from the different blood sources to mosquitoes. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages among asymptomatic children aged from 4 to 15 years was 51.8% (2116/4087). The overall prevalence of P. falciparum gametocyte carriage was 8.9% and varied from one school to another. No difference in the density of gametocyte and asexual stages was found between capillary and venous blood. Attempts to perform DMFAs with capillary blood failed. Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite densities do not differ between capillary and venous blood in asymptomatic subjects for both gametocyte and trophozoite stages. This finding suggests that the blood source should not interfere with transmission efficiency in DMFAs.

  20. Artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy in acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children: a field study regarding neurological and neuropsychiatric safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Sarabel G; Chelo, David; Kinkela, Mina N; Djoukoue, Florence; Tietche, Felix; Hatz, Christoph; Weber, Peter

    2010-10-21

    Mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria is one of the treatments used in African children. Data concerning neurological safety in adults and children treated with mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy is well documented in Asia. Safety data for neurological and neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy in African children are scarce, although WHO recommends this therapy in Africa. A phase IV, open label, single arm study was conducted among African children between 10 and 20 kg with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. They were treated over three consecutive days with a paediatric fixed-dose combination of artesunate (50 mg/d) and mefloquine (125 mg/d). Parasitological, clinical and neurological examinations and standardized questions about neuropsychiatric symptoms were carried out on days 0, 4, 7, 28 and 63. The primary objective was to assess the neurological and neuropsychiatric safety of artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy in young children. From December 2007 to March 2009, 220 children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with artesunate and mefloquine. 213 children were analysed according to study protocol. 50 neurological and neuropsychiatric adverse events occurred in 28 patients. Eleven drug-related neurological and neuropsychiatric adverse events occurred in eight patients. Sleeping disorders were present in 2.3%, neurological disorders in 1.4%, neuropsychiatric disorders in 1% and eating disorders in 0.5% of the patients. Adverse events were of mild to moderate intensity and resolved spontaneously. African children showed a low percentage of self-limited neurological and neuropsychiatric adverse events, confirming studies on neurological safety in Asian children treated with artesunate and mefloquine. Sleeping disorders were most frequently observed.

  1. Malaria, malnutrition, and birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cates, Jordan E.; Unger, Holger W.; Briand, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    were identified by the Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative using a convenience sampling approach and were eligible for pooling given adequate ethical approval and availability of essential variables. Study-specific adjusted effect estimates were calculated using inverse probability...... be multiplicative interaction between malaria infection at enrollment and low MUAC within studies conducted in Africa; however, this finding was not consistent on the additive scale, when accounting for multiple comparisons, or when using other definitions of malaria and malnutrition. The major limitations...... of the study included availability of only 2 cross-sectional measurements of malaria and the limited availability of ultrasound-based pregnancy dating to assess impacts on preterm birth and fetal growth in all studies.  Conclusions : Pregnant women with malnutrition and malaria infection are at increased risk...

  2. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  3. Exposure to GSM 900 MHz electromagnetic fields affects cerebral cytochrome c oxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammari, Mohamed; Lecomte, Anthony; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Seze, Rene de

    2008-01-01

    The world-wide and rapidly growing use of mobile phones has raised serious concerns about the biological and health-related effects of radio frequency (RF) radiation, particularly concerns about the effects of RFs upon the nervous system. The goal of this study was conducted to measure cytochrome oxidase (CO) levels using histochemical methods in order to evaluate regional brain metabolic activity in rat brain after exposure to a GSM 900 MHz signal for 45 min/day at a brain-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.5 W/Kg or for 15 min/day at a SAR of 6 W/Kg over seven days. Compared to the sham and control cage groups, rats exposed to a GSM signal at 6 W/Kg showed decreased CO activity in some areas of the prefrontal and frontal cortex (infralimbic cortex, prelimbic cortex, primary motor cortex, secondary motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex areas 1 and 2 (Cg1 and Cg2)), the septum (dorsal and ventral parts of the lateral septal nucleus), the hippocampus (dorsal field CA1, CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus and dental gyrus) and the posterior cortex (retrosplenial agranular cortex, primary and secondary visual cortex, perirhinal cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex). However, the exposure to GSM at 1.5 W/Kg did not affect brain activity. Our results indicate that 6 W/Kg GSM 900 MHz microwaves may affect brain metabolism and neuronal activity in rats

  4. Field establishment and grain yield of maize affected by hydro-priming of differentially aged seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A sub-sample of maize seeds (cv. SC-AR68 with a 100% germination was kept as control, and two other sub-samples were artificially deteriorated at 40 °C for 2 and 3 days, reducing normal germination to 98% and 93%, respectively. Consequently, three seed lots of maize with different levels of vigor were provided. Each seed lot was then divided into four sub-samples, one unprimed and the other three lots were primed in distilled water at 15 °C for 7, 14 and 21 hours, and then dried back to initial moisture content (about 20% at a room temperature of 20–22 °C for 24 hours. The field experiment was arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Although germination percentage of seed lots was not significantly affected by hydro-priming, germination rate and seedling dry weight were considerably enhanced as a result of seed priming. Hydro-priming for 21 hours enhanced seedling emergence rate of all seed lots with different levels of vigor. This hydro-priming duration also increased grain yield of maize by about 32%, although this superiority was not statistically significant. This advantage in grain yield of plants from primed seeds was related with rapid germination and seedling growth and early emergence in the field.

  5. Maternal enrichment affects prenatal hippocampal proliferation and open-field behaviors in female offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruoka, Takashi; Kodomari, Ikuko; Yamauchi, Rena; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji

    2009-04-17

    The maternal environment is thought to be important for fetal brain development. However, the effects of maternal environment are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether enrichment of the maternal environment can influence prenatal brain development and postnatal behaviors in mice. An enriched environment is a housing condition with several objects such as a running wheel, tube and ladder, which are thought to increase sensory, cognitive and motor stimulation in rodents compared with standard housing conditions. First, we measured the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of fetuses from pregnant dams housed in an enriched environment. Our results revealed that maternal enrichment influences cell proliferation in the hippocampus of female, but not male, fetuses. Second, we used the open-field test to investigate postnatal behaviors in the offspring of dams housed in the enriched environment during pregnancy. We found that maternal enrichment significantly affects the locomotor activity and time spent in the center of the open-field in female, but not male, offspring. These results indicate that maternal enrichment influences prenatal brain development and postnatal behaviors in female offspring.

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of GMZ2 - a MSP3-GLURP fusion protein malaria vaccine candidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esen, Meral; Kremsner, Peter G; Schleucher, Regina

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. In highly endemic regions infants, children and pregnant women are mostly affected. An effective malaria vaccine would complement existing malaria control strategies because it can be integrated in existing immunization programs easily....... Here we present the results of the first phase Ia clinical trial of GMZ2 adjuvanted in aluminium hydroxide. GMZ2 is a malaria vaccine candidate, designed upon the rationale to induce immune responses against asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum similar to those encountered in semi...... is a safe and immunogenic malaria vaccine candidate suitable for further clinical development....

  7. Plasmodium falciparum malaria and antimalarial interventions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases affecting sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of interventions. It exerts tremendous socio-economic and medical burden on the continent, particularly in under five children and pregnant women. In this review, we have attempted to ...

  8. Malaria Control In the Northern Transvaal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidemiology as it affects control operations in the Trans- vaal followed by an outline of .... every case of malaria is a danger and must be detected, given adequate .... mosquito-borne viruses, possibly Chikungunya virus. The Arbor virus unit of ...

  9. The Field Practices of Lambdacyhalothrin and Deltamethrin Insecticides Against Adult Mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi as the Main Vector of Malaria: Residual Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Khosravani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Various chemical control methods have adopted in anti-malaria interventions. Indoor residual spraying (IRS has been proven as a candidate in elimination program. On the other hand, resistance to multiple insecticides was implicated as a concern issue in these polices. Pesticides should be evaluated to identify probable resistant and make decision to choose a technique against vectors. Methods In this cross-sectional study, Bioassay test applied on lambdacyhalothrin WP 10% (0.05 mg a.i. /m2 and deltamethrin WP 5% (0.05 mg a.i./m2 on two surfaces (cement and plaster against adult mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi according to WHO criteria to measure the residual activity in Saravan county, southern Iran. Overall, 3960 mosquitoes was used in our research. The mortality rates of An.stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae measured between selected surfaces and insecticides in several times. Data analyzed by Mann-Whitney (nonparametric test using SPSS v22 statistic software. Results This paper illustrated that maximal course of residual efficacy was about 3 months. No statistically significant different was exhibited between type of surface within mortality rates of An. Stephensi (P = 0.724 but lambdacyhalothrin has more durability than deltamethrin Conclusions We established that lambdacyhalothrin can be used into control and elimination setting of malaria with two rounds of spray at an interval of 3-4 months in south of Iran.

  10. A global assessment of closed forests, deforestation and malaria risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUERRA, C. A.; SNOW, R. W.; HAY, S. I.

    2011-01-01

    Global environmental change is expected to affect profoundly the transmission of the parasites that cause human malaria. Amongst the anthropogenic drivers of change, deforestation is arguably the most conspicuous, and its rate is projected to increase in the coming decades. The canonical epidemiological understanding is that deforestation increases malaria risk in Africa and the Americas and diminishes it in South–east Asia. Partial support for this position is provided here, through a systematic review of the published literature on deforestation, malaria and the relevant vector bionomics. By using recently updated boundaries for the spatial limits of malaria and remotely-sensed estimates of tree cover, it has been possible to determine the population at risk of malaria in closed forest, at least for those malaria-endemic countries that lie within the main blocks of tropical forest. Closed forests within areas of malaria risk cover approximately 1.5 million km2 in the Amazon region, 1.4 million km2 in Central Africa, 1.2 million km2 in the Western Pacific, and 0.7 million km2 in South–east Asia. The corresponding human populations at risk of malaria within these forests total 11.7 million, 18.7 million, 35.1 million and 70.1 million, respectively. By coupling these numbers with the country-specific rates of deforestation, it has been possible to rank malaria-endemic countries according to their potential for change in the population at risk of malaria, as the result of deforestation. The on-going research aimed at evaluating these relationships more quantitatively, through the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP), is highlighted. PMID:16630376

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES The burden of imported malaria in Gauteng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communicable Disease Control and Infection Control, Gauteng Department of ... malaria cases in each of the public and private sector hospitals ..... Costantini C, Badolo A, Ilboudo-Sanogo E. Field evaluation of the efficacy and persistence of.

  12. Forty Years of Malaria Control and Zululand In Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    when it became necessary to extend control measures over the whole area. ... field staff, are necessary to ensure that new or renovated dwellings ... and by 1956 malaria infection had been reduced to negli- ... There are 7 mission hospitals in.

  13. A global model of malaria climate sensitivity: comparing malaria response to historic climate data based on simulation and officially reported malaria incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlund Stefan

    2012-09-01

    national subdivisions and with monthly time sampling. Conclusions The high spatial resolution possible with state-of-the-art numerical models can identify regions most likely to require intervention due to climate changes. Higher-resolution surveillance data can provide a better understanding of how climate fluctuations affect malaria incidence and improve predictions. An open-source modelling framework, such as STEM, can be a valuable tool for the scientific community and provide a collaborative platform for developing such models.

  14. Short report: entomologic inoculation rates and Plasmodium falciparum malaria prevalence in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, J C; Killeen, G F; Githure, J I

    1999-07-01

    Epidemiologic patterns of malaria infection are governed by environmental parameters that regulate vector populations of Anopheles mosquitoes. The intensity of malaria parasite transmission is normally expressed as the entomologic inoculation rate (EIR), the product of the vector biting rate times the proportion of mosquitoes infected with sporozoite-stage malaria parasites. Malaria transmission intensity in Africa is highly variable with annual EIRs ranging from 1,000 infective bites per person per year. Malaria control programs often seek to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malaria by reducing or eliminating malaria parasite transmission by mosquitoes. This report evaluates data from 31 sites throughout Africa to establish fundamental relationships between annual EIRs and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. The majority of sites fitted a linear relationship (r2 = 0.71) between malaria prevalence and the logarithm of the annual EIR. Some sites with EIRs 80%. The basic relationship between EIR and P. falciparum prevalence, which likely holds in east and west Africa, and across different ecologic zones, shows convincingly that substantial reductions in malaria prevalence are likely to be achieved only when EIRs are reduced to levels less than 1 infective bite per person per year. The analysis also highlights that the EIR is a more direct measure of transmission intensity than traditional measures of malaria prevalence or hospital-based measures of infection or disease incidence. As such, malaria field programs need to consider both entomologic and clinical assessments of the efficacy of transmission control measures.

  15. Experimental Evaluations of Two Strategies to Improve Reading Achievement in Kenya: Enhanced Literacy Instruction and Treatment of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Matthew; Dubeck, Margaret; Brooker, Simon; Wolf, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    There is less quality evidence on how malaria may affect cognitive abilities and educational achievement or on how schools can tackle the problem of malaria among school children. A randomised trial among Sri Lankan children showed that weekly malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine can improve school examination scores. The Health and Literacy…

  16. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The Disease What is Malaria? Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease ... cycle of disease and poverty. How People Get Malaria (Transmission) How is malaria transmitted? Usually, people get ...

  17. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services.

  18. Malaria and Vascular Endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Aristóteles Comte Filho de, E-mail: aristoteles.caf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Okoshi, Katashi; Okoshi, Marina Politi [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu (Unesp), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with infectious and parasitic diseases can result from both intrinsic mechanisms of the disease and drug intervention. Malaria is an example, considering that the endothelial injury by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can cause circulatory disorders. This is a literature review aimed at discussing the relationship between malaria and endothelial impairment, especially its effects on the cardiovascular system. We discuss the implications of endothelial aggression and the interdisciplinarity that should guide the malaria patient care, whose acute infection can contribute to precipitate or aggravate a preexisting heart disease.

  19. Malaria and Vascular Endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Aristóteles Comte Filho de; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de; Okoshi, Katashi; Okoshi, Marina Politi

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with infectious and parasitic diseases can result from both intrinsic mechanisms of the disease and drug intervention. Malaria is an example, considering that the endothelial injury by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can cause circulatory disorders. This is a literature review aimed at discussing the relationship between malaria and endothelial impairment, especially its effects on the cardiovascular system. We discuss the implications of endothelial aggression and the interdisciplinarity that should guide the malaria patient care, whose acute infection can contribute to precipitate or aggravate a preexisting heart disease

  20. 20 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN MALARIA RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kevin Baird

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2 Detachment (NAMRU, in collaboration with National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD and many other Indonesian government agencies and universities, has conducted studies of malaria throughout Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Flores, Timor, and Irian Jaya. Most studies have characterized the disease epidemiologically by defining the parasitologic distribution of the disease in the population, and by defining the entomologic parameters of local transmission. Studies of patterns of resistance to antimalarials have also been done at many field sites. Several studies on the clinical management of malaria occurred in Rumah Sakit Umum Propinsi in Jayapura. In addition to these studies which impact upon local public health planning policy, immunologic studies routinely occurred in support of the global effort to develop a vaccine against malaria. This report summarizes the progress made in these areas of research during the first 20 years of NAMRU in Indonesia.

  1. Sickle cell protection from malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eridani, Sandro

    2011-10-19

    A linkage between presence of Sickle Haemoglobin (HbS) and protection from malaria infection and clinical manifestations in certain areas was suspected from early observations and progressively elucidated by more recent studies. Research has confirmed the abovementioned connection, but also clarified how such protection may be abolished by coexistence of sickle cell trait (HbS trait) and alpha thalassemia, which may explain the relatively low incidence of HbS trait in the Mediterranean. The mechanisms of such protective effect are now being investigated: factors of genetic, molecular and immunological nature are prominent. As for genetic factors attention is given to the role of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane complement regulatory proteins as polymorphisms of these components seem to be associated with resistance to severe malaria; genetic ligands like the Duffy group blood antigen, necessary for erythrocytic invasion, and human protein CD36, a major receptor for P. falciparum-infected RBC's, are also under scrutiny: attention is focused also on plasmodium erythrocyte-binding antigens, which bind to RBC surface components. Genome-wide linkage and association studies are now carried out too, in order to identify genes associated with malaria resistance. Only a minor role is attributed to intravascular sickling, phagocytosis and haemolysis, while specific molecular mechanisms are the object of intensive research: among these a decisive role is played by a biochemical sequence, involving activation of haeme oxygenase (HMO-1), whose effect appears mediated by carbon monoxide (CO). A central role in protection from malaria is also played by immunological factors, which may stimulate antibody production to plasmodium antigens in the early years of life; the role of agents like pathogenic CD8 T-cells has been suggested while the effects of molecular actions on the immunity mechanism are presently investigated. It thus appears that protection from malaria can be

  2. Different farming and water regimes in Italian rice fields affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal soil communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumini, Erica; Vallino, Marta; Alguacil, Maria M; Romani, Marco; Bianciotto, Valeria

    2011-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) comprise one of the main components of soil microbiota in most agroecosystems. These obligate mutualistic symbionts colonize the roots of most plants, including crop plants. Many papers have indicated that different crop management practices could affect AMF communities and their root colonization. However, there is little knowledge available on the influence of conventional and low-input agriculture on root colonization and AMF molecular diversity in rice fields. Two different agroecosystems (continuous conventional high-input rice monocropping and organic farming with a five-year crop rotation) and two different water management regimes have been considered in this study. Both morphological and molecular analyses were performed. The soil mycorrhizal potential, estimated using clover trap cultures, was high and similar in the two agroecosystems. The diversity of the AMF community in the soil, calculated by means of PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) and 18S rDNA sequencing on clover trap cultures roots, was higher for the organic cultivation. The rice roots cultivated in the conventional agrosystem or under permanent flooding showed no AMF colonization, while the rice plants grown under the organic agriculture system showed typical mycorrhization patterns. Considered together, our data suggest that a high-input cropping system and conventional flooding depress AMF colonization in rice roots and that organic managements could help maintain a higher diversity of AMF communities in soil.

  3. Changing the Malaria Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tega

    Malaria in the 21st Century” was held at ... seconds, and more than one million deaths occur annually from this disease. ... Biological control, for example the use of predatory fish against mosquito larvae and the use of other predatory insects.

  4. Bioinformatics approaches to malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Aaen

    Malaria is a life threatening disease found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Each year it kills 781 000 individuals; most of them are children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa. The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum......, which is the subject of the first part of this thesis. The PfEMP1 protein which is encoded by the highly variablevargene family is important in the pathogenesis and immune evasion of malaria parasites. We analyzed and classified these genes based on the upstream sequence in seven......Plasmodium falciparumclones. We show that the amount of nucleotide diversity is just as big within each clone as it is between the clones. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in many eukaryotic species. We are studying DNA methylation in the malaria parasitePlasmodium falciparum. The work is still in progress...

  5. Muscling out malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    ) [2] highlighted the back-to-back articles in Science 3 and 4 that demonstrated the potential biocontrol of malaria by targeting mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium and Beauveria spp.). The wide impact of the original articles and the need to find alternatives to pesticidal control...... where malaria is endemic, humanity cannot afford shortcuts, because any failures owing to poor management or premature implementation will reduce local governmental support rather than enhance it (Andrew Read, pers. commun.). Therefore, if we are to ‘muscle out malaria', well...... of key importance, and the new focus on fungal biocontrol of malaria should therefore act as a catalyst for further research on the basic biology of fungal pathogens. Understanding morphological, biochemical or immune system-based resistance to insect pathogenic fungi will be easier if we know...

  6. Malaria in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus R. Alvarez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a resurgence of malaria in densely populated areas of the United States secondary to human migration from endemic areas where factors such as cessation of vector control, vector resistance to insecticides, disease resistance to drugs, environmental changes, political instability, and indifference, have played a role for malaria becoming an overwhelming infection of these tropical underdeveloped countries. It is important for health care providers of gravida to be alert of the disease and its effects on pregnancy.

  7. Laboratory diagnostics of malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, L.

    2018-03-01

    Even now, malaria treatment should only be administered after laboratory confirmation. There are several principal methods for diagnosing malaria. All these methods have their disadvantages.Presumptive treatment of malaria is widely practiced where laboratory tests are not readily available. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria infection. The technique of slide preparation, staining and reading are well known and standardized, and so is the estimate of the parasite density and parasite stages. Microscopy is not always available or feasible at primary health services in limited resource settings due to cost, lack of skilled manpower, accessories and reagents required. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are potential tools for parasite-based diagnosis since the tests are accurate in detecting malaria infections and are easy to use. The test is based on the capture of parasite antigen that released from parasitized red blood cells using monoclonal antibodies prepared against malaria antigen target. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), depend on DNA amplification approaches and have higher sensitivity than microscopy. PCR it is not widely used due to the lack of a standardized methodology, high costs, and the need for highly-trained staff.

  8. Heart rate variability affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic field in adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misek, Jakub; Belyaev, Igor; Jakusova, Viera; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Barabas, Jan; Jakus, Jan

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the possible effect of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The effect of RF EMF on ANS activity was studied by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) during ortho-clinostatic test (i.e., transition from lying to standing and back) in 46 healthy grammar school students. A 1788 MHz pulsed wave with intensity of 54 ± 1.6 V/m was applied intermittently for 18 min in each trial. Maximum specific absorption rate (SAR 10 ) value was determined to 0.405 W/kg. We also measured the respiration rate and estimated a subjective perception of EMF exposure. RF exposure decreased heart rate of subjects in a lying position, while no such change was seen in standing students. After exposure while lying, a rise in high frequency band of HRV and root Mean Square of the Successive Differences was observed, which indicated an increase in parasympathetic nerve activity. Tympanic temperature and skin temperature were measured showing no heating under RF exposure. No RF effect on respiration rate was observed. None of the tested subjects were able to distinguish real exposure from sham exposure when queried at the end of the trial. In conclusion, short-term RF EMF exposure of students in a lying position during the ortho-clinostatic test affected ANS with significant increase in parasympathetic nerve activity compared to sham exposed group. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:277-288, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil.

  10. Hari Malaria Sedunia 2013 Investasi Di Masa Depan. Taklukkan Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotnida Sitorus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is still the global health problems, World Health Organization estimates that malaria causes death of approximately 660.000 in 2010, most of the age of the children in the region of sub-Saharan Africa. World Malaria Day 2013 assigned the theme “Invest in the future. Defeat malaria”. It takes political will and collective action to jointly combat malaria through malaria elimination. Needed more new donors to be involved in global partnerships against malaria. These partnerships exist, one of which is support of funding or facility for malaria endemic countries which do not have sufficient resources to control malaria. A lot of effort has been done or is still in the development stage. The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets appropriately can reduce malaria cases. The use of rapid diagnostic test, especially in remote areas and health facility with no microscopy, is very beneficial for patients to get prompt treatment. The control of malaria through integrated vector management is a rational decision making process to optimize the use of resources in the control of vector. Sterile insect technique has a promising prospect and expected to replace the role of chemical insecticides that have negative impact both on the environment and target vector (resistance. Keywords: Malaria, long-lasting insecticidal nets, rapid diagnostic test Abstrak Malaria masih menjadi masalah kesehatan dunia, Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO memperkirakan malaria menyebabkan kurang lebih 660.000 kematian pada tahun 2010, kebanyakan usia anak-anak di wilayah Sub-Sahara Afrika. Pada peringatan hari malaria dunia tahun 2013 ditetapkan tema “Investasi di masa depan. Taklukkan malaria”. Dibutuhkan kemauan politik dan tindakan kolektif untuk bersama-sama memerangi malaria melalui gerakan eliminasi malaria. Diperlukan lebih banyak donor baru untuk turut terlibat dalam kemitraan global melawan malaria. Wujud kemitraan tersebut salah satunya adalah

  11. Vulnerability to changes in malaria transmission due to climate change in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Malaria transmission in West Africa is strongly tied to climate; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the survival of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. As a result, the environmental suitability for malaria transmission in this region is expected to change as temperatures rise and rainfall patterns are altered. The vulnerability to changes in transmission varies throughout West Africa. Areas where malaria prevalence is already very high will be less sensitive to changes in transmission. Increases in environmental suitability for malaria transmission in the most arid regions may still be insufficient to allow sustained transmission. However, areas were malaria transmission currently occurs at low levels are expected to be the most sensitive to changes in environmental suitability for transmission. Here, we use data on current environment and malaria transmission rates to highlight areas in West Africa that we expect to be most vulnerable to an increase in malaria under certain climate conditions. We then analyze climate predictions from global climate models in vulnerable areas, and make predictions for the expected change in environmental suitability for malaria transmission using the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a mechanistic model developed to simulate village-scale response of malaria transmission to environmental variables in West Africa.

  12. Internal and External Factors Affecting The Size of Paddy Field Sold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Rostiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted  to identify internal condition of the farmers who sold their paddy field and analyze the effects of age, education level, number of family members, field productivity, location, and production cost to the total area of paddy field sold. This study used quantitative descriptive method. This research found that age, education level, number of family members, and location of the land had positive relation to the total area of paddy field sold. On the other hand, production cost and field productivity had negative relation to the total area of paddy field sold. Partially, field production and number of family members had no significant effect to the total area of paddy field sold.

  13. A multilateral effort to develop DNA vaccines against falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjai; Epstein, Judith E; Richie, Thomas L; Nkrumah, Francis K; Soisson, Lorraine; Carucci, Daniel J; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2002-03-01

    Scientists from several organizations worldwide are working together to develop a multistage, multigene DNA-based vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This collaborative vaccine development effort is named Multi-Stage DNA-based Malaria Vaccine Operation. An advisory board of international experts in vaccinology, malariology and field trials provides the scientific oversight to support the operation. This article discusses the rationale for the approach, underlying concepts and the pre-clinical development process, and provides a brief outline of the plans for the clinical testing of a multistage, multiantigen malaria vaccine based on DNA plasmid immunization technology.

  14. "Every drug goes to treat its own disease…" - a qualitative study of perceptions and experiences of taking anti-retrovirals concomitantly with anti-malarials among those affected by HIV and malaria in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangesho, Peter E; Reynolds, Joanna; Lemnge, Martha

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) experience malaria and the concomitant use of anti-malarial treatments with anti-retrovirals (ARVs). An understanding of how patients make sense of these experiences is important to consider in planning......, perceptions of drug strength appeared to compel some people not enrolled in the clinical study to take the drugs at separate times to avoid anticipated harm to the body. CONCLUSIONS: Management of HIV and malaria concurrently often requires individuals to cross the domains of different disease programmes...

  15. Knowledge of malaria and practice of home management of malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is the 3rd leading cause of death for children under five years worldwide. Home-based management of malaria may go a long way in reducing the attending morbidity and mortality associated with malaria in this group ...

  16. Using Structured Additive Regression Models to Estimate Risk Factors of Malaria: Analysis of 2010 Malawi Malaria Indicator Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirombo, James; Lowe, Rachel; Kazembe, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background After years of implementing Roll Back Malaria (RBM) interventions, the changing landscape of malaria in terms of risk factors and spatial pattern has not been fully investigated. This paper uses the 2010 malaria indicator survey data to investigate if known malaria risk factors remain relevant after many years of interventions. Methods We adopted a structured additive logistic regression model that allowed for spatial correlation, to more realistically estimate malaria risk factors. Our model included child and household level covariates, as well as climatic and environmental factors. Continuous variables were modelled by assuming second order random walk priors, while spatial correlation was specified as a Markov random field prior, with fixed effects assigned diffuse priors. Inference was fully Bayesian resulting in an under five malaria risk map for Malawi. Results Malaria risk increased with increasing age of the child. With respect to socio-economic factors, the greater the household wealth, the lower the malaria prevalence. A general decline in malaria risk was observed as altitude increased. Minimum temperatures and average total rainfall in the three months preceding the survey did not show a strong association with disease risk. Conclusions The structured additive regression model offered a flexible extension to standard regression models by enabling simultaneous modelling of possible nonlinear effects of continuous covariates, spatial correlation and heterogeneity, while estimating usual fixed effects of categorical and continuous observed variables. Our results confirmed that malaria epidemiology is a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors, both at the individual, household and community level and that risk factors are still relevant many years after extensive implementation of RBM activities. PMID:24991915

  17. Case management of malaria: Diagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    triggering control programme action, and detecting gametocyte carriers, who may ... clinical malaria does not generally apply to local-born populations, although it ... deficiencies in the quality of malaria diagnosis in routine laboratories. Quality ...

  18. Non-Genetic Determinants of Mosquito Competence for Malaria Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Lef?vre, Thierry; Vantaux, Am?lie; Dabir?, Kounbobr R.; Mouline, Karine; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how mosquito vectors and malaria parasites interact is of fundamental interest, and it also offers novel perspectives for disease control. Both the genetic and environmental contexts are known to affect the ability of mosquitoes to support malaria development and transmission, i.e., vector competence. Although the role of environment has long been recognized, much work has focused on host and parasite genetic effects. However, the last few years have seen a surge of studies reve...

  19. MALARIA VACCINE: MYTH OR REALITY?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    Malaria currently remains the highest killer disease nationwide despite existing control measures. Malaria vaccine ... that malaria could be eliminated or at least controlled. However, because of changes in vector behaviour, drug resistance, manpower constraints for public ..... Although animal host models are different from ...

  20. Malaria and Agriculture in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    die every day from malaria, conventional efforts to control the disease have not worked. Malaria parasites are .... and other animals. Mosquito nets. Provide insecticide-treated bednets to groups at high risk for malaria, namely young children and pregnant women, through partnerships with nongovernmental organizations ...

  1. Disrupting Mosquito Reproduction and Parasite Development for Malaria Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Childs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of mosquito populations with insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual sprays remains the cornerstone of malaria reduction and elimination programs. In light of widespread insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, however, alternative strategies for reducing transmission by the mosquito vector are urgently needed, including the identification of safe compounds that affect vectorial capacity via mechanisms that differ from fast-acting insecticides. Here, we show that compounds targeting steroid hormone signaling disrupt multiple biological processes that are key to the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria. When an agonist of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E is applied to Anopheles gambiae females, which are the dominant malaria mosquito vector in Sub Saharan Africa, it substantially shortens lifespan, prevents insemination and egg production, and significantly blocks Plasmodium falciparum development, three components that are crucial to malaria transmission. Modeling the impact of these effects on Anopheles population dynamics and Plasmodium transmission predicts that disrupting steroid hormone signaling using 20E agonists would affect malaria transmission to a similar extent as insecticides. Manipulating 20E pathways therefore provides a powerful new approach to tackle malaria transmission by the mosquito vector, particularly in areas affected by the spread of insecticide resistance.

  2. Towards A Malaria Vaccine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S GARG

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have seen a marked change in the understanding of malaria mmunology.We have very little knowledge on immunity of Malaria based on experiments in humanbeings due to ethical reasons. Whatsoever our knowledge exists at present is based onexperimentas in mice and monkey. However it is clear that it is sporzoite or merozoitewhich is directly exposed to our immune system in the life cycle of Malaria parasite. On thebasis of human experiments we can draw inference that immunity to malaria is species.specific (on cross immunity, stage specific and strain specific as well acquired in the response to surface antigen and relapsed antigen although the parasite also demonstrates escape machanism to immune system.So the host system kills or elimi nate the parasite by means of (a Antbody to extracell~ular form of parasite with the help of mechanism of Block invasion, Agglutination or opsonization and/or (b Cellular machanism-either by phago-cytosis of parasite or by antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity ABCC (? or by effects of mediators like tumor necrosis fJ.ctor (TNF in cerebaral malaria or crisis forming factor as found in sudan or by possible role of lysis mechanism.However, inspite of all these theories the parasite has been able to invade the immunesystem by virtue of its intracellular development stage specificity, sequestration in capillaries and also by its unusual characteristics of antigenic diversity and antigenic variation.

  3. Roll back malaria update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    This article presents the activities under WHO's Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program in Asia, particularly in Nepal, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. In India, the RBM program will start in 5 districts with a major malaria problem. A national committee has been formed by researchers, which will be able to provide operational and strategic support and research expertise in relation to malaria. In Bangladesh, the RBM program was initiated in the sparsely populated hill tract areas of Banderban and Chittagong where access to health care is very poor. At the district level, effective partnerships with private practitioners, politicians, community leaders, school teachers, the press and district Ministry of Health officials are operating to plan for rolling back malaria. In Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Yunnan province of China, Vietnam, and Thailand, the focus of the RBM program was to move health care closer to the malaria-infected communities. WHO¿s Global Health Leadership Fellowship Programme, supported by the UN Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation, enables potential leaders to experience the work of UN agencies and contribute to the work of the organization for 2 years. Three out of four persons appointed to the RBM program received prestigious awards: Dr. Paola Marchesini of Brazil; Dr. Tieman Diarra of Mali; and Dr. Bob Taylor of the UK.

  4. Biology, Bionomics and Molecular Biology of Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann 1828 (Diptera: Culicidae), Main Malaria Vector in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinyu; Zhang, Shaosen; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Li; Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Hejun; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Shuisen

    2017-01-01

    China has set a goal to eliminate all malaria in the country by 2020, but it is unclear if current understanding of malaria vectors and transmission is sufficient to achieve this objective. Anopheles sinensis is the most widespread malaria vector specie in China, which is also responsible for vivax malaria outbreak in central China. We reviewed literature from 1954 to 2016 on An. sinensis with emphasis on biology, bionomics, and molecular biology. A total of 538 references were relevant and included. An. sienesis occurs in 29 Chinese provinces. Temperature can affect most life-history parameters. Most An. sinensis are zoophilic, but sometimes they are facultatively anthropophilic. Sporozoite analysis demonstrated An. sinensis efficacy on Plasmodium vivax transmission. An. sinensis was not stringently refractory to P. falciparum under experimental conditions, however, sporozoite was not found in salivary glands of field collected An. sinensis . The literature on An. sienesis biology and bionomics was abundant, but molecular studies, such as gene functions and mechanisms, were limited. Only 12 molecules (genes, proteins or enzymes) have been studied. In addition, there were considerable untapped omics resources for potential vector control tools. Existing information on An. sienesis could serve as a baseline for advanced research on biology, bionomics and genetics relevant to vector control strategies.

  5. Four malaria success stories: how malaria burden was successfully reduced in Brazil, Eritrea, India, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Lawrence M

    2006-01-01

    While many countries struggle to control malaria, four countries, Brazil, Eritrea, India, and Vietnam, have successfully reduced malaria burden. To determine what led these countries to achieve impact, published and unpublished reports were reviewed and selected program and partner staff were interviewed to identify common factors that contributed to these successes. Common success factors included conducive country conditions, a targeted technical approach using a package of effective tools, data-driven decision-making, active leadership at all levels of government, involvement of communities, decentralized implementation and control of finances, skilled technical and managerial capacity at national and sub-national levels, hands-on technical and programmatic support from partner agencies, and sufficient and flexible financing. All these factors were essential in achieving success. If the goals of Roll Back Malaria are to be achieved, governments and their partners must take the lessons learned from these program successes and apply them in other affected countries.

  6. PENYEBARAN KASUS DAN HABITAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI KABUPATEN SUMBA TIMUR PROVINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    OpenAIRE

    Ruben Wadu Willa; Muhammad Kazwaini

    2016-01-01

    East Sumba is a district in Sumba Island with high endemicity of malaria. The environment condition and geographical location can support the spread of malaria infection. This is a cross-sectional design research. The result shows that the spreading of malaria case is in 0 to 1000 meters from human settlements and spread evenly in remote villages. Breeding habitat are buffalo footprints, puddles, rice fields, rivers, buffalo wallows, gutters and trenches. With pH of water around 7 until 9 and...

  7. Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Okebe, Joseph; Yahav, Dafna; Paul, Mical

    2016-01-01

    . Conclusions Our conclusions are that iron supplementation does not adversely affect children living in malaria-endemic areas. Based on our review, routine iron supplementation should not be withheld from children living in countries where malaria is prevalent and malaria management services are available. PMID:26921618

  8. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  9. Role of Activins in Hepcidin Regulation during Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Natasha; Armitage, Andrew E; Williams, Andrew R; Fyfe, Alex J; Biswas, Sumi; Hodgson, Susanne H; Llewellyn, David; Choudhary, Prateek; Draper, Simon J; Duffy, Patrick E; Drakesmith, Hal

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological observations have linked increased host iron with malaria susceptibility, and perturbed iron handling has been hypothesized to contribute to the potentially life-threatening anemia that may accompany blood-stage malaria infection. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we examined the pathways involved in regulation of the master controller of iron metabolism, the hormone hepcidin, in malaria infection. We show that hepcidin upregulation in Plasmodium berghei murine malaria infection was accompanied by changes in expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/sons of mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) pathway target genes, a key pathway involved in hepcidin regulation. We therefore investigated known agonists of the BMP/SMAD pathway and found that Bmp gene expression was not increased in infection. In contrast, activin B, which can signal through the BMP/SMAD pathway and has been associated with increased hepcidin during inflammation, was upregulated in the livers of Plasmodium berghei -infected mice; hepatic activin B was also upregulated at peak parasitemia during infection with Plasmodium chabaudi Concentrations of the closely related protein activin A increased in parallel with hepcidin in serum from malaria-naive volunteers infected in controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) clinical trials. However, antibody-mediated neutralization of activin activity during murine malaria infection did not affect hepcidin expression, suggesting that these proteins do not stimulate hepcidin upregulation directly. In conclusion, we present evidence that the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway is perturbed in malaria infection but that activins, although raised in malaria infection, may not have a critical role in hepcidin upregulation in this setting. Copyright © 2017 Spottiswoode et al.

  10. Modelling the influence of climate on malaria occurrence in Chimoio Municipality, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, João Luís; Mendes, Jorge M; Painho, Marco

    2017-05-25

    prediction of malaria cases, this can be used for designing public precision health measures. The model can be used for planning specific measures for Chimoio municipality. Prospective and multidisciplinary research involving researchers from different fields is welcomed to improve the effect of climatic factors and other factors in malaria cases.

  11. Comparison of Malaria Simulations Driven by Meteorological Observations and Reanalysis Products in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima Diouf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of climate parameters is crucial to study the impact of climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases such as malaria. The use of malaria models is an alternative way of producing potential malaria historical data for Senegal due to the lack of reliable observations for malaria outbreaks over a long time period. Consequently, here we use the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM, driven by different climatic datasets, in order to study and validate simulated malaria parameters over Senegal. The findings confirm that the risk of malaria transmission is mainly linked to climate variables such as rainfall and temperature as well as specific landscape characteristics. For the whole of Senegal, a lag of two months is generally observed between the peak of rainfall in August and the maximum number of reported malaria cases in October. The malaria transmission season usually takes place from September to November, corresponding to the second peak of temperature occurring in October. Observed malaria data from the Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme (PNLP, National Malaria control Programme in Senegal and outputs from the meteorological data used in this study were compared. The malaria model outputs present some consistencies with observed malaria dynamics over Senegal, and further allow the exploration of simulations performed with reanalysis data sets over a longer time period. The simulated malaria risk significantly decreased during the 1970s and 1980s over Senegal. This result is consistent with the observed decrease of malaria vectors and malaria cases reported by field entomologists and clinicians in the literature. The main differences between model outputs and observations regard amplitude, but can be related not only to reanalysis deficiencies but also to other environmental and socio-economic factors that are not included in this mechanistic malaria model framework. The present study can be

  12. MIGRATION AND MALARIA IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Monge-Maillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of imported malaria cases due to immigrants in Europe has increased during the lasts decades, being the higher rates for those settled immigrants who travel to visit friends and relatives (VFRs at their country of origin. Cases are mainly due to P. falciparum and Sub-Saharan Africa is the most common origin. Clinically, malaria in immigrants is characterized by a mild clinical presentation with even asymptomatic o delayed malaria cases and low parasitemic level. These characteristics may be explained by a semi-immunity acquired after long periods of time exposed to stable transmission of malaria. Malaria cases among immigrants, even those asymptomatic patients with sub-microscopic parasitemia, could increase the risk of transmission and reintroduction of malaria in certain areas with the adequate vectors and climate conditions. Moreover imported malaria cases by immigrants can also play an important role in the non-vectorial transmission out of endemic area, by blood transfusions, organ transplantation or congenital or occupational exposures. Probably, out of endemic areas, screening of malaria among recent arrived immigrants coming from malaria endemic countries should be performed. These aim to reduce the risk of clinical malaria in the individual as well as to prevent autochthonous transmission of malaria in areas where it had been eradicated.

  13. A near-null magnetic field affects cryptochrome-related hypocotyl growth and flowering in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiao; Yin, Xiao; Lv, Yan; Wu, Changzhe; Zhang, Yuxia; Song, Tao

    2012-03-01

    The blue light receptor, cryptochrome, has been suggested to act as a magnetoreceptor based on the proposition that photochemical reactions are involved in sensing the geomagnetic field. But the effects of the geomagnetic field on cryptochrome remain unclear. Although the functions of cryptochrome have been well demonstrated for Arabidopsis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the growth of Arabidopsis and its mechanism of action are poorly understood. We eliminated the local geomagnetic field to grow Arabidopsis in a near-null magnetic field and found that the inhibition of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by white light was weakened, and flowering time was delayed. The expressions of three cryptochrome-signaling-related genes, PHYB, CO and FT also changed; the transcript level of PHYB was elevated ca. 40%, and that of CO and FT was reduced ca. 40% and 50%, respectively. These data suggest that the effects of a near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis are cryptochrome-related, which may be revealed by a modification of the active state of cryptochrome and the subsequent signaling cascade.

  14. Vacuna contra la malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2017-01-01

    La malaria es una enfermedad parasitaria producida por la picadura de un mosquito; una afección que en el año 2015 registró 212 millones de casos y 429.000 muertes. Cada dos minutos, la malaria provocó la muerte de un niño menor de cinco años en todo el mundo. Diferentes científicos a lo largo de todo el mundo han hecho múltiples intentos para combatir esta enfermedad con una vacuna efectiva que pueda erradicarla de raíz.

  15. Controlled Human Malaria Infection: Applications, Advances, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, Danielle I; McCarthy, James S; Good, Michael F

    2018-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or by direct injection of sporozoites or parasitized erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of antimalarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. More recently, CHMI has been applied to the fields of malaria vaccine and drug development, where it is used to evaluate products in well-controlled early-phase proof-of-concept clinical studies, thus facilitating progression of only the most promising candidates for further evaluation in areas where malaria is endemic. Controlled infections have also been used to immunize against malaria infection. Historically, CHMI studies have been restricted by the need for access to insectaries housing infected mosquitoes or suitable malaria-infected individuals. Evaluation of vaccine and drug candidates has been constrained in these studies by the availability of a limited number of Plasmodium falciparum isolates. Recent advances have included cryopreservation of sporozoites, the manufacture of well-characterized and genetically distinct cultured malaria cell banks for blood-stage infection, and the availability of Plasmodium vivax -specific reagents. These advances will help to accelerate malaria vaccine and drug development by making the reagents for CHMI more widely accessible and also enabling a more rigorous evaluation with multiple parasite strains and species. Here we discuss the different applications of CHMI, recent advances in the use of CHMI, and ongoing challenges for consideration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Are there geographic and socio-economic differences in incidence, burden and prevention of malaria? A study in southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike Nkem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale It is not clearly evident whether malaria affects the poor more although it has been argued that the poor bear a very high burden of the disease. This study explored the socioeconomic and geographic differences in incidence and burden of malaria as well as ownership of mosquito nets. Methods Structured questionnaires were used to collect information from 1657 respondents from rural and urban communities in southeast Nigeria on: incidence of malaria, number of days lost to malaria; actions to treat malaria and household ownership of insecticide treated and untreated mosquito nets. Data was compared across socio-economic status (SES quartiles and between urban and rural dwellers. Results There was statistically significant urban-rural difference in malaria occurrence with malaria occurring more amongst urban dwellers. There was more reported occurrence of malaria amongst children and other adult household members in better-off SES groups compared to worse-off SES groups, but not amongst respondents. The average number of days that people delayed before seeking treatment was two days, and both adults and children were ill with malaria for about six days. Better-off SES quartile and urban dwellers owned more mosquito nets (p Conclusion Malaria occurs more amongst better-off SES groups and urban dwellers in southeast Nigeria. Deployment of malaria control interventions should ensure universal access since targeting the poor and other supposedly vulnerable groups may exclude people that really require malaria control services.

  17. Field experiments of Anopheles gambiae attraction to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants in Mali to optimize strategies for malaria vector control in Africa using attractive toxic sugar bait methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bah Sekou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on recent studies in Israel demonstrating that attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB methods can be used to decimate local anopheline and culicine mosquito populations, an important consideration is whether the same methods can be adapted and improved to attract and kill malaria vectors in Africa. The ATSB approach uses fruit or flower scent as an attractant, sugar solution as a feeding stimulant, and an oral toxin. The ATSB solutions are either sprayed on vegetation or suspended in simple bait stations, and the mosquitoes ingesting the toxic solutions are killed. As such, this approach targets sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes. This study examines the attractiveness of African malaria vectors to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants, key biological elements of the ATSB approach for mosquito control. Methods Three field experiments were conducted at sites in Mali. The attraction of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to 26 different local fruits and seedpods was determined at a site in the semi-arid Bandiagara District of Mali. Wire mesh glue traps with fruits/seedpods suspended on skewers inside were set along a seasonal lagoon. Seven replicates of each fruit/seedpod species were tested, with a water-soaked sponge and a sugar-soaked sponge as controls. The attraction of An. gambiae s.l. to 26 different types of flowering plants was determined at a site near Mopti in Mali. The flowering plants held in a water-filled buried container were tested using the same glue traps, with controls including water only and sugar solution. Six replicates of each selected plant type were tested on transects between rice paddies. Additional studies using CDC light traps were done to determine the relative densities and periodicity of An. gambiae s.l. attraction to branches of the most highly attractive flowering plant, branches without flowers, human odor, and candescent light. Results Of the 26 fruits and seedpods tested, 6 were attractive

  18. Field experiments of Anopheles gambiae attraction to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants in Mali to optimize strategies for malaria vector control in Africa using attractive toxic sugar bait methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C; Traore, Sekou F; Toure, Mahamoudou B; Traore, Mohamed M; Bah, Sekou; Doumbia, Seydou; Schlein, Yosef

    2010-09-20

    Based on recent studies in Israel demonstrating that attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) methods can be used to decimate local anopheline and culicine mosquito populations, an important consideration is whether the same methods can be adapted and improved to attract and kill malaria vectors in Africa. The ATSB approach uses fruit or flower scent as an attractant, sugar solution as a feeding stimulant, and an oral toxin. The ATSB solutions are either sprayed on vegetation or suspended in simple bait stations, and the mosquitoes ingesting the toxic solutions are killed. As such, this approach targets sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes. This study examines the attractiveness of African malaria vectors to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants, key biological elements of the ATSB approach for mosquito control. Three field experiments were conducted at sites in Mali. The attraction of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to 26 different local fruits and seedpods was determined at a site in the semi-arid Bandiagara District of Mali. Wire mesh glue traps with fruits/seedpods suspended on skewers inside were set along a seasonal lagoon. Seven replicates of each fruit/seedpod species were tested, with a water-soaked sponge and a sugar-soaked sponge as controls. The attraction of An. gambiae s.l. to 26 different types of flowering plants was determined at a site near Mopti in Mali. The flowering plants held in a water-filled buried container were tested using the same glue traps, with controls including water only and sugar solution. Six replicates of each selected plant type were tested on transects between rice paddies. Additional studies using CDC light traps were done to determine the relative densities and periodicity of An. gambiae s.l. attraction to branches of the most highly attractive flowering plant, branches without flowers, human odor, and candescent light. Of the 26 fruits and seedpods tested, 6 were attractive to An. gambiae s.l. females and males, respectively

  19. Malaria resistance | Iyabo | Nigerian Medical Practitioner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age and puberty have been found to contribute to malaria resistance. It is expected that knowledge of natural resistance to malaria may aid in developing Vaccines against this deadly disease. Keywords: malaria resistance, puberty, malaria economy, malaria vaccine. Nigerian Medical Practitioner Vol. 49(5) 2006: 133-142 ...

  20. Earth-strength magnetic field affects the rheotactic threshold of zebrafish swimming in shoals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, Alessandro; De Rosa, Rosario; Putman, Nathan F; Agnisola, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Rheotaxis, the unconditioned orienting response to water currents, is a main component of fish behavior. Rheotaxis is achieved using multiple sensory systems, including visual and tactile cues. Rheotactic orientation in open or low-visibility waters might also benefit from the stable frame of reference provided by the geomagnetic field, but this possibility has not been explored before. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) form shoals living in freshwater systems with low visibility, show a robust positive rheotaxis, and respond to geomagnetic fields. Here, we investigated whether a static magnetic field in the Earth-strength range influenced the rheotactic threshold of zebrafish in a swimming tunnel. The direction of the horizontal component of the magnetic field relative to water flow influenced the rheotactic threshold of fish as part of a shoal, but not of fish tested alone. Results obtained after disabling the lateral line of shoaling individuals with Co 2+ suggest that this organ system is involved in the observed magneto-rheotactic response. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that magnetic fields influence rheotaxis and suggest new avenues for further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essack Zaynab

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. Methods In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Results Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. Conclusion The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.

  2. Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas; Koen, Jennifer; Essack, Zaynab

    2010-03-09

    Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.

  3. Possible mechanisms by which electric fields from power lines might affect airborne particles harmful to health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.; Jeffers, D.

    1999-01-01

    Power lines produce alternating electric fields and modify static electric fields in their vicinity. These electric fields, if large enough, can alter the concentration or transport of airborne particles (including particles harmful to health), for example by causing deposition of charged particles, polarisation of neutral particles, or by production of ions. It has been suggested that this could lead to adverse health effects being associated with power lines. Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence relevant to eight separate postulated mechanisms involving power lines and airborne particles are examined. On theoretical grounds, none should lead to any adverse health effect, primarily because the effects produced are very small and are swamped by air currents or by gravity, and because people spend limited time in the relevant conditions. The experimental evidence also weighs against any adverse health effects. Further, even if significant health effects were produced, they would be different from those suggested by existing epidemiology concerning power lines. (author)

  4. Endothelial glycocalyx on brain endothelial cells is lost in experimental cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hyttel, Poul; Kurtzhals, Jørgen Al

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that the glycocalyx, which is important for endothelial integrity, is lost in severe malaria. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, resulting in cerebral malaria, or P. chabaudi AS, resulting in uncomplicated malaria. We visualized the glycocalyx with transmission...... electron microscopy and measured circulating glycosaminoglycans by dot blot and ELISA. The glycocalyx was degraded in brain vasculature in cerebral and to a lesser degree uncomplicated malaria. It was affected on both intact and apoptotic endothelial cells. Circulating glycosaminoglycan levels suggested...

  5. Surveillance for malaria outbreak on malaria-eliminating islands in Tafea Province, Vanuatu after Tropical Cyclone Pam in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C W; Iata, H; Yaviong, J; Kalkoa, M; Yamar, S; Taleo, G; Isozumi, R; Fukui, M; Aoyama, F; Pomer, A; Dancause, K N; Kaneko, A

    2017-01-01

    The risk of malaria outbreak surfaced in Vanuatu after Tropical Cyclone (TC) Pam in March 2015. In June and July 2015 we conducted malariometric surveys on the islands of Tanna, Aneityum, and Erromango in Tafea Province, where malaria elimination had been targeted, to determine if malaria incidence had increased after TC Pam. No Plasmodium infection was detected by microscopy and PCR in 3009 survey participants. Only 6·3% (190/3007) of participants had fever. Spleen rates in children aged ⩽12 years from Aneityum and Tanna were low, at 3·6% (14/387) and 5·3% (27/510), respectively. Overall bed net use was high at 72·8% (2175/2986); however, a significantly higher (P Pam. The path towards malaria elimination in Tafea Province was not adversely affected by TC Pam.

  6. The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in China, 2004-2012: from intensified control to elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Lai, Shengjie; Zheng, Canjun; Zhang, Honglong; Zhou, Sheng; Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie C A; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yang, Weizhong; Hay, Simon I; Yu, Hongjie; Li, Zhongjie

    2014-11-03

    In China, the national malaria elimination programme has been operating since 2010. This study aimed to explore the epidemiological changes in patterns of malaria in China from intensified control to elimination stages. Data on nationwide malaria cases from 2004 to 2012 were extracted from the Chinese national malaria surveillance system. The secular trend, gender and age features, seasonality, and spatial distribution by Plasmodium species were analysed. In total, 238,443 malaria cases were reported, and the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum increased drastically from population. The areas affected by Plasmodium vivax malaria shrunk, while areas affected by P. falciparum malaria expanded from 294 counties in 2004 to 600 counties in 2012. This study demonstrated that malaria has decreased dramatically in the last five years, especially since the Chinese government launched a malaria elimination programme in 2010, and areas with reported falciparum malaria cases have expanded over recent years. These findings suggest that elimination efforts should be improved to meet these changes, so as to achieve the nationwide malaria elimination goal in China in 2020.

  7. Prevalence of Malaria and Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending a traditional birth center as well as the effect of herbal remedies, gravidity, age, educational background and malaria prevention methods on their prevalence.Methods: Blood specimens were collected from 119 pregnant women attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria. Malaria parasitemia was diagnosed by microscopy while anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11 g/dL.Results: The prevalence of malaria infection was (OR=4.35 95% CI=1.213, 15.600; p=0.016 higher among primigravidae (92.1%. Pregnant women (38.5% with tertiary level of education had significantly lower prevalence of malaria infection (p=0.002. Malaria significantly affected the prevalence of anemia (p<0.05. Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies (OR=2.973; 95% CI=1.206, 7.330; p=0.017. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia were not affected by malaria prevention methods used by the participants.Conclusion: The overall prevalence of malaria infection and anemia observed in this study were 78.9% and 46.2%, respectively. Higher prevalence of malaria infection was associated with primigravidae and lower prevalence with tertiary education of subjects. Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies. There is urgent need to control the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending traditional birth homes.

  8. Towards the implementation of malaria elimination policy in South Africa: the stakeholders' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlongwana, Khumbulani Welcome; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen substantial global reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality due to increased international funding and decisive steps by the international malaria community to fight malaria. South Africa has been declared ready to institute malaria elimination. However, research on the factors that would affect this policy implementation is inadequate. To investigate the stakeholders' understanding of the malaria elimination policy in South Africa, including their perceived barriers and facilitators to effective policy implementation. The study followed a constructivist epistemological approach which manifests in phenomenological study design. Twelve purposively selected key informants from malaria researchers, provincial and national malaria programmes were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Interview questions elicited interviewees' knowledge of the policy and its achievability, including any perceived barriers and facilitating factors to effective implementation. The hybrid approach was used to perform thematic data analysis. The dominant view was that malaria remains a problem in South Africa, exacerbated by staff attitudes and poor capacity, lack of resources, lack of new effective intervention tools, lack of intra- and inter-departmental collaboration, poor cross-border collaboration and weak stakeholder collaboration. Informants were concerned about the target year (2018) for elimination, and about the process followed in developing the policy, including the perceived malaria epidemiology shortfalls, regulatory issues and political context of the policy. Achievability of malaria elimination remains a subject of intense debate for a variety of reasons. These include the sporadic nature of malaria resurgence, raising questions about the contributions of malaria control interventions and climate to the transmission trends in South Africa. The shortage of resources, inadequate staff capacity, lack of any new effective intervention tools

  9. Evaluation of two counterflow traps for testing behaviour-mediating compounds for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. under semi-field conditions in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmied, W.H.; Takken, W.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Evaluation of mosquito responses towards different trap-bait combinations in field trials is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by experiments in contained semi-field systems. Possible use of the BG Sentinel (BGS) trap to sample Anopheles gambiae s.s. was evaluated. The

  10. Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics: How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy; Burgio, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes…

  11. How a high-gradient magnetic field could affect cell life

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Polyakova, Tetyana; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-12, č. článku 37407. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high-gradient magnetic field * cell Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  12. Acute exposure to high‐induction electromagnetic field affects activity of model peripheral sensory neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průcha, J.; Krůšek, Jan; Dittert, Ivan; Sinica, Viktor; Kádková, Anna; Vlachová, Viktorie

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2018), s. 1355-1362 ISSN 1582-4934 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28784A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : electromagnetic field * primary sensory neuron * ion channel * bradykinin receptor * transient receptor potential channel Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.499, year: 2016

  13. The pathogenesis of malaria: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R

    2013-04-01

    With 3·3 billion people at risk of infection, malaria remains one of the world's most significant health problems. Increasing resistance of the main causative parasite to currently available drugs has created an urgent need to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease in order to develop new treatments. A possible clue to such an understanding is that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host and appears to use it for its metabolism; serum vitamin A levels are also reduced in children with malaria. Although vitamin A is essential in low concentration for numerous biological functions, higher concentrations are cytotoxic and pro-oxidant, and potentially toxic quantities of the vitamin are stored in the liver. During their life cycle in the host the parasites remain in the liver for several days before invading the red blood cells (RBCs). The hypothesis proposed is that the parasites emerge from the liver packed with vitamin A and use retinoic acid (RA), the main biologically active metabolite of vitamin A, as a cell membrane destabilizer to invade the RBCs throughout the body. The characteristic hemolysis and anemia of malaria and other symptoms of the disease may thus be manifestations of an endogenous form of vitamin A intoxication associated with high concentrations of RA but low concentrations of retinol (ROL). Retinoic acid released from the parasites may also affect the fetus and cause preterm birth and fetal growth restriction (FGR) as a function of the membranolytic and growth inhibitory effects of these compounds, respectively. Subject to testing, the hypothesis suggests that parasite vitamin A metabolism could become a new target for the treatment and prevention of malaria.

  14. Pulmonary manifestations of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, K.; Enkerlin, H.L.; Riemann, H.; Schoeppe, W.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1987-01-01

    We report on the two different types of pulmonary manifestations in acute plasmodium falciparum malaria. The more severe variant shows long standing interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, whereas in the more benign courses only short-term pulmonary edemas are visible. (orig.) [de

  15. Chemotherapy of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-05-31

    malaria in Vietnam was resisent to drugs such as chloroquine , generally recognized since World War ii as satisfactory antimalarial agents. The urgent...known to have antimalarial activity; (3) structural analogues of compounds found active in our test system and representing several novel chemical

  16. Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durrheim, Karen Barnes. Objectives. To assess the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine (SP) after 5 years of use as first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and thus guide the selection of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Design. An open-label ...

  17. Malaria and gold fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeken, H

    1993-08-14

    The mineral rich territory of the Yanomami Indians of northern Brazil has been invaded by miners--who have destroyed the environment and introduced disease. Médecins Sans Frontières agreed to help combat the malaria epidemic. Conditions in the rainforest and villages and the health care facilities are described. Mere medical aid cannot prevent the Yanomami from being decimated.

  18. Malaria prevention and treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to allow prompt and accurate treatment of malaria in areas out .... It is essential to seek medical advice promptly if ... Not ideal for machine operators, drivers or those that work at heights .... with food that contains oil e.g. chips, bread and butter.

  19. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development (Wang et al., 2008), and chronic diseases. (Hughson et al. ... malaria, HIV, and syphilis also affect birth outcomes. (Watson-Jones .... are the subsistence and cash crops. Small-scale .... phenomenon which has been reported in other areas. (Sone et al. .... T.K. & Brabin, B.J. (2004) Impact of El Nino and malaria ...

  20. Toward re-thinking science education in terms of affective practices: reflections from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumova, Shakhnoza; Tippins, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    Rational and operationalized views of science and what it means for teachers and students to know and enact legitimate science practices have dominated science education research for many decades (Fusco and Barton in J Res Sci Teach 38(3):337-354, 2001. doi: 10.1002/1098-2736(200103)38:33.0.CO;2-0). Michalinos Zembylas challenges historically prevalent dichotomies of mind/body, reason/emotion, and emotion/affect, calling researchers and educators to move beyond the Cartesian dualisms, which have perpetuated a myth of scientific objectivity devoid of bias, subjectivity and emotions. Zembylas (Crit Stud Teach Learn 1(1):1-21, 2013. doi: 10.14426/cristal.v1i1.2) contends that the role of emotions and affect are best understood as relational and entangled in epistemological, cultural, and historical contexts of education, which represent contested sites of control and resistance. We argue that Zembylas' work is pivotal since "theoretical frames of reference for doing research in science education…[and] what constitutes knowledge and being within a particular frame" carry material bearings over the enactments of science teaching and learning (Kyle in J Res Sci Teach 31:695-696, 1994, p. 321. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660310703). In this paper, we hold cogen dialogue about how re-thinking notions of emotion and affect affords us, both science educators and researchers, to re-envision science education beyond cognitive and social frames. The framing of our dialogue as cogen builds on Wolff-Michael Roth and Kenneth Tobin's (At the elbows of another: learning to teach through coteaching. Peter Lang Publishing, New York, 2002) notion of cogenerative dialogue. Holding cogen is an invitation to an openly dialogic and safe area, which serves as a space for a dialogic inquiry that includes radical listening of situated knowledges and learning from similarities as well as differences of experiences (Tobin in Cult Stud Sci Educ, in review, 2015). From our situated experiences reforms

  1. The Malaria System MicroApp: A New, Mobile Device-Based Tool for Malaria Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Allisson Dantas; Prats, Clara; Espasa, Mateu; Zarzuela Serrat, Francesc; Montañola Sales, Cristina; Silgado, Aroa; Codina, Daniel Lopez; Arruda, Mercia Eliane; I Prat, Jordi Gomez; Albuquerque, Jones

    2017-04-25

    Malaria is a public health problem that affects remote areas worldwide. Climate change has contributed to the problem by allowing for the survival of Anopheles in previously uninhabited areas. As such, several groups have made developing news systems for the automated diagnosis of malaria a priority. The objective of this study was to develop a new, automated, mobile device-based diagnostic system for malaria. The system uses Giemsa-stained peripheral blood samples combined with light microscopy to identify the Plasmodium falciparum species in the ring stage of development. The system uses image processing and artificial intelligence techniques as well as a known face detection algorithm to identify Plasmodium parasites. The algorithm is based on integral image and haar-like features concepts, and makes use of weak classifiers with adaptive boosting learning. The search scope of the learning algorithm is reduced in the preprocessing step by removing the background around blood cells. As a proof of concept experiment, the tool was used on 555 malaria-positive and 777 malaria-negative previously-made slides. The accuracy of the system was, on average, 91%, meaning that for every 100 parasite-infected samples, 91 were identified correctly. Accessibility barriers of low-resource countries can be addressed with low-cost diagnostic tools. Our system, developed for mobile devices (mobile phones and tablets), addresses this by enabling access to health centers in remote communities, and importantly, not depending on extensive malaria expertise or expensive diagnostic detection equipment. ©Allisson Dantas Oliveira, Clara Prats, Mateu Espasa, Francesc Zarzuela Serrat, Cristina Montañola Sales, Aroa Silgado, Daniel Lopez Codina, Mercia Eliane Arruda, Jordi Gomez i Prat, Jones Albuquerque. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 25.04.2017.

  2. Vaccines for preventing malaria (blood-stage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, P; Gelband, H

    2006-10-18

    A malaria vaccine is needed because of the heavy burden of mortality and morbidity due to this disease. This review describes the results of trials of blood (asexual)-stage vaccines. Several are under development, but only one (MSP/RESA, also known as Combination B) has been tested in randomized controlled trials. To assess the effect of blood-stage malaria vaccines in preventing infection, disease, and death. In March 2006, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and the Science Citation Index. We also searched conference proceedings and reference lists of articles, and contacted organizations and researchers in the field. Randomized controlled trials comparing blood-stage vaccines (other than SPf66) against P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, or P. ovale with placebo, control vaccine, or routine antimalarial control measures in people of any age receiving a challenge malaria infection. Both authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Results for dichotomous data were expressed as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Five trials of MSP/RESA vaccine with 217 participants were included; all five reported on safety, and two on efficacy. No severe or systemic adverse effects were reported at doses of 13 to 15 microg of each antigen (39 to 45 microg total). One small efficacy trial with 17 non-immune participants with blood-stage parasites showed no reduction or delay in parasite growth rates after artificial challenge. In the second efficacy trial in 120 children aged five to nine years in Papua New Guinea, episodes of clinical malaria were not reduced, but MSP/RESA significantly reduced parasite density only in children who had not been pretreated with an antimalarial drug (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine). Infections with the 3D7 parasite subtype of MSP2 (the variant included in the vaccine) were reduced (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.26 to

  3. Mobile phones improve case detection and management of malaria in rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent introduction of mobile phones into the rural Bandarban district of Bangladesh provided a resource to improve case detection and treatment of patients with malaria. Methods During studies to define the epidemiology of malaria in villages in south-eastern Bangladesh, an area with hypoendemic malaria, the project recorded 986 mobile phone calls from families because of illness suspected to be malaria between June 2010 and June 2012. Results Based on phone calls, field workers visited the homes with ill persons, and collected blood samples for malaria on 1,046 people. 265 (25%) of the patients tested were positive for malaria. Of the 509 symptomatic malaria cases diagnosed during this study period, 265 (52%) were detected because of an initial mobile phone call. Conclusion Mobile phone technology was found to be an efficient and effective method for rapidly detecting and treating patients with malaria in this remote area. This technology, when combined with local knowledge and field support, may be applicable to other hard-to-reach areas to improve malaria control. PMID:23374585

  4. How a High-Gradient Magnetic Field Could Affect Cell Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskii, Vitalii; Polyakova, Tatyana; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of high-gradient magnetic fields (HGMFs) have steadily gained the increased attention of researchers from different disciplines, such as cell biology, cell therapy, targeted stem cell delivery and nanomedicine. We present a theoretical framework towards a fundamental understanding of the effects of HGMFs on intracellular processes, highlighting new directions for the study of living cell machinery: changing the probability of ion-channel on/off switching events by membrane magneto-mechanical stress, suppression of cell growth by magnetic pressure, magnetically induced cell division and cell reprograming, and forced migration of membrane receptor proteins. By deriving a generalized form for the Nernst equation, we find that a relatively small magnetic field (approximately 1 T) with a large gradient (up to 1 GT/m) can significantly change the membrane potential of the cell and thus have a significant impact on not only the properties and biological functionality of cells but also cell fate. PMID:27857227

  5. The dominant factors affecting agricultural land use (rice field change in Yogyakarta Special Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sabari Yunus

    2013-07-01

    The research shows that the period of 1980 - 2000 in Yogyakarta Special Province has indicated very significantly the increase in population, the development of road and the extension of built up area. For the time being, agricultural land mainly in Sleman Regency, Bantul Regency and Yogyakarta Municipality has decreased. Sleman regency performed the largest decrease of rice field and followed after then by Bantul regency and Yogyakarta Municipality. The regency of Kulon Progo and Gunung Kidul have experienced reverse phenomenon i.e. the increase of rice field during this period. Individually or simultaneously, three variables used in this research (number of people, road's length and built up area have significantly influenced the agricultural land use.

  6. How a High-Gradient Magnetic Field Could Affect Cell Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskii, Vitalii; Polyakova, Tatyana; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2016-11-01

    The biological effects of high-gradient magnetic fields (HGMFs) have steadily gained the increased attention of researchers from different disciplines, such as cell biology, cell therapy, targeted stem cell delivery and nanomedicine. We present a theoretical framework towards a fundamental understanding of the effects of HGMFs on intracellular processes, highlighting new directions for the study of living cell machinery: changing the probability of ion-channel on/off switching events by membrane magneto-mechanical stress, suppression of cell growth by magnetic pressure, magnetically induced cell division and cell reprograming, and forced migration of membrane receptor proteins. By deriving a generalized form for the Nernst equation, we find that a relatively small magnetic field (approximately 1 T) with a large gradient (up to 1 GT/m) can significantly change the membrane potential of the cell and thus have a significant impact on not only the properties and biological functionality of cells but also cell fate.

  7. Childhood malaria: mothers' perception and treatment- seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    major strategies for reducing the burden of malaria, therefore ... children. The incidence of history of fever, indicative of malaria in children of the respondents within one ... interventions for the control of childhood malaria. ..... Yellow eyes. 20.

  8. Choosing a Drug to Prevent Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Malaria About Malaria FAQs Fast Facts Disease Biology Ecology Human Factors Sickle Cell Mosquitoes Parasites Where Malaria ... medicines, also consider the possibility of drug-drug interactions with other medicines that the person might be ...

  9. Martensitic transformations in Ni-Mn-Ga system affected by external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernenko, V.; Babii, O.; L'vov, V.; McCormick, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure, uniaxial stress and magnetic field on the martensitic transformation temperatures for the ferromagnetic single crystalline Ni-Mn-Ga alloys is studied. It is shown that the experimental results are satisfactorily described by the Landau theory. Ni-Mn-Ga L2 1 -type ordered alloys exhibit a number of the first order and weak first order structural transformations in a ferromagnetic or paramagnetic parent phase depending on the alloy composition and being either thermally or stress activated. Most of these phase transformations are of the martensitic type, i.e., they are accompanied by the spontaneous elastic strains forming a multicomponent order parameter in the Landau expansion for the Gibbs potential. In this work we analyze the influence of the external fields (mechanical and magnetic) on the martensitic transformation (MT) from cubic parent phase (P) to five-layered martensitic one (5M-martensite) usually exhibited by the ferromagnetic ordered Ni-Mn-Ga alloys. In accordance with, we treat the 5M-martensite as a twinned tetragonal phase and, so, describe the experimental results in the framework of the theory of cubic-tetragonal MT. The original experimental data of high magnetic field influence on MT in near stoichiometric Ni 2 MnGa compound are presented to compare with the theoretical estimations. (orig.)

  10. The role of research in molecular entomology in the fight against malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Torre, A; Arca, B; Favia, G; Petrarca, V; Coluzzi, M

    2008-06-01

    The text summarizes the principal current fields of investigation and the recent achievements of the research groups presently contributing to the Molecular Entomology Cluster of the Italian Malaria Network. Particular emphasis is given to the researches with a more direct impact on the fight against malaria vectors.

  11. Malaria and protective behaviours: is there a malaria trap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthélemy, Jean-Claude; Thuilliez, Josselin; Doumbo, Ogobara; Gaudart, Jean

    2013-06-13

    In spite of massive efforts to generalize efficient prevention, such as insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) or long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), malaria remains prevalent in many countries and ITN/LLINs are still only used to a limited extent. This study proposes a new model for malaria economic analysis by combining economic epidemiology tools with the literature on poverty traps. A theoretical model of rational protective behaviour in response to malaria is designed, which includes endogenous externalities and disease characteristics. Survey data available for Uganda provide empirical support to the theory of prevalence-elastic protection behaviours, once endogeneity issues related to epidemiology and poverty are solved. Two important conclusions emerge from the model. First, agents increase their protective behaviour when malaria is more prevalent in a society. This is consistent with the literature on "prevalence-elastic behaviour". Second, a 'malaria trap' defined as the result of malaria reinforcing poverty while poverty reduces the ability to deal with malaria can theoretically exist and the conditions of existence of the malaria trap are identified. These results suggest the possible existence of malaria traps, which provides policy implications. Notably, providing ITN/LLINs at subsidized prices is not sufficient. To be efficient an ITN/LLINs dissemination campaigns should include incentive of the very poor for using ITN/LLINs.

  12. Preservation Methods Differ in Fecal Microbiome Stability, Affecting Suitability for Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Amnon; Metcalf, Jessica L.; Amato, Katherine R.; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Humphrey, Greg

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immediate freezing at −20°C or below has been considered the gold standard for microbiome preservation, yet this approach is not feasible for many field studies, ranging from anthropology to wildlife conservation. Here we tested five methods for preserving human and dog fecal specimens for periods of up to 8 weeks, including such types of variation as freeze-thaw cycles and the high temperature fluctuations often encountered under field conditions. We found that three of the methods—95% ethanol, FTA cards, and the OMNIgene Gut kit—can preserve samples sufficiently well at ambient temperatures such that differences at 8 weeks are comparable to differences among technical replicates. However, even the worst methods, including those with no fixative, were able to reveal microbiome differences between species at 8 weeks and between individuals after a week, allowing meta-analyses of samples collected using various methods when the effect of interest is expected to be larger than interindividual variation (although use of a single method within a study is strongly recommended to reduce batch effects). Encouragingly for FTA cards, the differences caused by this method are systematic and can be detrended. As in other studies, we strongly caution against the use of 70% ethanol. The results, spanning 15 individuals and over 1,200 samples, provide our most comprehensive view to date of storage effects on stool and provide a paradigm for the future studies of other sample types that will be required to provide a global view of microbial diversity and its interaction among humans, animals, and the environment. IMPORTANCE Our study, spanning 15 individuals and over 1,200 samples, provides our most comprehensive view to date of storage and stabilization effects on stool. We tested five methods for preserving human and dog fecal specimens for periods of up to 8 weeks, including the types of variation often encountered under field conditions, such as freeze

  13. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. PMID:27708187

  14. An experimental hut study to quantify the effect of DDT and airborne pyrethroids on entomological parameters of malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Current malaria vector control programmes rely on insecticides with rapid contact toxicity. However, spatial repellents can also be applied to reduce man-vector contact, which might ultimately impact malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to quantify effects of airborne pyrethroids from coils and DDT used an indoor residual spray (IRS) on entomological parameters that influence malaria transmission. Methods The effect of Transfluthrin and Metofluthrin coils compared to DDT on house entry, exit and indoor feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were measured in experimental huts in the field and in the semi-field. Outcomes were deterrence - reduction in house entry of mosquitoes; irritancy or excito-repellency – induced premature exit of mosquitoes; blood feeding inhibition and effect on mosquito fecundity. Results Transfluthrin coils, Metofluthrin coils and DDT reduced human vector contact through deterrence by 38%, 30% and 8%, respectively and induced half of the mosquitoes to leave huts before feeding (56%, 55% and 48%, respectively). Almost all mosquitoes inside huts with Metofluthrin and Transfluthrin coils and more than three quarters of mosquitoes in the DDT hut did not feed, almost none laid eggs and 67%, 72% and 70% of all mosquitoes collected from Transfluthrin, Metofluthrin and DDT huts, respectively had died after 24 hours. Conclusion This study highlights that airborne pyrethroids and DDT affect a range of anopheline mosquito behaviours that are important parameters in malaria transmission, namely deterrence, irritancy/excito-repellency and blood-feeding inhibition. These effects are in addition to significant toxicity and reduced mosquito fecundity that affect mosquito densities and, therefore, provide community protection against diseases for both users and non-users. Airborne insecticides and freshly applied DDT had similar effects on deterrence, irritancy and feeding inhibition. Therefore, it is suggested that

  15. An experimental hut study to quantify the effect of DDT and airborne pyrethroids on entomological parameters of malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoma, Sheila B; Lorenz, Lena M; Ngonyani, Hassan; Sangusangu, Robert; Kitumbukile, Mohammed; Kilalangongono, Masoudi; Simfukwe, Emmanuel T; Mseka, Anton; Mbeyela, Edgar; Roman, Deogratius; Moore, Jason; Kreppel, Katharina; Maia, Marta F; Moore, Sarah J

    2014-04-01

    Current malaria vector control programmes rely on insecticides with rapid contact toxicity. However, spatial repellents can also be applied to reduce man-vector contact, which might ultimately impact malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to quantify effects of airborne pyrethroids from coils and DDT used an indoor residual spray (IRS) on entomological parameters that influence malaria transmission. The effect of Transfluthrin and Metofluthrin coils compared to DDT on house entry, exit and indoor feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were measured in experimental huts in the field and in the semi-field. Outcomes were deterrence--reduction in house entry of mosquitoes; irritancy or excito-repellency--induced premature exit of mosquitoes; blood feeding inhibition and effect on mosquito fecundity. Transfluthrin coils, Metofluthrin coils and DDT reduced human vector contact through deterrence by 38%, 30% and 8%, respectively and induced half of the mosquitoes to leave huts before feeding (56%, 55% and 48%, respectively). Almost all mosquitoes inside huts with Metofluthrin and Transfluthrin coils and more than three quarters of mosquitoes in the DDT hut did not feed, almost none laid eggs and 67%, 72% and 70% of all mosquitoes collected from Transfluthrin, Metofluthrin and DDT huts, respectively had died after 24 hours. This study highlights that airborne pyrethroids and DDT affect a range of anopheline mosquito behaviours that are important parameters in malaria transmission, namely deterrence, irritancy/excito-repellency and blood-feeding inhibition. These effects are in addition to significant toxicity and reduced mosquito fecundity that affect mosquito densities and, therefore, provide community protection against diseases for both users and non-users. Airborne insecticides and freshly applied DDT had similar effects on deterrence, irritancy and feeding inhibition. Therefore, it is suggested that airborne pyrethroids, if delivered in suitable

  16. Numerical investigation of MHD heat transfer in a vertical round tube affected by transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zikanov, Oleg [University of Michigan - Dearborn, MI 48128-1491 (United States); Listratov, Yaroslav [Moscow Power Engineering Institute, 14 Karsnokazarmennaya St., Moscow 111250 (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Numerical simulations of the flow of a liquid metal in a vertical pipe are performed. The configuration reproduces the test section of the recent experiment . The mean flow is directed downward, a half of the pipe's wall is heated, and a strong horizontal magnetic field perpendicular to the temperature gradient is imposed. The simulations produce results in good agreement with the experiment and lead us to an explanation of the observed phenomenon of anomalous high-amplitude temperature fluctuations. The fluctuations are caused by growth and quasi-periodic breakdown of the pairs of ascending and descending jets related to the elevator-mode thermal convection. Implications for operation of liquid metal blankets with poloidal ducts are discussed.

  17. Do terrorist attacks affect ethnic discrimination in the labour market? Evidence from two randomized field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth; Chan, Tak Wing; Ugreninov, Elisabeth; Midtbøen, Arnfinn H; Rogstad, Jon

    2018-01-24

    Terrorist attacks are known to influence public opinion. But do they also change behaviour? We address this question by comparing the results of two identical randomized field experiments on ethnic discrimination in hiring that we conducted in Oslo. The first experiment was conducted before the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway; the second experiment was conducted after the attacks. In both experiments, applicants with a typical Pakistani name were significantly less likely to get a job interview compared to those with a typical Norwegian name. But the ethnic gap in call-back rates were very similar in the two experiments. Thus, Pakistanis in Norway still experienced the same level of discrimination, despite claims that Norwegians have become more positive about migrants after the far-right, anti-migrant terrorist attacks of 2011. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  18. Weak Static and Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Affect In Vitro Pollen Germination

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    Lucietta Betti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the effects of a weak static magnetic field (MF at 10 μT oriented downward, combined with a 16-Hz sinusoidal MF (10 μT, on in vitro pollen germination of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa. Extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF exposure was carried out by a signal generator unit connected to a copper wire solenoid, inside which samples where placed. Two different kinds of treatment were performed: direct and indirect. In the direct treatment, pollen samples were directly exposed during rehydration, germination, or both. In the indirect treatment, the pollen growth medium was prepared with water aliquots (at standard temperature of 20°C and pH = 6.74 that were exposed before use for 8 or 24 h. The main purpose of our research was to identify a biological marker (in vitro pollen germination in a stressing growth medium without Ca2+ susceptible to the effects of direct or indirect ELF-MF exposure. The working variable was the pollen germination rate, as detected blind after 3 h 30 min by an Axioplan microscope. A directionally consistent recovery of germination percentage was observed both for direct exposure (during germination and both rehydration and germination phases and water-mediated exposure (with water exposed for 24 h and immediately used. Our results suggest that the ELF-MF treatment might partially remove the inhibitory effect caused by the lack of Ca2+ in the culture medium, inducing a release of internal Ca2+ stored in the secretory vesicles of pollen plasma membrane. Although preliminary, findings seem to indicate the in vitro pollen performance as adequate to study the effects of ELF-MFs on living matter.

  19. Cerebral malaria: susceptibility weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Baliyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.

  20. Village malaria worker performance key to the elimination of artemisinin-resistant malaria: a Western Cambodia health system assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Quintero, Cesia E; Nguon, Chea; Ly, Po; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Sintasath, David; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Whittaker, Maxine Anne

    2016-05-20

    Village malaria workers (VMWs) and mobile malaria workers (MMWs) are a critical component of Cambodia's national strategy to eliminate Plasmodium falciparum malaria by 2025. Since 2004, VMWs have been providing malaria diagnosis through the use of rapid diagnostic tests and free-of-charge artemisinin-based combination therapy in villages more than 5 km away from the closest health facility. They have also played a key role in the delivery of behaviour change communication interventions to this target population. This study aimed to assess the job performance of VMWs/MMWs, and identify challenges they face, which may impede elimination efforts. A mixed-methods assessment was conducted in five provinces of western Cambodia. One hundred and eighty five VMW/MMW participants were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data was gathered through a total of 60 focus group discussions and 65 in-depth interviews. Data triangulation of the qualitative and quantitative data was used during analysis. Overall, VMWs/MMWs met or exceeded the expected performance levels (80 %). Nevertheless, some performance gaps were identified. Misconceptions regarding malaria transmission and prevention were found among workers. The recommended approach for malaria treatment, directly-observed treatment (DOT), had low implementation rates. Stock-outs, difficulties in reaching out to migrant and mobile populations, insufficient means of transportation and dwindling worker satisfaction also affected job performance. VMW/MMW job performance must be increased from 80 to 100 % in order to achieve elimination. In order to do this, it is recommended for the national malaria programme to eliminate worker malaria knowledge gaps. Barriers to DOT implementation and health system failures also need to be addressed. The VMW programme should be expanded on several fronts in order to tackle remaining performance gaps. Findings from this evaluation are useful to inform the planning of future

  1. Malaria research in Malawi from 1984 to 2016: a literature review and bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendera, Chikondi A; de Jager, Christiaan; Longwe, Herbert; Hongoro, Charles; Mutero, Clifford M; Phiri, Kamija S

    2017-06-12

    Malaria research can play a vital role in addressing the malaria burden in Malawi. An organized approach in addressing malaria in Malawi started in 1984 by the establishment of the first National Malaria Control Programme and research was recognized to be significant. This study aimed to assess the type and amount of malaria research conducted in Malawi from 1984 to 2016 and its related source of funding. A systematic literature search was conducted in the Medline/PubMed database for Malawian publications and approved malaria studies from two Ethical Committees were examined. Bibliometric analysis was utilized to capture the affiliations of first and senior/last authors, funding acknowledgements, while titles, abstracts and accessed full text were examined for research type. A total of 483 publications and 165 approved studies were analysed. Clinical and basic research in the fields of malaria in pregnancy 105 (21.5%), severe malaria 97 (20.1%) and vector and/or agent dynamics 69 (14.3%) dominated in the publications while morbidity 33 (20%), severe malaria 28 (17%) and Health Policy and Systems Research 24 (14.5%) dominated in the approved studies. In the publications, 146 (30%) first authors and 100 (21%) senior authors, and 88 (53.3%) principal investigators in approved studies were affiliated to Malawian-based institutions. Most researchers were affiliated to the Malawi-Liverpool Wellcome Trust, College of Medicine, Blantyre Malaria Project, Ministry of Health, and Malaria Alert Centre. The major malaria research funders were the National Institute for Health/USA, Wellcome Trust and the US Agency for International Development. Only three (2.5%) out of 118 journals publishing research on malaria in Malawi were from Africa and the Malaria Journal, with 76 (15.7%) publications, published most of the research from Malawi, followed by the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene with 57 (11.8%) in comparison to only 13 (2.7%) published in the local Malawi

  2. Malaria and Anemia among Children in a Low Resource Setting In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Onifade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of malaria and anemia among child­ren in rural community of Okada, Edo State Nigeria, as well as to assess the level of use of Insecti­cide treated bed nets and its impact on prevalence of malaria and anemia among study population. Methods: Thick blood films from 226 children with signs and symptoms of malaria in Okada commu­nity were stained and examined for presence of malaria parasites. Hemoglobin concentra­tion of all children was also determined using standard method. Result: A total of 185 (81.9% children were infected with malaria parasite. Malaria parasitaemia was significantly affected by age (P =0.003. A significantly higher number of positive cases of malaria and anemia was observed in rainy season as compared to dry season (P<0.05. The prevalence of anemia in children was 47.3%. Malaria was a risk factor for development of anemia in children (OR=2.551; 95% CI=1.227, 5.305; P=0.015. Use of insecticide treated bed nets was recorded in 11(4.9% of children studied, and did not significantly reduce the prevalence of malaria and anemia. However among malaria parasite infected children, its use significantly reduced the prevalence of anemia (OR=0.126; 95%CI = 0.015, 1.047; P= 0.031. Conclusion: Malaria and anemia among children was high malaria intervention progammes by rele­vant agencies is strongly advocated.

  3. PENELITIAN OBAT ANTI MALARIA

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    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some sensitivity tests of antimalarial drugs had been done by National Institute of Health Research and Development in collaboration with Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environment Health, Naval Medical Research Unit No.2 and Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia. In-vivo and or in-vitro Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance was reported from 11 provinces : Aceh, North Sumatera, Riau, Lampung, West Java, Jakarta (imported case, Central Java, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara and Irian Jaya. Only quinine had a good response for treatment of falciparum malaria resistant to multidrug. R falciparum resistant to mefloquine or halofantrine was found although it was not available in Indonesia yet. Chloroquine prophylaxis using standard dose was still effective in Tanjung Pinang and Central Java. To support the successfulness of treatment in malaria control programme, further studies on alternative antimalaria drugs is needed.

  4. Long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents affects color vision, contrast sensitivity and visual fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Leiros Costa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of chronic occupational exposure to a mixture of organic solvents by measuring color discrimination, achromatic contrast sensitivity and visual fields in a group of gas station workers. We tested 25 workers (20 males and 25 controls with no history of chronic exposure to solvents (10 males. All participants had normal ophthalmologic exams. Subjects had worked in gas stations on an average of 9.6 ± 6.2 years. Color vision was evaluated with the Lanthony D15d and Cambridge Colour Test (CCT. Visual field assessment consisted of white-on-white 24-2 automatic perimetry (Humphrey II-750i. Contrast sensitivity was measured for sinusoidal gratings of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 cycles per degree (cpd. Results from both groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The number of errors in the D15d was higher for workers relative to controls (p<0.01. Their CCT color discrimination thresholds were elevated compared to the control group along the protan, deutan and tritan confusion axes (p<0.01, and their ellipse area and ellipticity were higher (p<0.01. Genetic analysis of subjects with very elevated color discrimination thresholds excluded congenital causes for the visual losses. Automated perimetry thresholds showed elevation in the 9°, 15° and 21° of eccentricity (p<0.01 and in MD and PSD indexes (p<0.01. Contrast sensitivity losses were found for all spatial frequencies measured (p<0.01 except for 0.5 cpd. Significant correlation was found between previous working years and deutan axis thresholds (rho = 0.59; p<0.05, indexes of the Lanthony D15d (rho=0.52; p<0.05, perimetry results in the fovea (rho= -0.51; p<0.05 and at 3, 9 and 15 degrees of eccentricity (rho= -0.46; p<0.05. Extensive and diffuse visual changes were found, suggesting that specific occupational limits should be created.

  5. Static Magnetic Field Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Pulp Cells by Affecting Cell Membrane Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chih Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of dental pulpitis is lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced inflammatory response. Following pulp tissue inflammation, odontoblasts, dental pulp cells (DPCs, and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs will activate and repair damaged tissue to maintain homeostasis. However, when LPS infection is too serious, dental repair is impossible and disease may progress to irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether static magnetic field (SMF can attenuate inflammatory response of dental pulp cells challenged with LPS. In methodology, dental pulp cells were isolated from extracted teeth. The population of DPSCs in the cultured DPCs was identified by phenotypes and multilineage differentiation. The effects of 0.4 T SMF on DPCs were observed through MTT assay and fluorescent anisotropy assay. Our results showed that the SMF exposure had no effect on surface markers or multilineage differentiation capability. However, SMF exposure increases cell viability by 15%. In addition, SMF increased cell membrane rigidity which is directly related to higher fluorescent anisotropy. In the LPS-challenged condition, DPCs treated with SMF demonstrated a higher tolerance to LPS-induced inflammatory response when compared to untreated controls. According to these results, we suggest that 0.4 T SMF attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response to DPCs by changing cell membrane stability.

  6. Calcium influx affects intracellular transport and membrane repair following nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary Lee; Roth, Caleb C; Dalzell, Danielle R; Kuipers, Marjorie; Ibey, Bennett L

    2014-05-01

    The cellular response to subtle membrane damage following exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) is not well understood. Recent work has shown that when cells are exposed to nsPEF, ion permeable nanopores (2  nm) created by longer micro- and millisecond duration pulses. Nanoporation of the plasma membrane by nsPEF has been shown to cause a transient increase in intracellular calcium concentration within milliseconds after exposure. Our research objective is to determine the impact of nsPEF on calcium-dependent structural and repair systems in mammalian cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells were exposed in the presence and absence of calcium ions in the outside buffer to either 1 or 20, 600-ns duration electrical pulses at 16.2  kV/cm, and pore size was determined using propidium iodide and calcium green. Membrane organization was observed with morphological changes and increases in FM1-43 fluorescence. Migration of lysosomes, implicated in membrane repair, was followed using confocal microscopy of red fluorescent protein-tagged LAMP1. Microtubule structure was imaged using mEmerald-tubulin. We found that at high 600-ns PEF dosage, calcium-induced membrane restructuring and microtubule depolymerization coincide with interruption of membrane repair via lysosomal exocytosis.

  7. Lignin engineering in field-grown poplar trees affects the endosphere bacterial microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Bram; Op De Beeck, Michiel; Weyens, Nele; Van Acker, Rebecca; Van Montagu, Marc; Boerjan, Wout; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-02-23

    Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), an enzyme central to the lignin biosynthetic pathway, represents a promising biotechnological target to reduce lignin levels and to improve the commercial viability of lignocellulosic biomass. However, silencing of the CCR gene results in considerable flux changes of the general and monolignol-specific lignin pathways, ultimately leading to the accumulation of various extractable phenolic compounds in the xylem. Here, we evaluated host genotype-dependent effects of field-grown, CCR-down-regulated poplar trees (Populus tremula × Populus alba) on the bacterial rhizosphere microbiome and the endosphere microbiome, namely the microbiota present in roots, stems, and leaves. Plant-associated bacteria were isolated from all plant compartments by selective isolation and enrichment techniques with specific phenolic carbon sources (such as ferulic acid) that are up-regulated in CCR-deficient poplar trees. The bacterial microbiomes present in the endosphere were highly responsive to the CCR-deficient poplar genotype with remarkably different metabolic capacities and associated community structures compared with the WT trees. In contrast, the rhizosphere microbiome of CCR-deficient and WT poplar trees featured highly overlapping bacterial community structures and metabolic capacities. We demonstrate the host genotype modulation of the plant microbiome by minute genetic variations in the plant genome. Hence, these interactions need to be taken into consideration to understand the full consequences of plant metabolic pathway engineering and its relation with the environment and the intended genetic improvement.

  8. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alburaki

    Full Text Available Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  9. Mapping hypoendemic, seasonal malaria in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh: a prospective surveillance

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    Glass Gregory

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently the Chittagong Hill tracts have been hyperendemic for malaria. A past cross-sectional RDT based survey in 2007 recorded rates of approximately 15%. This study was designed to understand the present epidemiology of malaria in this region, to monitor and facilitate the uptake of malaria intervention activities of the national malaria programme and to serve as an area for developing new and innovative control strategies for malaria. Methods This research field area was established in two rural unions of Bandarban District of Bangladesh north of Bandarban city, which are known to be endemic for malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. The project included the following elements: a a demographic surveillance system including an initial census with updates every four months, b periodic surveys of knowledge attitude and practice, c a geographic information system, d weekly active and continuous passive surveillance for malaria infections using smears, rapid tests and PCR, f monthly mosquito surveillance, and e daily weather measures. The programme included both traditional and molecular methods for detecting malaria as well as lab methods for speciating mosquitoes and detecting mosquitoes infected with sporozoites. Results The demographic surveillance enumerated and mapped 20,563 people, 75% of which were tribal non-Bengali. The monthly mosquito surveys identified 22 Anopheles species, eight of which were positive by circumsporozoite ELISA. The annual rate of malaria was close to 1% with 85% of cases in the rainy months of May-October. Definitive clustering identified in the low transmission season persisted during the high transmission season. Conclusion This demographically and geographically defined area, near to the Myanmar border, which is also hypoendemic for malaria, will be useful for future studies of the epidemiology of malaria and for evaluation of strategies for malaria control including new drugs and

  10. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liangxin; Niu, Haipeng; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Wei; Bento, Célia P M; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insufficient. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effects of knowledge and awareness of farmers as well as the influence of the associated stakeholders (i.e. pesticide retailers and the government) on farmers' behaviour in pesticide use by using a detailed survey of 307 agricultural households (79 grain farms, 65 fruit farms, 53 vegetable farms and 110 mixed-crop farms) in the Wei River basin in northern China. Eight protective behaviours (PBs) were exhibited by farmers. Careful and safe storage of pesticides, changing clothes or showering after applying pesticides, and reading instructions of the container labels before application were the most frequent PBs. Vegetable and fruit farmers had higher levels of education and knowledge than grain farmers, but the former were less willing to reduce pesticide use because of fear of low profits and lack of trust in the government and pesticide retailers. The PBs of farmers were strongly affected by the perception of the consequences of their behaviour (standardised path coefficient, SPC=0.42) and the level of farmers' knowledge (SPC=0.33). Pesticide retailers and the government had a moderate and weak influence, respectively, on farmers' PBs, suggesting a large gap of trust among farmers, pesticide retailers, and the government. Training and supervising retailers, educating farmers, and improving information transparency across farmers, pesticide retailers and the staff of the Agricultural Extension and Technology Service are recommended for bridging the gap of trust between farmers and the associated stakeholders as well as for promoting the use of PBs among farmers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Leptin affects life history decisions in a passerine bird: a field experiment.

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    Mare Lõhmus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organisms face trade-offs regarding their life-history strategies, such as decisions of single or multiple broods within a year. In passerines displaying facultative multiple breeding, the probability of laying a second clutch is influenced by several life-history factors. However, information about the mechanistic background of these trade-offs is largely lacking. Leptin is a protein hormone produced by white fat cells, and acts as a signal between peripheral energy depots and the central nervous system. In addition, leptin affects cells at all levels of the reproductive axis and plays a critical role in regulating the allocation of metabolic energy to reproduction. As such, it is possible that leptin levels influence the decision of whether or not to invest time and energy into a second clutch. Accordingly, we expect a treatment with exogenous leptin to result in an increased number of second broods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At a later stage during the first brood, female great tits were treated either with long-term leptin-filled cholesterol pellets (the experimental birds or with pellets containing only cholesterol (the control birds. We found that leptin-treated females were significantly more likely to have a second brood and that the earlier females were more likely to lay a second clutch than the late females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As both timing of first brood and treatment with leptin were important in the decision of having multiple broods, the trade-offs involved in the breeding strategy most likely depend on multiple factors. Presumably leptin has evolved as a signal of energy supply status to regulate the release of reproductive hormones so that reproduction is coordinated with periods of sufficient nutrients. This study investigated the role of leptin as a mediator between energy resources and reproductive output, providing a fundamentally new insight into how trade-offs work on a functional basis.

  12. Can plant biotechnology help break the HIV-malaria link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvaka, E; Twyman, R M; Christou, P; Capell, T

    2014-01-01

    The population of sub-Saharan Africa is at risk from multiple, poverty-related endemic diseases. HIV and malaria are the most prevalent, but they disproportionately affect different groups of people, i.e. HIV predominantly affects sexually-active adults whereas malaria has a greater impact on children and pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is a significant geographical and epidemiological overlap which results in bidirectional and synergistic interactions with important consequences for public health. The immunosuppressive effects of HIV increase the risk of infection when individuals are exposed to malaria parasites and also the severity of malaria symptoms. Similarly, acute malaria can induce a temporary increase in the HIV viral load. HIV is associated with a wide range of opportunistic infections that can be misdiagnosed as malaria, resulting in the wasteful misuse of antimalarial drugs and a failure to address the genuine cause of the disease. There is also a cumulative risk of toxicity when antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs are given to the same patients. Synergistic approaches involving the control of malaria as a strategy to fight HIV/AIDS and vice versa are therefore needed in co-endemic areas. Plant biotechnology has emerged as a promising approach to tackle poverty-related diseases because plant-derived drugs and vaccines can be produced inexpensively in developing countries and may be distributed using agricultural infrastructure without the need for a cold chain. Here we explore some of the potential contributions of plant biotechnology and its integration into broader multidisciplinary public health programs to combat the two diseases in developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Households' incidence on malaria and expenditures to treat malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between expenditure and use of different vector control depends on the geographic location of respondents. People living in the rural areas spend more to have access to malaria control tools. Location of respondent has a positive effect on expenditures and use of malaria control tools.

  14. Malaria parasitemia among asymptomatic infants seen in a malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In clinical settings, management of malaria cases has primarily been centred on case definition, giving minimal consideration to the asymptomatic individuals who remain a major reservoir since they do not seek care. In malaria endemic areas, infants are likely to remain asymptomatic since they have partial immunity ...

  15. Earth observation in support of malaria control and epidemiology: MALAREO monitoring approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Jonas; Gebreslasie, Michael; Bauwens, Ides; Deleu, Julie; Siegert, Florian

    2015-06-03

    Malaria affects about half of the world's population, with the vast majority of cases occuring in Africa. National malaria control programmes aim to reduce the burden of malaria and its negative, socioeconomic effects by using various control strategies (e.g. vector control, environmental management and case tracking). Vector control is the most effective transmission prevention strategy, while environmental factors are the key parameters affecting transmission. Geographic information systems (GIS), earth observation (EO) and spatial modelling are increasingly being recognised as valuable tools for effective management and malaria vector control. Issues previously inhibiting the use of EO in epidemiology and malaria control such as poor satellite sensor performance, high costs and long turnaround times, have since been resolved through modern technology. The core goal of this study was to develop and implement the capabilities of EO data for national malaria control programmes in South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. High- and very high resolution (HR and VHR) land cover and wetland maps were generated for the identification of potential vector habitats and human activities, as well as geoinformation on distance to wetlands for malaria risk modelling, population density maps, habitat foci maps and VHR household maps. These products were further used for modelling malaria incidence and the analysis of environmental factors that favour vector breeding. Geoproducts were also transferred to the staff of national malaria control programmes in seven African countries to demonstrate how EO data and GIS can support vector control strategy planning and monitoring. The transferred EO products support better epidemiological understanding of environmental factors related to malaria transmission, and allow for spatio-temporal targeting of malaria control interventions, thereby improving the cost-effectiveness of interventions.

  16. Earth observation in support of malaria control and epidemiology: MALAREO monitoring approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Franke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria affects about half of the world’s population, with the vast majority of cases occuring in Africa. National malaria control programmes aim to reduce the burden of malaria and its negative, socioeconomic effects by using various control strategies (e.g. vector control, environmental management and case tracking. Vector control is the most effective transmission prevention strategy, while environmental factors are the key parameters affecting transmission. Geographic information systems (GIS, earth observation (EO and spatial modelling are increasingly being recognised as valuable tools for effective management and malaria vector control. Issues previously inhibiting the use of EO in epidemiology and malaria control such as poor satellite sensor performance, high costs and long turnaround times, have since been resolved through modern technology. The core goal of this study was to develop and implement the capabilities of EO data for national malaria control programmes in South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. High- and very high resolution (HR and VHR land cover and wetland maps were generated for the identification of potential vector habitats and human activities, as well as geoinformation on distance to wetlands for malaria risk modelling, population density maps, habitat foci maps and VHR household maps. These products were further used for modelling malaria incidence and the analysis of environmental factors that favour vector breeding. Geoproducts were also transferred to the staff of national malaria control programmes in seven African countries to demonstrate how EO data and GIS can support vector control strategy planning and monitoring. The transferred EO products support better epidemiological understanding of environmental factors related to malaria transmission, and allow for spatio-temporal targeting of malaria control interventions, thereby improving the cost-effectiveness of interventions.

  17. Artemisinin derivatives for treating severe malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, H M; Olliaro, P

    2000-01-01

    Artemisinin derivatives may have advantages over quinoline drugs for treating severe malaria since they are fast acting and effective against quinine resistant malaria parasites. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of artemisinin drugs for severe and complicated falciparum malaria in adults and children. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group trials register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Lilacs, African Index Medicus, conference abstracts and reference lists of articles. We contacted organisations, researchers in the field and drug companies. Randomised and pseudo-randomised trials comparing artemisinin drugs (rectal, intramuscular or intravenous) with standard treatment, or comparisons between artemisinin derivatives in adults or children with severe or complicated falciparum malaria. Eligibility, trial quality assessment and data extraction were done independently by two reviewers. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Twenty three trials are included, allocation concealment was adequate in nine. Sixteen trials compared artemisinin drugs with quinine in 2653 patients. Artemisinin drugs were associated with better survival (mortality odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 0.82, random effects model). In trials where concealment of allocation was adequate (2261 patients), this was barely statistically significant (odds ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.96, random effects model). In 1939 patients with cerebral malaria, mortality was also lower with artemisinin drugs overall (odds ratio 0.63, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.88, random effects model). The difference was not significant however when only trials reporting adequate concealment of allocation were analysed (odds ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.10, random effects model) based on 1607 patients. No difference in neurological sequelae was shown. Compared with quinine, artemisinin drugs showed faster parasite clearance from

  18. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mukhin

    Full Text Available Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1 the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1, (2 the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3 the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1 the markedly reduced mobility and (2 the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1 influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better

  19. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  20. Change of strategy is required for malaria elimination: a case study in Purworejo District, Central Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murhandarwati, E Elsa Herdiana; Fuad, Anis; Sulistyawati; Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Bia, Michael Badi; Widartono, Barandi Sapta; Kuswantoro; Lobo, Neil F; Supargiyono; Hawley, William A

    2015-08-16

    Malaria has been targeted for elimination from Indonesia by 2030, with varying timelines for specific geographical areas based on disease endemicity. The regional deadline for malaria elimination for Java island, given the steady decrease of malaria cases, was the end of 2015. Purworejo District, a malaria-endemic area in Java with an annual parasite incidence (API) of 0.05 per 1,000 population in 2009, aims to enter this elimination stage. This study documents factors that affect incidence and spatial distribution of malaria in Purworejo, such as geomorphology, topography, health system issues, and identifies potential constraints and challenges to achieve the elimination stage, such as inter-districts coordination, decentralization policy and allocation of financial resources for the programme. Historical malaria data from 2007 to 2011 were collected through secondary data, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions during study year (2010-2011). Malaria cases were mapped using the village-centroid shape file to visualize its distribution with geomorphologic characteristics overlay and spatial distribution of malaria. API in each village in Purworejo and its surrounding districts from 2007 to 2011 was stratified into high, middle or low case incidence to show the spatiotemporal mapping pattern. The spatiotemporal pattern of malaria cases in Purworejo and the adjacent districts demonstrate repeated concentrated occurrences of malaria in specific areas from 2007 to 2011. District health system issues, i.e., suboptimal coordination between primary care and referral systems, suboptimal inter-district collaboration for malaria surveillance, decentralization policy and the lack of resources, especially district budget allocations for the malaria programme, were major constraints for programme sustainability. A new malaria elimination approach that fits the local disease transmission, intervention and political system is required. These changes include timely

  1. Malaria prevention practices and delivery outcome: a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending a tertiary hospital in northeastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Hamzat U.; Giwa, Fatima J.; Olayinka, Adebola T.; Balogun, Shakir M.; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Nguku, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria in pregnancy remains a public health problem in Nigeria. It causes maternal anaemia and adversely affects birth outcome leading to low birth weight, abortions and still births. Nigeria has made great strides in addressing the prevention and control of malaria in pregnancy. However, recent demographic survey shows wide disparities in malaria control activities across the geopolitical zones. This situation has been compounded by the political unrest and population displacemen...

  2. Towards the elimination of malaria in South Africa: a review of surveillance data in Mutale Municipality, Limpopo Province, 2005 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosa Ester

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has targeted to eliminate malaria by the year 2018. Constant monitoring of malaria morbidity and mortality trends in affected subpopulations is therefore crucial in guiding and refining control interventions. Mutale Municipality in Limpopo Province is one of the areas with the highest risk of malaria in the country. This paper describes trends in malaria incidence, case fatality and household indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage in Mutale Municipality, during the period 2005 to 2010. Methods A retrospective descriptive analysis was conducted on malaria data routinely collected through the Limpopo provincial malaria information system between July 2005 and June 2010. Five malaria seasons were defined. Annualized malaria incidence rates, case fatality rates (CFR and IRS coverage rates were calculated. Results Cumulatively, 4,663 malaria cases and 21 malaria deaths were reported in Mutale between July 2005 and June 2010. Investigation of likely origin of the malaria in 3,517 patients revealed that 6.6% were imported cases, mostly from neighbouring Zimbabwe (222/231. Malaria incidence rates fell from 13.6 cases per 1,000 person-years in the 2005–2006 season to 2.7 cases per 1,000 person-years in the 2009–2010 season. The mean malaria CFR was stable between 0.3 and 0.6% during the first four seasons, and increased sharply to 2.1% in the 2009–2010 season. The median age of the 21 malaria deaths was 34 years (range: 16 to 60 years. CFRs were 0% in children below 15 years and above 0.5% in patients more than 24 years old. Regular IRS achieved coverage above 80% in all five seasons. Conclusion Malaria control interventions implemented in Mutale significantly reduced the incidence of malaria in the population. In order to accurately monitor progress towards the elimination goal, the malaria control programme should strengthen the reporting and capturing of the data in the provincial malaria information system; all

  3. Baseline results of the first malaria indicator survey in Iran at the health facility level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghizadeh-Asl Rahim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge, particularly in developing countries. Delivery of prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases, detection of malaria epidemics within one week of onset and control them in less than a month, regular disease monitoring and operational classification of malaria are among the major responsibilities of the national malaria programme. The study was conducted to determine these indicators at the different level of primary health care facilities in malaria-affected provinces of Iran Methods In this survey, data was collected from 223 health facilities including health centres, malaria posts, health houses and hospitals as well as the profile of all 5, 836 recorded malaria cases in these facilities during the year preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics (i.e. frequencies, percentages were used to summarize the results and Chi square test was used to analyse data. Results All but one percent of uncomplicated cases took appropriate and correctly-dosed of anti-malarial drugs in accordance to the national treatment guideline. A larger proportion of patients [85.8%; 95% CI: 84.8 - 86.8] were also given complete treatment including anti-relapse course, in line with national guidelines. About one third [35.0%; 95% CI: 33.6 - 36.4] of uncomplicated malaria cases were treated more than 48 hours after first symptoms onset. Correspondingly, half of severe malaria cases took recommended anti-malarial drugs for severe or complicated disease more than 48 hours of onset of first symptoms. The latter cases had given regular anti-malarial drugs promptly. The majority of malaria epidemics [97%; 95% CI: 90.6 - 100] in study areas were detected within one week of onset, but only half of epidemics were controlled within four weeks of detection. Just half of target districts had at least one health facility/emergency site with adequate supply and equipment stocks. Nevertheless

  4. Malaria vector species in Colombia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Montoya-Lerma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species' geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species.

  5. Systemic Modeling for the diagnosis of the interaction climate-malaria in Colombia, application during El Nino 1997-1998 and La Nina 1998-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Daniel; Poveda, German; Quinonez, Martha Lucia; Velez Ivan, Dario; Rojas, William; Zuluaga, Juan Santiago

    2002-01-01

    A vector-borne disease model has been developed to represent the entomological, epidemiological and climatic interactions of malaria transmission conductive to disease outbreaks in Nuqui prone-region, Choco province, along the pacific Colombian coast. Considering breeding place availability model and several predator-prey-food models allow us to represent the vectorial densities fluctuations observed during the field's campaigns. The comprehensive model has been applied to represent malaria incidence during the period Nov/1997-Feb/2001 (1200 days simulation period), when both El Nino and la Nina events strongly affected the hydro-climatology of Colombia. The model has been run for observed climatic patterns such as mean daily temperatures, total daily precipitation records, and mean daily relative humidities gathered by a nearby climatological station. Diverse temperature scenarios have been considered to deepen the understanding of the entomological-climatic linkages conductive to malaria outbreaks. Sensitivity analysis and instabilities cases have been also studied during the experimentation-validation processes. Obtained results allow us to conclude that the model constitutes a promising tool to deepen the understanding of the ecological, entomological, and epidemiological linkages conductive to malaria outbreaks

  6. Malaria in pregnancy | Okpere | Nigerian Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria remains one of the highest contributors to the precarious maternal mortality figures in sub-Saharan Africa. At least 6 million women worldwide are at risk of malaria infection in pregnancy. Malaria contributes to at least 10,000 maternal deaths and to at least 200,000 newborn deaths annually. Malaria is a contributor ...

  7. Defining the protein interaction network of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    KAUST Repository

    Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Pain, Arnab; Ravasi, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Malaria, caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, affects around 225. million people yearly and a huge international effort is directed towards combating this grave threat to world health and economic development. Considerable

  8. Climate forcing and desert malaria: the effect of irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Andres; Bouma, Menno J; Dobson, Andy P; Dhiman, Ramesh; Srivastava, Harish C; Pascual, Mercedes

    2011-07-14

    Rainfall variability and associated remote sensing indices for vegetation are central to the development of early warning systems for epidemic malaria in arid regions. The considerable change in land-use practices resulting from increasing irrigation in recent decades raises important questions on concomitant change in malaria dynamics and its coupling to climate forcing. Here, the consequences of irrigation level for malaria epidemics are addressed with extensive time series data for confirmed Plasmodium falciparum monthly cases, spanning over two decades for five districts in north-west India. The work specifically focuses on the response of malaria epidemics to rainfall forcing and how this response is affected by increasing irrigation. Remote sensing data for the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are used as an integrated measure of rainfall to examine correlation maps within the districts and at regional scales. The analyses specifically address whether irrigation has decreased the coupling between malaria incidence and climate variability, and whether this reflects (1) a breakdown of NDVI as a useful indicator of risk, (2) a weakening of rainfall forcing and a concomitant decrease in epidemic risk, or (3) an increase in the control of malaria transmission. The predictive power of NDVI is compared against that of rainfall, using simple linear models and wavelet analysis to study the association of NDVI and malaria variability in the time and in the frequency domain respectively. The results show that irrigation dampens the influence of climate forcing on the magnitude and frequency of malaria epidemics and, therefore, reduces their predictability. At low irrigation levels, this decoupling reflects a breakdown of local but not regional NDVI as an indicator of rainfall forcing. At higher levels of irrigation, the weakened role of climate variability may be compounded by increased levels of control; nevertheless this leads to no significant decrease

  9. Prevalence of pathogens from Mollicutes class in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of Mycoplasma bovis field strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szacawa Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycoplasma bovis is one of the main pathogens involved in cattle pneumonia. Other mycoplasmas have also been directly implicated in respiratory diseases in cattle. The prevalence of different Mycoplasma spp. in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of M. bovis field strains were evaluated. Material and Methods: In total, 713 nasal swabs from 73 cattle herds were tested. The uvrC gene fragment was amplified by PCR and PCR products were sequenced. PCR/DGGE and RAPD were performed. Results: It was found that 39 (5.5% samples were positive for M. bovis in the PCR and six field strains had point nucleotide mutations. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis of 20 M. bovis field strains tested with RAPD showed two distinct groups of M. bovis strains sharing only 3.8% similarity. PCR/DGGE analysis demonstrated the presence of bacteria belonging to the Mollicutes class in 79.1% of DNA isolates. The isolates were identified as: Mycoplasma bovirhinis, M. dispar, M. bovis, M. canis, M. arginini, M. canadense, M. bovoculi, M. alkalescens, and Ureaplasma diversum. Conclusion: Different Mycoplasma spp. strains play a crucial role in inducing respiratory diseases in cattle.

  10. Is the size of the useful field of view affected by postural demands associated with standing and stepping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Jones, James G; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Hollands, Mark A

    2014-04-30

    The useful field of view (UFOV) is the visual area from which information is obtained at a brief glance. While studies have examined the effects of increased cognitive load on the visual field, no one has specifically looked at the effects of postural control or locomotor activity on the UFOV. The current study aimed to examine the effects of postural demand and locomotor activity on UFOV performance in healthy young adults. Eleven participants were tested on three modified UFOV tasks (central processing, peripheral processing, and divided-attention) while seated, standing, and stepping in place. Across all postural conditions, participants showed no difference in their central or peripheral processing. However, in the divided-attention task (reporting the letter in central vision and target location in peripheral vision amongst distracter items) a main effect of posture condition on peripheral target accuracy was found for targets at 57° of eccentricity (p=.037). The mean accuracy reduced from 80.5% (standing) to 74% (seated) to 56.3% (stepping). These findings show that postural demands do affect UFOV divided-attention performance. In particular, the size of the useful field of view significantly decreases when stepping. This finding has important implications for how the results of a UFOV test are used to evaluate the general size of the UFOV during varying activities, as the traditional seated test procedure may overestimate the size of the UFOV during locomotor activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Malaria Parasitemia in Children Aged less than 5 Years Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fever is the commonest manifestation and Children aged less than 5 years are most vulnerable. An appraisal of this disease among these children is important to reducing the impact of the disease. Objective: To determine the prevalence and identify factors affecting malaria parasitemia in febrile children aged less than 5 ...

  12. Defining malaria burden from morbidity and mortality records, self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Malaria morbidity and mortality data from clinical records provide essential information .... Babati District is one of the eight sentinel sites in Tanzania for monitoring anti- ... treatment given before leaving the health facility was documented. ..... Targett, G. (1999) Vaccine efficacy, and immunity affecting transmission.

  13. Parasitaemia and haematological changes in malaria-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reported that this disease affects more than a million cross-border migrants, including ... mosquito. Some refugees from non-malaria areas, or areas where the prevalence of ... underlying factors that cause haematological alterations, may be present. This research ... Haematology Analyser (Sysmex, Canada). The analyser ...

  14. Spatial and spatio-temporal analysis of malaria in the state of Acre, western Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Kohara Melchior

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, the State of Acre, western Amazon, Brazil, has reported the highest annual parasite incidence (API of malaria among the Brazilian states. This study examines malaria incidence in Acre using spatial and spatio-temporal analysis based on an ecological time series study analyzing malaria cases and deaths for the time period 1992- 2014 and using secondary data. API indexes were calculated by age, sex, parasite species, ratio of Plasmodium vivax to P. falciparum malaria, malaria mortality rate and case fatality rate. SaTScan was used to detect spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of malaria cases and data were represented in the form of choropleth maps. A high-risk cluster of malaria was detected in Vale do Juruá and three low-risk clusters in Vale do Acre for both parasite species. Those younger than 19 years of age and females showed a high incidence of malaria in Vale do Juruá, but working-age males were the most affected in Vale do Acre. The malaria mortality rate showed a decreasing trend across the state, while the case fatality rate increased only in the micro-region of Rio Branco during the study period. We conclude that malaria is a focal disease in Acre showing different spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of cases and deaths that vary by age, sex, and parasite species. Malaria incidence is thought to be influenced by factors related to regional characteristics; therefore, appropriate disease and vector control strategies must be implemented at each locality.

  15. Taking malaria transmission out of the bottle: implications of mosquito dispersal for vector-control interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.; Gu, W.D.

    2003-01-01

    Most malaria transmission models assume enclosed systems of people, parasites, and vectors in which neither emigration nor immigration of mosquitoes is considered. This simplification has facilitated insightful analyses but has substantial limitations for evaluating control measures in the field.

  16. New insight-guided approaches to detect, cure, prevent and eliminate malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Kumari, Renu; Pandey, Richa

    2015-05-01

    New challenges posed by the development of resistance against artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as well as previous first-line therapies, and the continuing absence of vaccine, have given impetus to research in all areas of malaria control. This review portrays the ongoing progress in several directions of malaria research. The variants of RTS,S and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) are being developed and test adapted as multicomponent and multistage malaria control vaccines, while many other vaccine candidates and methodologies to produce antigens are under experimentation. To track and prevent the spread of artemisinin resistance from Southeast Asia to other parts of the world, rolling circle-enhanced enzyme activity detection (REEAD), a time- and cost-effective malaria diagnosis in field conditions, and a DNA marker associated with artemisinin resistance have become available. Novel mosquito repellents and mosquito trapping and killing techniques much more effective than the prevalent ones are undergoing field testing. Mosquito lines stably infected with their symbiotic wild-type or genetically engineered bacteria that kill sympatric malaria parasites are being constructed and field tested for stopping malaria transmission. A complementary approach being pursued is the addition of ivermectin-like drug molecules to ACTs to cure malaria and kill mosquitoes. Experiments are in progress to eradicate malaria mosquito by making it genetically male sterile. High-throughput screening procedures are being developed and used to discover molecules that possess long in vivo half life and are active against liver and blood stages for the fast cure of malaria symptoms caused by simple or relapsing and drug-sensitive and drug-resistant types of varied malaria parasites, can stop gametocytogenesis and sporogony and could be given in one dose. Target-based antimalarial drug designing has begun. Some of the putative next-generation antimalarials that possess in their

  17. Dominant risk factors for malaria at Puskesmas Labuhan Ruku, Talawi Batu Bara, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyanoer, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Malaria is a disease which increases in number almost every year. Morbidity rate of malaria tends to decline from 4.1 to 0.85 per 1000 population at risk in 2005 to 2015. In North Sumatera alone three areas found with the highest incidences are District of Madina, Batubara, and Asahan. However such high number do not parallel with the utilization of health services in the area.This study is an analytic study withcase-controldesign to analyses the contribution of environmental and social factors that potentially cause malaria among people living in malaria-endemic areas. The recruited samples are 146 samples. All cases are registered patient at Puskesmas Labuhan Ruku while controls are from the neighboring area. The result showed that incidence of malaria is most affected by the habit of repellent used and being outside of the house in the evening.

  18. [Fake malaria drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2009-03-02

    The literature on fake medicaments is sparse, even if approximately 15% of all medicaments are fake, a figure that for antimalarials in particular reaches 50% in parts of Africa and Asia. Sub-standard and fake medicines deplete the public's confidence in health systems, health professionals and in the pharmaceutical industry - and increase the risk that resistance develops. For a traveller coming from a rich Western country, choosing to buy e.g. preventive antimalarials over the internet or in poor malaria-endemic areas, the consequences may be fatal. International trade-, control- and police-collaboration is needed to manage the problem, as is the fight against poverty and poor governance.

  19. Bioorganometallic Chemistry and Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biot, Christophe; Dive, Daniel

    This chapter summarizes recent developments in the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of organometallic antimalarials. It begins with a general introduction to malaria and the biology of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, with a focus on the heme detoxification system. Then, a number of metal complexes from the literature are reported for their antiplasmodial activity. The second half of the chapter deals with the serendipitous discovery of ferroquine, its mechanism(s) of action, and the failure to induce a resistance. Last, but not least, we suggest that the bioorganometallic approach offers the potential for the design of novel therapeutic agents.

  20. Spectrophotometric characterization of hemozoin as a malaria biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ivo; Lima, Rui; Minas, Graça.; Catarino, Susana O.

    2017-08-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease with more than a billion people worldwide at risk of contraction. The disease is predominantly widespread in regions with precarious healthcare conditions and resources. Despite the several available malaria diagnostic methods, only two are predominantly used in the field in malaria-endemic countries: microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. In this work, an alternative diagnostic system is proposed, based on optical absorption spectrophotometry. The main objective of this paper is the spectrophotometric study of hemozoin as a malaria biomarker, since it is a sub-product of the malaria infection. The optical absorbance of hemoglobin and hemozoin solutions in purified water was measured in the visible spectrum range using a spectrophotometric setup. The results showed main absorbance peaks at 540 nm and 574 nm for hemoglobin, and at 672 nm for hemozoin. The tests performed in aqueous solutions have shown that both hemoglobin and synthetic hemozoin, when alone in solution, were detected by absorbance, with sensitivity of 0.05 g/L, and with a high linearity (R2> 0.92 for all wavelength peaks). Furthermore, it was found that the whole blood and the hemoglobin spectra have similar absorption peaks. By combining whole blood and synthetic hemozoin solutions, it was proved that both the hemozoin and the hemoglobin absorbance peaks could still be detected by spectrophotometry. For instance, in polydimethylsiloxane wells, the proposed method was able to detect hemozoin in whole blood samples for optical paths as low as 3 mm in cylindrical wells, thus proving the capability for this method's miniaturization. With this work, it is possible to conclude that hemozoin is a viable candidate as a biomarker for malaria detection by optical absorption spectrophotometry and also, that an autonomous, fully integrated and low cost miniaturized system, based on such a principle, could provide an efficient diagnosis of malaria.

  1. Seasonal variation of malaria cases in children aged less than 5 years following weather change in Zomba district Malawi

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hajison, PL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available with premature deaths, infirmity from sickness and it inhibits on economic and social development [2]. World Malaria Report 2015, stipulated that, globally, malaria incidence was estimated to be at 214,000,000 infected cases and 438,000 deaths [3]. Malaria... and greater than 27 °C. In Fig. 2b, it is observed that diurnal variations in the tem- perature affect malaria cases negatively (r  =  −1295.57 95% CI −1683.38 to −907.75 p value  <0.001). Large diurnal temperatures lead to lower infections. This sug- gests...

  2. Effectiveness of reactive case detection for malaria elimination in three archetypical transmission settings: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Jaline; Bever, Caitlin A; Bridenbecker, Daniel; Hamainza, Busiku; Silumbe, Kafula; Miller, John M; Eisele, Thomas P; Eckhoff, Philip A; Wenger, Edward A

    2017-06-12

    Reactive case detection could be a powerful tool in malaria elimination, as it selectively targets transmission pockets. However, field operations have yet to demonstrate under which conditions, if any, reactive case detection is best poised to push a region to elimination. This study uses mathematical modelling to assess how baseline transmission intensity and local interconnectedness affect the impact of reactive activities in the context of other possible intervention packages. Communities in Southern Province, Zambia, where elimination operations are currently underway, were used as representatives of three archetypes of malaria transmission: low-transmission, high household density; high-transmission, low household density; and high-transmission, high household density. Transmission at the spatially-connected household level was simulated with a dynamical model of malaria transmission, and local variation in vectorial capacity and intervention coverage were parameterized according to data collected from the area. Various potential intervention packages were imposed on each of the archetypical settings and the resulting likelihoods of elimination by the end of 2020 were compared. Simulations predict that success of elimination campaigns in both low- and high-transmission areas is strongly dependent on stemming the flow of imported infections, underscoring the need for regional-scale strategies capable of reducing transmission concurrently across many connected areas. In historically low-transmission areas, treatment of clinical malaria should form the cornerstone of elimination operations, as most malaria infections in these areas are symptomatic and onward transmission would be mitigated through health system strengthening; reactive case detection has minimal impact in these settings. In historically high-transmission areas, vector control and case management are crucial for limiting outbreak size, and the asymptomatic reservoir must be addressed through

  3. Modelling malaria incidence with environmental dependency in a locality of Sudanese savannah area, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudart, Jean; Touré, Ousmane; Dessay, Nadine; Dicko, A Lassane; Ranque, Stéphane; Forest, Loic; Demongeot, Jacques; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2009-04-10

    The risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection is variable over space and time and this variability is related to environmental variability. Environmental factors affect the biological cycle of both vector and parasite. Despite this strong relationship, environmental effects have rarely been included in malaria transmission models.Remote sensing data on environment were incorporated into a temporal model of the transmission, to forecast the evolution of malaria epidemiology, in a locality of Sudanese savannah area. A dynamic cohort was constituted in June 1996 and followed up until June 2001 in the locality of Bancoumana, Mali. The 15-day composite vegetation index (NDVI), issued from satellite imagery series (NOAA) from July 1981 to December 2006, was used as remote sensing data.The statistical relationship between NDVI and incidence of P. falciparum infection was assessed by ARIMA analysis. ROC analysis provided an NDVI value for the prediction of an increase in incidence of parasitaemia.Malaria transmission was modelled using an SIRS-type model, adapted to Bancoumana's data. Environmental factors influenced vector mortality and aggressiveness, as well as length of the gonotrophic cycle. NDVI observations from 1981 to 2001 were used for the simulation of the extrinsic variable of a hidden Markov chain model. Observations from 2002 to 2006 served as external validation. The seasonal pattern of P. falciparum incidence was significantly explained by NDVI, with a delay of 15 days (p = 0.001). An NDVI threshold of 0.361 (p = 0.007) provided a Diagnostic Odd Ratio (DOR) of 2.64 (CI95% [1.26;5.52]).The deterministic transmission model, with stochastic environmental factor, predicted an endemo-epidemic pattern of malaria infection. The incidences of parasitaemia were adequately modelled, using the observed NDVI as well as the NDVI simulations. Transmission pattern have been modelled and observed values were adequately predicted. The error parameters have shown the smallest

  4. Modelling malaria incidence with environmental dependency in a locality of Sudanese savannah area, Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demongeot Jacques

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection is variable over space and time and this variability is related to environmental variability. Environmental factors affect the biological cycle of both vector and parasite. Despite this strong relationship, environmental effects have rarely been included in malaria transmission models. Remote sensing data on environment were incorporated into a temporal model of the transmission, to forecast the evolution of malaria epidemiology, in a locality of Sudanese savannah area. Methods A dynamic cohort was constituted in June 1996 and followed up until June 2001 in the locality of Bancoumana, Mali. The 15-day composite vegetation index (NDVI, issued from satellite imagery series (NOAA from July 1981 to December 2006, was used as remote sensing data. The statistical relationship between NDVI and incidence of P. falciparum infection was assessed by ARIMA analysis. ROC analysis provided an NDVI value for the prediction of an increase in incidence of parasitaemia. Malaria transmission was modelled using an SIRS-type model, adapted to Bancoumana's data. Environmental factors influenced vector mortality and aggressiveness, as well as length of the gonotrophic cycle. NDVI observations from 1981 to 2001 were used for the simulation of the extrinsic variable of a hidden Markov chain model. Observations from 2002 to 2006 served as external validation. Results The seasonal pattern of P. falciparum incidence was significantly explained by NDVI, with a delay of 15 days (p = 0.001. An NDVI threshold of 0.361 (p = 0.007 provided a Diagnostic Odd Ratio (DOR of 2.64 (CI95% [1.26;5.52]. The deterministic transmission model, with stochastic environmental factor, predicted an endemo-epidemic pattern of malaria infection. The incidences of parasitaemia were adequately modelled, using the observed NDVI as well as the NDVI simulations. Transmission pattern have been modelled and observed values were adequately

  5. Modelling malaria incidence with environmental dependency in a locality of Sudanese savannah area, Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudart, Jean; Touré, Ousmane; Dessay, Nadine; Dicko, A lassane; Ranque, Stéphane; Forest, Loic; Demongeot, Jacques; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2009-01-01

    Background The risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection is variable over space and time and this variability is related to environmental variability. Environmental factors affect the biological cycle of both vector and parasite. Despite this strong relationship, environmental effects have rarely been included in malaria transmission models. Remote sensing data on environment were incorporated into a temporal model of the transmission, to forecast the evolution of malaria epidemiology, in a locality of Sudanese savannah area. Methods A dynamic cohort was constituted in June 1996 and followed up until June 2001 in the locality of Bancoumana, Mali. The 15-day composite vegetation index (NDVI), issued from satellite imagery series (NOAA) from July 1981 to December 2006, was used as remote sensing data. The statistical relationship between NDVI and incidence of P. falciparum infection was assessed by ARIMA analysis. ROC analysis provided an NDVI value for the prediction of an increase in incidence of parasitaemia. Malaria transmission was modelled using an SIRS-type model, adapted to Bancoumana's data. Environmental factors influenced vector mortality and aggressiveness, as well as length of the gonotrophic cycle. NDVI observations from 1981 to 2001 were used for the simulation of the extrinsic variable of a hidden Markov chain model. Observations from 2002 to 2006 served as external validation. Results The seasonal pattern of P. falciparum incidence was significantly explained by NDVI, with a delay of 15 days (p = 0.001). An NDVI threshold of 0.361 (p = 0.007) provided a Diagnostic Odd Ratio (DOR) of 2.64 (CI95% [1.26;5.52]). The deterministic transmission model, with stochastic environmental factor, predicted an endemo-epidemic pattern of malaria infection. The incidences of parasitaemia were adequately modelled, using the observed NDVI as well as the NDVI simulations. Transmission pattern have been modelled and observed values were adequately predicted. The error

  6. Insecticide resistance testing in malaria vectors in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mosquito survived much better and the scientists had a total of 467 mosquitoes to run the insecticide susceptibility tests. Innovative ways are necessary under field conditions for mosquito breeding in susceptibility studies. Key words: Malaria, Anopheles gambiae complex, larvae, fabric, resistance, susceptibility, Tanzania.

  7. An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.N.; Kihonda, J.; Takken, W.; Paaijmans, K.P.; Abdulla, S.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biological control of malaria mosquitoes in Africa has rarely been used in vector control programs. Recent developments in this field show that certain fungi are virulent to adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Practical delivery of an entomopathogenic fungus that infected and killed adult Anopheles gambiae,

  8. PCR detection of malaria parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes is uninhibited by storage time and temperature

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    Rider Mark A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable methods to preserve mosquito vectors for malaria studies are necessary for detecting Plasmodium parasites. In field settings, however, maintaining a cold chain of storage from the time of collection until laboratory processing, or accessing other reliable means of sample preservation is often logistically impractical or cost prohibitive. As the Plasmodium infection rate of Anopheles mosquitoes is a central component of the entomological inoculation rate and other indicators of transmission intensity, storage conditions that affect pathogen detection may bias malaria surveillance indicators. This study investigated the effect of storage time and temperature on the ability to detect Plasmodium parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods Laboratory-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were chloroform-killed and stored over desiccant for 0, 1, 3, and 6 months while being held at four different temperatures: 28, 37, -20 and -80°C. The detection of Plasmodium DNA was evaluated by real-time PCR amplification of a 111 base pair region of block 4 of the merozoite surface protein. Results Varying the storage time and temperature of desiccated mosquitoes did not impact the sensitivity of parasite detection. A two-way factorial analysis of variance suggested that storage time and temperature were not associated with a loss in the ability to detect parasites. Storage of samples at 28°C resulted in a significant increase in the ability to detect parasite DNA, though no other positive associations were observed between the experimental storage treatments and PCR amplification. Conclusions Cold chain maintenance of desiccated mosquito samples is not necessary for real-time PCR detection of parasite DNA. Though field-collected mosquitoes may be subjected to variable conditions prior to molecular processing, the storage of samples over an inexpensive and logistically

  9. THE WIND DEFLATION FROM SAND AREAS AFFECTED BY ATMOSFERIC DRYNESS: LEU-ROTUNDA AND DĂBULENI FIELDS (OLTENIA PLAIN

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    ROȘCA FLORINA CRISTINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Leu-Rotunda and Dăbuleni Fields are characterized by substantial extension of sandy soils. The sands on the left of Jiu are poli-stratificated fluvial deposits eolian shaped as dunes and interdunes. During the reported period 1980-2007, it was found that the most exposed time of the year to the wind was during the spring, the months of March, April and May as in speed and frequency. According to the analyzed data, the dominant wind direction during spring season on the sandy soils from Dăbuleni is the western, with negative effects on crops who then begin their vegetation cycle. The shelterbelts have decreased, although lately there have been numerous programs which aimed afforestation of affected areas.

  10. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca Vasilis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to

  11. Malaria training for community health workers in the setting of elimination: a qualitative study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangyu; Liu, Yaobao; Wang, Jinsong; Li, Xiangming; Liu, Xing; Beiersmann, Claudia; Feng, Yu; Cao, Jun; Müller, Olaf

    2018-02-23

    concerned about technical training aspects, while health workers from periphery of the health system expected to receive more training on field work coordination and on specific public health actions with regard to case detection and focus investigation. There is need to guarantee an ongoing good training of health workers in China on malaria aspects until the year 2020 and probably beyond.

  12. Association between serum transferrin receptor levels and malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... and malaria is common in sub-Saharan Africa, and is a complex phenomenon. ... iron status and malaria incidence among children in a high malaria ... seasonally as cash crops. ... Children were followed for presence of malaria parasites by.

  13. Computer Vision Malaria Diagnostic Systems—Progress and Prospects

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    Joseph Joel Pollak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate malaria diagnosis is critical to prevent malaria fatalities, curb overuse of antimalarial drugs, and promote appropriate management of other causes of fever. While several diagnostic tests exist, the need for a rapid and highly accurate malaria assay remains. Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the main diagnostic modalities available, yet they can demonstrate poor performance and accuracy. Automated microscopy platforms have the potential to significantly improve and standardize malaria diagnosis. Based on image recognition and machine learning algorithms, these systems maintain the benefits of light microscopy and provide improvements such as quicker scanning time, greater scanning area, and increased consistency brought by automation. While these applications have been in development for over a decade, recently several commercial platforms have emerged. In this review, we discuss the most advanced computer vision malaria diagnostic technologies and investigate several of their features which are central to field use. Additionally, we discuss the technological and policy barriers to implementing these technologies in low-resource settings world-wide.

  14. Dynamics of leaf and spikelet primordia initiation in wheat as affected by Ppd-1a alleles under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochagavía, Helga; Prieto, Paula; Savin, Roxana; Griffiths, Simon; Slafer, GustavoA

    2018-04-27

    Wheat adaptation is affected by Ppd genes, but the role of these alleles in the rates of leaf and spikelet initiation has not been properly analysed. Twelve near isogenic lines (NILs) combining Ppd-1a alleles from different donors introgressed in A, B, and/or D genomes were tested under field conditions during two growing seasons together with the wild type, Paragon. Leaf initiation rate was unaffected by Ppd-1a alleles so the final leaf number (FLN) was reduced in parallel with reductions in the duration of the vegetative phase. Spikelet primordia initiation was accelerated and consequently the effect on spikelets per spike was less than proportional to the effect on the duration of spikelet initiation. The magnitude of these effects on spikelet plastochron depended on the doses of Ppd-1 homoeoalleles and the specific insensitivity alleles carried. Double ridge was consistently later than floral initiation, but the difference between them was not affected by Ppd-1a alleles. These findings have potential for selecting the best combinations from the Ppd-1 homoeoallelic series for manipulating adaptation taking into consideration particular effects on spikelet number.

  15. Variation in wind and piscivorous predator fields affecting the survival of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, K.D.; Manning, J.P.; Link, Jason S.; Gilbert, J.R.; Gilbert, A.T.; O'Connell, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Observations relevant to the North American stock complex of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., suggest that marine mortality is influenced by variation in predation pressure affecting post-smolts during the first months at sea. This hypothesis was tested for Gulf of Maine (GOM) stocks by examining wind pseudostress and the distribution of piscivorous predator fields potentially affecting post-smolts. Marine survival has declined over recent decades with a change in the direction of spring winds, which is likely extending the migration of post-smolts by favouring routes using the western GOM. In addition to changes in spring wind patterns, higher spring sea surface temperatures have been associated with shifting distributions of a range of fish species. The abundance of several pelagic piscivores, which based on their feeding habits may predate on salmon post-smolts, has increased in the areas that serve as migration corridors for post-smolts. In particular, populations of silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchell), red hake, Urophycis chuss (Walbaum), and spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L., increased in size in the portion of the GOM used by post-smolts. Climate variation and shifting predator distributions in the GOM are consistent with the predator hypothesis of recruitment control suggested for the stock complex.

  16. Orthogonal Test Analysis on Conditions Affecting Electricity Generation Performance of an Enhanced Geothermal System at Yangbajing Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Zeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main conditions affecting electricity generation performance of an enhanced geothermal system (EGS include reservoir porosity, reservoir permeability, rock heat conductivity, water production rate and injection temperature. Presently there is lack of systematic research the relative importance of the five aforementioned conditions. The orthogonal test method is a statistical approach to analyze multi-factor and multi-level influence on system performance. In this work, based on the geological data at Yangbajing geothermal field, we analyzed the five conditions affecting the electricity generation performance of EGS, and ranked the relative importance of the five factors. The results show that the order of the relative importance of the conditions on electric power is water production rate > injection temperature > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity > reservoir permeability; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on reservoir impedance is reservoir permeability > injection temperature > water production rate > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on pump power is water production rate > reservoir permeability > injection temperature > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity, and; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on energy efficiency is water production rate > reservoir permeability > reservoir porosity > injection temperature > rock heat conductivity. The construction of an EGS reservoir should be located at a formation with higher reservoir porosity or rock heat conductivity, while the determination of reservoir permeability, water production rate and injection temperature should be based on the comprehensive target.

  17. Does acute radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposure affect visual event-related potentials in healthy adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Anna; Loughran, Sarah P; Verrender, Adam; Burdon, Catriona A; Taylor, Nigel A S; Croft, Rodney J

    2018-05-01

    To use improved methods to address the question of whether acute exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) affects early (80-200 ms) sensory and later (180-600 ms) cognitive processes as indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirty-six healthy subjects completed a visual discrimination task during concurrent exposure to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like, 920 MHz signal with peak-spatial specific absorption rate for 10 g of tissue of 0 W/kg of body mass (Sham), 1 W/kg (Low RF) and 2 W/kg (High RF). A fully randomised, counterbalanced, double-blind design was used. P1 amplitude was reduced (p = .02) and anterior N1 latency was increased (p = .04) during Exposure compared to Sham. There were no effects on any other ERP latencies or amplitudes. RF-EMF exposure may affect early perceptual (P1) and preparatory motor (anterior N1) processes. However, only two ERP indices, out of 56 comparisons, were observed to differ between RF-EMF exposure and Sham, suggesting that these observations may be due to chance. These observations are consistent with previous findings that RF-EMF exposure has no reliable impact on cognition (e.g., accuracy and response speed). Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Small-scale field evaluation of push-pull system against early- and outdoor-biting malaria mosquitoes in an area of high pyrethroid resistance in Tanzania [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold S. Mmbando

    2017-11-01

    is required to assess how transfluthrin-based products affect mosquito blood-feeding and mortality in push-pull contexts. This approach, if optimised, could potentially complement existing malaria interventions even in areas with high pyrethroid resistance.

  19. Triclosan affects the microbial community in simulated sewage-drain-field soil and slows down xenobiotic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningsen, Hanne [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Solvgade 83H, DK-1307 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Henriksen, Trine [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Prieme, Anders [Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Solvgade 83H, DK-1307 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Johnsen, Anders R., E-mail: arj@geus.dk [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2011-06-15

    Effects of the common antibacterial agent triclosan on microbial communities and degradation of domestic xenobiotics were studied in simulated sewage-drain-field soil. Cultivable microbial populations decreased 22-fold in the presence of 4 mg kg{sup -1} of triclosan, and triclosan-resistant Pseudomonas strains were strongly enriched. Exposure to triclosan also changed the general metabolic profile (Ecoplate substrate profiling) and the general profile (T-RFLP) of the microbial community. Triclosan degradation was slow at all concentrations tested (0.33-81 mg kg{sup -1}) during 50-days of incubation. Mineralization experiments ({sup 14}C-tracers) and chemical analyses (LC-MS/MS) showed that the persistence of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and a common analgesic (ibuprofen) increased with increasing triclosan concentrations (0.16-100 mg kg{sup -1}). The largest effect was seen for LAS mineralization which was severely reduced by 0.16 mg kg{sup -1} of triclosan. Our findings indicate that environmentally realistic concentrations of triclosan may affect the efficiency of biodegradation in percolation systems. - Highlights: > Triclosan may enter the soil environment through sewage. > Triclosan impacts the microbial community in sewage-drain-field soil. > Triclosan-resistant pseudomonads are strongly enriched. > Degradation of co-occurring LAS and ibuprofen is reduced. - Environmentally realistic triclosan concentrations in percolation systems may reduce the biodegradation of other xenobiotics and select for triclosan-resistant bacteria.

  20. Triclosan affects the microbial community in simulated sewage-drain-field soil and slows down xenobiotic degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenningsen, Hanne; Henriksen, Trine; Prieme, Anders; Johnsen, Anders R.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the common antibacterial agent triclosan on microbial communities and degradation of domestic xenobiotics were studied in simulated sewage-drain-field soil. Cultivable microbial populations decreased 22-fold in the presence of 4 mg kg -1 of triclosan, and triclosan-resistant Pseudomonas strains were strongly enriched. Exposure to triclosan also changed the general metabolic profile (Ecoplate substrate profiling) and the general profile (T-RFLP) of the microbial community. Triclosan degradation was slow at all concentrations tested (0.33-81 mg kg -1 ) during 50-days of incubation. Mineralization experiments ( 14 C-tracers) and chemical analyses (LC-MS/MS) showed that the persistence of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and a common analgesic (ibuprofen) increased with increasing triclosan concentrations (0.16-100 mg kg -1 ). The largest effect was seen for LAS mineralization which was severely reduced by 0.16 mg kg -1 of triclosan. Our findings indicate that environmentally realistic concentrations of triclosan may affect the efficiency of biodegradation in percolation systems. - Highlights: → Triclosan may enter the soil environment through sewage. → Triclosan impacts the microbial community in sewage-drain-field soil. → Triclosan-resistant pseudomonads are strongly enriched. → Degradation of co-occurring LAS and ibuprofen is reduced. - Environmentally realistic triclosan concentrations in percolation systems may reduce the biodegradation of other xenobiotics and select for triclosan-resistant bacteria.

  1. Malaria survey and malaria control detachments in the South-West Pacific Area in World War 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Denton W

    2009-01-01

    Malaria among troops in the South-West Pacific Area (SWPA) in World War 2 affected the military effort to the degree that special units were formed to combat it. These malaria survey detachments (MSDs) and malaria control detachments (MCDs) were self-contained and so could move quickly to wherever their services were needed. In SWPA by 25 September 1944 there were 32 MSDs and 65 MCDs. Tables of organization called for 11 enlisted men in MSDs and MCDs, two officers in MSDs and one in MCDs. Detachments served throughout the SWPA. Detailed records of the 31st MSD show that in addition to antimalarial efforts it worked at control of scrub typhus, dengue and venereal disease, at reduction of rat populations and in experimental work involving DDT and schistosomiasis. Specific locations of the 31st MSD were New Guinea (3 sites), Morotai, Leyte, Mindoro, Okinawa and Japan. The detachment served overseas for 21 months. Experience in combating malaria in SWPA in World War 2 points to the need for better and continuous training of both medical and line officers in malaria prevention and control.

  2. Sickle cell protection from malaria: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Eridani

    2011-11-01

    malaria can be explained by interaction of different factors: the elucidation of such mechanisms may prove valuable for the prevention and treatment strategy of a disease which still affects large parts of the world.

  3. Faktor Risiko Penularan Malaria Di Jawa Barat (Kajian Epidemiologi Tentang Vektor, Parasit Plasmodium, dan Lingkungan Sebagai Faktor Risiko Kesakitan Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Since the territory is divided with the province of Banten, in West Java there are five regencies that defined as malaria endemie area, there are Ciamis, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Cianjur and Sukabumi. Sufferer, concentrated in southern coastal areas (Indonesian Ocean starting from the beach of Kalipucang at Ciamis up to coast of Cikakak at Sukabumi which borders the province of Banten and also mountain and plantations areas. Malaria morbidity incidence risk factors is differ in each of these endemie areas. In general is the presence of malaria patients without symptoms who can be a source of infection that so difficult to know its existence. Still the number of standing water that can become mosqui­to breeding places of Anopheles spp, such as fish pond, small puddle on the rivers ide, shrimp pond, mangrove forests that potentially at the beginning of the rainy season, the fields during rice that potential when the rice gro wing and the river that potential in the dry season. The existence of high population mobility and also the number of vegetation in the surrounding residential population and the existence of cattle are placed close to settle­ments.Key Words : West Java Province, malaria endemie areas, malaria patients without symp­toms, Anopheles spp.

  4. [Congenital malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, W; Trop, M; Kollaritsch, H; Reinthaler, F

    2000-05-19

    Increasing tourism and growing numbers of immigrants from malaria-endemic countries are leading to a higher importation rate of rare tropical disorders in European countries. We describe, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of connatal malaria in Austria. The patient is the first child of a 24 year old mother who was born in Ghana and immigrated to Austria one and a half years before delivery. She did not stay in an endemic region during this period and did not show fever or any other signs of malaria. The boy was healthy for the first six weeks of his life. In the 8th week of life he was admitted to our hospital due to persistent fever of unknown origin. On physical examination he showed only mild splenomegaly. Routine laboratory testing revealed mild hemolytic anemia with a hemoglobin value of 8.3 g/l. In the blood smear Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae were detected. Oral therapy with quinine hydrochloride was successful and blood smears became negative for Plasmodia within 6 days. This case shows that congenital malaria can occur in children of clinically healthy women who were born in malaria-endemic areas even one and a half year after they have immigrated to non-endemic regions.

  5. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  6. An Anthropologist Looks at Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence of malaria is a major selective agent in- ... century before Darwin put forward the Theory of Natural ... A. C. Allison, a former research student of the Anatomy ... A review of all available ... However, they both draw attention to the.

  7. Premunition in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... antigenic polymorphism, shedding of parts of parasite proteins, cross-reactive epitopes of antigens of ... Due to the lack of HLA molecules on the surface of the .... Susceptibility and death rates in P. falciparum malaria are.

  8. Geo-additive modelling of malaria in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebhardt Albrecht

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health issue in Burundi in terms of both morbidity and mortality, with around 2.5 million clinical cases and more than 15,000 deaths each year. It is still the single main cause of mortality in pregnant women and children below five years of age. Because of the severe health and economic burden of malaria, there is still a growing need for methods that will help to understand the influencing factors. Several studies/researches have been done on the subject yielding different results as which factors are most responsible for the increase in malaria transmission. This paper considers the modelling of the dependence of malaria cases on spatial determinants and climatic covariates including rainfall, temperature and humidity in Burundi. Methods The analysis carried out in this work exploits real monthly data collected in the area of Burundi over 12 years (1996-2007. Semi-parametric regression models are used. The spatial analysis is based on a geo-additive model using provinces as the geographic units of study. The spatial effect is split into structured (correlated and unstructured (uncorrelated components. Inference is fully Bayesian and uses Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. The effects of the continuous covariates are modelled by cubic p-splines with 20 equidistant knots and second order random walk penalty. For the spatially correlated effect, Markov random field prior is chosen. The spatially uncorrelated effects are assumed to be i.i.d. Gaussian. The effects of climatic covariates and the effects of other spatial determinants are estimated simultaneously in a unified regression framework. Results The results obtained from the proposed model suggest that although malaria incidence in a given month is strongly positively associated with the minimum temperature of the previous months, regional patterns of malaria that are related to factors other than climatic variables have been identified

  9. Heritability of malaria in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J Mackinnon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available While many individual genes have been identified that confer protection against malaria, the overall impact of host genetics on malarial risk remains unknown.We have used pedigree-based genetic variance component analysis to determine the relative contributions of genetic and other factors to the variability in incidence of malaria and other infectious diseases in two cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. In the first, we monitored the incidence of mild clinical malaria and other febrile diseases through active surveillance of 640 children 10 y old or younger, living in 77 different households for an average of 2.7 y. In the second, we recorded hospital admissions with malaria and other infectious diseases in a birth cohort of 2,914 children for an average of 4.1 y. Mean annual incidence rates for mild and hospital-admitted malaria were 1.6 and 0.054 episodes per person per year, respectively. Twenty-four percent and 25% of the total variation in these outcomes was explained by additively acting host genes, and household explained a further 29% and 14%, respectively. The haemoglobin S gene explained only 2% of the total variation. For nonmalarial infections, additive genetics explained 39% and 13% of the variability in fevers and hospital-admitted infections, while household explained a further 9% and 30%, respectively.Genetic and unidentified household factors each accounted for around one quarter of the total variability in malaria incidence in our study population. The genetic effect was well beyond that explained by the anticipated effects of the haemoglobinopathies alone, suggesting the existence of many protective genes, each individually resulting in small population effects. While studying these genes may well provide insights into pathogenesis and resistance in human malaria, identifying and tackling the household effects must be the more efficient route to reducing the burden of disease in malaria-endemic areas.

  10. Heritability of Malaria in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While many individual genes have been identified that confer protection against malaria, the overall impact of host genetics on malarial risk remains unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have used pedigree-based genetic variance component analysis to determine the relative contributions of genetic and other factors to the variability in incidence of malaria and other infectious diseases in two cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. In the first, we monitored the incidence of mild clinical malaria and other febrile diseases through active surveillance of 640 children 10 y old or younger, living in 77 different households for an average of 2.7 y. In the second, we recorded hospital admissions with malaria and other infectious diseases in a birth cohort of 2,914 children for an average of 4.1 y. Mean annual incidence rates for mild and hospital-admitted malaria were 1.6 and 0.054 episodes per person per year, respectively. Twenty-four percent and 25% of the total variation in these outcomes was explained by additively acting host genes, and household explained a further 29% and 14%, respectively. The haemoglobin S gene explained only 2% of the total variation. For nonmalarial infections, additive genetics explained 39% and 13% of the variability in fevers and hospital-admitted infections, while household explained a further 9% and 30%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Genetic and unidentified household factors each accounted for around one quarter of the total variability in malaria incidence in our study population. The genetic effect was well beyond that explained by the anticipated effects of the haemoglobinopathies alone, suggesting the existence of many protective genes, each individually resulting in small population effects. While studying these genes may well provide insights into pathogenesis and resistance in human malaria, identifying and tackling the household effects must be the more efficient route to reducing the burden

  11. The decline of malaria in Finland – the impact of the vector and social variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulden Larry

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria was prevalent in Finland in the 18th century. It declined slowly without deliberate counter-measures and the last indigenous case was reported in 1954. In the present analysis of indigenous malaria in Finland, an effort was made to construct a data set on annual malaria cases of maximum temporal length to be able to evaluate the significance of different factors assumed to affect malaria trends. Methods To analyse the long-term trend malaria statistics were collected from 1750–2008. During that time, malaria frequency decreased from about 20,000 – 50,000 per 1,000,000 people to less than 1 per 1,000,000 people. To assess the cause of the decline, a correlation analysis was performed between malaria frequency per million people and temperature data, animal husbandry, consolidation of land by redistribution and household size. Results Anopheles messeae and Anopheles beklemishevi exist only as larvae in June and most of July. The females seek an overwintering place in August. Those that overwinter together with humans may act as vectors. They have to stay in their overwintering place from September to May because of the cold climate. The temperatures between June and July determine the number of malaria cases during the following transmission season. This did not, however, have an impact on the long-term trend of malaria. The change in animal husbandry and reclamation of wetlands may also be excluded as a possible cause for the decline of malaria. The long-term social changes, such as land consolidation and decreasing household size, showed a strong correlation with the decline of Plasmodium. Conclusion The indigenous malaria in Finland faded out evenly in the whole country during 200 years with limited or no counter-measures or medication. It appears that malaria in Finland was basically a social disease and that malaria trends were strongly linked to changes in human behaviour. Decreasing household size caused

  12. Increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in Ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Solomon; Wilson, G Glenn; Tekie, Habte; Petros, Beyene

    2014-09-13

    Irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. This study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in Central Ethiopia. Larval and adult mosquitoes were collected fortnightly between November 2009 and October 2010 from two irrigated and two non-irrigated (control) villages in the Ziway area, Central Ethiopia. Daily canal water releases were recorded during the study period and bi-weekly correlation analysis was done to determine relationships between canal water releases and larval/adult vector densities. Blood meal sources (bovine vs human) and malaria sporozoite infection were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Monthly malaria data were also collected from central health centre of the study villages. Monthly malaria incidence was over six-fold higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The number of anopheline breeding habitats was 3.6 times higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages and the most common Anopheles mosquito breeding habitats were waterlogged field puddles, leakage pools from irrigation canals and poorly functioning irrigation canals. Larval and adult anopheline densities were seven- and nine-fold higher in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated villages, respectively, during the study period. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species in the study area. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates of An. arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis were significantly higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) calculated for the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were 34.8 and 0.25 P. falciparum infective bites per person per year, respectively. A strong positive correlation was found between bi-weekly anopheline larval density and canal water

  13. Malaria: Knowledge and prevention practices among school adolescents in a coastal community in Calabar, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuse, Abraham N.; Etokidem, Aniekan J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Malaria prevention and treatment constitute an unbearable economic burden to most African countries, especially south of the Sahara, where about 500 million cases occur annually. The problem of malaria among adolescents has largely been overshadowed by the huge burden of the disease among young children. Attention to malaria among adolescents has also been diverted by the huge burden of HIV/AIDS among adolescents. Some surveys reveal a lack of knowledge and many misconceptions about the transmission and treatment of malaria, which could adversely affect malaria control measures and antimalarial therapy. Such a knowledge gap could have an adverse effect on school children, who could be used as change agents and as role models for their siblings and peers in the malaria control strategy. Objectives To determine the malaria prevention practices of school adolescents in the coastal community of Calabar, Nigeria. Method This was a cross-sectional survey involving secondary schools in southern Calabar. Four hundred adolescents were randomly selected from the 4565 learners in 5 out of 17 secondary schools in southern Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents. Results Most respondents (77.5%) were aware that the vector transmits the malaria parasite through biting. Fewer respondents would prevent malaria attacks by clearing the vegetation in the peri-domestic environment (13.5%), filling up potholes (16.9%), opening up drainage (11%), using insecticide-treated nets (25.7%) or using antimalarial drugs (11.2%). Less than one-tenth (8%) would use various other methods such as not accepting unscreened blood, while only 11% obtained the information from their teachers. Conclusion The study identified knowledge gaps among school children. There is a need to empower teachers with information about the cause of malaria and prevention strategies.

  14. New gorilla adenovirus vaccine vectors induce potent immune responses and protection in a mouse malaria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbach, Keith; Stefaniak, Maureen; Chen, Ping; Patterson, Noelle B; Liao, Grant; Weng, Shaojie; Krepkiy, Svetlana; Ekberg, Greg; Torano, Holly; Ettyreddy, Damodar; Gowda, Kalpana; Sonawane, Sharvari; Belmonte, Arnel; Abot, Esteban; Sedegah, Martha; Hollingdale, Michael R; Moormann, Ann; Vulule, John; Villasante, Eileen; Richie, Thomas L; Brough, Douglas E; Bruder, Joseph T

    2017-07-03

    A DNA-human Ad5 (HuAd5) prime-boost malaria vaccine has been shown to protect volunteers against a controlled human malaria infection. The potency of this vaccine, however, appeared to be affected by the presence of pre-existing immunity against the HuAd5 vector. Since HuAd5 seroprevalence is very high in malaria-endemic areas of the world, HuAd5 may not be the most appropriate malaria vaccine vector. This report describes the evaluation of the seroprevalence, immunogenicity and efficacy of three newly identified gorilla adenoviruses, GC44, GC45 and GC46, as potential malaria vaccine vectors. The seroprevalence of GC44, GC45 and GC46 is very low, and the three vectors are not efficiently neutralized by human sera from Kenya and Ghana, two countries where malaria is endemic. In mice, a single administration of GC44, GC45 and GC46 vectors expressing a murine malaria gene, Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein (PyCSP), induced robust PyCSP-specific T cell and antibody responses that were at least as high as a comparable HuAd5-PyCSP vector. Efficacy studies in a murine malaria model indicated that a prime-boost regimen with DNA-PyCSP and GC-PyCSP vectors can protect mice against a malaria challenge. Moreover, these studies indicated that a DNA-GC46-PyCSP vaccine regimen was significantly more efficacious than a DNA-HuAd5-PyCSP regimen. These data suggest that these gorilla-based adenovectors have key performance characteristics for an effective malaria vaccine. The superior performance of GC46 over HuAd5 highlights its potential for clinical development.

  15. Situasi Malaria Dan Vektornya Di Desa Giritengah Dan Desa Giripurno Kecamatan Borobudur Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah

    OpenAIRE

    Boesri, Hasan; Boewono, Damar Tri

    2006-01-01

    Situation of Malaria and The Vector in Giritengah and Giripumo Villages, Borobudur Subdistrict, Magelang Regency, Central Java.Malaria is a disease which is caused by protozoa from Plasmodium genus and transmitted by female anopheline mosquito. Based on the survey done in Borobudur subdistrict, some malaria vectors were found, such us an.maculatus, an.aconitus and an.balabacencis. The living places of An.aconitus is in the rice field area, while An. maculatus and An. balabacencis are on the t...

  16. Demography, maternal health and the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases in the rural department Tsamba-Magotsi, Ngounie Province, in central African Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zoleko Manego

    2017-01-01

    affecting the local population. Conclusions Despite major improvements in the accessibility of Tsamba Magotsi over the past decade the epidemiological transition does not appear to have majorly changed on the spectrum of diseases in this rural Gabonese population. The high prevalence of Plasmodium infection indicates a high burden of malaria related morbidity. Infectious diseases remain one of the most important health issues and further research activities in the field of tropical medicine and infectious diseases could help improve health care for the local population.

  17. Malaria in Brazil: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Brasil, Patrícia; Ladislau, José L B; Tauil, Pedro L; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2010-04-30

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306,000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi) is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases) restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several malaria vaccine candidates in

  18. Malaria in Brazil: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasil Patrícia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306 000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several

  19. [Malaria in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Poland in 2010 in comparison to previous years. The study included malaria cases that were collected and registered by the State Sanitary Inspection in 2010 in Poland. Data reported was verified, processed and published by National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. All cases were laboratory confirmed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction or rapid diagnostic tests outlined by the EU case definition. Differences in the distribution of demographic, parasitological and clinical characteristics, and incidence were analyzed. In 2010, a total of 35 confirmed malaria cases were notified in Poland, 13 more than 2009. All cases were imported, 49% from Africa, including 1 case with relapsing malaria caused by P. vivax and 2 cases of recrudescence falciparum malaria following failure of treatment. The number of cases acquired in Asia (37% of the total), mainly from India and Indonesia, was significantly higher than observed in previous years. Among cases with species-specific diagnosis 19 (63%) were caused by P. falciparum, 9 (30%) by P. vivax, one by P. ovale and one by P. malariae. The median age of all cases was 42 years (range 9 months to 71 years), males comprised 69% of patients, females 31%, three patients were Indian citizens temporarily in Poland. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were tourism (57%), work-related visits (37%), one person visited family and in one case the reason for travel was unknown. Sixteen travelers took chemoprophylaxis, but only three of them appropriately (adherence to the recommended drug regimen, continuation upon return and use of appropriate medicines). In 2010, there were no deaths due to malaria and clinical course of disease was severe in 7 cases. When compared with 2009, there was a marked increase in the number of imported malaria cases in Poland, however the total number of notified cases remained low. Serious

  20. Dynamics of floret initiation/death determining spike fertility in wheat as affected by Ppd genes under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Paula; Ochagavía, Helga; Savin, Roxana; Griffiths, Simon; Slafer, Gustavo A

    2018-04-27

    As wheat yield is linearly related to grain number, understanding the physiological determinants of the number of fertile florets based on floret development dynamics due to the role of the particular genes is relevant. The effects of photoperiod genes on dynamics of floret development are largely ignored. Field experiments were carried out to (i) characterize the dynamics of floret primordia initiation and degeneration and (ii) to determine which are the most critical traits of such dynamics in establishing genotypic differences in the number of fertile florets at anthesis in near isogenic lines (NILs) carrying photoperiod-insensitive alleles. Results varied in magnitude between the two growing seasons, but in general introgression of Ppd-1a alleles reduced the number of fertile florets. The actual effect was affected not only by the genome and the doses but also by the source of the alleles. Differences in the number of fertile florets were mainly explained by differences in the floret generation/degeneration dynamics, and in most cases associated with floret survival. Manipulating photoperiod insensitivity, unquestionably useful for changing flowering time, may reduce spike fertility but much less than proportionally to the change in duration of development, as the insensitivity alleles did increase the rate of floret development.

  1. Health risk assessment from contaminated foodstuffs: a field study in chromite mining-affected areas northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Sher, Hassan; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Muhammad Amjad

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential health risk associated with toxic metals in contaminated foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from various agriculture fields present in chromite mining-affected areas of mafic and ultramafic terrains (northern Pakistan). The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb were quantified in both soil and food samples. The soil samples were highly contaminated with Cr (320 mg/kg), Ni (108 mg/kg), and Cd (2.55 mg/kg), which exceeded their respective safe limits set by FAO/WHO. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were found in the order of Cr>Ni>Pb>Zn>Cd and showed significantly (p pollution load index (PLI) value was observed greater than three indicating high level of contamination in the study area. The concentrations of Cr (1.80-6.99 mg/kg) and Cd (0.21-0.90 mg/kg) in foodstuffs exceeded their safe limits, while Zn, Pb, and Ni concentrations were observed within their safe limits. In all foodstuffs, the selected heavy metal concentrations were accumulated significantly (p 1 for children and can pose potential health threats for local inhabitants. Graphical Abstract Heavy metals released from chromite mining lead to soil and foodstuff contamination and human health risk.

  2. Secondary structure changes induced by pulsed electric field affect antioxidant activity of pentapeptides from pine nut (Pinus koraiensis) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong; Cheng, Sheng; Wang, Xiuying

    2018-07-15

    We used a pulsed electric field (PEF) to treat four pentapeptides with similar amino acid sequences (KCHKP, KCHQP, QCHKP, and QCHQP). We then evaluated antioxidant activity of the pentapeptides according to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity. Structures of the peptides were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mid-infrared (MIR), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results indicated that antioxidant activities of KCHQP and QCHKP were increased by PEF, whereas those of KCHKP and QCHQP were reduced. The basic structures and functional groups of peptides were unaffected. PEF treatment reduced the α-helix contents of KCHQP and QCHKP, but increased those of KCHKP and QCHQP. Moreover, the chemical shifts at 14.46 ppm, 8.22 ppm, 7.87 ppm, 7.24 ppm, and 6.13 ppm attributable to hydrogen atoms of QCHKP shifted to the right, but the active hydrogens of QCHQP were not affected by PEF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Field measurement and analysis of climatic factors affecting dune mobility near Grand Falls on the Navajo Nation, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, Rian; Redsteer, Margaret Hiza; Vogel, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aeolian sand covers extensive areas of the Navajo Nation in the southwestern United States. Much of this sand is currently stabilized by vegetation, although many drier parts of these Native lands also have active and partly active dunes. Current prolonged drought conditions that started in the mid-1990s are producing significant changes in dune mobility. Reactivation of regional aeolian deposits due to drought or increasing aridity from rising temperatures resulting from climate change could have serious consequences for human and animal populations, agriculture, grazing, and infrastructure. To understand and document the current and future potential for mobility, seasonally repeated surveys were used to track the location of multiple active barchan dunes. By utilizing Real-Time Kinematic GPS field surveys and simultaneously collecting in-situ meteorological data, it is possible to examine climatic parameters and seasonal variations that affect dune mobility and their relative influences. Through analysis of the recorded data, we examined the fit of various climate parameters, and demonstrate that under the current prolonged drought, wind power is the dominant factor controlling dune mobility.

  4. Meteorological, environmental remote sensing and neural network analysis of the epidemiology of malaria transmission in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kiang

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In many malarious regions malaria transmission roughly coincides with rainy seasons, which provide for more abundant larval habitats. In addition to precipitation, other meteorological and environmental factors may also influence malaria transmission. These factors can be remotely sensed using earth observing environmental satellites and estimated with seasonal climate forecasts. The use of remote sensing usage as an early warning tool for malaria epidemics have been broadly studied in recent years, especially for Africa, where the majority of the world’s malaria occurs. Although the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS, which includes Thailand and the surrounding countries, is an epicenter of multidrug resistant falciparum malaria, the meteorological and environmental factors affecting malaria transmissions in the GMS have not been examined in detail. In this study, the parasitological data used consisted of the monthly malaria epidemiology data at the provincial level compiled by the Thai Ministry of Public Health. Precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and vegetation index obtained from both climate time series and satellite measurements were used as independent variables to model malaria. We used neural network methods, an artificial-intelligence technique, to model the dependency of malaria transmission on these variables. The average training accuracy of the neural network analysis for three provinces (Kanchanaburi, Mae Hong Son, and Tak which are among the provinces most endemic for malaria, is 72.8% and the average testing accuracy is 62.9% based on the 1994-1999 data. A more complex neural network architecture resulted in higher training accuracy but also lower testing accuracy. Taking into account of the uncertainty regarding reported malaria cases, we divided the malaria cases into bands (classes to compute training accuracy. Using the same neural network architecture on the 19 most endemic provinces for years 1994 to 2000, the

  5. Malaria control in rural Malawi: implementing peer health education for behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenga, Tumaini; Kabaghe, Alinune Nathanael; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Kadama, Asante; McCann, Robert S; Phiri, Kamija Samuel; van Vugt, Michèle; van den Berg, Henk

    2017-11-20

    Interventions to reduce malaria burden are effective if communities use them appropriately and consistently. Several tools have been suggested to promote uptake and use of malaria control interventions. Community workshops on malaria, using the 'Health Animator' approach, are a potential behaviour change strategy for malaria control. The strategy aims to influence a change in mind-set of vulnerable populations to encourage self-reliance, using community volunteers known as Health Animators. The aim of the paper is to describe the process of implementing community workshops on malaria by Health Animators to improve uptake and use of malaria control interventions in rural Malawi. This is a descriptive study reporting feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness and fidelity of using Health Animator-led community workshops for malaria control. Quantitative data were collected from self-reporting and researcher evaluation forms. Qualitative assessments were done with Health Animators, using three focus groups (October-December 2015) and seven in-depth interviews (October 2016-February 2017). Seventy seven health Animators were trained from 62 villages. A total of 2704 workshops were conducted, with consistent attendance from January 2015 to June 2017, representing 10-17% of the population. Attendance was affected by social responsibilities and activities, relationship of the village leaders and their community and involvement of Community Health Workers. Active discussion and participation were reported as main strengths of the workshops. Health Animators personally benefited from the mind-set change and were proactive peer influencers in the community. Although the information was comprehended and accepted, availability of adequate health services was a challenge for maintenance of behaviour change. Community workshops on malaria are a potential tool for influencing a positive change in behaviour towards malaria, and applicable for other health problems in rural

  6. Improvement of malaria diagnostic system based on acridine orange staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masatsugu; Teramoto, Isao; Chan, Chim W; Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Kongere, James; Kagaya, Wataru; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Asada, Ryoko; Isozumi, Rie; Kaneko, Akira

    2018-02-07

    Rapid diagnosis of malaria using acridine orange (AO) staining and a light microscope with a halogen lamp and interference filter was deployed in some malaria-endemic countries. However, it has not been widely adopted because: (1) the lamp was weak as an excitation light and the set-up did not work well under unstable power supply; and, (2) the staining of samples was frequently inconsistent. The halogen lamp was replaced by a low-cost, blue light-emitting diode (LED) lamp. Using a reformulated AO solution, the staining protocol was revised to make use of a concentration gradient instead of uniform staining. To evaluate this new AO diagnostic system, a pilot field study was conducted in the Lake Victoria basin in Kenya. Without staining failure, malaria infection status of about 100 samples was determined on-site per one microscopist per day, using the improved AO diagnostic system. The improved AO diagnosis had both higher overall sensitivity (46.1 vs 38.9%: p = 0.08) and specificity (99.0 vs 96.3%) than the Giemsa method (N = 1018), using PCR diagnosis as the standard. Consistent AO staining of thin blood films and rapid evaluation of malaria parasitaemia with the revised protocol produced superior results relative to the Giemsa method. This AO diagnostic system can be set up easily at low cost using an ordinary light microscope. It may supplement rapid diagnostic tests currently used in clinical settings in malaria-endemic countries, and may be considered as an inexpensive tool for case surveillance in malaria-eliminating countries.

  7. The antibody response to well-defined malaria antigens after acute malaria in individuals living under continuous malaria transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E; Høgh, B; Dziegiel, M

    1992-01-01

    , and a synthetic peptide (EENV)6 representing the C-terminal repeats from Pf155/RESA, were investigated longitudinally in 13 children and 7 adults living under conditions of continuous, intense malaria transmission. Some subjects did not recognize the antigens after malaria infection, and in subjects recognizing...... elicited by natural malaria infection in previously primed donors....

  8. A research agenda for malaria eradication: vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulla, S.; Agre, P.; Alonso, P.L.; Arevalo-Herrera, M.; Bassat, Q.; Binka, F.; Chitnis, C.; Corradin, G.; Cowman, A. F.; Culpepper, J.; Portillo, H. del; Dinglasan, R.R.; Duffy, P.; Gargallo, D.; Greenwood, B.; Guinovart, C.; Hall, B.F.; Herrera, S.; Hoffman, S.; Lanzavecchia, A.; Leroy, O.; Levine, M.M.; Loucq, C.; Mendis, K.; Milman, J.; Moorthy, V.S.; Pleuschke, G.; Plowe, C.V.; Reed, S.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Saul, A.; Schofield, L.; Sinden, R.R.; Stubbs, J.; Villafana, T.; Wirth, D.; Yadav, P.; Ballou, R.; Brown, G.; Birkett, A.; Brandt, W.; Brooks, A.; Carter, T.; Golden, A.; Lee, C.; Nunes, J.; Puijalon, O.; Raphael, T.; Richards, H.; Warren, C.; Woods, C.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if

  9. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... 6Department of Parasitology, School of Medical Laboratory ... Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data ..... within the limits of the malaria prevalence rate reports in.

  10. Successfully controlling malaria in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regard to tourism, within an area of ~100 000 km2. ... Unfortunately, international funding for .... carriers, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, to interrupt malaria ... education of healthcare workers on malaria diagnosis and treatment.

  11. randomised trial of alternative malaria chemoprophylaxis strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-02-02

    Feb 2, 2000 ... randomisation produced comparable intervention and comparison groups with balanced characteristics. Specific results of the baseline studies are presented in the companion paper. ... strategies for protecting pregnant women against malaria. ..... from malaria vaccine trial conducted among Tanzanian.

  12. Hemozoin Inhibition and Control of Clinical Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibueze Peter Ihekwereme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria has a negative impact on health and social and economic life of residents of endemic countries. The ultimate goals of designing new treatment for malaria are to prevent clinical infection, reduce morbidity, and decrease mortality. There are great advances in the understanding of the parasite-host interaction through studies by various scientists. In some of these studies, attempts were made to evaluate the roles of malaria pigment or toxins in the pathogenesis of malaria. Hemozoin is a key metabolite associated with severe malaria anemia (SMA, immunosuppression, and cytokine dysfunction. Targeting of this pigment may be necessary in the design of new therapeutic products against malaria. In this review, the roles of hemozoin in the morbidity and mortality of malaria are highlighted as an essential target in the quest for effective control of clinical malaria.

  13. The fitness of drug-resistant malaria parasites in a rodent model: multiplicity of infection

    OpenAIRE

    Huijben, Silvie; Sim, Derek G.; Nelson, William, A.; Read, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria infections normally consist of more than one clonally-replicating lineage. Within-host interactions between sensitive and resistant parasites can have profound effects on the evolution of drug resistance. Here, using the Plasmodium chabaudi mouse malaria model, we ask whether the costs and benefits of resistance are affected by the number of co-infecting strains competing with a resistant clone. We found strong competitive suppression of resistant parasites in untreated infections and...

  14. Effects of environmental change on malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Takken, W.; Tarso Vilarinhos, de, P.; Schneider, P.; Santos, dos, F.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in Brazil, affecting mostly the Amazon states. Whereas 50 years ago good progress was made towards its control, since the opening up of the Amazon region for forestry, agriculture and livestock activities, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence, peaking to >500,000 cases annually in the 1990s. Rondônia state was particularly hard hit, with thousands of new immigrants suffering malaria attacks. It is argued that the environmental change caused by deforestation has...

  15. Population Pharmacokinetics of Dihydroartemisinin and Piperaquine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women with Uncomplicated Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tarning, Joel; Rijken, Marcus J.; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boar...

  16. Neonatal malaria in Nigeria -a 2 year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetuga Bolanle M

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the fact that a significant proportion of neonates with malaria may be missed on our wards on the assumption that the disease condition is rare, this study aims at documenting the prevalence of malaria in neonates admitted into our neonatal ward. Specifically, we hope to describe its clinical features and outcome of this illness. Knowledge of these may ensure early diagnosis and institution of prompt management. Methods Methods Hospital records of all patients (two hundred and thirty admitted into the Neonatal ward of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu between 1st January 1998 and 31st December 1999 were reviewed. All neonates (fifty-seven who had a positive blood smear for the malaria parasite were included in the study. Socio-demographic data as well as clinical correlates of each of the patients were reviewed. The Epi-Info 6 statistical software was used for data entry, validation and analysis. A frequency distribution was generated for categorical variables. To test for an association between categorical variables, the chi-square test was used. The level of significance was put at values less than 5%. Results Prevalence of neonatal malaria in this study was 24.8% and 17.4% for congenital malaria. While the mean duration of illness was 3.60 days, it varied from 5.14 days in those that died and and 3.55 in those that survived respectively. The duration of illness significantly affected the outcome (p value = 0.03. Fever alone was the clinical presentation in 44 (77.4% of the patients. Maturity of the baby, sex and age did not significantly affect infestation. However, history of malaria/febrile illness within the 2 weeks preceding the delivery was present in 61.2% of the mothers. Maternal age, concurrent infection and duration of illness all significantly affected the outcome of illness. Forty-two (73.7% of the babies were discharged home in satisfactory condition. Conclusion It was concluded

  17. Larvivorous fish for preventing malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Deirdre P; Garner, Paul; Adeel, Ahmed A; Pyke, Graham H; Burkot, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Background Adult female Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. Some fish species eat mosquito larvae and pupae. In disease control policy documents, the World Health Organization (WHO) includes biological control of malaria vectors by stocking ponds, rivers, and water collections near where people live with larvivorous fish to reduce Plasmodium parasite transmission. In the past, the Global Fund has financed larvivorous fish programmes in some countries, and, with increasing efforts in eradication of malaria, policymakers may return to this option. Therefore, we assessed the evidence base for larvivorous fish programmes in malaria control. Objectives To evaluate whether introducing larvivorous fish to anopheline larval habitats impacts Plasmodium parasite transmission. We also sought to summarize studies that evaluated whether introducing larvivorous fish influences the density and presence of Anopheles larvae and pupae in water sources. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (PubMed); Embase (Ovid); CABS Abstracts; LILACS; and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) up to 6 July 2017. We checked the reference lists of all studies identified by the search. We examined references listed in review articles and previously compiled bibliographies to look for eligible studies. Also we contacted researchers in the field and the authors of studies that met the inclusion criteria for additional information regarding potential studies for inclusion and ongoing studies. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published in 2013. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs, including controlled before-and-after studies, controlled time series, and controlled interrupted time series studies from malaria-endemic regions that introduced fish as a larvicide and

  18. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other species of plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. 4. Mixed infections with more than one species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. 5. There are no typical clinical features of malaria; even fever is not invariably present. Malaria in children (and sometimes in adults) may present with misleading symptoms such as gastrointestinal features, sore throat or lower respiratory complaints. 6. A diagnosis of malaria must always be sought in a feverish or sick child or adult who has visited malaria-endemic areas. Specific country information on malaria can be found at http://travelhealthpro.org.uk/. P. falciparum infection rarely presents more than six months after exposure but presentation of other species can occur more than a year after exposure. 7. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until more than one blood specimen has been examined. Other travel related infections, especially viral haemorrhagic fevers, should also be considered. 8. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites. P. falciparum and P. vivax (depending upon the product) malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens. RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. 9

  19. Recent Experiences with Severe and Cerebral Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... Malaria admissions. Cerebral malaria ... Cerebral signs. Haemoglobin below 10 g/100 ml (not all tested). Enlarged tender liver or jaundice, or both ... articl~ by H. Smitskamp and F. H. Wolthuis entitled 'New concepts in treatment of malaria with malignant tertian cerebral involvement' which appeared in the ...

  20. morphological identification of malaria vectors within anopheles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Africa among the human population. Determination of risk of malaria transmission requires quick and accurate methods of identification of Anopheles mosquitoes especially when targeting vector control. (Maxwell, et al., 2003). Anopheles mosquito transmits malaria. The most important vectors of malaria are members of.

  1. Malaria deaths in a rural hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An audit of all malaria deaths that occurred at Manguzi Hospital between 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999 was performed. There were 41 deaths from malaria in this time period, which was many more than for the previous three years. The most common causes of death were cerebral malaria, pulmonary oedema, ...

  2. Malaria in Pregnancy: Morbidities and Management | Yakasai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control of malaria in the African Subregion during pregnancy has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). These include intermittent preventive treatment (IPT), use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and access to effective case management for malaria illness and anemia. Keywords: malaria in ...

  3. Malaria - sick air on the march

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aunan, Kristin

    1999-01-01

    The article surveys the expansion of the malaria risk zones with increasing temperatures, change in climate and habitat alterations. Factors such as the living conditions for various malaria parasites, climatic changes, immunity and drug resistance are studied. It is evident that the greenhouse effects contribute to the expanding malaria risk zones

  4. Malaria parasite positivity among febrile neonates | Enyuma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria, earlier considered rare in neonates, has been reported with increasing frequency in the last decade. Neonatal malaria diagnosis is challenging because the clinical features are non-specific, variable and also overlap with bacterial infection. Aim: To determine the prevalence of neonatal malaria and ...

  5. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  6. Malaria diagnosis and mapping with m-Health and geographic information systems (GIS): evidence from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Alberto; Moro Visconti, Roberto; Marconi, Michele

    2016-10-24

    Rural populations experience several barriers to accessing clinical facilities for malaria diagnosis. Increasing penetration of ICT and mobile-phones and subsequent m-Health applications can contribute overcoming such obstacles. GIS is used to evaluate the feasibility of m-Health technologies as part of anti-malaria strategies. This study investigates where in Uganda: (1) malaria affects the largest number of people; (2) the application of m-Health protocol based on the mobile network has the highest potential impact. About 75% of the population affected by Plasmodium falciparum malaria have scarce access to healthcare facilities. The introduction of m-Health technologies should be based on the 2G protocol, as 3G mobile network coverage is still limited. The western border and the central-Southeast are the regions where m-Health could reach the largest percentage of the remote population. Six districts (Arua, Apac, Lira, Kamuli, Iganga, and Mubende) could have the largest benefit because they account for about 28% of the remote population affected by falciparum malaria with access to the 2G mobile network. The application of m-Health technologies could improve access to medical services for distant populations. Affordable remote malaria diagnosis could help to decongest health facilities, reducing costs and contagion. The combination of m-Health and GIS could provide real-time and geo-localized data transmission, improving anti-malarial strategies in Uganda. Scalability to other countries and diseases looks promising.

  7. Malaria diagnosis and mapping with m-Health and geographic information systems (GIS: evidence from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Larocca

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural populations experience several barriers to accessing clinical facilities for malaria diagnosis. Increasing penetration of ICT and mobile-phones and subsequent m-Health applications can contribute overcoming such obstacles. Methods GIS is used to evaluate the feasibility of m-Health technologies as part of anti-malaria strategies. This study investigates where in Uganda: (1 malaria affects the largest number of people; (2 the application of m-Health protocol based on the mobile network has the highest potential impact. Results About 75% of the population affected by Plasmodium falciparum malaria have scarce access to healthcare facilities. The introduction of m-Health technologies should be based on the 2G protocol, as 3G mobile network coverage is still limited. The western border and the central-Southeast are the regions where m-Health could reach the largest percentage of the remote population. Six districts (Arua, Apac, Lira, Kamuli, Iganga, and Mubende could have the largest benefit because they account for about 28% of the remote population affected by falciparum malaria with access to the 2G mobile network. Conclusions The application of m-Health technologies could improve access to medical services for distant populations. Affordable remote malaria diagnosis could help to decongest health facilities, reducing costs and contagion. The combination of m-Health and GIS could provide real-time and geo-localized data transmission, improving anti-malarial strategies in Uganda. Scalability to other countries and diseases looks promising.

  8. Soil aggregate stability and rainfall-induced sediment transport on field plots as affected by amendment with organic matter inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pu; Arter, Christian; Liu, Xingyu; Keller, Martin; Schulin, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Aggregate stability is an important factor in soil resistance against erosion, and, by influencing the extent of sediment transport associated with surface runoff, it is thus also one of the key factors which determine on- and off-site effects of water erosion. As it strongly depends on soil organic matter, many studies have explored how aggregate stability can be improved by organic matter inputs into the soil. However, the focus of these studies has been on the relationship between aggregate stability and soil organic matter dynamics. How the effects of organic matter inputs on aggregate stability translate into soil erodibility under rainfall impacts has received much less attention. In this study, we performed field plot experiments to examine how organic matter inputs affect aggregate breakdown and surface sediment transport under field conditions in artificial rainfall events. Three pairs of plots were prepared by adding a mixture of grass and wheat straw to one of plots in each pair but not to the other, while all plots were treated in the same way otherwise. The rainfall events were applied some weeks later so that the applied organic residues had sufficient time for decomposition and incorporation into the soil. Surface runoff rate and sediment concentration showed substantial differences between the treatments with and without organic matter inputs. The plots with organic inputs had coarser and more stable aggregates and a rougher surface than the control plots without organic inputs, resulting in a higher infiltration rate and lower transport capacity of the surface runoff. Consequently, sediments exported from the amended plots were less concentrated but more enriched in suspended particles (selective sediment transport. In contrast to the amended plots, there was an increase in the coarse particle fraction (> 250 µm) in the runoff from the plots with no organic matter inputs towards the end of the rainfall events due to emerging bed-load transport

  9. Dehydration and malaria augment the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. R. I. E. Siriwardhana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD of unknown etiology (CKDu is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of <3 L of water per day, and having a history of malaria were found to be having significant (P < 0.05 likelihood toward the development of CKDu. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka.

  10. CO2, Temperature, and Soil Moisture Interactions Affect NDVI and Reproductive Phenology in Old-Field Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Weltzin, J.; Norby, R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant community composition and ecosystem function may be altered by global atmospheric and climate change, including increased atmospheric [CO2], temperature, and varying precipitation regimes. We are conducting an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) utilizing open-top chambers to administer experimental treatments of elevated CO2 (+300 ppm), warming (+ 3 degrees Celsius), and varying soil moisture availability to experimental plant communities constructed of seven common old-field species, including C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. During 2004 we monitored plant community phenology (NDVI) and plant reproductive phenology. Early in the year, NDVI was greater in wet treatment plots, and was unaffected by main effects of temperature or CO2. This result suggests that early in the season warming is insufficient to affect early canopy development. Differences in soil moisture sustained throughout the winter and into early spring may constitute an important control on early canopy greenup. Elevated CO2 alleviated detrimental effects of warming on NDVI, but only early in the season. As ambient temperatures increased, elevated temperatures negatively impacted NDVI only in the dry plots. Wetter conditions ameliorate the effects of warming on canopy greenness during the warmer seasons of the year. Warming increased rates of bolting, number of inflorescences, and time to reproductive maturity for Andropogon virginicus (a C4 bunchgrass). Solidago Canadensis (a C3 late-season forb) also produced flowers earlier in elevated temperatures. Conversely, none of the C3 grasses and forbs that bolt or flower in late spring or early summer responded to temperature or CO2. Results indicate that warming and drought may impact plant community phenology, and plant species reproductive phenology. Clearly community phenology is driven by complex interactions among temperature, water, and CO2 that change throughout the season. Our data stresses the importance of

  11. Can the exposure of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apiadae) larvae to a field concentration of thiamethoxam affect newly emerged bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friol, Priscila Sepúlveda; Catae, Aline Fernanda; Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Malaspina, Osmar; Roat, Thaisa Cristina

    2017-10-01

    The use of insecticides on crops can affect non-target insects, such as bees. In addition to the adult bees, larvae can be exposed to the insecticide through contaminated floral resources. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible effects of the exposure of A. mellifera larvae to a field concentration of thiamethoxam (0.001 ng/μL thiamethoxam) on larval and pupal survival and on the percentage of adult emergence. Additionally, its cytotoxic effects on the digestive cells of midgut, Malpighian tubules cells and Kenyon cells of the brain of newly emerged A. mellifera bees were analyzed. The results showed that larval exposure to this concentration of thiamethoxam did not influence larval and pupal survival or the percentage of adult bee emergence. However, this exposure caused ultra-structural alterations in the target and non-target organs of newly emerged bees. The digestive cell of bees that were exposed to the insecticide exhibited a basal labyrinth without long and thin channels and compromised mitochondria. In Malpighian tubules cells, disorganized basal labyrinth, dilated mitochondria with a deformed shape and a loss of cristae, and disorganized microvilli were observed. The results showed that the exposed bees presented Kenyon cells with alterations in the nucleus and mitochondria. These alterations indicate possible tissue degeneration, demonstrating the cytotoxicity of thiamethoxam in the target and non-target organs of newly emerged bees. Such results suggest cellular organelle impairment that can compromise cellular function of the midgut cells, Malpighian tubules cells and Kenyon cells, and, consequently, can compromise the longevity of the bees of the whole colony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Absence of Sensory Axon Bifurcation Affects Nociception and Termination Fields of Afferents in the Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Tröster

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A cGMP signaling cascade composed of C-type natriuretic peptide, the guanylyl cyclase receptor Npr2 and cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI controls the bifurcation of sensory axons upon entering the spinal cord during embryonic development. However, the impact of axon bifurcation on sensory processing in adulthood remains poorly understood. To investigate the functional consequences of impaired axon bifurcation during adult stages we generated conditional mouse mutants of Npr2 and cGKI (Npr2fl/fl;Wnt1Cre and cGKIKO/fl;Wnt1Cre that lack sensory axon bifurcation in the absence of additional phenotypes observed in the global knockout mice. Cholera toxin labeling in digits of the hind paw demonstrated an altered shape of sensory neuron termination fields in the spinal cord of conditional Npr2 mouse mutants. Behavioral testing of both sexes indicated that noxious heat sensation and nociception induced by chemical irritants are impaired in the mutants, whereas responses to cold sensation, mechanical stimulation, and motor coordination are not affected. Recordings from C-fiber nociceptors in the hind limb skin showed that Npr2 function was not required to maintain normal heat sensitivity of peripheral nociceptors. Thus, the altered behavioral responses to noxious heat found in Npr2fl/fl;Wnt1Cre mice is not due to an impaired C-fiber function. Overall, these data point to a critical role of axonal bifurcation for the processing of pain induced by heat or chemical stimuli.

  13. [Malaria in Poland in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepiń, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In Poland in 2009 were reported 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the EU case definition for the purposes of routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, including 1 case of recrudescence, 86% from Africa. In 18 cases P falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 2--P vivax, in 1--P ovale and 1 P malariae. Most cases occurred in the age group 21-40 years, there were 21 cases in males and 1 in female. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related visits (14 cases) and tourism (6 cases), one person who visited the family and in one case unknown reason for travel. Three persons used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 5 cases. Clinical course was severe in 7 cases of P falciparum malaria and medium-severe in one case. In 2009, there were no malaria deaths in Poland. Education on the prevention of malaria and pretravel health advising is still greatly needed.

  14. Gender roles and perceptions of malaria risk in agricultural communities of Mwea Division in Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldu, Dawit Okubatsion; Haile, Zelalem Teka

    2015-01-01

    We examined gender differences in the perception of high malaria risk in women and factors associated with a high number of malaria episodes in the Mwea Division of Central Kenya. Ethnographic and successive free listing interviews (an open-ended data collection technique used to show the relation of items in a given domain) with 53 key informants and structured interviews conducted from June to October 2010 with 250 respondents who represented the socioeconomic and geographical diversity of the area were analyzed. Qualitative text analysis and inferential statistics were employed. While a greater proportion of men (51.6%) attributed women's high malaria risk to their "biological weakness," most women believed that their high malaria risk was related to their role in the agricultural fields (43.6%) and to their household responsibilities (23.1%). Compared to men, women were more likely to work in wet aspects of agricultural activities (χ(2) (2, N = 153) = 13.47, p gender roles in agricultural communities in Mwea may play an important role in explaining disparity in reported malaria incidence. While identification of ecological and economic determinants of malaria is important, gender-based research can make a significant contribution to the development of effective and sustainable malaria reduction strategies.

  15. Testing Local Adaptation in a Natural Great Tit-Malaria System: An Experimental Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Jenkins

    Full Text Available Finding out whether Plasmodium spp. are coevolving with their vertebrate hosts is of both theoretical and applied interest and can influence our understanding of the effects and dynamics of malaria infection. In this study, we tested for local adaptation as a signature of coevolution between malaria blood parasites, Plasmodium spp. and its host, the great tit, Parus major. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment of birds in the field, where we exposed birds from two populations to Plasmodium parasites. This experimental set-up also provided a unique opportunity to study the natural history of malaria infection in the wild and to assess the effects of primary malaria infection on juvenile birds. We present three main findings: i there was no support for local adaptation; ii there was a male-biased infection rate; iii infection occurred towards the end of the summer and differed between sites. There were also site-specific effects of malaria infection on the hosts. Taken together, we present one of the few experimental studies of parasite-host local adaptation in a natural malaria system, and our results shed light on the effects of avian malaria infection in the wild.

  16. Malaria and large dams in sub-Saharan Africa: future impacts in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Solomon; Lautze, Jonathan; McCartney, Matthew; Nhamo, Luxon; Wilson, G Glenn

    2016-09-05

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has embarked on a new era of dam building to improve food security and promote economic development. Nonetheless, the future impacts of dams on malaria transmission are poorly understood and seldom investigated in the context of climate and demographic change. The distribution of malaria in the vicinity of 1268 existing dams in SSA was mapped under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) representative concentration pathways (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5. Population projections and malaria incidence estimates were used to compute population at risk of malaria in both RCPs. Assuming no change in socio-economic interventions that may mitigate impacts, the change in malaria stability and malaria burden in the vicinity of the dams was calculated for the two RCPs through to the 2080s. Results were compared against the 2010 baseline. The annual number of malaria cases associated with dams and climate change was determined for each of the RCPs. The number of dams located in malarious areas is projected to increase in both RCPs. Population growth will add to the risk of transmission. The population at risk of malaria around existing dams and associated reservoirs, is estimated to increase from 15 million in 2010 to 21-23 million in the 2020s, 25-26 million in the 2050s and 28-29 million in the 2080s, depending on RCP. The number of malaria cases associated with dams in malarious areas is expected to increase from 1.1 million in 2010 to 1.2-1.6 million in the 2020s, 2.1-3.0 million in the 2050s and 2.4-3.0 million in the 2080s depending on RCP. The number of cases will always be higher in RCP 8.5 than RCP 2.6. In the absence of changes in other factors that affect transmission (e.g., socio-economic), the impact of dams on malaria in SSA will be significantly exacerbated by climate change and increases in population. Areas without malaria transmission at present, which will transition to regions of unstable transmission, may be worst affected

  17. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  19. Does insecticide drift adversely affect grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Saltatoria) in field margins? A case study combining laboratory acute toxicity testing with field monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Schmitz, Juliane; Bundschuh, Mirco; Brühl, Carsten Albrecht

    2012-08-01

    The current terrestrial risk assessment of insecticides regarding nontarget arthropods considers exclusively beneficial organisms, whereas herbivorous insects, such as grasshoppers, are ignored. However, grasshoppers living in field margins or meadows adjacent to crops may potentially be exposed to insecticides due to contact with or ingestion of contaminated food. Therefore, the present study assessed effects of five active ingredients of insecticides (dimethoate, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin) on the survival of Chorthippus sp. grasshopper nymphs by considering two routes of exposure (contact and oral). The experiments were accompanied by monitoring field margins that neighbored cereals, vineyards, and orchards. Grasslands were used as reference sites. The laboratory toxicity tests revealed a sensitivity of grasshoppers with regard to the insecticides tested in the present study similar to that of the standard test species used in arthropod risk assessments. In the field monitoring program, increasing grasshopper densities were detected with increasing field margin width next to cereals and vineyards, but densities remained low over the whole range of field margins from 0.5 to 20 m next to orchards. Grasshopper densities equivalent to those of grassland sites were only observed in field margins exceeding 9 m in width, except for field margins next to orchards. These results may indicate that current insecticide risk assessments are insufficiently protective for grasshoppers in field margins. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  20. Land surface and climate parameters and malaria features in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. A.; Anh, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface parameters may affect local microclimate, which in turn alters the development of mosquito habitats and transmission risks (soil-vegetation-atmosphere-vector borne diseases). Forest malaria is a chromic issue in Southeast Asian countries, in particular, such as Vietnam (in 1991, approximate 2 million cases and 4,646 deaths were reported (https://sites.path.org)). Vietnam has lowlands, sub-tropical high humidity, and dense forests, resulting in wide-scale distribution and high biting rate of mosquitos in Vietnam, becoming a challenging and out of control scenario, especially in Vietnamese Central Highland region. It is known that Vietnam's economy mainly relies on agriculture and malaria is commonly associated with poverty. There is a strong demand to investigate the relationship between land surface parameters (land cover, soil moisture, land surface temperature, etc.) and climatic variables (precipitation, humidity, evapotranspiration, etc.) in association with malaria distribution. GIS and remote sensing have been proven their powerful potentials in supporting environmental and health studies. The objective of this study aims to analyze physical attributes of land surface and climate parameters and their links with malaria features. The outcomes are expected to illustrate how remotely sensed data has been utilized in geohealth applications, surveillance, and health risk mapping. In addition, a platform with promising possibilities of allowing disease early-warning systems with citizen participation will be proposed.

  1. Malaria in inter-war British India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, W F

    2000-06-01

    British India was an important site of much important malaria research. Although Ronald Ross left India in 1899, a number of malariologists continued the task of evaluating the incidence and distribution of malaria in the country. Implementing practical solutions was hampered by formidable social and economic problems. This paper examines the Indian situation in the late 1920s, through a retrospective selection of writings chosen by J.A. Sinton for reproduction in an early issue of 'The records of the malaria survey of India', and the analysis of the Indian malaria situation through a visit of the League of Nations Malaria Commission in 1929.

  2. Severe falciparum malaria: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcelia, F.; Asymida, F.; Lubis, N. F. M.; Pasaribu, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Plasmodium parasites caused Malaria. Indonesia is one of the countries in Southeast Asia that endemic to malaria. The burden of malaria is more in the eastern part of Indonesia than the Western part as well as the endemicity. Some cases of malaria will develop to severe form. Usually, the manifestation of children and adult are different. We reported a severe case of malaria in a 14-year-old boy who develops several manifestations such as anemia, hypoglycemia, sepsis and black water fever. We successfully treated the patient with Artesunate intravenous and continued with Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine.

  3. Cutaneous findings in five cases of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh B Vaishnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Cutaneous lesions in malaria are rarely reported and include urticaria, angioedema, petechiae, purpura, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Here, five malaria cases associated with cutaneous lesions have been described. Out of the five cases of malaria, two were associated with urticaria and angioedema, one case was associated with urticaria, and other two were associated with reticulated blotchy erythema with petechiae. Most of the cutaneous lesions in malaria were nonspecific and reflected the different immunopathological mechanism in malarial infection.

  4. Dehydration and malaria augment the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, E A R I E; Perera, P A J; Sivakanesan, R; Abeysekara, T; Nugegoda, D B; Jayaweera, J A A S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of CKDu. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka.

  5. [Malaria and HIV infection: clinical and biological aspects at Donka National Hospital in Conakry, Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bald, I; Camara, A; Baldé, O; Magassouba, N F; Bah, M S; Makanéra, A; Gamy, E P

    2010-08-01

    Malaria and HIV/AIDS are two of the most widespread infectious diseases encountered in sub-Saharan Africa. Even minor interactions between these two diseases could have substantial effects on public health. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between malaria and HIV infection. Study was carried out over an 8-month period (April 1, 2003 to November 30, 2003) in the Tropical and Infectious Diseases Department of the Donka National Hospital in Conakry, Guinea. A total of 89 malaria patients including 41 cases with HIV infection and 48 controls without HIV infection were included. All patients were hospitalized during the study and provided informed consent. Results showed that malaria affected all age groups in the same proportion. Mean patient age was 34 years (range, 15 and 76 years). Males were more frequently infected with a sex ratio of 1.05. The average number of malaria episodes was higher in cases (malaria with HIV-infection than in controls (malaria without HIV infection). Hyperthermia was observed in most cases (68.29%) and controls (77.08%). Severe anemia was observed in 26.82% of cases versus 10.41% of controls. Low parasite density was observed in 73.17% of cases as compared to 68.75% of controls. The recovery rate was higher in the control group than in case group: 27.08% versus 14.63%. The death rate was higher in the case group than in the control group: 21.95% versus 6.25%. These findings demonstrate a link between malaria and HIV. The frequency of malaria episodes was higher in patients with HIV infection than patients without HIV infection and the outcome of malarial episodes was better in patients without HIV infection.

  6. New records of Anopheles arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya highlands indicate indigenous malaria transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githure John I

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria cases on the highlands west of Mount Kenya have been noticed since 10 – 20 years ago. It was not clear whether these cases were introduced from the nearby lowland or resulted from local transmission because of no record of vector mosquitoes on the highlands. Determination of presence and abundance of malaria vector is vital for effective control and epidemic risk assessment of malaria among both local residents and tourists. Methods A survey on 31 aquatic sites for the malaria-vector mosquitoes was carried out along the primary road on the highlands around Mount Kenya and the nearby Mwea lowland during April 13 to June 28, 2005. Anopheline larvae were collected and reared into adults for morphological and molecular species identification. In addition, 31 families at three locations of the highlands were surveyed using a questionnaire about their history of malaria cases during the past five to 20 years. Results Specimens of Anopheles arabiensis were molecularly identified in Karatina and Naro Moru on the highlands at elevations of 1,720 – 1,921 m above sea level. This species was also the only malaria vector found in the Mwea lowland. Malaria cases were recorded in the two highland locations in the past 10 years with a trend of increasing. Conclusion Local malaria transmission on the Mount Kenya highlands is possible due to the presence of An. arabiensis. Land use pattern and land cover might be the key factors affecting the vector population dynamics and the highland malaria transmission in the region.

  7. Malaria vaccines: the case for a whole-organism approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Charry, Alberto; Good, Michael F

    2008-04-01

    Malaria is a significant health problem causing morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vaccine development has been an imperative for decades. However, the intricacy of the parasite's lifecycle coupled with the lack of evidence for robust infection-induced immunity has made vaccine development exceptionally difficult. To review some of the key advances in the field and discuss potential ways forward for a whole-organism vaccine. The authors searched PubMed using the words 'malaria and vaccine'. We searched for manuscripts detailing antigen characterisation and vaccine strategies with emphasis on subunit versus whole-parasite approaches. Abstracts were selected and relevant articles are discussed. The searches were not restricted by language or date. The early cloning of malaria antigens has fuelled rapid development of subunit vaccines. However, the disappointing results of clinical trials have resulted in reappraisal of current strategies. Whole-parasite approaches have re-emerged as an alternative strategy. Immunization using radiation or genetically attenuated sporozoites has been shown to result in sterile immunity and immunization with blood-stage parasites curtailed by antimalarials has demonstrated delayed parasitemia in rodent models as well as in human malaria.

  8. Controlling Malaria Using Livestock-Based Interventions: A One Health Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana O.; Gomes, M. Gabriela M.; Rowland, Mark; Coleman, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Where malaria is transmitted by zoophilic vectors, two types of malaria control strategies have been proposed based on animals: using livestock to divert vector biting from people (zooprophylaxis) or as baits to attract vectors to insecticide sources (insecticide-treated livestock). Opposing findings have been obtained on malaria zooprophylaxis, and despite the success of an insecticide-treated livestock trial in Pakistan, where malaria vectors are highly zoophilic, its effectiveness is yet to be formally tested in Africa where vectors are more anthropophilic. This study aims to clarify the different effects of livestock on malaria and to understand under what circumstances livestock-based interventions could play a role in malaria control programmes. This was explored by developing a mathematical model and combining it with data from Pakistan and Ethiopia. Consistent with previous work, a zooprophylactic effect of untreated livestock is predicted in two situations: if vector population density does not increase with livestock introduction, or if livestock numbers and availability to vectors are sufficiently high such that the increase in vector density is counteracted by the diversion of bites from humans to animals. Although, as expected, insecticide-treatment of livestock is predicted to be more beneficial in settings with highly zoophilic vectors, like South Asia, we find that the intervention could also considerably decrease malaria transmission in regions with more anthropophilic vectors, like Anopheles arabiensis in Africa, under specific circumstances: high treatment coverage of the livestock population, using a product with stronger or longer lasting insecticidal effect than in the Pakistan trial, and with small (ideally null) repellency effect, or if increasing the attractiveness of treated livestock to malaria vectors. The results suggest these are the most appropriate conditions for field testing insecticide-treated livestock in an Africa region with

  9. Advances and challenges in malaria vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Peter D; Pierce, Susan K; Miller, Louis H

    2010-12-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum remains a major public health threat, especially among children and pregnant women in Africa. An effective malaria vaccine would be a valuable tool to reduce the disease burden and could contribute to elimination of malaria in some regions of the world. Current malaria vaccine candidates are directed against human and mosquito stages of the parasite life cycle, but thus far, relatively few proteins have been studied for potential vaccine development. The most advanced vaccine candidate, RTS,S, conferred partial protection against malaria in phase II clinical trials and is currently being evaluated in a phase III trial in Africa. New vaccine targets need to be identified to improve the chances of developing a highly effective malaria vaccine. A better understanding of the mechanisms of naturally acquired immunity to malaria may lead to insights for vaccine development.

  10. Estimated effect of climatic variables on the transmission of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Park, Jae-Won; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2012-09-01

    Climate change may affect Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission in a wide region including both subtropical and temperate areas. We aimed to estimate the effects of climatic variables on the transmission of P. vivax in temperate regions. We estimated the effects of climatic factors on P. vivax malaria transmission using data on weekly numbers of malaria cases for the years 2001-2009 in the Republic of Korea. Generalized linear Poisson models and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) were adopted to estimate the effects of temperature, relative humidity, temperature fluctuation, duration of sunshine, and rainfall on malaria transmission while adjusting for seasonal variation, between-year variation, and other climatic factors. A 1°C increase in temperature was associated with a 17.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.9, 18.6%] increase in malaria incidence after a 3-week lag, a 10% rise in relative humidity was associated with 40.7% (95% CI: -44.3, -36.9%) decrease in malaria after a 7-week lag, a 1°C increase in the diurnal temperature range was associated with a 24.1% (95% CI: -26.7, -21.4%) decrease in malaria after a 7-week lag, and a 10-hr increase in sunshine per week was associated with a 5.1% (95% CI: -8.4, -1.7%) decrease in malaria after a 2-week lag. The cumulative relative risk for a 10-mm increase in rainfall (≤ 350 mm) on P. vivax malaria was 3.61 (95% CI: 1.69, 7.72) based on a DLNM with a 10-week maximum lag. Our findings suggest that malaria transmission in temperate areas is highly dependent on climate factors. In addition, lagged estimates of the effect of rainfall on malaria are consistent with the time necessary for mosquito development and P. vivax incubation.

  11. Defining the protein interaction network of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    KAUST Repository

    Ramaprasad, Abhinay

    2012-02-01

    Malaria, caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, affects around 225. million people yearly and a huge international effort is directed towards combating this grave threat to world health and economic development. Considerable advances have been made in malaria research triggered by the sequencing of its genome in 2002, followed by several high-throughput studies defining the malaria transcriptome and proteome. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network seeks to trace the dynamic interactions between proteins, thereby elucidating their local and global functional relationships. Experimentally derived PPI network from high-throughput methods such as yeast two hybrid (Y2H) screens are inherently noisy, but combining these independent datasets by computational methods tends to give a greater accuracy and coverage. This review aims to discuss the computational approaches used till date to construct a malaria protein interaction network and to catalog the functional predictions and biological inferences made from analysis of the PPI network. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Pulsed electromagnetic field affects intrinsic and endoplasmatic reticulum apoptosis induction pathways in MonoMac6 cell line culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoinska, J; Chorobik, P; Juszczak, K; Zaraska, W; Thor, P J

    2012-10-01

    Current studies were aimed to elucidate influence of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation on cell viability and apoptosis induction pathways. For the experimental model we have chosen monocytic cell line MonoMac6 and several apoptosis inducers with different mechanism of death induction like puromycin, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline and hydrogen peroxide. MonoMac6 cell line was grown at density 1x10(5) cells/well in 96-well culture plates. To induce cell death cell cultures were treated with different apoptosis inducers like puromycin, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline, hydrogen peroxide and at the same time with pulsed electromagnetic field 50 Hz, 45±5 mT (PEMF) for 4 hour per each stimulation, three times, in 24 hours intervals. Afterwards, cells were harvested for flow cytometry analysis of cell viability measured by annexin V-APC labeled and propidium iodide staining. Expression of apoptosis related genes was evaluated by semi quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. NuPAGE Novex Western blot analysis was carried out for apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) abundance in cytosolic and nuclear extracts of MonoMac6 cells. Puromycin, colchicine and minocycline activated cells and simultaneously treated with PEMF have shown out diminished percentage of annexinV positive (AnV+) cells comparing to controls without PEMF stimulation. MonaMac6 cells puromycin/colchicyne and PEMF treated were to a higher extent double stained (AnV+,PI+), which means increased late apoptotic as well as necrotic (PI+) cells, than non-stimulated controls. On the other hand, minocycline activated cells prior to PEMF treatment showed diminished amount of apoptotic and necrotic (annexin V, annexin V and propidium iodide, propidium iodide positive staining) cells. The opposite effect of PEMF on the percentage of annexin V positively stained cells has been achieved after treatment of MonoMac6 culture with cyclophoshamide and hydrogen peroxide. PEMF enhanced early

  13. Analysis of forecasting malaria case with climatic factors as predictor in Mandailing Natal Regency: a time series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, D.; Ayu, S. F.; Matondang, A.

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is the most contagious global concern. As a public health problem with outbreaks, affect the quality of life and economy, also could lead to death. Therefore, this research is to forecast malaria cases with climatic factors as predictors in Mandailing Natal Regency. The total number of positive malaria cases on January 2008 to December 2016 were taken from health department of Mandailing Natal Regency. Climates data such as rainfall, humidity, and temperature were taken from Center of Statistic Department of Mandailing Natal Regency. E-views ver. 9 is used to analyze this study. Autoregressive integrated average, ARIMA (0,1,1) (1,0,0)12 is the best model to explain the 67,2% variability data in time series study. Rainfall (P value = 0.0005), temperature (P value = 0,0029) and humidity (P value = 0.0001) are significant predictors for malaria transmission. Seasonal adjusted factor (SAF) in November and March shows peak for malaria cases.

  14. Assessing Knowledge and Perceptions Related to Preventive Methods and Treatment of Malaria in the Local Endemic Area of Trujillo, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campodonico, Joanna; Sevilla-Martir, Javier; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Kochhar, Komal

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in Honduras is endemic and accounts for 40% of the total cases in Central America. Our goal was to assess knowledge of preventive methods and current treatment of malaria among the affected community of Trujillo, Honduras. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 71 individuals. Most respondents had a good understanding about common malaria symptoms but not about the complications associated with severe cases. More important, we found that less than 20% of the respondents recognized indoor residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets as effective preventive measures, which are the most efficient preventive methods. Our study highlights the perceptions the people of Trujillo have about malaria. From our observations, we put forward recommendations to implement a comprehensive campaign to educate the Trujillo population about malaria preventive methods and to recruit local and international efforts to distribute insecticide-treated nets.

  15. Optimal price subsidies for appropriate malaria testing and treatment behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K. S.; Lesner, T. H.; Østerdal, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malaria continues to be a serious public health problem particularly in Africa. Many people infected with malaria do not access effective treatment due to high price. At the same time many individuals receiving malaria drugs do not suffer from malaria because of the common practice of...... seeking care for malaria in the private sector. © 2016 The Author(s)....

  16. An open source business model for malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Christine; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Greater investment is required in developing new drugs and vaccines against malaria in order to eradicate malaria. These precious funds must be carefully managed to achieve the greatest impact. We evaluate existing efforts to discover and develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria to determine how best malaria R&D can benefit from an enhanced open source approach and how such a business model may operate. We assess research articles, patents, clinical trials and conducted a smaller survey among malaria researchers. Our results demonstrate that the public and philanthropic sectors are financing and performing the majority of malaria drug/vaccine discovery and development, but are then restricting access through patents, 'closed' publications and hidden away physical specimens. This makes little sense since it is also the public and philanthropic sector that purchases the drugs and vaccines. We recommend that a more "open source" approach is taken by making the entire value chain more efficient through greater transparency which may lead to more extensive collaborations. This can, for example, be achieved by empowering an existing organization like the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) to act as a clearing house for malaria-related data. The malaria researchers that we surveyed indicated that they would utilize such registry data to increase collaboration. Finally, we question the utility of publicly or philanthropically funded patents for malaria medicines, where little to no profits are available. Malaria R&D benefits from a publicly and philanthropically funded architecture, which starts with academic research institutions, product development partnerships, commercialization assistance through UNITAID and finally procurement through mechanisms like The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the U.S.' President's Malaria Initiative. We believe that a fresh look should be taken at the cost/benefit of patents particularly related to new malaria

  17. Elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashin, Anatoly V; Sharipov, Azizullo S; Kadamov, Dilshod S; Karimov, Saifuddin S; Gasimov, Elkhan; Baranova, Alla M; Morozova, Lola F; Stepanova, Ekaterina V; Turbabina, Natalia A; Maksimova, Maria S; Morozov, Evgeny N

    2017-05-30

    Malaria was eliminated in Tajikistan by the beginning of the 1960s. However, sporadic introduced cases of malaria occurred subsequently probably as a result of transmission from infected mosquito Anopheles flying over river the Punj from the border areas of Afghanistan. During the 1970s and 1980s local outbreaks of malaria were reported in the southern districts bordering Afghanistan. The malaria situation dramatically changed during the 1990s following armed conflict and civil unrest in the newly independent Tajikistan, which paralyzed health services including the malaria control activities and a large-scale malaria epidemic occurred with more than 400,000 malaria cases. The malaria epidemic was contained by 1999 as a result of considerable financial input from the Government and the international community. Although Plasmodium falciparum constituted only about 5% of total malaria cases, reduction of its incidence was slower than that of Plasmodium vivax. To prevent increase in P. falciparum malaria both in terms of incidence and territory, a P. falciparum elimination programme in the Republic was launched in 200, jointly supported by the Government and the Global Fund for control of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The main activities included the use of pyrethroids for the IRS with determined periodicity, deployment of mosquito nets, impregnated with insecticides, use of larvivorous fishes as a biological larvicide, implementation of small-scale environmental management, and use of personal protection methods by population under malaria risk. The malaria surveillance system was strengthened by the use of ACD, PCD, RCD and selective use of mass blood surveys. All detected cases were timely epidemiologically investigated and treated based on the results of laboratory diagnosis. As a result, by 2009, P. falciparum malaria was eliminated from all of Tajikistan, one year ahead of the originally targeted date. Elimination of P. falciparum also contributed towards

  18. An open source business model for malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Årdal

    Full Text Available Greater investment is required in developing new drugs and vaccines against malaria in order to eradicate malaria. These precious funds must be carefully managed to achieve the greatest impact. We evaluate existing efforts to discover and develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria to determine how best malaria R&D can benefit from an enhanced open source approach and how such a business model may operate. We assess research articles, patents, clinical trials and conducted a smaller survey among malaria researchers. Our results demonstrate that the public and philanthropic sectors are financing and performing the majority of malaria drug/vaccine discovery and development, but are then restricting access through patents, 'closed' publications and hidden away physical specimens. This makes little sense since it is also the public and philanthropic sector that purchases the drugs and vaccines. We recommend that a more "open source" approach is taken by making the entire value chain more efficient through greater transparency which may lead to more extensive collaborations. This can, for example, be achieved by empowering an existing organization like the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV to act as a clearing house for malaria-related data. The malaria researchers that we surveyed indicated that they would utilize such registry data to increase collaboration. Finally, we question the utility of publicly or philanthropically funded patents for malaria medicines, where little to no profits are available. Malaria R&D benefits from a publicly and philanthropically funded architecture, which starts with academic research institutions, product development partnerships, commercialization assistance through UNITAID and finally procurement through mechanisms like The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the U.S.' President's Malaria Initiative. We believe that a fresh look should be taken at the cost/benefit of patents particularly related

  19. Malaria successes and challenges in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajesh; Rastogi, Rakesh Mani; Ortega, Leonard

    2013-12-01

    Asia ranks second to Africa in terms of malaria burden. In 19 countries of Asia, malaria is endemic and 2.31 billion people or 62% of the total population in these countries are at risk of malaria. In 2010, WHO estimated around 34.8 million cases and 45,600 deaths due to malaria in Asia. In 2011, 2.7 million cases and > 2000 deaths were reported. India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Pakistan are responsible for >85% of the reported cases (confirmed) and deaths in Asia. In last 10 yr, due to availability of donor's fund specially from Global fund, significant progress has been made by the countries in Asia in scaling-up malaria control interventions which were instrumental in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality significantly. There is a large heterogeneity in malaria epidemiology in Asia. As a result, the success in malaria control/elimination is also diverse. As compared to the data of the year 2000, out of 19 malaria endemic countries, 12 countries were able to reduce malaria incidence (microscopically confirmed cases only) by 75%. Two countries, namely Bangladesh and Malaysia are projected to reach 75% reduction by 2015 while India is projected to reach 50-75% only by 2015. The trend could not be assessed in four countries, namely Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Timor-Leste due to insufficient consistent data. Numerous key challenges need to be addressed to sustain the gains and eliminate malaria in most parts of Asia. Some of these are to control the spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin, control of outdoor transmission, control of vivax malaria and ensuring universal coverage of key interventions. Asia has the potential to influence the malaria epidemiology all over the world as well as to support the global efforts in controlling and eliminating malaria through production of quality-assured ACTs, RDTs and long-lasting insecticidal nets.

  20. Malaria: prevention in travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Ashley M

    2010-07-12

    Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines.

  1. PENYEBARAN KASUS DAN HABITAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI KABUPATEN SUMBA TIMUR PROVINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Wadu Willa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available East Sumba is a district in Sumba Island with high endemicity of malaria. The environment condition and geographical location can support the spread of malaria infection. This is a cross-sectional design research. The result shows that the spreading of malaria case is in 0 to 1000 meters from human settlements and spread evenly in remote villages. Breeding habitat are buffalo footprints, puddles, rice fields, rivers, buffalo wallows, gutters and trenches. With pH of water around 7 until 9 and the highest salt concentration is 1 ppm. It’s breeding habitat is more in the turbid water and exposed by sunlight directy. Types of water biota which is exist on the breeding habitat are alga, moss, grass, paddy, Aplocheilus panchax, Oreochromis sp. and water hyacinth. As the conclusion, malaria case spreads indigenously and the area is very potential for  Anopheles spp. to breed.

  2. Feasibility of home management using ACT for childhood malaria episodes in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsagha DS

    2011-12-01

    the motivation of drug distributors in the community.Results: The mothers' perception of malaria was the outcome of events other than mosquito bites. Home treatment is very common and is guided by the way mothers perceive signs and symptoms of malaria. Frequent change of malarial drugs by the national health policy and financial difficulties were the main problems mothers faced in treating febrile children. Rapid diagnostic testing and prepackaged ACT for simple malaria in children under 5 years would be accepted if it was offered at an affordable price. Tribalism and religious beliefs might hinder the delivery of home management of malaria. The availability of rapid diagnostic testing and ACT all year round is one of the challenges of home management of malaria. Although radio and television featured among the current sources of information within the community, meetings, churches, schools, and other public gatherings were the best venues for social mobilization, while community health workers and community leaders were the best sensitization agents for positive behavior change to adhere to home management of malaria. Monetary incentives should be offered to community drug distributors. This should be deducted from the combined price of ACT and rapid diagnostic testing.Conclusion: For successful implementation of home management of malaria, there should be proper education, social mobilization of the population, and continuous monitoring and evaluation of field activities to ensure adequate stocks of ACT and rapid diagnostic testing within the framework of the intervention.Keywords: malaria, home management, children, urban, rapid diagnostic test, artemisinin-based combination therapy, Cameroon

  3. Ownership and Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets among People Living in Malaria Endemic Areas of Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Wei, Chongyi; McFarland, Willi; Aung, Ye Kyaw; Khin, Hnin Su Su

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar has the highest burden of malaria in the Greater Mekong. However, there is limited information on ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in areas of Myanmar most severely affected by malaria. We describe ownership and use of ITNs among people in the malaria-endemic eastern parts of Myanmar and factors associated with ITN use. A cross-sectional household survey using a multi-stage cluster design was conducted in malaria-endemic townships in eastern Myanmar during the high malaria season of August to September, 2014. An effective ITN was defined as 1) a long-lasting insecticide-treated net obtained within the past three years, or 2) any net treated with insecticide within the past year. In 4,679 households, the average number of ITNs per household was higher in rural compared to urban areas (0.6 vs. 0.4, p Myanmar in comparison to the goal of one for every two household members. Use of ITNs was low even when present. Findings are of concern given the study areas were part of enhanced efforts to reduce artemisinin-resistant malaria. Nonetheless, groups vulnerable to malaria such as individuals in rural settings, lower socio-economic households, and workers in high mosquito exposure jobs, had higher rates of ITN ownership. Malaria knowledge was linked to effective ITN use suggesting that distribution campaigns should be complemented by behavior change communications.

  4. [Current status of malaria control knowledge awareness of primary and sec- ondary school students in Xuzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-sheng; Li, Li; Zhang, Kan-kan

    2015-12-01

    To understand the current status of malaria control knowledge awareness of primary and secondary school students and its influencing factors in Yunlong District, Xuzhou City, so as to provide the evidence for improving the malaria prevention work. A total of 800 students from 4 urban and rural primary and secondary schools were randomly selected and investigated with questionnaires. The total awareness rate of malaria control knowledge was 61.27%, and the awareness rates of symptoms of malaria and malaria prevention were only 38.99% and 57.59% respectively. The main approach of obtaining the malaria control knowledge was media (51.52%). The univariate analysis showed that sex, area and different education levels affected the awareness rates of malaria control knowledge (P knowledge of country students was lower than that of urban students (P knowledge of the secondary school students was higher than that of the primary school students (P knowledge of primary and secondary school students in Yunlong District is lower than that required by the national standard. Therefore, the health education of malaria control should be strengthened, especially in countryside school students and primary school students.

  5. Resurgence of malaria in Bombay (Mumbai) in the 1990s: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, V

    2000-06-01

    illustrate how malaria control programs in Bombay and in other parts of India have evolved through a combination of local historical forces and political expediencies in the context of technological developments. The boom in construction activities in Bombay following the liberalization of the Indian economy in 1991, and the local politics affecting administrative practices of the MCGB, are discussed as crucial factors in the crystallization of the present-day malaria resurgence in Bombay. The paper concludes by arguing that malaria in urban India is a serious problem that cannot be neglected. In the case of Bombay, the solution to the crisis can be found, in part, by reexamining the historical and political issues that have determined the nature and magnitude of the problem over the last century.

  6. Agro-ecology, household economics and malaria in Uganda: empirical correlations between agricultural and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosz, Benjamin; Kato, Edward; Ringler, Claudia

    2014-07-03

    This paper establishes empirical evidence relating the agriculture and health sectors in Uganda. The analysis explores linkages between agricultural management, malaria and implications for improving community health outcomes in rural Uganda. The goal of this exploratory work is to expand the evidence-base for collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors in Uganda. The paper presents an analysis of data from the 2006 Uganda National Household Survey using a parametric multivariate Two-Limit Tobit model to identify correlations between agro-ecological variables including geographically joined daily seasonal precipitation records and household level malaria risk. The analysis of agricultural and environmental factors as they affect household malaria rates, disaggregated by age-group, is inspired by a complimentary review of existing agricultural malaria literature indicating a gap in evidence with respect to agricultural management as a form of malaria vector management. Crop choices and agricultural management practices may contribute to vector control through the simultaneous effects of reducing malaria transmission, improving housing and nutrition through income gains, and reducing insecticide resistance in both malaria vectors and agricultural pests. The econometric results show the existence of statistically significant correlations between crops, such as sweet potatoes/yams, beans, millet and sorghum, with household malaria risk. Local environmental factors are also influential- daily maximum temperature is negatively correlated with malaria, while daily minimum temperature is positively correlated with malaria, confirming trends in the broader literature are applicable to the Ugandan context. Although not necessarily causative, the findings provide sufficient evidence to warrant purposefully designed work to test for agriculture health causation in vector management. A key constraint to modeling the agricultural basis of malaria transmission is

  7. Inequities in incidence, morbidity and expenditures on prevention and treatment of malaria in southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzochukwu Benjamin S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria places a great burden on households, but the extent to which this is tilted against the poor is unclear. However, the knowledge of the level of the burden of malaria amongst different population groups is vital for ensuring equitable control of malaria. This paper examined the inequities in occurrence, economic burden, prevention and treatment of malaria. Methods The study was undertaken in four malaria endemic villages in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria. Data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. An asset-based index was used to categorize the households into socio-economic status (SES quartiles: least poor; poor; very poor; and most poor. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the statistical significance of the SES differences in incidence, length of illness, ownership of treated nets, expenditures on treatment and prevention. Results All the SES quartiles had equal exposure to malaria. The pattern of health seeking for all the SES groups was almost similar, but in one of the villages the most poor, very poor and poor significantly used the services of patent medicine vendors and the least poor visited hospitals. The cost of treating malaria was similar across the SES quartiles. The average expenditure to treat an episode of malaria ranged from as low as 131 Naira ($1.09 to as high as 348 Naira ($2.9, while the transportation expenditure to receive treatment ranged from 26 Naira to 46 Naira (both less than $1. The level of expenditure to prevent malaria was low in the four villages, with less than 5% owning untreated nets and 10.4% with insecticide treated nets. Conclusion Malaria constitutes a burden to all SES groups, though the poorer socio-economic groups were more affected, because a greater proportion of their financial resources compared to their income are spent on treating the disease. The expenditures to treat malaria by the poorest households could lead to catastrophic health

  8. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.

  9. Retinopathy in severe malaria in Ghanaian children - overlap between fundus changes in cerebral and non-cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essuman, Vera A; Ntim-Amponsah, Christine T; Astrup, Birgitte S

    2010-01-01

    diagnostic tool. This study was designed to determine the diagnostic usefulness of retinopathy on ophthalmoscopy in severe malaria syndromes: Cerebral malaria (CM) and non-cerebral severe malaria (non-CM), i.e. malaria with respiratory distress (RD) and malaria with severe anaemia (SA), in Ghanaian children...

  10. Neuroimaging findings in children with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potchen, Michael J. [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: mjp@rad.msu.edu; Birbeck, Gretchen L. [Michigan State University, International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, 324 West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: Gretchen.Birbeck@ht.msu.edu; DeMarco, J. Kevin [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: jkd@rad.msu.edu; Kampondeni, Sam D. [University of Malawi, Department of Radiology, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: kamponde@msu.edu; Beare, Nicholas [St. Paul' s Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nbeare@btinternet.com; Molyneux, Malcolm E. [Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine (Malawi); School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mmolyneux999@google.com; Taylor, Terrie E. [Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, B309-B West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre Malaria Project, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: taylort@msu.edu

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. Materials and methods: In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Results: Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). Conclusions: The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease.

  11. Neuroimaging findings in children with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potchen, Michael J.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Kampondeni, Sam D.; Beare, Nicholas; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. Materials and methods: In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Results: Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). Conclusions: The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease.

  12. Temporal dynamic of malaria in a suburban area along the Niger River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissoko, Mahamadou Soumana; Sissoko, Kourane; Kamate, Bourama; Samake, Yacouba; Goita, Siaka; Dabo, Abdoulaye; Yena, Mama; Dessay, Nadine; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Gaudart, Jean

    2017-10-23

    Even if rainfall and temperature are factors classically associated to malaria, little is known about other meteorological factors, their variability and combinations related to malaria, in association with river height variations. Furthermore, in suburban area, urbanization and growing population density should be assessed in relation to these environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of combined environmental, meteorological and hydrological factors on malaria incidence through time in the context of urbanization. Population observational data were prospectively collected. Clinical malaria was defined as the presence of parasites in addition to clinical symptoms. Meteorological and hydrological factors were measured daily. For each factors variation indices were estimated. Urbanization was yearly estimated assessing satellite imaging and field investigations. Principal component analysis was used for dimension reduction and factors combination. Lags between malaria incidences and the main components were assessed by cross-correlation functions. Generalized additive model was used to assess relative impact of different environmental components, taking into account lags, and modelling non-linear relationships. Change-point analysis was used to determine transmission periods within years. Malaria incidences were dominated by annual periodicity and varied through time without modification of the dynamic, with no impact of the urbanization. The main meteorological factor associated with malaria was a combination of evaporation, humidity and rainfall, with a lag of 3 months. The relationship between combined temperature factors showed a linear impact until reaching high temperatures limiting malaria incidence, with a lag 3.25 months. Height and variation of the river were related to malaria incidence (respectively 6 week lag and no lag). The study emphasizes no decreasing trend of malaria incidence despite accurate access to care and

  13. Malaria-induced immune thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P G; Mickley, H; Schmidt, K G

    1984-01-01

    On return from Liberia, a previously healthy 36-year-old man showed signs of malaria accompanied by severe haemolysis and slight thrombocytopenia. We found evidence of a platelet-associated IgG being responsible for the thrombocytopenia, inasmuch as the direct platelet suspension immunofluorescen...

  14. [Malaria in Poland in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland in 2007 there were 11 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition reported through the routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, 82% from Africa, including 2 cases of relapse. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed in 7 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and P. vivax- in one case. The majority of cases were in the age group 35-45 (8 cases) and were males (10 cases). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related (5 cases) and tourism or family visits (4 cases). Approximately half of the cases for whom the information was available used malaria chemoprophylaxis during their travel. Clinical course was severe in one case of P. falciparum malaria and the person died of the disease. The decreasing trend in malaria incidence in Poland is likely related to incomplete reporting as tourist and professional travel to endemic areas has not decreased and there is no indication of wider use ofchemoprophylaxis.

  15. Decoding the Role of Glycans in Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna S. Gomes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Complications arising from malaria are a concern for public health authorities worldwide, since the annual caseload in humans usually exceeds millions. Of more than 160 species of Plasmodium, only 4 infect humans, with the most severe cases ascribed to Plasmodium falciparum and the most prevalent to Plasmodium vivax. Over the past 70 years, since World War II, when the first antimalarial drugs were widely used, many efforts have been made to combat this disease, including vectorial control, new drug discoveries and genetic and molecular approaches. Molecular approaches, such as glycobiology, may lead to new therapeutic targets (both in the host and the parasites, since all interactions are mediated by carbohydrates or glycan moieties decorating both cellular surfaces from parasite and host cells. In this review, we address the carbohydrate-mediated glycobiology that directly affects Plasmodium survival or host resistance.

  16. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-05-20

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas.

  17. Methods employed in the prevention and treatment of malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    onasoga olayinka

    of malaria among pregnant women in riverine community in Bayelsa State, ... at high risk of the effects of malaria infection and need special protective .... mentioned maintenance of clean environment, as other methods of preventing malaria.

  18. 1 Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Despite existence of effective tools for malaria control, malaria ... breaks from traditional approach that tend to study low uptake of health ... Key words: scepticism, low uptake, mosquito nets, malaria, social marketing, Tanzania.

  19. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  20. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant ... treatment of clinical cases and the promotion of ... influence their decision regarding malaria ..... have the ability to purchase anti-malaria drugs that.

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and practice about malaria: Socio-demographic implications for malaria control in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assan, Abraham; Takian, Amirhossein; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Nematolahi, Shahrzad

    2017-11-01

    Despite continuing international attention to malaria prevention, the disease remains a global public health problem. We investigated socio-demographic factors influencing knowledge, attitudes, and practices about malaria in rural Ghana. Our survey looked at 354 households. Mean knowledge score was higher among individuals with a history of volunteers having visited their households to educate them about malaria; families with 4-6 members; and males. Households with at least one under-five-aged child also had significantly higher knowledge scores. Households with at least one pregnant woman evinced a positive attitude towards malaria prevention. National malaria control strategies have achieved positive results in the fight against malaria. Nonetheless, multipronged community-based health strategies that integrate malaria programs and population growth control initiatives may be able to reach by 2030 the sustainable development goal of eliminating malaria.

  2. An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lwetoijera, D.W.; Sumaye, R.D.; Madumla, E.P.; Kavishe, D.R.; Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.; Okumu, F.O.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal biopesticides have the potential to significantly reduce densities of malaria vectors as well as associated malaria transmission. In previous field trials, entomopathogenic fungus was delivered from within human dwellings, where its efficacy was limited by low infection rates of target

  3. The role of vitamin D in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lương, Khanh Vinh Quốc; Nguyễn, Lan Thi Hoàng

    2015-01-15

    An abnormal calcium-parathyroid hormone (PTH)-vitamin D axis has been reported in patients with malaria infection. A role for vitamin D in malaria has been suggested by many studies. Genetic studies have identified numerous factors that link vitamin D to malaria, including human leukocyte antigen genes, toll-like receptors, heme oxygenase-1, angiopoietin-2, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, and Bcl-2. Vitamin D has also been implicated in malaria via its effects on the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, prostaglandins, reactive oxidative species, and nitric oxide synthase. Vitamin D may be important in malaria; therefore, additional research on its role in malaria is needed.

  4. Malaria, Epstein-Barr virus infection and the pathogenesis of Burkitt's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R; Majumdar, Suvankar

    2017-11-01

    A geographical and causal connection has long been recognized between malaria, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Potential clues are that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host and depends on it for its biological activities; secondly, alterations in vitamin A (retinoid) metabolism have been implicated in many forms of cancer, including BL. The first author has proposed that the merozoite-stage malaria parasite, emerging from the liver, uses its absorbed vitamin A as a cell membrane destabilizer to invade the red blood cells, causing anemia and other signs and symptoms of the disease as manifestations of an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A (Mawson AR, Path Global Health 2013;107(3):122-9). Repeated episodes of malaria would therefore be expected to expose the tissues of affected individuals to potentially toxic doses of vitamin A. It is proposed that such episodes activate latent EBV infection, which in turn activates retinoid-responsive genes. Expression of these genes enhances viral replication and induces germinal center (GC) B cell expansion, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression, and c-myc translocation, which in turn predisposes to BL. Thus, an endogenous form of retinoid toxicity related to malaria infection may be the common factor linking frequent malaria, EBV infection and BL, whereby prolonged exposure of lymphatic tissues to high concentrations of retinoids may combine to induce B-cell translocation and increase the risk of Burkitt's lymphoma. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Can Long-lasting Insecticide-treated Bednets with Holes Protect Children from Malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Daisuke; Maazou, Abani; Yamagata, Shigeo; Oumarou, Issofou; Uchida, Takako; Jg Yacouba, Honoré; Toma, Nami; Takeuchi, Rie; Kobayashi, Jun; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2014-09-01

    Although long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (LLINs) have been widely used for malaria control, little is known about how the condition of LLINs affects the risk of malaria infection. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between the use of LLINs with holes and caregiver-reported malaria diagnosed in children under five years of age (U5). Data were collected in Boboye health district, Niger, in 2010. Surveyors conducted interviews and bednet inspections in 1,034 households. If a household had a U5 child, the surveyor asked the caregiver whether the child had experienced a fever episode in the past two weeks that entailed standard treatment for uncomplicated malaria at a healthcare facility. The authors analyzed the association between the use of LLINs with holes and caregiver-reported malaria episodes in U5 children using logistic regression, adjusted for possible confounders. Of the 1,165 children included in the analysis, approximately half (53.3%) used an intact LLIN while far fewer (10.6%) used a LLIN with holes. Compared to children using an intact LLIN, children using a LLIN with holes were significantly more likely to have a caregiver-reported malaria episode (8.7% vs. 17.1%; odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.24-4.01). In this study site, LLINs with holes were less protective than intact LLINs.

  6. Nuclear science fights malaria. Radiation and molecular techniques can play targeted roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, Steffen; Khan, Baldip; Robinson, Alan; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is the most important insect transmitted disease. Globally there are 300 to 500 million clinical cases of malaria a year. They result in two million deaths per year (one every 30 seconds), more than 90% of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. More than 90% of those affected are children less than five years old. The economic impact of the disease is felt disproportionately by poor families who may spend a fourth of their annual income on prevention and control measures. The causative agents are parasites of the genus Plasmodium and they are transmitted only by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Among key strategies to control malaria are the surveillance of anti-malarial drug efficacy through monitoring the levels of drug resistance, and the reduction of mosquito populations. Nuclear techniques can play important roles in these efforts to combat malaria. This article reports on IAEA activities associated with drug-resistant malaria and describes how molecular methods making use of radioactive isotopes can provide a great advantage in the diagnosis of resistance. The article further presents the IAEA's plans for initiating a research programme to assess the feasibility of developing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a complementary method to control the vector of malaria

  7. The effect of malaria and anti-malarial drugs on skeletal and cardiac muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mauro Toledo; Brotto, Marco

    2016-11-02

    Malaria remains one of the most important infectious diseases in the world, being a significant public health problem associated with poverty and it is one of the main obstacles to the economy of an endemic country. Among the several complications, the effects of malaria seem to target the skeletal muscle system, leading to symptoms, such as muscle aches, muscle contractures, muscle fatigue, muscle pain, and muscle weakness. Malaria cause also parasitic coronary artery occlusion. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the effect of malaria disease and the anti-malarial drugs on skeletal and cardiac muscles. Research articles and case report publications that addressed aspects that are important for understanding the involvement of malaria parasites and anti-malarial therapies affecting skeletal and cardiac muscles were analysed and their findings summarized. Sequestration of red blood cells, increased levels of serum creatine kinase and reduced muscle content of essential contractile proteins are some of the potential biomarkers of the damage levels of skeletal and cardiac muscles. These biomarkers might be useful for prevention of complications and determining the effectiveness of interventions designed to protect cardiac and skeletal muscles from malaria-induced damage.

  8. History of malaria research and its contribution to the malaria control success in Suriname: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld, Florence J. V.; Vreden, Stephen G. S.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    Suriname has cleared malaria from its capital city and coastal areas mainly through the successful use of chloroquine and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) during the Global Malaria Eradication programme that started in 1955. Nonetheless, malaria transmission rates remained high in the

  9. Can people affected by leprosy at risk of developing plantar ulcers be identified? A field study from central Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, W; Van De Vijver, S; Benbow, C; Amenu, A; Saunderson, P

    In the ALERT leprosy control programme, 75 people affected by leprosy, in three different geographical areas, were investigated. Each person was documented as having anaesthesia to the 10 g monofilament. The study sought to determine why some people developed ulcers whilst others did not. According

  10. CASE STUDY: Mexico — Fighting malaria without DDT | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-23

    Dec 23, 2010 ... ... spraying techniques, Mexico has dramatically reduced malaria transmission. ... and the parasite, community perceptions of malaria, statistical analyses, and ... epidemiology, informatics, entomology, and the social sciences.

  11. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles—a combination of laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  12. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles-a combination of laboratory and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  13. Pattern of Clinical Medication Seeking for Import Malaria by Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahmudi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Number of malaria cases in Kabupaten Trenggalek in 2014 is 89 cases, and 83 cases are import malaria from migrant workers. Import malaria is transmitted across two areas and affects the clinical medication seeking. This research wants to describe the pattern of clinical medication seeking for import malaria by migrant workers in Puskesmas Pandean working area. This was cross sectional study with descriptive quantitative approach. Research’s sample is 26 import malaria sufferers in 2013–2015 who has chosen purposively with inclusion criteria. Interview had used to get information about characteristics, place felt the symptom, first clinical medication seeking (place and time, clinical diagnosis, medication follow up, and recovery status. The result of the research shows 100% respondent is man and the age about 20-30 years old (53,8 who is working as agricultural laborers outside Java. Mostly of respondent feel the malaria symptoms in their working place (53,8%. The day seeks clinical medication at day three after symptom (34, 6%. Respondents that feel the symptom in Puskesmas Pandean working area chose Puskesmas as clinical medication place (42,3%, and hospital (19,2% for them whose experience the malaria symptom in their working area. Puskesmas is chosen as clinical diagnosis place (69% and only 11,5% respondent got medication follow up. Puskesmas is chosen as intermediate clinical medication place (60% for 19,2% respondent that is not recovered well, although 20% go to Dukun. All of respondent chose the clinical medication as their prime medication. Need to make medication follow up visitation well complete. Keyword: pattern, clinical medication, import malaria, migrant worker

  14. Nested PCR detection of Plasmodium malariae from microscopy confirmed P. falciparum samples in endemic area of NE India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Sunil; Goswami, Diganta; Kumar, Dinesh; Rabha, Bipul; Sharma, Dhirendra Kumar; Bhola, Rakesh Kumar; Baruah, Indra; Veer, Vijay

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluates the performance of OptiMAL-IT test and nested PCR assay in detection of malaria parasites. A total of 76 randomly selected blood samples collected from two malaria endemic areas were tested for malaria parasites using microscopy and OptiMAL-IT test in the field. PCR assays were performed in the laboratory using DNA extracted from blood spots of the same samples collected on the FTA classic cards. Of the total of 61 field confirmed malaria positive samples, only 58 (95%) were detected positive using microscopy in the laboratory. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and false discovery rate of OptiMal-IT in comparison to the microscopy were 93%, 83%, 95%, 79% and 5%, respectively. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR assay were 97% and 100%, respectively, whereas positive predictive value, negative predictive value and false discovery rate were 100%, 90% and 0%, respectively. The overall performance of OptiMal-IT and PCR assays for malaria diagnosis was 76% and 97%, respectively. PCR assay enabled the identification of infection with Plasmodium malariae Laveran, 1881 in four samples misidentified by microscopy and Plasmodium-specific antigen (PAN) identified by the OptiMAL-IT test. In addition to the standard methods, such PCR assay could be useful to obtain the real incidence of each malaria parasite species for epidemiological perspectives.

  15. Hidden burden of malaria in Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod P

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is endemic in India with an estimated 70-100 million cases each year (1.6-1.8 million reported by NVBDCP; of this 50-55% are Plasmodium vivax and 45-50% Plasmodium falciparum. A recent study on malaria in pregnancy reported from undivided Madhya Pradesh state (includes Chhattisgarh state, that an estimated over 220,000 pregnant women contract malaria infection each year. Malaria in pregnancy caused- abortions 34.5%; stillbirths 9%; and maternal deaths 0.45%. Bulk of this tragic outcome can be averted by following the Roll Back Malaria/WHO recommendations of the use of malaria prevention i.e. indoor residual spraying (IRS/insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN preferably long-lasting treated bed nets (LLIN; intermittent preventive therapy (IPT; early diagnosis, prompt and complete treatment using microscopic/malaria rapid diagnostics test (RDT and case management. High incidence in pregnancy has arisen because of malaria surveillance lacking coverage, lack of age and sex wise data, staff shortages, and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT applicable in high transmission states/pockets is not included in the national drug policy- an essential component of fighting malaria in pregnancy in African settings. Inadequate surveillance and gross under-reporting has been highlighted time and again for over three decades. As a result the huge problem of malaria in pregnancy reported occasionally by researchers has remained hidden. Malaria in pregnancy may quicken severity in patients with drug resistant parasites, anaemia, endemic poverty, and malnutrition. There is, therefore, urgent need to streamline malaria control strategies to make a difference in tackling this grim scenario in human health.

  16. Global malaria connectivity through air travel

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhuojie; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Background Air travel has expanded at an unprecedented rate and continues to do so. Its effects have been seen on malaria in rates of imported cases, local outbreaks in non-endemic areas and the global spread of drug resistance. With elimination and global eradication back on the agenda, changing levels and compositions of imported malaria in malaria-free countries, and the threat of artemisinin resistance spreading from Southeast Asia, there is a need to better understand how the modern flow...

  17. Complex Interactions between soil-transmitted helminths and malaria in pregnant women on the Thai-Burmese border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machteld Boel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Deworming is recommended by the WHO in girls and pregnant and lactating women to reduce anaemia in areas where hookworm and anaemia are common. There is conflicting evidence on the harm and the benefits of intestinal geohelminth infections on the incidence and severity of malaria, and consequently on the risks and benefits of deworming in malaria affected populations. We examined the association between geohelminths and malaria in pregnancy on the Thai-Burmese border.Routine antenatal care (ANC included active detection of malaria (weekly blood smear and anaemia (second weekly haematocrit and systematic reporting of birth outcomes. In 1996 stool samples were collected in cross sectional surveys from women attending the ANCs. This was repeated in 2007 when malaria incidence had reduced considerably. The relationship between geohelminth infection and the progress and outcome of pregnancy was assessed.Stool sample examination (339 in 1996, 490 in 2007 detected a high prevalence of geohelminths 70% (578/829, including hookworm (42.8% (355, A. lumbricoides (34.4% (285 and T.trichuria (31.4% (250 alone or in combination. A lower proportion of women (829 had mild (21.8% (181 or severe (0.2% (2 anaemia, or malaria 22.4% (186 (P.vivax monoinfection 53.3% (101/186. A. lumbricoides infection was associated with a significantly decreased risk of malaria (any species (AOR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.23-0.84 and P.vivax malaria (AOR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.79 whereas hookworm infection was associated with an increased risk of malaria (any species (AOR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.06-2.60 and anaemia (AOR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.18-4.93. Hookworm was also associated with low birth weight (AOR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.02-3.23.A. lumbricoides and hookworm appear to have contrary associations with malaria in pregnancy.

  18. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

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    Ryan W Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field. The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  19. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roelof

    PURPOSE: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. METHODS: Explants of porcine

  20. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. Methods: Explants of porcine

  1. Potato cultivar type affects the structure of ammonia oxidizer communities in field soil under potato beyond the rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcante Franco Dias, A.; Hoogwout, E.F.; de Cassia Pereira e Silva, M.; Falcão Salles, J.; van Overbeek, L.S.; van Elsas, J.D.

    The effects of plants on the microbiota involved in the oxidation of ammonia in soils have been controversial. Here, we investigated the dynamics in the abundances and community structures of the bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOB and AOA, respectively) in two fields that were cropped

  2. Can slide positivity rates predict malaria transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Yan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a significant threat to population health in the border areas of Yunnan Province, China. How to accurately measure malaria transmission is an important issue. This study aimed to examine the role of slide positivity rates (SPR in malaria transmission in Mengla County, Yunnan Province, China. Methods Data on annual malaria cases, SPR and socio-economic factors for the period of 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and the Bureau of Statistics, Mengla, China. Multiple linear regression models were conducted to evaluate the relationship between socio-ecologic factors and malaria incidence. Results The results show that SPR was significantly positively associated with the malaria incidence rates. The SPR (β = 1.244, p = 0.000 alone and combination (SPR, β = 1.326, p  Conclusion SPR is a strong predictor of malaria transmission, and can be used to improve the planning and implementation of malaria elimination programmes in Mengla and other similar locations. SPR might also be a useful indicator of malaria early warning systems in China.

  3. Nutritional zinc deficiency, immune capacity and malaria : a study on mediators of immunity to malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbugi, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aimed at investigating the role of genetic and nutritional factors that affect the immune response to malaria in Tanzanian children. The introductory chapter (Chapter 1) reviews the importance of nutritional deficiencies, particularly of zinc, and presents the hypothesis that such

  4. Towards a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria

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    Tuikue Ndam N.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of pregnancy-associated malaria on pregnant women (anaemia, their babies (birth weight reduction, and infants (increased morbidity and mortality are well documented. Field observations during the last decade have underlined the key role of the interactions between P. falciparum variable surface antigens expressed on infected erythrocytes and a novel receptor: chondroitin sulfate A (CSA for the placental sequestration of infected erythrocytes. Identification of a distinct P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 variant, VAR2CSA, as the dominant variant surface antigen and as a clinically important target for protective immune response to pregnancy-associated malaria has raised hope for developing a new preventive strategy based on inducing these immune responses by vaccination. However, despite particular structure and interclonal conservation of VAR2CSA among other PfEMP1, significant challenges still exist concerning the development of a VAR2CSA-based vaccine with profound efficacy.

  5. Geochemical factors affecting radionuclide transport through near and far fields at a Low-Level Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J.; Piepkho, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The concentration of low-level waste (LLW) contaminants in groundwater is determined by the amount of contaminant present in the solid waste, rate of release from the waste and surrounding barriers, and a number of geochemical processes including adsorption, desorption, diffusion, precipitation, and dissolution. To accurately predict radionuclide transport through the subsurface, it is essential that the important geochemical processes affecting radionuclide transport be identified and, perhaps more importantly, accurately quantified and described in a mathematically defensible manner

  6. Natural radioactivity levels in soil samples around the flood affected salt field area, Kelambakkam, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India using gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, A.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Thangam, V.; Jananee, B.

    2018-01-01

    Humans are exposed to natural radiation from external sources, which include radionuclides in the earth and cosmic radiation. Gamma Ray spectroscopic technique was used to assess the natural radioactivity in soils around the flood affected salt field area, Kelambakkam Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. The activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and absorbed dose rate of soil samples were calculated to assess the radiation hazards in the study area

  7. Submicroscopic malaria parasite carriage: how reproducible are polymerase chain reaction-based methods?

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    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods for the diagnosis of malaria infection are expected to accurately identify submicroscopic parasite carriers. Although a significant number of PCR protocols have been described, few studies have addressed the performance of PCR amplification in cases of field samples with submicroscopic malaria infection. Here, the reproducibility of two well-established PCR protocols (nested-PCR and real-time PCR for the Plasmodium 18 small subunit rRNA gene were evaluated in a panel of 34 blood field samples from individuals that are potential reservoirs of malaria infection, but were negative for malaria by optical microscopy. Regardless of the PCR protocol, a large variation between the PCR replicates was observed, leading to alternating positive and negative results in 38% (13 out of 34 of the samples. These findings were quite different from those obtained from the microscopy-positive patients or the unexposed individuals; the diagnosis of these individuals could be confirmed based on the high reproducibility and specificity of the PCR-based protocols. The limitation of PCR amplification was restricted to the field samples with very low levels of parasitaemia because titrations of the DNA templates were able to detect < 3 parasites/µL in the blood. In conclusion, conventional PCR protocols require careful interpretation in cases of submicroscopic malaria infection, as inconsistent and false-negative results can occur.

  8. Simulation of malaria epidemiology and control in the highlands of western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuckey Erin M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of Plasmodium falciparum malaria epidemiology that provide realistic quantitative predictions of likely epidemiological outcomes of existing vector control strategies have the potential to assist in planning for the control and elimination of malaria. This work investigates the applicability of mathematical modelling of malaria transmission dynamics in Rachuonyo South, a district with low, unstable transmission in the highlands of western Kenya. Methods Individual-based stochastic simulation models of malaria in humans and a deterministic model of malaria in mosquitoes as part of the OpenMalaria platform were parameterized to create a scenario for the study area based on data from ongoing field studies and available literature. The scenario was simulated for a period of two years with a population of 10,000 individuals and validated against malaria survey data from Rachuonyo South. Simulations were repeated with multiple random seeds and an ensemble of 14 model variants to address stochasticity and model uncertainty. A one-dimensional sensitivity analysis was conducted to address parameter uncertainty. Results The scenario was able to reproduce the seasonal pattern of the entomological inoculation rate (EIR and patent infections observed in an all-age cohort of individuals sampled monthly for one year. Using an EIR estimated from serology to parameterize the scenario resulted in a closer fit to parasite prevalence than an EIR estimated using entomological methods. The scenario parameterization was most sensitive to changes in the timing and effectiveness of indoor residual spraying (IRS and the method used to detect P. falciparum in humans. It was less sensitive than expected to changes in vector biting behaviour and climatic patterns. Conclusions The OpenMalaria model of P. falciparum transmission can be used to simulate the impact of different combinations of current and potential control interventions to help plan

  9. Surveillance and Control of Malaria Transmission in Thailand using Remotely Sensed Meteorological and Environmental Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    . The output of the model includes the individual infection status and the quantities normally observed in field studies, such as mosquito biting rates, sporozoite infection rates, gametocyte prevalence and incidence. Results are in good agreement with mosquito vector and human malaria data acquired by Coleman et al. over 4.5 years in Kong Mong Tha, a remote village in western Thailand. Application of our models is not restricted to the Greater Mekong Subregion. Our models have been applied to malaria in Indonesia, Korea, and other regions in the world with similar success.

  10. Assessment of Habitat Suitability Is Affected by Plant-Soil Feedback: Comparison of Field and Garden Experiment.

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    Lucie Hemrová

    Full Text Available Field translocation experiments (i.e., the introduction of seeds or seedlings of different species into different localities are commonly used to study habitat associations of species, as well as factors limiting species distributions and local abundances. Species planted or sown in sites where they naturally occur are expected to perform better or equally well compared to sites at which they do not occur or are rare. This, however, contrasts with the predictions of the Janzen-Connell hypothesis and commonly reported intraspecific negative plant-soil feedback. The few previous studies indicating poorer performance of plants at sites where they naturally occur did not explore the mechanisms behind this pattern.In this study, we used field translocation experiments established using both seeds and seedlings to study the determinants of local abundance of four dominant species in grasslands. To explore the possible effects of intraspecific negative plant-soil feedback on our results, we tested the effect of local species abundance on the performance of the plants in the field experiment. In addition, we set up a garden experiment to explore the intensity of intraspecific as well as interspecific feedback between the dominants used in the experiment.In some cases, the distribution and local abundances of the species were partly driven by habitat conditions at the sites, and species performed better at their own sites. However, the prevailing pattern was that the local dominants performed worse at sites where they naturally occur than at any other sites. Moreover, the success of plants in the field experiment was lower in the case of higher intraspecific abundance prior to experimental setup. In the garden feedback experiment, two of the species performed significantly worse in soils conditioned by their species than in soils conditioned by the other species. In addition, the performance of the plants was significantly correlated between the two

  11. Maps of the Sri Lanka malaria situation preceding the tsunami and key aspects to be considered in the emergency phase and beyond

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    Konradsen Flemming

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the tsunami, a detailed overview of the area specific transmission levels is essential in assessing the risk of malaria in Sri Lanka. Recent information on vector insecticide resistance, parasite drug resistance, and insights into the national policy for malaria diagnosis and treatment are important in assisting national and international agencies in their control efforts. Methods Monthly records over the period January 1995 – October 2004 of confirmed malaria cases were used to perform an analysis of malaria distribution at district spatial resolution. Also, a focused review of published reports and routinely collected information was performed. Results The incidence of malaria was only 1 case per thousand population in the 10 months leading up to the disaster, in the districts with the highest transmission. Conclusion Although relocated people may be more exposed to mosquito bites, and their capacity to handle diseases affected, the environmental changes caused by the tsunami are unlikely to enhance breeding of the principal vector, and, given the present low parasite reservoir, the likelihood of a malaria outbreak is low. However, close monitoring of the situation is necessary, especially as December – February is normally the peak transmission season. Despite some losses, the Sri Lanka public health system is capable of dealing with the possible threat of a malaria outbreak after the tsunami. The influx of foreign medical assistance, drugs, and insecticides may interfere with malaria surveillance, and the long term malaria control strategy of Sri Lanka, if not in accordance with government policy.

  12. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases.

  13. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died.

  14. Thermal limits of wild and laboratory strains of two African malaria vector species, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Candice L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria affects large parts of the developing world and is responsible for almost 800,000 deaths annually. As climates change, concerns have arisen as to how this vector-borne disease will be impacted by changing rainfall patterns and warming temperatures. Despite the importance and controversy surrounding the impact of climate change on the potential spread of this disease, little information exists on the tolerances of several of the vector species themselves. Methods Using a ramping protocol (to assess critical thermal limits - CT and plunge protocol (to assess lethal temperature limits - LT information on the thermal tolerance of two of Africa’s important malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus was collected. The effects of age, thermal acclimation treatment, sex and strain (laboratory versus wild adults were investigated for CT determinations for each species. The effects of age and sex for adults and life stage (larvae, pupae, adults were investigated for LT determinations. Results In both species, females are more tolerant to low and high temperatures than males; larvae and pupae have higher upper lethal limits than do adults. Thermal acclimation of adults has large effects in some instances but small effects in others. Younger adults tend to be more tolerant of low or high temperatures than older age groups. Long-standing laboratory colonies are sufficiently similar in thermal tolerance to field-collected animals to provide reasonable surrogates when making inferences about wild population responses. Differences between these two vectors in their thermal tolerances, especially in larvae and pupae, are plausibly a consequence of different habitat utilization. Conclusions Limited plasticity is characteristic of the adults of these vector species relative to others examined to date, suggesting limited scope for within-generation change in thermal tolerance. These findings and the greater tolerance

  15. Controlling imported malaria cases in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Bassidy; Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz

    2017-02-01

    We extend the mathematical malaria epidemic model framework of Dembele et al. and use it to ``capture" the 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported data on the 2011 number of imported malaria cases in the USA. Furthermore, we use our ``fitted" malaria models for the top 20 countries of malaria acquisition by USA residents to study the impact of protecting USA residents from malaria infection when they travel to malaria endemic areas, the impact of protecting residents of malaria endemic regions from mosquito bites and the impact of killing mosquitoes in those endemic areas on the CDC number of imported malaria cases in USA. To significantly reduce the number of imported malaria cases in USA, for each top 20 country of malaria acquisition by USA travelers, we compute the optimal proportion of USA international travelers that must be protected against malaria infection and the optimal proportion of mosquitoes that must be killed.

  16. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza; Golam, Faruq; Rahman, M. Motior; Sofian-Azirun, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3) on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing) of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fr...

  17. Ventral tegmental area disruption selectively affects CA1/CA2 but not CA3 place fields during a differential reward working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2011-02-01

    Hippocampus (HPC) receives dopaminergic (DA) projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra. These inputs appear to provide a modulatory signal that influences HPC dependent behaviors and place fields. We examined how efferent projections from VTA to HPC influence spatial working memory and place fields when the reward context changes. CA1 and CA3 process environmental context changes differently and VTA preferentially innervates CA1. Given these anatomical data and electrophysiological evidence that implicate DA in reward processing, we predicted that CA1 place fields would respond more strongly to both VTA disruption and changes in the reward context than CA3 place fields. Rats (N = 9) were implanted with infusion cannula targeting VTA and recording tetrodes aimed at HPC. Then they were tested on a differential reward, win-shift working memory task. One recording session consisted of 5 baseline and 5 manipulation trials during which place cells in CA1/CA2 (N = 167) and CA3 (N = 94) were recorded. Prior to manipulation trials rats were infused with either baclofen or saline and then subjected to control or reward conditions during which the learned locations of large and small reward quantities were reversed. VTA disruption resulted in an increase in errors, and in CA1/CA2 place field reorganization. There were no changes in any measures of CA3 place field stability during VTA disruption. Reward manipulations did not affect performance or place field stability in CA1/CA2 or CA3; however, changes in the reward locations "rescued" performance and place field stability in CA1/CA2 when VTA activity was compromised, perhaps by trigging compensatory mechanisms. These data support the hypothesis that VTA contributes to spatial working memory performance perhaps by maintaining place field stability selectively in CA1/CA2. Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Do recommended doses of glyphosate-based herbicides affect soil invertebrates? Field and laboratory screening tests to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; de Santo, Fernanda Benedet; Guerra, Naiara; Ricardo Filho, Altair Maçaneiro; Pech, Tatiani Maria

    2018-05-01

    Despite glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agriculture, forestry and gardens, little is known about its effects on non-target organisms. The present work evaluated the ecotoxicity of four formulated products (Roundup ® Original, Trop ® , Zapp ® Qi 620 and Crucial ® ) on soil invertebrates. Screening ecotoxicity tests were carried out with soil and oat straw collected in a field experiment, besides laboratory-spiked soils. Screening tests included avoidance behaviour of earthworms (Eisenia andrei), collembolans (Folsomia candida) and isopods (Porcellio dilatatus) in single and multispecies tests; reproduction of collembolans (F. candida), and bait lamina in field. Non-avoidance behaviour was observed in standard tests (earthworms) in soil, neither in multispecies tests (earthworm + isopods) using oat straw, while for collembolans it occurred for the product Zapp ® Qi 620 even at the recommended dose. Reproduction of F. candida was not impaired even at high doses in laboratory-spiked soils. Feeding activity on bait lamina test was impaired in treatment corresponding to the red label product, Crucial ® . Results showed the relevance of bait lamina test on screening the impact of herbicides in the field. The findings highlight the importance of considering different formulations for the same active ingredient in risk assessment of pesticides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PENGOBATAN MALARIA DENGAN KOMBINASI ARTEMISININ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilianan Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous approaches in malaria treatment fail to reduce the morbidity and mortality of malaria. Widespread overuse of antimalarial treatment of clinical malaria may have contributed to increase drug resistance. Moreover, poor compliance or inadequate dosage also selects for parasite resistance. The paradigm of radical treatment using drug combinations may improve the cure rate and compliance, thereby preventing or delaying the emergence of parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. The ideal combined antimalarial regimen in Indonesia should be safe and tolerated by all age groups, effective and rapidly acting for both P.falciparum and P.vivax malaria, short course, good compliance and acceptable, without resistance and/or cross-resistance or , not widely spread use, cost-effective and affordable. Artemisinin derivatives are the best partner drug for combination, with advantages that include: well absorbed, safe and well tolerated, rapidly converted to active metabolite, having very short half-life, broad specificity of action, and extremely potent. Current artemisinin-based combinations which are suitable for Indonesia include: amodiaquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (AQ3+ATS3, mefloquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (MQ3+ATS3, lumefantrine/benflumetol plus artemether given as twice daily dose for 3 days (COARTEMETHER, piperaquine plus dihydroartemisinin given as single daily dose for 2-3 days (PPQ2-3+DHA2-3, and piperaquine plus artemisinin given as single daily dose for 2 days (PPQ2+ATM2. Given the imbalance between rapid development of parasite resistance and slow availability of new effective antimalarial drugs, research and development of antimalarial drugs must be encouraged.

  20. The Malaria Problem: short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ebikeme

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is the world's most prevalent infectious disease, a major cause of mortality, and a barrier to social and economic development and growth in many countries throughout the world. Antimalarials represent an important part of strategy to curbing this debilitating disease. The spread of drug resistance is becoming increasingly important. To date, parasite resistance to all but one case of antimalarials exists in most endemic countries. Meaning, new drug to combat the disease are a priority.

  1. Translational Repression in Malaria Sporozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turque, Oliver; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Thomas; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α) leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1), is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host. PMID:28357358

  2. Translational repression in malaria sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Turque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1, is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host.

  3. Automated detection of malaria pigment: feasibility for malaria diagnosing in an area with seasonal malaria in northern Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Langen, Adrianus J.; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Witte, Piet; Mucheto, Samson; Nagelkerke, Nico; Kager, Piet

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of automated malaria detection with the Cell-Dyn 3700 (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA, USA) haematology analyser for diagnosing malaria in northern Namibia. METHODS: From April to June 2003, all patients with a positive blood smear result and a subset of

  4. A regional-scale, high resolution dynamical malaria model that accounts for population density, climate and surface hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Ermert, Volker

    2013-02-18

    The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions.

  5. Associations between maternal helminth and malaria infections in pregnancy, and clinical malaria in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Lule, Swaib

    2013-01-01

    Background. Helminth and malaria coinfections are common in the tropics. We investigated the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to these parasites might influence susceptibility to infections such as malaria in childhood.Methods. In a birth cohort of 2,345 mother-child pairs in Uganda, maternal...... helminth and malaria infection status was determined during pregnancy, and childhood malaria episodes recorded from birth to age five years. We examined associations between maternal infections and malaria in the offspring.Results. Common maternal infections were hookworm (45%), Mansonella perstans (21......%), Schistosoma mansoni (18%), and Plasmodium falciparum (11%). At age 5 years, 69% of the children were still under follow-up. The incidence of malaria was 34 episodes per 100 child-years, and the mean prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at annual visits was 5.4%. Maternal hookworm and M. perstans infections were...

  6. Preparing the Field for Feasibility Testing of a Parenting Intervention for War-Affected Mothers in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieling, Elizabeth; Mehus, Christopher; Yumbul, Cigdem; Möllerherm, Julia; Ertl, Verena; Laura, Achan; Forgatch, Marion; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we discuss the successful implementation of an adapted evidence-based parenting intervention for families affected by two decades of war in Northern Uganda. The adaptation and adoption of such interventions to support mental health and family functioning is widely endorsed by prevention scientists and considered a priority in global mental health. The preparation and early adoption phases of engaging with a highly vulnerable community affected by war trauma are documented in this paper along with a discussion of the steps taken to adapt a parenting intervention for cultural and contextual fit. This study is a component of an overall program of research aimed at reducing the long-term negative effects of war on parenting practices and childhood outcomes, which have considerable implications for preventing mental, neurological, and substance-use disorders. The processes described here cover a 4-year period culminating in the implementation of the nine-session Enhancing Family Connection intervention piloted with a group of 14 mothers. The lessons in cultural adaptation have been valuable and the feasibility results promising for further testing the intervention. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  7. Soil CH4 and N2O Emissions from Rice Paddy Fields in Southern Brazil as Affected by Crop Management Levels: a Three-Year Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Zschornack

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rice yield increases in response to improvements in crop management, but the impact on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions in the subtropical region of Southern Brazil remains unknown. A three-year field study was developed aiming to evaluate the impact that an increase in crop management levels (high and very high has on soil methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions, as compared to the level (medium currently adopted by farmers in Southern Brazil. Differences in crop management included seed and fertilizer rates, irrigation, and pesticide use. The effect of crop management levels on the annual partial global warming potential (pGWP = CH4 × 25 + N2O × 298 ranged from 7,547 to 17,711 kg CO2eq ha−1 and this effect was larger than on the rice grain yield (9,280 to 12,260 kg ha−1, resulting in approximately 60 % higher yield-scaled GHG with the high crop management level compared to the current level. Soil CH4 emissions accounted for 98 % of pGWP in the flooded rice season, whereas N2O prevailed during the drained non-rice season (≈65 %. Although it was impossible to relate emissions to any individual input or practice, soil CH4 emissions in the rice season were linearly related to the biomass produced by the rice crop (p<0.01 and by ryegrass in the previous non-rice season (p<0.1, both of which were possibly related to the supply of labile C for methanogenesis. A future increase in rice yield as a result of the adoption of improved crop management may require additional agricultural practices (e.g., intermittent irrigation to offset the increased GHG emissions.

  8. How do field of view and resolution affect the information content of panoramic scenes for visual navigation? A computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wystrach, Antoine; Dewar, Alex; Philippides, Andrew; Graham, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The visual systems of animals have to provide information to guide behaviour and the informational requirements of an animal's behavioural repertoire are often reflected in its sensory system. For insects, this is often evident in the optical array of the compound eye. One behaviour that insects share with many animals is the use of learnt visual information for navigation. As ants are expert visual navigators it may be that their vision is optimised for navigation. Here we take a computational approach in asking how the details of the optical array influence the informational content of scenes used in simple view matching strategies for orientation. We find that robust orientation is best achieved with low-resolution visual information and a large field of view, similar to the optical properties seen for many ant species. A lower resolution allows for a trade-off between specificity and generalisation for stored views. Additionally, our simulations show that orientation performance increases if different portions of the visual field are considered as discrete visual sensors, each giving an independent directional estimate. This suggests that ants might benefit by processing information from their two eyes independently.

  9. Modulation of Malaria Phenotypes by Pyruvate Kinase (PKLR Variants in a Thai Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah van Bruggen

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PKLR is a critical erythrocyte enzyme that is required for glycolysis and production of ATP. We have shown that Pklr deficiency in mice reduces the severity (reduced parasitemia, increased survival of blood stage malaria induced by infection with Plasmodium chabaudi AS. Likewise, studies in human erythrocytes infected ex vivo with P. falciparum show that presence of host PK-deficiency alleles reduces infection phenotypes. We have characterized the genetic diversity of the PKLR gene, including haplotype structure and presence of rare coding variants in two populations from malaria endemic areas of Thailand and Senegal. We investigated the effect of PKLR genotypes on rich longitudinal datasets including haematological and malaria-associated phenotypes. A coding and possibly damaging variant (R41Q was identified in the Thai population with a minor allele frequency of ~4.7%. Arginine 41 (R41 is highly conserved in the pyruvate kinase family and its substitution to Glutamine (R41Q affects protein stability. Heterozygosity for R41Q is shown to be associated with a significant reduction in the number of attacks with Plasmodium falciparum, while correlating with an increased number of Plasmodium vivax infections. These results strongly suggest that PKLR protein variants may affect the frequency, and the intensity of malaria episodes induced by different Plasmodium parasites in humans living in areas of endemic malaria.

  10. Uptake of plutonium-238 by plants grown under field condition as affected by one year of weathering and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.F.; Hinds, W.T.

    1976-06-01

    Less 238 Pu was concentrated in the seeds than in the vegetative parts in all plant species. Leaves contained more 238 Pu than the stem or pods, and the monocots had lower concentrations of 238 Pu in their tissues than the dicots. Irrigation of plants affected the uptake of 238 Pu, especially on the year-to-year changes in the amount of the element accumulated in the plant parts. Several more years of data must be analyzed to determine if this phenomenon is real. Soil profiles must be studied to determine what configuration changes may occur in the 238 Pu in the soil. Other investigators show that soil microbes change the chemical form of plutonium in the soil and the organic complexes that are formed are more available for plant uptake

  11. Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood group types and P. falciparum malaria, as well as malaria preventive measures. The venous blood specimens were collected, processed, Giemsa-stained and examined microscopically. ABO groups were determined by agglutination test using ...

  12. Plasmodium falciparum malaria and antimalarial interventions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The recent increases in malaria mortality rates in Africa ... the world's population at risk of malaria are in Africa. (WHO, 2000). ... understood to be both a disease of poverty and a cause ... anaemia and 8 to 14% of low birth weight in areas with.

  13. Is the Malaria Elimination Target Achievable?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    in low and middle income countries (1-4). In. 2013, malaria killed over a billion people, mostly in sub-Saharan ... According to the 2016 report,. 27% of the population lives in high transmission areas while 41% ... Similarly several countries have reduced malaria transmission to levels low enough to allow them to embark on ...

  14. Attitudes to malaria, prevention, treatment and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... consequences of malaria treatment pattern and management strategies in an urban center. Questionnaires were issued ... anopheles mosquitoes as malaria vector are some of the factors militating against prevention and proper management of the .... bush clearing, drainage and gutter control in preventing.

  15. Malaria vector control: current and future strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The recently announced call for malaria eradication represents a new page in the history of this disease. This has been triggered by remarkable reductions in malaria resulting from combined application of effective drugs and vector control. However, this strategy is threatened by development of

  16. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data available from the far North Western region. This research study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, monthly distribution of malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria in order to generate base-.

  17. Alanine metabolism in acute falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukrittayakamee, S.; Krishna, S.; ter Kuile, F.; Wilaiwan, O.; Williamson, D. H.; White, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the integrity of the gluconeogenic pathway in severe malaria using alanine metabolism as a measure. Alanine disposition and liver blood flow, assessed by indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, were measured simultaneously in 10 patients with falciparum malaria (six severe and four

  18. Neonatal malaria complicated by hypoglycaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no established and widely accepted guidelines for clinical management of severe neonatal malaria. The aim of this paper is to raise the alertness of physicians regarding the occurrence of severe malaria in the neonatal period and to describe the treatment modality we adopted (in the absence of an internationally ...

  19. The Malaria Season Is Upon Us

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imported or Odyssean malaria from countries such as Swaziland,. Mozambique ... can be administered.⁵ The only .... Treatment. With the introduction of an effective vaccine for Southern Africa .... Being prepared for a malaria infection by packing ... sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine against Plasmodium falciparum in Yemen and.

  20. Use of chloroquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of chloroquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria chemotherapy: The past, the present and the future. ... regions. It was initially highly effective against the four Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malaria, P. ovale and P. vivax) infecting human. It is also effective against gametocytes except those of P. falciparum.