WorldWideScience

Sample records for fiebre rational approach

  1. Fiebre tifoidea

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes S., Álvaro A.; Sierra, Fernando; Racines A., Dorman; Saravia, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Se revisa la experiencia del Hospital San Juan de Dios de Bogotá Universidad Nacional en fiebre tifoidea entre 1979 y 1986. Se presentaron 24 casos; 17 hombres y 7 mujeres con edad promedio de 22.2 años (rango entre 15 y 40 años), la mayoría proveniente de aéreas urbanas. La duración promedio de la sintomatología antes de consultar fue de 18.7 días y la estancia hospitalaria promedio fue de 19.5 días.

  2. Fiebre tifoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro A. Reyes S.

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa la experiencia del Hospital San Juan de Dios de Bogotá Universidad Nacional en fiebre tifoidea entre 1979 y 1986. Se presentaron 24 casos; 17 hombres y 7 mujeres con edad promedio de 22.2 años (rango entre 15 y 40 años, la mayoría proveniente de aéreas urbanas. La duración promedio de la sintomatología antes de consultar fue de 18.7 días y la estancia hospitalaria promedio fue de 19.5 días.

  3. A Rational Approach to Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Describes suicide as reaction to internal and external sources of stress and the impact of life events. Notes that, in the elderly, these situations are prevalent in many who are not suicidal. Contends that much more is written about rational suicide than its alternative (rational nonsuicide). Reviews reasons for this and suggests rational…

  4. Stress Management: A Rational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Cecil

    This workbook was designed for use as the primary resource tool during a l-day participatory stress management seminar in which participants identify stressful situations, conduct analyses, and develop approaches to manage the stressful situations more effectively. Small group warm-up activities designed to introduce participants, encourage…

  5. Were Neanderthals Rational? A Stoic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Whiting

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the philosophical approach of Stoicism as the basis for re-examining the cognitive and ethical relationship between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. Stoicism sets out a clear criterion for the special moral status of human beings, namely rationality. We explore to what extent Neanderthals were sufficiently rational to be considered “human”. Recent findings in the fields of palaeoanthropology and palaeogenetics show that Neanderthals possessed high-level cognitive abilities and produced viable offspring with anatomically modern humans. Our discussion offers insights for reflecting on the relationship between humans and other forms of natural life and any moral obligations that result.

  6. La fiebre en los niños

    OpenAIRE

    Madriñan T., Jorge; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2007-01-01

    ¿Por qué se produce la fiebre?/¿Para qué sirve la fiebre?/¿Qué es la fiebre-fobia?/Factores que contribuyen a la "fiebre-fobia"/¿Cómo se maneja la fiebre?/¿La fiebre produce convulsiones febriles?/¿Cuándo llamar al médico?

  7. Bartoneliasis: fiebre verrucosa del guaitara en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño Camargo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    En Colombia, al descubrirla, diósele (1) a esta dolencia los siguientes nombres: Bartonellosis, Fiebre verrucosa del Guaitara y Verruga, análoga a la enfermedad de Carrión, Fiebre de Oroya y Verruga Peruana.

  8. Fiebre "Q" en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Somma Moreira

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Los autores hacen una revisión de la problemática referida a la fiebre Q, tanto desde el punto de vista clínico como epidemiológico. El primer caso nacional se comunicó en el año 1956, en un adulto, obrero de frigorífico. En 1966 se comunica el primer caso en un niño. A partir de esa fecha se realizan varias encuestas serológicas en humanos y en animales. En seres humanos los hallazgos varían entre 4.2% y 5.5% según el año estudiado. En animales se hallaron valores que oscilaron entre 0.9% (animal para abasto y 30% (animal tipo industria para bovinos. En ovinos, en el único estudio se halló un 10.3% de positivos. En equinos los valores de positividad variaron de 5.5% a 21.7%. En suinos se refiere un porcentaje de positividad del 21.2% en la primera encuesta, sendo en la más reciente del 0.0%. En aves y cobayos no se evidenciaron sueros positivos. Entre 1975 y 1985 los autores estudiaron 14 brotes en seres humanos en esta-blecimentos de procesamiento de carne, con un total de 1358 casos estudiados, habiéndose confirmado el 60% de ellos. Pasan revista a la sintomatologia común, así como el tipo de tarea de los pacientes. Para los estudios serológicos, como los diagnósticos de los casos clínicos, los autores utilizaron la fijación del complemento, la aglutinación capilar y la microa-glutinación en lámina.

  9. MBO: A Rational Approach and a Comparative Frameworks Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Considering an organizational phenomenon from more than one theoretical perspective may be more fruitful than using a single rational approach. There is a danger that the restriction of information generation caused by the single approach may produce a false certainty engendered in part through the methodology itself. (Author/WM)

  10. Rationality and drug use: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, Serge; Lohéac, Youenn; Rinaudo, Stéphane

    2007-05-01

    In rational addiction theory, higher discount rates encourage drug use. We test this hypothesis in the general framework of rationality and behaviour under risk. We do so using an experimental design with real monetary incentives. The decisions of 34 drug addicts are compared with those of a control group. The decisions of drug users (DU) are not any less consistent with standard theories of behaviour over time and under risk. Further, there is no difference in the estimated discount rate between drug users and the control group, but the former do appear to be more risk-seeking.

  11. The Rational-Emotive Approach: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G. Barry

    1976-01-01

    The critique of Rational-Emotive Therapy aims criticism at Ellis' concept of irrationality, analysis of human behavior and therapeutic techniques. Ellis suggests that his critic's claims lack the support of experimental evidence. He further suggests that an "existential" bias pervades which differs from his own brand of…

  12. The Rational Approach to Budget Cuts: One University's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    The University of Montreal's choice of the rational model of decision-making in managing budget cutbacks is explored and compared with other approaches, including the bureaucratic, garbage can, political, and collegial models. (MSE)

  13. Probabilistic approach to rationalization of plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masao; Notoya, Junichi; Uchimoto, Tetsuya; Miya, Kenzo

    2001-01-01

    Since there are a lot of equipments in large plants, their safety and reliability cannot be kept as high level as designed without maintenance activities. Then preventive maintenance is intensively executed in some large plants. However, it will be inefficient to perform the preventive maintenance blindly. To make maintenance activities effective, it is essential to identify the critical equipments influencing plant safety and/or reliability and carry out the maintenance by focusing attentions on these equipments. It needs quantitative analyses to identify the critical equipments based on the data of failure rates. However, complete data set of failure rates cannot necessarily be available for some plants such as nuclear power plants. In this study, we carry out the reliability analysis for generic LNG plant and calculate various quantitative risk importance measures for each equipment. We propose rather qualitative representations for some quantitative measures, considering the situation without complete data set and conclude that it is possible to rationalize maintenance procedure by using these rather qualitative measures, though the level of rationalization is of course limited. (author)

  14. Computational and Game-Theoretic Approaches for Modeling Bounded Rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Waltman (Ludo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies various computational and game-theoretic approaches to economic modeling. Unlike traditional approaches to economic modeling, the approaches studied in this thesis do not rely on the assumption that economic agents behave in a fully rational way. Instead, economic

  15. [Rational approach of leucocytosis in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, D

    2013-09-01

    Several factors may influence the increased level of white blood cells (physical and/or emotional stimuli, infections, inflammations, drugs, toxins, etc.). The best approach to identify these disorders gets through a physical examination and a precise history. A particular attention should be focused on the onset of lymph nodes and/or splenomegaly. Among severe haematological disorders to take into consideration, we should exclude acute leukemias, chronic leukemias and myeloproliferative disorders.

  16. Rationalism and emotivism from a neuroethic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jesús Pérez Zafrilla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of neuroethics has used to privilege the role of emotion in contrast to reasoning in moral deliberation. My aim in this paper to oppose two models of moral deliberation articulated from neuroethics: the emotivist one, developed by Haidt and Lakoff; and the rationalist one, elaborated by Hugo Mercier. My aim is to stablish if Mercier rehabilitates reasoning in neuroethics or if his approach is an emotivist one too.

  17. A rational approach for ω-transaminase-catalyzed process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Gundersen, Maria; Lloyd, Richard; Tufvesson, Pär

    Herein we describe a novel rational approach to the design of a ω-transaminase process such that it will fulfill criteria necessary for industrial use. By first determining the fundamental properties of the reaction system, it is possible to suggest appropriate process strategies that may be used...

  18. A rational approach to public safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidall, E.A.

    The proposed approach considers safety from the point of view of the victims, i.e. the public. It is taken as axiomatic that all premature loss of life is equal and that the cost of public safety measures falls in the last analysis on the public. The effort to counter risk is considered to be divided into many safety activities and sub-activities. At present, there is virtually no coordination between activities, but sub-activities are effectively compared with each other within each activity. If an activity is organized for best efficiency, its sub-activities would be carried out in order of diminishing return for money, or in other words in increasing cost per extra statistical life saved (CSX), up to a cut-off point. Evidence is quoted which indicates that, at present, the CSX at cut-off varies over several orders of magnitude between different activities. It is suggested that it is the ease or otherwise with which money can be made available for the activity which accounts for this wide range. If these activities with a high terminal CSX are cut back and the money saved is diverted to activities of low CSX, it appears that large amounts of money could be saved for the same overall cost. These measures simply amount to spending money when it will save most lives. The implementation of these ideas is discussed. (author)

  19. [Rational drug use: an economic approach to decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Daniel Marques; da Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos; Sudo, Elisa Cazue; Ortún, Vicente

    2008-04-01

    The present article approaches rational drug use (RDU) from the economical point of view. The implementation of RDU implies in costs and involves acquisition of knowledge and behavioral changes of several agents. The difficulties in implementing RDU may be due to shortage problems, information asymmetry, lack of information, uncertain clinical decisions, externalities, time-price, incentives for drug prescribers and dispensers, drug prescriber preferences and marginal utility. Health authorities, among other agencies, must therefore regularize, rationalize and control drug use to minimize inefficiency in pharmaceutical care and to prevent exposing the population to unnecessary health risks.

  20. Recent advances in rational approaches for enzyme engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Steiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are an attractive alternative in the asymmetric syntheses of chiral building blocks. To meet the requirements of industrial biotechnology and to introduce new functionalities, the enzymes need to be optimized by protein engineering. This article specifically reviews rational approaches for enzyme engineering and de novo enzyme design involving structure-based approaches developed in recent years for improvement of the enzymes’ performance, broadened substrate range, and creation of novel functionalities to obtain products with high added value for industrial applications.

  1. Measuring inflation under rationing: A virtual price approach

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Starzec; François Gardes

    2014-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://ces.univ-paris1.fr/cesdp/cesdp2014.html; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2014.01 - ISSN : 1955-611X; The presence of rationing or more generally of the situations of constrained demand can make the traditional methods of measuring inflation questionable and give an erroneous image of the reality. In this paper, we use the virtual price approach (Neary, Roberts, 1980) to estimate the real inflation level in a centrally planned econ...

  2. Consumers' evaluations of ecological packaging - rational and emotional approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig-Lewis, Nicole; Palmer, Adrian; Dermody, Janine; Urbye, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Ecological marketing claims have been criticized for confusing or misleading buyers, leading to calls for more rationality in promoting and evaluating ‘green’ products. However, emotions are important drivers influencing pro-environmental purchase decisions. This study investigates consumers' emotional and rational evaluations of pro-environmental packaging. A conceptual model incorporates individuals' general environmental concerns, their rational beliefs about environmental effects of produ...

  3. How rational should bioethics be? The value of empirical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A A

    2001-10-01

    Rational justification of claims with empirical content calls for empirical and not only normative philosophical investigation. Empirical approaches to bioethics are epistemically valuable, i.e., such methods may be necessary in providing and verifying basic knowledge about cultural values and norms. Our assumptions in moral reasoning can be verified or corrected using these methods. Moral arguments can be initiated or adjudicated by data drawn from empirical investigation. One may argue that individualistic informed consent, for example, is not compatible with the Asian communitarian orientation. But this normative claim uses an empirical assumption that may be contrary to the fact that some Asians do value and argue for informed consent. Is it necessary and factual to neatly characterize some cultures as individualistic and some as communitarian? Empirical investigation can provide a reasonable way to inform such generalizations. In a multi-cultural context, such as in the Philippines, there is a need to investigate the nature of the local ethos before making any appeal to authenticity. Otherwise we may succumb to the same ethical imperialism we are trying hard to resist. Normative claims that involve empirical premises cannot be reasonable verified or evaluated without utilizing empirical methods along with philosophical reflection. The integration of empirical methods to the standard normative approach to moral reasoning should be reasonably guided by the epistemic demands of claims arising from cross-cultural discourse in bioethics.

  4. The art of rationing - the need for a new approach to rationing health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A key element in dealing with HIV/AIDS in South Africa depends on the resolution of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) paradox: while a universal First-World-style ART programme is unaffordable, a rationed treatment programme that includes ART is not only affordable but also vital for basic human rights reasons, to enhance ...

  5. A "Mindful Rational Living" Approach for Addressing HIV in the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenneville, Tiffany; St. John Walsh, Audra

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a "mindful rational living" approach, which incorporates mindfulness techniques with rational emotive behavioral therapy strategies for addressing HIV in the school setting. The utility of this approach for attending to the physical, mental, and psychosocial aspects of school-based HIV prevention and treatment will…

  6. Rational Solutions to the ABS List: Transformation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danda; Zhang, Da-Jun

    2017-10-01

    In the paper we derive rational solutions for the lattice potential modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, and Q2, Q1(δ), H3(δ), H2 and H1 in the Adler-Bobenko-Suris list. Bäcklund transformations between these lattice equations are used. All these rational solutions are related to a unified τ function in Casoratian form which obeys a bilinear superposition formula.

  7. A more rational approach to new-product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonabeau, Eric; Bodick, Neil; Armstrong, Robert W

    2008-03-01

    Companies often treat new-product development as a monolithic process, but it can be more rationally divided into two parts: an early stage that focuses on evaluating prospects and eliminating bad bets, and a late stage that maximizes the remaining candidates' market potential. Recognizing the value of this approach, Eli Lilly designed and piloted Chorus, an autonomous unit dedicated solely to the early stage. This article demonstrates how segmenting development in this way can speed it up and make it more cost-effective. Two classes of decision-making errors can impede NPD, the authors say. First, managers often ignore evidence challenging their assumptions that projects will succeed. As a result, many projects go forward despite multiple red flags; some even reach the market, only to fail dramatically after their introduction. Second, companies sometimes terminate projects prematurely because people fail to conduct the right experiments to reveal products' potential. Most companies promote both kinds of errors by focusing disproportionately on late-stage development; they lack the early, truth-seeking functions that would head such errors off. In segmented NPD, however, the early-stage organization maintains loyalty to the experiment rather than the product, whereas the late-stage organization pursues commercial success. Chorus has significantly improved NPD efficiency and productivity at Lilly. Although the unit absorbs just one-tenth of Lilly's investment in early-stage development, it delivers a substantially greater fraction of the molecules slated for late Phase II trials--at almost twice the speed and less than a third of the cost of the standard process, sometimes shaving as much as two years off the usual development time.

  8. Fiebre amarilla en Mazatlán, 1883

    OpenAIRE

    Javier E. García de Alba García; Ana L. Salcedo Rocha

    2006-01-01

    A propósito de una serie de telegramas emitidos durante la epidemia de fiebre amarilla de 1883 en Mazatlán, reproducidos en el semanario médico de la ciudad de México La Voz de Hipócrates, se hace una reflexión histórico-epidemiológica sobre el desarrollo de la fiebre amarilla en esta área del país y acerca del conocimiento prevaleciente.

  9. Rational design of single-molecule magnets: a supramolecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Thorsten

    2011-01-07

    )Cr(III)](3+), [Mn(III)(6)Fe(III)](3+), and [Mn(III)(6)Co(III)](3+) with [Mn(III)(6)Cr(III)](3+) being a SMM. A detailed analysis and comparison of the magnetic properties of the three heptanuclear complexes and the tetranuclear half-unit [Mn(III)(3)Cr(III)](3+) provides significant insight for further optimization of the SMM properties. The modular assembly of the heptanuclear complexes from three molecular building blocks allows the fine-tuning of the molecular and steric properties of each building block without losing the driving force for the formation of the heptanuclear complexes. This possibility of rational improvements of our isostructural series is the main advantage of our supramolecular approach.

  10. Segmented arch or continuous arch technique? A rational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Godeiro Fernandes Rabelo Caldas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at revising the biomechanical principles of the segmented archwire technique as well as describing the clinical conditions in which the rational use of scientific biomechanics is essential to optimize orthodontic treatment and reduce the side effects produced by the straight wire technique.

  11. a rational approach for predicting the minimum composition of anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Cv may deviate from what is predicted by the formula given above are discussed. Extensive literature search on malaria, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis sub-unit vaccine development ... provides a rational framework for constituting a sub-unit anti-parasite vaccine. ..... vaccine formulation produced greater protection.

  12. Notas sobre fiebre amarilla en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Patiño Camargo

    1937-09-01

    Full Text Available I-Introducción ll.-Datos clínicos anteriores al período de las investigaciones de laboratorio. Época colonial. III-Período de laboratorio anterior al descubrimiento de los animales receptivos. IV.-Período posterior al descubrimiento de los animales receptivos y a la prueba de protección. V.-Trabajos en Colombia durante el período de las investigaciones. VI. El servicio de fiebre amarilla cooperativo entre el Departamento Nacional de Higiene y la Fundación Rockejeller. VIl.-Consideraciones generales. VIlI.-Conclusiones. IX-Recomendaciones. X. Agradecimientos. XI.-Bibliografía. XIl.-Anexos. Legislación sobre viscerotomía. Es de fundamental interés para la vida de la República el estudio y solución de los problemas que se refieren a la salud de sus habitantes; y como el territorio colombiano es cálido en su mayoría, lógicamente se concluye que los asuntos de patología tropical han de ser los primeros en orden de importancia. La fiebre amarilla ha revestido graves caracteres epidémicos en repetidas épocas y por su condición endémica en anchas zonas del territorio colombiano, es una constante amenaza pública; un estudio para conocer su historia, la aparición de los brotes epidémicos, su distribución geográfica, la incidencia de morbosidad y Ietalidad, la localización precisa y la extensión de los territorios afectados, las fuentes del virus y los agentes transmisores, así como la preparación de planes y programas de lucha contra el flagelo, son cuestiones tan interesantes que basta anunciarlas para reconocer su trascendencia. En el deseo de contribuír modestamente al desarrollo de tal programa, he recogido los apuntes cuya exposición forma el presente trabajo.

  13. Comparison of a rational vs. high throughput approach for rapid salt screening and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collman, Benjamin M; Miller, Jonathan M; Seadeek, Christopher; Stambek, Julie A; Blackburn, Anthony C

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, high throughput (HT) screening has become the most widely used approach for early phase salt screening and selection in a drug discovery/development setting. The purpose of this study was to compare a rational approach for salt screening and selection to those results previously generated using a HT approach. The rational approach involved a much smaller number of initial trials (one salt synthesis attempt per counterion) that were selected based on a few strategic solubility determinations of the free form combined with a theoretical analysis of the ideal solvent solubility conditions for salt formation. Salt screening results for sertraline, tamoxifen, and trazodone using the rational approach were compared to those previously generated by HT screening. The rational approach produced similar results to HT screening, including identification of the commercially chosen salt forms, but with a fraction of the crystallization attempts. Moreover, the rational approach provided enough solid from the very initial crystallization of a salt for more thorough and reliable solid-state characterization and thus rapid decision-making. The crystallization techniques used in the rational approach mimic larger-scale process crystallization, allowing smoother technical transfer of the selected salt to the process chemist.

  14. The Soft Constraints Hypothesis: A Rational Analysis Approach to Resource Allocation for Interactive Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Wayne D; Sims, Chris R; Schoelles, Michael J; Fu, Wai-Tat

    2006-01-01

    Soft constraints hypothesis (SCH) is a rational analysis approach that holds that the mixture of perceptual-motor and cognitive resources allocated for interactive behavior is adjusted based on temporal cost-benefit tradeoff...

  15. A Critical Analysis of Rational & Emotional Approaches in Car Selling

    OpenAIRE

    Krishn A. Goyal; A. Sadasivam

    2010-01-01

    A well known fact is that investment in a Car is the costliest investment made in a life time only next to construction of a house, for any human being. It is a common knowledge that all of us are attracted towards cars right from childhood and we have developed our own perceptions for cars. When we acquire the capacity to buy cars, our experience of buying, involves both emotional and rational aspects which lead to a purchase decision. Unlike other consumable durables, the decision to buy sp...

  16. Vacunación contra la fiebre amarilla en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh H. Smith

    1940-07-01

    Full Text Available El primer método efectivo de vacunación contra la fiebre amarilla que pudo ser adaptado para uso humano se basó en el trabajo de Theiler, quien en 1930 anuncio una marcada variación en el virus de la fiebre amarilla producida por pases consecutivos en cerebro de ratón blanco. Se hallo que este virus de cerebro de ratón, aunque poseía un neurotropismo aumentado, había perdido mucho viscerotropismo, Io cual sugirió su empleo como agente antigénico en la vacunación contra la fiebre amarilla. En 1931, Sawyer, Kitchen y Lloyd (2 anunciaron un método de vacunación en el que se usaba virus de cerebro de ratón simultáneamente como dosis adecuada de suero humano inmune para contrarrestar la actividad patógena de aquel. Este método de vacunación cumplió con su finalidad inmediata que era terminar con la gran serie de infección y muerte entre los investigadores de la fiebre amarilla, pero no era practico para uso en grande escala en el control de la fiebre amarilla, a causa de la dificultad de obtener y administrar la cantidad de suero inmune requerida.

  17. A rational approach to decision making in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B A; Sass, N L

    1984-06-01

    The application of the Kepner-Tregoe (C. H. Kepner and B. B. Tregoe, 1981, The New Rational Manager, Princeton Res. Press, Princeton, N. J.) problem solving technique to the evaluation and interpretation of toxicological information is described. Data from a chronic study provide an illustrative example. In this study an excess in the number of urinary bladder neoplasms was observed in male rats exposed to diets containing the test chemical. No similar effect was seen in treated female rats. Both male and female mice exposed to treatment also exhibited no effect. Whether treatment was the cause of the observed increase should be based on all the scientific and technical information that is relevant to this decision. The Kepner-Tregoe method of problem analysis captures this information in a framework that makes it easily understood. This is especially desirable if the judgments that are a vital part of regulatory decision making are to be adequately communicated.

  18. A rational approach to heavy-atom derivative screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, M. Gordon; Radaev, Sergei; Sun, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the difficulties associated with the ‘classical’ heavy-atom derivatization procedure, an attempt has been made to develop a rational crystal-free heavy-atom-derivative screening method and a quick-soak derivatization procedure which allows heavy-atom compound identification. Despite the development in recent times of a range of techniques for phasing macromolecules, the conventional heavy-atom derivatization method still plays a significant role in protein structure determination. However, this method has become less popular in modern high-throughput oriented crystallography, mostly owing to its trial-and-error nature, which often results in lengthy empirical searches requiring large numbers of well diffracting crystals. In addition, the phasing power of heavy-atom derivatives is often compromised by lack of isomorphism or even loss of diffraction. In order to overcome the difficulties associated with the ‘classical’ heavy-atom derivatization procedure, an attempt has been made to develop a rational crystal-free heavy-atom derivative-screening method and a quick-soak derivatization procedure which allows heavy-atom compound identification. The method includes three basic steps: (i) the selection of likely reactive compounds for a given protein and specific crystallization conditions based on pre-defined heavy-atom compound reactivity profiles, (ii) screening of the chosen heavy-atom compounds for their ability to form protein adducts using mass spectrometry and (iii) derivatization of crystals with selected heavy-metal compounds using the quick-soak method to maximize diffraction quality and minimize non-isomorphism. Overall, this system streamlines the process of heavy-atom compound identification and minimizes the problem of non-isomorphism in phasing

  19. A rational approach to heavy-atom derivative screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, M. Gordon; Radaev, Sergei; Sun, Peter D., E-mail: psun@nih.gov [Structural Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12441 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20852 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    In order to overcome the difficulties associated with the ‘classical’ heavy-atom derivatization procedure, an attempt has been made to develop a rational crystal-free heavy-atom-derivative screening method and a quick-soak derivatization procedure which allows heavy-atom compound identification. Despite the development in recent times of a range of techniques for phasing macromolecules, the conventional heavy-atom derivatization method still plays a significant role in protein structure determination. However, this method has become less popular in modern high-throughput oriented crystallography, mostly owing to its trial-and-error nature, which often results in lengthy empirical searches requiring large numbers of well diffracting crystals. In addition, the phasing power of heavy-atom derivatives is often compromised by lack of isomorphism or even loss of diffraction. In order to overcome the difficulties associated with the ‘classical’ heavy-atom derivatization procedure, an attempt has been made to develop a rational crystal-free heavy-atom derivative-screening method and a quick-soak derivatization procedure which allows heavy-atom compound identification. The method includes three basic steps: (i) the selection of likely reactive compounds for a given protein and specific crystallization conditions based on pre-defined heavy-atom compound reactivity profiles, (ii) screening of the chosen heavy-atom compounds for their ability to form protein adducts using mass spectrometry and (iii) derivatization of crystals with selected heavy-metal compounds using the quick-soak method to maximize diffraction quality and minimize non-isomorphism. Overall, this system streamlines the process of heavy-atom compound identification and minimizes the problem of non-isomorphism in phasing.

  20. Précis of bayesian rationality: The probabilistic approach to human reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaksford, Mike; Chater, Nick

    2009-02-01

    According to Aristotle, humans are the rational animal. The borderline between rationality and irrationality is fundamental to many aspects of human life including the law, mental health, and language interpretation. But what is it to be rational? One answer, deeply embedded in the Western intellectual tradition since ancient Greece, is that rationality concerns reasoning according to the rules of logic--the formal theory that specifies the inferential connections that hold with certainty between propositions. Piaget viewed logical reasoning as defining the end-point of cognitive development; and contemporary psychology of reasoning has focussed on comparing human reasoning against logical standards. Bayesian Rationality argues that rationality is defined instead by the ability to reason about uncertainty. Although people are typically poor at numerical reasoning about probability, human thought is sensitive to subtle patterns of qualitative Bayesian, probabilistic reasoning. In Chapters 1-4 of Bayesian Rationality (Oaksford & Chater 2007), the case is made that cognition in general, and human everyday reasoning in particular, is best viewed as solving probabilistic, rather than logical, inference problems. In Chapters 5-7 the psychology of "deductive" reasoning is tackled head-on: It is argued that purportedly "logical" reasoning problems, revealing apparently irrational behaviour, are better understood from a probabilistic point of view. Data from conditional reasoning, Wason's selection task, and syllogistic inference are captured by recasting these problems probabilistically. The probabilistic approach makes a variety of novel predictions which have been experimentally confirmed. The book considers the implications of this work, and the wider "probabilistic turn" in cognitive science and artificial intelligence, for understanding human rationality.

  1. A rapid and rational approach to generating isomorphous heavy-atom phasing derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinghua; Sun, Peter D

    2014-09-01

    In attempts to replace the conventional trial-and-error heavy-atom derivative search method with a rational approach, we previously defined heavy metal compound reactivity against peptide ligands. Here, we assembled a composite pH- and buffer-dependent peptide reactivity profile for each heavy metal compound to guide rational heavy-atom derivative search. When knowledge of the best-reacting heavy-atom compound is combined with mass spectrometry assisted derivatization, and with a quick-soak method to optimize phasing, it is likely that the traditional heavy-atom compounds could meet the demand of modern high-throughput X-ray crystallography. As an example, we applied this rational heavy-atom phasing approach to determine a previously unknown mouse serum amyloid A2 crystal structure. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component invento...... of a product program. These findings represent an improved decision basis for the planning of reactive and proactive initiatives of rationalizing a product program.......This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component...... inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number...

  3. [Rationalization, rationing, prioritization: terminology and ethical approaches to the allocation of limited resources in hematology/oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The field of oncology with its numerous high-priced innovations contributes considerably to the fact that medical progress is expensive. Additionally, due to the demographic changes and the increasing life expectancy, a growing number of cancer patients want to profit from this progress. Since resources are limited also in the health system, the fair distribution of the available resources urgently needs to be addressed. Dealing with scarcity is a typical problem in the domain of justice theory; therefore, this article first discusses different strategies to manage limited resources: rationalization, rationing, and prioritization. It then presents substantive as well as procedural criteria that assist in the just distribution of effective health benefits. There are various strategies to reduce the utilization of limited resources: Rationalization means that efficiency reserves are being exhausted; by means of rationing, effective health benefits are withheld due to cost considerations. Rationing can occur implicitly and thus covertly, e.g. through budgeting or the implementation of waiting periods, or explicitly, through transparent rules or policies about healthcare coverage. Ranking medical treatments according to their importance (prioritization) is often a prerequisite for rationing decisions. In terms of requirements of justice, both procedural and substantive criteria (e.g. equality, urgency, benefit) are relevant for the acceptance and quality of a decision to limit access to effective health benefits. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Tromboflebitis extensa como causa de fiebre insidiosa puerperal

    OpenAIRE

    Charco Roca, Luisa María; Bonmatí García, Lorena; Rubio Postigo, Gem

    2015-01-01

    Los eventos tromboembólicos son factores contribuyentes esenciales de morbilidad y mortalidad materna. La enfermedad tromboembólica complicada en el periodo puerperal a menudo se presenta con fiebre de causa desconocida y un dolor abdominal que puede confundirse con síntomas del postparto (1). El diagnostico de estos procesos deben hacerse por tomografía axial computerizada (TAC) (1,2). La terapia antiinflamatoria, antibiótica y anticoagulante oportuna y eficaz puede mejorar significativament...

  5. Focusing on changing clinical practice to enhance rational prescribing--collaboration and networking enable comprehensive approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Huupponen, Risto; Klaukka, Timo; Hoppu, Kalle

    2003-10-01

    Most western societies are enhancing rational pharmacotherapy to get best value for the constantly increasing expenditure on drugs. Government bodies and the medical profession took joint responsibility for the education programme for rational prescribing, launched in Finland at the end of the 1990s. The goals were to enhance critical thinking, and when appropriate, change prescribing behaviour. Various approaches that included evidence-based continuing medical education (CME), implementing clinical guidelines, delivering information, and providing prescribing feedback were used simultaneously. The commitment of the stakeholders and participants has been strong and the approaches have succeeded even though there is no clear outcome measure. The Government has recently decided to continue and widen the process, which started as a pilot programme, on a tight budget.

  6. The Soft Constraints Hypothesis: A Rational Analysis Approach to Resource Allocation for Interactive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Gray, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Carnegie Building, 110 8th St., Troy, NY 12180. E-mail: grayw@rpi.edu Psychological Review Copyright 2006 by...the American Psychological Association 2006, Vol. 113, No. 3, 461–482 0033-295X/06/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.113.3.461 461 Report Documentation...analysis approach from signal-detection theorists (Geisler, 2003; Macmillan & Creelman , 2004) with rational analysis (Anderson, 1990, 1991) to present an

  7. Intuition and emotion: examining two non-rational approaches in complex decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Tori Yu-wen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was designed to examine two non-rational decision approaches in individual and team decision making. In Chapter 2 (Paper 1), a normative theory about how people should use intuition in making complex decisions is proposed. I draw from extant literature to derive why allowing intuition to interrupt analysis is beneficial to complex decision processes. In Chapter 3 (Paper 2), the theory of intuitive interruptions is applied to the entrepreneurial context. I argue that allowing intui...

  8. Rationality, Intuition and Flair in Entrepreneur’s Configuration - an Epistemological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltan Raluca; Vancea Romulus

    2011-01-01

    The present paper proposes an overview of the evolution of the concept of entrepreneur in an epistemological approach. After a brief history of the concept, there are some basic economic and managerial guidelines in entrepreneur’s configuration; these guidelines are found in the work of experts in management, respectively, leading economists. Rationality, flair and intuition of the entrepreneur are then analyzed in terms of existing trends in the economy, acknowledging the entrepreneurship an...

  9. Plantinga\\\\\\'s Internal and External Approach toRationality of Belief in God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farajipak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various views about the rationality/irrationality of believing in God have been suggested by western religious and secular thinners. The theory of "Basicalism" together with its similar views such as "Evidentialism", "Fideism" and"Pragmatism" is one of the epistemological views posed about the belief in God and seeks to prove its rationality. In general, based on this view, believing in God does not require any rational reasoning. Various versions of this view have been presented so far.One of its versions expressed by scholars like Swinburne, Alston and Plantinga is what is known as Experientialism. In his special exposition of Experientialism – which he refers to as "reformed epistemology" –Plantinga has had two different dictions in his works. In his early woks such as God and other Minds, "Is Belief in God Rational?", "Is Belief in God Properly Basic?" and"Reformed Epistemology and Christian Apologetics", he endeavored to prove the rationality and justificationof believing in God and tried to offer certain and compelling arguments to prove the existence of God. In these works, Plantinga has adopted an internal approach toward the rationality of believing in God and regards it as a basic belief. Criticizing classic foundationalism, he sought to expand a different version of foundationalism according to which God's existence is regarded as basic for a believer. Based on this approach, Palntinga, like other proponents of foundationalism, considers the knowledgea "True Justified Belief". His view is, however, different from other foundationalists in defining the nature of the third element of knowledge. According to Plantinga's early exposition of his theory, the criteria of rationality of believing in God include the principles of classic foundationalism(such as evident to senses, evident to reason and incorrigibility and other elements. He rejected the deductive-priori method concerning the criteria of determining basic belief and

  10. Plantinga's Internal and External Approach toRationality of Belief in God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farajipak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Various views about the rationality/irrationality of believing in God have been suggested by western religious and secular thinners. The theory of "Basicalism" together with its similar views such as "Evidentialism", "Fideism" and"Pragmatism" is one of the epistemological views posed about the belief in God and seeks to prove its rationality. In general, based on this view, believing in God does not require any rational reasoning. Various versions of this view have been presented so far.One of its versions expressed by scholars like Swinburne, Alston and Plantinga is what is known as Experientialism. In his special exposition of Experientialism – which he refers to as "reformed epistemology" –Plantinga has had two different dictions in his works. In his early woks such as God and other Minds, "Is Belief in God Rational?", "Is Belief in God Properly Basic?" and"Reformed Epistemology and Christian Apologetics", he endeavored to prove the rationality and justificationof believing in God and tried to offer certain and compelling arguments to prove the existence of God. In these works, Plantinga has adopted an internal approach toward the rationality of believing in God and regards it as a basic belief. Criticizing classic foundationalism, he sought to expand a different version of foundationalism according to which God's existence is regarded as basic for a believer. Based on this approach, Palntinga, like other proponents of foundationalism, considers the knowledgea "True Justified Belief". His view is, however, different from other foundationalists in defining the nature of the third element of knowledge. According to Plantinga's early exposition of his theory, the criteria of rationality of believing in God include the principles of classic foundationalism(such as evident to senses, evident to reason and incorrigibility and other elements. He rejected the deductive-priori method concerning the criteria of determining basic belief and

  11. Modified rational Legendre approach to laminar viscous flow over a semi-infinite flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajvidi, T.; Razzaghi, M.; Dehghan, M.

    2008-01-01

    A numerical method for solving the classical Blasius' equation is proposed. The Blasius' equation is a third order nonlinear ordinary differential equation , which arises in the problem of the two-dimensional laminar viscous flow over a semi-infinite flat plane. The approach is based on a modified rational Legendre tau method. The operational matrices for the derivative and product of the modified rational Legendre functions are presented. These matrices together with the tau method are utilized to reduce the solution of Blasius' equation to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. A numerical evaluation is included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the method and a comparison is made with existing results

  12. Does an outcome-based approach to continuing medical education improve physicians' competences in rational prescribing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaily, Hamideh M; Savage, Carl; Vahidi, Rezagoli; Amini, Abolghasem; Dastgiri, Saeed; Hult, Hakan; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Wahlstrom, Rolf

    2009-11-01

    Continuing medical education (CME) is compulsory in Iran, and traditionally it is lecture-based, which is mostly not successful. Outcome-based education has been proposed for CME programs. To evaluate the effectiveness of an outcome-based educational intervention with a new approach based on outcomes and aligned teaching methods, on knowledge and skills of general physicians (GPs) working in primary care compared with a concurrent CME program in the field of "Rational prescribing". The method used was cluster randomized controlled design. All GPs working in six cities in one province in Iran were invited to participate. The cities were matched and randomly divided into an intervention arm for education on rational prescribing with an outcome-based approach, and a control arm for a traditional program on the same topic. Knowledge and skills were assessed using a pre- and post-test, including case scenarios. In total, 112 GPs participated. There were significant improvements in knowledge and prescribing skills after the training in the intervention arm as well as in comparison with the changes in the control arm. The overall intervention effect was 26 percentage units. The introduction of an outcome-based approach in CME appears to be effective when creating programs to improve GPs' knowledge and skills.

  13. Iatrogenia institucional y muerte materna. Semmelweis y la fiebre puerperal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Salaverry García

    Full Text Available La fiebre puerperal es una enfermedad que asume carácter epidémico en el siglo XVIII como consecuencia de dos factores: las masas trabajadoras urbanas generadas por la revolución industrial, y la progresiva hegemonización y medicalización de la atención del parto en grandes hospitales públicos. La mortalidad materna institucionalizada alcanza cifras superiores al 30%, en tanto con la atención por parteras es menor al 2%. Semmelweis, médico húngaro, postula que los médicos contaminaban a las parturientas por insuficiente higiene luego de realizar necropsias, e implanta medidas profilácticas en el Hospital de Viena, las cuales reducen dramáticamente la mortalidad, pero sus ideas son rechazadas por que afectan el proceso de institucionalización de la medicina basado en el altruismo y honor, por los que supuestamente era imposible que causen daño a sus pacientes. Es obligado a retirarse del Hospital de Viena, y continua su lucha en Budapest, pero el rechazo y la incomprensión de sus colegas por su doctrina afecta su salud mental. Muere en un asilo, pocos años antes que Pasteur y Koch demuestren las bacterias causantes de enfermedades como la fiebre puerperal.

  14. Iatrogenia institucional y muerte materna: semmelweis y la fiebre puerperal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Salaverry García

    Full Text Available La fiebre puerperal es una enfermedad que asume carácter epidémico en el siglo XVIII como consecuencia de dos factores: las masas trabajadoras urbanas generadas por la revolución industrial, y la progresiva hegemonización y medicalización de la atención del parto en grandes hospitales públicos. La mortalidad materna institucionalizada alcanza cifras superiores al 30%, en tanto con la atención por parteras es menor al 2%. Semmelweis, médico húngaro, postula que los médicos contaminaban a las parturientas por insuficiente higiene luego de realizar necropsias, e implanta medidas profilácticas en el Hospital de Viena, las cuales reducen dramáticamente la mortalidad, pero sus ideas son rechazadas por que afectan el proceso de institucionalización de la medicina basado en el altruismo y honor, por los que supuestamente era imposible que causen daño a sus pacientes. Es obligado a retirarse del Hospital de Viena, y continua su lucha en Budapest, pero el rechazo y la incomprensión de sus colegas por su doctrina afecta su salud mental. Muere en un asilo, pocos años antes que Pasteur y Koch demuestren las bacterias causantes de enfermedades como la fiebre puerperal.

  15. Fiebre de origen desconocido, una forma de presentarse la tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Arturo Vidal Tallet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis es una causa importante de fiebre de origen desconocido. Dentro de los factores de riesgo para estar infectado por el bacilo tuberculoso se encuentra la edad, la presencia de comorbilidades, la competencia inmunológica y la alta prevalencia de la enfermedad en el área geográfica. Los hallazgos clínicos, radiológicos, epidemiológicos y la respuesta a la terapéutica antimicrobiana, pueden orientar en el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad infecciosa. Se presenta un caso en el que los elementos clínicos y epidemiológicos (padre con diagnóstico de tuberculosis llevaron finalmente a la sospecha diagnóstica de tuberculosis extra pulmonar, que no pudo ser demostrada por cultivo, pero la respuesta terapéutica resultó concluyente, ya que, una vez iniciada esta, hubo total remisión del cuadro clínico y recuperación nutricional. La terapia antituberculosa con carácter terapéutico y diagnóstico debe ser considerada en todo paciente con fiebre de origen desconocido, que, además, presente elementos clínicos y epidemiológicos que justifiquen la posibilidad de infección por el bacilo.

  16. Embodying rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrogiorgio, Antonio; Petracca, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The current notions of bounded rationality in economics share distinctive features with Simon’s original notion, which still influences the theoretical and experimental research in the fields of choice, judgment, decision making, problem solving, and social cognition. All these notions of bounded rationality are in fact equally rooted in the information-processing approach to human cognition, expressing the view that reasoning is disembodied and that it can be reduced to the processing of abs...

  17. Interim analysis: A rational approach of decision making in clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amal; Chakraborty, Bhaswat S

    2016-01-01

    Interim analysis of especially sizeable trials keeps the decision process free of conflict of interest while considering cost, resources, and meaningfulness of the project. Whenever necessary, such interim analysis can also call for potential termination or appropriate modification in sample size, study design, and even an early declaration of success. Given the extraordinary size and complexity today, this rational approach helps to analyze and predict the outcomes of a clinical trial that incorporate what is learned during the course of a study or a clinical development program. Such approach can also fill the gap by directing the resources toward relevant and optimized clinical trials between unmet medical needs and interventions being tested currently rather than fulfilling only business and profit goals.

  18. Interim analysis: A rational approach of decision making in clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interim analysis of especially sizeable trials keeps the decision process free of conflict of interest while considering cost, resources, and meaningfulness of the project. Whenever necessary, such interim analysis can also call for potential termination or appropriate modification in sample size, study design, and even an early declaration of success. Given the extraordinary size and complexity today, this rational approach helps to analyze and predict the outcomes of a clinical trial that incorporate what is learned during the course of a study or a clinical development program. Such approach can also fill the gap by directing the resources toward relevant and optimized clinical trials between unmet medical needs and interventions being tested currently rather than fulfilling only business and profit goals.

  19. La Re-emergencia de la fiebre amarilla en Colombia, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Velandia, Martha Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Antecedentes históricos de la introducción del virus a Colombia. La fiebre amarilla es una enfermedad febril hemorrágica transmitida por mosquitos infectados. Existen tres tipos de transmisión la fiebre amarilla la selvática, la intermedia y la urbana. La fiebre amarilla se presenta únicamente en África y en América, a pesar de la existencia vectores en otros continentes como Asia. Los tras ciclos se presentan en África pero en Sur América solo se presentan la selváti...

  20. Concepts and Bounded Rationality: An Application of Niestegge's Approach to Conditional Quantum Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blutner, Reinhard

    2009-03-01

    Recently, Gerd Niestegge developed a new approach to quantum mechanics via conditional probabilities developing the well-known proposal to consider the Lüders-von Neumann measurement as a non-classical extension of probability conditionalization. I will apply his powerful and rigorous approach to the treatment of concepts using a geometrical model of meaning. In this model, instances are treated as vectors of a Hilbert space H. In the present approach there are at least two possibilities to form categories. The first possibility sees categories as a mixture of its instances (described by a density matrix). In the simplest case we get the classical probability theory including the Bayesian formula. The second possibility sees categories formed by a distinctive prototype which is the superposition of the (weighted) instances. The construction of prototypes can be seen as transferring a mixed quantum state into a pure quantum state freezing the probabilistic characteristics of the superposed instances into the structure of the formed prototype. Closely related to the idea of forming concepts by prototypes is the existence of interference effects. Such inference effects are typically found in macroscopic quantum systems and I will discuss them in connection with several puzzles of bounded rationality. The present approach nicely generalizes earlier proposals made by authors such as Diederik Aerts, Andrei Khrennikov, Ricardo Franco, and Jerome Busemeyer. Concluding, I will suggest that an active dialogue between cognitive approaches to logic and semantics and the modern approach of quantum information science is mandatory.

  1. Bounded Rational Managers Struggle with Talent Management - An Agent-based Modelling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Billy; Thomsen, Svend Erik

    This study applies an agent-based modeling approach to explore some aspects of an important managerial task: finding and cultivating talented individuals capable of creating value for their organization at some future state. Given that the term talent in talent management is an empty signifier...... and its denotative meaning floating, we propose that bounded rational managers base their decisions on a simple heuristic, i.e. selecting and cultivating individuals so that their capabilities resemble their own capabilities the most (Adamsen 2015). We model the consequences of this talent management...... heuristic by varying the capabilities of today’s managers, which in turn impact which individuals will be selected as talent. We model the average level of capabilities and the distribution thereof in the sample where managers identify and select individuals from. We consider varying degrees of path...

  2. The common risk factor approach: a rational basis for promoting oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiham, A; Watt, R G

    2000-12-01

    Conventional oral health education is not effective nor efficient. Many oral health programmes are developed and implemented in isolation from other health programmes. This often leads, at best to a duplication of effort, or worse, conflicting messages being delivered to the public. In addition, oral health programmes tend to concentrate on individual behaviour change and largely ignore the influence of socio-political factors as the key determinants of health. Based upon the general principles of health promotion this paper presents a rationale for an alternative approach for oral health policy. The common risk factor approach addresses risk factors common to many chronic conditions within the context of the wider socio-environmental milieu. Oral health is determined by diet, hygiene, smoking, alcohol use, stress and trauma. As these causes are common to a number of other chronic diseases, adopting a collaborative approach is more rational than one that is disease specific. The common risk factor approach can be implemented in a variety of ways. Food policy development and the Health Promoting Schools initiative are used as examples of effective ways of promoting oral health.

  3. Rational design of modular circuits for gene transcription: A test of the bottom-up approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Emanuele

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of synthetic circuits developed so far have been designed by an ad hoc approach, using a small number of components (i.e. LacI, TetR and a trial and error strategy. We are at the point where an increasing number of modular, inter-changeable and well-characterized components is needed to expand the construction of synthetic devices and to allow a rational approach to the design. Results We used interchangeable modular biological parts to create a set of novel synthetic devices for controlling gene transcription, and we developed a mathematical model of the modular circuits. Model parameters were identified by experimental measurements from a subset of modular combinations. The model revealed an unexpected feature of the lactose repressor system, i.e. a residual binding affinity for the operator site by induced lactose repressor molecules. Once this residual affinity was taken into account, the model properly reproduced the experimental data from the training set. The parameters identified in the training set allowed the prediction of the behavior of networks not included in the identification procedure. Conclusions This study provides new quantitative evidences that the use of independent and well-characterized biological parts and mathematical modeling, what is called a bottom-up approach to the construction of gene networks, can allow the design of new and different devices re-using the same modular parts.

  4. Fit for purpose? Introducing a rational priority setting approach into a community care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Evelyn; Mitton, Craig; Davidson, Alan; Reid, Colin; Hole, Rachelle; Visockas, Anne-Marie; Smith, Neale

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - Program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) is a priority setting approach that assists decision makers with allocating resources. Previous PBMA work establishes its efficacy and indicates that contextual factors complicate priority setting, which can hamper PBMA effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to gain qualitative insight into PBMA effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach - A Canadian case study of PBMA implementation. Data consist of decision-maker interviews pre (n=20), post year-1 (n=12) and post year-2 (n=9) of PBMA to examine perceptions of baseline priority setting practice vis-à-vis desired practice, and perceptions of PBMA usability and acceptability. Findings - Fit emerged as a key theme in determining PBMA effectiveness. Fit herein refers to being of suitable quality and form to meet the intended purposes and needs of the end-users, and includes desirability, acceptability, and usability dimensions. Results confirm decision-maker desire for rational approaches like PBMA. However, most participants indicated that the timing of the exercise and the form in which PBMA was applied were not well-suited for this case study. Participant acceptance of and buy-in to PBMA changed during the study: a leadership change, limited organizational commitment, and concerns with organizational capacity were key barriers to PBMA adoption and thereby effectiveness. Practical implications - These findings suggest that a potential way-forward includes adding a contextual readiness/capacity assessment stage to PBMA, recognizing organizational complexity, and considering incremental adoption of PBMA's approach. Originality/value - These insights help us to better understand and work with priority setting conditions to advance evidence-informed decision making.

  5. Revising Rationality: The Use of "Nudge" Approaches in Neoliberal Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Alice; McGimpsey, Ian; Santori, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the concept of rationality is undergoing significant revision in UK education policy-making, influenced by developments in several academic fields. This article focuses on the take up of behavioural economics in policy as one aspect of this revision of the concept of rationality, discussing how this has happened and its…

  6. The Rational-Reality Based Approach to Treating the Criminal Child Abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Steven G.

    1979-01-01

    This appraoch to treating child abusers incorporates the philosophies of Rational Behavior Training and Reality Therapy into a therapeutic strategy that helps clients to learn skills in making rational decisions that can aid them in living harmoniously within the family structure. Five specific techniques are presented. (Author)

  7. The Rational Approach to Budget Cuts: One University's Experience. ASHE 1987 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Cynthia

    The experiences of the University of Montreal in using a rational-analytic framework to allocate resources at a time of budget costs are discussed. The following characteristics for rational decision-making are identified and applied to the University of Montreal: whether goals were known, whether alternative methods of resource allocation were…

  8. Teaching a Rational Approach to Career Decision Making: Who Benefits Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumboltz, John D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Rational, intuitive, fatalistic, and dependent decision makers were compared on how much they learned from a rational decision-making training intervention. Individuals who had been highly impulsive, dependent, or fatalistic in prior course selections and those who exhibited dependency in prior job choices appeared to learn most from the rational…

  9. Tendencias de la mortalidad por fiebre amarilla, Colombia, 1998-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela María Segura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La fiebre amarilla es una enfermedad tropical desatendida, razón por la cual el conocer las tendencias de mortalidad por fiebre amarilla en Colombia, constituye una importante fuente de información para la toma de decisiones y las intervenciones en salud pública. Objetivo. Analizar las tendencias de mortalidad fiebre amarilla en Colombia (1998-2009 y las diferencias que presentan las fuentes de información de morbilidad y mortalidad en el país, que afectan indicadores como el de letalidad. Materiales y métodos. Es un estudio descriptivo de las muertes por fiebre amarilla, según el Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, y de la incidencia de la enfermedad, según el Instituto Nacional de Salud. Se usaron fuentes secundarias de información en el cálculo de proporciones de las características sociodemográficas de los fallecidos y las medidas epidemiológicas de letalidad, incidencia y mortalidad por fiebre amarilla, por departamento de residencia de los fallecidos. Resultados. Las muertes por fiebre amarilla se presentan principalmente en hombres, en edad de trabajar, residentes en zonas rurales dispersas, afiliados al régimen vinculado, residentes en las zonas oriental, suroriental, norte y central del país. Se observaron inconsistencias en los informes reportados que afectan el análisis comparativo. Conclusión. Los habitantes de los departamentos ubicados en los territorios nacionales y en Norte de Santander presentan mayor riesgo de enfermar y de morir por fiebre amarilla, pero esta información pudiera estar subestimada, según la fuente de información utilizada en su cálculo.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i0.698

  10. Adapting Rational Unified Process (RUP) approach in designing a secure e-Tendering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    e-Tendering is an electronic processing of the tender document via internet and allow tenderer to publish, communicate, access, receive and submit all tender related information and documentation via internet. This study aims to design the e-Tendering system using Rational Unified Process approach. RUP provides a disciplined approach on how to assign tasks and responsibilities within the software development process. RUP has four phases that can assist researchers to adjust the requirements of various projects with different scope, problem and the size of projects. RUP is characterized as a use case driven, architecture centered, iterative and incremental process model. However the scope of this study only focusing on Inception and Elaboration phases as step to develop the model and perform only three of nine workflows (business modeling, requirements, analysis and design). RUP has a strong focus on documents and the activities in the inception and elaboration phases mainly concern the creation of diagrams and writing of textual descriptions. The UML notation and the software program, Star UML are used to support the design of e-Tendering. The e-Tendering design based on the RUP approach can contribute to e-Tendering developers and researchers in e-Tendering domain. In addition, this study also shows that the RUP is one of the best system development methodology that can be used as one of the research methodology in Software Engineering domain related to secured design of any observed application. This methodology has been tested in various studies in certain domains, such as in Simulation-based Decision Support, Security Requirement Engineering, Business Modeling and Secure System Requirement, and so forth. As a conclusion, these studies showed that the RUP one of a good research methodology that can be adapted in any Software Engineering (SE) research domain that required a few artifacts to be generated such as use case modeling, misuse case modeling, activity

  11. Tools in the orbit space approach to the study of invariant functions: rational parametrization of strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, G; Valente, G

    2003-01-01

    Functions which are equivariant or invariant under the transformations of a compact linear group G acting in a Euclidean space R n , can profitably be studied as functions defined in the orbit space of the group. The orbit space is the union of a finite set of strata, which are semialgebraic manifolds formed by the G-orbits with the same orbit-type. In this paper, we provide a simple recipe to obtain rational parametrizations of the strata. Our results can be easily exploited, in many physical contexts where the study of equivariant or invariant functions is important, for instance in the determination of patterns of spontaneous symmetry breaking, in the analysis of phase spaces and structural phase transitions (Landau theory), in equivariant bifurcation theory, in crystal field theory and in most areas where use is made of symmetry-adapted functions. A physically significant example of utilization of the recipe is given, related to spontaneous polarization in chiral biaxial liquid crystals, where the advantages with respect to previous heuristic approaches are shown

  12. Tools in the orbit space approach to the study of invariant functions: rational parametrization of strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, G; Valente, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2003-02-21

    Functions which are equivariant or invariant under the transformations of a compact linear group G acting in a Euclidean space R{sup n}, can profitably be studied as functions defined in the orbit space of the group. The orbit space is the union of a finite set of strata, which are semialgebraic manifolds formed by the G-orbits with the same orbit-type. In this paper, we provide a simple recipe to obtain rational parametrizations of the strata. Our results can be easily exploited, in many physical contexts where the study of equivariant or invariant functions is important, for instance in the determination of patterns of spontaneous symmetry breaking, in the analysis of phase spaces and structural phase transitions (Landau theory), in equivariant bifurcation theory, in crystal field theory and in most areas where use is made of symmetry-adapted functions. A physically significant example of utilization of the recipe is given, related to spontaneous polarization in chiral biaxial liquid crystals, where the advantages with respect to previous heuristic approaches are shown.

  13. A rationalized approach to the imaging of space-occupying lesions in the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A rational approach to the imaging of mass lesions within the liver has been presented. An attempt has been made to advocate a philosophy which emphasizes the importance of considering pathological, biochemical, clinical and likely management criteria in each case before selecting a first-line imaging procedure. The subject is presented under three headings: i) What That is, clinical and pathological criteria for assesing the nature of a suspected space-occupying lesion in the liver; ii) Why That is a projection of the likely practical value of the result; iii) How That is determination of a logical imaging program depending on the assesment of criteria under the first two headings. The following examples of active treatment are discussed: partial hepotectomy, highly vascular lesions, toxaemia and pyrexia. The following factors influence the decision of the imaging procedure to be used: the accuracy of the modality in relation to the suspected lesion, local availability of equipment and expentise, invasive versus non-invasive aspects and cost-effectiveness

  14. A Rational-Emotive Approach to Mental Health for College Students: Study 1 and Study 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujoth, Richard K.; Topetzes, Nick J.

    1977-01-01

    Further replication using other test instruments and measured variables is suggested, but the results of two studies appear to support the view that providing rational ideas fosters mental health while providing psychodynamic insight does not. (Author)

  15. Detección, manejo y percepción materna de la fiebre en niños Cali-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Nelson Figueroa

    2012-01-01

    Conclusiones. El temor a la fiebre (“fiebre fobia” para algunos estuvo presente en la mayoría de madres. Se evidenciaron algunas conductas inapropiadas; como la preferencia del método palpatorio al uso del termómetro, el alto uso de terapias antipiréticas, el miedo a las convulsiones, la sobreestimación de temperaturas para fiebre grave y la creencia de que la fiebre en sí, es una enfermedad.

  16. Autoridad e imagen de la epidemia. La fiebre amarillean la Barcelona del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ortiz García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio es acercarse al contexto epidémico de Barcelona a lo largo del siglo XIX. De forma concreta, la investigación se centra en la fiebre amarilla sufrida en los años 1821 y 1870. El amplio abanico de referencias propone una mirada interdisciplinar sobre la medicina y las enfermedades en su marco histórico, artístico, social y religioso. ¿Qué reacción tuvieron los poderes municipales?, ¿Qué tipologías artísticas se desarrollaron durante y tras la infección deletérea en Barcelona? The aim of this study is an approach to the epidemic background in Barcelona during the XIX century. Specifically, the research is focus on the yellow fever that was suffered en 1821 and 1870. e large spectrum of references proposes an interdisciplinary point of view about medicine and illnesses in an historic, artistic, social and religious context. How was the official reaction of the municipal powers? What kind of artistic productions were made during and after de epidemic infection in Barcelona?

  17. Fiebres virales hemorrágicas en Suramérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Tesh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo revisa la epidemiología y rasgos distintivos de tres fiebres virales hemorrágicas (dengue hemorrágico, fiebre amarilla y fiebre hemorrágica por arenavirus, que han emergido como serios problemas de salud pública en Suramérica. Aunque la etiología, la historia natural y el control de estas tres enfermedades difieren, sus manifestaciones clínicas y los hallazgos histopatológicos son similares y pueden ser difíciles de diferenciar. En consecuencia, la detección temprana y el diagnóstico correcto son esenciales para la aplicación de medidas de control.

  18. El virus de la fiebre amarilla “un virus científicamente olvidado”

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad del Rosario, Programa de divulgación científica

    2007-01-01

    La fiebre amarilla es una enfermedad viral propia de regiones subtropicales que afecta principalmente el hígado produciendo hemorragias agudas y daños graves a nivel del tejido; es causada por un virus perteneciente al género Flavivirus, y es transmitida en el núcleo urbano por el mosquito Aedes aegypti, y selváticamente, por mosquitos del género Haemagogus. En Colombia, se presentaron 20 casos en el 2005 de los cuales el 65% fue letal (OMS, 2006) (*). Sobre la fiebre amarilla, se logró ...

  19. Fiebre amarilla: una enfermedad reemergentes en América del Sur 2000 - 2016.

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Torres, Sara Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Introducción. La fiebre amarilla selvática es una enfermedad zoonótica viral, reemergente de América del Sur que se ha mantenido durante años, a pesar de que exista una vacuna eficaz hace más de 50 años. Objetivo. Identificar los casos confirmados de fiebre amarilla en el continente Suramericano. Materiales y Métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de revisión bibliográfica de los casos confirmados de FA en el Continente Sudamericano desde el 2000 hasta el 2016. Obteniendo la información ...

  20. Comparative risk assessment: an element for a more rational and ethical approach to radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    Peaceful nuclear technologies are still perceived by a large fraction of the general public, the media as well as by some decision makers, as more risky than many other 'conventional' technologies. One of the approaches that can help bringing more rationality and ethics into the picture is to present the risk associated with radiation and nuclear technologies in the frame of correctly conducted comparative risk assessments. However, comparing different risks is not so straightforward because quantifying different risks on a comparable scale requires overcoming both conceptual and practical difficulties. Risk (R) can be expressed as the product of the probability (P) that a given undesired event, the risk, will occur, times the consequences of this event (C), i.e. R = P x C. Although in principle risks could be compared by simply ranking them according to the different values of R, this simplistic approach is not always possible because to correctly compare risks all factors, circumstances and assumptions should be mutually equivalent and quantified and the (often large) uncertainties taken into proper account. In the case of radiation risk, ICRP has assumed as valid the LNT model, (probability coefficient of 5 % per Sievert for attributable death from cancer) and selected the present equivalent dose limit of 1 mSv per year for public exposure. This dose corresponds to 50 lethal cancers by 1 million people exposed and is approximately equivalent (in terms of probability of death) to the risk of bicycling for 600 km, driving for 3200 km, crossing a busy road twice a day for 1 year, smoking 2.5 packets of cigarettes or being X-rayed once for kidney metabolism. However, according to many scientists on the basis of both epidemiological and biological results and considerations, the actual risk is far lower than that predicted by the LNT model. Nevertheless, the policies and myths that were created about half a century ago are still persisting and have lead the general

  1. A rational inference approach to group and individual-level sentence comprehension performance in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Tessa; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Liburd, Teljer L

    2017-07-01

    The rational inference, or noisy channel, account of language comprehension predicts that comprehenders are sensitive to the probabilities of different interpretations for a given sentence and adapt as these probabilities change (Gibson, Bergen & Piantadosi, 2013). This account provides an important new perspective on aphasic sentence comprehension: aphasia may increase the likelihood of sentence distortion, leading people with aphasia (PWA) to rely more on the prior probability of an interpretation and less on the form or structure of the sentence (Gibson, Sandberg, Fedorenko, Bergen & Kiran, 2015). We report the results of a sentence-picture matching experiment that tested the predictions of the rational inference account and other current models of aphasic sentence comprehension across a variety of sentence structures. Consistent with the rational inference account, PWA showed similar sensitivity to the probability of particular kinds of form distortions as age-matched controls, yet overall their interpretations relied more on prior probability and less on sentence form. As predicted by rational inference, but not by other models of sentence comprehension in aphasia, PWA's interpretations were more faithful to the form for active and passive sentences than for direct object and prepositional object sentences. However contra rational inference, there was no evidence that individual PWA's severity of syntactic or semantic impairment predicted their sensitivity to form versus the prior probability of a sentence, as cued by semantics. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that suggest the rational inference account holds promise for explaining aphasic and neurotypical comprehension, but they also raise new challenges for the account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Historical development of vaccines. Introduction: Hazards and rationality in the vaccinal approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, A M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the one hundred years of vaccination that has passed since Louis Pasteur first coined this generic term. According to the late Jonas Salk, vaccinology is a science encompassing all aspects of vaccine from its conception in the laboratory to its production by companies and its application and distribution in the field. In this historical survey I explore how vaccination never consisted of a simple and uniform application of a rational model, but rather diverged along various pathways, several of which were discarded in retrospect as being hazardous, and I analyse the ongoing interplay between rational and inventive thinking.

  3. Drought Water Rationing Necessitates an Equitable and Multidimensional Approach: Evidence from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de Leon Barido, D.; Fildier, B.; Cucchi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2011 many areas across California have experienced their driest years on record, with conditions barely improving since then. Reservoirs and snowpack water content have recorded some of the lowest measurements ever, with users (individuals, towns and cities) using groundwater to buffer the potentially devastating effects of the drought. Among other strategies, rationing has been one of they key interventions that the state has adopted to better manage its water resources. April 1st 2015 marked the first day in California's history when mandatory water reductions were instated statewide. By executive order, Governor Brown directed the State Water Resources Control Board to impose a 25% reduction on California's 400 local water supply agencies, which serve 90% of California residents. Since then, local agencies have been responsible for allocating restrictions to reduce water consumption and monitor compliance. A variety of research organizations and media outlets have begun exploring the equity considerations of the drought, but their analyses are often one-dimensional (water consumption per capita). Here we explore the multi-dimensional dynamics of rationing and drought in California using Census and California Water Resources Board data for over 300 communities in the state. We use data mining, parallel coordinates, and a nearest neighbors clustering algorithm to explore relationships between rationing and community spatial distribution, weather, drought related climate variables, economic sector employment, race, localized income inequality, household size, and income. The data suggests that there are nine distinct rationing groups across the state, that rationing was performed without taking into account the localized effects of the drought (hard hit communities rationing as much as less affected communities), that severely drought affected low-income communities (using SPI and SPEI 3 year indices) were asked to ration as much (and sometimes more) than

  4. A Strategy for Understanding and Correcting Irrational Beliefs in Pupils: The Rational-Emotional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zionts, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Rational-emotive education integrates the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional aspects of personality and encourages behavior disordered students to discuss and work through their problems. Teachers need to display warmth, empathy, and be active-directive to help students manage their feelings and behaviors. (CL)

  5. A Market Segmentation Approach for Higher Education Based on Rational and Emotional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Rialp, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic for higher education administrators and researchers. For segmenting the higher education market, we have to understand what factors are important for high school students in selecting a university. Extant literature has probed the importance of rational factors such as teaching staff, campus facilities,…

  6. An Outreach Program in Drug Education; Teaching a Rational Approach to Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, James L.; Joffe, Stephen J.

    1975-01-01

    Aimed at encouraging rational decision making about drug use, a peer oriented drug education program was conducted in a community youth project. Youth and leaders shared feelings and knowledge about drugs. Compared with four program dropouts, six participants exhibited more positive attitudes toward the drug group, its leaders and themselves.…

  7. Are security analysts rational? a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Peixinho, Rúben; Coelho, Luís; Taffler, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Rational choice theory and bounded rationality constitute the basis for the discussion in several areas regarding human rationality. In finance, this discussion has been made between traditional finance and behavioural finance approach, which have different perspectives concerning market agents’ rationality. This paper reviews several studies addressing rationality among security analysts. The analysis shows that analysts’systematic optimism seems to be inconsistent with rationality....

  8. Design of a Discrete Tracking Controller for a Magnetic Levitation System: A Nonlinear Rational Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez-Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a discrete-time nonlinear rational approximate model for the unstable magnetic levitation system. Based on this model and as an application of the input-output linearization technique, a discrete-time tracking control design will be derived using the corresponding classical state space representation of the model. A simulation example illustrates the efficiency of the proposed methodology.

  9. Electricity generation, rational energy use and CO2 emissions. The Electrabel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulteel, P.

    1995-01-01

    Electrabel (Belgium) commitments in integrating the goals of rational and sustainable energy use and CO 2 emissions control are presented: demand side measures with promotion and decision-making help to the customers in order to reduce technical, commercial and financial barriers, and supply side measures such as integrated resource planning, high efficiency fossil-fuel generating stations (gas fired combined cycle units), cogeneration schemes. The expected impact on CO 2 emissions are discussed

  10. Outbreak of Paratyphoid Fever Among Naval Personnel in Peru (Brote de Fiebre Paratifoidea Entre Personal de la Marina Del Peru.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    son menosde 2Okniquecaiusania nvar comun Cs la tifoidea cldsica producida por S parte de las infecciones hunanas La fiebre Isv’lht la parat-foidea. par...TITLE (Include Secunty Clasifi4tin) Brote de Fiebre Parutifoidea Entre Personal de la Marina del Peru 1.PERSON4AL AUTHORCS) Pazzagllia G; Wgnall FS...CLASSIFIATIO F THIS PAGE All othe~redmtons areobolete. ZINCLASSIITIED Best Avai~lable Copy BROTE Dl FIEBRE PARATIFOIDEA ENTRE PERSONAL DE1 LA MARINA DEL PERU G

  11. A new approach to the Schrödinger equation with rational potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming-de; Chu, Jue-Hui

    1984-04-01

    A new analytic theory is established for the Schrödinger equation with a rational potential, including a complete classification of the regular eigenfunctions into three different types, an exact method of obtaining wavefunctions, an explicit formulation of the spectral equation (3 x 3 determinant) etc. All representations are exhibited in a unifying way via function-theoretic methods and therefore given in explicit form, in contrast to the prevailing discussion appealing to perturbation or variation methods or continued-fraction techniques. The irregular eigenfunctions at infinity can be obtained analogously and will be discussed separately as another solvable case for singular potentials.

  12. Analysis of Queues with Rational Arrival Process Components - A General Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bean, Nigel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    In a previous paper we demonstrated that the well known matrix-geometric solution of Quasi-Birth-and-Death processes is valid also if we introduce Rational Arrival Process (RAP) components. Here we extend those results and we offer an alternative proof by using results obtained by Tweedie. We prove...... the matrix-geometric form for a certain kind of operators on the stationary measure for discrete time Markov chains of GI/M/1 type. We apply this result to an embedded chain with RAP components. We then discuss the straight- forward modification of the standard algorithms for calculating the matrix R...

  13. A rational approach for evaluation and screening of treatment and disposal options for the solar pond sludges at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of information about the treatment options for the sludge that is located in the evaporation ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant. The sludges are mixed low-level radioactive wastes whose composition and character were variable. Sludges similar to these are typically treated prior to ultimate disposal. Disposal of treated sludges includes both on-site and off-site options. The rational approach described in this paper is useful for technology evaluation and screening because it provides a format for developing objectives, listing alternatives, and weighing the alternatives against the objectives and against each other

  14. Bloody nipple discharge (BND) in an 8 months old girl and a 9 months old male--rational diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, S; Mayatepek, E; Klee, D; Meissner, T

    2010-03-01

    Bloody nipple discharge in adults is, in men as well as in women, often a symptom of an underlying malignant disease. In respect of this, multiple invasive and mutilating diagnostic procedures have been performed in infants and older children. Apart from individual cases in older and pubertal children, in childhood benign conditions are most common and can be diagnosed by non-invasive diagnostic procedures. Here we discuss a rational diagnostic approach on the basis of 2 patients with bloody nipple discharge at the age of 8 and 9 months which resolved spontaneously without treatment after 3 and 6 months, respectively. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  15. A New Approach to Rational Discrete-Time Approximations to Continuous-Time Fractional-Order Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matos , Carlos; Ortigueira , Manuel ,

    2012-01-01

    Part 10: Signal Processing; International audience; In this paper a new approach to rational discrete-time approximations to continuous fractional-order systems of the form 1/(sα+p) is proposed. We will show that such fractional-order LTI system can be decomposed into sub-systems. One has the classic behavior and the other is similar to a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) system. The conversion from continuous-time to discrete-time systems will be done using the Laplace transform inversion integr...

  16. A rational approach for evaluation and screening of treatment and disposal options for the solar pond sludges at Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    This document consists of information about the treatment options for the sludge that is located in the evaporation ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant. The sludges are mixed low-level radioactive wastes whose composition and character were variable. Sludges similar to these are typically treated prior to ultimate disposal. Disposal of treated sludges includes both on-site and off-site options. The rational approach described in this paper is useful for technology evaluation and screening because it provides a format for developing objectives, listing alternatives, and weighing the alternatives against the objectives and against each other.

  17. A rational approach to resonance saturation in large-Nc QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjuan, Pere; Peris, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    We point out that resonance saturation in QCD can be understood in the large-N c limit from the mathematical theory of Pade Approximants to meromorphic functions. These approximants are rational functions which encompass any saturation with a finite number of resonances as a particular example, explaining several results which have appeared in the literature. We review the main properties of Pade Approximants with the help of a toy model for the (VV-AA) two-point correlator, paying particular attention to the relationship among the Chiral Expansion, the Operator Product Expansion and the resonance spectrum. In passing, we also comment on an old proposal made by Migdal in 1977 which has recently attracted much attention in the context of AdS/QCD models. Finally, we apply the simplest Pade Approximant to the (VV-AA) correlator in the real case of QCD. The general conclusion is that a rational approximant may reliably describe a Green's function in the Euclidean, but the same is not true in the Minkowski regime due to the appearance of unphysical poles and/or residues

  18. Distribución geográfica del mono aullador rojo (Alouatta seniculus y la fiebre amarilla en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Piedrahita-Cortés

    2016-08-01

    Conclusiones. En 69,5 % de los departamentos con antecedentes de fiebre amarilla se registró la presencia de A. seniculus, lo cual resulta relevante por el papel que los primates no humanos desempeñan como reservorio natural del virus y por su contribución en la presentación de la fiebre amarilla, lo cual les confiere gran utilidad como centinelas.

  19. Towards a rational approach for heavy-atom derivative screening in protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agniswamy, Johnson; Joyce, M. Gordon; Hammer, Carl H.; Sun, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy-atom derivatization is routinely used in protein structure determination and is thus of critical importance in structural biology. In order to replace the current trial-and-error heavy-atom derivative screening with a knowledge-based rational derivative-selection method, the reactivity of more than 40 heavy-atom compounds over a wide range of buffer and pH values was systematically examined using peptides which contained a single reactive amino-acid residue. Heavy-atom derivatization is routinely used in protein structure determination and is thus of critical importance in structural biology. In order to replace the current trial-and-error heavy-atom derivative screening with a knowledge-based rational derivative-selection method, the reactivity of more than 40 heavy-atom compounds over a wide range of buffer and pH values was systematically examined using peptides which contained a single reactive amino-acid residue. Met-, Cys- and His-containing peptides were derivatized against Hg, Au and Pt compounds, while Tyr-, Glu-, Asp-, Asn- and Gln-containing peptides were assessed against Pb compounds. A total of 1668 reactive conditions were examined using mass spectrometry and were compiled into heavy-atom reactivity tables. The results showed that heavy-atom derivatization reactions are highly linked to buffer and pH, with the most accommodating buffer being MES at pH 6. A group of 21 compounds were identified as most successful irrespective of ligand or buffer/pH conditions. To assess the applicability of the peptide heavy-atom reactivity to proteins, lysozyme crystals were derivatized with a list of peptide-reactive compounds that included both known and new compounds for lysozyme derivatization. The results showed highly consistent heavy-atom reactivities between the peptides and lysozyme

  20. Authorship matrix: a rational approach to quantify individual contributions and responsibilities in multi-author scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, T Prabhakar

    2014-06-01

    We propose a rational method for addressing an important question-who deserves to be an author of a scientific article? We review various contentious issues associated with this question and recommend that the scientific community should view authorship in terms of contributions and responsibilities, rather than credits. We propose a new paradigm that conceptually divides a scientific article into four basic elements: ideas, work, writing, and stewardship. We employ these four fundamental elements to modify the well-known International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines. The modified ICMJE guidelines are then used as the basis to develop an approach to quantify individual contributions and responsibilities in multi-author articles. The outcome of the approach is an authorship matrix, which can be used to answer several nagging questions related to authorship.

  1. Nuevas observaciones sobre un tercer foco de fiebre petequial en el hemisferio americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Patiño Camargo

    1941-11-01

    Full Text Available Se ha localizado un foco endémico de Rickettsiasis y se ha denominado fiebre petequial de Tobia, en el interior de Colombia, en zona rural calida de la hoya del Magdalena, a 118 kilómetros de Bogotá. La comarca es fértil, pero las condiciones de vida humana son precarias. El índice de mortalidad por la fiebre petequial de Tobia, es de 95%. Ocurre principalmente en individuos de 20 a 29 años de edad, sin distincion de sexos. Hay epidemias familiares. Las gentes considerando que el contagio reside en las chozas y enseres, cuando se repiten las muertes, incineran las viviendas. Abundan ectoparásitos humanos y animales.

  2. Rational Design Approach for Enhancing Higher-Mode Response of a Microcantilever in Vibro-Impacting Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Migliniene

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for designing an efficient vibration energy harvester based on a vibro-impacting piezoelectric microcantilever with a geometric shape that has been rationally modified in accordance with results of dynamic optimization. The design goal is to increase the amplitudes of higher-order vibration modes induced during the vibro-impact response of the piezoelectric transducer, thereby providing a means to improve the energy conversion efficiency and power output. A rational configuration of the energy harvester is proposed and it is demonstrated that the new design retains essential modal characteristics of the optimal microcantilever structures, further providing the added benefit of less costly fabrication. The effects of structural dynamics associated with advantageous exploitation of higher vibration modes are analyzed experimentally by means of laser vibrometry as well as numerically via transient simulations of microcantilever response to random excitation. Electrical characterization results indicate that the proposed harvester outperforms its conventional counterpart (based on the microcantilever of the constant cross-section in terms of generated electrical output. Reported results may serve for the development of impact-type micropower generators with harvesting performance that is enhanced by virtue of self-excitation of large intensity higher-order mode responses when the piezoelectric transducer is subjected to relatively low-frequency excitation with strongly variable vibration magnitudes.

  3. Rational Discovery of (+) (S) Abscisic Acid as a Potential Antifungal Agent: a Repurposing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Mohammed A; Massarotti, Alberto; Mohamed, Maged E

    2018-06-04

    Fungal infections are spreading widely worldwide, and the types of treatment are limited due to the lack of diverse therapeutic agents and their associated side effects and toxicity. The discovery of new antifungal classes is vital and critical. We discovered the antifungal activity of abscisic acid through a rational drug design methodology that included the building of homology models for fungal chorismate mutases and a pharmacophore model derived from a transition state inhibitor. Ligand-based virtual screening resulted in some hits that were filtered using molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations studies. Both in silico methods and in vitro antifungal assays were used as tools to select and validate the abscisic acid repurposing. Abscisic acid inhibition assays confirmed the inhibitory effect of abscisic acid on chorismate mutase through the inhibition of phenylpyruvate production. The repositioning of abscisic acid, the well-known and naturally occurring plant growth regulator, as a potential antifungal agent because of its suggested action as an inhibitor to several fungal chorismate mutases was the main result of this work.

  4. Targeting the Nrf2/Amyloid-Beta Liaison in Alzheimer's Disease: A Rational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Elena; Serafini, Melania M; Caporaso, Roberta; Marchetti, Chiara; Racchi, Marco; Minarini, Anna; Bartolini, Manuela; Lanni, Cristina; Rosini, Michela

    2017-07-19

    Amyloid is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, a linear linkage between amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and the disease onset and progression has recently been questioned. In this context, the crucial partnership between Aβ and Nrf2 pathways is acquiring paramount importance, offering prospects for deciphering the Aβ-centered disease network. Here, we report on a new class of antiaggregating agents rationally designed to simultaneously activate transcription-based antioxidant responses, whose lead 1 showed interesting properties in a preliminary investigation. Relying on the requirements of Aβ recognition, we identified the catechol derivative 12. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, 12 combined remarkable free radical scavenger properties to the ability to trigger the Nrf2 pathway and induce the Nrf2-dependent defensive gene NQO1 by means of electrophilic activation of the transcriptional response. Moreover, 12 prevented the formation of cytotoxic stable oligomeric intermediates, being significantly more effective, and per se less toxic, than prototype 1. More importantly, as different chemical features were exploited to regulate Nrf2 and Aβ activities, the two pathways could be tuned independently. These findings point to compound 12 and its derivatives as promising tools for investigating the therapeutic potential of the Nrf2/Aβ cellular network, laying foundation for generating new drug leads to confront AD.

  5. Rational pharmacological approaches for cognitive dysfunction and depression in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Rincón, Maritza; Sáenz-Farret, Michel; Miguel-Puga, Adán; Micheli, Federico; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is not a single entity but rather a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. The present study aims to conduct a critical systematic review of the literature to describe the main pharmacological strategies to treat cognitive dysfunction and major depressive disorder in PD patients. We performed a search of articles cited in PubMed from 2004 to 2014 using the following MeSH terms (Medical subject headings) "Parkinson disease"; "Delirium," "Dementia," "Amnestic," "Cognitive disorders," and "Parkinson disease"; "depression," "major depressive disorder," "drug therapy." We found a total of 71 studies related to pharmacological treatment in cognitive dysfunction and 279 studies for pharmacological treatment in major depressive disorder. After fulfillment of all the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 articles remained for cognitive dysfunction and 11 for major depressive disorder, which are presented and discussed in this study. Further research into non-motor symptoms of PD may provide insights into mechanisms of neurodegeneration, and provide better quality of life by using rational drugs.

  6. Rational Pharmacological Approaches for Cognitive Dysfunction and Depression in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Rincón, Maritza; Sáenz-Farret, Michel; Miguel-Puga, Adán; Micheli, Federico; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is not a single entity but rather a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. The present study aims to conduct a critical systematic review of the literature to describe the main pharmacological strategies to treat cognitive dysfunction and major depressive disorder in PD patients. We performed a search of articles cited in PubMed from 2004 to 2014 using the following MeSH terms (Medical subject headings) “Parkinson disease”; “Delirium,” “Dementia,” “Amnestic,” “Cognitive disorders,” and “Parkinson disease”; “depression,” “major depressive disorder,” “drug therapy.” We found a total of 71 studies related to pharmacological treatment in cognitive dysfunction and 279 studies for pharmacological treatment in major depressive disorder. After fulfillment of all the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 articles remained for cognitive dysfunction and 11 for major depressive disorder, which are presented and discussed in this study. Further research into non-motor symptoms of PD may provide insights into mechanisms of neurodegeneration, and provide better quality of life by using rational drugs. PMID:25873910

  7. The Least Costs Hypothesis: A rational analysis approach to the voluntary symbolic control of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauszek, Joseph R; Gibson, Bradley S

    2018-04-30

    Here we propose a rational analysis account of voluntary symbolic attention control-the Least Costs Hypothesis (LCH)-that construes voluntary control as a decision between intentional cue use and unguided search. Consistent with the LCH, the present study showed that this decision is sensitive to variations in cue processing efficiency. In Experiment 1, observers demonstrated a robust preference for using "easy-to-process" arrow cues but not "hard-to-process" spatial word cues to satisfy an easy visual search goal; Experiment 2 showed that this preference persisted even when the temporal costs of cue processing were neutralized. Experiment 3 showed that observers reported this cue type preference outside the context of a speeded task, and Experiment 4 showed empirical measures of this bias to be relatively stable over the course of the task. Together with previous evidence suggesting that observers' decision between intentional cue use and unguided search is also influenced by variations in unguided search efficiency, these findings suggest that voluntary symbolic attention control is mediated by ongoing metacognitive evaluations of demand that are sensitive to perceived variations in the time, effort, and opportunity costs associated with each course of action. Thus, voluntary symbolic attention control is far more complex than previously held. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Using a Praxeology Approach to the Rational Choice of Specialized Software in the Preparation of the Computer Science Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Semenikhina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available From the positions of Praxeology, the aspects of the forming of the future teachers’ abilities to choose software that turns out to be the most rational for the solving of the professional task are considered in the article (on the example of computer science teachers’ preparation to use dynamic mathematics software (DMS. The forming of such abilities based on a formula "one task – different software" is described. The methodology of organization of such experimental studies on the base of Sumy State Pedagogical University (Ukraine is described. The results of the statistical analysis of data are given on the basis of non-parametric sign test for dependent sample. It is educed that taking into account such approach provides the positive dynamics of the level of future informatics teachers’ preparation at the significance level of 0.05.

  9. Validez del tacto materno en el reconocimiento de fiebre en niños menores de 36 meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Velásquez-Espíritu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la validez del tacto materno como método de detección de la presencia o no de fiebre en los niños. Material y métodos: Se seleccionaron por conveniencia a 269 madres y sus respectivos niños menores de 36 meses que acudieron al Servicio de Emergencias Pediátricas del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia por cualquier molestia. Se preguntó a las madres si su niño presentaba fiebre o no (detectado por tacto, y luego se procedió con la medición de la temperatura rectal de cada niño. Resultados: Se incluyeron 269 participantes. El tacto materno para la detección de fiebre tuvo una sensibilidad de 79,3% (69,6% a 86,5%, especificidad 91,8% (86,8% a 94,9%, VPP 82,1% (72,6% a 88,9% y VPN 90,3% (85,1% a 93,8%; el likelihood ratio positivo fue 9,62 (5,86 a 15,81 y el likelihood ratio negativo fue 0,23 (0,15 a 0,34. La correlación (índice Kappa de fiebre o no fiebre determinada por la madre y la medida por termómetro fue de 0,72 (p:0,0000. Conclusiones: Las madres tienen una buena capacidad discriminativa en la determinación de la presencia o ausencia de fiebre mediante la palpación, por lo que la detección de fiebre por tacto materno es un eficiente método de despistaje.(Rev Med Hered 2010;21:175-179

  10. Exploring G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) Ligand Space via Cheminformatics Approaches: Impact on Rational Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basith, Shaherin; Cui, Minghua; Macalino, Stephani J. Y.; Park, Jongmi; Clavio, Nina A. B.; Kang, Soosung; Choi, Sun

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal of rational drug discovery is the identification of selective ligands which act on single or multiple drug targets to achieve the desired clinical outcome through the exploration of total chemical space. To identify such desired compounds, computational approaches are necessary in predicting their drug-like properties. G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest and most important integral membrane protein families. These receptors serve as increasingly attractive drug targets due to their relevance in the treatment of various diseases, such as inflammatory disorders, metabolic imbalances, cardiac disorders, cancer, monogenic disorders, etc. In the last decade, multitudes of three-dimensional (3D) structures were solved for diverse GPCRs, thus referring to this period as the “golden age for GPCR structural biology.” Moreover, accumulation of data about the chemical properties of GPCR ligands has garnered much interest toward the exploration of GPCR chemical space. Due to the steady increase in the structural, ligand, and functional data of GPCRs, several cheminformatics approaches have been implemented in its drug discovery pipeline. In this review, we mainly focus on the cheminformatics-based paradigms in GPCR drug discovery. We provide a comprehensive view on the ligand– and structure-based cheminformatics approaches which are best illustrated via GPCR case studies. Furthermore, an appropriate combination of ligand-based knowledge with structure-based ones, i.e., integrated approach, which is emerging as a promising strategy for cheminformatics-based GPCR drug design is also discussed. PMID:29593527

  11. Bartonelosis (Fiebre de la Oroya o Verruga Peruana: ¿Enfermedad ocupacional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cesar Gonzáles

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La Bartonella bacilliformis es un parásito bacteriano intracelular facultativo de los eritrocitos humanos y de las células endoteliales. La enfermedad de Carrión, fiebre de La Oroya y Verruga Peruana son todos términos que describen las consecuencias patológicas de la infección humana por Bartonella bacilliformis. (1 Aunque las infecciones que involucran especies de Bartonella, tales como Bartonella henselae y Bartonella quintana, ocurren en todo el mundo, la enfermedad de Carrión es endémica únicamente en Sudamérica. (14 Las infecciones por B. bacilliformis son un problema de salud en numerosas áreas rurales de Sudamérica y para los viajeros que visitan esas regiones. Se han reportado brotes de bartonelosis en las regiones montañosas de Perú, Ecuador y Colombia. (1 La Lutzomyia verrucarum es el principal vector para la transmisión de la bacteria al ser humano; la hembra del mosquito transmite el patógeno durante su alimentación nocturna de sangre humana. Presumiblemente el insecto se alimenta de sangre de un individuo infectado y disemina el patógeno por medio de su saliva durante la siguiente ingesta de sangre. La bacteria no es contagiosa entre humanos. (1 Presentamos un enfoque laboral de la enfermedad en trabajadores que realizan desplazamientos continuos a zonas endémicas y analizamos sus posibles consecuencias.Bartonella bacilliformis is a facultative intracellular bacterial parasite of human erythrocytes and endotelial cells. Carrion’s disease, Oroya fever and Peruvian wart are all terms describing the pathological consequences of human infection with Bartonella bacilliformis. (1 Although infections involving the Bartonella species, such as Bartonella henselae and Bartonella Quintana occur worldwide, Carrion’s disease is uniquely endemic to South America. (14 Bartonella baciliformis infections are a health problem in many rural areas of South America and to travellers who visit these regions. Outbreaks of

  12. Pragmatics & rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Allott, N. E.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is about the reconciliation of realistic views of rationality with inferential-intentional theories of communication. Grice (1957 1975) argued that working out what a speaker meant by an utterance is a matter of inferring the speaker's intentions on the presumption that she is acting rationally. This is abductive inference: inference to the best explanation for the utterance. Thus an utterance both rationalises and causes the interpretation the hearer constructs. Human rationality...

  13. Rational Emotive Approaches to the Problems of Parents with Exceptional Children: A Brief Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, John F.

    Parents of exceptional children face numerous challenges in their efforts to meet the needs of their child. Reaction to the realization that a problem exists in the child's development or educational achievement may lead to emotional distress which can be self-defeating. Such parents often benefit from a direct approach to addressing these issues…

  14. The Teaching of Mechanics: Some Criticisms, and Suggestions for a Rational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the common confusion associated with the meaning of mass encountered in modern textbooks, and describes some of the misconceptions to be found in the teaching of mechanics. A new teaching approach is suggested, which may provide a more logical basis for these important ideas.

  15. Multilevel Molecular Modeling Approach for a Rational Design of Ionic Current Sensors for Nanofluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Alexsandro; de Almeida, James M; Miranda, Caetano R

    2018-05-10

    The complexity displayed by nanofluidic-based systems involves electronic and dynamic aspects occurring across different size and time scales. To properly model such kind of system, we introduced a top-down multilevel approach, combining molecular dynamics simulations (MD) with first-principles electronic transport calculations. The potential of this technique was demonstrated by investigating how the water and ionic flow through a (6,6) carbon nanotube (CNT) influences its electronic transport properties. We showed that the confinement on the CNT favors the partially hydrated Na, Cl, and Li ions to exchange charge with the nanotube. This leads to a change in the electronic transmittance, allowing for the distinguishing of cations from anions. Such an ionic trace may handle an indirect measurement of the ionic current that is recorded as a sensing output. With this case study, we are able to show the potential of this top-down multilevel approach, to be applied on the design of novel nanofluidic devices.

  16. Two Concepts of Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dominant tradition in Western philosophy sees rationality as dictating. Thus rationality may require that we believe the best explanation and simple conceptual truths and that we infer in accordance with evident rules of inference. I argue that, given what we know about the growth of knowledge, this authoritarian concept of rationality leads to absurdities and should be abandoned. I then outline a libertarian concept of rationality, derived from Popper, which eschews the dictates and which sees a rational agent as one who questions, criticises, conjectures and experiments. I argue that, while the libertarian approach escapes the absurdities of the authoritarian, it requires two significant developments and an important clarification to be made fully consistent with itself.

  17. Rational Decision Making as Performative Praxis: Explaining Rationality's Éternel Retour

    OpenAIRE

    Cabantous, L.; Gond, J-P.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational theorists built their knowledge of decision making through a progressive critique of rational choice theory. Their positioning towards rationality, however, is at odds with the observation of rationality persistence in organizational life. This paper addresses this paradox. It proposes a new perspective on rationality that allows the theorizing of the production of rational decisions by organizations. To account for rationality's éternel retour, we approach rational decision ma...

  18. A rational approach to predict and modulate stereolability of chiral alpha substituted ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Roberto; Costi, Roberta; Di Santo, Roberto; Gasparrini, Francesco; La Torre, Francesco; Pierini, Marco; Siani, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    An effective strategy to assess and modulate the stereolability of chiral alpha substituted ketones (C alpha SKs) is presented. The tendency of C alpha SKs to retain or change their configuration in water is analyzed as a function of thermodynamic proton-release attitude of alpha asymmetric atoms inside the structures by linear Brønsted correlations. A molecular modeling procedure was developed to analyze and suggest chemical modifications of C alpha SKs in view to obtain the desired grade of stereochemical stability. The approach was employed to predict the tendency to enantiomerize in water of two ketones (1 and 2) endowed with inhibitory activity against monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and the results were confirmed by experimental kinetics measurements performed in organic medium. As a demonstration of practical potentialities of the approach, four new structures, conceived as simple chemical modifications of 1 and 2, were designed to improve/reduce the stereostability grade of the starting anti-MAO ketones. The possibility to extend easily the procedure to other classes of C-H acids appears of interest.

  19. Rationalizing the GMO Debate: The Ordonomic Approach to Addressing Agricultural Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, Stefan; Pies, Ingo; Valentinov, Vladislav; Chatalova, Lioudmila

    2016-05-09

    The public discourse on the acceptability of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is not only controversial, but also infused with highly emotional and moralizing rhetoric. Although the assessment of risks and benefits of GMOs must be a scientific exercise, many debates on this issue seem to remain impervious to scientific evidence. In many cases, the moral psychology attributes of the general public create incentives for both GMO opponents and proponents to pursue misleading public campaigns, which impede the comprehensive assessment of the full spectrum of the risks and benefits of GMOs. The ordonomic approach to economic ethics introduced in this research note is helpful for disentangling the socio-economic and moral components of the GMO debate by re- and deconstructing moral claims.

  20. Time to foster a rational approach to preventing cardiovascular morbid events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jay N; Duprez, Daniel A

    2008-07-29

    Efforts to prevent atherosclerotic morbid events have focused primarily on risk factor prevention and intervention. These approaches, based on the statistical association of risk factors with events, have dominated clinical practice in the last generation. Because the cardiovascular abnormalities eventuating in morbid events are detectable in the arteries and heart before the development of symptomatic disease, recent efforts have focused on identifying the presence of these abnormalities as a more sensitive and specific guide to the need for therapy. Advances in noninvasive techniques for studying the vasculature and the left ventricle now provide the opportunity to use early disease rather than risk factors as the tool for clinical decision making. A disease scoring system has been developed using 10 tests of vascular and cardiac function and structure. More extensive data to confirm the sensitivity and specificity of this scoring system and to demonstrate its utility in tracking the response to therapy are needed to justify widespread application in clinical practice.

  1. A multi-attribute approach to the rationalization of radiation protection options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.; Oudiz, A.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the ALARA principle requires the use of quantitative methods such as cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, multi-attribute and other analyses. An example is presented of the application of a multi-attribute analysis in connection with the determination of ALARA levels for the light-water fuel cycle. Thirty-nine processing options for waste from different fuel cycle facilities have been identified. These are categorized on the basis of cost, of performance in terms of reduction of collective and individual detriment and, finally, of a subjective index of data reliability. Multi-attribute analysis can be used for classifying options on the basis of these four criteria. In particular, a method known as ''total outclassing analysis'' can be used for initial classification of options independently of the ''implicit value of human life''. The value of total outclassing analysis lies in the fact that it can be used for a classification of options which takes collective and individual detriment simultaneously into account. It thus represents a satisfactory synthesis of the individual approach (critical groups) and the collective approach. A finer classification can be obtained by carrying out a non-total outclassing analysis (ELECTRE method). At this stage the weighting of criteria becomes a necessity. The results, however, are fairly insensitive to modification of the ''implicit value of human life''. Generally, the study shows traditional radiation protection options to be justified, especially where the trapping of iodine in reactors is concerned, and stresses the value of retaining noble gases in reprocessing plants

  2. Rational design of mesoporous metals and related nanomaterials by a soft-template approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2008-04-07

    We review recent developments in the preparation of mesoporous metals and related metal-based nanomaterials. Among the many types of mesoporous materials, mesoporous metals hold promise for a wide range of potential applications, such as in electronic devices, magnetic recording media, and metal catalysts, owing to their metallic frameworks. Mesoporous metals with highly ordered networks and narrow pore-size distributions have traditionally been produced by using mesoporous silica as a hard template. This method involves the formation of an original template followed by deposition of metals within the mesopores and subsequent removal of the template. Another synthetic method is the direct-template approach from lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) made of nonionic surfactants at high concentrations. Direct-template synthesis creates a novel avenue for the production of mesoporous metals as well as related metal-based nanomaterials. Many mesoporous metals have been prepared by the chemical or electrochemical reduction of metal salts dissolved in aqueous LLC domains. As a soft template, LLCs are more versatile and therefore more advantageous than hard templates. It is possible to produce various nanostructures (e.g., lamellar, 2D hexagonal (p6mm), and 3D cubic (Ia\\3d)), nanoparticles, and nanotubes simply by controlling the composition of the reaction bath.

  3. A Brief Review of Computer-Assisted Approaches to Rational Design of Peptide Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashesh Nandy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing incidences of new viral diseases and increasingly frequent viral epidemics have strained therapeutic and preventive measures; the high mutability of viral genes puts additional strains on developmental efforts. Given the high cost and time requirements for new drugs development, vaccines remain as a viable alternative, but there too traditional techniques of live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines have the danger of allergenic reactions and others. Peptide vaccines have, over the last several years, begun to be looked on as more appropriate alternatives, which are economically affordable, require less time for development and hold the promise of multi-valent dosages. The developments in bioinformatics, proteomics, immunogenomics, structural biology and other sciences have spurred the growth of vaccinomics where computer assisted approaches serve to identify suitable peptide targets for eventual development of vaccines. In this mini-review we give a brief overview of some of the recent trends in computer assisted vaccine development with emphasis on the primary selection procedures of probable peptide candidates for vaccine development.

  4. Study of rational energy consumption in electric appliances. An integrated approach; Estudio de racionalizacion del consumo energetico en electrodomesticos. Un enfoque integrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Pablo A.; Romero Tirado, Rene R. [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Electrotecnia

    1997-12-31

    This work presents a global and integrated approach about rational energy consumption concerning the use of electric appliances based on studies carried out in this investigation and information obtained through a joint action of government agents and electric power manufacturers, producers and distributors. It also presents a program named `procaeh`(home electric appliances quality program) in the scope of the communications and energy bureau and energy rational use (URE) management 8 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.; e-mail: massa at isis.unlp.edu.ar

  5. Seasonal rationalization of river water quality sampling locations: a comparative study of the modified Sanders and multivariate statistical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekar, Vikas; Karmakar, Subhankar; Jha, Ramakar

    2016-02-01

    The design of surface water quality sampling location is a crucial decision-making process for rationalization of monitoring network. The quantity, quality, and types of available dataset (watershed characteristics and water quality data) may affect the selection of appropriate design methodology. The modified Sanders approach and multivariate statistical techniques [particularly factor analysis (FA)/principal component analysis (PCA)] are well-accepted and widely used techniques for design of sampling locations. However, their performance may vary significantly with quantity, quality, and types of available dataset. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate performance of these techniques by accounting the effect of seasonal variation, under a situation of limited water quality data but extensive watershed characteristics information, as continuous and consistent river water quality data is usually difficult to obtain, whereas watershed information may be made available through application of geospatial techniques. A case study of Kali River, Western Uttar Pradesh, India, is selected for the analysis. The monitoring was carried out at 16 sampling locations. The discrete and diffuse pollution loads at different sampling sites were estimated and accounted using modified Sanders approach, whereas the monitored physical and chemical water quality parameters were utilized as inputs for FA/PCA. The designed optimum number of sampling locations for monsoon and non-monsoon seasons by modified Sanders approach are eight and seven while that for FA/PCA are eleven and nine, respectively. Less variation in the number and locations of designed sampling sites were obtained by both techniques, which shows stability of results. A geospatial analysis has also been carried out to check the significance of designed sampling location with respect to river basin characteristics and land use of the study area. Both methods are equally efficient; however, modified Sanders

  6. NANOINTERACT: A rational approach to the interaction between nanoscale materials and living matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Iseult; Linse, Sara; Howard, C Vyvyan; Stepnik, Maciej; Rydzynski, Konrad; Hanrahan, John; Jong, Wim de; Langevin, Dominique; Raedler, Joachim; Parak, Wolfgang; Volkov, Yuri; Radomski, Marek; Thomas, Robert; Klein, Jacob; Barron, Andrew A; Janssen, Colin; Lyons, Fiona M; Quinn, Francis; Swennen, Bert; Cuypers, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The importance of understanding the interactions between nanoscale materials and living matter has now begun to be appreciated by an extraordinaryly large range of stakeholders, including researchers, industry, governments and society, all of whom appreciate both the opportunities presented by and challenges raised by this arena of research. Not only does it open up new directions in nanomedicine and nanodiagnostics, but it also offers the chance to implement nanotechnology across all industry in a safe and responsible manner. The underlying reasons for this arena as a new scientific paradigm are real and durable. Less than 100 nm nanoparticles can enter cells, less that 40 nm they can enter cell nucleus, and less that 35 nm they can pass through the blood brain barrier. These are fundamental length scales of biological relevance that will ensure that engineered nanoscience will impinge on biology and medicine for many decades to come. One important issue is the current lack of reproducibility of the outcomes of many experiments in this arena. Differences are likely a consequence of such things as uncontrolled nanoparticle aggregation leading to unpredictable doses being presented to cells, interference of the nanoparticles themselves with many of the tests being applied, differences in the degree of confluency of the cells used, and a host of other factors. NanoInteract has shown how careful control of all aspects of the test system, combined with round robin type approaches, can help resolve these issues and begin to ensure that the field can become a quantitative science. The basic principle of NanoInteract is that given identical nanomaterials, cells and biological materials, and using a common protocol, experiments must yield identical answers. Thus, any deviations result from errors in (applying) the protocol which can be tracked and eliminated, until quantitatively reproducible results are obtained by any researcher in any location. This paper outlines the

  7. NANOINTERACT: A rational approach to the interaction between nanoscale materials and living matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Iseult; Linse, Sara; Vyvyan Howard, C.; Stepnik, Maciej; Rydzynski, Konrad; Hanrahan, John; de Jong, Wim; Langevin, Dominique; Rädler, Joachim; Parak, Wolfgang; Volkov, Yuri; Radomski, Marek; Thomas, Robert; Klein, Jacob; Barron, Andrew A.; Janssen, Colin; Lyons, Fiona M.; Quinn, Francis; Swennen, Bert; Cuypers, Peter; Duffy, Angela; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2009-05-01

    The importance of understanding the interactions between nanoscale materials and living matter has now begun to be appreciated by an extraordinaryly large range of stakeholders, including researchers, industry, governments and society, all of whom appreciate both the opportunities presented by and challenges raised by this arena of research. Not only does it open up new directions in nanomedicine and nanodiagnostics, but it also offers the chance to implement nanotechnology across all industry in a safe and responsible manner. The underlying reasons for this arena as a new scientific paradigm are real and durable. Less than 100 nm nanoparticles can enter cells, less that 40 nm they can enter cell nucleus, and less that 35 nm they can pass through the blood brain barrier. These are fundamental length scales of biological relevance that will ensure that engineered nanoscience will impinge on biology and medicine for many decades to come. One important issue is the current lack of reproducibility of the outcomes of many experiments in this arena. Differences are likely a consequence of such things as uncontrolled nanoparticle aggregation leading to unpredictable doses being presented to cells, interference of the nanoparticles themselves with many of the tests being applied, differences in the degree of confluency of the cells used, and a host of other factors. NanoInteract has shown how careful control of all aspects of the test system, combined with round robin type approaches, can help resolve these issues and begin to ensure that the field can become a quantitative science. The basic principle of NanoInteract is that given identical nanomaterials, cells and biological materials, and using a common protocol, experiments must yield identical answers. Thus, any deviations result from errors in (applying) the protocol which can be tracked and eliminated, until quantitatively reproducible results are obtained by any researcher in any location. This paper outlines the

  8. Weighing the Anti-Ischemic Benefits and Bleeding Risks from Aspirin Therapy: a Rational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugani, Sagar; Ames, Jeffrey M; Manson, JoAnn E; Mora, Samia

    2018-02-21

    The role of aspirin in secondary cardiovascular prevention is well understood; however, the role in primary prevention is less clear, and requires careful balancing of potential benefits with risks. Here, we summarize the evidence base on the benefits and risks of aspirin therapy, discuss clinical practice guidelines and decision support tools to assist in initiating aspirin therapy, and highlight ongoing trials that may clarify the role of aspirin in cardiovascular disease prevention. In 2016, the USPSTF released guidelines on the use of aspirin for primary prevention. Based on 11 trials (n = 118,445), aspirin significantly reduced all-cause mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction, and in 7 trials that evaluated aspirin ≤ 100 mg/day, there was significant reduction in nonfatal stroke. The USPSTF recommends individualized use of aspirin based on factors including age, 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score, and bleeding risk. Several ongoing trials are evaluating the role of aspirin in primary prevention, secondary prevention, and in combination therapy for atrial fibrillation. Evidence-based approaches to aspirin use should consider the anti-ischemic benefits and bleeding risks from aspirin. In this era of precision medicine, tools that provide the personalized benefit to risk assessment, such as the freely available clinical decision support tool (Aspirin-Guide), can be easily incorporated into the electronic health record and facilitate more informed decisions about initiating aspirin therapy for primary prevention. Aspirin has a complex matrix of benefits and risks, and its use in primary prevention requires individualized decision-making. Results from ongoing trials may guide healthcare providers in identifying appropriate candidates for aspirin therapy.

  9. Fiebre entérica en fase de fastigium: notas epicríticas acerca de un caso de autopsia

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Morales, Miguel Fernando; Estrada Hernández, María del Rocío; Parraguirre Martínez, Sara

    2012-01-01

    La fiebre tifoidea es una enfermedad sistémica de etiología infecciosa ocasionada por el bacilo gramnegativo Salmonella typhi. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 19 años quien comenzó con fiebre, dolor abdominal y diarrea; posteriormente cursó con insuficiencia hepática, necrosis tubular aguda, rabdomiolisis y trombocitopenia. Falleció a los 3 días del ingreso hospitalario. Los hallazgos de autopsia fueron: ulceración de placas de Peyer, inflamación y necrosis de ganglios linfáticos mesentér...

  10. Fiebre amarilla en Africa: su impacto en salud pública y perspectivas para su control en el siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Oyewale Tomori

    2002-01-01

    Durante las últimos dos décadas, la fiebre amarilla ha vuelto a emerger con fuerza hasta constituirse en un grave problema de salud pública en Africa, trayendo indecibles sufrimientos a mucha de su población y convirtiéndose en un obstáculo más para su desarrollo social y económico. A pesar de los destacados logros alcanzados en el conocimiento de la epidemiología de esta enfermedad y de la disponibilidad de una vacuna segura y eficaz, la fiebre amarilla continúa siendo un serio problema de s...

  11. Rational approach to solvent system selection for liquid-liquid extraction-assisted sample pretreatment in counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Gu, Dongyu; Wang, Miao; Guo, Xinfeng; Li, Haoquan; Dong, Yue; Guo, Hong; Wang, Yi; Fan, Mengqi; Yang, Yi

    2017-05-15

    A rational liquid-liquid extraction approach was established to pre-treat samples for high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:5:4:5, v/v) and (1:5:1:5, v/v) were selected as solvent systems for liquid-liquid extraction by systematically screening K of target compounds to remove low- and high-polarity impurities in the sample, respectively. After liquid-liquid extraction was performed, 1.4g of crude sample II was obtained from 18.5g of crude sample I which was extracted from the flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L., and then separated with HSCCC by using a solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:2:1:2, v/v). As a result, 31mg of robinin and 37mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from 200mg of crude sample II in a single run of HSCCC. A scale-up separation was also performed, and 160mg of robinin with 95% purity and 188mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside with 97% purity were produced from 1.2g of crude sample II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...... the family is associated with a standard rule and we show that if the latter obeys some properties reflecting principles of impartiality, priority and solidarity, the former obeys them too....

  13. Adolescent rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are commonly seen as irrational, a position supported to varying degrees by many developmentalists, who often appeal to recent research on adolescent brains. Careful review of relevant evidence, however, shows that (1) adults are less rational than is generally assumed, (2) adolescents (and adults) are categorically different from children with respect to the attainment of advanced levels of rationality and psychological functioning, and (3) adolescents and adults do not differ categorically from each other with respect to any rational competencies, irrational tendencies, brain structures, or neurological functioning. Development often continues in adolescence and beyond but categorical claims about adolescents as distinct from adults cannot be justified. A review of U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning intellectual freedom, reproductive freedom, and criminal responsibility shows ongoing ambivalence and confusion about the rationality of adolescents. Developmental theory and research suggest that adolescents should be conceptualized as young adults, not immature brains, with important implications for their roles, rights, and responsibilities.

  14. Fiebres hemorrágicas por Arenavirus en Latinoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Soto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las fiebres hemorrágicas virales producidas por Arenavirus incluyen a los virus endémicos en África (Lassa y el virus de la coriomeningitis linfocítica (LCMV, de distribución mundial, y los Arenavirus del Nuevo Mundo o Complejo Tacaribe, que incluye a los virus endémicos en las Américas (Junín, Machupo, Guanarito, Sabiá, Pichinde, entre otros. Los huéspedes naturales son los roedores y la infección en humanos se produce por el contacto con la orina y excretas. Las manifestaciones clínicas inicialmente son indistinguibles de otras fiebres hemorrágicas producidas por bacterias, parásitos y otros virus, constituyéndose esto en un problema de salud pública, por lo que se requiere realizar el diagnóstico diferencial utilizando técnicas serológicas y moleculares.

  15. Hydrogen initiative: An integrated approach toward rational nanocatalyst design for hydrogen production. Technical Report-Year 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlachos, Dionisios G. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Buttrey, Douglas J. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Lauterbach, Jochen A. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2007-03-29

    The overall objective of this grant is to develop a rational framework for the discovery of low cost, robust, and active nano-catalysts that will enable efficient hydrogen production. Our approach will be the first demonstration of integrated multiscale model, nano-catalyst synthesis, and nanoscale characterization assisted high throughput experimentation (HTE). We will initially demonstrate our approach with ammonia decomposition on noble metal catalysts. Our research focuses on many elements of the Hydrogen Initiative in the Focus Area of “Design of Catalysts at the Nanoscale’. It combines high-throughput screening methods with various nanostructure synthesis protocols, advanced measurements, novel in situ and ex situ characterization techniques, and multiscale theory, modeling and simulation. This project directly addresses several of the long-term goals of the DOE/BES program. In particular, new nanoscale catalytic materials will be synthesized, characterized and modeled for the production of hydrogen from ammonia and a computational framework will be developed for efficient extraction of information from experimental data and for rational design of catalysts whose impact goes well beyond the proposed hydrogen production project. In the first year of the grant, we have carried out HTE screening using a 16 parallel microreactor coupled with an FTIR analysis system. We screened nearly twenty single metals and several bimetallic catalysts as a function of temperature, catalyst loading, inlet composition, and temperature (order of 400 experiments). We have found that Ru is the best single metal catalyst and no better catalysts were found among the library of bimetallics we have created so far. Furthermore, we have investigated promoting effects (i.e., K, Cs, and Ba) of the Ru catalyst. We have found that K is the dominant promoter of increased Ru activity. Response surface experimental design has led to substantial improvements of the Ru catalyst with promotion

  16. A rational approach to estimating the surgical demand elasticity needed to guide manpower reallocation during contagious outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Hsiao-Mei; Sun, Ying-Chou; Liou, Der-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases continue to pose serious threats to global public health. So far, however, few published study has addressed the need for manpower reallocation needed in hospitals when such a serious contagious outbreak occurs. To quantify the demand elasticity of the major surgery types in order to guide future manpower reallocation during contagious outbreaks. Based on a nationwide research database in Taiwan, we extracted the monthly volumes of major surgery types for the period 1998-2003, which covered the SARS period, in order to carry out a time series analysis. The demand elasticity of each surgery type was then estimated by autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) analysis. During the study period, the surgical volumes of most selected surgery types either increased or remained steady. We categorized these surgery types into low-, moderate- and high-elastic groups according to their demand elasticity. Appendectomy, 'open reduction of fracture with internal fixation' and 'free skin graft' were in the low demand elasticity group. Transurethral prostatectomy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) were in the high demand elasticity group. The manpower of the departments carrying out the surgeries with low demand elasticity should be maintained during outbreaks. In contrast, departments in charge of surgeries mainly with high demand elasticity, like urology departments, may be in a position to have part of their staff reallocated. Taking advantage of the demand variation during the SARS period in 2003, we adopted the concept of demand elasticity and used a time series approach to figure out an effective index of demand elasticity for various types of surgery that could be used as a rational reference to carry out manpower reallocation during contagious outbreak situations.

  17. Rational BRDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Romain; Salazar Celis, Oliver; Schlick, Christophe; Granier, Xavier; Poulin, Pierre; Cuyt, Annie

    2012-11-01

    Over the last two decades, much effort has been devoted to accurately measuring Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of real-world materials and to use efficiently the resulting data for rendering. Because of their large size, it is difficult to use directly measured BRDFs for real-time applications, and fitting the most sophisticated analytical BRDF models is still a complex task. In this paper, we introduce Rational BRDF, a general-purpose and efficient representation for arbitrary BRDFs, based on Rational Functions (RFs). Using an adapted parametrization, we demonstrate how Rational BRDFs offer 1) a more compact and efficient representation using low-degree RFs, 2) an accurate fitting of measured materials with guaranteed control of the residual error, and 3) efficient importance sampling by applying the same fitting process to determine the inverse of the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) generated from the BRDF for use in Monte-Carlo rendering.

  18. Rational emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Meir; Winter, Eyal; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Aharon, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain "mental state" is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the complementary role of rational choice in choosing emotional states. Participants played the role of "recipient" in the dictator game, in which an anonymous "dictator" decides how to split an amount of money between himself and the recipient. A subset of recipients was given a monetary incentive to be angry at low-split offers. That subset demonstrated increased physiological arousal at low offers relative to high offers as well as more anger than other participants. These results provide a fresh outlook on human decision-making and contribute to the continuing effort to build more complete models of rational behavior.

  19. Confucian Rationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there is still a widely held view that the Chinese and Western modes of thought are quite distinct from each other. In particular, the Chinese mode of thought derived from Confucianism is considered as comparatively less rational than the Western one. In this article, I first argue that although the analogical mode of argumentation,…

  20. Estado actual de la bartonellosis (fiebre verrucosa. verruga en el continente americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Patiño Camargo

    1940-09-01

    Full Text Available Trabajo Presentado al VIII Congreso Científico Panamericano reunido en Washington D.C. en mayo de 1940 por La grave calamidad que ha constituido para Colombia la epidemia de Bartonellosis o Fiebre Verrucosa en una región septentrional de su territorio; la endemia legendaria de el Perú; el hecho de haberse señalado en los últimos días focos activos en el Ecuador; y la circunstancia verosímil de que las remotas epidemias llamadas "Bubas" en Guatemala hayan sido de Verruga, demuestran que sobre un dilatado territorio, en varias naciones tributarias del Pacífico existen focos de Bartonellosis en el Continente Americano.

  1. Batch-To-Batch Rational Feedforward Control : From Iterative Learning to Identification Approaches, with Application to a Wafer Stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, L.; Boeren, F.A.J.; Bruijnen, D.J.H.; Oomen, T.A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Feedforward control enables high performance for industrial motion systems that perform nonrepeating motion tasks. Recently, learning techniques have been proposed that improve both performance and flexibility to nonrepeating tasks in a batch-To-batch fashion by using a rational parameterization in

  2. A Response-Time Approach to Comparing Generalized Rational and Take-the-Best Models of Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergert, F. Bryan; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors develop and test generalized versions of take-the-best (TTB) and rational (RAT) models of multiattribute paired-comparison inference. The generalized models make allowances for subjective attribute weighting, probabilistic orders of attribute inspection, and noisy decision making. A key new test involves a response-time (RT)…

  3. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  4. Rational Emotive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, William

    1977-01-01

    Rational Emotive Education--an outgrowth of theories developed by Albert Ellis--is a teaching design of mental health concepts and problem-solving activities designed to help students to approach and cope with their problems through experiential learning, via a structured, thematic sequence of emotive education lessons. (MJB)

  5. Introduction to Dossier: Lessons from Latin America on the rational choice, cognitive and institutional approaches to policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontaine, Guillaume

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the pertinent academic literature identifies three analytical focuses in studies of policy change. Rational choice- with its theories of incrementalism, multiple currents and punctuated equilibrium- privilege the decision-making process and the rational nature of the individual actor. The cognitivists- with their framework of promoter coalitions, the theory of social/ global references and critical theory- emphasize the presentation of policy problems and the legitimating discourse behind the decision-making process. The neo-institutionalist- with their theories of the logic of the adequate, path dependence and the three-order process of policy change- emphasize the importance of formal and informal institutions in the development of public policies.

  6. Rational valuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spielthenner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations

  7. Fiebre petequial experimental de las montañas rocosas: resultado del tratamiento con algunas drogas (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Steinhaus

    1944-02-01

    Full Text Available En 1939, Topping informó que el Prontosil y la sulfadiazina aparentemente no tenían valor en el tratamiento de la fiebre petequial de las Montañas Rocosas, en los curíes. Estudios recientes han conducido a los autores a la misma observación con respecto al Sulfatiazol, Sulfatiazol sódico, Sulfaguanidina, Sulfadiazina, Atebrina y Tirotricina (2. Se usó una cepa de alta y fatal virulencia, de Fiebre Petequial de las Montañas Rocosas del oeste de Montana. La dosificación de cada una de las drogas varió de acuerdo con el grado de toxicidad. En general, por lo menos se usaron 3 dosificaciones y de estas se administraban una vez, 2 ó 3 veces al día. Todos los datos se resumen en el Cuadro N° 1.

  8. Médicos y policías durante la epidemia de fiebre amarilla (Buenos Aires, 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Galeano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la actuación de médicos y policías durante la epidemia de fiebre amarilla que tuvo lugar en la ciudad de Buenos Aires en 1871. Aunque las embestidas de enfermedades infectocontagiosas fueron recurrentes durante el siglo XIX, la epidemia de fiebre amarilla constituye un quiebre, no solo por sus dimensiones cuantitativas y por los efectos materiales sobre la ciudad, sino también por las querellas que suscitó entre discursos en pugna. En particular, se intenta mostrar aquí cómo las figuras de los médicos y los policías fueron posicionadas en relación al tema del héroe y del sacrificado en cumplimiento del deber.

  9. Resumen de notas históricas sobre la fiebre amarilla en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Groot

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Dos formas epidemiológicas, la urbana y la selvática, de hecho íntimamente ligadas. En cuanto a la primera, transmitida de hombre a hombre por Aedes aegypti, debe recordarse que se observaba frecuentemente en los poblados de la costa del Caribe desde el siglo XVII, produciendo a veces epidemias como la que sufrieron las tropas de Vernon en 1741 cuando al intentar tomar a Cartagena se vieron atacadas por la enfermedad; de los 23.000 invasores, 9.000 perecieron en la empresa, la mayoría de ellos por causa de la fiebre amarilla. En épocas más recientes durante el siglo XIX y a principios del XX, el mal siguió siendo azote común del litoral Atlántico y causó también diversas epidemias a lo largo del Río Magdalena y en algunas poblaciones aisladas, como El Carmen y Ocaña. Igualmente se registraron casos de la enfermedad en Buenaventura. Las dos últimas epidemias urbanas que sufrió Colombia, fueron las de Bucaramanga en 1923 y la del Socorro en 1928. Es de notar que la desaparición de la fiebre amarilla de las ciudades se debió sin duda a las vigorosas campañas para eliminar el mosquito transmisor que culminaron en 1960 con su erradicación, exceptuada Cúcuta. Sin embargo, años más tarde el país se reinfestó con el Aedes y, por consiguiente, quedó nuevamente expuesto a las epidemias de fiebre amarilla urbana, pero con riesgo mayor por cuanto el mosquito se había dispersado por todo el país y se había establecido en lugares donde nunca había existido antes. Afortunadamente hasta el momento actual no se ha presentado brote alguno del famoso vómito negro urbano.

    En cambio se han observado gigantescas epidemias de dengue (1.

    En lo referente a la fiebre amarilla selvática lo primero por indicar es que

  10. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  11. Rationalization: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Rationalization was studied by Sigmund Freud and was specifically labeled by Ernest Jones. Rationalization ought to be differentiated from rational, rationality, logical analysis, etc. On the one hand, rationalization is considered a defense mechanism, on the other hand, rationality is not. Haan has done much work with self-report inventories and…

  12. Modelos animales de fiebres hemorrágicas humanas producidas por arenavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Rodas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    En ciertas áreas endémicas para el virus de la fiebre de Lassa en África, este agente representa una amenaza importante para la salud pública. El agente etiológico de la fiebre de Lassa es transmitido de ratas a humanos a través de la sangre o de la exposición de las mucosas a aerosoles y causa cerca de 300.000 casos cada año. El virus de la coriomeningitis linfocítica (LCMV, estrechamente relacionado con el virus de la fiebre de Lassa, produce variados resultados después de su inoculación en primates. En nuestro laboratorio hemos empleado la especie Macaca mulata de mono Rhesus como modelo de fiebre de Lassa en el hombre, usando una variante patogénica (WE y una no patogénica (Armstrong de LCMV.

    Nuestros objetivos fueron determinar el resultado de la infección en monos después de la exposición oral y el desafío letal posterior, caracterizar la respuesta inmune protectora y probar protección cruzada usando las dos cepas virales mencionadas.

    El experimento inicial utilizando las vías de inoculación intravenosa (experimental clásica y oral (hipotética permitieron describir cómo, la vía oral. Produce una “aparente” infección asintomática, mientras la intravenosa es uniformemente letal; permitiendo concluir por lo tanto, que la ruta de exposición influencia dramáticamente el resultado clínico de la infección.

    En un segundo experimento, dos dosis altas (107 o 108 unidades formadoras de placa de la cepa WE del virus LCMV fueron

  13. A rational quantitative approach to determine the best dosing regimen for a target therapeutic effect: a unified formalism for antibiotic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Nekka, Fahima

    2013-02-21

    The determination of an optimal dosing regimen is a critical step to enhance the drug efficacy and avoid toxicity. Rational dosing recommendations based on mathematical considerations are increasingly being adopted in the process of drug development and use. In this paper, we propose a quantitative approach to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic agents. By integrating both pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) information, this approach gives rise to a unified formalism able to measure the cause-effect of dosing regimens. This new pharmaco-metric allows to cover a whole range of antibiotics, including the two well known concentration and time dependent classes, through the introduction of the Hill-dependency concept. As a direct fallout, our formalism opens a new path toward the bioequivalence evaluation in terms of PK and PD, which associates the in vivo drug concentration and the in vitro drug effect. Using this new approach, we succeeded to reveal unexpected, but relevant behaviors of drug performance when different drug regimens and drug classes are considered. Of particular notice, we found that the doses required to reach the same therapeutic effect, when scheduled differently, exhibit completely different tendencies for concentration and time dependent drugs. Moreover, we theoretically confirmed the previous experimental results of the superiority of the once daily regimen of aminoglycosides. The proposed methodology is appealing for its computational features and can easily be applicable to design fair clinical protocols or rationalize prescription decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. OCTOGESIMO ANIVERSARIO DEL DESCUBRIMIENTO DE LA FIEBRE AMARILLA SELVÁTICA POR EL DOCTOR ROBERTO FRANCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sanmartín Barberi

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available

    La reunión que hoy nos congrega en esta sesión conjunta tiene por objeto conmemorar una importante efemérides de la medicina universal y tributar homenaje a la memoria de un excepcional galeno de nuestra patria.

    Me permitiré leer una breve comunicación que el 8 de octubre del año pasado dirigí al Presidente de nuestra Academia, pues resume el motivo central de esta ceremonia:
    “El año próximo venidero se cumplen ochenta de la trascendental comunicación del Dr. Roberto Franco sobre una epidemia febril que estudió en las Minas de Muzo.
    Tal investigación constituye uno de los hitos más importantes de la medicina tropical. Las novedosas conclusiones del Dr. Franco, basadas en un juicioso estudio de campo y en una sagaz observación clínica y epidemiológica, fueron puestas en duda y aún negadas en su época. Sólo el tiempo y las investigaciones posteriores dieron razón a su notable afirmación de la existencia de la fiebre amarilla de los bosques.

    Me parece que sería justo y oportuno que la Academia celebre tal aniversario de manera apropiada y que se aproveche la ocasión para exaltar la memoria del que fue, sin duda, una de las figuras cimeras de la medicina nacional”.
    Tanto la Academia como nuestra Sociedad histórica, a las que me honro en pertenecer, acogieron favorablemente la sugerencia. Me enaltece sobremanera ser yo quien esta noche las representa.

    En el número 331 de Noviembre de 1907 de la Revista Médica de Bogotá, órgano de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, se publicó el informe presentado al Presidente del Sindicato de las Minas de Muzo, por la misión encargada de estudiar la epidemia de fiebres observada en la mina en los meses de Marzo y Abril de 1907. Tal documento tiene fecha del 14 de Mayo del mismo año y está suscrito por el Dr. Roberto Franco, quien deja constancia de la invaluable colaboración de dos de sus estudiantes que le acompañaron a Muzo y que fueron los

  15. Paths in contemporary economics and sciences of artificial intelligence that originate from Simon’s bounded rationality approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Egidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the work of Herbert A. Simon, the author critically reflects on the past and current state of crucial behavioural assumptions such as rational expectations and bounded rationality. Simon recognized that the core of every organization is the pattern underlying the division of tasks and their coordination: behaviour within organizations is oriented toward goals, and goals are generally complex and hierarchical. Many intermediate sub-goals must be realized in a specific order for the final goal to be achieved. Additionally, the dynamics of organizational decisions are very complex and have two relevant aspects. First, goals are often defined in very general and ambiguous ways, thus necessitating revision of the sub-goals’ hierarchy. Second, many hidden conflicting objectives can be discovered during organizational decisions, when, again, a revision of the sub-goals and their hierarchy may become necessary. It is easy to see that, with this analytical setup, the classical theme of division of labour and coordination would dominate the scenario, leaving utility theory behind. JEL codes: B21, D03, D81

  16. Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…

  17. Rational inattention or rational overreaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne

    We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....

  18. Rationality of limited rationality : some aggregate implications

    OpenAIRE

    Uri M. Possen; Mikko Puhakka

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we let economic agents choose whether to become fully rational or stay boundedly rational. Boundedly rational agents are less sophisticated in their information processing abilities. It is costly to acquire information needed to become fully rational, and thus not all agents are willing to incur those costs. We then explore the aggregate effects of endogenizing the decision whether the agent should or should not become fully rational in handling information. Since fully and boun...

  19. Observaciones en el Ornithodoros Forcosus sobre su posible rol como vector de la Fiebre Recurrente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Herrer

    1957-12-01

    Full Text Available Tratando de verificar la posible infección por borrelias en el Ornithodoros Forcosus Neumann, 1908, se realizaron observaciones experimentales en las que se utilizó un total de 1,655 especímenes de esta garrapata. En tales estudios se emplearon pericotes blancos y cobayos. Con triturado de garrapatas fueron inoculados 68 animales (64 pericotes y 4 cobayos y 37 (16 pericotes y 21 cobayos fueron empleados para alimentar sobre ellos varios lotes de garrapatas. Los resultados de todas estas observaciones fueron negativas. Las garrapatas con las que se han efectuado estos estudios procedían de las localidades de Limabamba, Mariscal Benavides, Camporredondo, Ocalli y Luya, todas en el departamento de Amazonas, y a altitudes que varían entre 1,400 y 2,300 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Desde que la fiebre recurrente parece ser endémica en el Perú, especialmente en localidades de considerable altitud, es de suponer que en este país sea trasmitida principalmente por piojos.

  20. Enfoque desde la ciencia post-normal de la epizootia fiebre aftosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schütz Gabriel Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende analizar la epizootia de fiebre aftosa del invierno británico de 2001 desde el enfoque de la ciencia post-normal. Serán analizadas las participaciones de los diferentes actores sociales y las interacciones de las categorías: confianza, gobernanza, incertidumbre, valores e intereses. Todos estos factores formaron parte de una crisis que, por un lado, conjugó los intereses políticos de un gobierno en campaña electoral junto con los intereses económicos de un estado miembro de la Unión Europea y por el otro, los intereses de la población afectada junto con todos aquellos problemas relacionados con la salud y el medio ambiente. Las medidas tomadas para detener esta enfermedad 'económica' se transformaron en un verdadero experimento heterogéneo a gran escala social, un fenómeno típico de la modernidad que exige nuevas formas de abordar la ciencia y los procesos decisorios.

  1. Fiebre Tifoidea Diagnóstico por pruebas inmunoenzimáticas: Elisa

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    Miguel Guzmán

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe el desarrollo y normalización de una técnica inmunoenzimática para el diagnóstico indirecto de la Fiebre Tifoidea. El método permite un análisis simple y objetivo de los resultados. La reacción enzimática es proporcional a la concentración de anticuerpos en el suero contra el antígeno somático-0, por tanto, el método es cuantitativo. Por lo demás, la técnica tiene un alto grado de especificidad para Salmonella typhi, ya que los sueros de pacientes con Salmonelosis causada por Salmonella enteritidis serotipos paratyphi A, B y typhimurium dieron resultados negativos, en forma similar a los presentados por el grupo control antes de la vacunación específica. Los resultados obtenidos con esta técnica permitieron definir el nivel de anticuerpos que puede presentar una población control supuestamente sana frente a los niveles inducidos por la enfermedad. Los resultados postvacunales en el grupo control mostraron títulos sorprendentemente bajos; un análisis de este fenómeno se presentó en forma amplia. Igualmente se proponen futuras investigaciones sobre este campo.

  2. Bartonelosis (Fiebre de la Oroya o Verruga Peruana: ¿Enfermedad ocupacional?

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    R. Cesar Gonzáles

    Full Text Available La Bartonella bacilliformis es un parásito bacteriano intracelular facultativo de los eritrocitos humanos y de las células endoteliales. La enfermedad de Carrión, fiebre de La Oroya y Verruga Peruana son todos términos que describen las consecuencias patológicas de la infección humana por Bartonella bacilliformis. (1 Aunque las infecciones que involucran especies de Bartonella, tales como Bartonella henselae y Bartonella quintana, ocurren en todo el mundo, la enfermedad de Carrión es endémica únicamente en Sudamérica. (14 Las infecciones por B. bacilliformis son un problema de salud en numerosas áreas rurales de Sudamérica y para los viajeros que visitan esas regiones. Se han reportado brotes de bartonelosis en las regiones montañosas de Perú, Ecuador y Colombia. (1 La Lutzomyia verrucarum es el principal vector para la transmisión de la bacteria al ser humano; la hembra del mosquito transmite el patógeno durante su alimentación nocturna de sangre humana. Presumiblemente el insecto se alimenta de sangre de un individuo infectado y disemina el patógeno por medio de su saliva durante la siguiente ingesta de sangre. La bacteria no es contagiosa entre humanos. (1 Presentamos un enfoque laboral de la enfermedad en trabajadores que realizan desplazamientos continuos a zonas endémicas y analizamos sus posibles consecuencias.

  3. Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Approach with Hydrologic Rational Model for Flood Event Analysis in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, M. R.; Hernina, R.; Rokhmatuloh

    2017-12-01

    Rapid development in Jakarta which generates more impervious surface has reduced the amount of rainfall infiltration into soil layer and increases run-off. In some events, continuous high rainfall intensity could create sudden flood in Jakarta City. This article used rainfall data of Jakarta during 10 February 2015 to compute rainfall intensity and then interpolate it with ordinary kriging technique. Spatial distribution of rainfall intensity then overlaid with run-off coefficient based on certain land use type of the study area. Peak run-off within each cell resulted from hydrologic rational model then summed for the whole study area to generate total peak run-off. For this study area, land use types consisted of 51.9 % industrial, 37.57% parks, and 10.54% residential with estimated total peak run-off 6.04 m3/sec, 0.39 m3/sec, and 0.31 m3/sec, respectively.

  4. On hereditarily rational functions

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Krzysztof Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short proof of a theorem by Koll\\'{a}r on hereditarily rational functions. This is an answer to his appeal to find an elementary proof which does not rely so much on resolution of singularities. Our approach does not make use of desingularization techniques. Instead, we apply a stronger version of the \\L{}ojasiewicz inequality. Moreover, this allows us to sharpen Koll\\'{a}r's theorem.

  5. When is it rational to participate in a clinical trial? A game theory approach incorporating trust, regret and guilt

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    Djulbegovic Benjamin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs remain an indispensable form of human experimentation as a vehicle for discovery of new treatments. However, since their inception RCTs have raised ethical concerns. The ethical tension has revolved around “duties to individuals” vs. “societal value” of RCTs. By asking current patients “to sacrifice for the benefit of future patients” we risk subjugating our duties to patients’ best interest to the utilitarian goal for the good of others. This tension creates a key dilemma: when is it rational, from the perspective of the trial patients and researchers (as societal representatives of future patients, to enroll in RCTs? Methods We employed the trust version of the prisoner’s dilemma since interaction between the patient and researcher in the setting of a clinical trial is inherently based on trust. We also took into account that the patient may have regretted his/her decision to participate in the trial, while a researcher may feel guilty because he/she abused the patient’s trust. Results We found that under typical circumstances of clinical research, most patients can be expected not to trust researchers, and most researchers can be expected to abuse the patients’ trust. The most significant factor determining trust was the success of experimental or standard treatments, respectively. The more that a researcher believes the experimental treatment will be successful, the more incentive the researcher has to abuse trust. The analysis was sensitive to the assumptions about the utilities related to success and failure of therapies that are tested in RCTs. By varying all variables in the Monte Carlo analysis we found that, on average, the researcher can be expected to honor a patient’s trust 41% of the time, while the patient is inclined to trust the researcher 69% of the time. Under assumptions of our model, enrollment into RCTs represents a rational strategy that can meet

  6. When is it rational to participate in a clinical trial? A game theory approach incorporating trust, regret and guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok

    2012-06-22

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain an indispensable form of human experimentation as a vehicle for discovery of new treatments. However, since their inception RCTs have raised ethical concerns. The ethical tension has revolved around "duties to individuals" vs. "societal value" of RCTs. By asking current patients "to sacrifice for the benefit of future patients" we risk subjugating our duties to patients' best interest to the utilitarian goal for the good of others. This tension creates a key dilemma: when is it rational, from the perspective of the trial patients and researchers (as societal representatives of future patients), to enroll in RCTs? We employed the trust version of the prisoner's dilemma since interaction between the patient and researcher in the setting of a clinical trial is inherently based on trust. We also took into account that the patient may have regretted his/her decision to participate in the trial, while a researcher may feel guilty because he/she abused the patient's trust. We found that under typical circumstances of clinical research, most patients can be expected not to trust researchers, and most researchers can be expected to abuse the patients' trust. The most significant factor determining trust was the success of experimental or standard treatments, respectively. The more that a researcher believes the experimental treatment will be successful, the more incentive the researcher has to abuse trust. The analysis was sensitive to the assumptions about the utilities related to success and failure of therapies that are tested in RCTs. By varying all variables in the Monte Carlo analysis we found that, on average, the researcher can be expected to honor a patient's trust 41% of the time, while the patient is inclined to trust the researcher 69% of the time. Under assumptions of our model, enrollment into RCTs represents a rational strategy that can meet both patients' and researchers' interests simultaneously 19% of the time

  7. Rational kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...

  8. Uso racional de medicamentos: uma abordagem econômica para tomada de decisões Rational drug use: an economic approach to decision making

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    Daniel Marques Mota

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o uso racional de medicamentos (URM sob um ponto de vista da economia. O URM, para ser implementado, implica custos e envolve a apropriação de conhecimentos e mudanças de conduta de diversos agentes. A dificuldade na adoção da prática do URM pode estar relacionada a problemas de escassez, assimetria de informação, informação incompleta, incertezas nas decisões clínicas, externalidades, preço-tempo, incentivos para prescritores e dispensadores, preferências dos prescritores e utilidade marginal. Assim, cabe às autoridades sanitárias, entre outras entidades, regular, reduzir e controlar essas falhas que poderão introduzir ineficiências na assistência farmacêutica, bem como produzir riscos à vida humana.The present article approaches rational drug use (RDU from the economical point of view. The implementation of RDU implies in costs and involves acquisition of knowledge and behavioral changes of several agents. The difficulties in implementing RDU may be due to shortage problems, information asymmetry, lack of information, uncertain clinical decisions, externalities, time-price, incentives for drug prescribers and dispensers, drug prescriber preferences and marginal utility. Health authorities, among other agencies, must therefore regularize, rationalize and control drug use to minimize inefficiency in pharmaceutical care and to prevent exposing the population to unnecessary health risks.

  9. Análisis genético del virus peruano de la fiebre amarilla

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    Carlos Yábar V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las variantes genéticas de aislamientos del virus peruano de la Fiebre Amarilla (FA. Materiales y métodos: la región carboxiterminal del gen de la envoltura (E de cinco aislamientos de FA obtenidas de pacientes provenientes de Ayacucho 1978 (PER1, Junín 1995 (PER2, Cerro de Pasco (PER3, Cusco (1998 y San Martín (1999 fue amplificada por PCR, secuenciada y analizada con programas software de ADN. Resultados: el índice de similaridad de la secuencia de nucleótidos entre los cinco aislamientos reveló valores oscilantes entre 94,3% y 99,3%, mientras que la secuencia de aminoácidos presentó valores entre 97,6% y 99,7% de similaridad. El análisis filogenético demostró una distancia genética entre 0,40 y 6,50 mediante la secuencia de nucleótidos y a través de la secuencia de aminoácidos se observó un rango de 0,30 y 4,29. Sin embargo, las secuencias correspondientes a los sitios de glicosilación y a los epítopes de reconocimiento humoral fueron conservadas entre los cinco aislamientos, con excepción de algunos aislamientos de referencia reportados por otros autores. Conclusiones: los virus de FA peruanos forman un grupo filogenético distinto a otros virus de FA sudamericanos, basados en el análisis genéticos del gen E.

  10. La fiebre de Chikungunya en el período neonatal

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    Hernando Baquero-Latorre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La fiebre de Chikungunya es una enfermedad tropical desatendida en muchos países por su relativa baja letalidad. Esta enfermedad es causada por el virus de Chikungunya (VCHIK, transmitido por artrópodos pertenecientes al género Alphavirus de la familia Togaviridae. Este virus se transmite a los humanos a través de la picadura de mosquitos Aedes infectados (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus. Generalmente la enfermedad por VCHIK se manifiesta como una artritis autolimitada, ex-cepto en personas inmunocomprometidas y en recién nacidos, en los que se puede manifestar como una enfermedad grave.La trasmisión de infecciones de la madre al niño se puede dar in útero (congénita alre-dedor del periodo del parto (perinatal o de manera posnatal a través de la leche materna. La infección materna se disemina al embrión y al feto por infección ascendente desde la vagina, vía cuello uterino hasta llegar al líquido amniótico o vía hematógena secundaria a viremia, parasitemia o bacteremia.La vía hematógena de infección fetal es más común durante episodios de viremia materna como los que se presentan durante la infección por VCHIK. La transmisión perinatal del VCHIK es un evento poco frecuente que ocurre en los brotes masivos de infección cuando el riesgo de viremia en mujeres embarazadas cercanas al término se convierte en no despreciable. En estas pacientes, la infección neonatal se presenta con una probabilidad de ocurrencia del 50 %, y se expresa en el recién nacido principalmente como postración y encefalopatía.

  11. Los vecinos de Buenos Aires ante las epidemias de cólera y fiebre amarilla (1856-1886

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    Maximiliano Ricardo Fiquepron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza un tipo particular de institución surgida para combatir en las epidemias de cólera de 1867, 1868 y 1873, y en las de fiebre amarilla, ocurridas en 1871 y 1886. Las comisiones de vecinos han sido interpretadas mayormente por la historiografía como una respuesta de la sociedad frente a la parálisis del Estado, sobre todo en su dimensión municipal. Este artículo revisa esta afirmación y argumenta que las epidemias generaron la posibilidad de crear, reformar y convertiráreas específicas del Estado municipal, sobre todo aquellas vinculadas con la salud e higiene. Hemos denominado a este proceso vector de institucionalización, dado que con las epidemias de cólera y de fiebre amarilla aparecieron –en principio, transitoriamente– una serie de medidas y formas de organización que luego fueron institucionalizadas. Además, sostenemos que la indudable relevancia de la fiebre amarilla de 1871 no debe obstruir el estudio de otras epidemias, en la medida en que estas fueron también muy significativas en el proceso de gestación de las comisiones de vecinos y, más importante, contribuyeron al fortalecimiento institucional de la municipalidad. Esta mirada permite mostrar espacios de interacción, subordinación, independencia y/o enfrentamiento producidos entre las comisiones de vecinos y el Estado municipal y provincial de la provincia de Buenos Aires.

  12. Assessment and rationalization of water quality monitoring network: a multivariate statistical approach to the Kabbini River (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavukkandy, Musthafa Odayooth; Karmakar, Subhankar; Harikumar, P S

    2014-09-01

    network is assessed. Significance of seasonal redesign of the monitoring network is demonstrated. Rationalization of water quality parameters is performed in a statistical framework.

  13. Rational and evolutionary engineering approaches uncover a small set of genetic changes efficient for rapid xylose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Soo Rin Kim

    Full Text Available Economic bioconversion of plant cell wall hydrolysates into fuels and chemicals has been hampered mainly due to the inability of microorganisms to efficiently co-ferment pentose and hexose sugars, especially glucose and xylose, which are the most abundant sugars in cellulosic hydrolysates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot metabolize xylose due to a lack of xylose-metabolizing enzymes. We developed a rapid and efficient xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae through rational and inverse metabolic engineering strategies, comprising the optimization of a heterologous xylose-assimilating pathway and evolutionary engineering. Strong and balanced expression levels of the XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 genes constituting the xylose-assimilating pathway increased ethanol yields and the xylose consumption rates from a mixture of glucose and xylose with little xylitol accumulation. The engineered strain, however, still exhibited a long lag time when metabolizing xylose above 10 g/l as a sole carbon source, defined here as xylose toxicity. Through serial-subcultures on xylose, we isolated evolved strains which exhibited a shorter lag time and improved xylose-fermenting capabilities than the parental strain. Genome sequencing of the evolved strains revealed that mutations in PHO13 causing loss of the Pho13p function are associated with the improved phenotypes of the evolved strains. Crude extracts of a PHO13-overexpressing strain showed a higher phosphatase activity on xylulose-5-phosphate (X-5-P, suggesting that the dephosphorylation of X-5-P by Pho13p might generate a futile cycle with xylulokinase overexpression. While xylose consumption rates by the evolved strains improved substantially as compared to the parental strain, xylose metabolism was interrupted by accumulated acetate. Deletion of ALD6 coding for acetaldehyde dehydrogenase not only prevented acetate accumulation, but also enabled complete and efficient fermentation of xylose as well as a mixture of glucose and

  14. The spectrum-effect relationship-a rational approach to screening effective compounds, reflecting the internal quality of Chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chun-Sheng; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Xiao, Ming-Liang; Niu, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Since the chromatographic fingerprint was introduced, it has been accepted by many countries to assess the quality and authenticity of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). However, solely using the chromatographic fingerprint to assay numerous chemicals is not suitable for the assessment of the whole internal quality and pharmacodynamics of CHM. Consequently, it is necessary to develop a rational approach to connecting the chromatographic fingerprint with effective components to assess the internal quality of CHM. For this purpose, a spectrum-effect relationship theory was proposed and accepted as a new method for the assessment of CHM because of its potential use to screen effective components from CHM. In this paper, we systematically reviewed the application of the spectrum-effect relationship theory in the research of CHM, including research mentality, different chromatographic analysis techniques, data processing technologies, and structure determination. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [TORCH syndrome: Rational approach of pre and post natal diagnosis and treatment. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Neonatal Infections Sociedad Chilena de Infectología, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofre, Fernanda; Delpiano, Luis; Labraña, Yenis; Reyes, Alejandra; Sandoval, Alejandra; Izquierdo, Giannina

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of bacterial, viral or parasite infections who are able to be transmitted vertically from the mother to the fetus or newborn which implicates an enormous risk for it. The TORCH acronym is used universally to refer to a fetus or newborn which presents clinical features compatible with a vertically acquired infection and allows a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The traditional "TORCH test" is nowadays considered not appropriate and it has been replaced for specific test for specific pathogens under well defined circumstances. The present document reviews the general characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and therapeutic options for the most frequently involved pathogens in the fetus or newborn with TORCH suspicion.

  16. La distribución estacional de fiebre amarilla humana y del mosquito haemagogus en la Intendencia del Meta (Colombia

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    Augusto Gast Galvis

    1945-08-01

    Full Text Available Las zonas de las estribaciones de la cordillera en la Intendencia del Meta han sido por muchos años de gran interés desde el punto de vista de fiebre amarilla selvática. Las condiciones generales de estas zonas en relación con la endemicidad de esta enfermedad han sido descritas por Boshell (1938 y el pormenorizado trabajo de campo llevado a cabo por Bugher y sus colaboradores (1944 incriminó al Haemagogus capricornii como el principal vector en esa región.

  17. La eficacia de la vacunación en la prevención de la fiebre amarilla en Colombia

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    John C. Bugher

    1944-11-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de la vacuna contra la fiebre amarilla trajo como consecuencia la eliminación de las infecciones con el mismo virus, ocurridas en el laboratorio entre el personal de la División Sanitaria Internacional de la Fundación Rockefeller. Además, en Colombia no ha ocurrido ningún caso de infección entre los empleados de la Sección de Estudios Especiales, a pesar del contacto íntimo que mantienen con el virus, tanto en el laboratorio como en el campo.

  18. La eficacia de la vacunación en la prevención de la fiebre amarilla en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Bugher, John C.; Gast-Galvis, Augusto

    2011-01-01

    La introducción de la vacuna contra la fiebre amarilla trajo como consecuencia la eliminación de las infecciones con el mismo virus, ocurridas en el laboratorio entre el personal de la División Sanitaria Internacional de la Fundación Rockefeller. Además, en Colombia no ha ocurrido ningún caso de infección entre los empleados de la Sección de Estudios Especiales, a pesar del contacto íntimo que mantienen con el virus, tanto en el laboratorio como en el campo.

  19. Rational reconstructions of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...

  20. Non-parametric identification of multivariable systems : a local rational modeling approach with application to a vibration isolation benchmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorhoeve, R.J.; van der Maas, A.; Oomen, T.A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Frequency response function (FRF) identification is often used as a basis for control systems design and as a starting point for subsequent parametric system identification. The aim of this paper is to develop a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) local parametric modeling approach for FRF

  1. An Introduction to Equilibrium Thermodynamics. A Rational Approach to Its Teaching. Part 2: Internal Energy, Entropy, and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald F.; Glasser, David

    1991-01-01

    An approach that may be used to introduce the fundamental ideas of thermodynamics using a mathematical background with the knowledge of the behavior of matter is described. The physical background, conservation of energy, predicting the behavior of a system, and solving problems are topics of discussion. (KR)

  2. Rationality in Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary theories of rational behavior in human society augment the orthodox model of rationality both by adding various forms of bounded rationality and relaxing the assumptions of self-interest and materialistic preferences. This entry discusses how these extensions of the theory of rational

  3. Fiebre amarilla en Africa: su impacto en salud pública y perspectivas para su control en el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewale Tomori

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante las últimos dos décadas, la fiebre amarilla ha vuelto a emerger con fuerza hasta constituirse en un grave problema de salud pública en Africa, trayendo indecibles sufrimientos a mucha de su población y convirtiéndose en un obstáculo más para su desarrollo social y económico. A pesar de los destacados logros alcanzados en el conocimiento de la epidemiología de esta enfermedad y de la disponibilidad de una vacuna segura y eficaz, la fiebre amarilla continúa siendo un serio problema de salud pública tanto en Africa como en América en donde anualmente afecta a 200.000 personas, aproximadamente, y causa alrededor de 30.000 muertes. Africa contribuye con más del 90% de la morbilidad y mortalidad por fiebre amarilla en el planeta. Además de la severidad de la morbilidad y la mortalidad, que muestran un acusado subregistro, los sucesivos brotes y las medidas de control han traumatizado la prestación de los servicios de salud disponibles, sobrecargando los ya exiguos recursos internos, abusando de las donaciones y llevando a un lamentable desperdicio de vacunas. Las epidemias recientes en Africa han afectado predominantemente a los niños menores de 15 años. La fiebre amarilla es una enfermedad de fácil control, lo cual puede ilustrarse con dos situaciones ocurridas en Africa. Entre 1939 y 1952, la enfermedad virtualmente desapareció en varias zonas del continente en las que se adelantaron programas de vacunación masiva de manera regular. Más recientemente, después de la epidemia de 1978-1979 en Gambia, se llevó a cabo una campaña masiva de vacunación contra la fiebre amarilla, logrando un cubrimiento de 97% de la población mayor de seis meses de edad, a partir de la cual la vacuna se incorporó permanentemente al programa de inmunización. Desde entonces, Gambia ha mantenido cubrimientos de más del 80%, sin notificación de nuevos casos, a pesar de tener frontera con Senegal que padeció brotes en 1995 y 1996. La

  4. Tailored coating of gold nanostars: rational approach to prototype of theranostic device based on SERS and photothermal effects at ultralow irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, B.; Dacarro, G.; Galinetto, P.; Giulotto, E.; Marchesi, N.; Pallavicini, P.; Pascale, A.; Perversi, S.; Taglietti, A.

    2018-06-01

    The last decade has come across an increasing demand for theranostic biocompatible nanodevices possessing the double ability of diagnosis and therapy. In this work, we report the design, synthesis and step-by-step characterization of rationally coated gold nanostars (GNSs) for the SERS imaging and photothermal therapy of HeLa cancer cells. The nanodevices were realized by synthesizing GNSs with a seed growth approach, coating them with a controlled mixture of thiols composed of a Raman reporter and a polyethylene glycol with a terminal amino group, and then reacting these amino groups with folic acid (FA), in order to impart selectivity towards cancer cells which overexpress folate receptors on their membranes. After a complete characterization, we demonstrate that these FA-functionalized GNSs (FA-GNSs) are able to bind selectively to the membranes of HeLa cells, acting as SERS tags and allowing SERS imaging. Moreover, we demonstrate that once bound to HeLa cell membranes, FA-GNSs exhibit photothermal effect which can be exploited to kill the same cells in vitro using laser irradiation in the NIR at a very low and safe irradiance. We thus demonstrate that the FA-GNSs designed following the described approach are an efficient prototype of theranostic nanodevices.

  5. A Rational Approach for Discovering and Validating Cancer Markers in Very Small Samples Using Mass Spectrometry and ELISA Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Zangar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying useful markers of cancer can be problematic due to limited amounts of sample. Some samples such as nipple aspirate fluid (NAF or early-stage tumors are inherently small. Other samples such as serum are collected in larger volumes but archives of these samples are very valuable and only small amounts of each sample may be available for a single study. Also, given the diverse nature of cancer and the inherent variability in individual protein levels, it seems likely that the best approach to screen for cancer will be to determine the profile of a battery of proteins. As a result, a major challenge in identifying protein markers of disease is the ability to screen many proteins using very small amounts of sample. In this review, we outline some technological advances in proteomics that greatly advance this capability. Specifically, we propose a strategy for identifying markers of breast cancer in NAF that utilizes mass spectrometry (MS to simultaneously screen hundreds or thousands of proteins in each sample. The best potential markers identified by the MS analysis can then be extensively characterized using an ELISA microarray assay. Because the microarray analysis is quantitative and large numbers of samples can be efficiently analyzed, this approach offers the ability to rapidly assess a battery of selected proteins in a manner that is directly relevant to traditional clinical assays.

  6. Rational decision making in a wide scenario of different minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion approaches and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Luiz; Tohmeh, Antoine; Jones, David; Amaral, Rodrigo; Marchi, Luis; Oliveira, Leonardo; Pittman, Bruce C; Bae, Hyun

    2018-03-01

    With the proliferation of a variety of modern MIS spine surgery procedures, it is mandatory that the surgeon dominate all aspects involved in surgical indication. The information related to the decision making in patient selection for specific procedures is mandatory for surgical success. The objective of this study is to present decision-making criteria in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) selection for a variety of patients and pathologies. In this article, practicing surgeons who specialize in various MIS approaches for spinal fusion were engaged to provide expert opinion and literature review on decision making criteria for several MIS procedures. Pros, cons, relative limitations, and case examples are provided for patient selection in treatment with MIS posterolateral fusion (MIS-PLF), mini anterior lumbar interbody fusion (mini-ALIF), lateral interbody fusion (LLIF), MIS posterior lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-PLIF) and MIS transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF). There is a variety of aspects to consider when deciding which modern MIS surgical approach is most appropriate to use based on patient and pathologic characteristics. The surgeon must adapt them to the characteristic of each type of patients, helping them to choose the most effective and efficient therapeutic option for each case.

  7. Immunology, epidemiology and mathematical modelling towards a better understanding of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella disease and rational vaccination approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Pietro; Rossi, Omar

    2016-12-01

    Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections cause a high burden of lethal sepsis in young children and HIV patients, often associated with malaria, anaemia, malnutrition and sickle-cell disease. Vaccines against iNTS are urgently needed but none are licensed yet. Areas covered: This review illustrates how immunology, epidemiology and within-host pathogen behaviour affect invasive Salmonella infections and highlights how this knowledge can assist the improvement and choice of vaccines. Expert Commentary: Control of iNTS disease requires approaches that reduce transmission and improve diagnosis and treatment. These are often difficult to implement due to the fragile ecology and economies in endemic countries. Vaccines will be key tools in the fight against iNTS disease. To optimise vaccine design, we need to better define protective antigens and mechanisms of resistance to disease in susceptible populations even in those individuals where innate immunity may be impaired by widespread comorbidities.

  8. Cytoreductive nephrectomy vs medical therapy as initial treatment: a rational approach to the sequence question in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Philippe E; Fishman, Mayer N

    2010-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can be considered as two distinct entities: localized and metastatic disease. We conducted a review of the scientific literature published within the past decade pertaining to cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic RCC. Retrospective data and historical prospective series have demonstrated the survival benefit of debulking nephrectomy in well-selected RCC patients. New medical therapies, including vascular endothelial growth factor and mTOR pathway blocking drugs, are active biological agents, with survival improvement and potential regression of metastatic and primary tumors. Our current therapeutic challenge is the optimal integration of multimodal therapy consisting of systemic therapy and surgery including cytoreductive nephrectomy, debulking, and metastasectomy. Empiric data to guide this decision are limited. The decision concerning whether medical or surgical therapy should be the primary treatment approach selected must be made on an individual basis, taking into account patient performance status, clinical parameters, and physician expertise and recommendations, thus making each case a unique therapeutic challenge.

  9. On rationally supported surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...

  10. Simplifications of rational matrices by using UML

    OpenAIRE

    Tasić, Milan B.; Stanimirović, Ivan P.

    2013-01-01

    The simplification process on rational matrices consists of simplifying each entry represented by a rational function. We follow the classic approach of dividing the numerator and denominator polynomials by their common GCD polynomial, and provide the activity diagram in UML for this process. A rational matrix representation as the quotient of a polynomial matrix and a polynomial is also discussed here and illustrated via activity diagrams. Also, a class diagram giving the links between the c...

  11. Rationalization of dye uptake on titania slides for dye-sensitized solar cells by a combined chemometric and structural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Valentina; Favaro, Giada; Bonandini, Luca; Palin, Luca; Croce, Gianluca; Boccaleri, Enrico; Artuso, Emma; van Beek, Wouter; Barolo, Claudia; Milanesio, Marco

    2014-11-01

    A model photosensitizer (D5) for application in dye-sensitized solar cells has been studied by a combination of XRD, theoretical calculations, and spectroscopic/chemometric methods. The conformational stability and flexibility of D5 and molecular interactions between adjacent molecules were characterized to obtain the driving forces that govern D5 uptake and grafting and to infer the most likely arrangement of the molecules on the surface of TiO2. A spectroscopic/chemometric approach was then used to yield information about the correlations between three variables that govern the uptake itself: D5 concentration, dispersant (chenodeoxycholic acid; CDCA) concentration, and contact time. The obtained regression model shows that large uptakes can be obtained at high D5 concentrations in the presence of CDCA with a long contact time, or in absence of CDCA if the contact time is short, which suggests how dye uptake and photovoltaic device preparation can be optimized. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The discriminant pixel approach: a new tool for the rational interpretation of GCxGC-MS chromatograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Jérôme; Pezous, Benoît; Thiébaut, Didier; Sassiat, Patrick; Teillet, Béatrice; Cahours, Xavier; Rivals, Isabelle

    2011-01-30

    GCxGC is now recognized as the most suited analytical technique for the characterization of complex mixtures of volatile compounds; it is implemented worldwide in academic and industrial laboratories. However, in the frame of comprehensive analysis of non-target analytes, going beyond the visual examination of the color plots remains challenging for most users. We propose a strategy that aims at classifying chromatograms according to the chemical composition of the samples while determining the origin of the discrimination between different classes of samples: the discriminant pixel approach. After data pre-processing and time-alignment, the discriminatory power of each chromatogram pixel for a given class was defined as its correlation with the membership to this class. Using a peak finding algorithm, the most discriminant pixels were then linked to chromatographic peaks. Finally, crosschecking with mass spectrometry data enabled to establish relationships with compounds that could consequently be considered as candidate class markers. This strategy was applied to a large experimental data set of 145 GCxGC-MS chromatograms of tobacco extracts corresponding to three distinct classes of tobacco. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinación mediante inmunohistoquímica de infección por virus de la fiebre amarilla y virus de la hepatitis b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Morón C

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La inmunohistoquímica (IHQ constituye una herramienta para definir la etiología en el síndrome icterohemorrágico. Objetivo: Identificar mediante IHQ la presencia en hígado del antígeno de superficie de la hepatitis B y del virus de la fiebre amarilla. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron muestras de tejido hepático procedentes de 55 fallecidos por síndrome icterohemorrágico, remitidos entre enero de 2000 y diciembre de 2001 al Instituto Nacional de Salud, (Lima, Perú. Resultados: La prueba se realizó únicamente en 46 muestras, 33% (15/46 fueron diagnosticados por histopatología como fiebre amarilla, de ellos, 9 casos fueron positivos por IHQ para fiebre amarilla, siendo 2 de ellos también positivos para HBsAg. Histológicamente, se reportaron 6 casos como hepatitis con necrosis submasiva o masiva, que por IHQ fueron sólo 2 casos positivos para fiebre amarilla. En 39% (18/46 no se llegó al diagnóstico etiológico de la hepatitis, y finalmente hubo 2 casos con diagnóstico histopatológico de ádenocarcinoma hepático y sólo se obtuvo positividad por IHQ para HBsAg en uno. Conclusión: La IHQ es una alternativa para la confirmación diagnóstica de hepatitis B y fiebre amarilla.

  14. Informe sobre la fiebre amarilla silvestre en la región del Meta, desde julio 1934 hasta diciembre de 1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Boshell Manrique

    1938-02-01

    Full Text Available En agosto de 1934 el Padre Francisco Savary, misionero de la Compañía Montfort, da la voz de alarma acerca de unos casos de fiebres que se han presentado en unas veredas del vecindario de Restrepo y cuyo cuadro clínico corresponde al descrito en el capítulo de fiebre amarilla de su Manual de Misionero. Se practica una primera investigación encontrando, en efecto, manifestaciones mórbidas que sugieren fiebre amarilla. El brote presenta una característica extraña que confunde a primera vista la investigación, en un momento en que la noción de la fiebre silvestre, o sea sin Aedes aegypti, no está aún generalizada. No se encuentra tal zancudo en la región. A consecuencia de un informe de la Dirección Nacional de Higiene, el Dr. E. R. Rickard, médico de la Fundación Rockefeller, baja a Villavicencio y me deja instrucciones precisas, con elementos de investigación. En esta época el autor era Director Intendencial de Higiene. Se toman 30 muestras de sangre distribuídas entre personas convalecientes de ataques de la enfermedad, entre personas que moraban en las casas en que habían ocurrido casos y entre compañeros de trabajo de personas atacadas. De las muestras sometidas a la prueba de inmunidad para fiebre amarilla, 20 resultaron positivas, 2 inconclusivas y 8 negativas. Estos resultados traen por consecuencia el establecimiento de una comisión de investigación epidemiológica en la región de Restrepo.

  15. Enzymatic shaving of the tegument surface of live schistosomes for proteomic analysis: a rational approach to select vaccine candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Castro-Borges

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The membrane-associated and membrane-spanning constituents of the Schistosoma mansoni tegument surface, the parasite's principal interface with the host bloodstream, have recently been characterized using proteomic techniques. Biotinylation of live worms using membrane-impermeant probes revealed that only a small subset of the proteins was accessible to the reagents. Their position within the multilayered architecture of the surface has not been ascertained.An enzymatic shaving approach on live worms has now been used to release the most accessible components, for analysis by MS/MS. Treatment with trypsin, or phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PiPLC, only minimally impaired membrane integrity. PiPLC-enriched proteins were distinguished from those released in parasite vomitus or by handling damage, using isobaric tagging. Trypsin released five membrane proteins, Sm200, Sm25 and three annexins, plus host CD44 and the complement factors C3 and C4. Nutrient transporters and ion channels were absent from the trypsin fraction, suggesting a deeper location in the surface complex; surprisingly, two BAR-domain containing proteins were released. Seven parasite and two host proteins were enriched by PiPLC treatment, the vaccine candidate Sm29 being the most prominent along with two orthologues of human CD59, potentially inhibitors of complement fixation. The enzymes carbonic anhydrase and APD-ribosyl cyclase were also enriched, plus Sm200 and alkaline phosphatase. Host GPI-anchored proteins CD48 and CD90, suggest 'surface painting' during worm peregrination in the portal system.Our findings suggest that the membranocalyx secreted over the tegument surface is not the inert barrier previously proposed, some tegument proteins being externally accessible to enzymes and thus potentially located within it. Furthermore, the detection of C3 and C4 indicates that the complement cascade is initiated, while two CD59 orthologues suggest a potential

  16. Consensus categorization of cheese based on water activity and pH-A rational approach to systemizing cheese diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trmčić, A; Ralyea, R; Meunier-Goddik, L; Donnelly, C; Glass, K; D'Amico, D; Meredith, E; Kehler, M; Tranchina, N; McCue, C; Wiedmann, M

    2017-01-01

    Development of science-based interventions in raw milk cheese production is challenging due to the large diversity of production procedures and final products. Without an agreed upon categorization scheme, science-based food safety evaluations and validation of preventive controls would have to be completed separately on each individual cheese product, which is not feasible considering the large diversity of products and the typically small scale of production. Thus, a need exists to systematically group raw milk cheeses into logically agreed upon categories to be used for food safety evaluations. This paper proposes and outlines one such categorization scheme that provides for 30 general categories of cheese. As a base for this systematization and categorization of raw milk cheese, we used Table B of the US Food and Drug Administration's 2013 Food Code, which represents the interaction of pH and water activity for control of vegetative cells and spores in non-heat-treated food. Building on this table, we defined a set of more granular pH and water activity categories to better represent the pH and water activity range of different raw milk cheeses. The resulting categorization scheme was effectively validated using pH and water activity values determined for 273 different cheese samples collected in the marketplace throughout New York State, indicating the distribution of commercially available cheeses among the categories proposed here. This consensus categorization of cheese provides a foundation for a feasible approach to developing science-based solutions to assure compliance of the cheese processors with food safety regulations, such as those required by the US Food Safety Modernization Act. The key purpose of the cheese categorization proposed here is to facilitate product assessment for food safety risks and provide scientifically validated guidance on effective interventions for general cheese categories. Once preventive controls for a given category have

  17. Development of a model for the rational design of molecular imprinted polymer: Computational approach for combined molecular dynamics/quantum mechanics calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Cunku; Li Xin; Guo Zechong; Qi Jingyao

    2009-01-01

    A new rational approach for the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on the combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum mechanics (QM) calculations is described in this work. Before performing molecular modeling, a virtual library of functional monomers was created containing forty frequently used monomers. The MD simulations were first conducted to screen the top three monomers from virtual library in each porogen-acetonitrile, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. QM simulations were then performed with an aim to select the optimum monomer and progen solvent in which the QM simulations were carried out; the monomers giving the highest binding energies were chosen as the candidate to prepare MIP in its corresponding solvent. The acetochlor, a widely used herbicide, was chosen as the target analyte. According to the theoretical calculation results, the MIP with acetochlor as template was prepared by emulsion polymerization method using N,N-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAM) as functional monomer and divinylbenzene (DVB) as cross-linker in chloroform. The synthesized MIP was then tested by equilibrium-adsorption method, and the MIP demonstrated high removal efficiency to the acetochlor. Mulliken charge distribution and 1 H NMR spectroscopy of the synthesized MIP provided insight on the nature of recognition during the imprinting process probing the governing interactions for selective binding site formation at a molecular level. We think the computer simulation method first proposed in this paper is a novel and reliable method for the design and synthesis of MIP.

  18. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. ... state-of-the-art resources, technology and tutors con-.

  19. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  20. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  1. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RATIONAL APPROXIMATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the key results of linear Chebyshev approximation theory are extended to generalized rational functions. Prominent among these is Haar’s...linear theorem which yields necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness. Some new results in the classic field of rational function Chebyshev...Furthermore a Weierstrass type theorem is proven for rational Chebyshev approximation. A characterization theorem for rational trigonometric Chebyshev approximation in terms of sign alternation is developed. (Author)

  2. The Problem of Rational Moral Enlistment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillson, John

    2017-01-01

    How can one bring children to recognize the requirements of morality without resorting only to non-rational means of persuasion (i.e. what rational ground can be offered to children for their moral enlistment)? Michael Hand has recently defended a foundationalist approach to answering this question and John White has responded by (a) criticizing…

  3. MARSI: metabolite analogues for rational strain improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, João G. R.; Zeidan, Ahmad A; Jensen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    reactions in an organism can be used to predict effects of MAs on cellular phenotypes. Here, we present the Metabolite Analogues for Rational Strain Improvement (MARSI) framework. MARSI provides a rational approach to strain improvement by searching for metabolites as targets instead of genes or reactions...

  4. «Epidemia»: Un repaso a la fiebre hemorrágica por Ébola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco CAMACHO AGUILERA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A través de la película Outbreak (1995 de Wolfgang Peterson, se repasan en este artículo a la fiebre hemorrágica por Ébola, dado su gran parecido con la enfermedad ficticia creada en esta película producida por el virus Motaba. Se presenta una revisión de la historia, las características del virus, transmisión del virus, las manifestaciones clínicas, el diagnóstico, la mortalidad, el tratamiento y la prevención, contrastándose con lo presentado en la película. Finalmente, se muestran los niveles de bioseguridad para el manejo de los agentes infecciosos

  5. Photobiomodulation of distinct lineages of human dermal fibroblasts: a rational approach towards the selection of effective light parameters for skin rejuvenation and wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, Charles; Uzunbajakava, Natallia E.; Raafs, Bianca; Moolenaar, Mitchel; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Tobin, Desmond J.

    2016-03-01

    Distinct lineages of human dermal fibroblasts play complementary roles in skin rejuvenation and wound healing, which makes them a target of phototherapy. However, knowledge about differential responses of specific cell lineages to different light parameters and moreover the actual molecular targets remain to be unravelled. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of a range of parameters of light on the metabolic activity, collagen production, and cell migration of distinct lineages of human dermal fibroblasts. A rational approach was used to identify parameters with high therapeutic potential. Fibroblasts exhibited both inhibitory and cytotoxic change when exposed to a high dose of blue and cyan light in tissue culture medium containing photo-reactive species, but were stimulated by high dose red and near infrared light. Cytotoxic effects were eliminated by refreshing the medium after light exposure by removing potential ROS formed by extracellular photo-reactive species. Importantly, distinct lineages of fibroblasts demonstrated opposite responses to low dose blue light treatment when refreshing the medium after exposure. Low dose blue light treatment also significantly increased collagen production by papillary fibroblasts; high dose significantly retarded closure of the scratch wound without signs of cytotoxicity, and this is likely to have involved effects on both cell migration and proliferation. We recommend careful selection of fibroblast subpopulations and their culture conditions, a systematic approach in choosing and translating treatment parameters, and pursuit of fundamental research on identification of photoreceptors and triggered molecular pathways, while seeking effective parameters to address different stages of skin rejuvenation and wound healing.

  6. Detección molecular del virus de la fiebre amarilla en muestras de suero de casos fatales humanos y en cerebros de ratón.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A. Méndez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemos adaptado un método molecular basado en la técnica de transcripción reversa seguida de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR para diagnóstico alternativo de la infección por el virus de la fiebre amarilla. Se tomaron tres sueros liofilizados de casos fatales de fiebre amarilla y cuatro sueros frescos, de los cuales tres pertenecían a casos fatales de la enfermedad y el cuarto a un paciente sintomático con serología IgM positiva para fiebre amarilla; los sueros fueron tratados con Trizol-LS® para extraer el ARN viral que fue sometido a reacción de RT y posteriormente a PCR, para la cual se diseñaron dos parejas de iniciadores específicos de fiebre amarilla: iniciadores directos (sentido JM2104 (5´-CGTTGGGAGAGGAGATTC-3´ y JM2249 (5´-TTCTTCACTTCGGTTGGG-3´, e iniciadores inversos (antisentido JM2673 (5´- TCATCTGCCCTGCTTCTC-3´ y JM2751 (5´-CCTCTCTGGTAAACATTCT-3´. La aplicación de la técnica en tejidos se hizo en cerebros de ratón infectados con el virus amarílico, tratados con una solución de lisis antes de purificar el ARN. En geles de agarosa se observaron bandas únicas de amplificación del tamaño esperado (569 pb y 502 pb; todas las muestras fueron corroboradas con las dos parejas de iniciadores y en dos de las muestras de suero fresco los resultados positivos para fiebre amarilla fueron comprobados con estudio histopatológico. Este método de detección molecular permitió demostrar de manera rápida y eficiente la presencia del virus de la fiebre amarilla, hecho que tiene importantes implicaciones diagnósticas para este problema de salud pública.

  7. Serial comparisons of quality of life after distal subtotal or total gastrectomy: what are the rational approaches for quality of life management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sujin; Chung, Ho Young; Lee, Seung Soo; Kwon, Ohkyoung; Yu, Wansik

    2014-03-01

    The aims of this study were to make serial comparisons of the quality of life (QoL) between patients who underwent total gastrectomy and those who underwent distal subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer and to identify the affected scales with consistency. QoL data of 275 patients who were admitted for surgery between September 2008 and June 2011 and who underwent subtotal gastrectomy or total gastrectomy were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. The Korean versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and the gastric cancer specific module, the EORTC QLQ-STO22, were used to assess QoL. QoL, as assessed by the global health status/QoL and physical functioning, revealed a brief divergence with worse QoL in the total gastrectomy group 3 months postoperatively, followed by rapid convergence. QoL related to restrictive symptoms (nausea/vomiting, dysphagia, reflux, and eating restrictions) and dry mouth was consistently worse in the total gastrectomy group during the first 2 postoperative years. The general QoL of patients after gastrectomy is highly congruent with subjective physical functioning, and the differences between patients who undergo total gastrectomy and subtotal gastrectomy are no longer valid several months after surgery. In order to further reduce the differences in QoL between patients who underwent total gastrectomy and subtotal gastrectomy, definitive preoperative informing, followed by postoperative symptomatic management, of restrictive symptoms in total gastrectomy patients is the most rational approach.

  8. An application of the rational choice approach to the offending process of sex offenders: a closer look at the decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Eric; Leclerc, Benoît

    2007-06-01

    Although the study of both offense processes and implicit theories provides in-depth knowledge about the decision-making of sex offenders, these studies focus solely on the internal psychological processes of the offender leading to the commission of a sexual assault. These studies neglect to look specifically at the offender's decision-making during the offense in interaction with the immediate situations encountered at the offense scene, such as the choices of behavior while interacting with the victim in a specific context. Based on a rational choice approach, this study investigates the decision-making involved in the offending process of 69 serial sexual offenders who have committed their crimes against stranger victims. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with offenders in order to identify the rationale behind their actions during the pre-crime phase (premeditation of the crime, estimation of risk of apprehension by the offender, and forensic awareness of the offender), crime phase (use of a weapon, use of restraints, use of a vehicle, and level of force used), and the post-crime phase (event leading to the end of crime and victim release site location choice). Results show that sex offenders, even if traditionally described as "irrational" and impulsive individuals, are capable, up to a certain point, of an analysis of the costs/benefits related to their actions. Moreover, results emphasize the important role of situational factors, such as victim resistance, on the decision-making process of sex offenders. Implications of the results are briefly discussed in regard of clinical practice and crime prevention.

  9. Brote de fiebre amarilla selvática en Colombia 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Bernal M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Antecedentes: el 9 de enero se confirma un caso de fiebre amarilla en la sierra nevada de Santa Marta cuya circulación viral es la continuación de la presentada en el 2003 en la región del Catatumbo. En la región no se confirmaban casos desde el año 1979 y el comportamiento del brote es similar al presentado en dicho año.

    Metodología: estudio descriptivo longitudinal de casos captados mediante vigilancia activa comunitaria, estudio de casos y vigilancia pasiva. Los casos son confirmados por IgM, inmunohistoquímica y patología. Se realizaron acciones del fortalecimiento de la vigilancia de febriles icterohemorrágicos, entomológica, vectorial y de epizootias. Igualmente acciones de intensificación de la inmunización de susceptibles y educación a la comunidad.

    Resultados: se confirmó la circulación del virus en epizootias ocurridas en tres zonas de la región (Municipios de Valledupar, La Paz y Santa Marta. Por fecha de inicio de síntomas los casos comenzaron en la semana 51 de 2003 y el pico epidémico fue en la semana 1 de 2004; el último caso se confirmó el 22 de enero de 2004. Se confirmaron 29 casos de 787 notificados (15 del distrito de Santa Marta, 8 del departamento del Cesar y 6 de La Guajira; 20% de los casos fueron captados por vigilancia activa. El 28% fue confirmado por patología e inmunohistoquímica y el restante por IgM. El grupo de edad con mayor incidencia fue 15 a 44 años (75%, hombres (72% y agricultores (45%. La letalidad fue 28%.

    La vigilancia entomológica reportó la presencia de Sabethes s.p en Valledupar y los índice médicos, excepto en esta última ciudad, fueron mayores del 10%. Las coberturas de

  10. Bounded Rationality and Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mukdad

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...

  11. Rational Multiparty Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Wallrabenstein, John Ross

    2014-01-01

    The field of rational cryptography considers the design of cryptographic protocols in the presence of rational agents seeking to maximize local utility functions. This departs from the standard secure multiparty computation setting, where players are assumed to be either honest or malicious. ^ We detail the construction of both a two-party and a multiparty game theoretic framework for constructing rational cryptographic protocols. Our framework specifies the utility function assumptions neces...

  12. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier...... relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...

  13. Evidencia serológica de la presencia de Rickettsias del grupo de la fiebre manchada en la Amazonía del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Sihuincha M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de demostrar la existencia de transmisión de Rickettsias del grupo de la fiebre manchada en la Amazonía peruana, se tomaron muestras de sangre a pacientes febriles agudos en establecimientos de salud de la ciudad de Iquitos, la ciudad más poblada de la Amazonía del Perú. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta para medir anticuerpos totales e IgG específica para el grupo de fiebre de las manchadas. Entre enero y julio de 2006, se obtuvieron muestras de 250 pacientes. El 37% de las muestras tuvieron títulos positivos de IgG, demostrando así haber tenido contacto con el agente, de ellas, nueve fueron clasificadas como casos agudos, en los que se descartó otras infecciones endémicas como dengue, malaria y leptospirosis. Los casos presentaron una enfermedad febril acompañada de síntomas como tos, sarpullido y hemoptisis. Cuatro casos fueron hospitalizados, dos fueron graves y uno de ellos falleció. En conclusión, existe evidencia serológica de la circulación de Rickettsias del grupo de las fiebre manchada en la Amazonía peruana, por su frecuencia y potencial gravedad debería ser tomada en cuenta como diagnóstico diferencial del síndrome febril agudo en esta región.

  14. A Rational Emotive Behavioral Approach to Improve Anger Management and Reduce Office Referrals in Middle School Children: A Formative Investigation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shannon R.

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen seventh and eighth graders previously identified as having behavioral problems earned significantly higher post-test scores on a test of REBT concepts immediately after participation in a Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) training program, and this knowledge was retained after an 8-week follow-up period (p less than 0.01).…

  15. Epidemiología molecular de la fiebre amarilla en Colombia: análisis filogenético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Boshell

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El virus de la fiebre amarilla pertenece a la familia Flaviviridae, género Flavivirus, y es el responsable de una enfermedad hemorrágica aguda que aún hoy en día afecta a más de 200.000 personas al año en regiones tropicales de África y Suramérica. El virus puede ser transmitido de un humano infectado a un humano susceptible por el mosquito doméstico Aedes aegypti o de primates no humanos a primates humanos por vectores selváticos, principalmente del género Haemagogus spp. (1-5. La infección con el virus puede ser asintomática o cursar con fiebre moderada en 40% a 65% de los pacientes, hasta convertirse en una infección fatal fulminante caracterizada por postración, daño hepático, renal, cardíaco y choque en 35-60% de los casos; la letalidad en casos graves varía entre 20% y 50%.(1-2.

    Aunque el virus puede ser detectado mediante técnicas serológicas (MAC-ELISA o virológicas (aislamiento viral en células o en ratón (1,6, estos sistemas no ofrecen ninguna información acerca del origen epidemiológico de las cepas analizadas, ni ponen en evidencia relaciones genéticas inter-cepa; por esta razón y para mejorar la sensibilidad de la clasificación viral, hemos realizado un análisis filogenético de las cepas del virus fiebre amarilla que han circulado en nuestro país y que han generado brotes epidémicos durante el último año.

    Se procesaron 20 muestras de pacientes (incluyendo suero y tejido hepático con diagnóstico previo de fiebre amarilla, obtenidas entre el 1º de junio de 2003 y el 20 de enero de 2004 y 4 muestras obtenidas entre 1954 y 1973, las cuales fueron tratadas con Trizol LS para la extracción del ARN; mediante RT-PCR utilizando iniciadores previamente reportados (6, se amplificaron

  16. Estado actual del manejo de la fiebre en niños. Current status of management of fever in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Alberto Rueda Zambrano, MD

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Es muy frecuente en el ambiente médico y entre los padres de familia el uso y abuso de antipiréticos buscando disminuir abruptamente la temperatura, mejorar los síntomas derivados de la fiebre y contrarrestar las reacciones adversas de la misma. Por otro lado, existen diferentes conceptos acerca de la elección del antipirético más eficaz y seguro en niños y su ruta de administración, así como su utilidad en la prevención de convulsiones febriles, entre otras. Este artículo pretende dar claridad a las controversias en el manejo de la fiebre mediante la revisión de la literatura, incluyendo solo ensayos clínicos, meta análisis, guías de manejo y revisiones de tema, publicadas en las dos últimas décadas. Para tal fin se revisaron las bases de datos Cochrane, PubMed y Medscape.Antipyretics are very often used between physicians and parents to treat fever and relief its symptoms and prevent vaccination side effects. Indeed, there is a misconception about the prevention of recurrence of febrile seizures with antipyretics and this leads to overdoses, side effects and, therefore, more parent´s anxiety. There are contradictory concepts about the election of safer and better antipyretic in children and its better administration via: oral and rectal paracetamol, ibuprofen, ketoprofeno, nimesulide, oral and intramuscular metamizol, paracetamol plus ibuprofen and ponging/lukewarm bath. All these alternatives have been studied by many researchers without consensus because more trials with bigger samples and longer time of study are needed. No clarity exists between doctors and parents about the antipyretic's effects over febrile seizure prevention and prophylaxis of post vaccine symptoms. This article pretends to find actual evidence about fever , its implications and use of antipyretics in children through searching on data bases like PubMed, Cochcrane, and Medscape.

  17. Caracterización clínica y epidemiológica de fiebre chikungunya en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garay-Morán

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El 6 de diciembre de 2013, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS notificaron la confirmación de los dos primeros casos de transmisión autóctona en la Región de las Américas de fiebre chikungunya (CHIK en la isla de Saint Martin (Antillas Neerlandesas. Para el período 2013-2014, el total de casos confirmados fue de 25 627 distribuidos en 43 países, donde México reportó 155 casos en cinco estados. La información de los casos de CHIK en México se obtuvo de la base de datos de la Dirección General de Epidemiología, dependiente de la Secretaría de Salud de México. La distribución por sexo de los casos autóctonos confirmados de CHIK para el año 2015 indica 64% para el sexo femenino (5 583 y 36% para el sexo masculino (3 085. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre en 98% de los casos (8 564, seguido por cefalea con 91,6% (7 941, mialgias en 89,9% (7 792, artralgias leves en 73,5% (6 367, poliartralgias graves en 72,6% (6 295 y exantema en 58% (5 032. La presentación clínica de los casos autóctonos de CHIK en México ha mostrado algunas características clínicas diferentes de las que se han observado en los brotes de los países africanos, asiáticos y otras regiones de América, como por ejemplo un mayor porcentaje de casos con cefalea y mialgias y un menor porcentaje de casos con artralgias.

  18. Rational approximation of vertical segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    2007-08-01

    In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.

  19. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  20. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Elqayam, Shira

    2017-10-01

    Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models. Rationality is typically classified under umbrella of normative (addressing the question how people "should" or "ought to" make their decisions) and descriptive theories of decision-making (which portray how people actually make their decisions). Normative theories of rational thought of relevance to medicine include epistemic theories that direct practice of evidence-based medicine and expected utility theory, which provides the basis for widely used clinical decision analyses. Descriptive theories of rationality of direct relevance to medical decision-making include bounded rationality, argumentative theory of reasoning, adaptive rationality, dual processing model of rationality, regret-based rationality, pragmatic/substantive rationality, and meta-rationality. For the first time, we provide a review of wide range of theories and models of rationality. We showed that what is "rational" behaviour under one rationality theory may be irrational under the other theory. We also showed that context is of paramount importance to rationality and that no one model of rationality can possibly fit all contexts. We suggest that in context-poor situations, such as policy decision-making, normative theories based on expected utility informed by best research evidence may provide the optimal approach to medical decision-making, whereas in the context

  1. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Meth...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality.......Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...

  2. Irrational Rationality of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nalbandov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.

  3. Respect for rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L

    2009-12-01

    The standard notion of autonomy in medical ethics does not require that autonomous choices not be irrational. The paper gives three examples of seemingly irrational patient choices and discusses how a rational autonomy analysis differs from the standard view. It then considers whether a switch to the rational autonomy view would lead to overriding more patient decisions but concludes that this should not be the case. Rather, a determination of whether individual patient decisions are autonomous is much less relevant than usually considered in determining whether health care providers must abide by these decisions. Furthermore, respect for rational autonomy entails strong positive requirements of respect for the autonomy of the person as a rational decision maker. The rationality view of autonomy is conceptually stronger than the standard view, allows for a more nuanced understanding of the practical moral calculus involved in respecting patient autonomy, and promotes positive respect for patient autonomy.

  4. Epidemiologia de la fiebre amarilla selvática en Colombia durante los últimos años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Boshell Manrique

    1944-08-01

    Full Text Available La primera manifestación de Fiebre Amarilla Selvática en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia se registro en agosto de 1934 en forma de un brote epidémico en la vecindad de la población de Restrepo, y se prolongó hasta febrero de 1935 (1. En la segunda mitad del mismo año la enfermedad apareció en los alrededores de Villavicencio y Acacías; en los últimos meses de 1936 se registraron casos en las tres regiones. Nuevas manifestaciones se presentaron en 1937 en el curso inferior de los ríos correspondientes a tales regiones, seguidas por un silencio que se prolongó hasta 1940, año en que principió el brote actual. No hubo explicación satisfactoria respecto al origen del brote de 1934. Era evidente que la infección atacaba de preferencia a los peones que trabajaban en el bosque. En ningún sitio de toda esa región, a pesar de larga y cuidadosa búsqueda, fue posible encontrar larvas o adultos de Aedes aegypti.

  5. Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2016-01-01

    Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...... rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice...... set. An individual is said to demonstrate bounded rational behaviour if he/she does not systematically consider all attributes deemed relevant for the decision problem at hand, does not consider all choice options and/or does not choose the best choice alternative. Such simplified representation...

  6. Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision‐making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elqayam, Shira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models. Rationality is typically classified under umbrella of normative (addressing the question how people “should” or “ought to” make their decisions) and descriptive theories of decision‐making (which portray how people actually make their decisions). Normative theories of rational thought of relevance to medicine include epistemic theories that direct practice of evidence‐based medicine and expected utility theory, which provides the basis for widely used clinical decision analyses. Descriptive theories of rationality of direct relevance to medical decision‐making include bounded rationality, argumentative theory of reasoning, adaptive rationality, dual processing model of rationality, regret‐based rationality, pragmatic/substantive rationality, and meta‐rationality. For the first time, we provide a review of wide range of theories and models of rationality. We showed that what is “rational” behaviour under one rationality theory may be irrational under the other theory. We also showed that context is of paramount importance to rationality and that no one model of rationality can possibly fit all contexts. We suggest that in context‐poor situations, such as policy decision‐making, normative theories based on expected utility informed by best research evidence may provide the optimal approach to medical decision

  7. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    The escalating number of radiodiagnostic investigations has, as a consequence, an increase in medical irradiation of patients and of cost of radiological services. Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme in this direction which has issued four technical reports which give practical recommendations on how to rationalize the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations

  8. Rational maps, monopoles and skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, C.J.; Manton, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the similarities between BPS monopoles and skyrmions, and point to an underlying connection in terms of rational maps between Riemann spheres. This involves the introduction of a new ansatz for Skyrme fields. We use this to construct good approximations to several known skyrmions, including all the minimal energy configurations up to baryon number nine, and some new solutions such as a baryon number seventeen Skyrme field with the truncated icosahedron structure of a buckyball. The new approach is also used to understand the low-lying vibrational modes of skyrmions, which are required for quantization. Along the way we discover an interesting Morse function on the space of rational maps which may be of use in understanding the Sen forms on the monopole moduli spaces. (orig.)

  9. Guidelines for Rational Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghee Yoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cancer therapy has relied on surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In recent years, these interventions have become increasingly replaced or complemented by more targeted approaches that are informed by a deeper understanding of the underlying biology. Still, the implementation of fully rational patient-specific drug design appears to be years away. Here, we present a vision of rational drug design for cancer that is defined by two major components: modularity and image guidance. We suggest that modularity can be achieved by combining a nanocarrier and an oligonucleotide component into the therapeutic. Image guidance can be incorporated into the nanocarrier component by labeling with a specific imaging reporter, such as a radionuclide or contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. While limited by the need for additional technological advancement in the areas of cancer biology, nanotechnology, and imaging, this vision for the future of cancer therapy can be used as a guide to future research endeavors.

  10. History of Economic Rationalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book concentrates upon how economic rationalities have been embedded into particular historical practices, cultures, and moral systems. Through multiple case-studies, situated in different historical contexts of the modern West, the book shows that the development of economic rationalities...... takes place in the meeting with other regimes of thought, values, and moral discourses. The book offers new and refreshing insights, ranging from the development of early economic thinking to economic aspects and concepts in the works of classical thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Karl Marx......, to the role of economic reasoning in contemporary policies of art and health care. With economic rationalities as the read thread, the reader is offered a unique chance of historical self-awareness and recollection of how economic rationality became the powerful ideological and moral force that it is today....

  11. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at .... Walsh K. Online educational tools to improve the.

  12. Crab Rationalization Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  13. THE HICKSIAN RATIONAL CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel FERNÁNDEZ-GRELA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the concept of ''rational consumer'' in Hicks's writings. After being one of the pioneers in the introduction of rationality assumptions about consumer behaviour in economic models, Hicks gradually developed a sceptical view about some of the uses to which those assumptions were put into. The focus of the paper is on continuity in Hicksian views, providing a picture of gradual changes in the long series of Hicks's works

  14. Efectos nocivos de la fiebre en el niño y medidas terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes B. Alpízar Caballero

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de ofrecer a los pediatras, residentes y especialistas de Medicina General Integral una información sobre las principales tendencias actuales en el manejo y conducta terapéutica en el niño febril, se analizan algunas consideraciones de interés para la aplicación del tratamiento antipirético y los métodos farmacológicos y físicos en la antipiresis. En el método farmacológico se presentan los 3 principales grupos de medicamentos antipiréticos: salicilatos, aminofenoles y derivados del ácido propiónico. De ellos se exponen las dosis, contraindicaciones y efectos adversos. Se señalan entre los efectos nocivos de la fiebre en el niño, el daño al sistema nervioso central, la afectación de otros órganos y sistemas y el malestar general.Several interesting considerations for the use of the antipyretic treatment, and of the pharmacological and physical methods in antipyresis, are analyzed with the aim of giving information to pediatricians, residents, and physicians specialized in Integral General Medicine about the main current trends in the management and therapeutic behaviour in the febrile child. In the pharmacological method the three main groups of antipyretic medicines are present: salicylates, aminophenols, and propionic acid derivatives. Doses, contraindications, and side effects of such are exposed. Adverse effects of the fever in the child, damage to the central nervous system, affectation of other organs and systems, and general indisposition, are pointed out.

  15. Vacuna contra la fiebre hemorrágica argentina Candid#1 producida en la Argentina: Inmunogenicidad y seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia A. Enria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio clínico en 946 voluntarios humanos sanos, donde se comparó la vacuna Candid#1 producida en Argentina con la elaborada en EE.UU., que había sido utilizada en estudios previos. Como objetivo primario se evaluó la equivalencia en la eficacia utilizando como marcador subrogante a la inmunogenicidad medida por detección de anticuerpos neutralizantes. Como objetivo secundario se evaluó la equivalencia en inocuidad comparando las tasas de reacciones adversas. Ambas vacunas mostraron una tasa equivalente de inmunogenicidad ligeramente superior al 95.5%, que es la eficacia estimada para Candid #1 en estudios previos. No se observaron eventos adversos graves relacionados con la vacuna. Los eventos adversos generales considerados relacionados fueron de escasa significación clínica y de resolución espontánea o con tratamiento sintomático; se presentaron en los receptores de ambas vacunas en tasas equivalentes (29.9% para la vacuna fabricada en la Argentina y 35.0% para la fabricada en EE.UU., e incluyeron: cefalea, decaimiento, mialgias, plaquetopenia leve (< 150 000 plaquetas/mm³, náuseas y/o vómitos, leucopenia leve (< 4 000 blancos/mm³, fiebre, dolor retroocular, mareos, microhematuria, lumbalgia y exantema. Estos resultados indican que la vacuna Candid #1 elaborada en la Argentina es equivalente a la elaborada en los EE.UU. Este estudio permitió el registro del biológico producido en la Argentina ante la autoridad regulatoria del país (ANMAT.

  16. Fiebre postoperatoria en cirugía ortopédica y urológica Postoperative fever in orthopedic and urologic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Saavedra

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia de fiebre en el postoperatorio varía ampliamente. En la cirugía limpia y la limpia-contaminada, la fiebre no infecciosa es más frecuente que la infecciosa. Fueron estudiados prospectivamente 303 pacientes operados en forma programada de cirugía ortopédica y urológica. Se investigó la incidencia de fiebre postoperatoria, su etiología, la relación entre el momento de su aparición y su origen y la utilidad del pedido empírico de estudios para determinar infección postoperatoria. El 14% (42/303 de los pacientes tuvieron fiebre postoperatoria. En el 81% (34/42 su etiología fue no infecciosa y en el 19% (8/42 infecciosa. Su origen fue siempre no infeccioso dentro de las primeras 48 horas del postoperatorio (pPost-operative fever incidence varies widely. In clean and clean-contaminated surgery the non-infectious fever is more frequent than the infectious fever. We performed a prospective study including 303 patients who underwent orthopedic and urologic elective surgery. The aims of our study were to investigate the incidence of post-operative fever, its etiology, the relationship between time of onset and the etiology, and the usefulness of extensive fever work-up to determine post-operative infection. The incidence of post-operative fever was 14% (42/303 of which 81% (34/42 was noninfectious and 19% (8/42 was infectious. The etiology of the fever in the first 48 hours after surgery was always non-infectious (p<0.001. An extensive fever work-up was performed in patients who presented fever only after the initial 48 hours of surgery with normal physical examination (n=19 consisting of chest x-ray, blood (2 and urine cultures. The chest x-ray was normal in all the patients, the urine cultures were positive in four cases (21%, IC 95%: 6-45 and the blood cultures in only one case (5%, IC 95%: 0.1-26. Seven patients had post-operative infections without fever as a clinical sign. The most frequently observed etiology of post

  17. Fiebre prolongada: Una visión contemporánea de un viejo problema clínico de difícil diagnóstico

    OpenAIRE

    Madera, CD; García, SM; Monsalve, P; Simonovis, N

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio es determinar las causas mas frecuentes de Síndrome Febril Prolongado (SFP) en el HUC y diseñar estrategias de aproximación diagnóstica al paciente con SFP en nuestro medio. Se presenta un estudio prospectivo realizado en los servicios de Medicina Interna y Enfermedades Infecciosas del Adulto de HUC, entre Diciembre de 1993 y Diciembre de 1995, obteniéndose 100 pacientes que cumplieron los siguientes criterios de inclusión: 1)Edad > 12 años; 2) Fiebre > 38,3ºC y 3)...

  18. De la insurrección del cuerpo a un nuevo entendimiento: La estación de fiebre de Ana Istarú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Chen Sham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In La estación de fiebre (1983, the poet Ana Istarú rises against chauvinism, which turns the female body into the place of woman submission. In order to counterattack it, she uses two tools, marriage and virginity, so that they are invigorated by the idea of the political manifest and the possible revolution. This political function of the body enrolls the woman in an enterprise of liberation that needs to break its imprisonment in a phallocentric tradition, by exploring her own body and sexuality, for reaching a new understanding.

  19. De miasmas a mosquitos: el pensamiento médico sobre la fiebre amarilla en Yucatán, 1890-1920

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalá Ferráez,Carlos

    2012-01-01

    La fiebre amarilla fue un problema de salud pública desde la época colonial debido a la frecuencia con que se presentaba en forma epidémica y a su alta letalidad. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el pensamiento médico y su evolución con respecto al vómito prieto entre 1890 y 1921 en Yucatán. Dos aspectos serán abordados: algunos antecedentes con respecto a la enfermedad y las ideas predominantes hasta 1881; y la propuesta de Carlos Finlay para vencer el escepticismo ante su teoría por ...

  20. El veneno y el mosquito: aspectos epistemológicos de la etiología y la profilaxis de la fiebre amarilla

    OpenAIRE

    Caponi,Sandra

    2000-01-01

    En el II Congreso Médico Latinoamericano (Buenos Aires, 1904) se discutieron las estrategias que Argentina y Brasil delinearon para combatir la fiebre amarilla. El análisis de la controversia entre sanitaristas brasileños y argentinos en torno a los modelos explicativos y a las estrategias de profilaxis internacional de esa enfermedad, nos permite una comprensión epistemológica de la ruptura operada por la emergencia de la medicina de los vectores. Este capítulo de la historia de la medicina ...

  1. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Contingency gasoline rationing regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Economic Regulatory Administration issues final rules with respect to standby gasoline rationing. The plan is designed for and would be used only in the event of a severe gasoline shortage. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations. DOE will mail government ration checks to the parties named in a national vehicle registration file to be maintained by DOE. Ration recipients may cash these checks for ration coupons at various designated coupon issuance points. Retail outlets and other suppliers will be required to redeem the ration coupons received in exchange for gasoline sold. Supplemental gas will be given to high-priority activities. A ration banking system will be established with two separate and distinct of ration accounts: retail outlets and other suppliers will open redemption accounts for the deposit of redeemed ration rights; and individuals or firms may open ration rights accounts, which will operate in much the same manner as monetary checking accounts. A white market will be permitted for the sale of transfer of ration rights. A percentage of the total ration rights to be issued will be reserved for distribution to the states as a State Ration Reserve, to be used by the states primarily for the relief of hardship. A National Ration Reserave will also be established. All sections of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Regulations are analyzed. (MCW)

  2. Coherent states and rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Graefe, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    The state spaces of generalized coherent states associated with special unitary groups are shown to form rational curves and surfaces in the space of pure states. These curves and surfaces are generated by the various Veronese embeddings of the underlying state space into higher dimensional state spaces. This construction is applied to the parameterization of generalized coherent states, which is useful for practical calculations, and provides an elementary combinatorial approach to the geometry of the coherent state space. The results are extended to Hilbert spaces with indefinite inner products, leading to the introduction of a new kind of generalized coherent states.

  3. Resultados del examen de las primeras 5.000 muestras de higado humano obtenidas en Colombia para el estudio de fiebre amarilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Gast Galvis

    1941-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre septiembre de 1934 y febrero de 1940 se obtuvieron en diferentes partes del país 5.000 muestras de hígado gracias al Servicio de Viscerotomía de la Sección de Estudios Especiales del Ministerio de Traabajo, Higiene y Previsión Social. Su examen reveló 196 casos de fiebre amarilla, siendo el sexo massulino el más fuertemente atacado, (186 hombres y 10 mujeres, y hallándose el mayor número de casos entre los 20 y los 29 años de edad; 555 de paludismo, 51 de atrofia amarilla, aguda, y además muchas otras lesiones de interés anatomo-patológico. Resalta la importancia de dicho servicio en el descubrimiento de brotes insospechados de fiebre amarilla que de otra manera escaparían el diagnóstico correcto, y su utilidad en el estudio de otras enfermedades que producen lesiones hepáticas características es innegables.

  4. Universal and Relative Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Goldberg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I illustrate how a basic kind of universal rationality can be profitably combined with undeniable instances of relativism. I do so by engaging Michael Friedman’s recent response to a challenge from Thomas Kuhn.

  5. The rational complementarity problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Schumacher, J.M.; Weiland, S.

    1999-01-01

    An extension of the linear complementarity problem (LCP) of mathematical programming is the so-called rational complementarity problem (RCP). This problem occurs if complementarity conditions are imposed on input and output variables of linear dynamical input/state/output systems. The resulting

  6. Rational equity bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ge

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the existence of a bubble in the pricing of an asset that pays positive dividends. I show that rational bubbles can exist in a growing economy. The existence of bubbles depends on the relative magnitudes of risk aversion to consumption and to wealth. Furthermore, I examine how an exogenous shock in technology might trigger bubbles.

  7. Ideal Theory, Real Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Habermas...

  8. Diagnosis, Dogmatism, and Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Efron, Noah J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings suggesting that misdiagnoses frequently stem from flaws in human information processing, particularly in collecting and using information. Claims that improved diagnostic tools will not remedy the problem. Drawing on the work of Karl Popper and Robin Collingwood, proposes operational principles to ensure a rational diagnostic…

  9. Hegel's phenomenology of rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression...

  10. The Study of Two Psychotherapy Approaches (Rogers Self Theory and Ellis Rational Theory) in Improvement of Bowen Self-differentiation and Intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Naser; Kiani, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of rational, behavioral and emotive therapy (REBT) and person-centered therapy (PCT) on self-differentiation and intimacy among divorce clients. In quasi-experimental study, 42 divorce clients (both males and females) who presented to the Counsling Center of Sanandaj, Iran were sampled. They were categorized into three groups of PCT, REBT, and control group (each group contained 14 subjects). The recovery indices (dependent variables) employed were the subject of self-differentiation and intimacy, which were measured twice before and after intervention of Differentiation of Self Inventory-2 (DSI-2) and intimacy. The therapy involved 8 one-hour sessions. It was held twice a week and therapeutic effects were traced after 8 months. The results showed that REBT and PCT were effective on self-differentiation scale and intimacy. Also they were influential in recovery self-differentiation scale and intimacy follow up stage. REBT and PCT were effective on self-differentiation and its subscales (Emotional reactivity, "I" position, Emotional cut off and Fusion with other) and general intimacy. None.

  11. Detección por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de transcriptasa inversa del virus de la fiebre amarilla en monos silvestres: una herramienta sensible para la vigilancia epidemiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A. Méndez

    2007-09-01

    Conclusión. El hallazgo del virus de la fiebre amarilla en monos silvestres representa una evidencia de su actividad enzoótica en nuestro territorio, que incrementa el riesgo de transmisión a humanos y de urbanización por procesos de migración de la población.

  12. A research approach to support the empowerment of alternatives to prison / Une approche de recherche pour soutenir le renforcement des mesures alternatives à l’incarcération

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregori Emilio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Il Progetto Europeo “Reducing prison population: advanced tools of justice in Europe” è stato finanziato dalla Commissione Europea al fine di migliorare la conoscenza e lo scambio di misure innovative di pratiche alternative alla detenzione, sia nella fase pre-processuale, sia in quella dell’esecuzione della pena. La progettazione delle linee guida per l'attuazione di alternative alla detenzione in tutti i paesi europei e del pacchetto formativo, indirizzato al personale che lavora nei servizi che si occupano di alternative alla prigione, è stata preceduta da diverse attività di ricerca svolte in sette paesi europei (Italia, Lettonia, Scozia, Francia, Bulgaria, Romania e Germania. Questo articolo descrive la metodologia utilizzata nelle attività di ricerca e la gestione di queste ultime, condotte in diversi paesi e indirizzate ad una popolazione complessa. Le projet européen « Reducing Prison Population: advanced tools of justice in Europe » a été financé par la Commission Européenne afin d’améliorer la connaissance et d’échanger les approches innovantes de mesures alternatives à l’incarcération, avant comme après le procès. La définition de lignes directrices pour la mise en ɶuvre des alternatives à l’incarcération dans chaque pays européen et du dossier de formation conçu à l’intention du personnel des services offrant des alternatives à la prison, a été précédé par des recherches menées dans sept pays européens (Italie, Lettonie, Écosse, France, Bulgarie, Roumanie et Allemagne. Cet article décrit la méthodologie de recherche utilisée dans ce projet et la gestion des différentes activités menées dans plusieurs pays et ciblées sur une population complexe. The European Project “Reducing prison population: advanced tools of justice in Europe” was funded by the European Commission in order to improve the knowledge and to exchange innovative measures of practices alternative to

  13. Evaluación serológica de una proteína recombinante a partir de una cepa aislada del virus de la fiebre amarilla en el Perú: un estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yábar V

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar serológicamente una proteína recombinante de 66 kDa (Er66 de una cepa del virus de la fiebre amarilla aislada en el Perú usando anticuerpos inmunoreactivos. Material y métodos: La proteína Er66 fue expresada in vitro en la bacteria Escherichia coli y enfrentada a títulos de 1/100, 1/50 y 1/25 de anticuerpos monoclonales, y a sueros con anticuerpos IgM e IgG inmunoreactivos contra el virus de la fiebre amarilla mediante ensayos de Western blot (WB. Asimismo, se evaluaron proteínas totales de las cepas de referencia del virus dengue (DEN y fiebre amarilla como controles de antigenicidad. Resultados: La proteína recombinante Er66 presentó antigenicidad contra títulos de 1/50 y 1/25 de anticuerpo monoclonal (MAB8701; sin embargo, no se observó inmunoreactividad en sueros positivos para fiebre amarilla y dengue. Los ensayos con extractos crudos de la cepa de fiebre amarilla Asibi 17D (PTFA revelaron que la antigenicidad de las proteínas virales comprendidas entre 60 y 80 kDa fue afectada negativamente a temperaturas desnaturalizantes de 100°C. En cambio, tratamientos con ß-mercaptoetanol sin calor generó un aumento de la antigenicidad de dichas proteínas. Siguiendo este mismo principio, la proteína Er66 fue sometida a tratamientos desnaturalizantes con ß-mercaptoetanol sin incluir calor y fue enfrentada nuevamente a los sueros reactivos. El resultado final reveló que la proteína Er66 generó inmunoreactividad frente a sueros con altos títulos de anticuerpos IgM e IgG para fiebre amarilla mientras que en otras muestras se observó una débil señal. Conclusiones: Los datos obtenidos en este trabajo demuestran que la Er66 pudo ser reconocida por anticuerpos IgM e IgG específicos para fiebre amarilla presentes en sueros de pacientes infectados. Los datos presentados en este artículo sugieren el uso de proteínas recombinantes como posibles candidatas de valor diagnóstico para la FA.

  14. Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhot, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). VTT Automation

    1999-12-01

    Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached

  16. A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached

  17. Capital Requirements and Credit Rationing

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Agur

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...

  18. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Origins, Constructs, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.

    In 1956, Dr. Albert Ellis presented his seminal work on Rational Therapy, subsequently renamed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1993. This paper explores the origins, theoretical foundations, applications, and implications of REBT and provides a look at the empirical research available in support of the approach's efficacy. REBT is…

  19. Rationality and ritual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1982-01-01

    The book concerns the Windscale Public Inquiry, held to investigate the application by British Nuclear Fuels to build a 1200 tonne per year thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) for spent nuclear fuels from Britain and overseas. The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (international dimensions; the Windscale Inquiry; conflict resolution and social drama; public debate and the sociology of knowledge); the decision-making legacy; oxide reprocessing - the background; the public inquiry tradition - a comparative perspective; the emergence of THORP from a private to a public issue (local and national planning politics); the process and impact of the Inquiry (opposition groups); judicial rationality, expert conflict, and political authority); the rationality and politics of analysis (proliferation; radiation risks; relative risks; the Ravenglass issue; discharge targets; general radiation protection arrangements); conclusion. (U.K.)

  20. Rational management of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Venkataraman

    2014-09-01

    Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.

  1. Multivariate rational data fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    1992-12-01

    Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

  2. Models for Rational Number Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean J.; Armbruster, Frank O.

    1975-01-01

    This article extends number bases to negative integers, then to positive rationals and finally to negative rationals. Methods and rules for operations in positive and negative rational bases greater than one or less than negative one are summarized in tables. Sample problems are explained and illustrated. (KM)

  3. Rational Unified Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kopal, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this German seminar paper, which was written in the year 2011 at the University of Duisburg for a Bachelor Colloquium in Applied computer science, we show a brief overview of the Rational Unified Process (RUP). Thus, interested students or generally interested people in software development gain a first impression of RUP. The paper includes a survey and overview of the underlying process structure, the phases of the process, its workflows, and describes the always by the RUP developers pos...

  4. Maps of Bounded Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...

  5. Emotional Theory of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés, Mario; Finkel, Lucila

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, it has been definitely established the existence of a close relationship between the emotional phenomena and rational processes, but we still do not have a unified definition, or effective models to describe any of them well. To advance our understanding of the mechanisms governing the behavior of living beings we must integrate multiple theories, experiments and models from both fields. In this paper we propose a new theoretical framework that allows integrating and unders...

  6. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  7. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  8. Probability and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n1p1 In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

  9. Deciphering mirror neurons: rational decision versus associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Elias L

    2014-04-01

    The rational-decision approach is superior to the associative-learning approach of Cook et al. at explaining why mirror neurons fire or do not fire - even when the stimulus is the same. The rational-decision approach is superior because it starts with the analysis of the intention of the organism, that is, with the identification of the specific objective or goal that the organism is trying to maximize.

  10. Prevalencia de Leptospirosis y factores de riesgo en personas con antecedentes de fiebre en la Provincia de Manu, Madre de Dios, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Céspedes Z

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de leptospirosis y los factores de riesgo en personas con antecedentes de fiebre en localidades dedicadas a actividades mineras (lavaderos de oro y la prevalencia de infección en perros en la provincia de Manu, departamento de Madre de Dios, Perú. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal analítico. Se tomaron 71 muestras de sangre de personas con antecedentes de fiebre, provenientes de cinco localidades dedicados a la actividad minera, en ellos se evaluaron la presencia de anticuerpos IgM e IgG contra leptospiras en suero por el método de ELISA y la prueba de microaglutinación (MAT. Los factores asociados a la infección por leptospiras fue evaluada a partir de una encuesta. Además se tomaron muestras de sangre a 27 perros que evaluados por el método de MAT Resultados: Se enrolaron 71 personas de las cuales 47 (66,2% fueron mujeres y 24 (33,8 % varones, 26 (36,6% pobladores presentaron anticuerpos contra leptospiras. Los factores asociados a la infección por leptospiras en los pobladores fueron: consumo de agua de río en el hogar (OR=9,09 p=0,017, consumo de agua de río en el campo (OR=7,13 p=0,042, nadar en el río (OR=4,60 p=0,13, habitar en una vivienda con techo de plástico y paja (OR=4,04 p=0,013. En canes, 18 (66,6% tuvieron serología positiva a leptospiras. Conclusiones: Existe una alta prevalencia de leptospirosis en personas con antecedentes de fiebre y condiciones favorables para la presencia de leptospiras en las localidades estudiadas. En estas zonas se recomienda realizar actividades educativas preventivas, tomando en cuenta los factores de riesgo identificados.

  11. Adaptive information-theoretic bounded rational decision-making with parametric priors

    OpenAIRE

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Braun, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Deviations from rational decision-making due to limited computational resources have been studied in the field of bounded rationality, originally proposed by Herbert Simon. There have been a number of different approaches to model bounded rationality ranging from optimality principles to heuristics. Here we take an information-theoretic approach to bounded rationality, where information-processing costs are measured by the relative entropy between a posterior decision strategy and a given fix...

  12. Rational use of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.

    1992-01-01

    Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme which has issued four technical reports giving practical recommendations on how to rationalise the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations. (author)

  13. Lugares, actitudes y momentos durante la peste: representaciones sobre la fiebre amarilla y el cólera en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, 1867-1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Ricardo Fiquepron

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las distintas representaciones que sobre la salud y la enfermedad se asociaron con las epidemias de fiebre amarilla y cólera durante el período 1867-1871 en la ciudad de Buenos Aires. El argumento es que existió un repertorio muy amplio y heterogéneo de representaciones que se condensó en variadas actitudes individuales con la cual se enfrentó la crisis, así como una transformación del espacio y del tiempo social. Para poder sobrellevar esta experiencia traumática se buscó de maneras muy diversas mantener un vínculo social que era también al mismo tiempo una forma de mantener la salud.

  14. Protocolo diagnóstico en fiebre de origen desconocido para países en vías de desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Romo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Signos vitales, como la fiebre, suelen ser motivo de frustración para el binomio médico-paciente; por ello, es indispensable tener en mente una serie de pasos a seguir que nos encaminen al diagnóstico etiológico de esta modalidad patológica. No podemos enfrentar tal padecimiento siguiendo ordenadamente los protocolos recomendados por autores de primer mundo, porque muchas de las veces nos quedamos a mitad del camino, constituyendo con esto una pérdida de tiempo y frustración. Es por eso que surge la necesidad de reorganizar un protocolo bien establecido para ello. En este trabajo, se reorganiza el protocolo diagnóstico establecido por la literatura anglosajona para deducir el factor etiológico en Fiebre de Origen Desconocido (FOD. La mayoría de los autores expertos en el tema recomienda cuatro fases diagnósticas divididas según las herramientas (tecnológicas y científicas de diagnóstico; la intención de esta revisión es reagrupar la modalidad diagnóstica y que sea de buen provecho para las unidades hospitalarias de América Latina y otros países que están en vías de desarrollo. Presentamos un formato fácil de seguir y que sin duda dará buenos resultados para el rastreo etiológico de este problema.

  15. Estudio de un brote epidémico de fiebre amarilla selvática en el pie de monte de La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Vidales

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1979 se observó en Colombia una epidemia de fiebre amarilla selvática, en las estribaciones más bajas de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, donde nunca antes se había registrado la enfermedad. Los casos ocurrieron en las cercanías de las ciudades de Valledupar y Santa Marta, por entonces infestadas con Aedes aegypti .Veinte de ellos fueron confirmados por examen histopatológico de hígado o por aislamiento de virus y en otros 36 se hizo un diagnóstico de presunción, con base en estudios clínicos, epidemiológicos y serológicos. Entre los primeros hubo 14 defunciones y entre los segundos 13. En las localidades urbanas del Brea se llevaron a cabo intensas campañas de lucha contra el A. aegyptiy de vacunación. No se registraron casos urbanos de la enfermedad. Los enfermos se infectaron en bosques estrechos de galería y en cafetales. donde previa y paralelamente se observó mortalidad en monos í Alouatta seniculus. El reconocimiento entomológico mostró en la región la presencia de 3 especies de Haemagogus, entre ellas H. janthinomys Con 745 mosquitos se hicieron 192 mezclas para intentar aislamiento de virus, habiéndose obtenido sólo uno positivo para fiebre amarilla, a partir de H. janthinomys. La epidemia descrita es un ejemplo mBs de la invasión del virus amarílico a nuevos "habitats" rurales,  con la consiguiente amenaza para las ciudades vecinas infestadas con A. aegypti, el riesgo de la urbanización del virus, lo cual exige la adopción inmediata de medidas para abatir el mosquito y para vacunar a la población expuesta.

  16. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  17. Rational-Emotive Education with Learning Disabled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, William; McKeever, Cynthia

    1977-01-01

    Rational-emotive education provides a positive, constructive approach for helping young children with learning problems who have psychogenic overlays to cope with worries and troubles effectively and to accept themselves affirmatively. (Author/SBH)

  18. Rational Emotive Education as a Short-Term Primary Prevention Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Layne, C. Clinton

    1985-01-01

    Fifth- to seventh-grade students (N=586) who participated in one hour of Rational Emotive Education (a directive approach to teaching rational thinking skills) for six weeks scored higher in posttests of the Com oA Belief Inventory for Students than control Ss (N=738) who received no Rational Emotive Education. Findings suggested the utility of a…

  19. Modeling Flood Hazard Zones at the Sub-District Level with the Rational Model Integrated with GIS and Remote Sensing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Asare-Kyei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust risk assessment requires accurate flood intensity area mapping to allow for the identification of populations and elements at risk. However, available flood maps in West Africa lack spatial variability while global datasets have resolutions too coarse to be relevant for local scale risk assessment. Consequently, local disaster managers are forced to use traditional methods such as watermarks on buildings and media reports to identify flood hazard areas. In this study, remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were combined with hydrological and statistical models to delineate the spatial limits of flood hazard zones in selected communities in Ghana, Burkina Faso and Benin. The approach involves estimating peak runoff concentrations at different elevations and then applying statistical methods to develop a Flood Hazard Index (FHI. Results show that about half of the study areas fall into high intensity flood zones. Empirical validation using statistical confusion matrix and the principles of Participatory GIS show that flood hazard areas could be mapped at an accuracy ranging from 77% to 81%. This was supported with local expert knowledge which accurately classified 79% of communities deemed to be highly susceptible to flood hazard. The results will assist disaster managers to reduce the risk to flood disasters at the community level where risk outcomes are first materialized.

  20. Rational Approximations to Rational Models: Alternative Algorithms for Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Adam N.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Rational models of cognition typically consider the abstract computational problems posed by the environment, assuming that people are capable of optimally solving those problems. This differs from more traditional formal models of cognition, which focus on the psychological processes responsible for behavior. A basic challenge for rational models…

  1. Realization theory for rational systems: Minimal rational realizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nemcová (Jana); J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe study of realizations of response maps is a topic of control and system theory. Realization theory is used in system identification and control synthesis. A minimal rational realization of a given response map p is a rational realization of p such that the dimension of its state

  2. Rational and moral action : a critical survey of rational choice theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, J.P.R.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about rational choice theory from a different point of view. It is different for three reasons. First, it pays attention to the unintended consequences of intended actions. Second, it employs a non-instrumental approach to moral actions. And third, it argues that choice opportunities

  3. A crying shame : The over-rationalized conception of man in the rational choice perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, W.J.M.; Vos, J.

    The rational choice perspective explains all forms of crime by viewing offenders as reasoning criminals. In this article, we take this approach to task by trying out its heuristic potential. More specifically, we look at how well it works for one special type of crime, i.e. street robbery. On the

  4. Peripheral ostectomy with the use of Carnoy’s solution as a rational surgical approach to odontogenic keratocyst: A case report with a 5-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijević Stevo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC is a rare developmental, epithelial and benign cyst of the jaws of odontogenic origin with high recurrence rates. The third molar region, especially the angle of the mandible and the ascending ramus are involved far more frequently than the maxilla. The choice of treatment approach was based on the size of the cyst, recurrence status, and radiographic evidence of cortical perforation. Different surgical treatment options like marsupialization, decompression, enucleation, enucleation with Carnoy’s solution, peripheral ostectomy with or without Carnoy’s solution, and jaw resection have been discussed in the literature with variable rates of recurrence. Case report. We presented a 52-yearold male with orthokeratinized odontogenic keratocyst. Elliptical unilocular radiolucency located in the third molar region and the ascending ramus of the mandible, 40 × 25 mm in diameter with radiographic evidence of cortical perforation at the anterior ramus border of the mandible 20 mm in diameter, was registrated on orthopantomographic radiography. Surgical treatment included enucleation of the cyst and peripheral ostectomy with the use of Carnoy’s solution and excision of the overlying attached mucosa. Postoperatively, no paresthesia in the inervation area of the inferior alveolaris nerve was registrated. Recurrences were not registrated within 5 years post-intervention. Coclusion. Treatment of odontogenic keratocyst with enucleation and peripheral ostectomy with the use of Carnoy’s solution and excision of the overlying attached mucosa had a very low rate of recurrence. Radical and more aggressive surgical treatments as jaw resection should be reserved for multiple recurrent cysts and when OKC is associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS. Following the treatment protocol in the management of OKC and systematic and long-term postsurgical follow-up are considered key elements for successful

  5. Modeling of molecular interaction between apoptin, BCR-Abl and CrkL--an alternative approach to conventional rational drug design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Panigrahi

    Full Text Available In this study we have calculated a 3D structure of apoptin and through modeling and docking approaches, we show its interaction with Bcr-Abl oncoprotein and its downstream signaling components, following which we confirm some of the newly-found interactions by biochemical methods. Bcr-Abl oncoprotein is aberrantly expressed in chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML. It has several distinct functional domains in addition to the Abl kinase domain. The SH3 and SH2 domains cooperatively play important roles in autoinhibiting its kinase activity. Adapter molecules such as Grb2 and CrkL interact with proline-rich region and activate multiple Bcr-Abl downstream signaling pathways that contribute to growth and survival. Therefore, the oncogenic effect of Bcr-Abl could be inhibited by the interaction of small molecules with these domains. Apoptin is a viral protein with well-documented cancer-selective cytotoxicity. Apoptin attributes such as SH2-like sequence similarity with CrkL SH2 domain, unique SH3 domain binding sequence, presence of proline-rich segments, and its nuclear affinity render the molecule capable of interaction with Bcr-Abl. Despite almost two decades of research, the mode of apoptin's action remains elusive because 3D structure of apoptin is unavailable. We performed in silico three-dimensional modeling of apoptin, molecular docking experiments between apoptin model and the known structure of Bcr-Abl, and the 3D structures of SH2 domains of CrkL and Bcr-Abl. We also biochemically validated some of the interactions that were first predicted in silico. This structure-property relationship of apoptin may help in unlocking its cancer-selective toxic properties. Moreover, such models will guide us in developing of a new class of potent apoptin-like molecules with greater selectivity and potency.

  6. Rogue waves and rational solutions of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhaqilao,

    2013-01-01

    A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rogue waves and rational solutions to the nonlinear evolution equation is proposed. It turns out that many rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation are obtained. Some features of rogue waves and rational solutions are graphically discussed. -- Highlights: •A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rational solutions to the NEE is proposed. •Some rogue waves and rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-D NEE are obtained. •Some features of rogue waves are graphically discussed

  7. Rogue waves and rational solutions of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaqilao,, E-mail: zhaqilao@imnu.edu.cn

    2013-12-06

    A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rogue waves and rational solutions to the nonlinear evolution equation is proposed. It turns out that many rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation are obtained. Some features of rogue waves and rational solutions are graphically discussed. -- Highlights: •A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rational solutions to the NEE is proposed. •Some rogue waves and rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-D NEE are obtained. •Some features of rogue waves are graphically discussed.

  8. Rational customs clearance technology choice

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  9. Differential Rationality and Personal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    This publication discusses differential rationality; it asserts that the development of institutions, professions, and individuals involves the differentiation of forms and styles of thinking and knowing that are, in various ways, idiosyncratic. Based on this understanding, differential rationality can be seen as a developmental construct that…

  10. Rationality problem for algebraic tori

    CERN Document Server

    Hoshi, Akinari

    2017-01-01

    The authors give the complete stably rational classification of algebraic tori of dimensions 4 and 5 over a field k. In particular, the stably rational classification of norm one tori whose Chevalley modules are of rank 4 and 5 is given. The authors show that there exist exactly 487 (resp. 7, resp. 216) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 4, and there exist exactly 3051 (resp. 25, resp. 3003) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 5. The authors make a procedure to compute a flabby resolution of a G-lattice effectively by using the computer algebra system GAP. Some algorithms may determine whether the flabby class of a G-lattice is invertible (resp. zero) or not. Using the algorithms, the suthors determine all the flabby and coflabby G-lattices of rank up to 6 and verify that they are stably permutation. The authors also show that the Krull-Schmidt theorem for G-...

  11. Product differentiation under bounded rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Poutré, La J.A.; Kok, de A.G.; Pyka, A.; Handa, H.; Ishibuchi, H.; Ong, Y.-S.; Tan, K.-C.

    2015-01-01

    We study product differentiation equilibria and dynamics on the Salop circle under bounded rationality. Due to bounded rationality, firms tend to agglomerate in pairs. Upon adding a second tier of component suppliers, downstream assemblers may escape pairwise horizontal agglomeration. Moreover, we

  12. The concept of rational suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D J

    1986-05-01

    Suicide has been condemned in our culture in one way or another since Augustine offered theological arguments against it in the sixth century. More recently, theological condemnation has given way to the view that suicidal behavior must always be symptomatic of emotional disturbance and mental illness. However, suicide has not always been viewed so negatively. In other times and cultures, it has been held that circumstances might befall a person in which suicide would be a perfectly rational course of action, in the same sense that any other course of action could be rational: that it could be sensible, i.e., defensible by good reasons, or that it could be in keeping with the agent's fundamental interests. Indiscriminate use of modern life-sustaining technologies has renewed interest in the possibility of rational suicide. Today proponents of rational suicide tend to equate the rationality of suicide with the competence of the decision to commit suicide.

  13. Limited rationality and strategic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2008-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that people are heterogeneous with regard to their abilities to make rational, forward-looking decisions. This raises the question as to when the rational types are decisive for aggregate outcomes and when the boundedly rational types shape aggregate results. We examine...... this question in the context of a long-standing and important economic problem: the adjustment of nominal prices after an anticipated monetary shock. Our experiments suggest that two types of bounded rationality-money illusion and anchoring-are important behavioral forces behind nominal inertia. However......, depending on the strategic environment, bounded rationality has vastly different effects on aggregate price adjustment. If agents' actions are strategic substitutes, adjustment to the new equilibrium is extremely quick, whereas under strategic complementarity, adjustment is both very slow and associated...

  14. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), irrational and rational beliefs, and the mental health of athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Martin James Turner

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training (PST) for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and main...

  15. Normative and rational choice accounts of human behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, John

    1995-01-01

    Two approaches to the problem of social order are compared: the rational choice approach (as represented in Coleman's Foundations of Social Theory) and the normative or social control approach, in which rules and rule-following play the central role. Considered in therms of Coleman's own criteria

  16. [Rational use of medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, A

    2006-12-01

    Every body speaks about inappropriate use of medicines and each one gives his own explanation. Politicians are telling about the waste of medicines and the money of their national budget. Citizens are saying that the physicians prescribe more than necessary for treatment and blame them as one part of the financial burden weighting on their family budget. Physicians give different explanation and think that the rational use of medicines is a sort of pressure to limit their freedom to prescribe what it seems to them necessary and better for their patients. Pharmacists dispensing medicines consider the prescription as a physician's prerogative and prefer to stay neutral in this debate. Within this large range of opinions, it is difficult to find general consensus, so that every body take care to not declare his proper opinion about the subject, the causes and the adequate solutions. Finally no changes take place in this issue. However, neither the government as responsible for the citizen's health, nor the health professionals and international organisations, are facing their complete obligations toward the populations by ensuring to them that the medicines are administered according to the health need of the patients, efficacious and safe , in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lower cost, and be secured against misuse by the pharmacist before the delivery to the patients. This is a worthwhile programme, but unfortunately without designate takers or promoters until now.

  17. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  18. Plural rationalities and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, P.; Thompson, M.

    1989-01-01

    Like many social scientists, we attribute public unwillingness to accept certain low probability risks not to 'irrationality' but rather to the everyday application of qualitative as well as quantitative criteria. Just as most people buying a video or hi-fi do not base their decision solely on price or performance data but also consider such intangibles as design and the reputation of the manufacturer, individuals faced with a given risk take into account not merely the probability of harm but also the credibility and trustworthiness of whoever generates the information and manages the safety and other precautions which ensure its accuracy. To analyse these qualitative dimensions we utilise the grid/-group methodology developed by the cultural anthropologist Mary Douglas, and her co-workers. Douglas identifies four basic forms of society and four associated 'thought worlds' which serve to legitimise and reproduce them. Differences in concepts of human cognition, time and many other variables between the different thought worlds are so profound that they can be regarded as different kinds of rationality. The acceptability of risks is partially determined by the extent to which they support or threaten the existence of the different societies. (author)

  19. Fiebre de origen desconocido, una forma de presentarse la tuberculosis Fever of unknown origin as a form of presentation of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Arturo Vidal Tallet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis es una causa importante de fiebre de origen desconocido. Dentro de los factores de riesgo para estar infectado por el bacilo tuberculoso se encuentra la edad, la presencia de comorbilidades, la competencia inmunológica y la alta prevalencia de la enfermedad en el área geográfica. Los hallazgos clínicos, radiológicos, epidemiológicos y la respuesta a la terapéutica antimicrobiana, pueden orientar en el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad infecciosa. Se presenta un caso en el que los elementos clínicos y epidemiológicos (padre con diagnóstico de tuberculosis llevaron finalmente a la sospecha diagnóstica de tuberculosis extra pulmonar, que no pudo ser demostrada por cultivo, pero la respuesta terapéutica resultó concluyente, ya que, una vez iniciada esta, hubo total remisión del cuadro clínico y recuperación nutricional. La terapia antituberculosa con carácter terapéutico y diagnóstico debe ser considerada en todo paciente con fiebre de origen desconocido, que, además, presente elementos clínicos y epidemiológicos que justifiquen la posibilidad de infección por el bacilo.Tuberculosis is an important cause of fever of unknown origin. Among the risk factors of getting infected by the tuberculosis bacillus are age, presence of comorbidities, immunological competence and high prevalence of the disease in a geographical area. The clinical, radiological and epidemiological findings along with the response to antimicrobial treatment can guide the physician to the correct diagnosis of this infectious disease. Here is a case in which the clinical and epidemiological elements (the father of the patient diagnosed with tuberculosis led to diagnostic suspicion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It was not possible to demonstrate it by culturing, but the response to therapy was conclusive, since once the treatment began, there were total remission of the clinical picture and nutritional recovery. The therapeutically and

  20. Computerizing marine biota: a rational approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Chandramohan, D.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Data on marine biota while being extensive are also patchy and scattered; thus making retrieval and dissemination of information time consuming. This emphasise the need for computerizing information on marine biota with the objective to collate...

  1. A RATIONAL APPROACH TO SEPTIC TANK DESIGN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... to obtain the volume of sludge accumulated in this time interval. Using a minimum ... Design charts and a Microsoft Excel based design programme were produced to ..... Jowett, E. C. and Lay, R. Comparative per- formance of ...

  2. Rational approach to transfusion in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Fuat H; Abeysundara, Lasitha; Hartmann, Matthias; Mallett, Susan V

    2018-03-01

    For over 50 years patients with liver cirrhosis were considered to be at markedly increased risk of bleeding. This dogma was seemingly supported by abnormalities in standard laboratory tests (SLTs), such as the prothrombin time, that were interpreted as indicating a bleeding diathesis. However, publications from the last decade have revealed SLTs to be poor predictors of bleeding and it is now understood that stable patients with cirrhosis have a rebalanced haemostatic system and preserved thrombin generation. Viscoelastic tests (VETs), such as ROTEM® or TEG™ allow dynamic assessment of the entire coagulation process and provide a better illustration of the interactions between pro- and anticoagulants as well as platelets. Despite their documented success in reducing transfusion rates in liver transplantation more than 30 years ago, the adoption of VETs has been met with some resistance and has only recently gained significant momentum. Bleeding risk should be assessed in every patient undergoing invasive intervention and must consider markers of disease severity, underlying coagulation incompetence, anaemia and surgical factors. The recognition that bleeding in this patient cohort is predominantly linked to mechanistic factors such as portal hypertension, rather than primary coagulopathy, has led to a paradigm shift in their perioperative management. Cognizant of their detrimental effect, the use of large volumes of fresh frozen plasma to correct derangements in SLTs has given way to more refined haemostatic management with specific factor concentrates guided by VETs, coupled with measures to minimize portal venous pressure and meticulous surgical hemostasis.

  3. Definition of rational antiepileptic polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, B J; Homan, R W

    1996-01-01

    Rational polypharmacy is in its earliest stages of development and will require substantial additional development to realize its full potential. Indeed, despite the powerful appeal of the concept, clinical proof is not yet available that RP is superior to monotherapy. Important questions need to be addressed: 1. Will RP control seizures more effectively than monotherapy? 2. What data are needed to develop RP for a specific patient? 3. Will RP be cost effective? 4. Can RP be developed which will treat or prevent epilepsy while controlling seizures? Possible approaches to these questions could include: 1. The development of a data base for prospective use to monitor patients being treated at Epilepsy Centers using RP principles. 2. Use the data obtained from the above to construct more specific studies to compare identified combination therapies with monotherapy. 3. Prospectively compare in a placebo controlled, blinded study, the effect of the combination of an anti-ictal medication and a laboratory proven antiepileptic drug for prevention of the development of epilepsy in an at risk population such as head trauma or stroke.

  4. Desarrollo de un método de transcripción inversa seguida de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la detección del virus de la fiebre amarilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Méndez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La fiebre amarilla se considera una enfermedad reemergente y endémica en regiones tropicales de África y Suramérica. Actualmente, no existen estuches estandarizados o comerciales disponibles para la detección del virus de la fiebre amarilla y, por lo tanto, el diagnóstico debe hacerse mediante técnicas de rutina que consumen mucho tiempo y algunas veces no garantizan la detección del virus o de sus proteínas. Además, la cocirculación con otros flavivirus, incluyendo el del dengue, hacen el diagnóstico más complicado. Objetivo. Desarrollar un ensayo específico de amplificación basado en transcripción inversa seguida de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, con el fin de mejorar la detección y el diagnóstico de la fiebre amarilla, tanto a partir de suero como de tejido fresco. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñaron iniciadores específicos para amplificar un fragmento conservado del virus de la fiebre amarilla. Un segundo par de iniciadores se usó en una reacción de amplificación anidada para incrementar la sensibilidad. Se probaron 33 muestras clínicas con la técnica estandarizada. Resultados. El amplímero esperado se obtuvo en 25 de las 33 muestras analizadas usando este método y 2 más resultaron positivas después de la reacción anidada. Conclusión. Esta técnica mejorada garantiza la detección de todos los genotipos virales de fiebre amarilla y puede incrementar la sensibilidad del ensayo introduciendo una segunda etapa de amplificación, lo cual permite el diagnóstico diferencial con infección por dengue y otros flavivirus, lo cual es de gran importancia para la vigilancia y la toma de medidas epidemiológicas oportunas. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i0.1452

  5. Is facet analysis based on rationalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2014-01-01

    In several writings I have claimed that the basis of knowledge organisation (KO) must be found in subject knowledge, and that researchers and practitioners in KO must achieve knowledge about the domains that they are organising. Domain knowledge is not neutral, but rather is based on competing...... epistemologies and worldviews, and the classifier is therefore participating in struggles related to worldviews. Different traditions, approaches and paradigms in knowledge organisation research (and practice) can best be understood as more or less associated with one of four epistemologies: empiricism......, rationalism, historicism/hermeneutics, or pragmatism/critical theory (of which only the last position fully acknowledges the non-neutrality of knowledge organisation). Ranganathan – and the whole facet-analytic school – has formerly been exemplified as a rather clear example of rationalism. Some have objected...

  6. Principles of ration formulation for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Feeding standards as practiced in developed countries could be misleading when non-conventional feed resources are used in formulating rations for ruminant livestock in developing countries. They tend to reject the poor quality feeds that are available in vast quantities. The non-availability of good quality forage throughout the year and the need to optimise the efficiency of utilisation of locally available feed resources have lead to the application of basic nutritional principles when considering ration formulation. The alternative approach to the use of feeding standards would be to ensure that the production system matches the available resources. The development of feed supplementation strategies based on locally available feed resources require the understanding of the relative roles and nutrient needs of the two-compartment system represented by the micro-organisms in the rumen and the host animal. (author)

  7. Rational noncompliance with prescribed medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Douglas O; DeMarco, Joseph P

    2010-09-01

    Despite the attention that patient noncompliance has received from medical researchers, patient noncompliance remains poorly understood and difficult to alter. With a better theory of patient noncompliance, both greater success in achieving compliance and greater respect for patient decision making are likely. The theory presented, which uses a microeconomic approach, bridges a gap in the extant literature that has so far ignored the contributions of this classic perspective on decision making involving the tradeoff of costs and benefits. The model also generates a surprising conclusion: that patients are typically acting rationally when they refuse to comply with certain treatments. However, compliance is predicted to rise with increased benefits and reduced costs. The prediction that noncompliance is rational is especially true in chronic conditions at the point that treatment begins to move closer to the medically ideal treatment level. Although the details of this theory have not been tested empirically, it is well supported by existing prospective and retrospective studies.

  8. Discrete Choice and Rational Inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex...

  9. Testing bounded rationality against full rationality in job changing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Contini, Bruno; Morini, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers' performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new ...

  10. Testing Bounded Rationality Against Full Rationality in Job Changing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Contini

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers’ performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new o...

  11. Entre la fiebre del oro y el polvo de las voladuras… Cuerpos y emociones en contextos de mineralización.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Machado Aráoz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la constatación de las grandes transformaciones sociales provocadas por el desembarco de la megaminería transnacional en la Provincia de Catamarca, el presente trabajo se plantea abordar el análisis de la conflictividad ‘minera’ desde la perspectiva de sus impactos microbiopolíticos, esto es, en el plano de los cuerpos, las emociones y los sentimientos. Considerando que se trata de un aspecto crucial de los procesos sociales que se verifican en los nuevos escenarios del extractivismo minero, este trabajo procura desarrollar una ecología política de las emociones como clave para caracterizar los conflictos mineros, así como los efectos eco-biopolíticos que se producen en las comunidades locales intervenidas. Apelando a registros etnográficos, se exponen diferentes dimensiones de los cambios sociales resultantes de las políticas mineras sobre los cuerpos y las emociones. Con los conceptos de fiebre del oro y mineralización social, se busca brindar una hermenéutica crítica de estos procesos orientada a visibilizar lo que se entiende como sus rasgos y efectos neocoloniales.

  12. Síntesis in vitro de la proteína de la envoltura del virus peruano de la fiebre amarilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yábar V

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Sintetizar la proteína recombinante de la envoltura (Er del virus peruano de la Fiebre Amarilla (FA utilizando técnicas moleculares. Materiales y métodos: El gen de la proteína de interés fue amplificado por transcripción reversa - reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR y clonado en un vector plasmídico para ser analizado mediante secuenciamiento de ADN. El inserto de ADN fue subdonado en un vector de expresión para ser traducido a proteína. Se purificó la proteína mediante cromatografía de afinidad bajo condiciones denaturantes, siendo visualizada por electroforesis en SDS-PAGE. Resultados: Se sintetizó y purificó la pr E del virus de la FA. Presentó un peso de 66 kDa, y luego de tres horas de inducción a partir de 1x108 células (OD=0.5 se obtuvo 10 mg/mL de la proteína a miniescala. Conclusión: El análisis de la secuencia de aminoácidos demostró que Er podría ser un buen candidato a ser evaluado serológicamente y luego ser usado como herramienta de diagnóstico específico para la FA.

  13. Evaluación de un método inmunohistoquímico para el diagnóstico de la fiebre amarilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Ricaurte

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available La confirmación diagnóstica de casos fatales de fiebre amarilla (FA es esencial en los programas de vigilancia epidemiológica de la entidad, en regiones endémicas. Se evaluó un método inmunohistoquímico para la detección de antígeno viral de FA en cortes de tejido fijados en formo1 e incluidos en parafina. Aplicamos el procedimiento a 59 casos, con criterios clínico-patológicos y epidemiológicos de FA, dos de ellos con aislamiento viral, ocurridos en Colombia entre 1934 y 1992, incluyendo casos típicos y tardíos. La sensibilidad del método fue del 98,30% : 58 casos fueron positivos mientras que un caso con importantes cambios de autólisis fue negativo. Por Otra parte, se seleccionaron 10 hígados con patologías diferentes, incluyendo 4 con hepatitis fulminante por coinfección de virus de la hepatitis B y delta, ninguno de los cuales mostró inmunorreactividad (especificidad: 100%. Estos resultados indican que este método es un recurso útil para la confirmación del diagnóstico histopatológico de la FA.

  14. A young woman with first-trimester metrorrhagia, fever and skin lesions Mujer joven con metrorragia del primer trimestre, fiebre y lesiones cutáneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lalueza Blanco

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease commonly affects women with child-bearing potential, and clinical activity extent is most relevant at the time of conception. Below, we report on the case of a 19-year-old woman who was admitted for first-trimester metrorrhagia and fever, with various extraintestinal manifestations, mainly including erythema nodosum and episcleritis during the course of disease. The differential diagnosis of these manifestations led to the diagnosis of Crohn's disease, which involved the whole colon.La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal afecta frecuentemente a mujeres en edad fértil, siendo fundamental el grado de actividad clínica en el momento de la concepción. A continuación se presenta el caso de una mujer de 19 años que ingresa por metrorragia del primer trimestre y fiebre; destacando durante su evolución la aparición de diferentes manifestaciones extraintestinales, fundamentalmente eritema nodoso y epiescleritis. A través del diagnóstico diferencial de estas manifestaciones se llegó al diagnóstico de una enfermedad de Crohn que afectaba a todo el colon.

  15. Rational-Emotive Staff Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Susan G.; Forman, Bruce D.

    1980-01-01

    The application of Rational-Emotive Therapy principles and techniques in in-service education for school personnel is discussed. Teacher and counselor participation in a staff development program is described. (Author)

  16. Management between Rationality and Irrationality

    OpenAIRE

    Cene Bavec

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, we discuss theoretical and practical aspects of management and its rational and irrational behavior in the light of traditional management theories and contemporary social theories and theories of complexity. We exposed differences between middle and top management, where rationality is ascribed mainly to middle management, while top management often acts on seemingly irrational way. For the part of this irrationality, we cannot blame management because it originates from the na...

  17. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  18. Interpolation of rational matrix functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba

    1990-01-01

    This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...

  19. Rationality, morality and Economic Coordination: The Contours of Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushentsova Maria, S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article represents an overview of general tendencies in interaction between the notions of rationality and morality, and their influence on the foundations of economic coordination. Firstly, two main directions of evolution of rationality model are considered: the theory of perspectives of D. Kahneman and A. Tverski (the empirical restriction and economic imperialism of G. Becker (the conceptual widening, the role of the modern institutionalism being emphasized. The theoretical evolution of economic rationality had mainly instrumental character and didn’t change its ethical core – the central idea of welfare in economic motivation. In this regard, the two main ways of integration of rationality and morality in modern discussion are considered: conceptions of “multiple preferences” (1 and “moral obligations” (2. The first conception assumes the existence of stable beliefs or “meta-preferences”, which range ordinal desires or preferences. According to the second approach, a distinction of a qualitative nature is drawn between rational behavior, motivated by personal benefit or “sympathy”, and exclusively moral behavior, underlain by “obligation”. An approach according to which a distinction between rational and moral arguments is drawn, directly determines the principles of economic coordination, including the foundations of social justice. Among the latter, there are two ethical grounds – mutual benefit, based on the “sympathy” principle, and impartiality, grounded on the “obligation of power”. These conceptions imply the corresponding types of economic coordination: market-evolutional (focused on effectiveness and constructivist (focused on redistribution.

  20. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ortiz-Millán

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.

  1. Rationing medical education | Walsh | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may ...

  2. Strategy selection as rational metareasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2017-11-01

    Many contemporary accounts of human reasoning assume that the mind is equipped with multiple heuristics that could be deployed to perform a given task. This raises the question of how the mind determines when to use which heuristic. To answer this question, we developed a rational model of strategy selection, based on the theory of rational metareasoning developed in the artificial intelligence literature. According to our model people learn to efficiently choose the strategy with the best cost-benefit tradeoff by learning a predictive model of each strategy's performance. We found that our model can provide a unifying explanation for classic findings from domains ranging from decision-making to arithmetic by capturing the variability of people's strategy choices, their dependence on task and context, and their development over time. Systematic model comparisons supported our theory, and 4 new experiments confirmed its distinctive predictions. Our findings suggest that people gradually learn to make increasingly more rational use of fallible heuristics. This perspective reconciles the 2 poles of the debate about human rationality by integrating heuristics and biases with learning and rationality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. DISTRIBUTED RC NETWORKS WITH RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distributed RC circuit analogous to a continuously tapped transmission line can be made to have a rational short-circuit transfer admittance and...one rational shortcircuit driving-point admittance. A subcircuit of the same structure has a rational open circuit transfer impedance and one rational ...open circuit driving-point impedance. Hence, rational transfer functions may be obtained while considering either generator impedance or load

  4. Significado de la fiebre persistente o recurrente durante el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa Clinical significance of persistent or recurrent fever during the treatment of infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carena

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 81 pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa con el objeto de establecer la significación clínica de la presencia de fiebre persistente (FP y/o fiebre recurrente (FR durante el tratamiento. Un total de 46 pacientes (56.8% (Grupo 1 tuvieron FP y/o FR durante el tratamiento: 35 FP y 16 FR, que se compararon con 35 sin FP/FR (Grupo 2. No hubo diferencias en la edad, sexo, permanencia hospitalaria, origen nosocomial, demora diagnóstica y comorbilidad asociada. El compromiso aórtico (47.8 vs 34.2% y tricuspídeo (21.7 vs 11.4% y la infección por Staphylococcus aureus (55.5 vs 28% fueron más frecuentes en el Grupo 1, aunque no significativamente. El S. aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR (22.2 vs 4%, las complicaciones (95.6 vs 65.7%, la disfunción renal (58.6 vs 31.4%, el embolismo mayor (60.8 vs 34%, los fenómenos microvasculares (43.4 vs 17.1% y la cirugía valvular (34.7 vs 11.4% ocurrieron significativamente en el Grupo 1 (pPatients with infective endocarditis (IE were studied to assess incidence, clinical features and mortality in a population with either persistent (PF or recurrent fever (RF during treatment. A sample of 81 patients was evaluated. Of these, 46 patients (56.8% had fever during treatment: 35 had PF and 16 had RF (Group 1. This group was compared with 35 patients with IE without fever (Group 2. Age, sex, in-hospital days, nosocomial acquisition, delay in diagnosis, and co-morbidities were similar among each group. The aortic and tricuspid valve compromise, and Staphylococcus aureus as etiologic agent were more frequent in Group 1 (although not significantly. However, the development of complications (95.6 vs. 65.7%, renal dysfunction (58.6 vs. 31.4%, major vessel embolization (60.8 vs. 34%, microvascular phenomena (43.4 vs. 17.1%, infections with MRSA (22.2 vs. 4% and valvular surgery (34.7 vs. 11.4% were significantly higher in Group 1(p<0.05. The most common causes of PF were microvascular phenomena (14

  5. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  6. Rationality in the Cryptographic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel

    This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk...... to implement correlated equilibria of two-player strategic games in a sequentially rational way. We show that there exist two-player games for which no cryptographic protocol can implement the mediator in a sequentially rational way; that is, without introducing empty threats. In the context of computational...... with appealing economic applications. Our implementation puts forward a notion of cryptographically blinded games that exploits the power of encryption to selectively restrict the information available to players about sampled action profiles, such that these desirable equilibria can be stably achieved...

  7. Comunicación, movilización y participación: lecciones aprendidas en la prevención y control de la fiebre dengue (fd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mosquera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio de intervención- investigación ejecutado durante 2003-2005 en el Atlántico (Colombia, con el propósito de mejorar la efectividad y sostenibilidad de los programas de control de Fiebre Dengue (FD, a través de una estrategia de comunicación participativa basada en los recursos comunicacionales locales y en los conocimientos, prácticas y percepciones de la comunidad; se exponen las lecciones aprendidas en torno a dimensiones críticas de las intervenciones en comunicación y salud organizadas en dos áreas: dimensiones político-técnicas y dimensiones teóricas y de investigación. El proyecto se desarrolló partir de la metodología combi, abordaje de comunicación y movilización social que incluye un proceso estratégico para identificar, promover y facilitar comportamientos que puedan repercutir en forma positiva y significativa y que sean factibles de lograr. Como variante al combi, se introdujeron componentes de participación social en la implementacion del proceso. Las lecciones aprendidas incluyen re- flexiones sobre el rol de los organismos rectores, la integralidad de las estrategias, el impacto de las intervenciones de comunicación en los indicadores entomológicos, la expansión de referentes teóricos en dengue y la posibilidad de abordar otras problemáticas de salud a partir de procesos participativos centrados en dengue.

  8. 'La fiebre de Malta': An Interface of Farmers and Caprine Brucellosis Control Policies in the Bajío Region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera Montiel, D; Udo, H M J; Frankena, K; van der Zijpp, A

    2017-02-01

    This article shows that socio-economic factors, defined here as practices, knowledge, interests, beliefs and experiences have a role in the adoption of brucellosis control strategies in the Bajío region, Mexico. We combined qualitative and quantitative methods to show that socio-economic factors with regard to goat husbandry and brucellosis control are not taken into account in the current policy to combat the disease in Mexico. Farmers ranked constraints like the price of goat milk more important than the control of the disease. The impact of brucellosis in goats is hidden to farmers, and the term brucellosis is still a strange name to them; it is better known as 'la fiebre de Malta' (Malta fever), which farmers are aware of and which they avoid by not drinking goat milk. Brucellosis control measures cause losses such as abortion due to vaccination and ear infections due to ear tagging. In the villages of the state of Michoacán, the uptake of a vaccination and testing programme was almost complete because it was offered for free, whereas in villages of Jalisco, vaccination was not adopted thoroughly because the cost of vaccination was high for farmers and because of a lack of veterinarians offering the service. Neither compensation for culling suspected infected goats does exist nor the infrastructure, like slaughterhouses, to ensure that goats that are brucellosis seropositive are not resold to neighbouring farmers. This article disputes the idea that brucellosis is confined to the lack of awareness and participation of farmers in control measures, but rather that policies are promulgated without a good knowledge of goat husbandry and farmers' perceptions. We claim that governmental authorities should reformulate the policy to take into account socio-economic factors shaping farmers' behaviour so that effective control measures will be adopted by goat farmers. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Manifestaciones clínicas y complicaciones de la fase aguda de bartonelosis o Fiebre de la Oroya en pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Peregrino Maguiña Vargas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y de laboratorio de la bartonelosis aguda, así como las complicaciones en una serie de pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de tipo serie de casos de pacientes mayores de 15 años con bartonelosis aguda hospitalizados en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia entre 1993 y 2006. Resultados: La edad promedio fue 27,8 años, 72,7% fueron varones, 51,5% procedía de Lima y 33,3% de Ancash. Los síntomas principales fueron: fiebre 90,9%, cefalea 87,9%, hiporexia 75,5%, baja de peso 63,6%, e ictericia 57,6%. Dos pacientes presentaron alteraciones en el fondo de ojo: retinitis exudativa y retinopatía hemorrágica. El hematocrito promedio fue 20,8% y 63,6% cursaron hematocrito £20%. Hubo desviación izquierda en 24,2%, hiperbilirrubinemia a predominio indirecto 62,5% e hipoalbuminemia (< 3mg/dl 56,5%. Se presentaron complicaciones en 84,8%, el 27,2% requirió internamiento en UCI. Las complicaciones no infecciosas ocurrieron en 84,8%, hematológicas 81,8% y gastrointestinales 78,7%. Las complicaciones infecciosas se presentaron en 12,1%. Los antibióticos más utilizados fueron ciprofloxacina 66,6% y cloranfenicol 42,4%, se administró corticoides en 9,1% y se transfundió paquete globular en 42,4%. Conclusiones: Los pacientes de UCI tuvieron más complicaciones cardiovasculares, trombocitopenia y mayor severidad de la anemia. No se registró mortalidad. (Rev. Med Hered 2008;19:87-95

  10. Una rareza bibliográfica escrita en Cuba sobre fiebre amarilla A bibliography rarity on yelow fever written in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio López Espinosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se brinda una síntesis biográfica del cirujano de origen escosés John Holliday Heragod (Juan Tomás José Agustín Domínguez, quien fue el autor de una de las primeras obras escritas en Cuba sobre la fiebre amarilla, y se ofrecen algunas observaciones en relación con el proceso de convalidación de su título ante el Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de La Habana. Se emiten varias consideraciones referentes a las circunstancias que rodearon la redacción en español del citado documento en 1794, su presentación en la Real Sociedad Patriótica de Amigos del País en 1796 y su publicación en inglés fuera de Cuba el mismo año, como elementos para ubicarlo en el lugar adecuado en el contexto de la historia de la bibliografía médica cubanaA brief bibliography on the Scoth surgeon John Holliday Heragod (Juan Tomás José Agustín Domínguez is given. Dr. Heragod was one of the first authors who wrote about the yellow fever in Cuba. Some observations are made concerning the process for validating his diploma at the Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de la Habana. Some considerations are made referring the Spanish equivalent of the document in 1794, its presentation at the Real Sociedad Patriótica Amigos del País in 1794, and its publication in the English languaje outside Cuba in the same year, as well as its palce in the history of the Cuban bibliography on Medicine

  11. Rational choice in field archaelology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.

  12. Rationalizing the Promotion of Non-Rational Behaviors in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2002-01-01

    Organizations must balance rational/technical efficiency and emotions. Action learning has been proven to be effective for developing emotional openness in the workplace. Facilitators of action learning should draw upon the disciplines of counseling, Gestalt, psychodynamics, and Eastern philosophies. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  13. Re-visions of rationality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R

    2005-01-01

    The appeal of simple algorithms that take account of both the constraints of human cognitive capacity and the structure of environments has been an enduring theme in cognitive science. A novel version of such a boundedly rational perspective views the mind as containing an 'adaptive toolbox' of specialized cognitive heuristics suited to different problems. Although intuitively appealing, when this version was proposed, empirical evidence for the use of such heuristics was scant. I argue that in the light of empirical studies carried out since then, it is time this 'vision of rationality' was revised. An alternative view based on integrative models rather than collections of heuristics is proposed.

  14. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  15. Public policy, rationality and reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Canto Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.

  16. Manifestaciones mucocutáneas atípicas por fiebre por el virus del chikungunya en neonatos y lactantes de Cúcuta, Los Patios y Villa del Rosario, Norte de Santander, Colombia, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Muñoz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se han observado manifestaciones clínicas atípicas en recién nacidos y lactantes con fiebre por el virus del chikungunya. Objetivo. Describir los casos de fiebre causada por el virus del chikungunya en recién nacidos y lactantes con lesiones mucocutáneas atípicas. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y los resultados de laboratorio y de patología en tres hospitales regionales de los casos de recién nacidos y lactantes diagnosticados con el virus del chikungunya que presentaban lesiones mucocutáneas atípicas; se hizo una búsqueda activa comunitaria en los barrios de residencia de los pacientes. Resultados. De 18 casos sospechosos de chikungunya en recién nacidos y lactantes, 11 pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado presentaron manifestaciones mucocutáneas atípicas. Seis de los 11 casos confirmados eran niños menores de cinco meses de edad. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre, eritema, irritabilidad y diarrea. Tres de los pacientes estaban infectados con dengue y chikungunya. Las úlceras se presentaron en cuero cabelludo, abdomen, región genital y perianal. En la búsqueda activa comunitaria se encontraron altas tasas de ataque de la enfermedad. Conclusiones. Se presenta un informe de las manifestaciones mucocutáneas en recién nacidos y lactantes diagnosticados con fiebre por el virus del chikungunya en Colombia. El rápido desarrollo de las úlceras se debe, probablemente, a la reacción inmunitaria al virus. Es necesario priorizar la atención de las mujeres embarazadas que presenten síntomas una semana antes del parto y hacerle seguimiento a los recién nacidos, para hacer el diagnóstico temprano del chikungunya y evitar complicaciones.

  17. De miasmas a mosquitos: el pensamiento médico sobre la fiebre amarilla en Yucatán, 1890-1920 From miasmas to mosquitoes: medical thought on yellow fever in Yucatan, 1890-1920

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alcalá Ferráez

    2012-01-01

    La fiebre amarilla fue un problema de salud pública desde la época colonial debido a la frecuencia con que se presentaba en forma epidémica y a su alta letalidad. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el pensamiento médico y su evolución con respecto al vómito prieto entre 1890 y 1921 en Yucatán. Dos aspectos serán abordados: algunos antecedentes con respecto a la enfermedad y las ideas predominantes hasta 1881; y la propuesta de Carlos Finlay para vencer el escepticismo ante su teoría por ...

  18. El veneno y el mosquito: aspectos epistemológicos de la etiología y la profilaxis de la fiebre amarilla Poison and the mosquito: epistemological aspects of the etiology and prophylactics of yellow fever

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Caponi

    2000-01-01

    En el II Congreso Médico Latinoamericano (Buenos Aires, 1904) se discutieron las estrategias que Argentina y Brasil delinearon para combatir la fiebre amarilla. El análisis de la controversia entre sanitaristas brasileños y argentinos en torno a los modelos explicativos y a las estrategias de profilaxis internacional de esa enfermedad, nos permite una comprensión epistemológica de la ruptura operada por la emergencia de la medicina de los vectores. Este capítulo de la historia de la medicina ...

  19. Caracterización genética del virus de la fiebre amarilla proveniente de un brote icterohemorrágico en una comunidad nativa del distrito de Imaza, Amazonas, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Yábar, Carlos; Mamani, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    La fiebre amarilla (FA) sigue siendo una enfermedad de importancia en salud pública en el mundo a pesar de la existencia de una vacuna eficaz (WHO, 2005). En Sudamérica, el Perú fue uno de los países que registró el mayor número de casos de FA durante el 2004 (WHO, 2005), contando con zonas endémicas que se extienden desde la selva norte hacia la selva central. Recientemente, en diciembre de 2005 la Dirección de Salud (DISA) de Bagua tomó conocimiento de un brote icterohemorrágico en la co...

  20. Optimal public rationing and price response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Simona; Ma, Ching-To Albert

    2011-12-01

    We study optimal public health care rationing and private sector price responses. Consumers differ in their wealth and illness severity (defined as treatment cost). Due to a limited budget, some consumers must be rationed. Rationed consumers may purchase from a monopolistic private market. We consider two information regimes. In the first, the public supplier rations consumers according to their wealth information (means testing). In equilibrium, the public supplier must ration both rich and poor consumers. Rationing some poor consumers implements price reduction in the private market. In the second information regime, the public supplier rations consumers according to consumers' wealth and cost information. In equilibrium, consumers are allocated the good if and only if their costs are below a threshold (cost effectiveness). Rationing based on cost results in higher equilibrium consumer surplus than rationing based on wealth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The interplay between intuition and rationality in strategic decision making: A paradox perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Calabretta, G.; Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Although scholars have made a strong plea for an integrative approach to strategic decision making, an integrated framework that accounts for the interplay between intuition and rationality is still missing. This study addresses this gap by using a paradox lens and conceptualizes the intuition-rationality duality as a paradoxical tension. We draw on seven case studies of innovation projects to empirically derive a three-step process for managing this intuition-rationality tension through para...

  2. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  3. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  4. Teaching Rational Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolever, Roberts

    1978-01-01

    Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)

  5. Rational Suicide among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphry, Derek

    1992-01-01

    Contends that old age, in and of itself, should never need to be a cause for self-destruction. Further argues that suicide and assisted suicide carried out in the face of terminal illness causing unbearable suffering should be ethically and legally acceptable. Outlines a perspective on rational suicide among the elderly. (Author/NB)

  6. On a CO2 ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.

    2003-01-01

    In 2 years all the large energy companies in the European Union will have a CO2 ration, including a system to trade a shortage or surplus of emission rights. A cost effective system to reduce emission, provided that the government does not auction the emission rights [nl

  7. Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest

    That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why…

  8. Sectarian discussions limit vision on rational approaches. With ups and downs towards a coherent environmental policy?; Verkokerde discussies belemmeren het zicht op rationele benaderingen. Met vallen en opstaan op weg naar een samenhangend milieubeleid?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluijter, F.W.

    2008-07-01

    Current discussions on environmental policy in the Netherlands are systematically narrowed down to discussions on CO2 emissions. The mutual interaction between various measures remains undiscussed. Emotional arguments (e.g. the deployment of nuclear energy) play a larger role than rational arguments. In this article, the author sketches undiscussed and even unmentionable relations in the real world and thus hopes to contribute to a rational exchange of ideas on energy and environmental policy. [mk]. [Dutch] De lopende discussies over het milieubeleid in Nederland worden stelselmatig verengd tot discussies over de emissie van CO2. De onderlinge wisselwerking tussen verschillende maatregelen blijft daarbij onbesproken. Emotionele argumenten (bijvoorbeeld m.b.t. de inzet van kernenergie) spelen een grotere rol dan rationele argumenten. De auteur schets in dit artikel onbesproken en zelfs onbespreekbare samenhangen in de reele wereld en hoopt daarmee bij te dragen aan een rationele uitwisseling van ideeen over energie- en milieubeleid.

  9. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  10. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  11. Bounded Rationality and the Diffusion of Modern Investment Treaties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    insights on cognitive heuristics. In line with recent work on policy diffusion, it suggests that a bounded rationality framework has considerable potential to explain why, and how, developing countries have adopted modern investment treaties. To illustrate the potential of this approach, the case of South...

  12. How Action Understanding can be Rational, Bayesian and Tractable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokpoel, M.; Kwisthout, J.H.P.; Weide, Th.P. van der; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Ohlsson, S.; Catrambone, R.

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of human sociality is our ability to understand the actions of others as being goal-directed. Recently, the now classic rational approach to explaining this ability has been given a formal incarnation in the Bayesian Inverse Planning (BIP) model of Baker, Saxe, and Tenenbaum

  13. Combining Rational and Biological Factors in Virtual Agent Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Gerritsen, C.; Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    To enhance believability of virtual agents, this paper presents an agent-based modelling approach for decision making, which integrates rational reasoning based on means-end analysis with personal psychological and biological aspects. The agent model developed is a combination of a BDI-model and a

  14. Effect of Rational Emotive Theraphy in the Reduction of Bullying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Rational Emotive Theraphy in the Reduction of Bullying Behaviour of Youth. ... Subscription or Fee Access ... Using a multi-stage approach, a total of sixty (60) secondary school students (30 males and 30 females; 30 JSS and 30 SSS) ...

  15. Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ortiz-Millán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.Neste artigo defendo a idéia de que, em vez de perturbar a racionalidade, como a concepção do senso comum o faz, o amor pode, na verdade, ajudar-nos a desenvolver modos racionais de pensar e agir. Dou bons argumentos para o amor romântico ou erótico, uma vez que esse é o tipo de amor que é mais freqüentemente associado à irracionalidade no agir e no pensar. Argumento que esse tipo de amor pode fazer-nos desenvolver formas epistêmicas e práticas de racionalidade. Com base em uma análise de suas tendências características para a ação, argumento que o amor pode ajudar-nos a desenvolver uma forma instrumental de racionalidade para se determinar o melhor meio de atingir o objeto de amor. Ele também pode limitar o número de considerações práticas que podem ajudar-nos a atingir os nossos objetivos. Finalmente, o amor pode gerar modos racionais de formação de crenças ao estruturar os parâmetros considerados na percepção e na aten

  16. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L

    2011-04-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.

  17. Lessons from Learning to Have Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews a growing literature investigating how economic agents may learn rational expectations. Fully rational learning requires implausible initial information assumptions, therefore some form of bounded rationality has come into focus. Such learning models often converge to rational expectations equilibria within certain bounds. Convergence analysis has been much simplified by methods from adaptive control theory. Learning stability as a correspondence principle show some promise...

  18. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    OpenAIRE

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.

  19. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome. PMID:25125770

  20. Entre la fiebre del oro y el polvo de las voladuras… Cuerpos y emociones en contextos de mineralización.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Machado Aráoz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-AR X-NONE AR-SA A partir de la constatación de las grandes transformaciones sociales provocadas por el desembarco de la megaminería transnacional en la Provincia de Catamarca,  el presente trabajo se plantea abordar el análisis de la conflictividad ‘minera' desde la perspectiva de sus impactos microbiopolíticos, esto es, en  el plano de los cuerpos, las emociones y los sentimientos. Considerando que se trata de un aspecto crucial de los procesos sociales que se verifican en los nuevos escenarios del extractivismo minero, este trabajo procura desarrollar una ecología política de las emociones como clave para caracterizar los conflictos mineros, así como los efectos eco-biopolíticos que se producen en las comunidades locales intervenidas. Apelando a registros etnográficos, se exponen diferentes dimensiones de los cambios sociales resultantes de las políticas mineras sobre los cuerpos y las emociones. Con los conceptos de fiebre del oro y mineralización social, se busca brindar una hermenéutica crítica de estos procesos orientada a visibilizar lo que se entiende como sus rasgos y efectos neocoloniales. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  1. New and More General Rational Formal Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Toda System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Chenglin

    2007-01-01

    With the aid of computerized symbolic computation and Riccati equation rational expansion approach, some new and more general rational formal solutions to (2+1)-dimensional Toda system are obtained. The method used here can also be applied to solve other nonlinear differential-difference equation or equations.

  2. What Is Common about Common Schooling? Rational Autonomy and Moral Agency in Liberal Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Hanan

    2007-01-01

    In this essay I critique two influential accounts of rational autonomy in common schooling that conceive liberalism as an ideal form of life, and I offer an alternative approach to democratic education that views liberal theory as concerned with coexistence among rival ways of living. This view places moral agency, not rational autonomy, at the…

  3. Rational Adaptation under Task and Processing Constraints: Implications for Testing Theories of Cognition and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Andrew; Lewis, Richard L.; Vera, Alonso

    2009-01-01

    The authors assume that individuals adapt rationally to a utility function given constraints imposed by their cognitive architecture and the local task environment. This assumption underlies a new approach to modeling and understanding cognition--cognitively bounded rational analysis--that sharpens the predictive acuity of general, integrated…

  4. A rational analysis of alternating search and reflection strategies in problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, N; Shafto, MG; Langley, P

    1997-01-01

    In this paper two approaches to problem solving, search and reflection, are discussed, and combined in two models, both based on rational analysis (Anderson, 1990). The first model is a dynamic growth model, which shows that alternating search and reflection is a rational strategy. The second model

  5. Electricity rationing and public response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Leonardo Rocha; Soares, Lacir Jorge

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the electricity load demand behavior during the 2001 rationing period, which was implemented because of the Brazilian energy crisis. The hourly data refers to a utility situated in the southeast of the country. We use the model proposed by Soares and Souza [Soares, L.J. and Souza, L.R. (2006), 'Forecasting electricity demand using generalized long memory', International Journal of Forecasting, 22, 17-28.], making use of generalized long memory to model the seasonal behavior of the load. The rationing period is shown to have imposed a structural break in the series, decreasing the load at about 20%. Even so, the forecast accuracy is decreased only marginally, and the forecasts rapidly readapt to the new situation. The structural break, as well as the forecast errors from this model, also permits verifying the public response to pieces of information released regarding the crisis. (Author)

  6. Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first that con......Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first...... that concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...

  7. Rational approximations for tomographic reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Matthew; Beylkin, Gregory; Monzón, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    We use optimal rational approximations of projection data collected in x-ray tomography to improve image resolution. Under the assumption that the object of interest is described by functions with jump discontinuities, for each projection we construct its rational approximation with a small (near optimal) number of terms for a given accuracy threshold. This allows us to augment the measured data, i.e., double the number of available samples in each projection or, equivalently, extend (double) the domain of their Fourier transform. We also develop a new, fast, polar coordinate Fourier domain algorithm which uses our nonlinear approximation of projection data in a natural way. Using augmented projections of the Shepp–Logan phantom, we provide a comparison between the new algorithm and the standard filtered back-projection algorithm. We demonstrate that the reconstructed image has improved resolution without additional artifacts near sharp transitions in the image. (paper)

  8. Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…

  9. RATGRAPH: Computer Graphing of Rational Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minch, Bradley A.

    1987-01-01

    Presents an easy-to-use Applesoft BASIC program that graphs rational functions and any asymptotes that the functions might have. Discusses the nature of rational functions, graphing them manually, employing a computer to graph rational functions, and describes how the program works. (TW)

  10. Rationality and the Logic of Good Reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Walter R.

    This paper contends that the rationality of the logic of good reasons is constituted in its use. To support this claim, the paper presents an analysis of the relationship between being reasonable and being rational. It then considers how following the logic of good reasons leads to rationality in the behavior of individuals and groups; the latter…

  11. The Different “Personalities” of the Rational Number Approached through Problem-solving As Diferentes “Personalidades” do Número Racional Trabalhadas através da Resolução de Problemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes de la Rosa Onuchic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the different “personalities” of the rational number and the concept of proportionality, analyzing the possibilities for using the Mathematics Teaching and Learning through Problem-solving Method. This method is based on the principle that knowledge can be constructed through the use of problems that generate new concepts and new contents. The different meanings of rational number – rational point, quotient, fraction, ratio, and operator – are constructs that depend on mathematical theories in which they are imbedded and the situations that evoke them in problem-solving. Some data will be presented from continuing education courses for teachers, aiming to contribute to understanding regarding the different “personalities” of the rational number. In general, these “personalities” are not easily identified by teachers and students, which is the reason for the many difficulties encountered during problem-solving involving rational numbers. One of these “personalities”, the ratio, provides the basis for the concept of proportionality, which is relevant because it is a unifying idea in mathematics. Key-words: Rational Numbers and Proportionality. Problem Solving. Teacher Education.Neste artigo, pretende-se abordar as diferentes “personalidades” do número racional e o conceito de proporcionalidade, analisando as possibilidades de utilizar a Metodologia de Ensino-Aprendizagem de Matemática através da Resolução de Problemas. Essa metodologia parte do princípio de que a construção do conhecimento pode ser realizada a partir de problemas geradores de novos conceitos e novos conteúdos. Os diferentes significados do número racional: ponto racional, quociente, fração, razão e operador são construtos que dependem das teorias matemáticas em que se inserem e das situações a que se referem na resolução de problemas. Serão apresentados alguns dados que foram desenvolvidos em cursos de formação continuada

  12. Information Transmission and Rational Inattention

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Tutino

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of optimal communication strategy between a fully informed agent and a rationally inattentive agent. The fully informed agent observes a sequence of shocks and transmits a message to the limited-capacity agent who takes a set of actions in response to the message. The problem of the informed agent is to seek the optimal signaling strategy that induces a behavior consistent with minimal welfare loss, uniformly over a given class of bounded utility functions. We characteriz...

  13. Rational Asset Pricing Bubbles Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Werner

    2012-01-01

    Price bubble arises when the price of an asset exceeds the asset's fundamental value, that is, the present value of future dividend payments. The important result of Santos and Woodford (1997) says that price bubbles cannot exist in equilibrium in the standard dynamic asset pricing model with rational agents as long as assets are in strictly positive supply and the present value of total future resources is finite. This paper explores the possibility of asset price bubbles when either one of ...

  14. Kant on empiricism and rationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to correct some widely held misconceptions concerning Kant's role in the formation of a widespread narrative of early modern philosophy. According to this narrative, which dominated the English-speaking world throughout the twentieth century, the early modern period was characterized by the development of two rival schools: René Descartes's, Baruch Spinoza's, and G. W. Leibniz's rationalism; and John Locke's, George Berkeley's, and David Hume's empiricism. Empiricists and rati...

  15. WHO and rational reduction of patient dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.

    1995-01-01

    WHO activities aimed at reducing patient dose, while maintaining satisfactory image quality, include rational use of diagnostic imaging, effective choices for examination, equipment design and specification, quality assurance, and guidance for regulatory authorities and radiological personnel. To assist its Member States in developing a rational policy concerning imaging services WHO provides guidance through publications, its network of Collaborating Centres, and its expert advisers. Because approximately 2/3 of the world's population lacked diagnostic imaging services, early in the 1960s WHO became concerned with basic radiology. After several unsuccessful approaches WHO concentrated on development of the Basic Radiological System (WHO-BRS). Following a workshop held in Neuherberg, Germany, a guide for Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology was published by WHO in 1982. A similar guide for Quality Assurance in Nuclear Medicine was also published in 1982. In collaboration with other international organisations WHO is preparing revised editions of both the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, and the five-volume Manual on Radiation Protection in Hospitals and General Practice. Regarding future needs, within any health care system there is a spectrum of imaging requirements ranging from the most essential to the most complex. Issues to be resolved involve the clinical decision-making process through which diagnostic imaging examinations are produced and the optimum mixture of imaging modalities. (Author)

  16. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT, irrational and rational beliefs, and the mental health of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin James Turner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training (PST for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957, the original cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1 the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2 the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3 the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as

  17. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Irrational and Rational Beliefs, and the Mental Health of Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one's beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research

  18. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Irrational and Rational Beliefs, and the Mental Health of Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research

  19. 'Ethical rationality': A subjective-objective concept of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.

    1991-01-01

    'Ethical rationality' as a concept of risk assessment means that risks are assessed using an integrative, ethical-normative approach (taking values, world views and people's understanding of what it means to be a human being and of what makes life worth living into account). Thus risks cannot be assessed on a mathematical and statistical basis alone. It is much more important to reflect upon what makes life worth living. In order to answer this question, the rationality of probability calculus does not suffice. Instead, this form of rationality must be transformed into or replaced by ethical discourse (an open, iterative and complex process of making ethical judgement). Proposals for an ethical assessment of risk are made which are substantiated by the theoretical concept of ethical rationality comprising the following steps: - Consideration of the nature of ethics (understanding of the viewer's perspective); - A look at an ethical interpretation of the traditional mathematical concept of risk (description); - Scheme for an ethical conception of rationality (theoretical reflections); - Weighing risks from an ethical perspective in practice. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. Menopause: developing a rational treatment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Danielle; Naftolin, Frederick; Naftoilin, Frederick; Taylor, Hugh S

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, growing importance has been afforded to assisting women in coping with the menopausal transition. Menopause is a normal stage of development and a woman's attitude toward this transition embodies biological, psychological and social influences. An enlarging body of conflicting data concerning menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) demands reassessment of established paradigms of disease prevention and menopausal health. Currently, a woman's decision to participate in or abstain from menopausal HT is personal. It involves not only consideration of risk stratification of potential harm and benefit, but also involves her expectations and attitudes toward perceived physical and emotional changes associated with this change. Through the use of extensive patient history, quality-of-life questionnaires and powerful biological profiling, we may be able to develop a rational approach to menopausal HT that safely guides our patients through this transition.

  1. Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches. The approximation problem is solved with help of a new computational approach to the hyperbolic nets of Huhnen-Venedey and Rörig and optimization algorithms based on it. We also discuss its limits which lie in the topology of the input surface. Finally, freeform deformations based on Darboux transformations are used to generate smooth surfaces from smoothly joined Darboux cyclide patches; in this way we eliminate the restriction to surfaces with negative Gaussian curvature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. A mortality study of the last outbreak of yellow fever in Barcelona City (Spain in 1870 Estudio de la mortalidad del último brote de fiebre amarilla en la ciudad de Barcelona (España en 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Canela Soler

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last outbreak of yellow fever in the city of Barcelona, Spain, was caused by a ship arriving from Cuba. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the epidemic of 1870 by using the available mortality data. Methods: The information on 1,235 deaths identified in the parochial registries was analyzed, using statistical and epidemiological procedures for epidemic outbreaks. Results: Mortality due to yellow fever was 549.7 per 100,000 inhabitants. The temporal distribution of the deaths showed two peaks at the end of September and October with the last fatalities occurring in December 1870. The distribution of the fatalities in the city's neighborhoods was unequal. In La Barceloneta, in particular, more fatalities were found in the streets adjacent to the port than in the most remote streets (r=0.83; pObjetivo: El último brote de fiebre amarilla en la ciudad de Barcelona, España, se originó a partir de un barco que venía de Cuba. El objetivo de este estudio es describir y analizar esa epidemia ocurrida en 1870, utilizando los datos disponibles de mortalidad. Métodos: La información de las 1235 defunciones identificadas en los registros parroquiales se ha analizado utilizando los procedimientos estadísticos y epidemiológicos para brotes epidémicos. Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad por fiebre amarilla fue de 549.7 por 100,000 habitantes. La distribución temporal de las muertes tenía dos modas en el final de septiembre y octubre, y los últimos muertos ocurrieron en diciembre de 1870. La distribución de las defunciones según los barrios de la ciudad fue desigual. En La Barceloneta, en particular, hubo mas muertos en las calles adyacentes al puerto que en las más lejanas (r=0,83; p<0,0001. Conclusiones: Este estudio muestra una distribución bimodal de la mortalidad por fiebre amarilla durante el brote, con un impacto alto en hombres adultos, y en el barrio de La Barceloneta.

  3. Economic rationality and health and lifestyle choices for people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel Mairi

    2006-11-01

    Economic rationality is traditionally represented by goal-oriented, maximising behaviour, or 'instrumental rationality'. Such a consequentialist, instrumental model of choice is often implicit in a biomedical approach to health promotion and education. The research reported here assesses the relevance of a broader conceptual framework of rationality, which includes 'procedural' and 'expressive' rationality as complements to an instrumental model of rationality, in a health context. Q methodology was used to derive 'factors' underlying health and lifestyle choices, based on a factor analysis of the results of a card sorting procedure undertaken by 27 adult respondents with type 2 diabetes in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. These factors were then compared with the rationality framework and the appropriateness of an extended model of economic rationality as a means of better understanding health and lifestyle choices was assessed. Taking a wider rational choice perspective, choices which are rendered irrational within a narrow-biomedical or strictly instrumental model, can be understood in terms of a coherent rationale, grounded in the accounts of respondents. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of rational choice theory and diabetes management and research.

  4. Rational kernels for Arabic Root Extraction and Text Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Nehar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problems of Arabic Text Classification and root extraction using transducers and rational kernels. We introduce a new root extraction approach on the basis of the use of Arabic patterns (Pattern Based Stemmer. Transducers are used to model these patterns and root extraction is done without relying on any dictionary. Using transducers for extracting roots, documents are transformed into finite state transducers. This document representation allows us to use and explore rational kernels as a framework for Arabic Text Classification. Root extraction experiments are conducted on three word collections and yield 75.6% of accuracy. Classification experiments are done on the Saudi Press Agency dataset and N-gram kernels are tested with different values of N. Accuracy and F1 report 90.79% and 62.93% respectively. These results show that our approach, when compared with other approaches, is promising specially in terms of accuracy and F1.

  5. Equal status in Ultimatum Games promotes rational sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Cao, Shinan; Bao, Jian-Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Boyu; Gao, Zi-You; Sánchez, Angel

    2018-01-19

    Experiments on the Ultimatum Game (UG) repeatedly show that people's behaviour is far from rational. In UG experiments, a subject proposes how to divide a pot and the other can accept or reject the proposal, in which case both lose everything. While rational people would offer and accept the minimum possible amount, in experiments low offers are often rejected and offers are typically larger than the minimum, and even fair. Several theoretical works have proposed that these results may arise evolutionarily when subjects act in both roles and there is a fixed interaction structure in the population specifying who plays with whom. We report the first experiments on structured UG with subjects playing simultaneously both roles. We observe that acceptance levels of responders approach rationality and proposers accommodate their offers to their environment. More precisely, subjects keep low acceptance levels all the time, but as proposers they follow a best-response-like approach to choose their offers. We thus find that status equality promotes rational sharing while the influence of structure leads to fairer offers compared to well-mixed populations. Our results are far from what is observed in single-role UG experiments and largely different from available predictions based on evolutionary game theory.

  6. Reappraisal of Rational Choice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of rational choice theory (RCT for the social sciences has long been contested. Much time has been spent by economists and critics on the pervasive but elusive concept of rationality. The critiques mainly challenge the basis of the utility theorem. Several articles on the misuse of mathematics in economics have already appeared in the literature. As N. Bouleau stated, “On several occasions, however, one feels that the criticism is that the math is being misused and should be developed in some other direction (e.g. a statistical analysis of the financial tendencies that polarize wealth and income, or a study of the positive feedback mechanisms, etc.. This leaves certain dissatisfaction – on a philosophical level.” The aim of this paper is to present a decision theory, yields intention (logos and valuation (existence. Here we present a new mathematical representation of RCT, which leads to a dynamic economic theory. We discuss the philosophical or meta-economical problems, which are needed for the successful applications of mathematics.

  7. Rational development of radiopharmaceuticals for HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Maldarelli, Frank; Eckelman, William C.; Neumann, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    The global battle against HIV-1 would benefit from a sensitive and specific radiopharmaceutical to localize HIV-infected cells. Ideally, this probe would be able to identify latently infected host cells containing replication competent HIV sequences. Clinical and research applications would include assessment of reservoirs, informing clinical management by facilitating assessment of burden of infection in different compartments, monitoring disease progression and monitoring response to therapy. A “rational” development approach could facilitate efficient identification of an appropriate targeted radiopharmaceutical. Rational development starts with understanding characteristics of the disease that can be effectively targeted and then engineering radiopharmaceuticals to hone in on an appropriate target, which in the case of HIV-1 (HIV) might be an HIV-specific product on or in the host cell, a differentially expressed gene product, an integrated DNA sequence specific enzymatic activity, part of the inflammatory response, or a combination of these. This is different from the current approach that starts with a radiopharmaceutical for a target associated with a disease, mostly from autopsy studies, without a strong rationale for the potential to impact patient care. At present, no targeted therapies are available for HIV latency, although a number of approaches are under study. Here we discuss requirements for a radiopharmaceutical useful in strategies targeting persistently infected cells. The radiopharmaceutical for HIV should be developed based on HIV biology, studied in an animal model and then in humans, and ultimately used in clinical and research settings

  8. Tendencia en la mortalidad por fiebre reumática aguda y cardiopatía reumática crónica en Venezuela, 1955-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacura,César; Granero,Ricardo

    1998-01-01

    Este estudio incluye defunciones por fiebre reumática aguda (FRA) y cardiopatía reumática crónica (CRC) registradas en Venezuela de 1955 a 1994, según edad y sexo. Se calcularon tasas de mortalidad por 100.000 habitantes, ajustadas según método directo a la población mundial estándar de la OMS. Se produjo un descenso en la tasa ajustada de mortalidad (TAM) por FR para ambos sexos de 7,68 a 1,08 (Variación Porcentual [VP] -85,9%); sexo masculino de 7,53 a 0,84 (VP -88,8%) y sexo femenino de 7,...

  9. La investigación antigua de la fiebre puerperal: galimatías científico y objeto de reflexión = Early research on puerperal fever: Scientific imbroglio and object of reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volcy, Charles

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión versa sobre las primeras investigaciones acerca de una de las enfermedades sobresalientes en la historia de la medicina: la fiebre puerperal, asesina de parturientas entre los siglos XVII y XIX. Aborda la controversia en torno a su naturaleza fisiológica y contagiosidad, y analiza, desde diversas perspectivas, el rechazo a que fue sometido el doctor Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis, descubridor de su modo de transmisión. Finalmente, hace alusión a la validación de sus resultados y conclusiones mediante análisis estadísticos modernos así como a la interpretación filosófica de su modelo de descubrimiento y de inferencia.

  10. Freedom and Rationality : Rousseau on Citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Salvat, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with Rousseau's idea of freedom in terms of rationality and deliberation. It gives support to Berlin's interpretation of the general will as a rational and objective will but dismisses the idea that Rousseau's theory necessarily leads to authoritarianism. The general will, publicly expressed by the law, may be defined as the rational and self-regarding will agents would have if put in an independent and objective state, i.e. the state of nature. The general and the particular...

  11. Towards compassionate care through aesthetic rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Pamela; Freshwater, Dawn

    2014-12-01

    The Francis Report, which was based on the investigation of complaints regarding standards of care in the Staffordshire NHS Trust in the UK, was published in 2013. The Report revealed that while the Trust appeared to be compliant with the standards set by official regulating bodies, the quality of care provided to patients was often appalling. While the Report constituted a 'critical moment' in health care, its findings resonated with widespread concern in the UK and elsewhere that health care is sometimes characterised by a lack of compassion. The Francis Report partially attributed this lack of compassion to a task-based culture which tended to prioritise the meeting of targets over the quality of care provided to patients. Older patients, in particular, were identified as being vulnerable to neglect. This qualitative study of hospice volunteers responds to concerns regarding the quality of organisational forms of care by considering how motivations to care may be sustained and enhanced within organisational contexts. Charitable and third sector organisations, such as the hospice in this study, have been identified as potentially relevant to other health and social care contexts precisely because they emphasise values such as altruism and goodwill. Our sociological approach suggests that altruism or compassion can be encouraged within contexts that emphasise a sociability of care. We argue that a sociability of care may be encouraged in organisational contexts if dominant understandings of rationality are extended through the incorporation of aesthetic rationality, a feminist perspective taken from Roslyn Bologh. This, however, would require a degree of authentic emotional engagement on the part of formal caregivers, which is more typically associated with relationships in the private sphere. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-06-20

    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without

  13. Rational Drug Use of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Sahingoz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: At this study to be aimed to assess status of the knowledge of nurses who working in public and private health institutions in Sivas province use of medication fort he treatment during their illnesses and patients and the attitudes of rational drug application. Matherials and methods: the researc planned to attend 750 nurses but it has been completed with participation of 641 nurses (Reaching rate 85,5%. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. in the study data were collected with a questionaire, percentages stated and chi square test was used for analysis. Results: %95,3 of nurses were females and mean age of them 29.21±4.85 years. The rate of contacting a doktor in case of illness is higher in 39.1% of nurses in the 21-30 age group and 48.6% of nurses working in primary care institutions. The level of self-treating is higher in 45.5 % of nurses working less than a year in profession .In the case of illness, 53% of nurses stated that they had left the medicine when signs of disease over. %98.8 of nurses expressed that they know effects of drugs used and 99.1% of them stated they know the side effects of drugs used. The entire group of postgraduate education status stated that they have not received the drug recommended by others. The level of suggesting a drug to someone else fort he same disease is higher in 65.8% of the group 31 years and older and group working over 40 hours per week. It were determined that used in consultation with the physician 65.2% of nurses antibiotics, 87.5% of them weiht loss drug and 82.7% of them contraceptive . 99.5% of the nurses have expressed that they inform to patients about use of their medications. Among the issues that expressed informations took place the application form of drugs (51.0 %and information of need to consult one if deemed one unexpected effect (59.6% . Also has been identified that of nurses acquired inform about drugs from drug book (vademecum (87.5 % and they

  14. Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-29

    survival in a competitive environment , and a minority of rational individuals can sometimes impose rationality on the whole market. Third, the...intuitive appeal of the axioms of rational choice makes it plausible that the theory derived from these axioms should provide an acceptable account of choice...rn-use U? RATIONAL CHOICE AMD THE FINNING OF KCISIOUS(U mi/ STANFORD UNIV CR A TYERSEY ET AL. 29 NAYN4-S4-K-S61SWICLASS IF lED FO 5/10S IL EEEEEEEE

  15. Rationality in Machiavelli and in Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Chaly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains interpretation and comparative analysis of Machiavelli’s and Kant’s conceptions on rationality as two prime examples of “realist” and “idealist” modes of agency. Kantian model of rationality is viewed as an augmentation of the Machiavellian one, not an opposition to it. To elaborate the point, Robert Aumann’s model of act-rationality and rulerationality is applied to the two philosophical models. Kantian practical reason is interpreted as an addition to Aumann’s instrumental rationality, providing rules for rules, or “rule-rule-rationality”.

  16. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marchev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational pharmacotherapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is based on clinical picture and data of functional and laboratory investigations of concrete patient. In patients with hypotension and moderate-to-severe left ventricle outflow tract obstruction inotropic agents must not to be used because they can worsen the degree of obstruction. In these patients beta blockers can improve hemodynamics by causing resolution of the obstruction. If intraventricular thrombus is detected, anticoagulation for at least 3 months is recommended. The duration of anticoagulant therapy may be modified depending on the extent of cardiac function recovery and thrombus resolution. For patients without thrombus but with severe left ventricular dysfunction, anticoagulation is recommended until the akinesis or dyskinesis has resolved but not more than 3 months.

  17. Max Weber's Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing--practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal. Implications for society and education are discussed. (DB)

  18. Inaugurating Rationalization: Three Field Studies Find Increased Rationalization When Anticipated Realities Become Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    People will often rationalize the status quo, reconstruing it in an exaggeratedly positive light. They will even rationalize the status quo they anticipate, emphasizing the upsides and minimizing the downsides of sociopolitical realities they expect to take effect. Drawing on recent findings on the psychological triggers of rationalization, I present results from three field studies, one of which was preregistered, testing the hypothesis that an anticipated reality becoming current triggers an observable boost in people's rationalizations. San Franciscans rationalized a ban on plastic water bottles, Ontarians rationalized a targeted smoking ban, and Americans rationalized the presidency of Donald Trump, more in the days immediately after these realities became current compared with the days immediately before. Additional findings show evidence for a mechanism underlying these behaviors and rule out alternative accounts. These findings carry implications for scholarship on rationalization, for understanding protest behavior, and for policymakers.

  19. Procedural Rationality in the Decision-Making of Internationalizing SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Linda; Elbanna, Said; Narooz, Rose

    This paper contributes to the growing body of empirical work on how SME decision-makers decide to internationalize in two ways: first, it responds to recent calls for incorporating strategic decision-making literature into understanding SME internationalization decisions. Second, it provides a be...... a more rational decision-making procedure when they perceive a high level of international risk. The evidence also suggest that internationalization performance, planned internationalization, credit check, and decision team size are positively related to procedural rationality....... a better understanding of under what circumstances, SME decision-makers tend to follow a more rational approach toward internationalization decisions. Specifically, this paper examines a set of contextual variables (the level of perceived international risk, internationalization performance, planned versus...... ad hoc internationalization, credit check, distribution adaptation, and decision team size) and their influence on the extent of procedural rationality in SME internationalization decision-making process. The findings from a sample of 176 export-active SMEs show that decision-makers tend to follow...

  20. Rationalization of work of leaders of physical-sports organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Putiatina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to create the main ways of rationalization of the work of heads of physical-sports organizations in the structure of their scientific organization of the work. Material & Methods: the content of the administrative activity of representatives of the system of the regional government of the sphere of physical culture and sport of the Kharkov area, and also directors of sports schools of Kharkov (57 respondents are generalized. Methods – the analysis of references, the organizational analysis, the organizational diagnosis, the poll (questioning, the methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the essence and the content of rationalization of the administrative work in the sphere of physical culture and sport are considered. The integrated approach to certain objects of rationalization of the administrative work is established in physical-sports organizations. Conclusions: the main ways of rationalization of the work of heads of physical-sports organizations are: the organization of work concerning the development of motivational mechanisms of the activity of heads; the increase of the economic appeal of work; the formation of ideology of a healthy lifestyle.

  1. Is It Rational to Assume that Infants Imitate Rationally? A Theoretical Analysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that preverbal infants evaluate the efficiency of others' actions (by applying a "principle of rational action") and that they imitate others' actions rationally. The present contribution presents a conceptual analysis of the claim that preverbal infants imitate rationally. It shows that this ability rests on at least three…

  2. Cheating, Emotions, and Rationality: An Experiment on Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Coricelli; Mateus Joffily; Claude Montmarquette; Marie Claire Villeval

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The economics-of-crime approach usually ignores the emotional cost and benefit of cheating. In this paper, we investigate the relationships between emotions, deception, and rational decision-making by means of an experiment on tax evasion. Emotions are measured by skin conductance responses and self-reports. We show that the intensity of anticipated and anticipatory emotions before reporting positively correlates with both the decision to cheat and the proportion of ev...

  3. Rational expectations, risk and efficiency in energy futures markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1991-04-01

    Conditional on the hypothesis that energy futures markets are efficient or rational, this paper uses Fama's regression approach to measure the information in energy futures prices about future spot prices and time varying premiums. The paper finds that the premium and expected future spot price components of energy futures prices are negatively correlated and that most of the variation in futures prices is variation in expected premiums. (author).

  4. Toward a rational understanding of migraine trigger factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, V T; Behbehani, M M

    2001-07-01

    The typical migraine patient is exposed to a myriad of migraine triggers on a daily basis. These triggers potentially can act at various sites within the cerebral vasculature and the central nervous system to promote the development of migraine headache. The challenge to the physician is in the identification and avoidance of migraine trigger factors within patients suffering from migraine headache. Only through a rational approach to migraine trigger factors can physicians develop an appropriate treatment strategy for migraine patients.

  5. [Rational bases for cooperation between epidemiologists and mathematicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorova, L A; Shatrov, I I

    1977-10-01

    The authors consider rational foundations underlying creatin of realistic models. The principal condition for the successful mathematical modelling is obtaining of the most full value primary materials on the course of the epidemic process. For this purpose the authors suggest definite principles of the methodical approach to the mathematical modelling. Possibilities of the use of mathematical methods for various groups of infections are consideder. Particular attention is paid to the works on the study of the infection risk in "small" collective bodies.

  6. THE ASPECTS OF PROVISION OF SOCIAL SERVICES CONSIDERING THE SOCIAL EXCLUSION DIMENSIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Cizikiene

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the aspects of provision of social services, reducing social exclusion, in the view of rational choice theory. This approach was selected due to the fact that provision of social services often leads to discussions explaining the appropriate and rational choice of assistance for the socially excluded members of society. The authors discuss the key aspects of provision of social services, considering the dimensions and factors of social exclusion in the context of rational choice theory.

  7. Rationing in health systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keliddar, Iman; Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad; Jafari-Sirizi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is difficult to provide health care services to all those in need of such services due to limited resources and unlimited demands. Thus, priority setting and rationing have to be applied. This study aimed at critically examining the concept of rationing in health sector and identifying its purposes, influencing factors, mechanisms, and outcomes. Methods: The critical interpretive synthesis methodology was used in this study. PubMed, Cochrane, and Proquest databases were searched using the related key words to find related documents published between 1970 and 2015. In total, 161 published reports were reviewed and included in the study. Thematic content analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: Health services rationing means restricting the access of some people to useful or potentially useful health services due to budgetary limitation. The inherent features of the health market and health services, limited resources, and unlimited needs necessitate health services rationing. Rationing can be applied in 4 levels: health care policy- makers, health care managers, health care providers, and patients. Health care rationing can be accomplished through fixed budget, benefit package, payment mechanisms, queuing, copayments, and deductibles. Conclusion: This paper enriched our understanding of health services rationing and its mechanisms at various levels and contributed to the literature by broadly conceptualizing health services rationing.

  8. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

    1980-11-01

    Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

  9. Neurophysiology and Rationality in Political Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven A.

    Research both in cognitive psychology and psychobiology suggests that political behavior is often less rational than individuals believe it to be. Information processing, memory, and decision making are interlinked processes. Studies in cognitive psychology reveal that even though decision making requires rationality, individuals often adopt…

  10. Privacy-Enhancing Auctions Using Rational Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Triandopoulos, Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    show how to use rational cryptography to approximately implement any given ex interim individually strictly rational equilibrium of such an auction without a trusted mediator through a cryptographic protocol that uses only point-to-point authenticated channels between the players. By “ex interim...

  11. The Role of Rationality in University Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    1983-01-01

    Although empirical accounts of organizational decision making often show that the process is not a rational one, a study of budgeting at Stanford University during the 1970s, while not conclusive or comprehensive, supported the claim that the institution's process was rational and provided a procedure for testing a decision-making model. (MSE)

  12. Should Teachers Be Taught to Be Rational?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floden, Robert E.; Feiman, Sharon

    1981-01-01

    Teacher education programs have long attempted to teach students to follow a rational mode of thinking. Recent research on teacher thinking has shown that a gap exists between how teachers think and the rational model. Such research should be used to give teacher educators insight into how their students think and learn. (JN)

  13. RATIONAL APPROXIMATIONS TO GENERALIZED HYPERGEOMETRIC FUNCTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under weak restrictions on the various free parameters, general theorems for rational representations of the generalized hypergeometric functions...and certain Meijer G-functions are developed. Upon specialization, these theorems yield a sequency of rational approximations which converge to the

  14. The rational maps Fλ(z)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is proved that the rational maps in the family {z → zm +λ/zd : λ ∈ C\\{0}} for integers m, d ≥ 2 ... The problem of the existence of Herman rings of a rational map has been studied by. Lyubich in [9] ..... Surveys 41(4) (1986) 35–95. [10] Milnor J ...

  15. Decision Making: Rational, Nonrational, and Irrational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the current state of knowledge about human decision-making and problem-solving processes, explaining recent developments and their implications for management and management training. Rational goal-setting is the key to effective decision making and accomplishment. Bounded rationality is a realistic orientation, because the world is too…

  16. Simple market equilibria with rationally inattentive consumers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip; McKay, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 3 (2012), s. 24-29 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational choice theory * bounded rationality * consumer research Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2012

  17. The Emotional and Moral Basis of Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boostrom, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis of rationality, arguing that critical thinking tends to be taught in schools as a set of skills because of the failure to recognize that choosing to think critically depends on the prior development of stable sentiments or moral habits that nourish a rational self. Primary among these stable sentiments are the…

  18. Argumentation, rationality, and psychology of reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Godden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explicates an account of argumentative rationality by articulating the common, basic idea of its nature, and then identifying a collection of assumptions inherent in it. Argumentative rationality is then contrasted with dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality prevalent in the psychology of reasoning. It is argued that argumentative rationality properly corresponds only with system-2 reasoning in dual-process theories. This result challenges the prescriptive force of argumentative norms derives if they derive at all from their descriptive accuracy of our cognitive capacities. In response, I propose an activity-based account of reasoning which retains the assumptions of argumentative rationality while recontextualizing the relationship between reasoning as a justificatory activity and the psychological states and processes underlying that activity.

  19. Casebook on rationalization of power use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This book introduces the cases on rationalization of power use, which is divided into four parts. The first part refers the goal of rational use of energy and the result. The second part deals with the excellent cases on rationalization of domestic power use, which list the name of the company, hotel and factory according to the field such as building, textile and food. The third part contains the outstanding cases on rationalization of foreign power use, which were listed by the specific way to reduce electricity use each section. The fourth part is comprised of two chapters, which deals with the cases of domestic technical data and foreign technical data for rational use of energy.

  20. Generalized NLS hierarchies from rational W algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, F.

    1993-11-01

    Finite rational W algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. The problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations is studied by showing how to associate to a rational W algebra its corresponding hierarchy. Two examples are worked out, the sl(2)/U(1) coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schroedinger hierarchy, and the U(1) coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky W algebra, leading to a 3-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies. (author). 19 refs

  1. Ethics of rationing of nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2016-09-21

    Rationing of various needed services, for example, nursing care, is inevitable due to unlimited needs and limited resources. Rationing of nursing care is considered an ethical issue since it requires judgment about potential conflicts between personal and professional values. The present research sought to explore aspects of rationing nursing care in Iran. This study applied qualitative content analysis, a method to explore people's perceptions of everyday life phenomena and interpret the subjective content of text data. Data collection was performed through in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews with open-ended questions. The study population included Iranian nurses of all nursing positions, from clinical nurses to nurse managers. Purposive sampling was employed to select 15 female and 3 male nurses (11 clinical nurses, 3 supervisors, 1 matron, 1 nurse, and 2 members of the Nursing Council) working in hospitals of three cities in Iran. The study protocol was approved by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (91D1302870). Written informed consent was also obtained from all participants. According to the participants, rationing of nursing care consisted of two categories, that is, causes of rationing and consequences of rationing. The first category comprised three subcategories, namely, patient needs and demands, routinism, and VIP patients. The three subcategories forming the second category were missed nursing care, patient dissatisfaction, and nurses' feeling of guilt. Levels at which healthcare practices are rationed and clarity of the rationing are important structural considerations in the development of an equal, appropriate, and ethical healthcare system. Moreover, the procedure of rationing is critical as it not only influences people's lives but also reflects the values that dominate in the society. Therefore, in order to minimize the negative consequences of rationing of nursing care, further studies on the ethical dimensions of this phenomenon

  2. Rationality, institutions and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.

  3. Rationality and irrationality in understanding human behaviour. An evaluation of the methodological consequences of conceptualising irrationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Toth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most known and fertile models for understanding human behaviour are those which rest on the assumption of human rationality. These models have specific strategies for dealing with situations in which understanding human behaviour becomes difficult, i.e. cases of irrationality, and this, in turn, leads to particular methodological consequences. The aim of this article is to illustrate and systematize some of the typical theoretical approaches to the issues of rationality and irrationality and their methodological consequences, while warning, at the same time, against the risks of applying rationality models of a pronounced normative-evaluative nature. A number of important methodological consequences of applying the principle of charity to various degrees of strength are analysed and a taxonomic grid for the different ways of approaching rationality is presented.

  4. Las 'fiebres del Magdalena': medicina y sociedad en la construcción de una noción médica colombiana, 1859-1886 'Magdalena fevers': medicine and society in the construction of a Colombian medical notion, 1859-1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mónica García

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Explora los fundamentos teóricos, sociales e ideológicos del surgimiento y consolidación de la noción médica colombiana 'fiebres del Magdalena'. Muestra cómo el naciente cuerpo médico colombiano elaboró unas nociones peculiares sobre las fiebres articulando las teorías médicas europeas con la valoración negativa sobre el clima cálido. Explica la forma en que las políticas librecambistas de mediados de siglo así como el impacto económico e ideológico del boom agro exportador del tabaco y el añil determinaron el interés de los médicos por las epidemias ocurridas en los centros productores de estos bienes y, por tanto, el surgimiento de la noción 'fiebres del Magdalena'. Muestra cómo los médicos establecieron una asociación causal entre el proceso productivo de dichos artículos y las fiebres.In this article, I explore the theoretical, social and ideological bases of the emergence and consolidation of the Colombian medical notion of the 'Magdalena fevers'. Firstly I show how, in the late 1850s, the emerging Colombian body of medical doctors elaborated peculiar notions on fevers by articulating the European medical theories (i.e. the miasmatic theory and the climatic determination of diseases with the negative valuation of the hot climate. Secondly, I explain how free trade policies in the mid-1800s, and the economic and ideological impacts of the agricultural export of tobacco and indigo determined doctors' interest in the epidemics occurring in the production centers and also, therefore, the emergence of the notion of 'Magdalena fevers'. I also show how doctors established a causal association between the productive process of those goods and the fevers.

  5. The Rationality of a Social Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PĂUN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different social sciences study human beings. Economics is one of them and it is focused on a specific field of human action and social cooperation. The entire human collaboration is based on significant moral and ethical standards. If we want to understand how people are involved in economic (and other social relationships, we need to understand the human nature. There are many scientists that consider human beings to be closed to animals, often being dominated by impulses and feelings difficult to be controlled. An inter-disciplinary science has been developed – behavioral economics that provide an interpretation to human action from this perspective. The idea to consider human beings closer to animals (social or not is an argument to introduce a third party (the state that should regulate and control the human actions do not become aggressive or disruptive. The state is viewed as panacea to these imperfections associated to the human way of acting and cooperating. Crisis is considered to be determined or enforced by such imperfections. This paper discusses the idea of rationality in human action and argues against this common approach about its nature.

  6. Boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrend, Roger E.; Pearce, Paul A.; Petkova, Valentina B.; Zuber, Jean-Bernard

    2000-01-01

    We develop further the theory of Rational Conformal Field Theories (RCFTs) on a cylinder with specified boundary conditions emphasizing the role of a triplet of algebras: the Verlinde, graph fusion and Pasquier algebras. We show that solving Cardy's equation, expressing consistency of a RCFT on a cylinder, is equivalent to finding integer valued matrix representations of the Verlinde algebra. These matrices allow us to naturally associate a graph G to each RCFT such that the conformal boundary conditions are labelled by the nodes of G. This approach is carried to completion for sl(2) theories leading to complete sets of conformal boundary conditions, their associated cylinder partition functions and the A-D-E classification. We also review the current status for WZW sl(3) theories. Finally, a systematic generalisation of the formalism of Cardy-Lewellen is developed to allow for multiplicities arising from more general representations of the Verlinde algebra. We obtain information on the bulk-boundary coefficients and reproduce the relevant algebraic structures from the sewing constraints

  7. Rational optimization of reliability and safety policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchers, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Optimization of structures for design has a long history, including optimization using numerical methods and optimality criteria. Much of this work has considered a subset of the complete design optimization problem--that of the technical issues alone. The more general problem must consider also non-technical issues and, importantly, the interplay between them and the parameters which influence them. Optimization involves optimal setting of design or acceptance criteria and, separately, optimal design within the criteria. In the modern context of probability based design codes this requires probabilistic acceptance criteria. The determination of such criteria involves more than the nominal code failure probability approach used for design code formulation. A more general view must be taken and a clear distinction must be made between those matters covered by technical reliability and non-technical reliability. The present paper considers this issue and outlines a framework for rational optimization of structural and other systems given the socio-economic and political systems within which optimization must be performed

  8. Rational emotive behavior therapy: applications for working with parents and teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Terjesen,Mark D.; Kurasaki,Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Given the high rates of reported emotional stress among parents and teachers, the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy approach appears to be a useful strategy to promote more effective parent and teacher emotional functioning and increase child positive behaviors and learning. The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy model may be helpful for clinicians who work with the parents and the family by identifying and subsequently changing their unhealthy ideas, enhancing emotional functioning, and incre...

  9. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in a Nutshell. 2nd edition

    OpenAIRE

    Neenan, Michael; Dryden, Windy

    2011-01-01

    Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in a Nutshell provides a concise overview of a popular therapeutic approach, starting with the ABCDE Model of Emotional Disturbance and Change.\\ud \\ud Written by leading REBT specialists, Michael Neenan and Windy Dryden, the book goes on to explain the core of the therapeutic process:\\ud \\ud - Assessment\\ud \\ud - Disputing\\ud \\ud - Homework\\ud \\ud - Working through\\ud \\ud - Promoting self-change.\\ud \\ud As an introduction to the basics of the approach, this ...

  10. Social choice for one: On the rationality of intertemporal decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieri, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    When faced with an intertemporal choice between a smaller short-term reward and a larger long-term prize, is opting for the latter always indicative of delay tolerance? And is delay tolerance always to be regarded as a manifestation of self-control, and thus as a rational solution to intertemporal dilemmas? I argue in favor of a negative answer to both questions, based on evidence collected in the delay discounting literature. This highlights the need for a nuanced understanding of rationality in intertemporal choice, to capture also situations in which waiting is not the optimal strategy. This paper suggests that such an understanding is fostered by adopting social choice theory as a promising framework to model intertemporal decision making. Some preliminary results of this approach are discussed, and its potential is compared with a much more studied formal model for intertemporal choice, i.e. game theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rationally reduced libraries for combinatorial pathway optimization minimizing experimental effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschek, Markus; Gerngross, Daniel; Panke, Sven

    2016-03-31

    Rational flux design in metabolic engineering approaches remains difficult since important pathway information is frequently not available. Therefore empirical methods are applied that randomly change absolute and relative pathway enzyme levels and subsequently screen for variants with improved performance. However, screening is often limited on the analytical side, generating a strong incentive to construct small but smart libraries. Here we introduce RedLibs (Reduced Libraries), an algorithm that allows for the rational design of smart combinatorial libraries for pathway optimization thereby minimizing the use of experimental resources. We demonstrate the utility of RedLibs for the design of ribosome-binding site libraries by in silico and in vivo screening with fluorescent proteins and perform a simple two-step optimization of the product selectivity in the branched multistep pathway for violacein biosynthesis, indicating a general applicability for the algorithm and the proposed heuristics. We expect that RedLibs will substantially simplify the refactoring of synthetic metabolic pathways.

  12. Rational Design of an Ultrasensitive Quorum-Sensing Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weiqian; Du, Pei; Lou, Qiuli; Wu, Lili; Zhang, Haoqian M; Lou, Chunbo; Wang, Hongli; Ouyang, Qi

    2017-08-18

    One of the purposes of synthetic biology is to develop rational methods that accelerate the design of genetic circuits, saving time and effort spent on experiments and providing reliably predictable circuit performance. We applied a reverse engineering approach to design an ultrasensitive transcriptional quorum-sensing switch. We want to explore how systems biology can guide synthetic biology in the choice of specific DNA sequences and their regulatory relations to achieve a targeted function. The workflow comprises network enumeration that achieves the target function robustly, experimental restriction of the obtained candidate networks, global parameter optimization via mathematical analysis, selection and engineering of parts based on these calculations, and finally, circuit construction based on the principles of standardization and modularization. The performance of realized quorum-sensing switches was in good qualitative agreement with the computational predictions. This study provides practical principles for the rational design of genetic circuits with targeted functions.

  13. Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.

  14. Towards a Characterization of Rational Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Arieli

    2008-01-01

    R. J. Aumann and J. H. Drèze (2008) define a rational expectation of a player i in a game G as the expected payo of some type of i in some belief system for G in which common knowledge of rationality and common priors obtain. Our goal is to characterize the set of rational expectations in terms of the game's payoff matrix. We provide such a characterization for a specific class of strategic games, called semi-elementary, which includes Myerson's "elementary" games.

  15. Rational Verification in Iterated Electric Boolean Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssouf Oualhadj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric boolean games are compact representations of games where the players have qualitative objectives described by LTL formulae and have limited resources. We study the complexity of several decision problems related to the analysis of rationality in electric boolean games with LTL objectives. In particular, we report that the problem of deciding whether a profile is a Nash equilibrium in an iterated electric boolean game is no harder than in iterated boolean games without resource bounds. We show that it is a PSPACE-complete problem. As a corollary, we obtain that both rational elimination and rational construction of Nash equilibria by a supervising authority are PSPACE-complete problems.

  16. Positroids Induced by Rational Dyck Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Gotti, Felix

    2017-01-01

    A rational Dyck path of type $(m,d)$ is an increasing unit-step lattice path from $(0,0)$ to $(m,d) \\in \\mathbb{Z}^2$ that never goes above the diagonal line $y = (d/m)x$. On the other hand, a positroid of rank $d$ on the ground set $[d+m]$ is a special type of matroid coming from the totally nonnegative Grassmannian. In this paper we describe how to naturally assign a rank $d$ positroid on the ground set $[d+m]$, which we name rational Dyck positroid, to each rational Dyck path of type $(m,d...

  17. Aspectos críticos do controle da febre amarela no Brasil Aspectos críticos del control de la fiebre amarilla en Brasil Critical aspects of yellow fever control in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Tauil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados aspectos epidemiológicos e do controle da febre amarela no Brasil, considerando os ciclos de transmissão silvestre e urbano. Sem registros de transmissão no Brasil desde 1942, houve casos de febre amarela urbana em 2008 no Paraguai, depois de mais de 50 anos sem essa ocorrência nas Américas. A redução do número dos casos silvestres e a manutenção da eliminação dos casos urbanos são os dois principais objetivos do controle da febre amarela no Brasil. Embora haja consenso quanto às medidas que devem ser tomadas nas áreas endêmicas para a forma silvestre, isso não ocorre em relação às áreas infestadas pelo Aedes aegypti. São discutidos argumentos favoráveis e contrários à expansão da área de vacinação. Há necessidade de estudos ambientais e entomológicos para o reconhecimento de áreas receptivas para transmissão silvestre, mesmo que estejam silentes há muitos anos.Se presentan aspectos epidemiológicos y del control de la fiebre amarilla en Brasil, considerando los ciclos de transmisión silvestre y urbana. Sin registros de transmisión en Brasil desde 1942, hubo casos de fiebre amarilla urbana en 2008 en Paraguay, después de más de 50 años sin ocurrir en las Américas. La reducción del número de casos silvestre y el mantenimiento de la eliminación de los casos urbanos son los dos principales objetivos del control de la fiebre amarilla en Brasil. A pesar de que exista consenso con respecto a las medidas que deben ser tomadas en las áreas endémicas para la forma silvestre, esto no ocurre con relación a las áreas infestadas por el Aedes aegypti. Son discutidos argumentos favorables y contrarios a la expansión del área de vacunación. Hay necesidad de estudios ambientales y entomológicos para el reconocimiento de áreas receptivas para transmisión silvestre, aunque se encuentren silentes desde hace muchos años.This paper presents epidemiological and control characteristics of yellow

  18. The effectiveness of rational emotive therapy on achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of rational emotive therapy on achievement motivation of students. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on Students Achievement Motivation.

  19. Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.

  20. Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jun; Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches

  1. Towards a classification of rational Hopf algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.; Ganchev, A.; Vecsernyes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Rational Hopf algebras, i.e. certain quasitriangular weak quasi-Hopf *-algebras, are expected to describe the quantum symmetry of rational field theories. In this paper methods are developed which allow for a classification of all rational Hopf algebras that are compatible with some prescribed set of fusion rules. The algebras are parametrized by the solutions of the square, pentagon and hexagon identities. As examples, we classify all solutions for fusion rules with not more than three sectors, as well as for the level three affine A 1 (1) fusion rules. We also establish several general properties of rational Hopf algebras and present a graphical description of the coassociator in terms of labelled tetrahedra. The latter construction allows to make contact with conformal field theory fusing matrices and with invariants of three-manifolds and topological lattice field theory. (orig.)

  2. Principles of Economic Rationality in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalan, Marion; Winter, York; Nachev, Vladislav

    2017-12-12

    Humans and non-human animals frequently violate principles of economic rationality, such as transitivity, independence of irrelevant alternatives, and regularity. The conditions that lead to these violations are not completely understood. Here we report a study on mice tested in automated home-cage setups using rewards of drinking water. Rewards differed in one of two dimensions, volume or probability. Our results suggest that mouse choice conforms to the principles of economic rationality for options that differ along a single reward dimension. A psychometric analysis of mouse choices further revealed that mice responded more strongly to differences in probability than to differences in volume, despite equivalence in return rates. This study also demonstrates the synergistic effect between the principles of economic rationality and psychophysics in making quantitative predictions about choices of healthy laboratory mice. This opens up new possibilities for the analyses of multi-dimensional choice and the use of mice with cognitive impairments that may violate economic rationality.

  3. Pandemic ventilator rationing and appeals processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Daniel; Resnik, David

    2011-06-01

    In a severe influenza pandemic, hospitals will likely experience serious and widespread shortages of patient pulmonary ventilators and of staff qualified to operate them. Deciding who will receive access to mechanical ventilation will often determine who lives and who dies. This prospect raises an important question whether pandemic preparedness plans should include some process by which individuals affected by ventilator rationing would have the opportunity to appeal adverse decisions. However, the issue of appeals processes to ventilator rationing decisions has been largely neglected in state pandemic planning efforts. If we are to devise just and effective plans for coping with a severe influenza pandemic, more attention to the issue of appeals processes for pandemic ventilator rationing decisions is needed. Arguments for and against appeals processes are considered, and some suggestions are offered to help efforts at devising more rational pandemic preparedness plans.

  4. Rationally inattentive seller: sales and discrete pricing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2016), s. 1125-1155 ISSN 0034-6527 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sticky prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  5. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  6. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  7. Modificación de conocimientos sobre fiebre tifoidea en jóvenes en la comuna Morón, Haití Changes in knowledge of typhoid fever in young people: Commune of Moron, Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Dolores Gorte Quiñones

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La fiebre tifoidea es una enfermedad de alta incidencia en Haití. Se realizó un estudio del tipo de intervención educativa en la Comuna de Morón, Departamento de la Grand´Anse, República de Haití durante el período de enero a noviembre del 2006, con el objetivo de modificar y ampliar los conocimientos que poseen las personas de esta comunidad en relación con la fiebre tifoidea. De un universo de 523 jóvenes entre 15 y 35 años de edad se utilizó una muestra de 50 jóvenes mediante muestreo simple aleatorio, lo que representó el 9.56 por ciento del total. Para la obtención del dato primario, se aplicó un cuestionario antes y después del programa educativo, en el que se recogieron aspectos referentes al conocimiento teórico. El procesamiento estadístico utilizó el análisis de variables cualitativas, utilizando como medida de resumen la frecuencia relativa porcentual. Predominó el grupo de 20-25 años, así como el nivel secundario de escolaridad. Al finalizar el estudio la totalidad de los jóvenes reconoció la importancia de la asistencia al área de salud ante la presencia de síntomas de la enfermedad y demostraron conocimientos generales satisfactorios con respecto al tema. Se demuestra la eficacia de la intervención educativa.Typhoid fever is a high-incidence disease in Haiti. An educative intervention study was conducted in the Commune of Moron, de la Grand´Anse Department, Haiti Republic during January to November 2006 with the purpose of modifying and extending the knowledge of Typhoid Fever people of this community possessed. The universe included 523 young people (15-35 years old; 50 young people were taken as a simple random sample; which represented the 9, 56% of the total. To record the primary data, a questionnaire was applied before and after the educative program, where aspects of the theoretical knowledge were collected. The statistical process was carried out analyzing qualitative variables, using as a

  8. Analytic aspects of rational conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiritsis, E.B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    The problem of deriving linear differential equations for correlation functions of Rational Conformal Field Theories is considered. Techniques from the theory of fuchsian differential equations are used to show that knowledge of the central charge, dimensions of primary fields and fusion rules are enough to fix the differential equations for one- and two-point functions on the tours. Any other correlation function can be calculated along similar lines. The results settle the issue of 'exact solution' of rational conformal field theories. (orig.)

  9. Rational emotive behaviour therapy: distinctive features

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2008-01-01

    Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) encourages the client to focus on their emotional problems in order to understand, challenge and change the irrational beliefs that underpin these problems. REBT can help clients to strengthen conviction in their alternative rational beliefs by acting in ways that are consistent with them and thus encourage a healthier outlook.\\ud \\ud This accessible and direct guide introduces the reader to REBT while indicating how it is different from other approac...

  10. Heterogeneity, Bounded Rationality and Market Dysfunctionality

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-Zhong He; Lei Shi

    2008-01-01

    As the main building blocks of the modern finance theory, homogeneity and rational expectation have faced difficulty in explaining many market anomalies, stylized factors, and market inefficiency in empirical studies. As a result, heterogeneity and bounded rationality have been used as an alterative paradigm of asset price dynamics and this paradigm has been widely recognized recently in both academic and financial market practitioners. Within the framework of Chiarella, Dieci and He (2006a, ...

  11. Rationally Addicted to Drinking and Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bask, Mikael; Melkersson, Maria

    2001-01-01

    When modeling demand for addictive consumption goods, the most widely used framework is the rational addiction model proposed by Becker and Murphy (1988). In the present paper, we extend the rational addiction model to include two addictive consumption goods, alcohol and cigarettes. We estimate the aggregate demand for alcohol and cigarettes in Sweden, using aggregate annual time series on sales volumes for the period 1955-1999. OLS estimates are compared to GMM estimates allowing for possibl...

  12. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in re...

  13. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  14. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)

  15. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Tur

    Full Text Available The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  16. Intergroup Conflict and Rational Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A.; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict –associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)– has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making. PMID:25461384

  17. Effective Entrepreneurial Choice: The Role of Rationality and Non-Rationality in Three Entrepreneurs Success Stories

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Anne Michele, Siang Yoon

    2007-01-01

    Good entrepreneurship is important for economic growth and productivity in any modern economy. The purpose of this dissertation is to research how good entrepreneurial decisions are made. In theory, optimal or rational decision making means choosing the best alternative in response to the problem. However, in reality, people do not act rationally because they often cannot make rational choices. The reason is that people do not have enough brain power, time or resources to process the compl...

  18. Lying for Strategic Advantage: Rational and Boundedly Rational Misrepresentation of Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Vincent P.

    2001-01-01

    Starting from Hendricks and McAfee's (2000) example of the Allies' decision to feint at Calais and attack at Normandy on D-Day, this paper models misrepresentation of intentions to competitors or enemies. Allowing for the possibility of bounded strategic rationality and rational players' responses to it yields a sensible account of lying via costless, noiseless messages. In many cases the model has generically unique pure-strategy sequential equilibria, in which rational players exploit bound...

  19. Rationality and institutions : an inquiry into the normative implications of rational choice theory

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, Bart

    2007-01-01

    I aim to analyze in this dissertation what a desirable basic institutional structure looks like from the perspective of rationality. While the main topic is thus normative in nature, I start by clarifying in the first part what the notion of rationality exactly entails. I do so by focusing explicitly on the economic conception of rationality, according to which a rational individual is motivated to serve his self-interest on the basis of cost-benefit calculations. Such a Homo Economicus is ch...

  20. El veneno y el mosquito: aspectos epistemológicos de la etiología y la profilaxis de la fiebre amarilla Poison and the mosquito: epistemological aspects of the etiology and prophylactics of yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Caponi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available En el II Congreso Médico Latinoamericano (Buenos Aires, 1904 se discutieron las estrategias que Argentina y Brasil delinearon para combatir la fiebre amarilla. El análisis de la controversia entre sanitaristas brasileños y argentinos en torno a los modelos explicativos y a las estrategias de profilaxis internacional de esa enfermedad, nos permite una comprensión epistemológica de la ruptura operada por la emergencia de la medicina de los vectores. Este capítulo de la historia de la medicina latinoamericana constituye una oportunidad privilegiada para analizar esa reorganización del saber que permitió integrar seres intermediarios vivos en el discurso médico y epidemiológico.The strategies against yellow fever developed by Argentina and Brazil were discussed at the Second Medical Congress of Latin America which was held in Buenos Aires in 1904. The study of the controversy between physicians from Argentina and Brazil around the existing explanatory models of this illness and the international prophylactic strategies in use at the time enables an epistemological understanding of the breakthrough brought about by the emergence of the medicine of vectors. This chapter of Latin American medicine history constitutes a unique opportunity to analyze that reorganization of knowledge, which permitted the inclusion of intermediary living beings into the medical and epidemiological discourse.

  1. Estudio cualicuantitativo de las variables sociales que definen escenarios de transmisión de la fiebre hemorrágica argentina en las provincias de Buenos Aires y Santa Fe, 2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mastrangelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es caracterizar los escenarios de transmisión de fiebre hemorrágica argentina (FHA en el período de vacunación (2001-2010. El estudio constó de tres etapas. En la primera, se realizó un análisis cuantitativo de la base de datos del Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas “Dr. Julio I. Maiztegui” (INEVH de casos de FHA confirmados en el período (221 casos que, sobre la base del lugar de transmisión y la zona endémica conocida, se agruparon según tres hipótesis de escenario: clásico, emergente-reemergente, y viajero. En la segunda etapa, para poner a prueba las hipótesis, se realizaron entrevistas en campo, entre agosto y octubre de 2011, a una muestra de selección intencional de pacientes distribuida proporcionalmente entre las tres hipótesis. Finalmente, en una tercera etapa, los datos generados para cada hipó - tesis de escenario se agruparon en tres escalas espacio-temporales: microescala (sujeto, mesoescala (localidad y macroescala (región. Los resultados muestran que los nuevos lugares de transmisión estarían asociados a las dinámicas socioproductivas del cereal y las rutas al puerto.

  2. Rationing in the emergency department: the good, the bad, and the unacceptable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, E; Goodacre, S; O'Cathain, A; Arnold, J

    2005-03-01

    Waiting times in emergency departments (EDs) are an important government priority. Although substantial efforts are currently being made to reduce waiting times, little attention has been paid to the patients' view. We used qualitative methods to explore patients' perspectives on waiting times and other approaches to rationing and prioritisation. Face to face, in depth, qualitative interviews (n = 11) explored how patients valued waiting times for non-urgent ED care. The framework approach (identifying a thematic framework through repeated re-reading) was used to analyse transcripts. Interviewees found some forms of rationing and prioritisation acceptable. They expected rationing by delay, but required explanations or information on the reason for their wait. They valued prioritisation by triage (rationing by selection) and thought that this role could be expanded for the re-direction of non-urgent patients elsewhere (rationing by deflection). Interviewees were mainly unwilling or unable to engage in prioritisation of different types of patients, openly prioritising only those with obvious clinical need, and children. However, some interviewees were willing to ration implicitly, labelling some attenders as inappropriate, such as those causing a nuisance. Others felt it was unacceptable to blame "inappropriate" attenders, as their attendance may relate to lack of information or awareness of service use. Explicit rationing between services was not acceptable, although some believed there were more important priorities for NHS resources than ED waiting times. Interviewees disagreed with the hypothetical notion of paying to be seen more quickly in the ED (rationing by charging). Interviewees expected to wait and accepted the need for prioritisation, although they were reluctant to engage in judgements regarding prioritisation. They supported the re-direction of patients with certain non-urgent complaints. However, they perceived a need for more explanation and

  3. Rational adaptation under task and processing constraints: implications for testing theories of cognition and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Andrew; Lewis, Richard L; Vera, Alonso

    2009-10-01

    The authors assume that individuals adapt rationally to a utility function given constraints imposed by their cognitive architecture and the local task environment. This assumption underlies a new approach to modeling and understanding cognition-cognitively bounded rational analysis-that sharpens the predictive acuity of general, integrated theories of cognition and action. Such theories provide the necessary computational means to explain the flexible nature of human behavior but in doing so introduce extreme degrees of freedom in accounting for data. The new approach narrows the space of predicted behaviors through analysis of the payoff achieved by alternative strategies, rather than through fitting strategies and theoretical parameters to data. It extends and complements established approaches, including computational cognitive architectures, rational analysis, optimal motor control, bounded rationality, and signal detection theory. The authors illustrate the approach with a reanalysis of an existing account of psychological refractory period (PRP) dual-task performance and the development and analysis of a new theory of ordered dual-task responses. These analyses yield several novel results, including a new understanding of the role of strategic variation in existing accounts of PRP and the first predictive, quantitative account showing how the details of ordered dual-task phenomena emerge from the rational control of a cognitive system subject to the combined constraints of internal variance, motor interference, and a response selection bottleneck.

  4. Hypothesis Testing as an Act of Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Grey

    2017-04-01

    Statistical hypothesis testing is ad hoc in two ways. First, setting probabilistic rejection criteria is, as Neyman (1957) put it, an act of will rather than an act of rationality. Second, physical theories like conservation laws do not inherently admit probabilistic predictions, and so we must use what are called epistemic bridge principles to connect model predictions with the actual methods of hypothesis testing. In practice, these bridge principles are likelihood functions, error functions, or performance metrics. I propose that the reason we are faced with these problems is because we have historically failed to account for a fundamental component of basic logic - namely the portion of logic that explains how epistemic states evolve in the presence of empirical data. This component of Cox' (1946) calculitic logic is called information theory (Knuth, 2005), and adding information theory our hypothetico-deductive account of science yields straightforward solutions to both of the above problems. This also yields a straightforward method for dealing with Popper's (1963) problem of verisimilitude by facilitating a quantitative approach to measuring process isomorphism. In practice, this involves data assimilation. Finally, information theory allows us to reliably bound measures of epistemic uncertainty, thereby avoiding the problem of Bayesian incoherency under misspecified priors (Grünwald, 2006). I therefore propose solutions to four of the fundamental problems inherent in both hypothetico-deductive and/or Bayesian hypothesis testing. - Neyman (1957) Inductive Behavior as a Basic Concept of Philosophy of Science. - Cox (1946) Probability, Frequency and Reasonable Expectation. - Knuth (2005) Lattice Duality: The Origin of Probability and Entropy. - Grünwald (2006). Bayesian Inconsistency under Misspecification. - Popper (1963) Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge.

  5. Using Rational-Emotive Therapy to Prevent Classroom Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Jo; Coleman, Maggie

    1988-01-01

    Teachers are encouraged to utilize rational-emotive therapy to prevent and deal with classroom behavior problems. Rational-emotive therapy is defined, the ABC model of rational thinking briefly explained, types of irrational thinking identified, and suggestions for becoming a rational thinker are offered. Classroom examples are given. (DB)

  6. Information, power, and social rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of institutional structures on economic and political processes and on the results of such processes is a central economics and political-science problem. This study adopts the recent fundamental information economics thesis which maintains that unevenly distributed information has a negative effect on politico-economic systems and that the corresponding individual and collective countermeasures are keys to the structures and characteristics of economic and political institutions. The theoretical part presents some relatively simple game theory models to elucidate the basic problems caused by unevenly distributed information in politico-economic systems. The empirical part is dedicated to an international comparative analysis of nuclear energy policies in the United States, in Great Britain, France, and in Germany. The results obtained reveal that the information economics approach explains the way in which the different institutional arrangements have influenced the policies and their results in the respective countries. The last chapter classifies the theoretical and empirical results by some further theoretical political-science, sociological and economic approaches. Points of contact with and differences between combined federalistic, neo-corporate, bureaucratic-politics and technocratic approaches are discussed. (orig./UA) [de

  7. Homology modeling, docking studies and molecular dynamic simulations using graphical processing unit architecture to probe the type-11 phosphodiesterase catalytic site: a computational approach for the rational design of selective inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Elena; D'Ursi, Pasqualina; Moscatelli, Marco; Bruno, Olga; Orro, Alessandro; Rotolo, Chiara; Milanesi, Luciano; Fossa, Paola

    2013-12-01

    Phosphodiesterase 11 (PDE11) is the latest isoform of the PDEs family to be identified, acting on both cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The initial reports of PDE11 found evidence for PDE11 expression in skeletal muscle, prostate, testis, and salivary glands; however, the tissue distribution of PDE11 still remains a topic of active study and some controversy. Given the sequence similarity between PDE11 and PDE5, several PDE5 inhibitors have been shown to cross-react with PDE11. Accordingly, many non-selective inhibitors, such as IBMX, zaprinast, sildenafil, and dipyridamole, have been documented to inhibit PDE11. Only recently, a series of dihydrothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one derivatives proved to be selective toward the PDE11 isoform. In the absence of experimental data about PDE11 X-ray structures, we found interesting to gain a better understanding of the enzyme-inhibitor interactions using in silico simulations. In this work, we describe a computational approach based on homology modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation to derive a predictive 3D model of PDE11. Using a Graphical Processing Unit architecture, it is possible to perform long simulations, find stable interactions involved in the complex, and finally to suggest guideline for the identification and synthesis of potent and selective inhibitors. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Sobre nubes y relojes: aproximación al problema de la racionalidad y libertad del hombre* /About clouds and clocks: approach to the problem of rationality and human freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Restrepo-Ochoa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La presente reseña tiene como propósito discutir el texto “Sobre Nubes y Relojes” de Karl Popper, en el cual el autor expone sus planteamientos en torno al problema del determinismo y el indeterminismo. En primer lugar, se presenta la discusión sobre el determinismo y el indeterminismo a partir de tres categorías de análisis: lo ontológico, lo metodológico y lo ético; seguidamente se analiza la propuesta evolucionista de Popper con relación al problema del determinismo y, finalmente, se plantean algunas consecuencias epistemológicas y éticas del determinismo en el campo de la salud This review discusses the text “On clouds and Clocks” by Karl Popper, in which the author presents his views on the issue of determinism and indeterminism. First, a discussion on determinism and indeterminism is presented from three analysis categories: ontological, methodological and ethical. Then, Popper's evolutionist approach regarding the issue of determinism is analyzed. Finally, some of the epistemological and ethical consequences of determinism on the field of health are presented.

  9. Economic Rationality in the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fiala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous application of experimental methodology to the interdisciplinary research of economic decision making is the main purpose of our work. In this paper, we introduce the main decisionmaking theories and outline economic rationality. We explain why we find it useful to discriminate between the “irrational” and “non-rational” components of decision making. We offer an oriented interdisciplinary point of view on economic rationality. In the applied section, we describe the main features of the Ultimatum game and summarize the up-to-date theories explaining the non-rational course of the game. We discuss in detail the reported relations between the nominal value of the stakes and the distribution of the offers and responses. We introduce the blinded, randomized Ultimatum game experiment that we conducted in our laboratory. We stress the importance of anonymity of the study subjects and the difference in salience of a factual reward against a  hypothetical reward. We present the results of our study, showing that a  duly chosen non-monetary reward, directly inconvertible into money, leads to a different offer distribution in the Ultimatum game without the necessity to invest excessive sums of money in the rewards. We compare our results to research published by other authors. According to our theory, the rational, non-rational and irrational components contribute to the decision making in Ultimatum differently depending on the different reward stakes.

  10. [Rationalization and rationing at the bedside. A normative and empirical status quo analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, D

    2014-02-01

    The topic of bedside rationing is increasingly discussed in Germany. Further need for clarification exists for the question how bedside rationing (e.g., in the area of overcare) can be justified despite coexistent inefficiencies. This paper outlines and analyses the relationship of waste avoidance and rationing from an ethical perspective. Empirical findings regarding the status quo of bedside rationing and rationalization are presented. These normative and empirical explorations will then be further specified regarding opportunities for future physician-driven activities to tackle overuse. The self-government partners in Germany should communicate more explicitly within their communities and to the public how and with which benchmarks they aim to reduce inefficient health care (overuse) in an appropriate manner. Physician-driven activities such as the "Choosing Wisely®" initiative in the USA could provide a first step to raise the awareness for overuse among physicians as well as in the public.

  11. Stability engineering of anti-EGFR scFv antibodies by rational design of a lambda-to-kappa swap of the VL framework using a structure-guided approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Wixted, Josephine H F; Shapovalov, Maxim V; Roder, Heinrich; Dunbrack, Roland L; Robinson, Matthew K

    2015-01-01

    Phage-display technology facilitates rapid selection of antigen-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies from large recombinant libraries. ScFv antibodies, composed of a VH and VL domain, are readily engineered into multimeric formats for the development of diagnostics and targeted therapies. However, the recombinant nature of the selection strategy can result in VH and VL domains with sub-optimal biophysical properties, such as reduced thermodynamic stability and enhanced aggregation propensity, which lead to poor production and limited application. We found that the C10 anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) scFv, and its affinity mutant, P2224, exhibit weak production from E. coli. Interestingly, these scFv contain a fusion of lambda3 and lambda1 V-region (LV3 and LV1) genes, most likely the result of a PCR aberration during library construction. To enhance the biophysical properties of these scFvs, we utilized a structure-based approach to replace and redesign the pre-existing framework of the VL domain to one that best pairs with the existing VH. We describe a method to exchange lambda sequences with a more stable kappa3 framework (KV3) within the VL domain that incorporates the original lambda DE-loop. The resulting scFvs, C10KV3_LV1DE and P2224KV3_LV1DE, are more thermodynamically stable and easier to produce from bacterial culture. Additionally, C10KV3_LV1DE and P2224KV3_LV1DE retain binding affinity to EGFR, suggesting that such a dramatic framework swap does not significantly affect scFv binding. We provide here a novel strategy for redesigning the light chain of problematic scFvs to enhance their stability and therapeutic applicability.

  12. Adult Learning and Communicative Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the concept of learning has been used widely in education policy discourse, often replacing the concept of education. This has provoked criticism and attempts to restate the humanist ideas of the concept of education. This paper discusses the relations between the two concepts of ...... approach from two critical social theorists, Jürgen Habermas and Oskar Negt. These contributions substantiate the interactive dimension of learning, the links between individual learning processes and the complex forms and conditions of life in contemporary societies....

  13. A Rational Business Startup Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Milton

    2000-03-01

    The speaker will share his experience in starting high-tech companies using a low-risk startup model. Most technical people can use this approach to start a company that begins with a modest initial goal and grows the business over time. As the company builds infrastructure and the individuals gain experience, the ability to pursue big opportunities comes naturally. The result is more likely to be a company with a long-term vision, and with the management team retaining more of the ownership.

  14. Techno-Optimism and Rational Superstition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    our common understanding of reason and rationality? To adopt rational expectations about the world, after all, should we not attempt to avoid the emotional over-determination of our assessments? I show that applied reason is conceptually entangled with this superstitious optimism in the continued...... of retro-causation, where the future is held to somehow have a retroactive effect on the past. This suggests, I argue, that the underlying mechanism by which techno-optimism is supposed to be instrumental in bringing about the future is fundamentally superstitious. But does this superstition not go against...... successes of technology. The article thus reveals a curious sense in which reason is intrinsically superstitious. I offer an evolutionary explanation for this, showing that the biological origins of reason will by nature tend to produce rational agents which are superstitiously bound to realism...

  15. Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D M

    1999-12-01

    Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide.

  16. Rational speculative bubbles: A critical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ognjen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of rational bubbles, the bubble is present whenever asset prices progressively diverge from their fundamental value, which occurs because agents expect that asset prices will continue to grow exponentially (self-fulfilling prophecies far in the future and consistently, which promises the realization of ever larger capital gains. In our opinion, the basic shortcoming of this theory refers to the assumption that all market agents are perfectly informed and rational and, accordingly, form homogeneous expectations. The model does not explain decision-making processes or expectation formation, nor does it detect potential psychological and institutional factors that might significantly influence decision making processes and market participants’ reactions to news. Since assumptions of the model critically determine its validity, we conclude that comprehensiveness of the rational bubble model is, to put it mildly, limited.

  17. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample ( N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.

  18. Zometool Rationalization of Freeform Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Henrik; Kobbelt, Leif

    2014-10-01

    An ever broader availability of freeform designs together with an increasing demand for product customization has lead to a rising interest in efficient physical realization of such designs, the trend toward personal fabrication. Not only large-scale architectural applications are (becoming increasingly) popular but also different consumer-level rapid-prototyping applications, including toy and 3D puzzle creation. In this work we present a method for do-it-yourself reproduction of freeform designs without the typical limitation of state-of-the-art approaches requiring manufacturing custom parts using semi-professional laser cutters or 3D printers. Our idea is based on a popular mathematical modeling system (Zometool) commonly used for modeling higher dimensional polyhedra and symmetric structures such as molecules and crystal lattices. The proposed method extends the scope of Zometool modeling to freeform, disk-topology surfaces. While being an efficient construction system on the one hand (consisting only of a single node type and nine different edge types), this inherent discreteness of the Zometool system, on the other hand gives rise to a hard approximation problem. We base our method on a marching front approach, where elements are not added in a greedy sense, but rather whole regions on the front are filled optimally, using a set of problem specific heuristics to keep complexity under control.

  19. Seeking a Rational Approach to a Regional Refugee Crisis: Lessons from the Summer 2014 “Surge” of Central American Women and Children at the US-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Musalo

    2017-03-01

    arrangements for unaccompanied children as required by federal law. Images of children crowded shoulder to shoulder in US Customs and Border Patrol holding cells generated a sense of urgency across the political spectrum (e.g., Fraser-Chanpong 2014; Tobias 2014. Responses to this “surge,” and explanations for it, varied widely in policy, media, and government circles. Two competing narratives emerged, rooted in two very disparate views of the “crisis.” One argues that “push” factors in the home countries of El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala drove children and families to flee as bona fide asylum seekers; the other asserted that “pull” factors drew these individuals to the United States. For those adopting the “push” factor outlook, the crisis is a humanitarian one, reflecting human rights violations and deprivations in the region, and the protection needs of refugees (UNHCR 2015b; UNHCR 2014; Musalo et al. 2015. While acknowledging that reasons for migration may be mixed, this view recognizes the seriousness of regional refugee protection needs. For those focusing on “pull” factors, the crisis has its roots in border enforcement policies that were perceived as lax by potential migrants, and that thereby acted as an inducement to migration (Harding 2014; Navarette, Jr. 2014. Each narrative, in turn, suggests a very different response to the influx of women and children at US borders. If “push” factors predominately drive migration, then protective policies in accordance with international and domestic legal obligations toward refugees must predominately inform US reaction. Even apart from the legal and moral rightness of this approach, any long-term goal of lowering the number of Central American migrants at the US-Mexico border, practically speaking, would have to address the root causes of violence in their home countries. On the other hand, if “pull” factors are granted greater causal weight, it would seem that stringent enforcement

  20. Rationality and Emotions in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Markič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is traditionally viewed as a rational process where reason calculates the best way to achieve the goal. Investigations from different areas of cognitive science have shown that human decisions and actions are much more influenced by intuition and emotional responses then it was previously thought. In this paper I examine the role of emotion in decision making, particularly Damasio’s hypothesis of somatic markers and Green’s dual process theory of moral judgment. I conclude the paper with the discussion of the threat that deliberation and conscious rationality is an illusion.

  1. Rationalization with ruled surfaces in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak

    This thesis addresses the problems of rationalizing and segmenting large scale 3D models, and how to handle difficult production constraints in this area. The design choices when constructing large scale architecture are influenced by the budget. Therefore I strive to minimize the amount of time...... and material needed for production. This makes advanced free form architecture viable for low cost projects, allowing the architects to realize their designs. By pre-cutting building blocks using hot wire robots, the amount of milling necessary can be reduced drastically. I do this by rationalizing...

  2. Towards a formal logic of design rationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1997-01-01

    Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...

  3. Rational homotopy theory and differential forms

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    This completely revised and corrected version of the well-known Florence notes circulated by the authors together with E. Friedlander examines basic topology, emphasizing homotopy theory. Included is a discussion of Postnikov towers and rational homotopy theory. This is then followed by an in-depth look at differential forms and de Tham's theorem on simplicial complexes. In addition, Sullivan's results on computing the rational homotopy type from forms is presented.  New to the Second Edition: *Fully-revised appendices including an expanded discussion of the Hirsch lemma*Presentation of a natu

  4. Rational decisions, random matrices and spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluccio, Stefano; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc

    We consider the problem of rational decision making in the presence of nonlinear constraints. By using tools borrowed from spin glass and random matrix theory, we focus on the portfolio optimisation problem. We show that the number of optimal solutions is generally exponentially large, and each of them is fragile: rationality is in this case of limited use. In addition, this problem is related to spin glasses with Lévy-like (long-ranged) couplings, for which we show that the ground state is not exponentially degenerate.

  5. Rational Homological Stability for Automorphisms of Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Matthias

    In this thesis we prove rational homological stability for the classifying spaces of the homotopy automorphisms and block di↵eomorphisms of iterated connected sums of products of spheres of a certain connectivity.The results in particular apply to the manifolds       Npg,q  = (#g(Sp x Sq)) - int...... with coefficients in the homology of the universal covering, which is studied using rational homology theory. The result for the block di↵eomorphisms is deduced from the homological stability for the homotopy automorphisms upon using Surgery theory. Themain theorems of this thesis extend the homological stability...

  6. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...... sector, water distribution in drought periods). We introduce (and characterize) a natural class of allocation methods for this model. Any method within the class is associated with a rule in the standard rationing model, and we show that if the latter obeys some focal properties, the former obeys them...

  7. Unpredictable drug shortages: an ethical framework for short-term rationing in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    Periodic and unexpected shortages of drugs, biologics, and even medical devices have become commonplace in the United States. When shortages occur, hospitals and clinics need to decide how to ration their available stock. When such situations arise, institutions can choose from several different allocation schemes, such as first-come, first-served, a lottery, or a more rational and calculated approach. While the first two approaches sound reasonable at first glance, there are a number of problems associated with them, including the inability to make fine, individual patient-centered decisions. They also do not discriminate between what kinds of patients and what types of uses may be more deserving or reasonable than others. In this article I outline an ethically acceptable procedure for rationing drugs during a shortage in which demand outstrips supply.

  8. Models of bounded rationality under certainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This chapter reviews models of decision-making and choice under conditions of certainty. It allows readers to position the contribution of the other chapters in this book in the historical development of the topic area. Theory Bounded rationality is defined in terms of a strategy to simplify

  9. Suicide: rationality and responsibility for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Angela Onkay

    2014-03-01

    Death by suicide is widely held as an undesirable outcome. Most Western countries place emphasis on patient autonomy, a concept of controversy in relation to suicide. This paper explores the tensions between patients' rights and many societies' overarching desire to prevent suicide, while clarifying the relations between mental disorders, mental capacity, and rational suicide. A literature search was conducted using search terms of suicide and ethics in the PubMed and LexisNexis Academic databases. Article titles and abstracts were reviewed and deemed relevant if the paper addressed topics of rational suicide, patient autonomy or rights, or responsibility for life. Further articles were found from reference lists and by suggestion from preliminary reviewers of this paper. Suicidal behaviour in a person cannot be reliably predicted, yet various associations and organizations have developed standards of care for managing patients exhibiting suicidal behaviour. The responsibility for preventing suicide tends to be placed on the treating clinician. In cases where a person is capable of making treatment decisions--uninfluenced by any mental disorder--there is growing interest in the concept of rational suicide. There is much debate about whether suicide can ever be rational. Designating suicide as an undesirable event that should never occur raises the debate of who is responsible for one's life and runs the risk of erroneously attributing blame for suicide. While upholding patient rights of autonomy in psychiatric care is laudable, cases of suicidality warrant a delicate consideration of clinical judgment, duty of care, and legal obligations.

  10. Rationality, Motivation, Effectiveness: Bureaucracy's Triple Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William

    1984-01-01

    The United States has inherited an ideology concerning politics, culture, and the state that values the democratic distribution by the schools of rationality and of social motivation. Unfortunately, the bureaucratic organization of schools discourages this distribution, and the incentives for changing either the organization or the distribution…

  11. Rational approximations and quantum algorithms with postselection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahadev, U.; de Wolf, R.

    2015-01-01

    We study the close connection between rational functions that approximate a given Boolean function, and quantum algorithms that compute the same function using post-selection. We show that the minimal degree of the former equals (up to a factor of 2) the minimal query complexity of the latter. We

  12. [Popper's critical rationalism and the biomedical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlícek, J

    1993-11-08

    Popper's rationalism makes an important contribution of the 20th century philosophy to the methodology of natural sciences. Through its criterion of falsification, it enabled the scientists to take a critical but constructive view on hypotheses, conjectures and theories. This attitude found its application also in medicine.

  13. Parity, Incomparability and Rationally Justified Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of a rationally justified choice between two options neither of which is better than the other while they are not equally good either (‘3NT’). Joseph Raz regards such options as incomparable and argues that reason cannot guide the choice between them. Ruth

  14. Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asadi Bagloee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.

  15. Rationally inattentive seller: sales and discrete pricing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2016), s. 1125-1155 ISSN 0034-6527 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sticky prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  16. Viagra: : A success story for rationing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, R.; Sturm, H.

    2002-01-01

    The 1998 launch of Viagra prompted widespread fears about the budgetary consequences for insurers and governments, all the more so since Viagra was only the first of a new wave of so-called lifestyle drugs. The fears have turned out to be greatly exaggerated. This paper analyzes the rationing

  17. Confucianism and Critical Rationalism: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    According to Karl Popper's critical rationalism, criticism is the only way we have of systematically detecting and learning from our mistakes so as to get nearer to the truth. Meanwhile, it is arguable that the emphasis of Confucianism on creating a hierarchical and harmonious society can easily lead to submission rather than opposition, producing…

  18. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  19. Rationalization of water consumption in paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković Darja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper was to consider the possibilities of economical paper production with rationalization of water consumption. In accordance with the principles of viable development. The pulp & paper industry has had to face global market needs and strict regulation concerning the environment. The basic motive was to provide consistent and high product quality, which is competitive on the market. The pulp & paper industry is one of the largest consumers and pollutants of natural resources. In that light, the rationalization of raw material, water, energy and chemicals consumption with minimization of environmental impact is essential. The European directive on environmental protection obliges producers of pulp & paper to decrease the volume of wastewater and to increase the efficiency treatment. Pulp and paper industry in Serbia and Montenegro will also be faced with the demands for environmental protection. Numerous examples of water consumption rationalization and improvement of water quality in the pulp & paper industry could be found in different literature sources. It is necessary to increase water system closure and implement up-to-date treatment methods. The possibilities for water consumption rationalization, in a real system the paperboard mill UMKA, were examined.

  20. Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Bennett T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)