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  1. [Peripherally inserted central catheter antibiotic therapy for cystic fibrosis patients].

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    Betegnie, A-L; Cracowski, C; Bedouch, P; Segond, C; Robein-Dobremez, M-J; Pin, I; Allenet, B

    2014-11-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are more and more used for intravenous antibiotic infusions in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients in the Grenoble area (France). The aim of this study was to assess the use of this technique in this indication. 1. Retrospective evaluation of 102 consecutive PICC insertions over 3years and the incidence of adverse events during the therapy. 2. Prospective evaluation of 12 patient's satisfaction and their nurses over a 3-month period. 3. Comparative analysis of single domiciliary treatment costs using PICC versus peripheral catheter (PC). 102 PICC insertions were attempted in 31 patients. Seven failures and 7 complications occurred during the treatment requiring removal of the PICC, i.e. an overall success rate of 86.2% (88/102). Pain during PICC introduction was 4.2/10 (visual analogical scale). Mean satisfaction levels during therapy were 9.3/10 for patients and 8.7/10 for nurses. Compared with PC, all the patients said that PICC was "more comfortable". Differential costs of treatment with PC and with PICC at home were estimated at 57.15€ and 590.16€ respectively. PICC is an alternative to CP for intravenous antibiotherapy in CF patients, providing better safety and comfort. PICC use should be promoted in this indication. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa B3 Strains Isolated from a Cystic Fibrosis Patient Undergoing Antibiotic Chemotherapy

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    Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Jochumsen, Nicholas; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently establishes chronic infections in the airways of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we report the draft genome sequences of four P. aeruginosa B3 strains isolated from a chronically infected CF patient undergoing antibiotic chemotherapy.......Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently establishes chronic infections in the airways of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we report the draft genome sequences of four P. aeruginosa B3 strains isolated from a chronically infected CF patient undergoing antibiotic chemotherapy....

  3. Increase in interleukin-8 production from circulating neutrophils upon antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis patients.

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    Montemurro, Pasqualina; Mariggiò, Maria A; Barbuti, Giovanna; Cassano, Amalia; Vincenti, Alessandra; Serio, Gabriella; Guerra, Lorenzo; Diana, Anna; Santostasi, Teresa; Polizzi, Angela; Fumarulo, Ruggiero; Casavola, Valeria; Manca, Antonio; Conese, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    It is not known whether antibiotic therapy for lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) has an influence on circulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) function and apoptosis. Blood PMNs were obtained from 14 CF patients before and after antibiotic treatment for an acute exacerbation, and from 10 healthy controls. PMNs were evaluated for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by spectrophotometry, of cytokines in the conditioned medium by ELISA, and apoptotic response by cytofluorimetry. ROS and interleukin (IL)-8 were produced at higher levels by CF PMNs pre-therapy than control PMNs under basal conditions. IL-8 levels further increased after therapy. Early apoptotic response was higher in CF PMNs pre-therapy than in control PMNs, and this pattern did not change after antibiotic treatment. Circulating PMNs are primed in CF acute patients. Further studies are needed to consider PMN-produced IL-8 as a biomarker to evaluate response to antibiotic therapy in CF patients. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. PFGE and antibiotic susceptibility phenotype analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain chronically infecting Cystic Fibrosis patients

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    Giovanna Pulcrano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of chronic lung infection and following pulmonary worsening of cystic fibrosis patients. To verify whether bacterial modifications regarding motility, mucoidy, and serum susceptibility proceeded from an adaptation to chronic infection or a replacement with a new strain, sequential P. aeruginosa isolates of known phenotype collected from 5 cystic fibrosis patients were typed by pulsed-field gel electophoresis (PFGE. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of all isolates was performed by the disc diffusion method. PFGE typing demonstrated that strains dissimilar in colony morphotype and of different antibiotic susceptibility patterns could be of the same genotype. Some patients were colonized with a rather constant P. aeruginosa flora, with strains of different phenotypes but of one genotype. Instead, some patients may be colonized by more than one genotype. Secretion of mucoid exopolysaccharide and acquisition of a new antibiotic susceptibility phenotype in these strain appear to evolve during chronic colonization in cystic fibrosis patients from specific adaptation to infection rather than from acquisition of new bacterial strains.

  5. Antibiotic-resistant obligate anaerobes during exacerbations of cystic fibrosis patients.

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    Worlitzsch, D; Rintelen, C; Böhm, K; Wollschläger, B; Merkel, N; Borneff-Lipp, M; Döring, G

    2009-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are thought to cause the majority of lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, other bacterial pathogens may contribute to the pathophysiology of lung disease. Here, obligate anaerobes were identified in a cross-sectional study, and cell numbers and antibiotic susceptibilities of facultative and obligate anaerobes from 114 sputum samples from nine children and 36 adults with CF were determined. Furthermore, in 12 CF patients, we investigated whether conventional intravenous antibiotic therapy, administered during acute exacerbations, would affect the numbers of obligate anaerobes. Fifteen genera of obligate anaerobes were identified in 91% of the CF patients. Cell numbers (mean: 2.2 x 10(7) +/- standard deviation 6.9 x 10(7) CFU/mL of sputum sample) were comparable to those of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Staphylococcus saccharolyticus and Peptostreptococcus prevotii were most prevalent. Infection with P. aeruginosa did not increase the likelihood that obligate anaerobes are present in sputum specimens. Single obligate anaerobic species persisted for up to 11 months in sputum plugs in vivo. Patients with and without obligate anaerobes in sputum specimens did not differ in lung function. Intravenous therapy directed against P. aeruginosa during acute exacerbations increased lung function, but did not reduce the numbers of obligate anaerobes. Obligate anaerobic species differed widely in their patterns of resistance against meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, metronidazole and ceftazidime. In 58% of patients with acute exacerbations, obligate anaerobes were detected that were resistant to the antibiotics used for treatment. Antibiotic therapy, optimized to target anaerobes in addition to P. aeruginosa, may improve the management of CF lung disease.

  6. The emergence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients on inhaled antibiotics

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    Atqah AbdulWahab

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA is an important and growing issue in the care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the frequency of MDR-PA recovered from the lower respiratory samples of pediatric and adult CF patients, and its antibiotic resistance pattern to commonly used antimicrobial agents including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Materials and Methods: The lower respiratory isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from inpatients and outpatients CF clinics from a tertiary care teaching hospital for the period from October 2014 to September 2015. The identification and antimicrobial susceptibility for all the isolates were performed by using the BD Phoenix™ and E-test in compliance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: A total of 61 P. aeruginosa samples were isolated from thirty CF patients from twenty families. Twelve sputum samples were positive for MDR-PA (seven nonmucoid and five mucoid isolates from five CF patients (five families with moderate-to-very severe lung disease given MDR-PA frequency of 19.7%. The median age of the study group was 20 (range 10–30 years. Three CF patients were on chronic inhaled tobramycin and two on nebulized colistin. The antimicrobial patterns of isolates MDR-PA showed the highest rate of resistance toward each gentamycin, amikacin, and cefepime (100%, followed by 91.7% to ciprofloxacin, 75% to tobramycin, 58.3% to meropenem, and 50% to piperacillin-tazobactam. None of the isolates were resistant to colistin during the study period. Conclusion: The study results emphasize that the emergence of a significant problem in the clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in CF patients that dictate appropriate attention to the antibiotic management after proper surveillance.

  7. Pulmonary bacterial pathogens in cystic fibrosis patients and antibiotic therapy: a tool for the health workers

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    Coutinho Henrique

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cystic fibrosis is the most common and best known genetic disease involving a defect in transepithelial Cl- transport by mutations in the CF gene on chromosome 7, which codes for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR. The most serious symptoms are observed in the lungs, augmenting the risk of bacterial infection. The objective of this review was to describe the bacterial pathogens colonizing patients with cystic fibrosis. A systematic search was conducted using the international bibliographic databanks SCIELO, HIGHWIRE, PUBMED, SCIRUS and LILACS to provide a useful and practical review for healthcare workers to make them aware of these microorganisms. Today, B. cepacia, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus are the most important infectious agents in cystic fibrosis patients. However, healthcare professionals must pay attention to emerging infectious agents in these patients, because they represent a potentially serious future problem. Therefore, these pathogens should be pointed out as a risk to these patients, and hospitals all over the world must be prepared to detect and combat these bacteria.

  8. A SAFE PROTOCOL FOR RAPID DESENSITIZATION IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS AND ANTIBIOTIC HYPERSENSITIVITY

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    Legere, Henry J.; Palis, Ross I.; Bouza, Tito Rodriguez; Uluer, Ahmet Z.; Castells, Mariana C.

    2009-01-01

    Background CF patients often demonstrate hypersensitivity to one or multiple antibiotics due to frequent and repeated exposures. Attempts at antibiotic desensitization in this population are historically complicated by higher reaction rates, failure to complete the procedure and consequent withholding of first-line therapy. This study evaluates the outcomes of a rapid desensitization protocol developed at our institution. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 15 patients undergoing 52 rapid antibiotic desensitizations at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Children’s Hospital Boston utilizing our protocol. Results Mean FEV1 % predicted was 44.1 (SD 16.5), with two patients at desensitized during bilateral lung transplantation. Adverse reactions during desensitization occurred in 13.4%, and most were mild. 100% of patients completed the protocol and ultimately tolerated subsequent full-strength antibiotic courses. Conclusions CF patients with antibiotic hypersensitivity can safely receive first-line antibiotics via our rapid desensitization protocol, including those with severe obstructive lung disease. PMID:19740711

  9. Home intravenous antibiotic treatment for acute pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis - Is it good for the patient?

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    Sequeiros Iara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a worldwide drive for the home management of chronic respiratory diseases. With the widespread use of home intravenous (IV treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF pulmonary exacerbations (PExs, evidence pointing to an inferior outcome of care for home-treated patients in comparison to hospital-treated patients is a cause of concern. Currently, patients who self-administer IV antibiotics at home are provided with equipment and instructions on the use of antibiotics. Policies vary; but in most UK centers, these patients are then followed up by the multidisciplinary team only on days 1, 7 and 14 of the treatment course. We aimed to review the current published literature in search for evidence for the value and the shortfalls of self-administered IV treatment at home for acute PExs in CF patients in comparison to conventional hospital treatment. We searched the electronic database system Medline for published papers regarding studies comparing home- and hospital-based IV antibiotic treatment for both adult and pediatric CF patients. Sixteen studies were identified and grouped into those that showed a similar outcome between home and hospital treatment and those that showed an inferior outcome for home management. Most studies were retrospective or inadequately powered to provide clear answers. Ideally, outcome of care for home treatment should be at least equal to outcome for hospital treatment. Extensive efforts should be made to standardize therapies preserving the advantages of home management and addressing the perceived reasons for an inferior outcome. Until further studies provide definitive answers, treatment at home should be reserved for adequately selected patients and individualized depending on the unique settings of each CF center and specific patients′ requirements. There is great need for a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing home and hospital treatments in order to clarify this matter.

  10. Inhalation of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis

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    Touw, D J; Brimicombe, R W; Hodson, M E; Heijerman, H G; Bakker, W

    Aerosol administration of antipseudomonal antibiotics is commonly used in cystic fibrosis. However, its contribution to the improvement of lung function, infection and quality of life is not well-established. All articles published from 1965 until the present time concerning the inhalation of

  11. Costs, quality of life and treatment compliance associated with antibiotic therapies in patients with cystic fibrosis: a review of the literature.

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    Weiner, Jennifer R; Toy, Edmond L; Sacco, Patricia; Duh, Mei Sheng

    2008-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common incurable hereditary disease in the US. Persistent respiratory infection is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. This study aimed to review the literature on economic and quality of life outcomes and treatment compliance associated with antibiotic therapies for cystic fibrosis patients. A systematic literature review was conducted using keyword searches of the MEDLINE database and selected conference abstracts. The review covered studies published between January 1990 and May 2007. Evidence suggests that inhaled tobramycin, a key chronic suppressive therapy, can reduce other healthcare costs. The main determinants of the cost of care include disease severity and respiratory infection. Costs vary widely by country. There is evidence that inhaled tobramycin and oral azithromycin improve quality of life and that treatment setting and patient convenience may also impact on quality of life. Antibiotic treatment compliance varied significantly and depended on the method of measurement, with more subjective measures tending to be higher. This review concludes by offering directions for future research.

  12. Evaluation of genome-wide expression profiles of blood and sputum neutrophils in cystic fibrosis patients before and after antibiotic therapy.

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    Massimo Conese

    Full Text Available In seeking more specific biomarkers of the cystic fibrosis (CF lung inflammatory disease that would be sensitive to antibiotic therapy, we sought to evaluate the gene expression profiles of neutrophils in CF patients before treatment in comparison with non-CF healthy individuals and after antibiotic treatment. Genes involved in neutrophil-mediated inflammation, i.e. chemotaxis, respiratory burst, apoptosis, and granule exocytosis, were the targets of this study. Microarray analysis was carried out in blood and airway neutrophils from CF patients and in control subjects. A fold change (log threshold of 1.4 and a cut-off of p<0.05 were utilized to identify significant genes. Community networks and principal component analysis were used to distinguish the groups of controls, pre- and post-therapy patients. Control subjects and CF patients before therapy were readily separated, whereas a clear distinction between patients before and after antibiotic therapy was not possible. Blood neutrophils before therapy presented 269 genes down-regulated and 56 up-regulated as compared with control subjects. Comparison between the same patients before and after therapy showed instead 44 genes down-regulated and 72 up-regulated. Three genes appeared to be sensitive to therapy and returned to "healthy" condition: phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1, hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1, and β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1. The up-regulation of these genes after therapy were confirmed by real time PCR. In airway neutrophils, 1029 genes were differentially expressed post- vs pre-therapy. Of these, 30 genes were up-regulated and 75 down-regulated following antibiotic treatment. However, biological plausibility determined that only down-regulated genes belonged to the gene classes studied for blood neutrophils. Finally, it was observed that commonly expressed genes showed a greater variability in airway neutrophils than that found in blood neutrophils

  13. Evaluation of genome-wide expression profiles of blood and sputum neutrophils in cystic fibrosis patients before and after antibiotic therapy.

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    Conese, Massimo; Castellani, Stefano; Lepore, Silvia; Palumbo, Orazio; Manca, Antonio; Santostasi, Teresa; Polizzi, Angela Maria; Copetti, Massimiliano; Di Gioia, Sante; Casavola, Valeria; Guerra, Lorenzo; Diana, Anna; Montemurro, Pasqualina; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Gallo, Crescenzio; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Carella, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    In seeking more specific biomarkers of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung inflammatory disease that would be sensitive to antibiotic therapy, we sought to evaluate the gene expression profiles of neutrophils in CF patients before treatment in comparison with non-CF healthy individuals and after antibiotic treatment. Genes involved in neutrophil-mediated inflammation, i.e. chemotaxis, respiratory burst, apoptosis, and granule exocytosis, were the targets of this study. Microarray analysis was carried out in blood and airway neutrophils from CF patients and in control subjects. A fold change (log) threshold of 1.4 and a cut-off of p<0.05 were utilized to identify significant genes. Community networks and principal component analysis were used to distinguish the groups of controls, pre- and post-therapy patients. Control subjects and CF patients before therapy were readily separated, whereas a clear distinction between patients before and after antibiotic therapy was not possible. Blood neutrophils before therapy presented 269 genes down-regulated and 56 up-regulated as compared with control subjects. Comparison between the same patients before and after therapy showed instead 44 genes down-regulated and 72 up-regulated. Three genes appeared to be sensitive to therapy and returned to "healthy" condition: phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1), hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1), and β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1). The up-regulation of these genes after therapy were confirmed by real time PCR. In airway neutrophils, 1029 genes were differentially expressed post- vs pre-therapy. Of these, 30 genes were up-regulated and 75 down-regulated following antibiotic treatment. However, biological plausibility determined that only down-regulated genes belonged to the gene classes studied for blood neutrophils. Finally, it was observed that commonly expressed genes showed a greater variability in airway neutrophils than that found in blood neutrophils, both before and

  14. Inhaled antibiotics for the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients: challenges to treatment adherence and strategies to improve outcomes

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    Bodnár R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Réka Bodnár,1,2 Ágnes Mészáros,2 Máté Oláh,2 Tamás Ágh3 1Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Heim Pál Children’s Hospital, Budapest, Hungary; 2University Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy Administration, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 3Syreon Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary Background: Inhaled antibiotics (ABs are recommended for use in the therapy of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify level of adherence to inhaled ABs and to determine predictors and consequences of nonadherence in CF. Methods: A systematic literature search of English-language articles was conducted in April 2015 using Medline and Embase. No publication date limit was applied. The literature screening was conducted by two independent reviewers. All of the included studies were assessed for quality. Results: The search yielded 193 publications, of which ten met the inclusion criteria and underwent data extraction. Seven studies focused on inhaled tobramycin, one on inhaled colistimethate, one on inhaled levofloxacin, and one on inhaled aztreonam lysine. Medication adherence to inhaled ABs was analyzed by pharmacy refill history, daily phone diary, parent and child self-reports, vials counting, or electronic monitoring. In randomized controlled trials (n=3, proportion of adherent patients (>75%–80% of required doses taken ranged from 86% to 97%; in prospective cohort studies (n=3, adherence rates ranged between 36% and 92%, and in retrospective studies (n=4 it ranged between 60% and 70%. The adherence to inhaled ABs in CF was found to be associated with the complexity of treatment, time of drug administration, age of patients, treatment burden (adverse events, taste, and patient satisfaction. Conclusion: The high diversity of adherence data was because of the different study designs (randomized controlled trials vs real-world studies and the lack

  15. Phenotypes selected during chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients

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    Ciofu, Oana; Mandsberg, Lotte F; Wang, Hengzhuang

    2012-01-01

    During chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive for long periods of time under the challenging selective pressure imposed by the immune system and antibiotic treatment as a result of its biofilm mode of growth and adaptive evolution mediated by g...... the importance of biofilm prevention strategies by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy before phenotypic diversification during chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis....

  16. Home intravenous antibiotic therapy in children with cystic fibrosis: clinical outcome, quality of life and economic benefit

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    Chrysochoou, EA; Hatziagorou, E; Kirvassilis, F; Tsanakas, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pediatric home care has improved therapeutic options for children with chronic disease. Home intravenous (IV) antibiotic treatment against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has offered increased flexibility to these patients and family life. A prospective clinical study was conducted to compare safety, efficacy, and cost benefits of home versus hospital IV antibiotic treatment among CF children and adolescents.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection. Mechanism of antibiotic resistance and target of the humoral immune response

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    Ciofu, Oana

    2003-01-01

    the development of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and the occurrence of high beta-lactamase producing strains and between the MIC of the beta-lactams and the levels of beta-lactamase expression. Partially derepressed mutants, characterized by high basal levels of beta-lactamase with the possibility...... of induction to even higher levels during treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics, were the most frequent phenotype found among resistant Danish P. aeruginosa CF isolates. We have also shown that the high alginate producing P. aeruginosa isolates, that characterize the chronic lung infection in CF patients......, are more susceptible to antibiotics and produce less beta-lactamase than the non-mucoid paired isolates. We propose that the non-mucoid isolates are exposed to a relatively higher antibiotic pressure than the mucoid isolates and therefore, they become easily antibiotic resistant and in consequence produce...

  18. Relationship of Antibiotic Treatment to Recovery after Acute FEV1 Decline in Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

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    Morgan, Wayne J; Wagener, Jeffrey S; Pasta, David J; Millar, Stefanie J; VanDevanter, Donald R; Konstan, Michael W

    2017-06-01

    Children with cystic fibrosis often experience acute declines in lung function. We previously showed that such declines are not always treated with antibiotics, but we did not assess whether treatment improves the likelihood of recovery. To determine whether new antibiotic treatment was associated with recovery from acute FEV 1 decline. We studied episodes of FEV 1 decline (≥10% from baseline) in the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis. Treatments were hospitalization, home intravenous antibiotic, new inhaled oral quinolone, or other oral antibiotic. We used logistic regression to evaluate whether treatment was associated with recovery to baseline or near baseline. Logistic regression of 9,875 patients showed that new antibiotic treatment was associated with an increased likelihood of recovery to 90% of baseline (P antibiotic (odds ratio [OR], 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 2.41-3.23). All four outpatient treatments were associated with greater likelihood of recovery compared with no treatment (OR, 1.27-1.64). Inpatient treatment was better than outpatient treatment (OR, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-2.23). Treatment-type ORs were similar across recovery criteria and levels of baseline lung function. New antibiotic therapy, and especially inpatient treatment, is associated with greater likelihood of recovery after acute decline in FEV 1 . Benefits extend across all disease stages and are especially important in patients with high lung function, who are at greatest risk for FEV 1 decline.

  19. Antibiotic and Anti-Inflammatory Therapies for Cystic Fibrosis

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    Chmiel, James F.; Konstan, Michael W.; Elborn, J. Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by chronic bacterial infection and an unremitting inflammatory response, which are responsible for most of CF morbidity and mortality. The median expected survival has increased from 38 yr now. This dramatic improvement, although not great enough, is due to the development of therapies directed at secondary disease pathologies, especially antibiotics. The importance of developing treatments directed against the vigorous inflammatory response was realized in the 1990s. New therapies directed toward the basic defect are now visible on the horizon. However, the impact of these drugs on downstream pathological consequences is unknown. It is likely that antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs will remain an important part of the maintenance regimen for CF in the foreseeable future. Current and future antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapies for CF are reviewed. PMID:23880054

  20. Microbiological surveillance in patients with cystic fibrosis

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    Paola Gualdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevention, diagnosis and therapy in cystic fibrosis, lead to the necessary collaboration between clinical and laboratory to identify effective strategies and appropriate solutions to address the problems inherent isolation micro-organisms, antibiotic strategies, overcoming of bacterial resistance and other problems management of these patients. The task of the microbiology laboratory and research in quickly and accurately, the agents responsible for these infectious processes, in order to isolate them from material, identify and determine their sensitivity antibiotics. A microbiological surveillance on 34 patients (13 males and 21 females with CF and related to the “Support Services Provincial Trento for the treatment of cystic fibrosis “in the period July 2005 - August 2008, was carried out. 180 Gram positive and 278 of Gram negative bacteria as well as 235 fungi wre collected. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently organism found in patients with CF with an incidence of 23% on 156 strains isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was collected 19% of all microorganisms isolated corresponding to 131 strains, Candida albicans is the yeast often isolated with a frequency 22% equal to 149 isolates, Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated at a rate of 8%. From the data we collected and processed has been noted that the local epidemiology of CF patients reflects as reported in the scientific literature and national international consulting, both as a type microorganisms that frequency also isolated compared to age groups. Considering the score of Bartlett as discriminating respiratory fitness of the material, it has been observed that only 32 samples over 327 total (10% would materials insignificant. It follows therefore that the time of sample collection, followed by personnel (physiotherapists dedicated to CF patients, represents a crucial step

  1. Intracellular activity of antibiotics in a model of human THP-1 macrophages infected by a Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variant strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient: pharmacodynamic evaluation and comparison with isogenic normal-phenotype and revertant strains.

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    Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Denis, Olivier; Vergison, Anne; Theunis, Anne; Tulkens, Paul M; Struelens, Marc J; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2009-04-01

    Small-colony variant (SCV) strains of Staphylococcus aureus show reduced antibiotic susceptibility and intracellular persistence, potentially explaining therapeutic failures. The activities of oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, gentamicin, rifampin, vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, tigecycline, moxifloxacin, telavancin, and oritavancin have been examined in THP-1 macrophages infected by a stable thymidine-dependent SCV strain in comparison with normal-phenotype and revertant isogenic strains isolated from the same cystic fibrosis patient. The SCV strain grew slowly extracellularly and intracellularly (1- and 0.2-log CFU increase in 24 h, respectively). In confocal and electron microscopy, SCV and the normal-phenotype bacteria remain confined in acid vacuoles. All antibiotics tested, except tigecycline, caused a net reduction in bacterial counts that was both time and concentration dependent. At an extracellular concentration corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum (total drug), oritavancin caused a 2-log CFU reduction at 24 h; rifampin, moxifloxacin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin caused a similar reduction at 72 h; and all other antibiotics had only a static effect at 24 h and a 1-log CFU reduction at 72 h. In concentration dependence experiments, response to oritavancin was bimodal (two successive plateaus of -0.4 and -3.1 log CFU); tigecycline, moxifloxacin, and rifampin showed maximal effects of -1.1 to -1.7 log CFU; and the other antibiotics produced results of -0.6 log CFU or less. Addition of thymidine restored intracellular growth of the SCV strain but did not modify the activity of antibiotics (except quinupristin-dalfopristin). All drugs (except tigecycline and oritavancin) showed higher intracellular activity against normal or revertant phenotypes than against SCV strains. The data may help rationalizing the design of further studies with intracellular SCV strains.

  2. Inhaled antibiotics in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: A meta-analysis.

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    Xu, Li; Zhang, Fei; Du, Shuai; Yu, Qi; Chen, Lin; Long, Li-Hui; Li, Ya-Ming; Jia, Ai-Hua

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of inhaled antibiotics for the treatment of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB). Pubmed, Cochrane library, Embase, Elsevier, OVID, Springerlink, Web of knowledge and NEJM were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on inhaled antibiotics in treatment of NCFB from inception until April 2015. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of inhaled antibiotics in the treatment of NCFB. Twelve RCTs involving 1154 participants were included. They showed that inhaled antibiotics were more effective in reduction of sputum bacterial density, eradication of P. aeruginosa, prolonged time to exacerbation and reduction of new pathogens emergence with no significant difference in adverse events compared with control groups. However, we did not find significant benefits of inhaled antibiotics in reducing the risk of acute exacerbation, improving health-related quality of life and reduction of P. aeruginosa resistance. Moreover, inhaled antibiotics exerted a statistically significant reduction in FEV1%. Inhaled antibiotics may be an alternative pathway to inhibit airway inflammation with no more adverse events in patients with NCFB.

  3. Treatment of lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis

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    Döring, Gerd; Flume, Patrick; Heijerman, Harry

    2012-01-01

    In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) lung damage secondary to chronic infection is the main cause of death. Treatment of lung disease to reduce the impact of infection, inflammation and subsequent lung injury is therefore of major importance. Here we discuss the present status of antibiotic...

  4. The fate of inhaled antibiotics after deposition in cystic fibrosis: How to get drug to the bug?

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    Bos, Aukje C; Passé, Kimberly M; Mouton, Johan W; Janssens, Hettie M; Tiddens, Harm A W M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic airway infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are most often treated with inhaled antibiotics of which deposition patterns have been extensively studied. However, the journey of aerosol particles does not end after deposition within the bronchial tree. To review how local conditions affect the clinical efficacy of antibiotic aerosol particles after deposition in the airways of patients with CF. Electronic databases were searched from inception to September 2015. Original studies describing the effect of CF sputum or bacterial factors on antibiotic efficacy and formulations to increase efficacy were included. 35 articles were included which mostly described in vitro studies and mainly investigated aminoglycosides. After deposition, diffusion through the mucus layer was reduced for aminoglycosides, β-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones. Within CF mucus, low oxygen tension adversely affected aminoglycosides, β-lactam antibiotics, and chloramphenicol; and molecules inactivated aminoglycosides but not β-lactam antibiotics. Finally, the alginate layer surrounding Pseudomonas aeruginosa was an important factor in the resistance against all antibiotics. After deposition in the airways, the local efficacy of inhaled antibiotics can be reduced by molecules within CF mucus and the alginate layer surrounding P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Maintaining Respiratory Health in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

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    MR Modaresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an inherited disease that primarily affects the lungs and the digestive system, however, it also affects a number of other organs and systems. More than 90% of mortality of  CF patients is due to lung complications.  Healthy lungs are important for a long life for people with CF, We will discuss two important topics for maintaining respiratory health. Chronic use of drugs for maintaining respiratory health There are a number of drugs available to keep CF lungs healthy. We will discuss the science behind the recommendations for use of: Inhaled antibiotics Dornase alfa Azithromycin Hypertonic saline High-dose ibuprofen Ivacaftor CF Airway Clearance Therapies Airway Clearance therapy is very important to keeping CF lungs healthy. Our discussions cover the following topics such as the: Daily airway clearance Different techniques of airway clearance Effect of aerobic exercise on airway clearance  

  6. Relationship between cystic fibrosis respiratory tract bacterial communities and age, genotype, antibiotics and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Lemon, Katherine P; Martin, Thomas R; Allgaier, Martin; Kembel, Steven W; Knapp, Alixandra A; Lory, Stephen; Brodie, Eoin L; Lynch, Susan V; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Green, Jessica L; Maurer, Brian A; Kolter, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Polymicrobial bronchopulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) cause progressive lung damage and death. Although the arrival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa often heralds a more rapid rate of pulmonary decline, there is significant inter-individual variation in the rate of decline, the causes of which remain poorly understood. By coupling culture-independent methods with ecological analyses, we discovered correlations between bacterial community profiles and clinical disease markers in respiratory tracts of 45 children with CF. Bacterial community complexity was inversely correlated with patient age, presence of P. aeruginosa and antibiotic exposure, and was related to CF genotype. Strikingly, bacterial communities lacking P. aeruginosa were much more similar to each other than were those containing P. aeruginosa, regardless of antibiotic exposure. This suggests that community composition might be a better predictor of disease progression than the presence of P. aeruginosa alone and deserves further study.

  7. Antibiotic management of lung infections in cystic fibrosis. II. Nontuberculous mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, James F; Aksamit, Timothy R; Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Dasenbrook, Elliott C; Elborn, J Stuart; LiPuma, John J; Ranganathan, Sarath C; Waters, Valerie J; Ratjen, Felix A

    2014-10-01

    Airway infections are a key component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Whereas the approach to common pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa is guided by a significant body of evidence, other infections often pose a considerable challenge to treating physicians. In Part I of this series on the antibiotic management of difficult lung infections, we discussed bacterial organisms including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacterial infections, and treatment of multiple bacterial pathogens. Here, we summarize the approach to infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi. Nontuberculous mycobacteria can significantly impact the course of lung disease in patients with CF, but differentiation between colonization and infection is difficult clinically as coinfection with other micro-organisms is common. Treatment consists of different classes of antibiotics, varies in intensity, and is best guided by a team of specialized clinicians and microbiologists. The ability of anaerobic bacteria to contribute to CF lung disease is less clear, even though clinical relevance has been reported in individual patients. Anaerobes detected in CF sputum are often resistant to multiple drugs, and treatment has not yet been shown to positively affect patient outcome. Fungi have gained significant interest as potential CF pathogens. Although the role of Candida is largely unclear, there is mounting evidence that Scedosporium species and Aspergillus fumigatus, beyond the classical presentation of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, can be relevant in patients with CF and treatment should be considered. At present, however there remains limited information on how best to select patients who could benefit from antifungal therapy.

  8. Assessing time to pulmonary function benefit following antibiotic treatment of acute cystic fibrosis exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Riordan Mary A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF is a life-shortening genetic disease in which ~80% of deaths result from loss of lung function linked to inflammation due to chronic bacterial infection (principally Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pulmonary exacerbations (intermittent episodes during which symptoms of lung infection increase and lung function decreases can cause substantial resource utilization, morbidity, and irreversible loss of lung function. Intravenous antibiotic treatment to reduce exacerbation symptoms is standard management practice. However, no prospective studies have identified an optimal antibiotic treatment duration and this lack of objective data has been identified as an area of concern and interest. Methods We have retrospectively analyzed pulmonary function response data (as forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1 from a previous blinded controlled CF exacerbation management study of intravenous ceftazidime/tobramycin and meropenem/tobramycin in which spirometry was conducted daily to assess the time course of pulmonary function response. Results Ninety-five patients in the study received antibiotics for at least 4 days and were included in our analyses. Patients received antibiotics for an average of 12.6 days (median = 13, SD = 3.2 days, with a range of 4 to 27 days. No significant differences were observed in mean or median treatment durations as functions of either treatment group or baseline lung disease stage. Average time from initiation of antibiotic treatment to highest observed FEV1 was 8.7 days (median = 10, SD = 4.0 days, with a range of zero to 19 days. Patients were treated an average of 3.9 days beyond the day of peak FEV1 (median = 3, SD = 3.8 days, with 89 patients (93.7% experiencing their peak FEV1 improvement within 13 days. There were no differences in mean or median times to peak FEV1 as a function of treatment group, although the magnitude of FEV1 improvement differed between groups. Conclusions Our

  9. Voice Disorder in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Bruna Mendes; Costa, Kauê Machado; da Silva Filho, Manoel

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a common autosomal recessive disorder with drastic respiratory symptoms, including shortness of breath and chronic cough. While most of cystic fibrosis treatment is dedicated to mitigating the effects of respiratory dysfunction, the potential effects of this disease on vocal parameters have not been systematically studied. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis patients, given their characteristic respiratory disorders, would also present dysphonic symptoms. Given that voice disorders can severely impair quality of life, the identification of a potential cystic fibrosis-related dysphonia could be of great value for the clinical evaluation and treatment of this disease. We tested our hypothesis by measuring vocal parameters, using both objective physical measures and the GRBAS subjective evaluation method, in male and female cystic fibrosis patients undergoing conventional treatment and compared them to age and sex matched controls. We found that cystic fibrosis patients had a significantly lower vocal intensity and harmonic to noise ratio, as well as increased levels of jitter and shimmer. In addition, cystic fibrosis patients also showed higher scores of roughness, breathiness and asthenia, as well as a significantly altered general grade of dysphonia. When we segregated the results according to sex, we observed that, as a group, only female cystic fibrosis patients had significantly lower values of harmonic to noise ratio and an abnormal general grade of dysphonia in relation to matched controls, suggesting that cystic fibrosis exerts a more pronounced effect on vocal parameters of women in relation to men. Overall, the dysphonic characteristics of CF patients can be explained by dysfunctions in vocal fold movement and partial upper airway obstruction, potentially caused by the accumulation of mucus and chronic cough characteristic of CF symptomatology. Our results show that CF patients exhibit significant dysphonia and suggest they may

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. M Brand, D Bisoz. Abstract. Background. Antibiotic prophylaxis for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is controversial. We set out to assess the current antibiotic prescribing practice among ...

  11. Early treatment with inhaled antibiotics postpones next occurrence of Achromobacter in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mikala; Ridderberg, W; Hansen, Christine Rønne

    2013-01-01

    In this nationwide retrospective study, we analysed species distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility and time to next occurrence of Achromobacter in Danish cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from 2000 to 2011....

  12. Effect of antibiotic treatment on fat absorption in mice with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Bijvelds, Marcel J. C.; de Jonge, Hugo R.; De Lisle, Robert C.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    INTRODUCTION: Improving fat absorption remains a challenge in cystic fibrosis (CF). Antibiotics (AB) treatment has been shown to improve body weight in CF mice. The mechanism may include improvement in fat absorption. We aimed to determine the effect of AB on fat absorption in two CF mouse models.

  13. Isolation of Pseudomonas cepacia in cystic fibrosis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de Andrade Marques

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infection on cystic fibrosis (CF patients are associated with a limited qualitative number of microorganisms. During the colonization process, Staphylococcus aureus usually preceedes Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This latter is at first non-mucoid, being replaced or associated to a mucoid morphotype which is rare in other diseases. In 1980, Pseudomonas cepacia appeared as an important agent in CF pulmonary infections with a mean frequency of about 6.1% isolations in different parts of the world. The primus colonization mainly occurs in the presence of pre-existent tissue lesions and the clinical progress of the disease is variable. In some patients it can be fulminant; in others it can cause a gradual and slow decrease in their pulmonary functions. The concern with this germ isolation is justified by its antibiotic multiple resistence and the possibility of direct transmission from a colonized patient to a non-colonized one. We reported the first case of P. cepacia infection in a CF patient in our area. The microbiological attendance to this patient had been made from 1986 to 1991 and the first positive culture appeared in 1988. The sensitivity profile showed that the primus colonization strain was sensitive to 9 of 17 tested antibiotics, however in the last culture the strain was resistent to all antibiotics. These data corroborate the need for monitoring the bacterial flora on CF patients respiratory system.

  14. Changes of Proteases, Antiproteases, and Pathogens in Cystic Fibrosis Patients’ Upper and Lower Airways after IV-Antibiotic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Müller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In cystic fibrosis (CF the upper (UAW and lower airways (LAW are reservoirs for pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The consecutive hosts’ release of proteolytic enzymes contributes to inflammation and progressive pulmonary destruction. Objectives were to assess dynamics of protease : antiprotease ratios and pathogens in CF-UAW and LAW sampled by nasal lavage (NL and sputum before and after intravenous- (IV- antibiotic therapy. Methods. From 19 IV-antibiotic courses of 17 CF patients NL (10 mL/nostril and sputum were collected before and after treatment. Microbiological colonization and concentrations of NE/SLPI/CTSS (ELISA and MMP-9/TIMP-1 (multiplex bead array were determined. Additionally, changes of sinonasal symptoms were assessed (SNOT-20. Results. IV-antibiotic treatment had more pronounced effects on inflammatory markers in LAW, whereas trends to decrease were also found in UAW. Ratios of MMP-9/TIMP-1 were higher in sputum, and ratios of NE/SLPI were higher in NL. Remarkably, NE/SLPI ratio was 10-fold higher in NL compared to healthy controls. SNOT-20 scores decreased significantly during therapy (P=0.001. Conclusion. For the first time, changes in microbiological patterns in UAW and LAW after IV-antibiotic treatments were assessed, together with changes of protease/antiprotease imbalances. Delayed responses of proteases and antiproteases to IV-antibiotic therapy were found in UAW compared to LAW.

  15. Improving the care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahsan Aftab; Nash, Edward F; Whitehouse, Joanna; Rashid, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Background The West Midlands Adult Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centre based at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital provides care for adults with CF in the West Midlands. People with CF are prone to pulmonary exacerbations, which often require inpatient admission for intravenous antibiotics. We observed that the admission process was efficient during working hours (9:00–17:00, Monday–Friday) when the CF team are routinely available, but out-of-working hours, there were delays in these patients being clerked and receiving their first antibiotic dose. We were concerned that this was resulting in quality and potential safety issues by causing delays in starting treatment and prolonging hospital inpatient stays. We therefore undertook a quality improvement project (QIP) aimed at addressing these issues. An initial survey showed median time to clerk of 5 hours, with 60% of patients missing their first dose of antibiotics and mean length of stay of 16 days. Methods We applied the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle approach, with the first PDSA cycle involving raising awareness of the issue through education to doctors, nurses and patients. Results This led to a reduction of median time to clerk from 5 to 2 hours with 23% of patients missing their first antibiotic dose and mean length of stay reducing to 14 days. The second cycle involved introducing an admissions checklist and displaying education posters around the hospital, resulting in median time to clerk remaining at 2 hours but only 20% of patients missing their first antibiotic dose and the mean length of stay remaining at 14 days. Conclusion This QIP has improved the out-of-hours admissions process for adults with CF in our centre. We plan to review the longer term effects of the project including sustainability, effects on clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:28959778

  16. Nebulized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients: roadmap and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakou, G; Siakallis, G; Tsiodras, S; Arfaras-Melainis, A; Dimopoulos, G

    2017-03-01

    Nebulized antibiotics use has become common practice in the therapeutics of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. There is an increasing interest in their use for respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients in order to a) overcome pharmacokinetic issues in the lung compartment with traditional systemic antibiotic use and b) prevent the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The beneficial effects of antibiotic nebulization in MV patients e.g. increasing efficacy, reduced toxicity and prevention of resistance are described. Physicochemical parameters of optimal lung deposition, characteristics of currently available nebulizers, practical aspects of the procedure, including drug preparation and adjustments of ventilator and circuit parameter are presented. Antibiotics used in nebulized route, along with efficacy in various clinical indications and safety issues are reviewed. Expert commentary: The safety of nebulization of antibiotics has been proven in numerous studies; efficacy as adjunctive treatment to intravenous regimens or as monotherapy has been demonstrated in ventilator-associated pneumonia or ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis due to MDR or susceptible pathogens. However, due to the heterogeneity of studies, multiple meta-analyses fail to demonstrate a clear effect. Clarification of indications, standardization of technique and implementation of clinical practice guidelines, based on new large-scale trials will lead to the optimal use of nebulized antibiotics.

  17. Cysteamine-mediated clearance of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in human cystic fibrosis macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L Shrestha

    Full Text Available Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are virulent, multi-drug resistant pathogens that survive and replicate intracellularly in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. We have discovered that B. cenocepacia cannot be cleared from CF macrophages due to defective autophagy, causing continued systemic inflammation and infection. Defective autophagy in CF is mediated through constitutive reactive oxygen species (ROS activation of transglutaminase-2 (TG2, which causes the sequestration (accumulation of essential autophagy initiating proteins. Cysteamine is a TG2 inhibitor and proteostasis regulator with the potential to restore autophagy. Therefore, we sought to examine the impact of cysteamine on CF macrophage autophagy and bacterial killing. Human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs and alveolar macrophages were isolated from CF and non-CF donors. Macrophages were infected with clinical isolates of relevant CF pathogens. Cysteamine caused direct bacterial growth killing of live B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans, P. aeruginosa and MRSA in the absence of cells. Additionally, B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans, and P. aeruginosa invasion were significantly decreased in CF MDMs treated with cysteamine. Finally, cysteamine decreased TG2, p62, and beclin-1 accumulation in CF, leading to increased Burkholderia uptake into autophagosomes, increased macrophage CFTR expression, and decreased ROS and IL-1β production. Cysteamine has direct anti-bacterial growth killing and improves human CF macrophage autophagy resulting in increased macrophage-mediated bacterial clearance, decreased inflammation, and reduced constitutive ROS production. Thus, cysteamine may be an effective adjunct to antibiotic regimens in CF.

  18. [Antibiotic therapy in patients with renal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, H; Rose, K G

    1985-06-01

    For the otolaryngologist (ENT specialist), too, antibiotics are among the most frequently prescribed drugs. This article gives the essential fundamentals for the antibiotic treatment of patients with restricted kidney functions, as well as advice for antibiotic therapy in clinics and in medical practice.

  19. Inhaled antibiotics in the treatment of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: clinical and drug delivery perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugianto, Tiffanie Daisy; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-01-01

    Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is a chronic, progressive, suppurative lung disease characterized by permanent dilatation of bronchial subdivisions, which further causes accumulation of sputum and bacterial infections. The advent of inhaled antibiotics over the past two decades has been expected to effectively attenuate the problem of chronic bacterial infections in CF and NCFB subjects with higher, local drug concentrations and minimal systemic side effects. This review summarizes and evaluates current clinical evidence of efficacy and adverse effects of inhaled antibiotics in NCFB, as well as ongoing preclinical and clinical studies, followed by a discussion of issues and challenges in clinical practice and drug delivery strategies, together with future research directions. The evidence base of the clinical efficacy of inhaled antibiotics in NCFB is limited and the degrees of reported clinical benefits have been modest and conflicting. Challenges surrounding inhaled antibiotics application and development include the lack of knowledge of disease factors and optimum management strategies, unreceptive lung pathophysiology and the lack of factors that support compliance and tolerability. Nonetheless, research continues to give birth to new clinical findings and novel formulations such as combination antibiotics and sustained-release formulations, which add great value to the development of efficacious, safe and convenient inhalable antibiotics of the future.

  20. Sphingobacterium respiratory tract infection in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gregorio Fabiola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria that belong to the genus Sphingobacterium are Gram-negative, non-fermentative bacilli, ubiquitous in nature and rarely involved in human infections. The aims of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology of infection by Sphingobacterium in a cohort of patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF, the antibiotic susceptibility and the DNA fingerprinting of the isolated strains and to analyze some clinical outcomes of the infected patients. Findings Between January 2006 and June 2008, patients (n = 332 attending the Regional CF Unit in Naples, Italy, were enrolled. Sputum samples were processed for microscopic, cultural, phenotypic identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. DNA fingerprinting was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. A total of 21 strains of Sphingobacterium were isolated from 7 patients (13 of S. spiritovorum, 8 of S. multivorum. S. multivorum isolates were more resistant than those of S. spiritovorum. PFGE profiles were in general heterogeneous, which suggested independent circulation. Conclusions This is the first Italian report about respiratory tract infections by Sphingobacterium in CF patients. In our cohort, these infections were not associated with a deterioration of pulmonary function during the follow-up period. Although the exact role of this microorganism in CF lung disease is unknown and the number of infected patients was small, this study could represent an important starting-point for understanding the epidemiology and the possible pathogenic role of Sphingobacterium in CF patients.

  1. Cellular responses of A549 alveolar epithelial cells to serially collected Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients at different stages of pulmonary infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawdon, Nicole A; Aval, Pouya Sadeghi; Barnes, Rebecca J

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major cause of chronic pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa lose certain virulence factors, transform into a mucoid phenotype, and develop antibiotic resistance. We hypothesized that these genetic and phenotypic ...

  2. Patient-reported Outcomes in Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Goss, Christopher H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been tremendous progress in the area of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). A PRO instrument is defined as any measure of a patient's health status that is elicited directly from the patient and assesses how the patient “feels or functions with respect to his or her health condition.” The advances seen in clinical research regarding PROs has been mirrored in research in cystic fibrosis (CF). A large number of instruments have been used for both therapeutic and ...

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa host-adaptation in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rau, Martin Holm

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of transition from an environmental lifestyle to a host-associated lifestyle, as exemplified in the life-long airway infection of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Long-term infection is associated with extensive genetic adaptation of P...... the framework upon which this thesis is based. Early P. aeruginosa colonization of the CF airways is the period in which the outcome of infection is determined, i.e. if the bacteria are eventually eradicated or persist. In three patient cases the evolutionary events from initiation of infection were explored...... to unravel the early adaptive processes possibly securing bacterial persistence. In this early stage, clinical isolates displayed few adaptive events however these included phenotypes often observed in late chronic infection isolates including the conversion to a mucoid phenotype and increased antibiotic...

  4. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of and were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used.The results indicated that is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment.

  5. Non-invasive measurement of liver and pancreas fibrosis in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Schlueter, Nina; Smaczny, Christina; Eickmeier, Olaf; Rosewich, Martin; Feifel, Kirstin; Herrmann, Eva; Poynard, Thierry; Gleiber, Wolfgang; Lais, Christoph; Zielen, Stefan; Wagner, Thomas O F; Zeuzem, Stefan; Bojunga, Joerg

    2013-09-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have a relevant morbidity and mortality caused by CF-related liver-disease. While transient elastography (TE) is an established elastography method in hepatology centers, Acoustic-Radiation-Force-Impulse (ARFI)-Imaging is a novel ultrasound-based elastography method which is integrated in a conventional ultrasound-system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of liver-fibrosis in patients with CF using TE, ARFI-imaging and fibrosis blood tests. 106 patients with CF were prospectively included in the present study and received ARFI-imaging of the left and right liver-lobe, ARFI of the pancreas TE of the liver and laboratory evaluation. The prevalence of liver-fibrosis according to recently published best practice guidelines for CFLD was 22.6%. Prevalence of significant liver-fibrosis assessed by TE, ARFI-right-liver-lobe, ARFI-left-liver-lobe, Fibrotest, Fibrotest-corrected-by-haptoglobin was 17%, 24%, 40%, 7%, and 16%, respectively. The best agreement was found for TE, ARFI-right-liver-lobe and Fibrotest-corrected-by-haptoglobin. Patients with pancreatic-insufficiency had significantly lower pancreas-ARFI-values as compared to patients without. ARFI-imaging and TE seem to be promising non-invasive methods for detection of liver-fibrosis in patients with CF. Copyright © 2013 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative genomics of non-pseudomonal bacterial species colonising paediatric cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L. Ormerod

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic disorder cystic fibrosis is a life-limiting condition affecting ∼70,000 people worldwide. Targeted, early, treatment of the dominant infecting species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has improved patient outcomes; however, there is concern that other species are now stepping in to take its place. In addition, the necessarily long-term antibiotic therapy received by these patients may be providing a suitable environment for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. To investigate these issues, we employed whole-genome sequencing of 28 non-Pseudomonas bacterial strains isolated from three paediatric patients. We did not find any trend of increasing antibiotic resistance (either by mutation or lateral gene transfer in these isolates in comparison with other examples of the same species. In addition, each isolate contained a virulence gene repertoire that was similar to other examples of the relevant species. These results support the impaired clearance of the CF lung not demanding extensive virulence for survival in this habitat. By analysing serial isolates of the same species we uncovered several examples of strain persistence. The same strain of Staphylococcus aureus persisted for nearly a year, despite administration of antibiotics to which it was shown to be sensitive. This is consistent with previous studies showing antibiotic therapy to be inadequate in cystic fibrosis patients, which may also explain the lack of increasing antibiotic resistance over time. Serial isolates of two naturally multi-drug resistant organisms, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, revealed that while all S. maltophilia strains were unique, A. xylosoxidans persisted for nearly five years, making this a species of particular concern. The data generated by this study will assist in developing an understanding of the non-Pseudomonas species associated with cystic fibrosis.

  7. Urinary incontinence in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Gina; De Boe, Veerle; Braeckman, Johan; Michielsen, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Owing to evolution in treatment, the average life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased. This has been followed by an increase in urological complications such as urinary incontinence. As stress incontinence occurs during exercise, it may have a negative effect on the implementation of respiratory physiotherapy. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence and its effect on the quality of life and physiotherapy in a population with CF. Questionnaires were used to determine the prevalence of incontinence in patients of the Cystic Fibrosis Clinic of the University Hospital in Brussels. Two different surveys were used, depending on the age of the patients (incontinence were emphasized. Questionnaires were completed by 122 participants aged 6-59 years, showing an overall prevalence of 27% for urinary incontinence. Mainly adults reported urinary incontinence, with a prevalence of 11% in men and 68% in women aged 12 and above. The amount of urinary leakage was usually only a few drops and it was mainly triggered by coughing. Many of the participants had never mentioned this symptom to anyone. Doctors' and physical therapists' attention should be drawn to the fact that urinary incontinence is part of the complication spectrum of CF. A quarter of the study population refrained from coughing up phlegm and from physiotherapy. It is important to actively question and inform about this problem, to enable its detection and treatment.

  8. Lung Abscess: An Early Complication of Lung Transplantation in a Patient with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelić, I; Jakopović, M; Klepetko, W; Džubur, F; Hećimović, A; Makek, M J; Samaržija, M; Dugac, A V

    2017-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman with cystic fibrosis (CF) developed lung abscess, as a rare complication caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infection, after lung transplantation (LT). After 6 months of long-term antibiotic therapy, the abscess was successfully eliminated. In reviewed published literature, no previous report was found describing this kind of complication caused by MDR A. baumannii in post-LT patient with CF. In our experience, lung abscess in LT recipients with CF can be successfully treated with prolonged antibiotic therapy.

  9. [Patient safety in antibiotics administration: Risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda Palau, M; Pérez Juan, E

    To determine the level of risk in the preparation and administration of antibiotics frequently used in the Intensive Care Unit using a risk matrix. A study was conducted using situation analysis and literature review of databases, protocols and good practice guidelines on intravenous therapy, drugs, and their administration routes. The most used antibiotics in the ICU registered in the ENVIN-HELICS program from 1 April to 30 June 2015 were selected. In this period, 257 patients received antimicrobial treatment and 26 antibiotics were evaluated. Variables studied: A risk assessment of each antibiotic using the scale Risk Assessment Tool, of the National Patient Safety Agency, as well as pH, osmolarity, type of catheter recommended for administration, and compatibility and incompatibility with other antibiotics studied. Almost two-thirds (65.3%) of antibiotics had more than 3 risk factors (represented by a yellow stripe), with the remaining 34.7% of antibiotics having between 0 and 2 risk factors (represented by a green stripe). There were no antibiotics with 6 or more risk factors (represented by a red stripe). Most drugs needed reconstitution, additional dilution, and the use of part of the vial to administer the prescribed dose. More than half of the antibiotics studied had a moderate risk level; thus measures should be adopted in order to reduce it. The risk matrix is a useful tool for the assessment and detection of weaknesses associated with the preparation and administration of intravenous antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical effects of sinus surgery and adjuvant therapy in cystic fibrosis patients - can chronic lung infections be postponed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanaes, K; Johansen, H K; Skov, M

    2013-01-01

    The paranasal sinuses can be a bacterial reservoir for pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) METHODOLOGY: In this prospective, non-randomised, uncontrolled, intervention cohort study, the clinical effect of sinus surgery followed by two weeks` intravenous antibiotics, 6 month...

  11. INHALATION ANTIBIOTICS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR THE CONTROL OF INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Simonova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of basis therapy in patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and cystic fibrosis. Authors showed the safety, good tolerance and high efficacy of constant treatment with special tobramycin solution delivered by nebulizer (Tobi in children including ones under 6 years old. Even first inhalations of tobramycin result in decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa rate in bacterial inoculation or to it complete removal. The drug helps stabilization of clinical and functional state of patients, improvement of airflow and common state, and to clinical remission.Key words: children, cystic fibrosis, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, tobramycin, nebulizer therapy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 119–123

  12. Blood lipids analysis in patients with hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between blood hepatic fibrosis markers and blood lipids levels. Methods: Serum hepatic fibrosis markers (HA, PC III, IV-C, LN) levels were determined with RIA and serum lipids (TG, TCh HDL; LDL, apoA1, apoB) were measured with biochemical methods in 98 patients with hepatitis in various stages and 50 controls. Liver biopsy was done in all the hepatitis patients. Results: Hepatic fibrosis was classified into 5 grades (S0-S4) according to the pathology shown in the biopsy specimen. The serum lipid levels decreased along with the increase of severity of fibrosis from S0 to S4. Levels in S4 patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels increased and lipids levels decreased along with the progress of hepatitis from acute to cirrhosis. (authors)

  13. Clonal dissemination, emergence of mutator lineages and antibiotic resistance evolution in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis chronic lung infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla López-Causapé

    Full Text Available Chronic respiratory infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF. We investigated the interplay between three key microbiological aspects of these infections: the occurrence of transmissible and persistent strains, the emergence of variants with enhanced mutation rates (mutators and the evolution of antibiotic resistance. For this purpose, 10 sequential isolates, covering up to an 8-year period, from each of 10 CF patients were studied. As anticipated, resistance significantly accumulated overtime, and occurred more frequently among mutator variants detected in 6 of the patients. Nevertheless, highest resistance was documented for the nonmutator CF epidemic strain LES-1 (ST-146 detected for the first time in Spain. A correlation between resistance profiles and resistance mechanisms evaluated [efflux pump (mexB, mexD, mexF, and mexY and ampC overexpression and OprD production] was not always obvious and hypersusceptibility to certain antibiotics (such as aztreonam or meropenem was frequently observed. The analysis of whole genome macrorestriction fragments through Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE revealed that a single genotype (clone FQSE-A produced persistent infections in 4 of the patients. Multilocus Sequence typing (MLST identified clone FQSE-A as the CF epidemic clone ST-274, but striking discrepancies between PFGE and MLST profiles were evidenced. While PFGE macrorestriction patterns remained stable, a new sequence type (ST-1089 was detected in two of the patients, differing from ST-274 by only two point mutations in two of the genes, each leading to a nonpreviously described allele. Moreover, detailed genetic analyses revealed that the new ST-1089 is a mutS deficient mutator lineage that evolved from the epidemic strain ST-274, acquired specific resistance mechanisms, and underwent further interpatient spread. Thus, presented results provide the first evidence of interpatient dissemination

  14. Rapid emergence of a ceftazidime-resistant Burkholderia multivorans strain in a cystic fibrosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokell, Joshua R; Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Steck, Todd R

    2013-12-01

    Burkholderia multivorans poses a serious health threat to cystic fibrosis patients due to innate resistance to multiple antibiotics and acquisition of resistance to a range of antibiotics due to the frequent use of antibiotics to treat chronic infections. Monitoring antibiotic susceptibility is crucial to managing patient care. We identified the rapid emergence of a ceftazidime-resistant strain in a single patient within four days during a hospitalization for treatment of an exacerbation. B. multivorans was isolated from expectorated sputum samples using Burkholderia cepacia selective agar. A macrodilution assay was performed on all isolates to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of ceftazidime. Approximately 4000 colonies were scored to identify the percent of ceftazidime-resistant colonies. Extracted DNA was used to determine the total bacterial counts and abundance of B. multivorans using quantitative PCR. An increase from no detectable B. multivorans ceftazidime-resistant colonies to over 75% of all colonies tested occurred within a four-day period. The resistant population remained dominant in 6 of the 8 samples in the following 17 months of the study. qPCR revealed an association between change in the percent of resistant colonies and abundance of B. multivorans, but not of total bacteria. No association was found between the acquisition of resistance to ceftazidime and other antibiotics commonly used to treat B. multivorans infections. The rapid emergence of a ceftazidime-resistant by B. multivorans strain occurred during a hospitalization while under selective pressure of antibiotics. The resistant strain maintained dominance in the B. multivorans population which resulted in an overall decline in a patient health and treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2013 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Challenges with current inhaled treatments for chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greally, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) is the predominant pathogen infecting the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Initial colonization is usually transient and associated with non-mucoid strains, which can be eradicated if identified early. This strategy can prevent, or at least delay, chronic Pa infection, which eventually develops in the majority of patients by their late teens or early adulthood. This article discusses the management and latest treatment developments of Pa lung infection in patients with CF, with a focus on nebulized antibiotic therapy.

  16. Viruses in cystic fibrosis patients' airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, Lisa; Le Berre, Rozenn; Pilorgé, Léa; Payan, Christopher; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Vallet, Sophie

    2017-11-01

    Although bacteria have historically been considered to play a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway damage, a strong impact of respiratory viral infections (RVI) is also now recognized. Emerging evidence confirms that respiratory viruses are associated with deterioration of pulmonary function and exacerbation and facilitation of bacterial colonization in CF patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on respiratory viruses in CF airways, to discuss the resulting inflammation and RVI response, to determine how to detect the viruses, and to assess their clinical consequences, prevalence, and interactions with bacteria. The most predominant are Rhinoviruses (RVs), significantly associated with CF exacerbation. Molecular techniques, and especially multiplex PCR, help to diagnose viral infections, and the coming rise of metagenomics will extend knowledge of viral populations in the complex ecosystem of CF airways. Prophylaxis and vaccination are currently available only for Respiratory syncytial and Influenza virus (IV), but antiviral molecules are being tested to improve CF patients' care. All the points raised in this review highlight the importance of taking account of RVIs and their potential impact on the CF airway ecosystem.

  17. Qualitative evaluation of antibiotic usage in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hindra Irawan Satari; Agus Firmansyah; Theresia Theresia

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drug for pediatric patients. Inappropriate use of antibiotics can increase morbidity, mortality, patient cost and bacterial antibiotic resistence. Antibiotic uses can be evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. Objective To qualitatively evaluate antibiotic use in patients using Gyssens algorithm. Methods We performed a descriptive, retrospective study of matient medical records of those admitted to the pediatric ward fro...

  18. Impaired Lymphocyte Profile in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Santos Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Th2 immune response in chronic schistosomiasis is associated with the development of periportal fibrosis. However, little is known about the phenotype and activation status of T cells in the process. Objective. To evaluate the profile of T cells in schistosomiasis patients with periportal fibrosis. Methods. It was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the village of Agua Preta, Bahia, Brazil, which included 37 subjects with periportal fibrosis determined by ultrasound. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained by the Ficcol-hypaque gradient and the frequency of T cells expressing the surface markers CD28, CD69, CD25, and CTLA-4 was determined by flow cytometry. Results. The frequency of CD4+CD28+ T lymphocytes was higher in individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis compared to patients with incipient fibrosis. We did not observe any significant difference in the frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing CD69 among groups of individuals. There was also no significant difference in the frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 or CD69 among the studied groups. Individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis presented a lower frequency of CD8+ T cells, CD4+CD25high T cells, and CD4+CTLA-4+ T cells when compared to patients without fibrosis or incipient fibrosis. The frequency of CD4+CD25low cells did not differ between groups. Conclusion. The high frequency of activated T cells coinciding with a low frequency of putative Treg cells may account for the development of periportal fibrosis in human schistosomiasis.

  19. Lumacaftor-Ivacaftor in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Homozygous for Phe508del CFTR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainwright, Claire E; Elborn, J Stuart; Ramsey, Bonnie W

    2015-01-01

    was 30 to 39% lower in the lumacaftor-ivacaftor groups than in the placebo group; the rate of events leading to hospitalization or the use of intravenous antibiotics was lower in the lumacaftor-ivacaftor groups as well. The incidence of adverse events was generally similar in the lumacaftor......-ivacaftor and placebo groups. The rate of discontinuation due to an adverse event was 4.2% among patients who received lumacaftor-ivacaftor versus 1.6% among those who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that lumacaftor in combination with ivacaftor provided a benefit for patients with cystic fibrosis...

  20. Controlled trial of inhaled budesonide in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchopulmonary Psuedomonas aeruginosa infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S S; Nielsen, K G

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of anti-inflammatory treatment with inhaled glucocorticosteroids in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and complicating chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) lung infection was studied in a placebo-controlled, parallel, double-blind single center trial. Active treatment...... consisted of budesonide dry powder, 800 microg twice daily, delivered from a Turbuhaler. The study period covered two successive 3-mo intervals between elective courses of intravenous anti-Pseudomonas antibiotics. Fifty-five patients entered the study, with a mean age of 20 yr and a mean FEV1 of 63...

  1. Prolonged antibiotics for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnin, Khin; Nguyen, Chau; Carson, Kristin V; Evans, David J; Greenstone, Michael; Smith, Brian J

    2015-08-13

    The vicious cycle hypothesis for bronchiectasis predicts that bacterial colonisation of the respiratory tract perpetuates inflammatory change. This damages the mucociliary escalator, preventing bacterial clearance and allowing persistence of pro-inflammatory mediators. Conventional treatment with physiotherapy and intermittent antibiotics is believed to improve the condition of people with bronchiectasis, although no conclusive data show that these interventions influence the natural history of the condition. Various strategies have been tried to interrupt this cycle of infection and inflammation, including prolonging antibiotic treatment with the goal of allowing the airway mucosa to heal. To determine the benefits of prolonged antibiotic therapy in the treatment of patients with bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register and reference lists of identified articles. Searches were current as of February 2014. Randomised trials examining the use of prolonged antibiotic therapy (for four or more weeks) in the treatment of bronchiectasis compared with placebo or usual care. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors to ask for missing information. Eighteen trials met the inclusion criteria, randomly assigning a total of 1157 participants. Antibiotics were given for between four weeks and 83 weeks. Limited meta-analysis was possible because of the diversity of outcomes reported in these trials. Based on the number of participants with at least one exacerbation, the meta-analysis showed significant effects in favour of the intervention (odds ratio (OR) 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 0.52; P value antibiotics with a moderate quality grade of supporting evidence (37 per 1000 in the intervention arm (95% CI 13 to 96) and 87 per 1000 in control (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.11; P value = 0.08). Drug resistance developed in 36 of 220 participants taking antibiotics compared with

  2. Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamille Souza Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major issue with Schistosoma mansoni infection is the development of periportal fibrosis, which is predominantly caused by the host immune response to egg antigens. Experimental studies have pointed to the participation of monocytes in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the subsets of monocytes in individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis. Monocytes were classified into classical (CD14++CD16−, intermediate (CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++. The expressions of monocyte markers and cytokines were assessed using flow cytometry. The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was higher in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis as compared to other groups. Although no differences were observed in receptors expression (IL-4R and IL-10R between groups of patients, the expression of IL-12 was lower in monocytes from individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis, suggesting a protective role of this cytokine in the development of fibrosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the three different monocyte populations participate in the immunopathogenesis of periportal fibrosis, since they express high levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines and low levels of regulatory markers.

  3. Co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis and celiac disease in Scandinavian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, Gjermund; Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Giljam, Marita

    2009-01-01

    Background: The co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and celiac disease (CD) has been reported sporadically since the 1960s. To our knowledge, this is the first time a systematic screening is performed in a large cohort of CF patients. Methods: Transglutaminase-IgA (TGA), endomysium-IgA (EMA...

  4. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR allelic variants relate to shifts in faecal microbiota of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Schippa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In this study we investigated the effects of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR gene variants on the composition of faecal microbiota, in patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF. CFTR mutations (F508del is the most common lead to a decreased secretion of chloride/water, and to mucus sticky secretions, in pancreas, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Intestinal manifestations are underestimated in CF, leading to ileum meconium at birth, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth in adult age. METHODS: Thirty-six CF patients, fasting and under no-antibiotic treatment, were CFTR genotyped on both alleles. Faecal samples were subjected to molecular microbial profiling through Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis and species-specific PCR. Ecological parameters and multivariate algorithms were employed to find out if CFTR variants could be related to the microbiota structure. RESULTS: Patients were classified by two different criteria: 1 presence/absence of F508del mutation; 2 disease severity in heterozygous and homozygous F508del patients. We found that homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients exhibited an enhanced dysbiotic faecal microbiota composition, even within the CF cohort itself, with higher biodiversity and evenness. We also found, by species-specific PCR, that potentially harmful species (Escherichia coli and Eubacterium biforme were abundant in homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients, while beneficial species (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium limosum were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that establishes a link among CFTR variants and shifts in faecal microbiota, opening the way to studies that perceive CF as a 'systemic disease', linking the lung and the gut in a joined axis.

  5. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) allelic variants relate to shifts in faecal microbiota of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippa, Serena; Iebba, Valerio; Santangelo, Floriana; Gagliardi, Antonella; De Biase, Riccardo Valerio; Stamato, Antonella; Bertasi, Serenella; Lucarelli, Marco; Conte, Maria Pia; Quattrucci, Serena

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene variants on the composition of faecal microbiota, in patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF). CFTR mutations (F508del is the most common) lead to a decreased secretion of chloride/water, and to mucus sticky secretions, in pancreas, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Intestinal manifestations are underestimated in CF, leading to ileum meconium at birth, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth in adult age. Thirty-six CF patients, fasting and under no-antibiotic treatment, were CFTR genotyped on both alleles. Faecal samples were subjected to molecular microbial profiling through Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis and species-specific PCR. Ecological parameters and multivariate algorithms were employed to find out if CFTR variants could be related to the microbiota structure. Patients were classified by two different criteria: 1) presence/absence of F508del mutation; 2) disease severity in heterozygous and homozygous F508del patients. We found that homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients exhibited an enhanced dysbiotic faecal microbiota composition, even within the CF cohort itself, with higher biodiversity and evenness. We also found, by species-specific PCR, that potentially harmful species (Escherichia coli and Eubacterium biforme) were abundant in homozygous-F508del and severe CF patients, while beneficial species (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium limosum) were reduced. This is the first report that establishes a link among CFTR variants and shifts in faecal microbiota, opening the way to studies that perceive CF as a 'systemic disease', linking the lung and the gut in a joined axis.

  6. Radiation-induced neck fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Wang Rensheng; Gan Langge; Liu Wenqi; Zhang Yong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the post-irradiation neck fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its related factors. Methods: A total of 267 patients received conventional fractionated radiotherapy with D T 50-72 Gy on the neck a half year to 10 years ago were observed for the changes of cervical shape and functions. Results: Different degrees of post-irradiation neck fibrosis were seen in all patients. The rate of heavy degree of neck radiation fibrosis was 24.34 %, and it was 2.74% when received preventive dose on the neck. There was a very significant difference between patients who received late course of tangential irradiation on the neck and those who didn't receive (P=0.0001). The incidence of post-irradiation neck fibrosis didn't increase when patients received radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy (P=0.2678). The function of cervical muscles turned weak in patients received radiotherapy delivered by 6 MV accelerator in late course of tangential irradiation, whereas skin damage was severer in patients treated with 60 Co γ-rays. Conclusions: The incidence of heavy degree of post-irradiation neck fibrosis is high ,and is related closely to late course of tangential irradiation. The authors should avoid adopting this sort of irradiation on the neck. (authors)

  7. Pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Goo, Jin Mo E-mail: jmgoo@plaza.snu.ac.kr; Im, Jung-Gi

    2004-11-01

    Objectives: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, detecting pulmonary tuberculosis may be difficult due to the underlying fibrosis. The aim of this report is to describe the radiological and clinical findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and methods: We reviewed 143 consecutive patients in whom IPF was diagnosed by either the histological or radio-clinical criteria. Among them, nine patients were histologically (n=2) or bacteriologically (n=7) confirmed to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. The location and patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis were examined on a thin section CT scan. Results: The most common thin section CT findings were subpleural nodules (n=6; mean diameter, 3.2 cm) and a lobar or segmental consolidation (n=3). The lesions were located most commonly in the right lower lobe (n=4). The incidence of tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was more than five times higher than that of the general population. Conclusion: The atypical manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which may mimic lung cancer or bacterial pneumonia.

  8. Pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung-Gi

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, detecting pulmonary tuberculosis may be difficult due to the underlying fibrosis. The aim of this report is to describe the radiological and clinical findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and methods: We reviewed 143 consecutive patients in whom IPF was diagnosed by either the histological or radio-clinical criteria. Among them, nine patients were histologically (n=2) or bacteriologically (n=7) confirmed to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. The location and patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis were examined on a thin section CT scan. Results: The most common thin section CT findings were subpleural nodules (n=6; mean diameter, 3.2 cm) and a lobar or segmental consolidation (n=3). The lesions were located most commonly in the right lower lobe (n=4). The incidence of tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was more than five times higher than that of the general population. Conclusion: The atypical manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which may mimic lung cancer or bacterial pneumonia

  9. Convergent evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa within patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Sommer, Lea Mette; Molin, Søren; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how within-host evolution compares between genotypically different strains of the same pathogenic species. We sequenced the whole genomes of 474 longitudinally collected clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sampled from 34 children and young individuals with cystic fibrosis. Our analysis of 36 P. aeruginosa lineages identified convergent molecular evolution in 52 genes. This list of genes suggests a role in host adaptation for remodeling of regulatory networks and central metabolism, acquisition of antibiotic resistance and loss of extracellular virulence factors. Furthermore, we find an ordered succession of mutations in key regulatory networks. Accordingly, mutations in downstream transcriptional regulators were contingent upon mutations in upstream regulators, suggesting that remodeling of regulatory networks might be important in adaptation. The characterization of genes involved in host adaptation may help in predicting bacterial evolution in patients with cystic fibrosis and in the design of future intervention strategies.

  10. High-dose ibuprofen therapy associated with esophageal ulceration after pneumonectomy in a patient with cystic fibrosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbar Ran D

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis is thought to develop as a result of airway inflammation, infection, and obstruction. Pulmonary therapies for cystic fibrosis that reduce airway inflammation include corticosteroids, rhDNase, antibiotics, and high-dose ibuprofen. Despite evidence that high-dose ibuprofen slows the progression of lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis, many clinicians have chosen not to use this therapy because of concerns regarding potential side effects, especially gastrointestinal bleeding. However, studies have shown a low incidence of gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding in patients with cystic fibrosis who have been treated with high-dose ibuprofen. Case presentation The described case illustrates a life-threatening upper gastrointestinal bleed that may have resulted from high-dose ibuprofen therapy in a patient with CF who had undergone a pneumonectomy. Mediastinal shift post-pneumonectomy distorted the patient's esophageal anatomy and may have caused decreased esophageal motility, which led to prolonged contact of the ibuprofen with the esophagus. The concentrated effect of the ibuprofen, as well as its systemic effects, probably contributed to the occurrence of the bleed in this patient. Conclusions This report demonstrates that gastrointestinal tract anatomical abnormalities or dysmotility may be contraindications for therapy with high-dose ibuprofen in patients with cystic fibrosis.

  11. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Norwegian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, G; Ojeniyi, B; Høiby, N

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Norwegian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas lung infection in order to see whether cross-infection might have occurred. METHODS: Isolates from 60 patients were collected during the years 1994-98, and typed by pulsed...

  12. Inspiratory muscle training in patients with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, W.; van Aalderen, W.M.C.; Kraan, J.; Koeter, G.H.; van der Schans, C.P.

    Little information is available about the effects of inspiratory muscle training in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study the effects of inspiratory-threshold loading in patients with CF on strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles, pulmonary function, exercise capacity, dyspnoea

  13. TINF2 Gene Mutation in a Patient with Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Hoffman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a frequent manifestation of telomere syndromes. Telomere gene mutations are found in up to 25% and 3% of patients with familial disease and sporadic disease, respectively. The telomere gene TINF2 encodes an eponymous protein that is part of the shelterin complex, a complex involved in telomere protection and maintenance. A TINF2 gene mutation was recently reported in a family with pulmonary fibrosis. We identified a heterozygous Ser245Tyr mutation in the TINF2 gene of previously healthy female patient that presented with progressive cough due to pulmonary fibrosis as well as panhypogammaglobulinemia at age 52. Retrospective multidisciplinary evaluation classified her as a case of possible idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Telomere length-measurement indicated normal telomere length in the peripheral blood compartment. This is the first report of a TINF2 mutation in a patient with sporadic pulmonary fibrosis, which represents another association between TINF2 mutations and this disease. Furthermore, this case underlines the importance of telomere dysfunction and not telomere length alone in telomere syndromes and draws attention to hypogammaglobulinemia as a manifestation of telomere syndromes.

  14. Microbiology of airway disease in a cohort of patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carnovale Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports document an increasing incidence of new Gram-negative pathogens such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans isolated from patients with Cystic Fibrosis, along with an increase in common Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Furthermore, the increase in multidrug-resistance of such organisms makes the therapeutic management of these patients more problematic. Therefore, careful isolation and identification, and accurate studies of susceptibility to antibiotics are critical for predicting the spread of strains, improving therapeutic measures and facilitating our understanding of the epidemiology of emerging pathogens. The first aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the prevalence of colonization by Gram-negative organisms isolated from respiratory samples of Cystic Fibrosis patients in the Regional Referral Cystic Fibrosis Centre of Naples; the second was to evaluate the spectrum of multidrug-resistance of these organisms. Methods Patients (n = 300 attending the Regional Cystic Fibrosis Unit were enrolled in this study over 3 years. Sputum was processed for microscopic tests and culture. An automated system, Phoenix (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, Maryland, USA, was used for phenotypic identification of all strains; the API 20 NE identification system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France was used when the identification with the Phoenix system was inaccurate. A PCR-RFLP method was used to characterize the organisms in the Burkholderia cepacia complex. A chemosusceptibility test on microbroth dilutions (Phoenix was used. Primary outcomes such as FEV1 were correlate with different pathogens. Results During the period of study, 40% of patients was infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% by Burkholderia cepacia complex, 11% by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 7% by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Of the strains isolated, 460 were multidrug

  15. Sinus biofilms in patients with cystic fibrosis: is adjusted eradication therapy needed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanaes, Kasper; Eickhardt, Steffen; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2015-01-01

    The paranasal sinuses can be a focus for colonisation of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs with pathogens. In the sinuses, bacteria can adapt to the lung environment and enhance their antibiotic resistance, with biofilm formation thought to be the most important adaptive mechanism, causing recalcitr......The paranasal sinuses can be a focus for colonisation of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs with pathogens. In the sinuses, bacteria can adapt to the lung environment and enhance their antibiotic resistance, with biofilm formation thought to be the most important adaptive mechanism, causing...... recalcitrant disease. The presence of biofilms in CF sinuses is sparsely described. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the sinus mucosa from 16 CF patients were analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA-FISH) probes for Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... and Staphylococcus aureus to demonstrate the presence of biofilms. Small clusters of biofilm were visualised lining the sinus mucosa of CF patients. Biofilms were found in 10 out of 18 cases; 7 with intermittent lung colonisation, 2 chronically infected, and one lung transplanted patient. Finding P. aeruginosa...

  16. Qualitative evaluation of antibiotic usage in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindra Irawan Satari

    2011-12-01

    Methods We performed a descriptive, retrospective study of matient medical records of those admitted to the pediatric ward from January 1 – June 30, 2009. Records were screened for patient antibiotic use, followed by qualitative evaluation using Gyssens algorithm on data from patient who received antibiotic treatment. Results We found 49.2% of subject were prescribed antibiotics. The majority of patients given antibiotics were aged 1 month - 1 year (39.3%. Antibiotic use was categorized by therapy type : empirical, prophylactic, or definitive. We found empirical therapy in 73% of cases, prophylactic in 8%, and definitive in 15%. Cefotaxime was the most common antibiotic used (25.1%, followed by ceftazidime (14% and cotrimoxazole (1%. 39.6% of subjects were given antibiotics appropriately, while 48.3% were given inappropriately. In 3.3% of patients, antibiotics were given without indication and in 8.8% there was insufficient data. Conclusions Of hospitalized patients receiving antibiotic treatment at the Departement of Child Health, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, 39.6% were given antibiotic appropriately, while 48.3% were given antibiotics inappropriately. Cefotaxime was the most commonly used, as well as most inappropriately given antibiotic.

  17. Patient knowledge and pulmonary medication adherence in adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin AH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ann Hsu-An Lin,1 Jennifer G Kendrick,2,3 Pearce G Wilcox,4,5 Bradley S Quon4,51Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 3Department of Pharmacy, Children’s and Women’s Health Centre of British Columbia, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, 5Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, CanadaBackground and objectives: Patient knowledge of lung function (ie, forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]% predicted and the intended benefits of their prescribed pulmonary medications might play an important role in medication adherence, but this relationship has not been examined previously in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF.Methods: All patients diagnosed with CF and without prior lung transplantation were invited to complete knowledge and self-reported medication adherence questionnaires during routine outpatient visits to the Adult CF Clinic, St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada from June 2013 to August 2014.Results: A total of 142 out of 167 (85% consecutive adults attending CF clinic completed patient knowledge and medication adherence survey questionnaires. Sixty-four percent of the patients recalled their last FEV1% predicted value within 5%, and 70% knew the intended benefits of all their prescribed medications. Self-reported adherence rates were highest for inhaled antibiotics (81%, azithromycin (87%, and dornase alpha (76% and lowest for hypertonic saline (47%. Individuals who knew their FEV1% predicted value within 5% were more likely to self-report adherence to dornase alpha (84% vs 62%, P=0.06 and inhaled antibiotics (88% vs 64%, P=0.06 compared to those who did not, but these associations were not statistically significant. There were no significant associations observed between patient knowledge of intended medication benefits and self-reported medication adherence.Conclusion: Contrary to our hypothesis

  18. Antibiotic prescribing on admission to patients with pneumonia and prior outpatient antibiotic treatment: a cohort study on clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Garde, Ewoudt M. W.; Natsch, Stephanie; Prins, Jan M.; van der Linden, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Most pneumonia treatment guidelines recommend that prior outpatient antibiotic treatment should be considered when planning inpatient antibiotic regimen. Our purpose was to study in patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia the mode of continuing antibiotic treatment at the

  19. Antibiotic prescribing on admission to patients with pneumonia and prior outpatient antibiotic treatment : A cohort study on clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Garde, Ewoudt M W; Natsch, Stephanie; Prins, Jan M.; Van Der Linden, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Most pneumonia treatment guidelines recommend that prior outpatient antibiotic treatment should be considered when planning inpatient antibiotic regimen. Our purpose was to study in patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia the mode of continuing antibiotic treatment at the

  20. Co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis and celiac disease in Scandinavian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, G; Olesen, H V; Gilljam, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The co-morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and celiac disease (CD) has been reported sporadically since the 1960s. To our knowledge, this is the first time a systematic screening is performed in a large cohort of CF patients. METHODS: Transglutaminase-IgA (TGA), endomysium-IgA (EMA...... patients were detected in the Danish CF cohort. Patients diagnosed with untreated CD reported symptoms typical of both CF and CD (poor weight gain, loose and/or fatty stools, fatigue, irritability, abdominal pain). They improved after introduction of a gluten-free diet. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic screening...

  1. Clinicopathological characteristics of patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takafumi; Sugino, Keishi; Sakamoto, Susumu; Homma, Sakae; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Uekusa, Toshimasa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics and the prognostic factors of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), which is defined as pulmonary emphysema associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Of 92 IPF patients admitted to our hospital during the past 6 years, 35 were diagnosed as CPFE (Group E) and 57 as IPF without emphysema (Group F). We retrospectively compared the clinical features between these 2 groups. Furthermore, we investigated the histopathological localization and characteristic background parenchymal architecture of lung cancer in 6 patients with CPFE who had undergone surgical lung resection for complications of lung cancer. Lastly, we compared the histopathological differences in background lung structures of the origins of the lung cancers in the following 3 groups: Group E, Group F, and pulmonary emphysema. The smoking index values and the incidence of lung cancer were higher in patients in Group E than in Group F, but the survival times were significantly lower in Group E patients. The prognostic factors included emphysema, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, increased composite physiological index, and acute exacerbation. Histopathologically, the localization of lung cancer in Group E patients was adjacent to emphysematous lesions with or without associated fibrosis, which showed a more marked architectural distortion with less significant fibroblastic foci, collapse of alveoli, and subpleural fibrosis than in Group F patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the incidence of lung cancer was extremely high in patients with CPFE. However, the prognosis was unfavorable regardless of the presence of lung cancer, with the chief adverse prognostic factor being complications of pulmonary emphysema. Emphysematous lesions with fibrosis in Group E that are different from those seen in Group F may be background lung structures characteristic of the carcinogenesis of lung

  2. The Role of Vitamin A in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Rogovyk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is hereditary monogenic exocrine disease, which manifests itself most often by disorders in bronchopulmonary and digestive systems. The affection of the latter leads to deficiency of liposoluble vitamins A, D, E and K in the body of the patient. The lack and excess of vitamin A in this disease may contribute to a number of pathological states and aggravate the disease. Therefore, in the records of all European centers of cystic fibrosis it is recommended to carry out annual determination of the levels of vitamin A, followed by individual dose adjustment.

  3. Serum YKL-40 is increased in patients with hepatic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J S; Christoffersen, P; Møller, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: YKL-40, a mammalian member of the chitinase family, is a lectin that binds heparin and chitin. The function of YKL-40 is unknown, but it may function in tissue remodelling. The aims of this study were to assess the level of circulating YKL-40 in patients with various kinds...... with the blood sample. RESULTS: The median serum YKL-40 was highest in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (532 microg/l), in particular in patients with additional alcoholic hepatitis (740 microg/l). Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, post-hepatitic cirrhosis (425 microg/l) and non-cirrhotic fibrosis (330 microg/l......) had significantly higher serum YKL-40 than normal subjects (102 microg/l), patients with fatty liver (195 microg/l) or patients with viral hepatitis without fibrosis (174 microg/l). Serum YKL-40 was significantly (p

  4. Pharmacokinetics of aerosolized tobramycin in adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Jacobs, F A; Brimicombe, R W; Heijerman, H G; Bakker, W; Briemer, D D

    This study was performed to determine the clinical pharmacokinetics of tobramycin in six patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) after inhalation of 600 mg. Tobramycin was administered with an ultrasonic nebulizer (WISTO SENIOR). Blood and urine were sampled until 24 h after inhalation. Maximum

  5. Diagnosis of biofilm infections in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients is the best described biofilm infection in medicine. The initial focus can be the paranasal sinuses and then follows repeated colonization and infection of the lungs by aspiration. The matrix of the biofilms is domi...... by other pathogens e.g., Stenotrophomonas, Burkholderia multivorans, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Mycobacterium abscessus complex....

  6. Fibrosis index based on four factors better predicts advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis than aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Wang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: FIB-4 could predict hepatic fibrosis in CHC patients. By adding two parameters (age and alanine aminotransferase, FIB-4 better predicts advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis than APRI in CHC patients.

  7. Side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Karin Riisager; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    or/and stomach pain during antibiotic treatment. 48% reported their child to be eating little during antibiotic treatment and of these 87% were reporting diarrhoea or/and stomach pain. Half of the children with diarrhoea or/and stomach pain got treatment for the side effects. Conclusion: Most...... of the small children with CF suffered from side effect of antibiotics, but only half of them got treatment for the side effects....

  8. Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, antibiotics can save lives. They either kill bacteria or ... natural defenses can usually take it from there. Antibiotics do not fight infections caused by viruses, such ...

  9. Caracterización epidemiológica de pacientes pediátricos con fibrosis quística Epidemiological characterization of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix O. Dickinson

    2005-06-01

    William Soler” Pediatric Hospital between 1988 and 2002, were described. Percentages were calculated according to age groups, sex, most frequent symptoms and signs, reason for admission, length of stay, antibiotics administered and others. Results: No deaths were reported during the studied period, it was observed a predominance of pediatric ages (86.6 %, males (67 % and white-colored skin patients (80 %. The commonest symptoms were respiratory infections (67 %, low birth weight (48 % and digestive disorders (25 %, which began as an average at 20.6 months of age. The genetic characterization was mostly delta F 508 (66 %. One of the main causes of admission was to receive antibiotic therapy (45 % for treating lower respiratory infections (22 % and cystic fibrosis (15 %. There was a total of 72 admissions and 1 088 days of hospital stay were accumulated, with an average of 15 days. In nearly all the cases, antibiotic therapy was applied due to the isolates of Psedomona aeruginosa as a cause of respiratory infection.11 different antibiotics were used, of which the most frequent were amikacin, ceftazidime, gentamicin, trobamicin and cyproflaxacin. The most common combination was that of a beta-lactamic and an aminoglucoside.

  10. Association of Adverse Events With Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Pranita D; Avdic, Edina; Li, David X; Dzintars, Kathryn; Cosgrove, Sara E

    2017-09-01

    Estimates of the incidence of overall antibiotic-associated adverse drug events (ADEs) in hospitalized patients are generally unavailable. To describe the incidence of antibiotic-associated ADEs for adult inpatients receiving systemic antibiotic therapy. Retrospective cohort of adult inpatients admitted to general medicine wards at an academic medical center. At least 24 hours of any parenteral or oral antibiotic therapy. Medical records of 1488 patients were examined for 30 days after antibiotic initiation for the development of the following antibiotic-associated ADEs: gastrointestinal, dermatologic, musculoskeletal, hematologic, hepatobiliary, renal, cardiac, and neurologic; and 90 days for the development of Clostridium difficile infection or incident multidrug-resistant organism infection, based on adjudication by 2 infectious diseases trained clinicians. In 1488 patients, the median age was 59 years (interquartile range, 49-69 years), and 758 (51%) participants were female. A total of 298 (20%) patients experienced at least 1 antibiotic-associated ADE. Furthermore, 56 (20%) non-clinically indicated antibiotic regimens were associated with an ADE, including 7 cases of C difficile infection. Every additional 10 days of antibiotic therapy conferred a 3% increased risk of an ADE. The most common ADEs were gastrointestinal, renal, and hematologic abnormalities, accounting for 78 (42%), 45 (24%), and 28 (15%) 30-day ADEs, respectively. Notable differences were identified between the incidence of ADEs associated with specific antibiotics. Although antibiotics may play a critical role when used appropriately, our findings underscore the importance of judicious antibiotic prescribing to reduce the harm that can result from antibiotic-associated ADEs.

  11. Case Report: Dual nebulised antibiotics among adults with cystic fibrosis and chronic Pseudomonas infection [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exacerbations in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psae infection are usually treated with dual intravenous antibiotics for 14 days, despite the lack of evidence for best practice. Intravenous antibiotics are commonly associated with various systemic adverse effects, including renal failure and ototoxicity. Inhaled antibiotics are less likely to cause systematic adverse effects, yet can achieve airway concentrations well above conventional minimum inhibitory concentrations. Typically one inhaled antibiotic is used at a time, but dual inhaled antibiotics (i.e. concomitant use of two different inhaled antibiotics may have synergistic effect and achieve better results in the treatment of exacerbations. We presented anecdotal evidence for the use of dual inhaled antibiotics as an acute treatment for exacerbations, in the form of a case report. A female in her early thirties with CF and chronic Psae infection improved her FEV1 by 5% and 2% with two courses of dual inhaled antibiotics to treat exacerbations in 2016. In contrast, her FEV1 changed by 2%, –2%, 0% and 2%, respectively, with four courses of dual intravenous antibiotics in 2016. Baseline FEV1 was similar prior to all six courses of treatments. The greater FEV1 improvements with dual inhaled antibiotics compared to dual intravenous antibiotics suggest the potential role of using dual inhaled antibiotics to treat exacerbations among adults with CF and chronic Psae infection, especially since a greater choice of inhaled anti-pseudomonal antibiotics is now available. A previous study in 1985 has looked at the concomitant administration of inhaled tobramycin and carbenicillin, by reconstituting antibiotics designed for parenteral administration. To our knowledge, this is the first literature to describe the concomitant use of two different antibiotics specifically developed for delivery via the inhaled route.

  12. Nutritional Assesment in Cystic Fibrosis Patients( Iran and Newzeland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moeeni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with Cystic Fibrosis have increased risk of malnutrition. Early detection of nutritional deterioration enables prompt intervention and correction. The aims of this project were to: - Define the nutritional status of CF patients in Iran and New Zealand -    Compare and contrast the MacDonald Nutritional Screening tool  with the Australasian guidelines for Nutrition in Cystic Fibrosis -    Validate these results in comparison with patient’s evaluation by their CF clinical team.   Materials and Methods: 69 CF patients (2-18 years were assessed during routine outpatient visits over one year. Anthropometric measurements were obtained. Both tools were applied for each patient and the results compared to their clinical evaluation (as gold standard with calculation of specificity and sensitivity. Results: Under-nutrition was more frequent in Iranian than NZ patients (39% versus 0%, p=0.0001, whereas over-nutrition was more prevalent in NZ children (9% versus 17%, p=0.05. At the first visit, MacDonald and Australasian guidelines were able to recognize 77% and 61% of under-nourished Iranian patients, respectively. The mean sensitivity and specificity for all visits for the MacDonald tool were 83% & 73% (Iran and 65% & 86% (NZ. Sensitivity and specificity for the Australasian guidelines were 79% & 79% (Iran and 70% & 90% (NZ. Conclusions: Both tools successfully recognised patients at risk of malnutrition. The MacDonald tool had comparable sensitivity and specificity to that described previously, especially in Iranian patients. This tool may be helpful in recognizing at risk CF patients, particularly in developing countries with fewer resources. Key words: Iran, Cystic Fibrosis Patient, Newzeland, Nutritional Assesment.

  13. Clinical Meaning of Ascites in Patients with Endomyocardial Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barretto Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical meaning of ascites and the main features of patients with ascites and endomyocardial fibrosis. METHODS: We studied 166 patients with endomyocardial fibrosis (mean age 37 years, 114 women treated over the last 20 years. Ventriculography findings, surgery or necropsy confirmed the diagnosis in all patients. Most patients belonged to New York Heart Association Functional Class III/IV (134, 83.7%. Eighty-one (50.6% had biventricular, 28 (17.5% had right ventricular, and 51 (31.8% had left ventricular involvement. During follow-up, 56 patients died. RESULTS: Ascites was present in 67 (41.8% patients, and right ventricular involvement was present in 59 (88%. In the comparison between patients with or without ascites, those with ascites had higher mortality (49.2% and 24.7%, respectively. Patients with ascites had a higher incidence of edema (95% vs. 43%, hepatomegaly (5.8cm vs. 4.1cm, mean right atrium pressure (19.3 vs. 12mmHg, and final right ventricle diastolic pressure (18.7 vs. 12.9mmHg. Also, patients with ascites had a longer history of illness (5.1 and 3.9 years, respectively and had atrial fibrillation more frequently (44.7% vs. 30.1%. CONCLUSION: Ascites was observed in less than 50% of cases of endomyocardial fibrosis and was associated with greater involvement of the right ventricle and with a longer duration of the disease, thus being a characteristic of a worse prognosis.

  14. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator haplotypes in households of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furgeri, Daniela Tenório; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Correia, Cyntia Arivabeni Araújo; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia

    2018-01-30

    Nearly 2000 mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene have been reported. The F508del mutation occurs in approximately 50-65% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, molecular diagnosis is not always possible. Therefore, silent polymorphisms can be used to label the mutant allele in households of patients with CF. To verify the haplotypes of four polymorphisms at the CFTR locus in households of patients with CF for pre-fertilization, pre-implantation, and prenatal indirect mutation diagnosis to provide better genetic counseling for families and patients with CF and to associate the genotypes/haplotypes with the F508del mutation screening. GATT polymorphism analysis was performed using direct polymerase chain reaction amplification, and the MP6-D9, TUB09 and TUB18 polymorphism analyses were performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Nine haplotypes were found in 37 CFTR alleles, and of those, 24 were linked with the F508del mutation and 13 with other CFTR mutations. The 6 (GATT), C (MP6-D9), G (TUB09), and C (TUB18) haplotypes showed the highest prevalence (48%) of the mutant CFTR allele and were linked to the F508del mutation (64%). In 43% of households analyzed, at least one informative polymorphism can be used for the indirect diagnostic test. CFTR polymorphisms are genetic markers that are useful for identifying the mutant CFTR alleles in households of patients with CF when it is not possible to establish the complete CFTR genotype. Moreover, the polymorphisms can be used for indirect CFTR mutation identification in cases of pre-fertilization, pre-implantation and prenatal analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Antibiotic prescription usage and assessment in geriatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Aurélien; Davido, Benjamin; Salomon, Jérôme; Le Quintrec, Jean-Laurent; Teillet, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high risk of infection, the geriatric population is regularly subjected to antibiotics. Faced with bacterial resistance, particularly among elderly dependent patients, it is essential to promote proper use and correct prescription of antibiotics. A study evaluated antibiotic prescription in a geriatric hospital with 598 beds and highlighted the importance of collaboration between geriatricians and infectious disease specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Andreas; Heising, Bernhard; Schütte, Jan-Karl; Schroeder, Olaf; Schröder, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    In critically ill patients, length of antibiotic treatment can be effectively guided by procalcitonin (PCT) protocols. International sepsis guidelines and guidelines on antibiotic stewardship strategies recommend PCT as helpful laboratory marker for a rational use of antibiotics. A number of studies and meta-analyses have confirmed the effectiveness of PCT-protocols for shortening antibiotic treatment without compromising clinical outcome in critically ill patients. But in clinical practice, there is still uncertainty how to interpret PCT levels and how to adjust antibiotic treatment in various infectious situations, especially in the perioperative period. This narrative review gives an overview on the application of PCT-protocols in critically ill patients with severe bacterial infections on the basis of 5 case reports and the available literature. Beside strengths and limitations of this biomarker, also varying kinetics and different maximum values with regard to the infectious focus and pathogens are discussed. PCT-guided antibiotic treatment appears to be safe and effective. Most of the studies revealed a shorter antibiotic treatment without negative clinical outcomes. Cost effectiveness is still a matter of debate and effects on bacterial resistance due to shorter treatments, possible lower rates of drug-related adverse events, or decreased rates of Clostridium difficile infections are not yet evaluated. Guidance of antibiotic treatment can effectively be supported by PCT-protocols. However, it is important to consider the limitations of this biomarker and to use PCT protocols along with antibiotic stewardship programmes and regular clinical rounds together with infectious diseases specialists.

  17. Desensitization to inhaled aztreonam lysine in an allergic patient with cystic fibrosis using a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Ditouras, Joanna; Montejo, Jenny

    2012-10-01

    To report the successful desensitization of a highly allergic patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) to inhaled aztreonam lysine using the novel approach of intravenous desensitization followed by full-dose inhaled therapy without any adverse reactions. A 19-year-old woman with CF had persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa-positive cultures and a history of type I hypersensitivity reactions to multiple medications, including aztreonam and tobramycin (intravenous and inhaled). To start therapy with an inhaled antipseudomonal antibiotic on a chronic basis, she underwent rapid desensitization to intravenous aztreonam followed by initiation of inhaled aztreonam lysine. Following intravenous desensitization with aztreonam, there was no adverse reaction or decline in lung function noted with inhaled aztreonam lysine and the chronic therapy was continued at home, with a modified regimen to maintain desensitization. Aztreonam lysine has been used for treatment of patients with CF with chronic P. aeruginosa colonization. Previous allergic reaction to intravenous aztreonam is considered a contraindication for use of aztreonam lysine. Our patient had a history of hives and facial swelling following administration of intravenous aztreonam (type I hypersensitivity reaction) as well as hypersensitivity to tobramycin. Rapid desensitization can be done for drugs that mediate a type I hypersensitivity reaction, with mast cells and basophils being the cellular targets. There are a few case reports of desensitization to inhaled antibiotics such as tobramycin and colistin, but desensitization to aztreonam lysine has not previously been reported. Desensitization of a patient with CF who is allergic to intravenous aztreonam was successfully accomplished with the novel approach of rapid intravenous desensitization followed by inhaled therapy. As inhaled antibiotics are being increasingly used for patients with CF, this novel strategy can be used for desensitizing allergic patients with CF to

  18. Trends in Life Expectancy of Cystic Fibrosis Patients in Moscow and their Connection with the Treatment Received: Retrospective Analysis for 1993–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Kashirskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is multiple organ pathology that requires a complex treatment. Its standardization and pharmacoeconomic analysis are absolutely necessary. We performed a retrospective analysis of the trends in life expectancy of cystic fibrosis patients who lived inMoscow in 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2013. It was found that the survival rate of these patients depended on the choice of drug therapy (pancreatic enzymes, dornase alfa, intravenous and inhaled antipseudomonal antibiotics, changes in diet, active dispensary observation at a specialized center for cystic fibrosis, and neonatal screening. We determined the cost of drug therapy per patient. From 1993 to 2013, the survival rate of patients who lived in Moscow increased by more than 20 years (from 16 to 39 years, respectively. The average cost of therapy increased more than 10 times (from USD 1.8 to 21.9 thousand, respectively.

  19. Molecular typing of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolated from patients attending an Italian Cystic Fibrosis Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teri, Antonio; Sottotetti, Samantha; Biffi, Arianna; Girelli, Daniela; D'Accico, Monica; Arghittu, Milena; Colombo, Carla; Corti, Fabiola; Pizzamiglio, Giovanna; Cariani, Lisa

    2018-04-01

    Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are capable of causing severe infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Bcc infection is often extremely difficult to treat due to its intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics. In addition, it seems to speed up the decline of lung function and is considered a contraindication for lung transplantation in CF. This study investigates the species of the Bcc strains recovered from chronically infected CF subjects by means of: isolation, identification methods and complete recA nucleotide sequences of 151 samples. Molecular typing showed that B. cenocepacia III is the dominant strain found in the group of subjects being treated at the Milan CF Centre (Italy) and that the infection is chronically maintained by the same species. Defining species by means of molecular analysis yields important information for the clinician in order to establish the most appropriate therapy and implement correct measures for prevention of transmission among CF subjects.

  20. Life-threatening systemic symptoms in a cystic fibrosis patient

    OpenAIRE

    Gohy, Sophie; Froidure, Antoine; Lebecque, Patrick; ECFS

    2014-01-01

    Case report A 20-year-old male patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) (F508del/F508del, last FEV1: 92% predicted) was admitted for the sudden occurrence of high-grade fever, FEV1 drop (72% predicted) without increased cough, malaise, diffuse pain and generalized lymphadenopathies. Initial check-up revealed the presence of very recent bilateral hilar lymphadenopathies along with a marked inflammatory syndrome (WBC: 35,680/µl, neutrophils: 28,220/µl, CRP: 163mg/L). Within 24 hours, the patient devel...

  1. Chromosomal mechanisms of aminoglycoside resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, S; Oh, H; Jalal, S

    2009-01-01

    pump protein MexY was determined by real-time PCR and correlated with susceptibilities to amikacin and tobramycin. The chromosomal genes mexZ, rplY, galU, PA5471 and nuoG, which were found to have a role in the gradual increase in MICs of aminoglycoside antibiotics in laboratory mutants of P....... aeruginosa, were analysed. MexY mRNA overproduction was found in 17/20 isolates collected in 1994 and 1997, and was correlated with decreased susceptibility to aminoglycosides. Alteration of the MexXY-OprM efflux system has been the main mechanism of resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics in CF P......In total, 40 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were included in this study. Twenty of these were collected in 1994 and 1997, from six CF patients, and the rest were collected from different CF patients in 2000 and 2001. The relative expression of mRNA for the efflux...

  2. Patient factors associated with lung transplant referral and waitlist for patients with cystic fibrosis and pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Vela, Monica; Rudakevych, Tanya; Wigfield, Christopher; Garrity, Edward; Saunders, Milda R

    2017-03-01

    Since 2005, the Lung Allocation Score (LAS) has prioritized patient benefit and post-transplant survival, reducing waitlist to transplant time to fibrosis (CF) and pulmonary fibrosis (PF). We analyzed the times from transplant eligibility to referral, work-up and waitlisting using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Overall, the referral rate for transplant-eligible patients was 64%. Of those referred, approximately 36% reach the lung transplant waitlist. Referred CF patients were significantly more likely to reach the transplant waitlist than PF patients (CF 60% vs PF 22%, p < 0.05). In addition, CF patients had a shorter wait from transplant eligibility to waitlist than PF patients (329 vs 2,369 days, respectively [25th percentile], p < 0.05). Patients with PF and CF both faced delays from eligibility to referral and waitlist. Quality improvement efforts are needed to better identify and refer appropriate patients for lung transplant evaluation. Targeted interventions may facilitate more efficient evaluation completion and waitlist appearance. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION REGARDING ANTIBIOTICS AMONG POLISH PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics are drugs often used. This drugs used without legitimate indications or incorrectly may cause not satisfactory clinical results. It is therefore important for the society members to be aware of what is an antibiotic and which benefits and risks its use may bring. The survey was conducted in 2010. Objective of the study was to obtain information on the current knowledge and beliefs about antibiotic therapy of Poles. The research material consisted of 609 questionnaires and interviews, conducted among the adult population residing in the Lublin voivodeship. The study shows that rural inhabitants don't know the term herbal medicine or antibiotic more often than inhabitants in the city. Similarly, they more often don't know the action of antibiotics as well as use them less frequently. Poles treat them as an emergency exit if they are not helped by home treatments. There was a problem of overuse of antibiotics, related to young people, which were busy and have no time for illness. Self-medication in the antibiotic therapy also occurs and is caused, among others, by undisciplined patients. The respondents admited that they have antibiotics from the previous treatment, from pharmacy, or from family or friends. However, residents of rural areas using an antibiotic most frequently, cited a pharmacy as the source of this drug. Other issues dealt within this study generally doesn't differ for rural inhabitants from the data obtained among the urban population.

  4. Acute appendicitis mimicking intestinal obstruction in a patient with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an inherited disease of the secretory glands caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR gene. The clinical manifestations of CF are repetitive lung infections, biliary cirrhosis, pancreatic abnormalities, and gastrointestinal disorders. We report a 21-year-old Taiwanese man with CF who had abdominal pain for 2 days. The diagnosis of CF had been confirmed by peripheral blood analysis of the CFTR gene 5 years before admission. He presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, and crampy abdominal pain, which is atypical for acute appendicitis. The physical examination and a series of studies revealed intestinal obstruction, but acute appendicitis could not be ruled out. After conservative treatment, together with empiric antibiotics, the refractory abdominal pain and leukocytosis with a left-shift warranted surgical intervention. A diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a swollen, hyperemic appendix, a severely distended small intestine, and serous ascites. The laparoscopic procedure was converted to a laparotomy for open disimpaction and appendectomy. He was discharged on the eighth postoperative day. The histologic examination of the appendix was consistent with early appendicitis. In conclusion, acute abdominal pain in adult CF patients is often associated with intestinal obstruction syndrome. The presentation of concurrent appendicitis may be indolent and lead not only to diagnostic difficulties, but also a number of therapeutic choices.

  5. Acute appendicitis mimicking intestinal obstruction in a patient with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Han; Chang, Cheng-Chih; Yang, Bor-Yau; Lin, Paul Y; Wang, Chia-Siu

    2012-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease of the secretory glands caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene. The clinical manifestations of CF are repetitive lung infections, biliary cirrhosis, pancreatic abnormalities, and gastrointestinal disorders. We report a 21-year-old Taiwanese man with CF who had abdominal pain for 2 days. The diagnosis of CF had been confirmed by peripheral blood analysis of the CFTR gene 5 years before admission. He presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, and crampy abdominal pain, which is atypical for acute appendicitis. The physical examination and a series of studies revealed intestinal obstruction, but acute appendicitis could not be ruled out. After conservative treatment, together with empiric antibiotics, the refractory abdominal pain and leukocytosis with a left-shift warranted surgical intervention. A diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a swollen, hyperemic appendix, a severely distended small intestine, and serous ascites. The laparoscopic procedure was converted to a laparotomy for open disimpaction and appendectomy. He was discharged on the eighth postoperative day. The histologic examination of the appendix was consistent with early appendicitis. In conclusion, acute abdominal pain in adult CF patients is often associated with intestinal obstruction syndrome. The presentation of concurrent appendicitis may be indolent and lead not only to diagnostic difficulties, but also a number of therapeutic choices. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Postoperative outcomes and quality of life in patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliandolo, Andrea; Patania, Mariangela; Currò, Giuseppe; Chillè, Giovanni; Magazzù, Giuseppe; Navarra, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Approximately 28% of the patients with cystic fibrosis are affected by cholelythiasis. More than 40% of them have a symptomatic disease, which would mandate cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to review surgical and respiratory outcomes and quality of life scores of cystic fibrosis patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelythiasis to verify the hypothesis that cholecystectomy is a low-risk operation by laparoscopy, not affecting unfavorably respiratory function and quality of life. Study group was consisted of 9 patients with a mean age of 24.8±8.1 years (range, 15 to 38 y), 2 male and 7 female patients, with cystic fibrosis and symptomatic cholelithiasis. Three patients also presented common bile duct stones. All the patients underwent perioperative Positive End-Expiratory Pressure mask sessions and aggressive antibiotic regimens. At the middle of the antibiotics regimen period, a standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. In the 3 cases with common duct lithiasis, the so-called "rendezvous" technique was carried out. Preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively, respiratory function was strictly monitored by the evaluation of SO2 and of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Preoperatively and 6 months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy the Gastro Intestinal Quality of Life Index was evaluated on all patients. All the operations were completed laparoscopically. No mortality was observed. The intraoperative mean SO2 was 89.0%±5.6% (range, 80% to 95%), versus 82.8%±8.5% (range, 66% to 91%) at the extubation (P=0.006). Intraoperative respiratory functions were stable in 6 patients. In 3 patients, a severe bronchospasm occurred determining marked desaturation. Preoperative mean FEV1 was 70.5%±7.0% (range, 55% to 75%) versus 61.8%±13.2% (range, 39% to 80%) 48 hours after the operation (P=0.132). The 3 patients, who experienced intraoperatively severe bronchospasm, reported a 48 hours postoperative

  7. Practical Guidelines: Lung Transplantation in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirche, T. O.; Knoop, C.; Hebestreit, H.; Shimmin, D.; Solé, A.; Elborn, J. S.; Ellemunter, H.; Aurora, P.; Hogardt, M.; Wagner, T. O. F.; ECORN-CF Study Group

    2014-01-01

    There are no European recommendations on issues specifically related to lung transplantation (LTX) in cystic fibrosis (CF). The main goal of this paper is to provide CF care team members with clinically relevant CF-specific information on all aspects of LTX, highlighting areas of consensus and controversy throughout Europe. Bilateral lung transplantation has been shown to be an important therapeutic option for end-stage CF pulmonary disease. Transplant function and patient survival after transplantation are better than in most other indications for this procedure. Attention though has to be paid to pretransplant morbidity, time for referral, evaluation, indication, and contraindication in children and in adults. This review makes extensive use of specific evidence in the field of lung transplantation in CF patients and addresses all issues of practical importance. The requirements of pre-, peri-, and postoperative management are discussed in detail including bridging to transplant and postoperative complications, immune suppression, chronic allograft dysfunction, infection, and malignancies being the most important. Among the contributors to this guiding information are 19 members of the ECORN-CF project and other experts. The document is endorsed by the European Cystic Fibrosis Society and sponsored by the Christiane Herzog Foundation. PMID:24800072

  8. Lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampitsakos, Theodoros; Tzilas, Vasilios; Tringidou, Rodoula; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Aidinis, Vasilis; Papiris, Spyros A; Bouros, Demosthenes; Tzouvelekis, Argyris

    2017-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. With a gradually increasing worldwide prevalence and a mortality rate exceeding that of many cancers, IPF diagnosis and management are critically important and require a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach. This approach also involves assessment of comorbid conditions, such as lung cancer, that exerts a dramatic impact on disease survival. Emerging evidence suggests that progressive lung scarring in the context of IPF represents a risk factor for lung carcinogenesis. Both disease entities present with major similarities in terms of pathogenetic pathways, as well as potential causative factors, such as smoking and viral infections. Besides disease pathogenesis, anti-cancer agents, including nintedanib, have been successfully applied in the treatment of patients with IPF while an oncologic approach with a cocktail of several pleiotropic anti-fibrotic agents is currently in the therapeutic pipeline of IPF. Nevertheless, epidemiologic association between IPF and lung cancer does not prove causality. Currently there is significant lack of knowledge supporting a direct association between lung fibrosis and cancer reflecting to disappointing therapeutic algorithms. An optimal therapeutic strategy for patients with both IPF and lung cancer represents an amenable need. This review article synthesizes the current state of knowledge regarding pathogenetic commonalities between IPF and lung cancer and focuses on clinical and therapeutic data that involve both disease entities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Genotypic Diversity within a Single Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain Commonly Shared by Australian Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sze Tai

    Full Text Available In cystic fibrosis (CF, Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes intra-strain genotypic and phenotypic diversification while establishing and maintaining chronic lung infections. As the clinical significance of these changes is uncertain, we investigated intra-strain diversity in commonly shared strains from CF patients to determine if specific gene mutations were associated with increased antibiotic resistance and worse clinical outcomes. Two-hundred-and-one P. aeruginosa isolates (163 represented a dominant Australian shared strain, AUST-02 from two Queensland CF centres over two distinct time-periods (2001-2002 and 2007-2009 underwent mexZ and lasR sequencing. Broth microdilution antibiotic susceptibility testing in a subset of isolates was also performed. We identified a novel AUST-02 subtype (M3L7 in adults attending a single Queensland CF centre. This M3L7 subtype was multi-drug resistant and had significantly higher antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations than other AUST-02 subtypes. Prospective molecular surveillance using polymerase chain reaction assays determined the prevalence of the 'M3L7' subtype at this centre during 2007-2009 (170 patients and 2011 (173 patients. Three-year clinical outcomes of patients harbouring different strains and subtypes were compared. MexZ and LasR sequences from AUST-02 isolates were more likely in 2007-2009 than 2001-2002 to exhibit mutations (mexZ: odds ratio (OR = 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1-13.5 and LasR: OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.3-5.0. Surveillance at the adult centre in 2007-2009 identified M3L7 in 28/509 (5.5% P. aeruginosa isolates from 13/170 (7.6% patients. A repeat survey in 2011 identified M3L7 in 21/519 (4.0% P. aeruginosa isolates from 11/173 (6.4% patients. The M3L7 subtype was associated with greater intravenous antibiotic and hospitalisation requirements, and a higher 3-year risk of death/lung transplantation, than other AUST-02 subtypes (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 9.4; 95%CI: 2

  10. Increased amount of atrial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation secondary to mitral valve disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuzebroek, Guillaume S. C.; van Amersfoorth, Shirley C. M.; Hoogendijk, Mark G.; Kelder, Johannes C.; van Hemel, Norbert M.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.; Coronel, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrosis is related to atrial fibrillation but may differ in patients with mitral valve disease or lone atrial fibrillation. Therefore, we studied atrial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation + mitral valve disease or with lone atrial fibrillation and compared it with

  11. Clinical presentation of metabolic alkalosis in an adult patient with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Lisel J; Douglas, James A; Riha, Renata L; Bell, Scott C

    2005-03-01

    In subtropical and tropical climates, dehydration is common in cystic fibrosis patients with respiratory exacerbations. This may lead to a clinical presentation of metabolic alkalosis with associated hyponatraemia and hypochloraemia. An adult cystic fibrosis patient who presented with a severe respiratory exacerbation accompanied by metabolic alkalosis is presented and the effects of volume correction are reported.

  12. Subclinical anaemia of chronic disease in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Patients with chronic hypoxaemia develop secondary polycythaemia that improves oxygen-carrying capacity. Therefore, normal haemoglobin and haematocrit values in the presence of chronic arterial hypoxaemia in cystic fibrosis constitute \\'relative anaemia\\'. We sought to determine the cause of this relative anaemia in patients with cystic fibrosis. We studied haematological indices and oxygen saturation in healthy volunteers (n=17) and in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (n=15). Patients with cystic fibrosis had lower resting arterial oxygen saturation when compared with normal volunteers (P<0.0001), and exercise led to a greater reduction in arterial oxygen saturation (P<0.0001). However, haemoglobin and haematocrit values in patients with cystic fibrosis did not significantly differ from normal volunteers. Serum iron (P=0.002), transferrin (P=0.02), and total iron-binding capacity (P=0.01) were lower in patients with cystic fibrosis. There were no significant differences in serum ferritin, percentage iron saturation, serum erythropoietin or red cell volume between the groups. The data presented demonstrate a characteristic picture of anaemia of chronic disease in adult patients with cystic fibrosis, except for normal haemoglobin and haematocrit values. Normal haemoglobin and haematocrit values in patients with cystic fibrosis appear to represent a combination of the effects of arterial hypoxaemia promoting polycythaemia, counterbalanced by chronic inflammation promoting anaemia of chronic disease.

  13. Pharmacokinetic variability of clarithromycin and differences in CYP3A4 activity in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, C S; Nielsen, X C; Dalhoff, K

    2014-01-01

    3A4-activity and clarithromycin metabolism was demonstrated (P cystic fibrosis patients may cause treatment failure. The Erythromycin Breath Test could be valuable in identifying cystic fibrosis patients in risk...

  14. Assessment of Antibiotics prescription in Hospitalized Patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the pattern of antibiotics usage in medical wards at Elobeid teaching hospital, West Sudan. Patients and method: This is a descriptive hospital-based study. The data were retrospectively collected from the patient's records. Systemic random sampling was used to select 427 patient's ...

  15. Evolution and Pathoadaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marvig, Rasmus Lykke

    , which is a transmissible clone isolated from chronically infected Danish CF patients over a period of 38 years. Whole-genome analysis of DK2 isolates enabled a finegrained reconstruction of the recent evolutionary history of the DK2 lineage and an identification of bacterial genes targeted by mutations...... to optimize pathogen fitness. The identification of such pathoadaptive genes gives new insight into how the pathogen evolves under the selective pressures of the host immune system and drug therapies. Furthermore, isolates with increased rates of mutation (hypermutator phenotype) emerged in the DK lineage...... is the dominating pathogen of chronic airway infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and the bacterial long-term persistence in CF hosts involves mutation and selection of genetic variants with increased fitness in the CF airways. We performed a retrospective study of the P. aeruginosa DK2 clone type...

  16. The Use of Home Spirometry in Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Shakkottai MD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Medication adherence is poor among pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF patients, with adolescents having one of the lowest adherence rates. We wanted to identify an adherence intervention that would be acceptable to CF adolescents and assess its feasibility. We surveyed 40 adolescents with CF and asked about barriers to and motivators for their own adherence and to generate ideas for potential adherence interventions. Since most of the respondents chose frequent spirometry at home and medication reminders for interventions, we selected 5 subjects, 10 to 14 years of age, with CF to test the feasibility of home spirometry and medication reminders in pediatric CF patients. This article summarizes the results of both the survey and the feasibility pilot study.

  17. Ivacaftor: A Novel Gene-Based Therapeutic Approach for Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Condren, Michelle E.; Bradshaw, Marquita D.

    2013-01-01

    Ivacaftor is a new therapeutic agent that acts at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel to alter activity. It is approved for use in patients 6 years and older with cystic fibrosis who have at least 1 G551D mutation in the CFTR gene. It is unlike any other current pharmacologic agent for cystic fibrosis in that it specifically targets the gene defect associated with cystic fibrosis as opposed to treating resulting symptomology. Mucoactive agents, antibiotics, ...

  18. Noninvasive Assessment of Fibrosis in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Buzzetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is prevalent in 20–25% of the general population and is associated with metabolic risk factors such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Histologically, NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. As NASH develops in only 10–15% of patients with NAFLD, it is not practical to biopsy all patients who present with NAFLD. Noninvasive fibrosis tests have been extensively developed recently and offer alternatives for staging fibrosis. Despite their increasing use, such tests cannot adequately differentiate simple steatosis from NASH. At present, such tests can be used as first line tests to rule out patients without advanced fibrosis and thus prevent unnecessary secondary care referrals in a significant number of patients. In this review we present the evidence for the use of noninvasive fibrosis tests in patients with NAFLD.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Aspergillus collected from cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Raquel; Ferreira, Jose A G; Moss, Richard B; Valente, Joana; Veríssimo, Cristina; Carolino, Elisabete; Clemons, Karl V; Everson, Cassie; Banaei, Niaz; Penner, John; Stevens, David A

    2015-07-01

    Aspergillus respiratory infection is a common complication in cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with loss of pulmonary function and allergic disease. Fifty-three Aspergillus isolates recovered from CF patients were identified to species by Internal Transcribed Spacer Region (ITS), β-tubulin, and calmodulin sequencing. Three species complexes (Terrei, Nigri, and Fumigati) were found. Identification to species level gave a single Aspergillus terreus sensu stricto, one Aspergillus niger sensu stricto and 51 Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto isolates. No cryptic species were found. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study of Aspergillus species in CF using molecular methods. The paucity of non-A. fumigatus and of cryptic species of A. fumigatus suggests a special association of A. fumigatus sensu stricto with CF airways, indicating it likely displays unique characteristics making it suitable for chronic residence in that milieu. These findings could refine an epidemiologic and therapeutic approach geared to this pathogen. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ahmed Janahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is a pulmonary disorder that often occurs in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF and is characterized by a hypersensitivity response to the allergens of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In patients with CF, growth of A. fumigatus hyphae within the bronchial lumen triggers an immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response that results in airway inflammation, bronchospasm, and bronchiectasis. In most published studies, the prevalence of ABPA is about 8.9% in patients with CF. Since the clinical features of this condition overlap significantly with that of CF, ABPA is challenging to diagnose and remains underdiagnosed in many patients. Diagnosis of ABPA in CF patients should be sought in those with evidence of clinical and radiologic deterioration that is not attributable to another etiology, a markedly elevated total serum IgE level (while off steroid therapy and evidence of A. fumigatus sensitization. Management of ABPA involves the use of systemic steroids to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune response. In patients who do not respond to steroids or cannot tolerate them, antifungal agents should be used to reduce the burden of A. fumigatus allergens. Recent studies suggest that omalizumab may be an effective option to reduce the frequency of ABPA exacerbations in patients with CF. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to better establish the efficacy of omalizumab in managing patients with CF and ABPA.

  1. Continuous infusion of antibiotics in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Szałek, Edyta; Tomczak, Hanna; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2013-02-01

    Antibiotics are the most commonly used drugs in intensive care unit patients and their supply should be based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic rules. The changes that occur in septic patients who are critically ill may be responsible for subtherapeutic antibiotic concentrations leading to poorer clinical outcomes. Evolving in time the disturbed pathophysiology in severe sepsis (high cardiac output, glomerular hyperfiltration) and therapeutic interventions (e.g. haemodynamically active drugs, mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy) alters antibiotic pharmacokinetics mainly through an increase in the volume of distribution and altered drug clearance. The lack of new and efficacious drugs and increased bacterial resistance are current problems of contemporary antibiotic therapy. Although intermittent administration is a standard clinical practice, alternative methods of antibiotic administration are sought, which may potentialise effects and reduce toxicity as well as contribute to inhibition of bacterial resistance. A wide range of studies prove that the application of continuous infusion of time-dependent antibiotics (beta-lactams, glycopeptides) is more rational than standard intermittent administration. However, there are also studies which do not confirm the advantage of one method over the other. In spite of controversy the continuous administration of this group of antibiotics is common practice, because the results of both studies point to the higher efficacy of this method in critically ill patients. Authors reviewed the literature to determine whether any clinical benefits exist for administration of time-dependent antibiotics by continuous infusion. Definite specification of the clinical advantage of administration this way over standard dosage requires a large-scale multi-centre randomised controlled trial.

  2. Emergence of respiratory Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Eickel

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-known pathogen for neonates and immunocompromized adults. Beyond the neonatal period, S. agalactiae is rarely found in the respiratory tract. During 2002-2008 we noticed S. agalactiae in respiratory secretions of 30/185 (16% of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The median age of these patients was 3-6 years older than the median age CF patients not harboring S. agalactiae. To analyze, if the S. agalactiae isolates from CF patients were clonal, further characterization of the strains was achieved by capsular serotyping, surface protein determination and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. We found a variety of sequence types (ST among the isolates, which did not substantially differ from the MLST patterns of colonizing strains from Germany. However serotype III, which is often seen in colonizing strains and invasive infections was rare among CF patients. The emergence of S. agalactiae in the respiratory tract of CF patients may represent the adaptation to a novel host environment, supported by the altered surfactant composition in older CF patients.

  3. Lactate in cystic fibrosis sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensel, Tobias; Stotz, Martin; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy is thought to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by decreasing neutrophil-derived inflammation. We investigated the origin and clinical significance of lactate in the chronically inflamed CF lung. Methods Lactate was measured in sputa of 18 exacerbated...... and 25 stable CF patients via spectrophotometry and gaschromatography. Lung function was assessed via spirometry. Seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and three patients with acute lung inflammation served as control groups. Neutrophil and bacterial lactate production...

  4. Genetic testing for cystic fibrosis in adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mencinger

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in gene encoding cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR protein. Over 1400 mutations found in the gene contribute to the complexity of the CF phenotypes ranging from a classic multiorgan disease commonly involving respiratory, gastrointestinal and reproductive tract to mild and monosymptomatic presentations. Pilocarpine iontophoresis is considered as standard diagnostic test for CF, but it often fails in atypical forms of CF.Methods: In order to provide an additional diagnostic test to assure the diagnosis and provide patients with a proper medical care, we performed a genetic testing on 16 adults suspected to have atypical form of CF. Following counselling, parents of patients with possible homozygote variant of mutations were tested. On a personal request testing was also performed in an adult sibling of a patient with two known mutations to investigate possible carrier hood. The allele specific polymerase chain reaction method (PCR was used to detect 29 most common mutations in the cftr gene.Results: The diagnosis was proved in 3 individuals, a homozygote for Δ F508, and two compound heterozygotes Δ F508/R1162X and Δ F508/3849+10kbC>T. In three cases only one mutation was found: I148T, 2789+5G>A and Δ F508 in a heterozygote form.Conclusions: The genetic testing for CF is a valuable diagnostic tool in atypical forms of CF. Exclusion of possible differential diagnosis is warranted because of a variable CF phenotype. In cases where only one or no mutation was detected a necessity of whole gene sequencing is indicated to exclude rare mutations and polymorphisms that could be implicated in the pathogenesis of atypical CF.

  5. The Role of Computed Tomography in Monitoring Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybacka, Anna; Karmelita-Katulska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common lethal autosomal recessive disorder in the Caucasian population. Although the survival rate in patients constantly improves, lung damage is still the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. In clinical practice, evaluation of patients’ pulmonary state is made by combination of monitoring of lung function and more directly by assessing the lung structure in imaging studies. Studies showed that computed tomography findings are more sensitive as compared to the pulmonary function tests. Computed tomography can identify a wide range of morphological abnormalities in patients with cystic fibrosis, such as bronchiectasis (which is progressive, irreversible and probably the most relevant structural change in cystic fibrosis) peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging and many other disorders that occur in the course of the disease. Computed tomography has a crucial role in the assessment of pulmonary damage over time, detecting complications and monitoring treatment effects in patients with cystic fibrosis

  6. Volumetric capnography for the evaluation of pulmonary disease in adult patients with cystic fibrosis and noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronez, L; Moreira, M M; Soares, S T P; Pereira, M C; Ribeiro, M A G O; Ribeiro, J D; Terzi, R G G; Martins, L C; Paschoal, I A

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to use volumetric capnography to evaluate the breathing pattern and ventilation inhomogeneities in patients with chronic sputum production and bronchiectasis and to correlate the phase 3 slope of the capnographic curve to spirometric measurements. Twenty-four patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and 21 patients with noncystic fibrosis idiopathic bronchiectasis (BC) were serially enrolled. The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis was based on the finding of at least two abnormal sweat chloride concentrations (iontophoresis sweat test). The diagnosis of bronchiectasis was made when the patient had a complaint of chronic sputum production and compatible findings at high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan of the thorax. Spirometric tests and volumetric capnography were performed. The 114 subjects of the control group for capnographic variables were nonsmoker volunteers, who had no respiratory symptoms whatsoever and no past or present history of lung disease. Compared with controls, patients in CF group had lower SpO(2) (P volumes normalized for weight (V(E)/kg) (P volume (P3Slp/V(E)) (P capacities and both groups had very similar abnormalities. The capnographic variables in the patient group suggest a restrictive respiratory pattern (greater respiratory rates, smaller expiratory times and expiratory volumes, normal peak expiratory flows). Both groups of patients showed increased phase III slopes compared with controls, which probably indicates the presence of diffuse disease of small airways in both conditions leading to inhomogeneities of ventilation.

  7. Hemoglobin oxygen affinity in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Böning

    Full Text Available In patients with cystic fibrosis lung damages cause arterial hypoxia. As a typical compensatory reaction one might expect changes in oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. Therefore position (standard half saturation pressure P50st and slope (Hill's n of the O2 dissociation curve as well as the Bohr coefficients (BC for CO2 and lactic acid were determined in blood of 14 adult patients (8 males, 6 females and 14 healthy controls (6 males, 8 females. While Hill's n amounted to approximately 2.6 in all subjects, P50st was slightly increased by 1 mmHg in both patient groups (controls male 26.7 ± 0.2, controls female 27.0 ± 0.1, patients male 27.7 ± 0.5, patients female 28.0 ± 0.3 mmHg; mean and standard error, overall p<0.01. Main cause was a rise of 1-2 µmol/g hemoglobin in erythrocytic 2,3-biphosphoglycerate concentration. One patient only, clearly identified as an outlier and with the mutation G551D, showed a reduction of both P50st (24.5 mmHg and [2,3-biphosphoglycerate] (9.8 µmol/g hemoglobin. There were no differences in BCCO2, but small sex differences in the BC for lactic acid in the controls which were not detectable in the patients. Causes for the right shift of the O2 dissociation curve might be hypoxic stimulation of erythrocytic glycolysis and an increased red cell turnover both causing increased [2,3-biphosphoglycerate]. However, for situations with additional hypercapnia as observed in exercising patients a left shift seems to be a more favourable adaptation in cystic fibrosis. Additionally when in vivo PO2 values were corrected to the standard conditions they mostly lay left of the in vitro O2 dissociation curve in both patients and controls. This hints to unknown fugitive factors influencing oxygen affinity.

  8. Clinical usefulness of biochemical markers of liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Sakugawa; Fukunori Kinjo; Atsushi Saito; Tomofumi Nakayoshi; Kasen Kobashigawa; Tsuyoshi Yamashiro; Tatsuji Maeshiro; Satoru Miyagi; Joji Shiroma; Akiyo Toyama; Tomokuni Nakayoshi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and progresses to the end stage of liver disease. Biochemical markers of liver fibrosis are strongly associated with the degree of histological liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease.However, data are few on the usefulness of markers in NAFLD patients. The aim of this study was to identify better noninvasive predictors of hepatic fibrosis, with special focus on markers of liver fibrosis, type Ⅵ collagen 7S domain and hyaluronic acid.METHODS: One hundred and twelve patients with histologically proven NAFLD were studied.RESULTS: The histological stage of NAFLD correlated with several clinical and biochemical variables, the extent of hepatic fibrosis and the markers of liver fibrosis were relatively strong associated. The best cutoff values to detect NASH were assessed by using receiver operating characteristic analysis: type Ⅵ collagen 7S domain ≥5.0 ng/mL, hyaluronic acid ≥43 ng/mL. Both markers had a high positive predictive value: type Ⅵ collagen 7S domain, 86% and hyaluronic acid,92%. Diagnostic accuracies of these markers were evaluated to detect severe fibrosis. Both markers showed high negative predictive values: type Ⅵ collagen 7S domain (≥5.0 ng/mL),84% and hyaluronic acid (≥50 ng/mL), 78%, and were significantly and independently associated with the presence of NASH or severe fibrosis by logistic regression analysis.CONCLUSION: Both markers of liver fibrosis are useful in discriminating NASH from fatty liver alone or patients with severe fibrosis from patients with non-severe fibrosis.

  9. Short-term effects of splenectomy on serum fibrosis indexes in liver cirrhosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Degang; Chen, Xiuli; Lu, Shichun; Guo, Qingliang; Lai, Wei; Wu, Jushan; Lin, Dongdong; Zeng, Daobing; Duan, Binwei; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Jilei

    2015-01-01

    To determine the changing patterns of 4 liver fibrosis markers pre and post splenectomy (combined with pericardial devascularization [PCDV]) and to examine the short-term effects of splenectomy on liver fibrosis. Four liver fibrosis markers of 39 liver cirrhosis patients were examined pre, immediately post, 2 days post, and 1 week post (15 cases) splenectomy (combined with PCDV). The laminin (LN) level decreased immediately post surgery compared with the preoperative LN level (P splenectomy showed characteristic changes, splenectomy may transiently initiate the degradation process of liver fibrosis.

  10. Inflammation in Achromobacter xylosoxidans infected cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. R.; Pressler, T.; Nielsen, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection may cause conspicuous chronic pulmonary inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Evolution in lung function was compared in chronically infected patients. Cytokine...

  11. Factors Associated with Worse Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Persistent Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Junge

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF. However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads.Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudinal multi-center study and assessed the association between lung function and S. aureus bacterial density in respiratory samples, co-infection with other CF-pathogens, nasal S. aureus carriage, clinical status, antibiotic therapy, IL-6- and IgG-levels against S. aureus virulence factors.195 patients from 17 centers were followed; each patient had an average of 7 visits. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear mixed models. Our main hypothesis was only supported for patients providing throat specimens indicating that patients with higher density experienced a steeper lung function decline (p<0.001. Patients with exacerbations (n = 60, S. aureus small-colony variants (SCVs, n = 84 and co-infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 44 had worse lung function (p = 0.0068; p = 0.0011; p = 0.0103. Patients with SCVs were older (p = 0.0066 and more often treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p = 0.0078. IL-6 levels positively correlated with decreased lung function (p<0.001, S. aureus density in sputa (p = 0.0016, SCVs (p = 0.0209, exacerbations (p = 0.0041 and co-infections with S. maltophilia (p = 0.0195 or A. fumigatus (p = 0.0496.In CF-patients with chronic S. aureus cultures, independent risk factors for worse lung function are high bacterial density in throat cultures, exacerbations, elevated IL-6 levels, presence of S. aureus SCVs and co-infection with S. maltophilia.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00669760.

  12. Surgical Outcomes of Lung Cancer Patients with Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema and Those with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis without Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Seijiro; Koike, Terumoto; Hashimoto, Takehisa; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Okada, Akira; Watanabe, Takehiro; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2016-08-23

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a unique disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes of lung cancer patients with CPFE and those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) without emphysema. A total of 1548 patients who underwent surgery for primary lung cancer between January 2001 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 1548 patients, 55 (3.6%) had CPFE on computed tomography (CT), and 45 (2.9%) had IPF without emphysema. The overall and disease-free 5-year survival rates for patients with CPFE were not significantly worse than those for patients with IPF without emphysema (24.9% vs. 36.8%, p = 0.814; 39.8% vs. 39.3%, p = 0.653, respectively). Overall, 21 (38.1%) patients with CPFE and nine patients (20.0%) with IPF without emphysema developed postoperative cardiopulmonary complications. Patients with CPFE had significantly more postoperative cardiopulmonary complications involving pulmonary air leakage for >6 days, hypoxemia, and arrhythmia than patients with IPF without emphysema (p = 0.048). There was no significant difference in survival after surgical treatment between CPFE patients and IPF patients without emphysema, but CPFE patients had significantly higher morbidity than IPF patients without emphysema.

  13. Is Antibiotic Prophylaxis Necessary in Patients Undergoing Ureterolithotripsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pasha Meysamie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Transurethral Ureterolithotripsy (TUL is a frequently used procedure in urology departments. Many urologists perform TUL without antibiotic prophylaxis; however the use of chemoprophylaxis before TUL remains a controversial issue in urology. Thisstudy was carried out to assess the safety of omitting antibiotic prophylaxis prior to TUL. In a prospective randomized clinical trial from January 2005 to December 2007, 114 patients with ureteral stones were enrolled; Fifty seven had preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis administered before TUL and fifty seven patients underwent TUL without antibiotic prophylaxis. The rate of postoperative infectious complications (fever, positive blood culture, significant bactriuria, the length of hospital stay and overall stone free rate were compared between the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups in the operation time, length of hospital stay, postoperative bacteriuria, positive urine culture, postoperative fever and overall success rate of TUL. It appears that the incidence of infectious complications does not increase in patients undergoing TUL without antibiotic prophylaxis if they have negative pre-operative urine culture and antiseptic technique have been performed thorough the procedure.

  14. Optimizing quality of life in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Mirjam J. G.; Geelhoed, J. J. Miranda.; Tak, Nelleke C.; Wijsenbeek, Marlies S.

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating, progressive and ultimately fatal lung disease. The combination of poor prognosis, uncertainty of disease course and severe symptom burden heavily impacts patients’ and their families’ quality of life. Though new antifibrotic drugs have been shown to decrease disease progression, the effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been convincingly demonstrated. In a relentless disease such as IPF, striving to optimize HRQOL should complement the endeavour to prolong life. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of interventions improving symptoms and functionality for patients with IPF, and research focusing on symptom improvement, and assessing and optimizing HRQOL, is limited. This review summarizes the most recent insights into measuring and improving quality of life for patients with IPF, and discusses challenges in the management of this devastating disease. Moreover, we postulate a new model for continuous care in IPF – ‘the ABCDE of IPF care’: Assessing patients’ needs; Backing patients by giving information and support; delivering Comfort care by focusing on treating symptoms and taking into account Comorbidities; striving to prolong life by Disease modification; helping and preparing patients and their caregivers for the eventual End-of-life events that are likely to occur. PMID:28134007

  15. Clinical characteristics in patients with asymmetric idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Sean J; Xia, Meng; Murray, Susan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-10-01

    A group of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) presents with disease affecting one lung markedly more than the other. At this time, it is unclear how this population differs from those who present with more symmetric disease. We sought to explain the characteristics of the asymmetric group and how their disease progresses. In this retrospective case-control study we accessed an interstitial lung disease (ILD) database and identified 14 asymmetric IPF cases via high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scoring of each lung lobe's disease severity. We identified 28 symmetric IPF controls from the same database using the same methods, and compared the clinical features of each group. Patients with asymmetric disease exhibited similar demographics as those in the general IPF population; they were predominantly male (64%), elderly (69 years old), and used tobacco (57%). We found a trend toward significantly increased all-cause mortality in the case population two years following diagnosis (p = 0.089). Pulmonary function tests were significantly lower in the case group at the time of diagnosis, then both groups experienced gradual decline. We found no statistically significant differences in number of IPF exacerbations (cases 43%, controls 39%, p = 0.824) and gastro-esophageal reflux (both groups 50%). Patients with asymmetric IPF resemble patients in the general IPF population but may have a lower overall survival rate. Further systemic factors may be studied to identify reasons for disease asymmetry and clinical decline in this population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [The profile of caregivers to pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Stella Pegoraro; Bueno, Denise

    2018-05-01

    The scope of this study was to establish the profile of caregivers of pediatric patients diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). It was a cross-sectional, descriptive and prospective study in which the caregivers of fibrocystic patients were interviewed during pharmaceutical consultation in a reference center of a University Hospital in southern Brazil. General information was obtained about the caregivers and about their understanding of the disease, drug consumption and dynamics of treatment at home and at school. Seventy-five caregivers were interviewed. Most of them were female, 37.3 years old on average, mothers of the patients who did not work outside the home. Seventy-one caregivers declared difficulties in drug acquisition and patient support associations were highlighted as the main alternative to avoid the interruption of treatment. Another fact observed was the overload of the caregiving process on the shoulders of only one caregiver resulting in social and economic impacts and changes to the family's daily routine. This fact emphasizes the need of intervention by a qualified multidisciplinary team to identify and alleviate difficulties, investing in interpersonal relations and administering care.

  17. Independent predictors of fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Noreen; Afendy, Arian; Stepanova, Maria; Nader, Fatema; Srishord, Manirath; Rafiq, Nila; Goodman, Zachary; Younossi, Zobair

    2009-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease. We investigated factors associated with advanced fibrosis in NAFLD. The study included 432 patients with histologically proven NAFLD (26.8% with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH] and 17.4% with moderate-to severe fibrosis). NASH was defined as steatosis, lobular inflammation, and ballooning degeneration with or without Mallory-Denk bodies and/or fibrosis. Fibrosis was classified into 2 groups: those with no or minimal fibrosis and those with moderate-to-severe fibrosis. Groups were compared using Mann-Whitney and chi-square method analyses. A model was constructed using a stepwise bidirectional method; its predictive power was measured using a 10-fold cross-validation technique. Patients with NASH were more likely to be male (P < .0001); have lower hip-to-waist ratios (P = .03); were less likely to be African American (P = .06); have higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT; P < .0001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; P < .0001), and serum triglycerides (P = .0154), but lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .0001). Patients with moderate-to-severe fibrosis were older (P = .0245); more likely to be male (P = .0189), Caucasian (P = .0382), have diabetes mellitus (P = .0238), and hypertension (P = .0375); and have a lower hip-to-waist ratio (P = .0077) but higher serum AST (P < .0001) and ALT (P < .0001) levels. The multivariate analysis model to predict moderate-to-severe fibrosis included male sex, Caucasian ethnicity, diabetes mellitus, and increased AST and ALT levels (model P value < .0001). In patients with NAFLD, diabetes mellitus and aminotransferase levels are independent predictors of moderate-to-severe fibrosis. They can be used to identify NAFLD patients at risk for advanced fibrosis.

  18. Pandoraea pnomenusa Isolated from an Australian Patient with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Mark; Malley, Roslyn C; Warren, Sanchia J C; Beggs, Sean A; Swallow, Oliver F E; McEwan, Belinda; Stock, David; Roddam, Louise F

    2016-01-01

    Pandoraea species are considered as emerging pathogens in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). The contribution of these organisms to disease progression in CF patients is not fully understood owing in large measure to the scant reports in clinical and research literature describing their colonization of CF patients and their associated virulence determinants. In an effort to increase awareness and evidence for Pandoraea spp. infection in people with CF, and to stimulate research aimed at unraveling the pathogenic properties of Pandoraea, we report a case of a 26-year-old Australian (Tasmanian) man with CF who was chronically infected with Pandoraea pnomenusa for at least one year prior to his death from respiratory failure. In addition, we describe for the first time evidence suggesting that this bacterium is a facultative anaerobe and report on the availability of a whole genome sequence for this organism. To the best of our knowledge, this report represents only the second clinical case study of P. pnomenusa infection in the world, and the first in an Australian CF patient.

  19. Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with cystic fibrosis *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronezi, Jefferson; Carvalho, Ana Paula; Ricachinewsky, Claudio; Hoffmann, Anneliese; Kobayashi, Danielle Yuka; Piltcher, Otavio Bejzman; Silva, Fernando Antonio Abreu e; Martinez, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To test the hypothesis that disease severity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is correlated with an increased risk of sleep apnea. Methods: A total of 34 CF patients underwent clinical and functional evaluation, as well as portable polysomnography, spirometry, and determination of IL-1β levels. Results: Mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), SpO2 on room air, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale score were 4.8 ± 2.6, 95.9 ± 1.9%, and 7.6 ± 3.8 points, respectively. Of the 34 patients, 19 were well-nourished, 6 were at nutritional risk, and 9 were malnourished. In the multivariate model to predict the AHI, the following variables remained significant: nutritional status (β = −0.386; p = 0.014); SpO2 (β = −0.453; p = 0.005), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (β = 0.429; p = 0.006). The model explained 51% of the variation in the AHI. Conclusions: The major determinants of sleep apnea were nutritional status, SpO2, and daytime sleepiness. This knowledge not only provides an opportunity to define the clinical risk of having sleep apnea but also creates an avenue for the treatment and prevention of the disease. PMID:26398755

  20. Antibiotic-Induced Rash in Patients With Infectious Mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Ramos, Carroll L

    2017-02-01

    To provide an extensive review of case reports, epidemiological data, and the underlying mechanism of antibiotic-induced skin rash in patients with concurrent infectious mononucleosis (IM). A MEDLINE literature search inclusive of the dates 1946 to June 2016 was performed using the search terms anti-bacterial agents and infectious mononucleosis. EMBASE (1980 to June 2016) was searched using the terms mononucleosis and antibiotic agent and drug eruption. References of all relevant articles were reviewed for additional citations and information. We selected English-language, primary literature, review articles, and mechanistic articles that addressed antibiotic-induced skin rash in patients with concurrent IM. We assessed all case reports available for causality utilizing a modified Naranjo nomogram specifically designed for this subject. We assembled the available epidemiological data into tables to identify trends in incidence rates over the years. We identified 17 case reports of antibiotic-associated rash in patients with IM. The median Naranjo score was 6 (range = 1 to 8). The top 3 reported drugs were ampicillin, azithromycin, and amoxicillin. Incidence of this adverse effect was higher in the 1960s (55.6%, 45%, and 33%) than in 2013 (33% and 15%). The mechanism most commonly proposed is a transient virus-mediated immune alteration that sets the stage for loss of antigenic tolerance and the development of a reversible, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to the antibiotic. A reassessment of the long-held belief of the high incidence (80%-100%) of antibiotic-induced skin rash in patients with IM seems prudent. Additional studies will be necessary to clarify this issue.

  1. Noninvasive Assessment of Advanced Fibrosis Based on Hepatic Volume in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuya; Saitoh, Satoshi; Fukuzawa, Kei; Tsuji, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Junji; Kawamura, Yusuke; Akuta, Norio; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Kenji; Fujii, Takeshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2017-09-15

    Noninvasive liver fibrosis evaluation was performed in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We used a quantitative method based on the hepatic volume acquired from gadoxetate disodium-enhanced (Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosing advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. A total of 130 patients who were diagnosed with NAFLD and underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI were retrospectively included. Histological data were available for 118 patients. Hepatic volumetric parameters, including the left hepatic lobe to right hepatic lobe volume ratio (L/R ratio), were measured. The usefulness of the L/R ratio for diagnosing fibrosis ≥F3-4 and F4 was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify variables (age, body mass index, serum fibrosis markers, and histological features) that were associated with the L/R ratio. The L/R ratio demonstrated good performance in differentiating advanced fibrosis (AUROC, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 0.88) from cirrhosis (AUROC, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 0.99). Multiple regression analysis showed that only fibrosis was significantly associated with the L/R ratio (coefficient, 0.121; p<0.0001). The L/R ratio, which is not influenced by pathological parameters other than fibrosis, is useful for diagnosing cirrhosis in patients with NAFLD.

  2. Use of artificial sputum medium to test antibiotic efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in conditions more relevant to the cystic fibrosis lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Sebastian; Fothergill, Joanne L; Wright, Elli A; James, Chloe E; Mowat, Eilidh; Winstanley, Craig

    2012-06-05

    There is growing concern about the relevance of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility tests when applied to isolates of P. aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Existing methods rely on single or a few isolates grown aerobically and planktonically. Predetermined cut-offs are used to define whether the bacteria are sensitive or resistant to any given antibiotic. However, during chronic lung infections in CF, P. aeruginosa populations exist in biofilms and there is evidence that the environment is largely microaerophilic. The stark difference in conditions between bacteria in the lung and those during diagnostic testing has called into question the reliability and even relevance of these tests. Artificial sputum medium (ASM) is a culture medium containing the components of CF patient sputum, including amino acids, mucin and free DNA. P. aeruginosa growth in ASM mimics growth during CF infections, with the formation of self-aggregating biofilm structures and population divergence. The aim of this study was to develop a microtitre-plate assay to study antimicrobial susceptibility of P. aeruginosa based on growth in ASM, which is applicable to both microaerophilic and aerobic conditions. An ASM assay was developed in a microtitre plate format. P. aeruginosa biofilms were allowed to develop for 3 days prior to incubation with antimicrobial agents at different concentrations for 24 hours. After biofilm disruption, cell viability was measured by staining with resazurin. This assay was used to ascertain the sessile cell minimum inhibitory concentration (SMIC) of tobramycin for 15 different P. aeruginosa isolates under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions and SMIC values were compared to those obtained with standard broth growth. Whilst there was some evidence for increased MIC values for isolates grown in ASM when compared to their planktonic counterparts, the biggest differences were found with bacteria tested in microaerophilic conditions, which showed a much

  3. Blunted perception of neural respiratory drive and breathlessness in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Reilly

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The electromyogram recorded from the diaphragm (EMGdi and parasternal intercostal muscle using surface electrodes (sEMGpara provides a measure of neural respiratory drive (NRD, the magnitude of which reflects lung disease severity in stable cystic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to explore perception of NRD and breathlessness in both healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis. Given chronic respiratory loading and increased NRD in cystic fibrosis, often in the absence of breathlessness at rest, we hypothesised that patients with cystic fibrosis would be able to tolerate higher levels of NRD for a given level of breathlessness compared to healthy individuals during exercise. 15 cystic fibrosis patients (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 53.5% predicted and 15 age-matched, healthy controls were studied. Spirometry was measured in all subjects and lung volumes measured in the cystic fibrosis patients. EMGdi and sEMGpara were recorded at rest and during incremental cycle exercise to exhaustion and expressed as a percentage of maximum (% max obtained from maximum respiratory manoeuvres. Borg breathlessness scores were recorded at rest and during each minute of exercise. EMGdi % max and sEMGpara % max and associated Borg breathlessness scores differed significantly between healthy subjects and cystic fibrosis patients at rest and during exercise. The relationship between EMGdi % max and sEMGpara % max and Borg score was shifted to the right in the cystic fibrosis patients, such that at comparable levels of EMGdi % max and sEMGpara % max the cystic fibrosis patients reported significantly lower Borg breathlessness scores compared to the healthy individuals. At Borg score 1 (clinically significant increase in breathlessness from baseline corresponding levels of EMGdi % max (20.2±12% versus 32.15±15%, p=0.02 and sEMGpara % max (18.9±8% versus 29.2±15%, p=0.04 were lower in the healthy individuals compared to the cystic

  4. Convergent evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa within patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Madsen Sommer, Lea Mette; Molin, Søren

    2015-01-01

    fibrosis. Our analysis of 36 P. aeruginosa lineages identified convergent molecular evolution in 52 genes. This list of genes suggests a role in host adaptation for remodeling of regulatory networks and central metabolism, acquisition of antibiotic resistance and loss of extracellular virulence factors....... Furthermore, we find an ordered succession of mutations in key regulatory networks. Accordingly, mutations in downstream transcriptional regulators were contingent upon mutations in upstream regulators, suggesting that remodeling of regulatory networks might be important in adaptation. The characterization...

  5. Disappearance of Helicobacter without Antibiotics in 12 Patients with Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Helicobacter pylori in endoscopic gastric biopsies has been associated with a variety of diseases, including ulcers and gastritis. Although the natural history of H pylori in the gastric mucosa is unknown, antibiotic regimens have been used for eradication. Gastric biopsies from 6050 endoscopic procedures done by a single gastroenterologist from 1981 to 1994 were evaluated. Of these, 2860 from April 1, 1991 to September 30, 1994 had silver-stained biopsies to facilitate H pylori detection, and at least two upper endoscopic procedures were done with gastric biopsies in 188 patients. Twelve of the 188 patients with an initially positive H pylori gastric biopsy became H pylori-negative without antibiotic treatment for H pylori or other infection; 10 received omeprazole and two received no drug treatment. In two of the 12 patients recurrent H pylori in the gastric mucosa was also documented. These findings indicate that H pylori may disappear and reappear in the gastric mucosa with no specific antibiotic eradication regimen, although omeprazole may eradicate H pylori in vivo in some patients. The natural history of H pylori in gastric biopsies is poorly understood. Improved understanding, especially regarding the pathogenesis of upper gastrointestinal ulcerative and inflammatory disease processes, is essential before recommendations for specific antibiotic eradication regimens can be made.

  6. How much do patients in Blantyre, Malawi know about antibiotics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction This qualitative and quantitative exploratory study was conducted to assess patients'/customers' knowledge, beliefs and practices about antibiotics and other prescription only medication (POM) in 10 community pharmacies in Blantyre, Malawi. Method 5 out of 10 pharmacies were selected by simple random ...

  7. Fatty acyltranferases in serum in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielenski, J.; Newman, L.J.; Slomiany, B.L.; Slomiany, A.

    1987-01-01

    Studies on serum and gastrointestinal secretion from CF patient is suggest that defective accumulation of mucus in gastrointestinal tract and excessive amount of a protease resistant peptides in serum are related to the abnormal activity of enzymes responsible for fatty acylation of proteins. Here, the authors investigated the fatty acyltransferase activities in serum of normal and CF patients. A 15μl of serum was mixed with 0.85 nmol [ 14 C]palmitoyl CoA, 200μg of serine and threonine and incubated at 37 0 C for 30 min. The incubates were immediately frozen, dried extracted with C/M and chromatographed in chloroform/methanol/water. The incorporation of [ 14 C]palmitate was determined using linear radioscanner and authoradiography. The results of HPTLC revealed that CF serum in addition of ACAT and LCAT contained enzymes responsible for the transfer of [ 14 C]palmitate to monoacylphosphoglycerides, and serine and threonine. In normal serum the formation of a small amount of palmitoyl serine and palmitoyl threonine was also observed but the acylation of monoacylphosphoglycerides was not detectable. The authors conclude that in cystic fibrosis the abnormal fatty acyltransferases are responsible for the occurrence of protease resistant glycoprotein, unusual peptides in serum and possibly for the modification of membrane proteins and lipids

  8. The Prognosis of Small Cell Lung Cancer in Patients with Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoko; Ohara, Sayaka; Furukawa, Ryutaro; Usui, Kazuhiro

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prognosis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) based on the underlying pulmonary disease. A total of 204 patients with SCLC were reviewed and categorized into three groups: normal, emphysema and fibrosis. The median overall survival duration (OS) in patients with normal lungs (n=57), with emphysema (n=105) and fibrosis (n=42) was 21.3, 16.4 and 10.8 months (p=0.063). In limited-stage disease (LD), the median OS in patients with fibrosis (7.4 months) was shorter than normal (52.7 months) or emphysema patients (26.4 months) (p=0.034). In extensive-stage disease (ED), the median OS in patients with fibrosis (12.7 months) was not significantly different from normal (11.4 months) or emphysema patients (13.5 months) (p=0.600). Patients with fibrosis had a poorer prognosis than normal or emphysema patients in LD-SCLC, but the coexistence of pulmonary fibrosis did not affect the prognostic outcomes in ED-SCLC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Maintenance of nutritional status in patients with cystic fibrosis: new and emerging therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalnins D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Daina Kalnins,1 Michael Wilschanski21Clinical Dietetics, Respiratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Hadassah University Hospitals, Jerusalem, IsraelAbstract: Poor clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis are often associated with undernutrition. Normal growth and development should be achieved in cystic fibrosis, and nutritional counseling is paramount at all ages. Prevention and early detection of growth failure is the key to successful nutritional intervention. The advance in nutritional management is certainly one factor that has contributed to the improved survival in recent decades. This review outlines the major nutritional parameters in the management of the patient with cystic fibrosis, including recent advances in pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy and fat-soluble vitamin therapy. There are sections on complicated clinical situations which directly affect nutrition, for example, before and after lung transplantation, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, and bone health.Keywords: cystic fibrosis, nutrition, fat-soluble vitamins, pancreatic enzymes

  10. Anesthesia for Lobectomy in a Pediatric Patient` with Cystic Fibrosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedhejazi Mahin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive disease which causes a lot of complications and there are some needed operations in lifelong of such patients. Anesthesia in these patients requires particular attention and a full cooperation of surgeon, anesthetist and pediatrician .We reported a case of lobectomy with lung separation in a 4.5 years old child with cystic fibrosis which was performed with minor complications in the hope that an awareness of such situations may turn up similar cases of study. Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, Anesthesia, Pulmonic Lobectomy

  11. Antibiotic Therapy in Pyogenic Meningitis in Paediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajdin, F.; Rasheed, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Khan, G.J.; Rasheed, H.; Ejaz, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and identify the causative pathogen, antibiotic sensitivity testing and success rate of empirical antibiotic therapy in pyogenic meningitis. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan, from March to July 2012. Methodology: The study was performed on 72 culture positive meningitis cases in children less than 15 years of age. This therapy was evaluated by monitoring the patient's clinical picture for 14 - 21 days. The collected data was analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Seventeen different bacteria were isolated. The most commonly occurring bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococci (25%), E. coli (12.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.3%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (8.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.3%). All the bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin (96.7%), meropenem (76.7%), amikacin (75%), ciprofloxacin (65.3%), chloramphenicol (46.5%), ceftazidime (44.2%), cefepime (41.9%), co-amoxiclav (38.0%), oxacillin (34.8%), cefotaxime (21.4%), penicillin (20.7%), ceftriaxone (18.6%), cefuroxime (14%) and ampicillin (6.9%). The combination of sulbactam and cefoperazone showed antimicrobial sensitivity of 81.4%. The success rate of empirical antibiotic therapy was 91.7%. Conclusion: It was found that Gram negative bacteria were the major cause of pyogenic meningitis. Mostly there were resistant strains against all commonly used antibiotics except vancomycin. All empirical antibiotic therapies were found to be most successful. (author)

  12. Serum Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer predicts grade F4 liver fibrosis in patients with biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Naoya; Sanada, Yukihiro; Tashiro, Masahisa; Hirata, Yuta; Okada, Noriki; Ihara, Yoshiyuki; Urahashi, Taizen; Mizuta, Koichi

    2017-02-01

    Mac-2 Binding Protein Glycosylation Isomer (M2BPGi) is a novel fibrosis marker. We examined the ability of M2BPGi to predict liver fibrosis in patients with biliary atresia. Sixty-four patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) were included [median age, 1.1 years (range 0.4-16.0), male 16 patients (25.0 %)]. We examined M2BPGi levels in serum obtained the day before LDLT, and we compared the value of the preoperative M2BPGi levels with the histological evaluation of fibrosis using the METAVIR fibrosis score. Subsequently, we assessed the ability of M2BPGi levels to predict fibrosis. The median M2BPGi level in patients with BA was 6.02 (range, 0.36-20.0), and 0, 1, 1, 11, and 51 patients had METAVIR fibrosis scores of F0, F1, F2, F3, and F4, respectively. In patients with F4 fibrosis, the median M2BPGi level was 6.88 (quartile; 5.235, 12.10), significantly higher than that in patients with F3 fibrosis who had a median level of 2.42 (quartile; 1.93, 2.895, p F4 fibrosis. M2BPGi is a novel fibrosis marker for evaluating the status of the liver in patients with BA, especially when predicting grade F4 fibrosis.

  13. Molecular detection of an atypical, highly resistant, clonal Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate in cystic fibrosis patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Deirdre

    2013-03-01

    The identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolates in sputum from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients can be challenging due to the multitude of phenotypic changes isolates undergo during adaptation to the microenvironment of the CF lung.

  14. Anterior uveitis and congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles in a patient with Noonan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgohary Mostafa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with Noonan syndrome who presented with Human Leukocyte Antigen B27-associated recurrent acute anterior uveitis and manifestations of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, which has not been reported before.

  15. Antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Macià, María D.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with a wide range of infections, from those related to exogenous devices, such as catheters or prosthetic joints, to chronic tissue infections such as those occurring in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment due ...

  16. Safety and efficacy of antibiotics among acutely decompensated cirrhosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Patel, Nehali; Yarlagadda, Sandeep; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Patel, Sarah; Schader, Lindsey; Walker, Courtney; Twesigye, Innocent

    2018-04-26

    Infection is a leading precipitant of acute-on-chronic liver failure. This study aims to determine the safety and efficacy of antibiotics within acute-on-chronic liver failure. Retrospective study of 457 acute-on-chronic liver failure patients admitted to the University of Arizona Health Network between January 1 and December 31, 2014. Eligibility criteria were as follows: at least 18 years of age and 6 months follow-up, data available to calculate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and acute-on-chronic liver failure. This study collected patient's clinical features and historical data. Key data points were infection, antibiotic use, and SIRS. This study used Cox proportional hazards to model the effects of clinical factors on risk of death. A total of 521 of 1243 met the inclusion criteria, and 64 had missing data, leaving 457 patients. Infection resulted in higher hazard (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6, confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3, P = 0.01). Patients with infections and antibiotics, compared with non-infected patients without antibiotics, had higher hazard (HR = 1.633, CI: 1.022-2.609, P = .04). Of those infected patients with antibiotics, SIRS patients experienced higher hazard (HR = 1.9, CI: 1.1-3.0, P = .007). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards associated the following with higher hazard: SIRS (HR = 1.866, CI: 1.242-2.804, P = 0.003), vancomycin (HR = 1.640, CI: 1.119-2.405, P = 0.011), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (HR = 1.051, CI: 1.030-1.073, P < 0.001), gastrointestinal bleeding (HR = 1.727, CI: 1.180-2.527, P = 0.005), and hepatic encephalopathy (HR = 1.807, CI: 1.247-2.618, P = 0.002). Overall, treatment of infection with antibiotics did not improve survival; however, patients not meeting SIRS criteria had better outcomes, and vancomycin was associated with poorer survival among acute-on-chronic liver failure patients. © 2018 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley

  17. Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.

  18. Emerging potential treatments: new hope for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Costabel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are no approved pharmacological treatments for the management of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF in the USA or Europe. Pirfenidone is an orally bio-available small molecule that exhibits antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of in vitro and animal models. Pirfenidone has been evaluated in four randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials conducted in Japan, North America and Europe. The totality of the data from these trials indicates that pirfenidone is able to reduce the rate of decline in lung function, measured as change in per cent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC or vital capacity. There was also an effect on secondary end-points of progression free survival, categorical change in per cent predicted FVC, and the 6-min walk test. A recent meta-analysis of the three phase III studies in IPF demonstrated that pirfenidone significantly reduced the risk of disease progression by 30%. The efficacy of pirfenidone is associated with an acceptable tolerability and safety profile.

  19. Multiorgan gadolinium (Gd) deposition and fibrosis in a patient with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis--an autopsy-based review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanyal, Soma; Marckmann, Peter; Scherer, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    tissues of NSF patients, predominantly at the bulk chemical level. The distribution of Gd at the histologic level of organs other than skin has not been reported previously. METHODS: We analysed tissues from an autopsy case with verified advanced NSF by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy......), kidney, lymph node, skeletal muscle, dura mater and cerebellum of the NSF autopsy case, primarily in vascular walls. Some, but not all, Gd deposits were seen in fibrotic areas. Literature review highlighted that non-specific tissue fibrosis and calcification are frequent findings in tissues of patients...

  20. [Cystic fibrosis--initial diagnosis in a 39-year-old patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargon, J; Rickmann, J; Jacobi, V; Straub, R; Arnemann, J; Wagner, T O

    2000-12-15

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common hereditary disorder among Caucasians. Most of the patients are diagnosed as children. However, some cases are going undiagnosed into adulthood and are then often misdiagnosed because the non-pediatricians do not know cystic fibrosis very well and do not consider this diagnosis in adult patients. We present the medical history of a woman, who was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis at the age of 39 years, although she had suffered from bronchiectasis, pancreatic insufficiency and liver cirrhosis since many years. Her medical history was long with some diagnosis, but because of her age nobody considered the final diagnosis. In adult patients with bronchiectasis, liver cirrhosis and pancreatic insufficiency in combination or with only one of these symptoms, cystic fibrosis should be included into the differential diagnosis.

  1. Liver shear-wave velocity and serum fibrosis markers to diagnose hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian Xue; Ji, Yong Hao; Zhao Junzhi; Zhang, Yao Ren; Dun, Guo Liang; Ning, Bo [Dept. of Ultrasonography, Baoji Central Hospital, Baoji (China); Ai, Hong [Dept. of Ultrasonography, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-06-15

    To compare several noninvasive indices of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis B, including liver shear-wave velocity (SWV), hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen type IV (CIV), procollagen type III (PCIII), and laminin (LN). Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) was performed in 157 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and in 30 healthy volunteers to measure hepatic SWV (m/s) in a prospective study. Serum markers were acquired on the morning of the same day of the ARFI evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the accuracies of SWV and serum markers using METAVIR scoring from liver biopsy as a reference standard. The most accurate test for diagnosing fibrosis F ≥ 1 was SWV with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.913, followed by LN (0.744), HA (0.701), CIV (0.690), and PCIII (0.524). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 2 was SWV (AUC of 0.851), followed by CIV (0.671), HA (0.668), LN (0.562), and PCIII (0.550). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 3 was SWV (0.854), followed by CIV (0.693), HA (0.675), PCIII (0.591), and LN (0.548). The best test for diagnosing F = 4 was SWV (0.965), followed by CIV (0.804), PCIII (0.752), HA (0.744), and LN (0.662). SWV combined with HA and CIV did not improve diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.931 for F ≥ 1, 0.863 for F ≥ 2, 0.855 for F ≥ 3, 0.960 for F = 4). The performance of SWV in diagnosing liver fibrosis is superior to that of serum markers. However, the combination of SWV, HA, and CIV does not increase the accuracy of diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  2. Liver shear-wave velocity and serum fibrosis markers to diagnose hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian Xue; Ji, Yong Hao; Zhao Junzhi; Zhang, Yao Ren; Dun, Guo Liang; Ning, Bo; Ai, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To compare several noninvasive indices of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis B, including liver shear-wave velocity (SWV), hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen type IV (CIV), procollagen type III (PCIII), and laminin (LN). Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) was performed in 157 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and in 30 healthy volunteers to measure hepatic SWV (m/s) in a prospective study. Serum markers were acquired on the morning of the same day of the ARFI evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the accuracies of SWV and serum markers using METAVIR scoring from liver biopsy as a reference standard. The most accurate test for diagnosing fibrosis F ≥ 1 was SWV with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.913, followed by LN (0.744), HA (0.701), CIV (0.690), and PCIII (0.524). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 2 was SWV (AUC of 0.851), followed by CIV (0.671), HA (0.668), LN (0.562), and PCIII (0.550). The best test for diagnosing F ≥ 3 was SWV (0.854), followed by CIV (0.693), HA (0.675), PCIII (0.591), and LN (0.548). The best test for diagnosing F = 4 was SWV (0.965), followed by CIV (0.804), PCIII (0.752), HA (0.744), and LN (0.662). SWV combined with HA and CIV did not improve diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.931 for F ≥ 1, 0.863 for F ≥ 2, 0.855 for F ≥ 3, 0.960 for F = 4). The performance of SWV in diagnosing liver fibrosis is superior to that of serum markers. However, the combination of SWV, HA, and CIV does not increase the accuracy of diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

  3. Cystic fibrosis - Comparison between patients in paediatric and adult age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V; Cardoso, A V; Lopes, C; Azevedo, P; Gamboa, F; Amorim, A

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians. Although most cases are diagnosed in childhood, diagnosis in adults is apparently increasing. Evaluate the adult population with CF, comparing patients who were diagnosed before and after 18 years of age. Retrospective analysis of patients followed in three main medical centres in Portugal in 2012. Comparison of two groups: G1 - patients diagnosed at <18 years and G2 - patients diagnosed at ≥18 years. 89 adults were identified: 61.8% in G1, 38.2% in G2. Gender distribution was similar in both groups. Average age in G2 was higher (38.3±8.4 vs. 26.8±6.1 years, p<0.001). Respiratory symptoms most frequently led to CF diagnosis in all patients, mainly in adulthood. There was a greater percentage of patients homozygous for the mutation delF508 in G1 (43.6 vs. 8.8%, p=0.02). Respiratory and pancreatic function, and body mass index (BMI) showed a higher severity in G1 (G1 vs. G2: FEV1: 54.6±27.3 vs. 29.9±64.6%, p=0.177; pancreatic insufficiency 72.7 vs. 26.5%, p<0.001; BMI 20.2±3.4 vs. 22.2±4.8, p=0.018). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated microorganisms. Lung transplantation rate was higher in G2 (20.6 vs. 10.9%, p=0.231) while mortality rate was higher in G1 (0 vs. 3.6%, p=0.261). Hospital admission rate was higher in G1 as well as mortality rate. The results suggest that patients with CF diagnosed in childhood have characteristics that distinguish them from those diagnosed in adulthood, and these differences may have implications for diagnosis, prognosis and life expectancy. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The Efficacy of Perioperative Antibiotic Therapy in Tonsillectomy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Krzysztof; Lisowska, Grażyna; Misiołek, Hanna; Paluch, Zbigniew; Misiołek, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    While the results of early research suggested that perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in tonsillectomy patients is associated with many benefits, these data were not confirmed by further studies and meta-analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness and efficacy of antibiotic monotherapy in the healing of surgical wounds of patients undergoing bilateral resection of the palatine tonsils, based on an analysis of selected objective and subjective characteristics of wound healing during the postoperative period. The study included 50 men and women who underwent routine resection of the palatine tonsils. The patients were randomized into two groups: Group I, undergoing tonsillectomy with cefuroxime prophylaxis (n = 25), and Group II, who were not given perioperative antibiotic therapy (n = 25). The severity of signs and complaints recorded on postoperative days 1-10 was scored on 3- and 10-item scales. The only significant intergroup differences pertained to problems with swallowing food and fluids on postoperative days 4-6, 8 and 9 (less prevalent in Group II), postoperative use of analgesics on postoperative day 9 (less frequent in Group II), the degree of mucosal swelling in the operated area on postoperative days 3 and 7 (less severe in Group II), and the amount of fibrin covering the tonsillar niches on the third postoperative day (significantly higher in Group I). The administration of antibiotics for prevention or control of infection should be preceded by a comprehensive analysis of the potential benefits and risks. Perioperative use of antibiotics is justified only in selected cases, i.e. in individuals with comorbidities.

  5. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal damage precedes myocardial fibrosis in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbriaco, Massimo; Piscopo, Valentina; Ponsiglione, Andrea; Nappi, Carmela; Puglia, Marta; Dell'Aversana, Serena; Spinelli, Letizia; Cuocolo, Alberto; Pellegrino, Teresa; Petretta, Mario; Riccio, Eleonora; Pisani, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac sympathetic denervation may be detectable in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD), suggesting its usefulness for early detection of the disease. However, the relationship between sympathetic neuronal damage measured by 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging with myocardial fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is still unclear. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was assessed by 123 I-MIBG single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 25 patients with genetically proved AFD. Within one month from MIBG imaging, all patients underwent contrast-enhanced CMR. MIBG defect size and fibrosis size on CMR were measured for the left ventricle (LV) and expressed as %LV. Patients were divided into three groups according to MIBG and CMR findings: (1) matched normal, without MIBG defects and without fibrosis on CMR (n = 10); (2) unmatched, with MIBG defect but without fibrosis (n = 5); and (3) matched abnormal, with MIBG defect and fibrosis (n = 10). The three groups did not differ with respect to age, gender, α-galactosidase, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, and troponin I, while New York Heart Association class (p = 0.008), LV hypertrophy (p = 0.05), and enzyme replacement therapy (p = 0.02) were different among groups. Although in patients with matched abnormal findings, there was a significant correlation between MIBG defect size and area of fibrosis at CMR (r 2 = 0.98, p < 0.001), MIBG defect size was larger than fibrosis size (26 ± 23 vs. 18 ± 13%LV, p = 0.02). Sympathetic neuronal damage is frequent in AFD patients, and it may precede myocardial damage, such as fibrosis. Thus, 123 I-MIBG imaging can be considered a challenging technique for early detection of cardiac involvement in AFD. (orig.)

  6. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal damage precedes myocardial fibrosis in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbriaco, Massimo; Piscopo, Valentina; Ponsiglione, Andrea; Nappi, Carmela; Puglia, Marta; Dell' Aversana, Serena; Spinelli, Letizia; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Pellegrino, Teresa [National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Petretta, Mario [University Federico II, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Riccio, Eleonora; Pisani, Antonio [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Public Health, Naples (Italy)

    2017-12-15

    Cardiac sympathetic denervation may be detectable in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD), suggesting its usefulness for early detection of the disease. However, the relationship between sympathetic neuronal damage measured by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging with myocardial fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is still unclear. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was assessed by {sup 123}I-MIBG single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 25 patients with genetically proved AFD. Within one month from MIBG imaging, all patients underwent contrast-enhanced CMR. MIBG defect size and fibrosis size on CMR were measured for the left ventricle (LV) and expressed as %LV. Patients were divided into three groups according to MIBG and CMR findings: (1) matched normal, without MIBG defects and without fibrosis on CMR (n = 10); (2) unmatched, with MIBG defect but without fibrosis (n = 5); and (3) matched abnormal, with MIBG defect and fibrosis (n = 10). The three groups did not differ with respect to age, gender, α-galactosidase, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, and troponin I, while New York Heart Association class (p = 0.008), LV hypertrophy (p = 0.05), and enzyme replacement therapy (p = 0.02) were different among groups. Although in patients with matched abnormal findings, there was a significant correlation between MIBG defect size and area of fibrosis at CMR (r{sup 2} = 0.98, p < 0.001), MIBG defect size was larger than fibrosis size (26 ± 23 vs. 18 ± 13%LV, p = 0.02). Sympathetic neuronal damage is frequent in AFD patients, and it may precede myocardial damage, such as fibrosis. Thus, {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging can be considered a challenging technique for early detection of cardiac involvement in AFD. (orig.)

  7. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis at risk for liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, Maria; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Boggia, Bartolo; Sepe, Angela; Ferri, Pasqualina; Buonpensiero, Paolo; Di Pasqua, Antonio; Raia, Valeria

    2010-06-01

    Meconium ileus has been detected as a risk factor for development of liver disease in cystic fibrosis, with influence on morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the effect of early treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with cystic fibrosis and meconium ileus to prevent chronic hepatic involvement and to explore the potential role of therapy on clinical outcomes. 26 cystic fibrosis patients with meconium ileus (16 M, mean age 8,4 years, range 3,5-9) were assigned to two groups: group 1 (14 patients) treated early with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCAe); group 2 (12 patients) treated with ursodeoxycholic acid at the onset of cystic fibrosis liver disease (UDCAd). Anthropometric data, pulmonary function tests, pancreatic status, complications such as diabetes, hepatic involvement and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation were compared among groups. A higher prevalence of cystic fibrosis chronic liver disease was observed in the UDCAd group with a statistically significant difference at 9 years of age (p<0.05). Chronic infection by P. aeruginosa was found in 7% of UDCAe and 33% of UDCAd (p<0.05). No differences were observed in nutritional status and other complications. Early treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid may be beneficial in patients at risk of developing cystic fibrosis chronic liver disease such as those with meconium ileus. Multicentre studies should be encouraged to confirm these data. Copyright 2009 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database: An information system for storage and management of clinical and microbiological data of cystic fibrosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Claudia I; Palau, María J; Martina, Pablo; Achiary, Carlos; Achiary, Andrés; Bettiol, Marisa; Montanaro, Patricia; Cazzola, María L; Leguizamón, Mariana; Massillo, Cintia; Figoli, Cecilia; Valeiras, Brenda; Perez, Silvia; Rentería, Fernando; Diez, Graciela; Yantorno, Osvaldo M; Bosch, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical management of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffering from acute pulmonary exacerbations or chronic lung infections demands continuous updating of medical and microbiological processes associated with the constant evolution of pathogens during host colonization. In order to monitor the dynamics of these processes, it is essential to have expert systems capable of storing and subsequently extracting the information generated from different studies of the patients and microorganisms isolated from them. In this work we have designed and developed an on-line database based on an information system that allows to store, manage and visualize data from clinical studies and microbiological analysis of bacteria obtained from the respiratory tract of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The information system, named Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database is available on the http://servoy.infocomsa.com/cfc_database site and is composed of a main database and a web-based interface, which uses Servoy's product architecture based on Java technology. Although the CFC database system can be implemented as a local program for private use in CF centers, it can also be used, updated and shared by different users who can access the stored information in a systematic, practical and safe manner. The implementation of the CFC database could have a significant impact on the monitoring of respiratory infections, the prevention of exacerbations, the detection of emerging organisms, and the adequacy of control strategies for lung infections in CF patients. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.  Created: 3/3/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/3/2016.

  10. Risk of gastrointestinal cancers in patients with cystic fibrosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akihiro; Komaki, Yuga; Komaki, Fukiko; Micic, Dejan; Zullow, Samantha; Sakuraba, Atsushi

    2018-04-26

    The management and life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis have improved substantially in the past three decades, which has resulted in an increased number of these patients being diagnosed with malignancies. Our aim was to assess the risk of gastrointestinal cancers in patients with cystic fibrosis. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane databases with no language restrictions for studies published from inception of the databases to Aug 1, 2017, assessing the risk of gastrointestinal cancers in patients with cystic fibrosis. We also searched abstracts from scientific meetings and the bibliographies of identified articles for additional references. Studies were included if they reported the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) or incidence ratio per person-years. No exclusion criteria with regard to patient characteristics (age, sex, comorbidities, cystic fibrosis mutation type), study setting (location and time period), or method of reporting cancer diagnoses were applied. The primary outcome was risk of gastrointestinal cancer and site-specific gastrointestinal cancers in patients with cystic fibrosis compared with the general population. Pooled summary estimates were calculated using a random-effects model, and subgroup analyses were done to establish whether risk of gastrointestinal cancer varied according to patient lung transplant status. The study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017075396. Our search identified 95 681 records, of which six cohort studies including 99 925 patients (544 695 person-years) were eligible for the meta-analysis. The overall risk of gastrointestinal cancer was significantly higher in patients with cystic fibrosis than in the general population (pooled SIR 8·13, 95% CI 6·48-10·21; pcystic fibrosis who had a lung transplant was increased compared with that of patients who did not receive a transplant (pooled SIR 21·13, 95% CI 14

  11. Prevalence of gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients with Symmer's periportal fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudawi, H.; Ali, Y.; El-Tahir, M.

    2008-01-01

    Symmer's periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis is a common cause of portal hypertension worldwide. Data on the prevalence of gastric variances and portal hypertensive gastropathy in this group of patients with portal of hypertension is relatively scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients presenting with portal hypertension secondary to Symmer's periportal fibrosis. In a prospective study, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients with portal hypertension secondary to Symmer's fibrosis. Of 143 patients studied, 24 patients (16.8%) had gastric varices (grade I in 10.5%, grade Ii in 6.3%) and 31 patients (21.7%) had portal hypertensive gastropathy (mild in 11.2%, severe in 10.5%). Gastric varices were more prevalent in patients with grade I and II esophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy was more prevalent in those with grade III and IV esophageal varices, but the differences were not statistically significant. We conclude that both gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy seem to have a lower prevalence in patients with portal hypertension secondary to Symmer's periportal fibrosis when compared to reported data in patients with portal hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis. (author)

  12. Vascular dysfunction by myofibroblast activation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and prognostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Parra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrated the importance of telomerase protein expression and determined the relationships among telomerase, endothelin-1 (ET-1 and myofibroblasts during early and late remodeling of parenchymal and vascular areas in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP using 27 surgical lung biopsies from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Telomerase+, myofibroblasts α-SMA+, smooth muscle cells caldesmon+, endothelium ET-1+ cellularity, and fibrosis severity were evaluated in 30 fields covering normal lung parenchyma, minimal fibrosis (fibroblastic foci, severe (mural fibrosis, and vascular areas of UIP by the point-counting technique and a semiquantitative score. The impact of these markers was determined in pulmonary functional tests and follow-up until death from IPF. Telomerase and ET-1 expression was significantly increased in normal and vascular areas compared to areas of fibroblast foci. Telomerase and ET-1 expression was inversely correlated with minimal fibrosis in areas of fibroblast foci and directly associated with severe fibrosis in vascular areas. Telomerase activity in minimal fibrosis areas was directly associated with diffusing capacity of the lung for oxygen/alveolar volume and ET-1 expression and indirectly associated with diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and severe fibrosis in vascular areas. Cox proportional hazards regression revealed a low risk of death for females with minimal fibrosis displaying high telomerase and ET-1 expression in normal areas. Vascular dysfunction by telomerase/ET-1 expression was found earlier than vascular remodeling by myofibroblast activation in UIP with impact on IPF evolution, suggesting that strategies aimed at preventing the effect of these mediators may have a greater impact on patient outcome.

  13. Identification and Fibrosis Staging of Hepatitis C Patients Using the Electronic Medical Record System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Hyun, Christian; Khan, Qasim M; Hall, Curtis; Hessefort, Norbert; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Fimmel, Claus J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to noninvasively assess the severity of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in large patient populations. It would be helpful if fibrosis scores could be calculated solely on the basis of data contained in the patients' electronic medical records (EMR). We performed a pilot study to identify all HCV-infected patients in a large health care system, and predict their fibrosis stage on the basis of demographic and laboratory data using common data from their EMR. HCV-infected patients were identified using the EMR. The liver biopsies of 191 HCV patients were graded using the Ishak and Metavir scoring systems. Demographic and laboratory data were extracted from the EMR and used to calculate the aminotransferase to platelet ratio index, Fib-4, Fibrosis Index, Forns, Göteborg University Cirrhosis Index, Lok Index, and Vira-HepC. In total, 869 HCV-infected patients were identified from a population of over 1 million. In the subgroup of patients with liver biopsies, all 7 algorithms were significantly correlated with the fibrosis stage. The degree of correlation was moderate, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.22 to 0.60. For the detection of advanced fibrosis (Metavir 3 or 4), the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranged from 0.71 to 0.84, with no significant differences between the individual scores. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values were within the previously reported range. All scores tended to perform better for higher fibrosis stages. Our study demonstrates that HCV-infected patients can be identified and their fibrosis staged using commonly available EMR-based algorithms.

  14. Significant fibrosis after radiation therapy in a patient with Marfan Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Eva M.; Knackstedt, Rebecca J.; Jenrette, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is one of the collagen vascular diseases that theoretically predisposes patients to excessive radiation-induced fibrosis yet there is minimal published literature regarding this clinical scenario. We present a patient with a history of Marfan syndrome requiring radiation for a diagnosis of a right brachial plexus malignant nerve sheath tumor. It has been suggested that plasma transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) can be monitored as a predictor of subsequent fibrosis in this population of high risk patients. We therefore monitored the patient's TGF-beta1 level during and after treatment. Despite maintaining stable levels of plasma TGF-beta1, our patient still developed extensive fibrosis resulting in impaired range of motion. Our case reports presents a review of the literature of patients with Marfan syndrome requiring radiation therapy and the limitations of serum markers on predicting long-term toxicity.

  15. Significant fibrosis after radiation therapy in a patient with Marfan Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Eva M.; Knackstedt, Rebecca J.; Jenrette, Joseph M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Marfan syndrome is one of the collagen vascular diseases that theoretically predisposes patients to excessive radiation-induced fibrosis yet there is minimal published literature regarding this clinical scenario. We present a patient with a history of Marfan syndrome requiring radiation for a diagnosis of a right brachial plexus malignant nerve sheath tumor. It has been suggested that plasma transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) can be monitored as a predictor of subsequent fibrosis in this population of high risk patients. We therefore monitored the patient's TGF-beta1 level during and after treatment. Despite maintaining stable levels of plasma TGF-beta1, our patient still developed extensive fibrosis resulting in impaired range of motion. Our case reports presents a review of the literature of patients with Marfan syndrome requiring radiation therapy and the limitations of serum markers on predicting long-term toxicity.

  16. Ten years' of experience in patient education of families with a child/adolescent suffering from cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The patient education programme for families with children or adolescents with cystic fibrosis (the CF school) was established ten years ago to enable patients to make choices in their lives as CF patients. The CF school provides patients with knowledge about cystic fibrosis (CF), teaches...

  17. Lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: frequency and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Im, Jung Gi; Ahn, Joong Mo; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1994-01-01

    The incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(lPF) is higher than that of general population. To evaluate the frequency and CT findings of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, we analyzed 19 patients with lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We analyzed retrospectively 19 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer out of 208 patients diagnosed as IPF either by CT and clinical findings(n=188) or histologically(n=20). All 19 patients were male, aged 40-85 years (mean 66 years). Scanning techniques were conventional CT in 12 patients, HRCT in 1 patient and both conventional CT and HRCT in 6 patients. We analyzed the CT patterns of lung cancer and IPF, locations of the tumor and histologic types of lung cancer. The incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was 9.1%(19/208). In 11 of 19 patients, CT findings of lung cancer were ill-defined consolidation-like mass. Lung cancer was located mainly in lower lobes(right lower lobe; 10/19, left lower lobe; 5/19) and at the periphery(12/19). Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common cell type (11/19). The incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was much higher than that of general population. Typical CT findings of lung cancer were predominantly ill-defined consolidation like mass at the peripheral lung portion which is the location where the most advanced fibrosis occur

  18. Lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: frequency and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Im, Jung Gi; Ahn, Joong Mo; Yeon, Kyung Mo [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(lPF) is higher than that of general population. To evaluate the frequency and CT findings of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, we analyzed 19 patients with lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We analyzed retrospectively 19 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer out of 208 patients diagnosed as IPF either by CT and clinical findings(n=188) or histologically(n=20). All 19 patients were male, aged 40-85 years (mean 66 years). Scanning techniques were conventional CT in 12 patients, HRCT in 1 patient and both conventional CT and HRCT in 6 patients. We analyzed the CT patterns of lung cancer and IPF, locations of the tumor and histologic types of lung cancer. The incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was 9.1%(19/208). In 11 of 19 patients, CT findings of lung cancer were ill-defined consolidation-like mass. Lung cancer was located mainly in lower lobes(right lower lobe; 10/19, left lower lobe; 5/19) and at the periphery(12/19). Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common cell type (11/19). The incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was much higher than that of general population. Typical CT findings of lung cancer were predominantly ill-defined consolidation like mass at the peripheral lung portion which is the location where the most advanced fibrosis occur.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalal, S; Ciofu, O; Høiby, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Twenty P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from six cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, aged 27 to 33, in 1994 (9 isolates) and 1997 (11 isolates) at the CF Center, Copenhagen, Denmark, and were typed by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or ribotyping. Five of the patients had isolates with the......Twenty P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from six cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, aged 27 to 33, in 1994 (9 isolates) and 1997 (11 isolates) at the CF Center, Copenhagen, Denmark, and were typed by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or ribotyping. Five of the patients had isolates...

  20. T helper cell subsets specific for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah K Bayes

    Full Text Available We set out to determine the magnitude of antigen-specific memory T helper cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in healthy humans and patients with cystic fibrosis.Peripheral blood human memory CD4(+ T cells were co-cultured with dendritic cells that had been infected with different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The T helper response was determined by measuring proliferation, immunoassay of cytokine output, and immunostaining of intracellular cytokines.Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had robust antigen-specific memory CD4(+ T cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa that not only contained a Th1 and Th17 component but also Th22 cells. In contrast to previous descriptions of human Th22 cells, these Pseudomonal-specific Th22 cells lacked the skin homing markers CCR4 or CCR10, although were CCR6(+. Healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis had similar levels of Th22 cells, but the patient group had significantly fewer Th17 cells in peripheral blood.Th22 cells specific to Pseudomonas aeruginosa are induced in both healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis. Along with Th17 cells, they may play an important role in the pulmonary response to this microbe in patients with cystic fibrosis and other conditions.

  1. Evaluation of bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cemlyn-Jones

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF have an increasing life span and osteoporosis has become a more recognised problem in these patients. The pathogenesis of low bone mineral density (BMD in CF seems to be multifactorial and the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of low BMD in a group of CF outpatients and to relate the findings with the variables studied.The study included 22 patients aged between 14 and 45 years (mean age 26.3. Two of the subjects were lung transplant patients. BMD was assessed by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN. This data was correlated with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD levels, BMI and the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.BMD (Z-score and T-score ranged from 0.6 to -6 and from 0.5 to -6.7 at LS; at FN the scores ranged from 0.6 to -3.9 and from 0.6 to -4.1. The mean serum 25-OHD concentration (12,57 ng/ml was at the low end of the normal range (10-60 ng/ml. On average patients did not present with malnutrition, however BMI ranged from 15.2 to 33.7 kg/m2. Lung function status was assessed by FEV1; 64% of patients had FEV1 below 80% and within this group four patients had a FEV1 under 40%.There was a positive correlation between low BMD and 25-OHD concentrations and also between BMD and FEV1. There was no linear correlation between BMD and BMI. Resumo: A esperança de vida dos doentes com fibrose quística (FQ tem vindo a aumentar, sendo mais frequente a identificação de osteoporose. A patogénese de uma baixa densidade mineral óssea (DMO na FQ parece ser multifactorial e o objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de baixa DMO num grupo de doentes com FQ e a sua correlação com outros parâmetros avaliados.O estudo incluiu 22 doentes com FQ com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 45 anos (média 26,3, dois dos quais transplantados pulmonares. A DMO foi avaliada por densitometria óssea ao nível da coluna lombar e do colo do f

  2. Uptake of genetic counselling services by patients with cystic fibrosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic condition, genetic counselling services appear to be underutilised by affected families. The aim of this study was to determine the uptake of genetic counselling and mutation testing for CF by relatives of affected individuals, and the impact of introducing ...

  3. Uptake of genetic counselling services by patients with cystic fibrosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic, inherited disorder that affects the respiratory tract, pancreas, .... 18%) themselves and other individuals, such as nurses (20 out of 153, 13%), general practitioners (15 out of 153, 10%) .... considered to be rare in this ethnic group, it is likely that. CF is still under-recognised and ...

  4. Sequential occurrence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome in a non-smoker female patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pawan; Dash, Devijyoti; Mittal, Richa; Chhabra, Sunil K

    2017-05-01

    The combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) syndrome is a unique and an under-recognized disorder characterized by emphysema in the upper lobes and interstitial fibrosis in the lower lobes of the lung. It occurs predominantly in males and almost exclusively in smokers. This rare combination of a restrictive and an obstructive mechanical defect carries a poorer prognosis than either of the two components. We present a case of CPFE syndrome in a non-smoker female patient who developed lower lobe emphysema subsequent to development of interstitial fibrosis. The case was remarkable for the extreme rarity of several presenting features, namely, a lower lobe occurrence of emphysema subsequent to pre-existent interstitial fibrosis, female gender and absence of a history of smoking. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pulmonary Artery Occlusion and Mediastinal Fibrosis in a Patient on Dopamine Agonist Treatment for Hyperprolactinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Junjing; Simonsen, Ulf; Carlsen, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Unusual forms of pulmonary hypertension include pulmonary hypertension related to mediastinal fibrosis and the use of serotonergic drugs. Here, we describe a patient with diffuse mediastinal fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension while she was on dopamine agonist therapy. A young woman, who...... showed fibrosis and chronic inflammation. Subsequent investigations revealed that diffuse mediastinal fibrosis with concurrent pulmonary hypertension, and not CTEPH, was the most likely diagnosis and cabergoline and bromocriptine may have triggered the fibrotic changes. Both drugs are ergot...... was treated with cabergoline and bromocriptine for hyperprolactinemia, presented with progressive dyspnea over several months. Based on the clinical investigation results, in particular, elevated pulmonary arterial pressures and significant perfusion defects on computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography...

  6. Chronic pulmonary infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, C S; Hansen, C R; Pressler, T

    2011-01-01

    Background The clinical consequences of chronic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patient are still unclear. Method All patients treated in the Copenhagen CF centre (N=278) from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009 were included. Each patient chronically infected with S...

  7. Acupuncture in the rehabilitation of patients with radiation fibrosis ans secondary neuritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subova, N.D.; Bardychev, M.S.; Guseva, L.I.

    1980-01-01

    Acupuncture application experience as effective method of rehabilitation of patients with radiation fibrosis and neuritis is presented. Acupuncture results are more efficient in patients with treatment course after irradiation not more than 3 years, that is why its inclusion in the complex of medicaleasures of presentive treatment of patients with delayed radiation injuries should be considered advisable

  8. A pilot outreach physiotherapy and dietetic quality improvement initiative reduces IV antibiotic requirements in children with moderate-severe cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Sean J; Owen, Elizabeth; Prasad, S Ammani; Goldman, Allan; Willams, Jane; Aurora, Paul

    2013-12-01

    At our hospital the current model of care for children with moderate-severe CF is focused on intensive inpatient intervention, regular outpatient clinic review and specialist outreach care as required. An alternative model providing more regular physiotherapy and dietetic outreach support, in addition to these specialist services, may be more effective. 16 children (4 male; 12 female; mean age 10.9±2.93; range 4-15 years) who required >40days of IV antibiotics in the 12-months pre-intervention were enrolled. Physiotherapy included weekly-supervised exercise sessions, alongside regular review of home physiotherapy regimens. Dietetic management included 1-2 monthly monitoring of growth, appetite, intake and absorption, and nutrition education sessions. There was a 23% reduction in inpatient IV antibiotic requirement and 20% reduction in home IV antibiotic requirement during the intervention year. Cost-benefit analyses showed savings of £113,570. VO(2Peak) increased by 4.9 ml·kg·min(-1) (95%CI 1.01 to 8.71; p=0.02), and 10 m-MSWT distance and increment achieved increased by 229 m (95%CI 109 to 350; pchildren with moderate-severe CF. A fully powered clinical trial is now warranted. Copyright © 2013 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of 12 months treatment with ivacaftor on Scottish paediatric patients with cystic fibrosis with the G551D mutation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Carol; Wilkinson, Jane; Young, David; Brooker, Richard John

    2018-01-01

    We reviewed the impact of ivacaftor on Scottish paediatric patients with cystic fibrosis ≥6 years of age after 12 months of treatment. Statistically significant improvements in FEV 1 and body mass index and a reduction in sweat chloride, all comparable with previously published data were observed. The findings also suggested reduced use of intravenous antibiotics and oral antibiotics. No significant adverse effects were observed but a possible association with cataract formation could not be excluded. This review suggests that, in the short term at least, ivacaftor is effective and safe in paediatric patients ≥6 years of age with G551D. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Young patients with cystic fibrosis demonstrate subtle alterations of the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eising, Jacobien B; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Teske, Arco J; Vanderschuren, Maaike M; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Meijboom, Folkert J

    2018-02-02

    As life expectancy increases in patients with cystic fibrosis, it is important to pay attention to extra-pulmonary comorbidities. Several studies have shown signs of myocardial dysfunction in adult patients, but little is known about onset and development of these changes over time. In this prospective study, cardiac function in children with cystic fibrosis was compared to that of healthy children. 33 children, aged 3-12years, with cystic fibrosis were recruited from the Wilhelmina Children's hospital and 33 age-matched healthy children were selected from the WHISTLER study, a population-based cohort study. Measurements of lung function, arterial stiffness, and echocardiography (conventional measures and myocardial deformation imaging) were performed. There were no differences in anthropometrics, lung function and blood pressure between the two groups. The cystic fibrosis children had a higher arterial stiffness compared to the healthy children (pulse wave velocity respectively 5.76±0.57m/s versus 5.43±0.61m/s, p-value 0.049). Using conventional echocardiographic parameters for right ventricular function, Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion) and Tissue Doppler Imaging, cystic fibrosis children had a reduced right ventricular systolic function when compared to the healthy children. After adjustment for lung function, global strains of both right and left ventricles were significantly lower in the cystic fibrosis group than in healthy children (linear regression coefficient 1.45% left ventricle, p-value 0.022 and 4.42% right ventricle, p-value cystic fibrosis children than in healthy controls. Our study suggests that already at a very young age, children with cystic fibrosis show an increased arterial stiffness and some signs of diminished both right and left ventricular function. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Abdominal CT predictors of fibrosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Amitasha; Afghani, Elham [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Division of Gastroenterology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Singh, Vikesh K. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Division of Gastroenterology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Pancreatitis Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cruise, Michael; Matsukuma, Karen [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Pathology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ali, Sumera; Raman, Siva P.; Fishman, Elliot K. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russel H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Andersen, Dana K. [National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States); Makary, Martin A. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Pancreatitis Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zaheer, Atif [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russel H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Pancreatitis Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-05-01

    To determine which abdominal CT findings predict severe fibrosis and post-operative pain relief in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pre-operative abdominal CTs of 66 patients (mean age 52 ± 12 years, 53 % males) with painful CP who underwent the Whipple procedure (n = 32), Frey procedure (n = 32) or pancreatic head biopsy (n = 2), between 1/2003-3/2014, were evaluated. CT was evaluated for parenchymal calcifications, intraductal calculi, main pancreatic duct dilation (>5 mm), main pancreatic duct stricture, and abnormal side branch(es). The surgical histopathology was graded for fibrosis. CT findings were evaluated as predictors of severe fibrosis and post-operative pain relief using regression and area under receiver operating curve (AUC) analysis. Thirty-eight (58 %) patients had severe fibrosis. Parenchymal calcification(s) were an independent predictor of severe fibrosis (p = 0.03), and post-operative pain relief over a mean follow-up of 1-year (p = 0.04). Presence of >10 parenchymal calcifications had higher predictive accuracy for severe fibrosis than 1-10 parenchymal calcification(s) (AUC 0.88 vs. 0.59, p = 0.003). The predictive accuracy of >10 versus 1-10 parenchymal calcifications increased after adjusting for all other CT findings (AUC 0.89 vs. 0.63, p = 0.01). Parenchymal calcification(s) independently predict severe fibrosis and are significantly associated with post-operative pain relief in CP. The presence of >10 parenchymal calcifications is a better predictor of severe fibrosis than 1-10 parenchymal calcification(s). (orig.)

  12. Abdominal CT predictors of fibrosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Amitasha; Afghani, Elham; Singh, Vikesh K.; Cruise, Michael; Matsukuma, Karen; Ali, Sumera; Raman, Siva P.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Andersen, Dana K.; Makary, Martin A.; Zaheer, Atif

    2015-01-01

    To determine which abdominal CT findings predict severe fibrosis and post-operative pain relief in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pre-operative abdominal CTs of 66 patients (mean age 52 ± 12 years, 53 % males) with painful CP who underwent the Whipple procedure (n = 32), Frey procedure (n = 32) or pancreatic head biopsy (n = 2), between 1/2003-3/2014, were evaluated. CT was evaluated for parenchymal calcifications, intraductal calculi, main pancreatic duct dilation (>5 mm), main pancreatic duct stricture, and abnormal side branch(es). The surgical histopathology was graded for fibrosis. CT findings were evaluated as predictors of severe fibrosis and post-operative pain relief using regression and area under receiver operating curve (AUC) analysis. Thirty-eight (58 %) patients had severe fibrosis. Parenchymal calcification(s) were an independent predictor of severe fibrosis (p = 0.03), and post-operative pain relief over a mean follow-up of 1-year (p = 0.04). Presence of >10 parenchymal calcifications had higher predictive accuracy for severe fibrosis than 1-10 parenchymal calcification(s) (AUC 0.88 vs. 0.59, p = 0.003). The predictive accuracy of >10 versus 1-10 parenchymal calcifications increased after adjusting for all other CT findings (AUC 0.89 vs. 0.63, p = 0.01). Parenchymal calcification(s) independently predict severe fibrosis and are significantly associated with post-operative pain relief in CP. The presence of >10 parenchymal calcifications is a better predictor of severe fibrosis than 1-10 parenchymal calcification(s). (orig.)

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in patients with chronic hepatitis C: Treatment of patients with absence or mild fibrosis compared to patients with advanced fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, M; Domínguez-Hernández, R; Oyagüez, I; Casado, M A; Esteban, R

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) in treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1 (GT1) in the absence or mild fibrosis (F0-F1) versus advanced fibrosis (F2-F4), from the perspective of the Spanish Health System. A Markov model was developed to simulate disease progression, estimating costs and outcomes [life years gained (LYG) and quality-adjusted life years (QALY)] derived from starting with LDV/SOF in patients with F0-F1 compared with F2-F4. Therapy duration was 8 weeks in noncirrhotic patients with viral load rates were obtained from real-world cohort studies. Transition probabilities, utilities and direct costs were obtained from the literature. A 3% annual discount rate was applied to costs and outcomes. Sensitivity analyses were performed. LDV/SOF in F0-F1 patients was a dominant strategy, being more effective (19.85 LYG and 19.80 QALY) than beginning treatment in F2-F4 patients (18.63 LYG and 16.25 QALY), generating savings of €9228 per patient (€3661 due to disease management and monitoring). In a cohort of 1000 patients, LDV/SOF in F0-F1 patients decreased the number of cases of decompensated cirrhosis (93%), hepatocellular carcinoma (97%) and liver-related deaths (95%) and prevented 6 liver transplants compared to initiating LDV/SOF in F2-F4 patients. In CHC treatment-naïve GT1 patients, starting treatment with LDV/SOF in patients with F0-F1 compared to those with F2-F4 increases effectiveness by 1.22 LYG and 3.55 QALY gained and reduces disease burden and it is associated with cost savings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Normal lung volumes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Juan Pablo; Abbona, Horacio; Robles, Adriana; López, Ana María

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis characteristically show a restrictive pattern, resulting from reduction of pulmonary compliance due to diffuse fibrosis. Conversely, an obstructive pattern with hyperinflation results in emphysema by loss of elastic recoil, expiratory collapse of the peripheral airways and air trapping. Previous reports suggest that when both diseases coexist, pulmonary volumes are compensated and a smaller than expected reduction or even normal lung volumes can be found. We report 4 male patients of 64, 60, 73 and 70 years, all with heavy cigarette smoking history and progressive breathlessness. Three of them had severe limitation in their quality of life. All four showed advanced lung interstitial involvement, at high resolution CT scan, fibrotic changes predominantly in the subpleural areas of lower lung fields and concomitant emphysema in the upper lobes. Emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis was confirmed by open lung biopsy in one patient. The four patients showed normal spirometry and lung volumes with severe compromise of gas exchange and poor exercise tolerance evaluated by 6 minute walk test. Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension was also confirmed in three patients. Normal lung volumes does not exclude diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in patients with concomitant emphysema. The relatively preserved lung volumes may underestimate the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and attenuate its effects on lung function parameters.

  15. Oral Pirfenidone in patients with chronic fibrosis resulting from radiotherapy: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, Nicole L; Soule, Benjamin P; Gerber, Lynn; Augustine, Elizabeth; Smith, Sharon; Altemus, Rosemary M; Mitchell, James B; Camphausen, Kevin A

    2007-01-01

    Fibrosis is a common side effect after treatment with ionizing radiation. Several methods to ameliorate debilitating fibrosis have been employed but without consistent results. The goal of this pilot study is to determine if Pirfenidone, a novel regulator of cytokine gene expression, has the potential to ameliorate established radiation-induced fibrosis. Open label, prospective pilot study of 800 mg three times/day, orally administered Pirfenidone was administered to enrolled patients who were had completed radiation therapy and who had established radiation-induced fibrosis. Range of motion (ROM) was assessed using standard measures, and subjective measures of pain, fatigue, disability and global health were measured every three months. Seven patients were enrolled of whom 3 had ROM assessments of 1 site and 2 had ROM assessments of 2 sites. Of these assessments, 6 revealed increased ROM during drug intervention while 1 revealed a decreased ROM. There was an overall improvement in the mental composite score of the SF36 while physical composite score was decreased and the vitality score was unchanged. Two patients were removed from the study because of syncopal episodes. Several patients experienced improved function of at least 25% and reported subjective improvement. Pirfenidone may benefit patients with radiation-induced fibrosis and is worthy of a larger well controlled trial

  16. Clinical significance of determination of serum MMP9 and P III P levels in patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Cuiying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of determination of serum matrix metallo-proteinase-9 (MMP 9 ) and type III pro-collagen peptide (PIIIP) levels in patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. Methods: Serum MMP 9 (with ELISA) and PIIIP(with RIA) levels were determined in 46 patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and 30 controls. Results: Serum MMP 9 and PIIIP levels in patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis were significantly higher than those in controls (P 9 and PIIIP might be used as clinical diagnostic markers for pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. (authors)

  17. An adult cystic fibrosis patient presenting with persistent dyspnea: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinet Catherine L

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent dyspnea is a common finding in the cystic fibrosis patient that typically leads to further work up of an alternative pulmonary etiology. Adult cystic fibrosis patients; however, are growing in numbers and they are living into the ages in which coronary artery disease becomes prevalent. Coronary disease should be included in the consideration of diagnostic possibilities. Case presentation A 52-year-old white male with cystic fibrosis was evaluated for exertional dyspnea associated with vague chest discomfort. Diagnostic testing revealed normal white blood cell, hemoglobin and platelet count, basic metabolic panel, fasting lipid profile, HbA1c, with chest radiograph confirming chronic cystic findings unchanged from prior radiographs and an electrocardiogram that revealed sinus rhythm with left anterior fascicular block. Stress thallium testing demonstrated a reversible anteroseptal perfusion defect with a 55% left ventricular ejection fraction. Heart catheterization found a 99% occlusion of the left anterior descending artery extending into the two diagonal branches, with 100% obstruction of the left anterior descending artery at the trifurcation and 70% lesion affecting the first posterior lateral branch of the circumflex artery. Conclusion This case report represents the first description in the medical literature of a cystic fibrosis patient diagnosed with symptomatic coronary artery disease. Applying a standard clinical practice guide proved useful toward evaluating a differential diagnosis for a cystic fibrosis patient presenting with dyspnea and chest discomfort.

  18. Markers of Collagen Remodeling Detect Clinically Significant Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette J; Kazankov, Konstantin; Leeming, Diana J

    2015-01-01

    as potential biomarkers for clinically significant and advanced fibrosis. METHODS: Specific protein fragments of matrix metalloprotease degraded type I, III, IV and VI collagen (C1M, C3M, C4M, C6M) and type III and IV collagen formation (Pro-C3 and P4NP7S) were assessed in plasma from 403 chronic hepatitis C...... patients by specific ELISAs. Patients were stratified according to Metavir Fibrosis stage; F0 (n = 46), F1 (n = 161), F2 (n = 95), F3 (n = 44) and F4 (n = 33) based on liver biopsy. RESULTS: Pro-C3 was significantly elevated in patients with significant fibrosis (≥F2) compared to F0-F1 (p... the markers C3M, C4M, C6M and P4NP7S were significantly elevated in patients with advanced fibrosis (≥F3) compared to F0-F2 (pC1M showed no difference between fibrosis stages. Using Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis, the best marker for detecting ≥F2 and ≥F3 was Pro-C3 with AUC = 0...

  19. Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, H; Brustad, N; Pressler, T

    2018-01-01

    Aquagenic wrinkling of the palms (AWP) is a condition characterized by oedema, confluent white papules and excessive wrinkling of the palms after few minutes exposure to water. The phenomenon may be associated with pain, numbness and pruritus1,2. It was first noticed and described in 1974 in chil...... in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) by a paediatrician R.B. Elliott3. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  20. Cytokine levels as biomarkers of radiation fibrosis in patients treated with breast radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbury, Charlotte B; Yarnold, John R; Haviland, Joanne; Davies, Sue; Gothard, Lone; Abdi, Bahja Ahmed; Sydenham, Mark; Bowen, Jo; Stratton, Richard; Short, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    Radiation fibrosis is not easily measurable although clinical scores have been developed for this purpose. Biomarkers present an alternative more objective approach to quantification, and estimation in blood provides accessible samples. We investigated if blood cytokines could be used to measure established fibrosis in patients who have undergone radiotherapy for breast cancer. We studied two cohorts treated by breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy in the UK START Trial A, one with breast fibrosis (cases) and one with no or minimal fibrosis (controls). Two candidate cytokines, plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and serum interleukin-6 (IL6) were estimated by ELISA. Comparisons between cases and controls used the t-test or Mann–Whitney test and associations between blood concentration and clinical factors were assessed using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Seventy patients were included (26 cases, 44 controls). Mean time since radiotherapy was 9.9 years (range 8.3-12.0). No statistically significant differences between cases and controls in serum IL6 (median (IQR) 0.84 pg/ml (0.57-1.14), 0.75 pg/ml (0.41-1.43) respectively) or plasma CTGF (331.4 pg/ml (234.8-602.9), 334.5 pg/ml (270.0-452.8) were identified. There were no significant associations between blood cytokine concentration and age, fibrosis severity, breast size or time since radiotherapy. No significant difference in IL6 or CTGF concentrations was detected between patients with breast fibrosis and controls with minimal or no fibrosis

  1. Plasma YKL-40: a new potential marker of fibrosis in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J S; Møller, S; Price, P A

    1997-01-01

    YKL-40 is released or extracted in the hepatosplanchnic system and to localize YKL-40 in liver tissue. METHODS: Plasma YKL-40 was determined by radioimmunoassay in 25 patients with liver diseases (alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 20), chronic active hepatitis (n = 2), cirrhosis of unknown aetiology (n = 2...... with alcoholic liver disease. RESULTS: Plasma YKL-40 was significantly increased in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (median, 523 micrograms/l; P ... with a moderate or severe degree of liver fibrosis, and immunohistochemical studies showed positive staining for YKL-40 antigen in areas of the liver biopsy with fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: The increased plasma YKL-40 in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis may reflect the remodelling of liver fibrosis....

  2. Diversity of metabolic profiles of cystic fibrosis Pseudomonas aeruginosa during the early stages of lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karin Meinike; Wassermann, Tina; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominant pathogen infecting the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. During the intermittent colonization phase, P. aeruginosa resembles environmental strains but later evolves to the chronic adapted phenotype characterized by resistance to antibiotics and mutat......Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominant pathogen infecting the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. During the intermittent colonization phase, P. aeruginosa resembles environmental strains but later evolves to the chronic adapted phenotype characterized by resistance to antibiotics...

  3. Antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients receiving CRRT: underdosing is overprevalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Susan J; Mueller, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Published CRRT drug dosing algorithms and other dosing guidelines appear to result in underdosed antibiotics, leading to failure to attain pharmacodynamic targets. High mortality rates persist with inadequate antibiotic therapy as the most important risk factor for death. Reasons for unintended antibiotic underdosing in patients receiving CRRT are many. Underdosing may result from lack of the recognition that better hepatic function in AKI patients yields higher nonrenal antibiotic clearance compared to ESRD patients. Other factors include the variability in body size and fluid composition of patients, the serious consequence of delayed achievement of antibiotic pharmacodynamic targets in septic patients, potential subtherapeutic antibiotic concentrations at the infection site, and the influence of RRT intensity on antibiotic concentrations. Too often, clinicians weigh the benefits of overcautious antibiotic dosing to avoid antibiotic toxicity too heavily against the benefits of rapid attainment of therapeutic antibiotic concentrations in critically ill patients receiving CRRT. We urge clinicians to prescribe antibiotics aggressively for these vulnerable patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Exploring Patient Awareness and Perceptions of the Appropriate Use of Antibiotics: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marion E; Liu, Tsai-Ling; Taylor, Yhenneko J; Davidson, Lisa; Schmid, Monica; Yates, Traci; Scotton, Janice; Spencer, Melanie D

    2017-10-31

    In the outpatient setting, estimates suggest that 30% of the antibiotics prescribed are unnecessary. This study explores patient knowledge and awareness of appropriate use of antibiotics and expectations regarding how antibiotics are used for their treatment in outpatient settings. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of patients, parents, and caregivers (n = 190) at seven primary care clinics and two urgent care locations. Fisher's exact tests compared results by patient characteristics. Although 89% of patients correctly believed that antibiotics work well for treating infections from bacteria, 53% incorrectly believed that antibiotics work well for treating viral infections. Patients who incorrectly believed that antibiotics work well for treating viral infections were more than twice as likely to expect a provider to give them an antibiotic when they have a cough or common cold. Patients who completed the survey also participated in semi-structured interviews (n = 4), which were analyzed using thematic analysis. Patients reported experiencing confusion about which illnesses may be treated by antibiotics and unclear communication from clinicians about the appropriate use of antibiotics. Development of easy to understand patient educational materials can help address patients' incorrect perceptions of appropriate antibiotic use and facilitate patient-provider communication.

  5. Factors associated with worse lung function in cystic fibrosis patients with persistent staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, S. (Sibylle); Görlich, D. (Dennis); Reijer, M.D. (Martijn Den); B. Wiedemann (Baerbel); B. Tümmler (Burkhard); H. Ellemunter; Dübbers, A. (Angelika); Küster, P. (Peter); M. Ballmann; Koerner-Rettberg, C. (Cordula); Große-Onnebrink, J. (Jörg); Heuer, E. (Eberhardt); Sextro, W. (Wolfgang); Mainz, J.G. (Jochen G.); Hammermann, J. (Jutta); Riethmüller, J. (Joachim); Graepler-Mainka, U.M. (Ute M.); Staab, D. (Doris); Wollschläger, B. (Bettina); Szczepanski, R. (Rüdiger); A. Schuster (Antje); Tegtmeyer, F.-K. (Friedrich-Karl); Sutharsan, S. (Sivagurunathan); Wald, A. (Alexandra); Nofer, J.-R. (Jerzy-Roch); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); Becker, K. (Karsten); Peters, G. (Georg); Kahl, B.C. (Barbara C.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in

  6. The microorganisms in chronically infected end-stage and non-end-stage cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Vibeke B; Thomsen, Trine R; Alhede, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) develop chronic lung infections because of highly viscous mucus, where bacteria can form biofilms. In this study, we investigated the microorganisms present in the lungs of end-stage and non-end-stage patients using standard culturing techniques and mo...

  7. Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria among patients with cystic fibrosis in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Gilljam, Marita; Jönsson, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an emerging threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients but their epidemiology is not well described. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study we identified all Scandinavian CF patients with a positive NTM culture from airway secretions from...

  8. Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection in a Cystic Fibrosis Patient from the Caribbean: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Mateos Corral

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a pathogen identified with increasing frequency in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF patients from endemic areas such as Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The following report describes the first known reported case in a CF patient from the Caribbean attending a North American CF clinic.

  9. Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in a cystic fibrosis patient from the Caribbean: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Dimas Mateos; Coates, Allan L; Yau, Yvonne CW; Tellier, Raymond; Glass, Mindy; Jones, Steven M; Waters, Valerie J

    2008-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a pathogen identified with increasing frequency in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from endemic areas such as Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The following report describes the first known reported case in a CF patient from the Caribbean attending a North American CF clinic. PMID:18716683

  10. Clinical impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A study on 1,790 patients from the Spanish Bronchiectasis Historical Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David De la Rosa

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the coexistence of bronchiectasis (BE and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in series of patients diagnosed primarily with BE. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of patients with BE associated with COPD included in the Spanish Bronchiectasis Historical Registry and compare them to the remaining patients with non-cystic fibrosis BE.We conducted a multicentre observational study of historical cohorts, analysing the characteristics of 1,790 patients who had been included in the registry between 2002 and 2011. Of these, 158 (8.8% were registered as BE related to COPD and were compared to the remaining patients with BE of other aetiologies.Patients with COPD were mostly male, older, had a poorer respiratory function and more frequent exacerbations. There were no differences in the proportion of patients with chronic bronchial colonisation or in the isolated microorganisms. A significantly larger proportion of patients with COPD received treatment with bronchodilators, inhaled steroids and intravenous antibiotics, but there was no difference in the use of long term oral or inhaled antibiotherapy. During a follow-up period of 3.36 years, the overall proportion of deaths was 13.8%. When compared to the remaining aetiologies, patients with BE associated with COPD presented the highest mortality rate. The multivariate analysis showed that the diagnosis of COPD in a patient with BE as a primary diagnosis increased the risk of death by 1.77.Patients with BE related to COPD have the same microbiological characteristics as patients with BE due to other aetiologies. They receive treatment with long term oral and inhaled antibiotics aimed at controlling chronic bronchial colonisation, even though the current COPD treatment guidelines do not envisage this type of therapy. These patients' mortality is notably higher than that of remaining patients with non-cystic fibrosis BE.

  11. Determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing lung transplant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Mary K; Rivera-Lebron, Belinda N; Kreider, Maryl; Lee, James; Kawut, Steven M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the physiologic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the demographic, pulmonary function, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis evaluated for lung transplantation. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 130 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who completed a lung transplantation evaluation at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 2005 and 2010. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to generate an explanatory model for 6-minute walk distance. After adjustment for age, sex, race, height, and weight, the presence of right ventricular dilation was associated with a decrease of 50.9 m (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.4-93.3) in 6-minute walk distance ([Formula: see text]). For each 200-mL reduction in forced vital capacity, the walk distance decreased by 15.0 m (95% CI, 9.0-21.1; [Formula: see text]). For every increase of 1 Wood unit in pulmonary vascular resistance, the walk distance decreased by 17.3 m (95% CI, 5.1-29.5; [Formula: see text]). Six-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis depends in part on circulatory impairment and the degree of restrictive lung disease. Future trials that target right ventricular morphology, pulmonary vascular resistance, and forced vital capacity may potentially improve exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. Effect of Emphysema Extent on Serial Lung Function in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Vincent; Hansell, David M; Sverzellati, Nicola; Weycker, Derek; Antoniou, Katerina M; Atwood, Mark; Oster, Gerry; Kirchgaessler, Klaus-Uwe; Collard, Harold R; Wells, Athol U

    2017-11-01

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema may have artificially preserved lung volumes. In this post hoc analysis, we investigated the relationship between baseline emphysema and fibrosis extents, as well as pulmonary function changes, over 48 weeks. Data were pooled from two phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of IFN-γ-1b in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (GIPF-001 [NCT00047645] and GIPF-007 [NCT00075998]). Patients with Week 48 data, baseline high-resolution computed tomographic images, and FEV 1 /FVC ratios less than 0.8 or greater than 0.9 (0.9 in GIPF-007), as well as randomly selected patients with ratios of 0.8-0.9 and 0.7-0.8, were included. Changes from baseline in pulmonary function at Week 48 were analyzed by emphysema extent. The relationship between emphysema and fibrosis extents and change in pulmonary function was assessed using multivariate linear regression. Emphysema was identified in 38% of patients. A negative correlation was observed between fibrosis and emphysema extents (r = -0.232; P emphysema extent (28 to 65%) showed the smallest FVC decline, with a difference of 3.32% at Week 48 versus patients with no emphysema (P = 0.047). In multivariate analyses, emphysema extent greater than or equal to 15% was associated with significantly reduced FVC decline over 48 weeks versus no emphysema or emphysema less than 15%. No such association was observed for diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide or composite physiologic index. FVC measurements may not be appropriate for monitoring disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema extent greater than or equal to 15%.

  13. Periodontitis is associated with significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazawi, William; Bernabe, Eduardo; Tai, David; Janicki, Tomasz; Kemos, Polychronis; Samsuddin, Salma; Syn, Wing-Kin; Gillam, David; Turner, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that periodontitis is associated with NAFLD and with significant fibrosis in two study groups. We analyzed data from a population-based survey and a patient-based study. NHANES III participants with abdominal ultrasound and sociodemographic, clinical, and oral examination data were extracted and appropriate weighting applied. In a separate patient-based study, consenting patients with biopsy-proved NAFLD (or with liver indices too mild to justify biopsy) underwent dental examination. Basic Periodontal Examination score was recorded. In NHANES, periodontitis was significantly associated with steatosis in 8172 adults even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. However, associations were fully explained after accounting for features of metabolic syndrome. In the patient-based study, periodontitis was significantly more common in patients with biopsy-proven NASH and any fibrosis (F0-F4) than without NASH (p = 0.009). Periodontitis was more common in patients with NASH and significant fibrosis (F2-4) than mild or no fibrosis (F0-1, p = 0.04). Complementary evidence from an epidemiological survey and a clinical study show that NAFLD is associated with periodontitis and that the association is stronger with significant liver fibrosis.

  14. Periodontitis is associated with significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alazawi

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that periodontitis is associated with NAFLD and with significant fibrosis in two study groups.We analyzed data from a population-based survey and a patient-based study. NHANES III participants with abdominal ultrasound and sociodemographic, clinical, and oral examination data were extracted and appropriate weighting applied. In a separate patient-based study, consenting patients with biopsy-proved NAFLD (or with liver indices too mild to justify biopsy underwent dental examination. Basic Periodontal Examination score was recorded.In NHANES, periodontitis was significantly associated with steatosis in 8172 adults even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. However, associations were fully explained after accounting for features of metabolic syndrome. In the patient-based study, periodontitis was significantly more common in patients with biopsy-proven NASH and any fibrosis (F0-F4 than without NASH (p = 0.009. Periodontitis was more common in patients with NASH and significant fibrosis (F2-4 than mild or no fibrosis (F0-1, p = 0.04.Complementary evidence from an epidemiological survey and a clinical study show that NAFLD is associated with periodontitis and that the association is stronger with significant liver fibrosis.

  15. Longevity of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis in 2000 to 2010 and Beyond: Survival Analysis of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Todd; Gifford, Alex H.; Sabadosa, Kathryn A.; Quinton, Hebe B.; Knapp, Emily A.; Goss, Christopher H.; Marshall, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advances in treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) continue to extend survival. An updated estimate of survival is needed for better prognostication and to anticipate evolving adult care needs. Objective To characterize trends in CF survival between 2000 and 2010 and to project survival for children born and diagnosed with the disease in 2010. Design Registry-based study. Setting 110 Cystic Fibrosis Foundation–accredited care centers in the United States. Patients All patients represented in the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) between 2000 and 2010. Measurements Survival was modeled with respect to age, age at diagnosis, gender, race or ethnicity, F508del mutation status, and symptoms at diagnosis. Results Between 2000 and 2010, the number of patients in the CFFPR increased from 21 000 to 26 000, median age increased from 14.3 to 16.7 years, and adjusted mortality decreased by 1.8% per year (95% CI, 0.5% to 2.7%). Males had a 19% (CI, 13% to 24%) lower adjusted risk for death than females. Median survival of children born and diagnosed with CF in 2010 is projected to be 37 years (CI, 35 to 39 years) for females and 40 years (CI, 39 to 42 years) for males if mortality remains at 2010 levels and more than 50 years if mortality continues to decrease at the rate observed between 2000 and 2010. Limitations The CFFPR does not include all patients with CF in the United States, and loss to follow-up and missing data were observed. Additional analyses to address these limitations suggest that the survival projections are conservative. Conclusion Children born and diagnosed with CF in the United States in 2010 are expected to live longer than those born earlier. This has important implications for prognostic discussions and suggests that the health care system should anticipate greater numbers of adults with CF. Primary Funding Source Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. PMID:25133359

  16. Staphylococcus aureus carriage rates and antibiotic resistance patterns in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delost, Gregory R; Delost, Maria E; Armile, James; Lloyd, Jenifer

    2016-04-01

    Overuse of antibiotics has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, which are occurring more frequently within the community. We sought to determine whether long-term antibiotic therapy for acne alter the carriage rate and antibiotic resistance profiles of S aureus. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, quasiexperimental study. Samples of anterior nares were obtained from dermatology patients given a diagnosis of acne vulgaris (n = 263) who were treated with antibiotics (n = 142) or who were not treated with antibiotics (n = 121). Specimens were tested for the presence of S aureus by growth on mannitol salt agar and then isolated on 5% sheep blood agar. Identification was confirmed based on colonial morphology, Gram stain, catalase, and coagulase testing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the VITEK 2 system (bioMerieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France). The S aureus carriage rate was significantly lower in patients with acne treated with antibiotics (6.3%) compared with those not treated with antibiotics (15.7%; P = .016). The percentage of S aureus isolates resistant to 1 or more antibiotics did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (P = .434). Cross-sectional study, patient compliance, and effects of prior acne treatments are limitations. Treatment of patients with acne using antibiotics decreases the S aureus carriage rate but does not significantly alter the antibiotic resistance rates. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibiotic use and associated factors in patients with dementia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaden, T. van der; Hendriks, S.A.; Vet, H.C. de; Zomerhuis, M.T.; Smalbrugge, M.; Jansma, E.P.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Hertogh, C.M.; Steen, J.T. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections frequently occur in patients with dementia and antibiotics are often prescribed, but may also be withheld. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to provide a systematic overview of the prevalence of antibiotic use, and factors associated with prescribing antibiotics

  18. Accuracy of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis Test vs FibroTest, Elastography, and Indirect Markers in Detection of Advanced Fibrosis in Patients With Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Maja; Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Hansen, Janne Fuglsang; Detlefsen, Sönke; Antonsen, Steen; Krag, Aleksander

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol is the leading cause of cirrhosis and liver-related mortality, but we lack serum markers to detect compensated disease. We compared the accuracy of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis test (ELF), the FibroTest, liver stiffness measurements (made by transient elastography and 2-dimensional shear-wave elastography), and 6 indirect marker tests in detection of advanced liver fibrosis (Kleiner stage ≥F3). We performed a prospective study of 10 liver fibrosis markers (patented and not), all performed on the same day. Patients were recruited from primary centers (municipal alcohol rehabilitation, n = 128; 6% with advanced fibrosis) and secondary health care centers (hospital outpatient clinics, n = 161; 36% with advanced fibrosis) in the Region of Southern Denmark from 2013 through 2016. Biopsy-verified fibrosis stage was used as the reference standard. The primary aim was to validate ELF in detection of advanced fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease recruited from primary and secondary health care centers, using the literature-based cutoff value of 10.5. Secondary aims were to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ELF for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis and to determine whether combinations of fibrosis markers increase diagnostic yield. The ELF identified patients with advanced liver fibrosis with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.89-0.96); findings did not differ significantly between patients from primary vs secondary care (P = .917). ELF more accurately identified patients with advanced liver fibrosis than indirect marker tests, but ELF and FibroTest had comparable diagnostic accuracies (AUROC of FibroTest, 0.90) (P = .209 for comparison with ELF). Results from the ELF and FibroTest did not differ significantly from those of liver stiffness measurement in intention-to-diagnose analyses (AUROC for transient elastography, 0.90), but did differ in the per-protocol analysis (AUROC for

  19. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  20. Analysis of the CFTR gene in Venezuelan cystic fibrosis patients, identification of six novel cystic fibrosis-causing genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Karen; de Mendonca, Elizabeth; Matute, Xiorama; Chaustre, Ismenia; Villalón, Marlene; Takiff, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The mutations in the CFTR gene found in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have geographic differences, but there are scant data on their prevalence in Venezuelan patients. This study determined the frequency of common CFTR gene mutations in a group of Venezuelan patients with CF. The 27 exons of the CFTR gene from 110 Venezuelan patients in the National CF Program were amplified and sequenced. A total of 36 different mutations were identified, seven with frequencies greater than 1%: p.Phe508del (27.27%), p.Gly542* (3.18%), c.2988+1G>A (3.18%), p.Arg334Trp (1.36%), p.Arg1162* (1.36%), c.1-8G>C (1.36%), and p.[Gly628Arg;Ser1235Arg](1.36). In 40% of patients, all with a clinical diagnosis of CF, no mutations were found. This report represents the largest cohort of Venezuelan patients with CF ever examined, and includes a wider mutation panel than has been previously studied in this population. Mutations common in Southern European populations predominate, and several new mutations were discovered, but no mutations were found in 40% of the cohort.

  1. ASSOCIATION OF CAFFEINE INTAKE AND LIVER FIBROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinca da Silva OLIVEIRA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Caffeine consumption has been associated to decreased levels of liver enzymes and lower risk of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the association between caffeine consumption and inflammatory activity or degree of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection treated in an outpatient Gastroenterology Unit of Santa Casa Hospital (Porto Alegre - Brasil. Patients were interviewed regarding the consumption of caffeine and anthropometric assessment was performed. Liver biopsy was performed in a maximum period of 36 months before inclusion in the study Results There were 113 patients, 67 (59.3% females, 48 (42.5% were aged between 52 and 62 years, and 101 (89.4% were white. The average caffeine consumption was 251.41 ± 232.32 mg/day, and 70 (62% patients consumed up to 250 mg/day of caffeine. There was no association between caffeine consumption and inflammatory activity on liver biopsy. On the other hand, when evaluating the caffeine consumption liver fibrosis an inverse association was observed. Conclusions The greater consumption of caffeine was associated with lower liver fibrosis. There was no association between caffeine consumption and inflammatory activity.

  2. Frequency of common CFTR gene mutations in Venezuelan patients with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Karen; Arcia, Orlando; Matute, Xiorama; Mindiola, Luz; Chaustre, Ismenia; Takiff, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the CFTR gene in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients have geographic differences and there is scant data on their prevalence in Venezuelan patients. This study determined the frequency of common CFTR gene mutations in these patients. We amplified and sequenced exons 7, 10, 11, 19, 20 and 21, which contain the most common CFTR mutations, from 105 Venezuelan patients in the National CF Program. Eleven different mutations were identified, four with frequencies greater than 1%: p.Phe508del...

  3. PROGRESSION OF LIVER FIBROSIS IN MONOINFECTED PATIENTS BY HEPATITIS C VIRUS AND COINFECTED BY HCV AND HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Valle TOVO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context The progression of liver fibrosis in patients coinfected by hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HCV/HIV has been increasingly studied in the past decade. Studies made before the highly active antiretroviral therapy suggest that HIV can change the natural history of the HCV infection, leading to a faster progression of the liver fibrosis. Objective To evaluate and compare the fibrosis progression in two groups of patients (HCV/HIV coinfected and HCV monoinfected Methods Seventy patients HCV monoinfected and 26 patients HCV/HIV coinfected who had not undertaken HCV treatment and were submitted to serial percutaneous liver biopsies were retrospectively evaluated. There was no difference in the fibrosis progression between the two groups. Conclusion The fibrosis grade evolution was not worse in the coinfected patients. The immunosuppression absence and the shortest time period between the biopsies in the coinfected group are possible explanations.

  4. Reduced nasal nitric oxide production in cystic fibrosis patients with elevated systemic inflammation markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth K Michl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO is produced within the respiratory tract and can be detected in exhaled bronchial and nasal air. The concentration varies in specific diseases, being elevated in patients with asthma and bronchiectasis, but decreased in primary ciliary dyskinesia. In cystic fibrosis (CF, conflicting data exist on NO levels, which are reported unexplained as either decreased or normal. Functionally, NO production in the paranasal sinuses is considered as a location-specific first-line defence mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between upper and lower airway NO levels and blood inflammatory parameters, CF-pathogen colonisation, and clinical data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nasal and bronchial NO concentrations from 57 CF patients were determined using an electrochemical analyser and correlated to pathogen colonisation of the upper and lower airways which were microbiologically assessed from nasal lavage and sputum samples. Statistical analyses were performed with respect to clinical parameters (lung function, BMI, laboratory findings (CRP, leucocytes, total-IgG, fibrinogen, and anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy. There were significant correlations between nasal and bronchial NO levels (rho = 0.48, p<0.001, but no correlation between NO levels and specific pathogen colonisation. In patients receiving azithromycin, significantly reduced bronchial NO and a tendency to reduced nasal NO could be found. Interestingly, a significant inverse correlation of nasal NO to CRP (rho = -0.28, p = 0.04 and to leucocytes (rho = -0.41, p = 0.003 was observed. In contrast, bronchial NO levels showed no correlation to clinical or inflammatory parameters. CONCLUSION: Given that NO in the paranasal sinuses is part of the first-line defence mechanism against pathogens, our finding of reduced nasal NO in CF patients with elevated systemic inflammatory markers indicates impaired upper airway defence. This

  5. Exploring Patient Awareness and Perceptions of the Appropriate Use of Antibiotics: A Mixed-Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Marion E.; Liu, Tsai-Ling; Taylor, Yhenneko J.; Davidson, Lisa; Schmid, Monica; Yates, Traci; Scotton, Janice; Spencer, Melanie D.

    2017-01-01

    In the outpatient setting, estimates suggest that 30% of the antibiotics prescribed are unnecessary. This study explores patient knowledge and awareness of appropriate use of antibiotics and expectations regarding how antibiotics are used for their treatment in outpatient settings. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of patients, parents, and caregivers (n = 190) at seven primary care clinics and two urgent care locations. Fisher’s exact tests compared results by patient charact...

  6. Diagnostic value of fibronectin discriminant score for predicting liver fibrosis stages in chronic hepatitis C virus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, Abdelfattah M; Abdallah, Sanaa O; Attallah, Ahmed A; Omran, Mohamed M; Farid, Khaled; Nasif, Wesam A; Shiha, Gamal E; Abdel-Aziz, Abdel-Aziz F; Rasafy, Nancy; Shaker, Yehia M

    2013-01-01

    Several noninvasive predictive models were developed to substitute liver biopsy for fibrosis assessment. To evaluate the diagnostic value of fibronectin which reflect extracellular matrix metabolism and standard liver functions tests which reflect alterations in hepatic functions. Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients (n = 145) were evaluated using ROC curves and stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA) and was validated in 180 additional patients. Liver biochemical profile including transaminases, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, complete blood count were estimated. Fibronectin concentration was determined using monoclonal antibody and ELISA. A novel index named fibronectin discriminant score (FDS) based on fibronectin, APRI and albumin was developed. FDS produced areas under ROC curves (AUC) of 0.91 for significant fibrosis and 0.81 for advanced fibrosis. The FDS correctly classified 79% of the significant liver fibrosis patients (F2-F4) with 87% sensitivity and 75% specificity. The relative risk [odds ratio (OR)] of having significant liver fibrosis using the cut-off values determined by ROC curve analyses were 6.1 for fibronectin, 4.9 for APRI, and 4.2 for albumin. FDS predicted liver fibrosis with an OR of 16.8 for significant fibrosis and 8.6 for advanced fibrosis. The FDS had similar AUC and OR in the validation group to the estimation group without statistically significant difference. FDS predicted liver fibrosis with high degree of accuracy, potentially decreasing the number of liver biopsy required.

  7. Patient knowledge and perception of antibiotics: A questionnaire survey in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Rikke Vognbjerg; Plejdrup Hansen, Malene; Bruun Lauridsen, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    of antibiotics. Objectives: This study aimed to study patient knowledge and perceptions of antibiotic treatment and to explore possible associations between patient gender, age, and educational level and accurate knowledge of antibiotics. Design/Methods: As part of an Audit Project Odense project a questionnaire...... survey was conducted during winter 2014. Patients aged ≥18 years consulting their GP with symptoms of ARI were requested to fill in a questionnaire on knowledge and perception of antibiotic treatment. Socio-demographic information was obtained. Results: 361 patients completed the questionnaire (response...... rate 64%). 75% recognized that antibiotics are effective against bacteria and not against virus. Overuse of antibiotics was acknowledged by 80% of respondents as an important factor in the development of resistant bacteria. Female gender was the only patient characteristic significantly associated...

  8. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Rodrigues Querido

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37ºC. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp.

  9. Optimising the administration of antibiotics in critically ill patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of antibiotic stewardship. Fig. 2 illustrates the concept of MPC and potential pitfalls of MIC-based dosing.[8]. Factors impacting on antibiotic exposure. Drug exposure varies according to molecular weight, degree of ionisation, protein binding and lipid solubility. Lipophilic antibiotics,. e.g. the fluoroquinolones, have a large ...

  10. Antimicrobial resistance, respiratory tract infections and role of biofilms in lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2015-01-01

    Lung infection is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis and is mainly dominated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The biofilm mode of growth makes eradication of the infection impossible, and it causes a chronic inflammation in the airways. The general mechanisms...

  11. Decreased mucosal oxygen tension in the maxillary sinuses in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Kasper; Rickelt, Lars Fledelius; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the sinuses plays a role in the lungs in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, but little is known about the sinus environment where the bacteria adapt. Anoxic areas are found in the lower respiratory airways but it is unknown if the same conditions exist in the sinuses....

  12. Within-host microevolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Italian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Dolce, Daniela; Madsen Sommer, Lea Mette

    2015-01-01

    Chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and a more complete understanding of P. aeruginosa within-host genomic evolution, transmission, and population genomics may provide a basis for improving intervention strate...

  13. Use of antibiotics and the prevalence of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in patients with spinal cord injuries : An international, multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, S.; Santullo, P.; Hirani, S. P.; Kumar, N.; Chowdhury, J. R.; Garcia-Forcada, A.; Recio, M.; Paz, F.; Zobina, I.; Kolli, S.; Kiekens, C.; Draulans, N.; Roels, E.; Martens-Bijlsma, J.; O'Driscoll, J.; Jamous, A.; Saif, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the use of antibiotics and the extent of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Aims: To record the use of antibiotics, establish the prevalence of AAD and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and assess if there was

  14. Individual radiosensitivity measured with lymphocytes can be used to predict the risk of fibrosis after radiotherapy of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeller, U.; Borgmann, K.; Alberti, W.; Dikomey, E.

    2003-01-01

    To analyse the relationship of individual cellular radiosensitivity and fibrosis after breast conserving therapy. A new model was used describing the percentage of patients developing fibrosis per year per patients at risk . In a retrospective study, 86 patients were included, who had undergone breast conserving surgery and irradiation of the breast with a median dose of 55 Gy (54-55Gy), 2.5 Gy/fraction (n=57) or 2 Gy/fraction (n=29). Median age was 62 years (range: 44-86) and median follow up was 7.5 years (range 5-16). Patients were examined for fibrosis according to the LENT/SOMA score. For analysis, fibrosis was classified as none (G0-1) or present (G2-3). The time to complete development of fibrosis was determined by analysis of yearly mammograms. Individual cellular radiosensitivity was determined by scoring lethal chromosomal aberrations in in vitro irradiated (6 Gy) lymphocytes using metaphase technique. Patients with low/intermediate cellular radiosensitivity were compared with patients with high cellular radiosensitivity with actuarial methods. Ten patients developed fibrosis at 1-8 years after radiotherapy. Individual cellular radiosensitivity was described by normal distribution of lethal chromosomal aberrations, average 5.47 lethal aberrations per cell (standard deviation 0.71). Cellular radiosensitivity was defined as low/intermediate (le 6.18 lethal aberrations) in 73 patients and as high (> 6.18 lethal aberrations ) in 13 patients. In both groups the actuarial rate of fibrosis-free patients declined exponentially with time after radiotherapy. Patients with high cellular radiosensitivity showed a 2.3 fold higher annual rate for fibrosis than patients with intermediate and low radiosensitivity (3.6±0.1 vs. 1.6±0.3). In breast cancer patients, high individual cellular radiosensitivity as determined by the number of lethal chromosome aberrations in in vitro irradiated lymphocytes was correlated with an enhanced annual rate of fibrosis

  15. Raoultella ornithinolytica Diagnosed in a Neurointensive Patient. A Rare Case with Recovery without Antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellinge, Marlene Ersgaard

    2017-01-01

    Infection with Raoultella ornithinolytica is rare and normally the infection is present in patients with underlying malignancies or chronic diseases. It is normally treated with antibiotics. In this case report, a neuro-intensive patient without malignancies or other severe chronic diseases...... was colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa but infected with Raoultella ornithinolyca. The patient recovered without treatment with antibiotics....

  16. Factors associated with worse lung function in cystic fibrosis patients with persistent staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, S. (Sibylle); Görlich, D. (Dennis); Reijer, M.D. (Martijn Den); Wiedemann, Baerbel; Tümmler, Burkhard; Ellemunter, H.; Dübbers, A. (Angelika); Küster, P. (Peter); Ballmann, M.; Koerner-Rettberg, C. (Cordula); Große-Onnebrink, J. (Jörg); Heuer, E. (Eberhardt); Sextro, W. (Wolfgang); Mainz, J.G. (Jochen G.); Hammermann, J. (Jutta)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads. Methods Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudi...

  17. Factors Associated with Worse Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Persistent Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, Sibylle; G?rlich, Dennis; den Reijer, Martijn; Wiedemann, B?rbel; T?mmler, Burkhard; Ellemunter, Helmut; D?bbers, Angelika; K?ster, Peter; Ballmann, Manfred; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Gro?e-Onnebrink, J?rg; Heuer, Eberhardt; Sextro, Wolfgang; Mainz, Jochen G.; Hammermann, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads. Methods Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudinal multi-ce...

  18. Novel non-invasive biological predictive index for liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Mahmoud; Sakr, Mohamed Amin; Fattah, Mohamed Abdel; Mousa, Youssef; Soliman, Elwy; Breedy, Ashraf; Fathi, Mona; Gaber, Salwa; Altaweil, Ahmed; Osman, Ashraf; Hassouna, Ahmed; Motawea, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the diagnostic ability of a non-invasive biological marker to predict liver fibrosis in hepatitis C genotype 4 patients with high accuracy. METHODS A cohort of 332 patients infected with hepatitis C genotype 4 was included in this cross-sectional study. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and angiotensin-converting enzyme serum levels were measured. Insulin resistance was mathematically calculated using the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS Fibrosis stages were distributed based on Metavir score as follows: F0 = 43, F1 = 136, F2 = 64, F3 = 45 and F4 = 44. Statistical analysis relied upon reclassification of fibrosis stages into mild fibrosis (F0-F) = 179, moderate fibrosis (F2) = 64, and advanced fibrosis (F3-F4) = 89. Univariate analysis indicated that age, log aspartate amino transaminase, log HOMA-IR and log platelet count were independent predictors of liver fibrosis stage (P < 0.0001). A stepwise multivariate discriminant functional analysis was used to drive a discriminative model for liver fibrosis. Our index used cut-off values of ≥ 0.86 and ≤ -0.31 to diagnose advanced and mild fibrosis, respectively, with receiving operating characteristics of 0.91 and 0.88, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and positive likelihood ratio were: 73%, 91%, 75%, 90% and 8.0 respectively for advanced fibrosis, and 67%, 88%, 84%, 70% and 4.9, respectively, for mild fibrosis. CONCLUSION Our predictive model is easily available and reproducible, and predicted liver fibrosis with acceptable accuracy. PMID:27917265

  19. Novel non-invasive biological predictive index for liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Mahmoud; Sakr, Mohamed Amin; Fattah, Mohamed Abdel; Mousa, Youssef; Soliman, Elwy; Breedy, Ashraf; Fathi, Mona; Gaber, Salwa; Altaweil, Ahmed; Osman, Ashraf; Hassouna, Ahmed; Motawea, Ibrahim

    2016-11-18

    To investigate the diagnostic ability of a non-invasive biological marker to predict liver fibrosis in hepatitis C genotype 4 patients with high accuracy. A cohort of 332 patients infected with hepatitis C genotype 4 was included in this cross-sectional study. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and angiotensin-converting enzyme serum levels were measured. Insulin resistance was mathematically calculated using the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Fibrosis stages were distributed based on Metavir score as follows: F0 = 43, F1 = 136, F2 = 64, F3 = 45 and F4 = 44. Statistical analysis relied upon reclassification of fibrosis stages into mild fibrosis (F0-F) = 179, moderate fibrosis (F2) = 64, and advanced fibrosis (F3-F4) = 89. Univariate analysis indicated that age, log aspartate amino transaminase, log HOMA-IR and log platelet count were independent predictors of liver fibrosis stage ( P < 0.0001). A stepwise multivariate discriminant functional analysis was used to drive a discriminative model for liver fibrosis. Our index used cut-off values of ≥ 0.86 and ≤ -0.31 to diagnose advanced and mild fibrosis, respectively, with receiving operating characteristics of 0.91 and 0.88, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and positive likelihood ratio were: 73%, 91%, 75%, 90% and 8.0 respectively for advanced fibrosis, and 67%, 88%, 84%, 70% and 4.9, respectively, for mild fibrosis. Our predictive model is easily available and reproducible, and predicted liver fibrosis with acceptable accuracy.

  20. Evaluation and improvement of the quality of the discharge prescription in Cystic Fibrosis children hospitalised for intravenous antibiotic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chorro Marí, Verónica

    2017-01-01

    1.Antecedentes. La Fibrosis Quística (FQ) es una enfermedad conocida desde la edad media, aunque durante esa época no estaba descrita como tal sino más bien como un hechizo maligno. En 1943, Farber propuso el término mucoviscidosis y este término se sigue utilizando en la actualidad. La FQ es la enfermedad hereditaria autosómica recesiva grave más frecuente en la población blanca, con una incidencia en Europa que oscila entre 1:1.353 en Irlanda y entre 1:25.000 en Finlandia, y una fre...

  1. Multidimensional clinical phenotyping of an adult cystic fibrosis patient population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Conrad

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis (CF is a multi-systemic disease resulting from mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR gene and has major manifestations in the sino-pulmonary, and gastro-intestinal tracts. Clinical phenotypes were generated using 26 common clinical variables to generate classes that overlapped quantiles of lung function and were based on multiple aspects of CF systemic disease.The variables included age, gender, CFTR mutations, FEV1% predicted, FVC% predicted, height, weight, Brasfield chest xray score, pancreatic sufficiency status and clinical microbiology results. Complete datasets were compiled on 211 subjects. Phenotypes were identified using a proximity matrix generated by the unsupervised Random Forests algorithm and subsequent clustering by the Partitioning around Medoids (PAM algorithm. The final phenotypic classes were then characterized and compared to a similar dataset obtained three years earlier.Clinical phenotypes were identified using a clustering strategy that generated four and five phenotypes. Each strategy identified 1 a low lung health scores phenotype, 2 a younger, well-nourished, male-dominated class, 3 various high lung health score phenotypes that varied in terms of age, gender and nutritional status. This multidimensional clinical phenotyping strategy identified classes with expected microbiology results and low risk clinical phenotypes with pancreatic sufficiency.This study demonstrated regional adult CF clinical phenotypes using non-parametric, continuous, ordinal and categorical data with a minimal amount of subjective data to identify clinically relevant phenotypes. These studies identified the relative stability of the phenotypes, demonstrated specific phenotypes consistent with published findings and identified others needing further study.

  2. Frequency of steatosis and its relation with the grade of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, S.; Sadik, M.; Hussain, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    To study the frequency of steatosis and observe the relation between steatosis and grade of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C. This descriptive case series study was undertaken at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences hospital from July 2005 to November 2007. It included 158 PCR-positive hepatitis C cases with genotype 3. Patients demographic data was enrolled in well designed proforma BMI was calculated and history of diabetes mellitus was obtained. Liver biopsy was done after written consent and was sent for grading of fibrosis and steatosis. T-test was applied for Continuous variables whereas stage of fibrosis was compared with grade of steatosis, BMI and age by chi-square test. 0.05 was made a level of Significance. This study included 158 patients out of which 109 (69%) were male and 49(31%) were female. The mean age of the patient was 36.8 +- 9.8.The BMI was 30 in 19 (12%) of cases. The steatosis was found in 71(45%) of cases. Mild ( 60% hepatocytes involved) steatosis in 12(7.5%) cases. A strong correlation between steatosis score and fibrosis stage was observed in our study (P= < 0.001) whereas no relationship was observed between BMI (P 0.67) or age (P =0.39) with stage of steatosis. This study showed that increased steatosis is associated with worsening fibrosis suggesting a possible role for steatosis in the acceleration of liver disease in HCV Patients and efforts to control steatosis may therefore have an important role in halting HCV liver disease progression. (author)

  3. Fibrosis and electrophysiological characteristics of the atrial appendage in patients with atrial fibrillation and structural heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakel, T.J. van; Krieken, T. van der; Westra, S.W.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Smeets, J.L.R.M.; Swieten, H.A. van

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the degree of fibrosis in atrial appendages of patients with and without atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing cardiac surgery. In addition, we hypothesized that areas of atrial fibrosis can be identified by electrogram fractionation and low voltage for

  4. Aerosol scintigraphy in the assessment of therapy for cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuni, C.C.; Regelmann, W.E.; Budd, J.R.; Cret, R.P. du; Boudreau, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates respiration therapy, counselling, and antibiotic therapy in the treatment of exacerbations of cystic fibrosis. Thirteen patients with cystic fibrosis, aged 11-32 years, who were hospitalized for exacerbation and who had sputum cultures positive for Pseudomonas were treated initially for 3 days with respiration therapy and counselling followed by 14 days of therapy with antibiotics (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6). Tc-99m-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy was performed on days, 1, 4, and 17. Scintigrams were evaluated for change in number of nonventilated segments, change in number of bronchial deposits of aerosol, and subjective overall change

  5. Macrolides decrease the minimal inhibitory concentration of anti-pseudomonal agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients in biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Larissa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofilm production is an important mechanism for bacterial survival and its association with antimicrobial resistance represents a challenge for the patient treatment. In this study we evaluated the in vitro action of macrolides in combination with anti-pseudomonal agents on biofilm-grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Results A total of 64 isolates were analysed. The biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC results were consistently higher than those obtained by the conventional method, minimal inhibitory concentration, (MIC for most anti-pseudomonal agents tested (ceftazidime: P = 0.001, tobramycin: P = 0.001, imipenem: P P = 0.005. When macrolides were associated with the anti-pseudomonal agents, the BIC values were reduced significantly for ceftazidime (P  0.001 and tobramycin (P  0.001, regardless the concentration of macrolides. Strong inhibitory quotient was observed when azithromycin at 8 mg/L was associated with all anti-pseudomonal agents tested in biofilm conditions. Conclusions P. aeruginosa from CF patients within biofilms are highly resistant to antibiotics but macrolides proved to augment the in vitro activity of anti-pseudomonal agents.

  6. Hemostatic dysfunction is increased in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and advanced periportal fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis mansoni is an endemic parasitic disease and a public health problem in Northeast Brazil. In some patients, hepatic abnormalities lead to periportal fibrosis and result in the most severe clinical form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This study aimed to evaluate whether abnormal blood coagulation and liver function tests in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (n = 55 correlate with the severity of their periportal fibrosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples were used for liver function tests, hemogram and prothrombin time (International Normalized Ratio, INR. The blood coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X, protein C and antithrombin IIa (ATIIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and D-dimer were measured by photometry or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Hyperfibrinolysis was defined on the basis of PAI-1 levels and a D-dimer concentration greater than a standard cut-off of 483 ng/mL. Standard liver function tests were all abnormal in the patient group compared to healthy controls (n = 29, including raised serum transaminases (p<0.001 and lower levels of albumin (p = 0.0156. Platelet counts were 50% lower in patients, while for coagulation factors there was a 40% increase in the INR (p<0.001 and reduced levels of Factor VII and protein C in patients compared to the controls (both p<0.001. Additionally, patients with more advanced fibrosis (n = 38 had lower levels of protein C compared to those with only central fibrosis (p = 0.0124. The concentration of plasma PAI-1 in patients was one-third that of the control group (p<0.001, and D-dimer levels 2.2 times higher (p<0.001 with 13 of the 55 patients having levels above the cut-off. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that hemostatic abnormalities are associated with reduced liver function and increased liver fibrosis. Of note was the finding that a quarter of patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and

  7. Profiling of antioxidant superoxide dismutase in saliva of oral submucous fibrosis patients to categorize its diagnosis in varying stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirohi, Y.; Shetty, D.C.; Urs, A.B.; Rai, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis is a pre malignant condition in Indian and South-East Asia. Role of oxidant-antioxidant in causation and progression of cancer and pre cancers is known. Reactive oxygen species are generated in the oral cavity during chewing areca nut, the major etiological agent in oral submucous fibrosis. Objectives: To see the alterations in the salivary superoxide dismutase levels in various clinical and histopathological grades of oral submucous fibrosis. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated saliva was collected from 25 oral submucous fibrosis patients and age and gender matched controls. The saliva was assessed for superoxide dismutase value by spectrophotometric method using assay kit (Bio Vision Catalog number K335-100). The oral submucous fibrosis cases were grouped into clinical stages and histopathological grades and superoxide dismutase values were compared in different clinical stages and histopathological grades. Results: The superoxide dismutase levels were reduced in oral submucous fibrosis as compared to controls. A steady decline in the levels was seen as the clinical stage and histopathological grade of oral submucous fibrosis advanced. Conclusions: Salivary superoxide dismutase levels can be alternatively used as a surrogate marker for the diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis. Policy message: Oral physicians should advise the pan chewers to regularly check their salivary superoxide dismutase levels so as to ease the early diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis. (author)

  8. Serum immunoglobulin levels predict fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Stuart; Henderson, Elsbeth; Burt, Alastair D; Day, Christopher P; Anstee, Quentin M

    2014-05-01

    A third of the population are estimated to have NAFLD of varying severity. Serum immunoglobulins are frequently elevated in patients with chronic liver disease, but little is known about serum immunoglobulin levels in patients with NAFLD. Aim of this study was to evaluate serum immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgG, and IgM) in a large cohort of patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and determine if immunoglobulin levels are associated with clinical or histological features. Patients seen in a tertiary fatty liver clinic between 1999 and 2009 were included. Liver biopsies were assessed using the Kleiner score. Immunoglobulin levels and other blood tests were taken at time of biopsy. 285 patients (110 simple steatosis and 175 NASH) had serum immunoglobulins measured within 6months of liver biopsy. 130 (46%) patients had elevated (>1× upper limit of normal) serum IgA levels, 28 (10%) patients had elevated IgG and 22 (8%) raised IgM. Serum IgA levels were elevated more frequently in patients with NASH compared with subjects with simple steatosis (55% vs. 31%, pliver fibrosis (Kleiner stage 3-4). There was a significant positive association between serum IgA levels and the stage of fibrosis (pfibrosis following multivariate analysis. A model constructed from these independent predictors accurately predicted advanced fibrosis (AUROC 0.87). The serum IgA level was frequently elevated in patients with NAFLD and was an independent predictor of advanced fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Obstructive airway disease in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Mohammad; Saleemi, Sarfraz; Zeitouni, Mohammed; Al-Dammas, Saleh; Khaliq, Mohammad Rehan

    2004-01-01

    Extensive research has been devoted to cystic fibrosis-related brochiectasis compared with noncystic fibrosis brochiectasis but the latter is more common and results in significant morbidity and mortality. We assessed the relationship between pulmonary function test (PFT) findings and sputum bacteriology, blood gases, number of hospital admissions and mortality in patients with non-cystic fibrosis brochiectasis (NCFB). we conducted a retrospective review of 88 consecutive patients admitted with exacerbation of brochiectasis over 5 years from 1996 to 2001. Demographic and clinical data collected included gender, age, pulmonary functions, arterial blood gases, sputum bacteriology during stable and exacerbation periods and number of hospital admissions due to exacerbation of brochiectasis. A comparison was made between patients having obstructive airway disease (OAD group) and patients with normal or restrictive pulmonaru functions (non-OAD group). OAD patients with NCFB adversely affected clinical outcome.There was a significant increase in Pseuomonas colonization (60.3% vs. 16%; P<0.0003), hypercapnic respiratory failure (63.4% vs. 20%; P<0.0003) and mean number of admissons due to exacerbation (6 vs. 2; P<0.0001)in the OAD group as compared with the non OAD group, the difference was not statistically significant. Patients with NCFB who have OAD have a significantly higher rate of colonization with Pseuomonas aeruginosa (PSA) hypercapric respiratory failure, a greater number of hospital admissions due to exacerbation of brochiectasis and a a higher mortality compared with patients with restrictive or normal pulmonary functions. (author)

  10. Lack of effect of delta F508 mutation on aerobic capacity in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, T A; Moccia-Loos, G; Rabin, M; McKey, R M

    1996-10-01

    As aerobic exercise capacity, as defined by VO2max, is associated with patient functioning and possibly prognosis in cystic fibrosis (CF), correlations between VO2max phenotype and genotype may be of value. Retrospective clinical series. Cystic fibrosis referral clinic. Convenience sample of 35 patients with CF consecutively referred for exercise testing. Blood samples were examined for mutations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), Height, wight, pulmonary function, resting-energy expenditure, VO2max, and other exercise variables were assessed in each referred patient. Statistical comparison of 10 patients who were homozygous for the dF508 mutation of CFTR with 20 patients heterozygous for dF508 revealed no significant differences for height, weight, pulmonary function, resting-energy expenditure, VO2max, or any other exercise variables. These results imply a limited effect of the mutation status on overall patient functioning and prognosis. Future identification of more rare CFTR mutations and other genes and subsequent classification of patients in a manner reflective of the cellular physiology may lead to different results.

  11. Establishing ultrasound based transient elastography cutoffs for different stages of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Aisha; Alboraie, Mohamed; Fouad, Rabab; Asem, Noha; Abdo, Mahmoud; Elmakhzangy, Hesham; Mehrez, Mai; Khattab, Hany; Esmat, Gamal

    2017-12-01

    Transient elastography is widely used to assess fibrosis stage in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We aimed to establish and validate different transient elastography cut-off values for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in CHC genotype 4 patients. The data of 100 treatment-naive CHC patients (training set) and 652 patients (validation set) were analysed. The patients were subjected to routine pretreatment laboratory investigations, liver biopsy and histopathological staging of hepatic fibrosis according to the METAVIR scoring system. Transient elastography was performed before and in the same week as liver biopsy using FibroScan (Echosens, Paris, France). Transient elastography results were correlated to different stages of hepatic fibrosis in both the training and validation sets. ROC curves were constructed. In the training set, the best transient elastography cut-off values for significant hepatic fibrosis (≥F2 METAVIR), advanced hepatic fibrosis (≥F3 METAVIR) and cirrhosis (F4 METAVIR) were 7.1, 9 and 12.2 kPa, with sensitivities of 87%, 87.5% and 90.9% and specificities of 100%, 99.9% and 99.9%, respectively. The application of these cut-offs in the validation set showed sensitivities of 85.5%, 82.8% and 92% and specificities of 86%, 89.4% and 99.01% for significant hepatic fibrosis, advanced hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, respectively. Transient elastography performs well for significant hepatic fibrosis, advanced hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, with validated cut-offs of 7.1, 9 and 12.2 kPa, respectively, in genotype 4 CHC patients. Copyright © 2017 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Long term prognosis of patients with cystic fibrosis in relation to early detection by neonatal screening and treatment in a cystic fibrosis centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankert-Roelse, J E; te Meerman, G J

    BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to evaluate whether an early diagnosis by neonatal screening may improve the long term prognosis of patients with cystic fibrosis and to assess the influence of expert management started immediately after the diagnosis. METHODS: Comparative clinical follow up in

  13. Accuracy of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis Test vs Fibrotest, Elastography and Indirect Markers in Detection of Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Hansen, Janne Fuglsang

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the leading cause of cirrhosis and liver-related mortality, but we lack serum markers to detect compensated disease. We compared the accuracy of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis test (ELF), the FibroTest, liver stiffness measurements (made by transient elastography and 2......-dimensional shear-wave elastography), and 6 indirect marker tests in detection of advanced liver fibrosis (Kleiner stage ≥F3). METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 10 liver fibrosis markers (patented and not), all performed on the same day. Patients were recruited from primary centers (municipal...... significantly from those of liver stiffness measurement in intention-to-diagnose analyses (AUROC for transient elastography, 0.90), but did differ in the per-protocol analysis (AUROC for transient elastography, 0.97) (P=.521 and .004 for comparison with ELF). Adding a serum marker to transient elastography...

  14. Low Efficacy of Antibiotics Against Staphylococcus aureus Airway Colonization in Ventilated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulik, Lukas; Hudcova, Jana; Craven, Donald E; Nagy, Gabor; Nagy, Eszter

    2017-04-15

    Airway-colonization by Staphylococcus aureus predisposes to the development of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Despite extensive antibiotic treatment of intensive care unit patients, limited data are available on the efficacy of antibiotics on bacterial airway colonization and/or prevention of infections. Therefore, microbiologic responses to antibiotic treatment were evaluated in ventilated patients. Results of semiquantitative analyses of S. aureus burden in serial endotracheal-aspirate (ETA) samples and VAT/VAP diagnosis were correlated to antibiotic treatment. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of relevant antibiotics using serially collected isolates were evaluated. Forty-eight mechanically ventilated patients who were S. aureus positive by ETA samples and treated with relevant antibiotics for at least 2 consecutive days were included in the study. Vancomycin failed to reduce methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) burden in the airways. Oxacillin was ineffective for MSSA colonization in approximately 30% of the patients, and responders were typically coadministered additional antibiotics. Despite antibiotic exposure, 15 of the 39 patients (approximately 38%) colonized only by S. aureus and treated with appropriate antibiotic for at least 2 days still progressed to VAP. Importantly, no change in antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus isolates was observed during treatment. Staphylococcus aureus colonization levels inversely correlated with the presence of normal respiratory flora. Antibiotic treatment is ineffective in reducing S. aureus colonization in the lower airways and preventing VAT or VAP. Staphylococcus aureus is in competition for colonization with the normal respiratory flora. To improve patient outcomes, alternatives to antibiotics are urgently needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of

  15. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with pulmonary fibrosis in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala Cerra, Gabriel; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael; Lozano Tagua, Carlos Fernando; Sabogal Barrios, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement in patients with neurofibromatosis has been repetitively reported as a very rare complication in type 1 variety. It is characterized by pulmonary interstitial disease, pulmonary fibrosis and bullaes, the last with high risk of rupture. We described a case of spontaneous pneumothorax in a patient with type 2 neurofibromatosis, as consequence of pulmonary fibrotic changes. To our knowledge this association had not been reported.

  16. Kidney failure related to broad-spectrum antibiotics in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ulrik Stæhr; Hein, Lars; Lundgren, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    To explore whether a strategy of more intensive antibiotic therapy leads to emergence or prolongation of renal failure in intensive care patients.......To explore whether a strategy of more intensive antibiotic therapy leads to emergence or prolongation of renal failure in intensive care patients....

  17. Radiological characteristics, histological features and clinical outcomes of lung cancer patients with coexistent idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K A; Kennedy, M P; Moore, E; Crush, L; Prendeville, S; Maher, M M; Burke, L; Henry, M T

    2015-02-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis and management, the outcomes for both lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are still unfavourable. The pathophysiology and outcomes for patients with concomitant lung cancer and IPF remains unclear. A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients presenting with concomitant IPF and lung cancer to our centre over a 3-year period. Patients with connective tissue disease, asbestos exposure, sarcoidosis, previous thoracic radiation, radiological evidence of fibrosis but no histological confirmation of lung cancer, or the use of medications known to cause pulmonary fibrosis were excluded. We describe clinical, radiological and pathological characteristics of this group. We also report the response to standardized lung cancer therapy in this cohort. Of 637 lung cancer patients, 34 were identified with concomitant IPF (5.3 %) and all were smokers. 85 % had non-small cell lung cancer, 41 % were squamous cell cancers. The majority of tumours were located in the lower lobes, peripheral and present in an area of honeycombing. Despite the fact that approximately 2/3rds of the patients had localised or locally advanced lung cancer, the outcome of therapy for lung cancer was extremely poor regardless of tumour stage or severity of IPF. At our centre, 1/20 patients with lung cancer have concomitant IPF. The majority of these tumours are small in size, peripheral in location and squamous cell carcinoma; in an area of honey combing. The outcome for concomitant lung cancer and IPF regardless of stage or therapy is poor.

  18. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis using two-dimensional shear wave elastography in patients with autoimmune liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jie; Huang, Ze-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Wu, Tao; Zheng, Rong-Qin

    2017-07-14

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) using liver biopsy as the reference standard. Patients with AILD who underwent liver biopsy and 2D-SWE were consecutively enrolled. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the overall accuracy and to identify optimal cut-off values. The characteristics of the diagnostic performance were determined for 114 patients with AILD. The areas under the ROC curves for significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis were 0.85, 0.85, and 0.86, respectively, and the optimal cut-off values associated with significant fibrosis (≥ F2), severe fibrosis (≥ F3), and cirrhosis (F4) were 9.7 kPa, 13.2 kPa and 16.3 kPa, respectively. 2D-SWE showed sensitivity values of 81.7% for significant fibrosis, 83.0% for severe fibrosis, and 87.0% for cirrhosis, and the respective specificity values were 81.3%, 74.6%, and 80.2%. The overall concordance rate of the liver stiffness measurements obtained using 2D-SWE vs fibrosis stages was 53.5%. 2D-SWE showed promising diagnostic performance for assessing liver fibrosis stages and exhibited high cut-off values in patients with AILD. Low overall concordance rate was observed in the liver stiffness measurements obtained using 2D-SWE vs fibrosis stages.

  19. Anti-Biofilm and Immunomodulatory Activities of Peptides That Inhibit Biofilms Formed by Pathogens Isolated from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César de la Fuente-Núñez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF patients often acquire chronic respiratory tract infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc species. In the CF lung, these bacteria grow as multicellular aggregates termed biofilms. Biofilms demonstrate increased (adaptive resistance to conventional antibiotics, and there are currently no available biofilm-specific therapies. Using plastic adherent, hydroxyapatite and flow cell biofilm models coupled with confocal and scanning electron microscopy, it was demonstrated that an anti-biofilm peptide 1018 prevented biofilm formation, eradicated mature biofilms and killed biofilms formed by a wide range of P. aeruginosa and B. cenocepacia clinical isolates. New peptide derivatives were designed that, compared to their parent peptide 1018, showed similar or decreased anti-biofilm activity against P. aeruginosa biofilms, but increased activity against biofilms formed by the Gram-positive bacterium methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, some of these new peptide derivatives retained the immunomodulatory activity of 1018 since they induced the production of the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-mediated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and were non-toxic towards these cells. Peptide 1018 and its derivatives provide promising leads for the treatment of chronic biofilm infections and hyperinflammatory lung disease in CF patients.

  20. Influence of a macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, on mast cell growth and activation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Shimane

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term administration of macrolide antibiotics is recognized to be able to favorably modify the clinical condition of inflammatory diseases, such as diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis. However, the precise mechanisms by which macrolide antibiotics could improve clinical conditions of the patients are not well understood.

  1. Follow-up and nonpharmacological management of the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Egan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a chronic, progressive, fatal form of diffuse interstitial lung disease. Management of IPF requires an orderly approach, with regular evaluations and implementation of both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. Pulmonary rehabilitation can relieve patients from the distressing symptoms of IPF and improve quality of life. Oxygen therapy is central to treatment of all patients. Lung transplantation enhances survival in selected patients. Mechanical ventilation may be used in patients with acute exacerbations, but the prognosis is poor in these cases. Palliative care focuses on symptom management, advance directives and end-of-life planning. Patient support groups may also play an important role.

  2. Intra-abdominal fibrosis in a recent cohort of patients with neuroendocrine ('carcinoid') tumours of the small bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, M R; Bharwani, N; Akker, S A; Drake, W M; Rockall, A; Grossman, A B

    2010-03-01

    Fibrosis is a hallmark of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) arising in the jejunum and ileum and may manifest in the mesentery and elsewhere. It is clinically important and once-established, there are few effective therapies. To examine the frequency, radiological manifestations and clinical significance of intra-abdominal fibrosis in a patient cohort using modern cross-sectional imaging. Current prevalence is compared to historical series and correlation with cardiac fibrosis evaluated. Cross-sectional, retrospective survey of a cohort of patients with mid-gut NETs from a single centre. Review of clinical features, biochemistry and imaging of patients with sporadic mid-gut NET and available imaging between 2002 and 2008. Thirty-one patients were included: 26 (83.9%) had liver metastases and 11 (35.4%) had small-bowel wall thickening; 17 patients (55%) had mesenteric involvement, with a mass, which contained coarse calcification in seven patients and fine calcification in a further two. There was soft-tissue stranding in 13 patients (plus in a further patient with no mass) and 'indrawing' of tissues in 11 patients. Two patients had a 'misty' mesentery and two had early retroperitoneal fibrosis. Mesenteric involvement was unrelated to gender and urinary 5HIAA excretion. Intra-abdominal fibrosis can be detected radiologically in around half of patients with mid-gut NET using contemporary cross-sectional imaging. Although not statistically significant, small-bowel obstruction was seen more frequently in the group with fibrosis. There was no relationship with cardiac fibrosis. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate predictors of fibrosis onset and clinical course and determine optimal methods of prevention and treatment.

  3. Insulin therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis in the pre-diabetes stage: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Mariana Zorrón Mei Hsia; Christensen-Adad, Flávia Corrêa; Gonçalves, Aline Cristina; Minicucci, Walter José; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando

    2016-09-01

    To elucidate whether insulin is effective or not in patients with cystic fibrosis before the diabetes mellitus phase. The study was performed according to the Prisma method between August and September 2014, using the PubMed, Embase, Lilacs and SciELO databases. Prospective studies published in English, Portuguese and Spanish from 2002 to 2014, evaluating the effect of insulin on weight parameters, body mass index and pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis, with a mean age of 17.37 years before the diabetes mellitus phase were included. Eight articles were identified that included 180 patients undergoing insulin use. Sample size ranged from 4 to 54 patients, with a mean age ranging from 12.4 to 28 years. The type of follow-up, time of insulin use, the dose and implementation schedule were very heterogeneous between studies. There are theoretical reasons to believe that insulin has a beneficial effect in the studied population. The different methods and populations assessed in the studies do not allow us to state whether early insulin therapy should or should not be carried out in patients with cystic fibrosis prior to the diagnosis of diabetes. Therefore, studies with larger samples and insulin use standardization are required. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Raman spectroscopy as a new tool for early detection of bacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusciano, Giulia; Capriglione, Paola; Pesce, Giuseppe; Sasso, Antonio; Abete, Pasquale; Carnovale, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major threat for people affected by cystic fibrosis, leading to pulmonary deterioration and lung transplantation as a therapeutic option for end-stage patients. A fast and correct identification of pathogens in airway fluid of these patients is crucial to establish appropriate therapies, to prevent cross-infections and, ultimately, to preserve lung function. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy to reveal bacteria in the sputa of patients such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which are among the earliest and the most frequent bacteria affecting cystic fibrosis patients. We found that Raman analysis, combined with principal component analysis, is able to provide a correct identification of these bacteria, with a global accuracy higher than 95%. Interestingly, bacterial identification is performed by analysing patients’ sputa as a whole, avoiding, therefore, time-consuming procedures involving bacterial isolation or even bacterial cultures. This study suggests that Raman spectroscopy could be a suitable candidate for the development of innovative and non-invasive procedures for a fast and reliable identification of respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients. (letter)

  5. Raman spectroscopy as a new tool for early detection of bacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusciano, Giulia; Capriglione, Paola; Pesce, Giuseppe; Abete, Pasquale; Carnovale, Vincenzo; Sasso, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major threat for people affected by cystic fibrosis, leading to pulmonary deterioration and lung transplantation as a therapeutic option for end-stage patients. A fast and correct identification of pathogens in airway fluid of these patients is crucial to establish appropriate therapies, to prevent cross-infections and, ultimately, to preserve lung function. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy to reveal bacteria in the sputa of patients such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which are among the earliest and the most frequent bacteria affecting cystic fibrosis patients. We found that Raman analysis, combined with principal component analysis, is able to provide a correct identification of these bacteria, with a global accuracy higher than 95%. Interestingly, bacterial identification is performed by analysing patients’ sputa as a whole, avoiding, therefore, time-consuming procedures involving bacterial isolation or even bacterial cultures. This study suggests that Raman spectroscopy could be a suitable candidate for the development of innovative and non-invasive procedures for a fast and reliable identification of respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients.

  6. Insulin therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis in the pre-diabetes stage: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Zorrón Mei Hsia Pu

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To elucidate whether insulin is effective or not in patients with cystic fibrosis before the diabetes mellitus phase. Data source: The study was performed according to the Prisma method between August and September 2014, using the PubMed, Embase, Lilacs and SciELO databases. Prospective studies published in English, Portuguese and Spanish from 2002 to 2014, evaluating the effect of insulin on weight parameters, body mass index and pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis, with a mean age of 17.37 years before the diabetes mellitus phase were included. Data synthesis: Eight articles were identified that included 180 patients undergoing insulin use. Sample size ranged from 4 to 54 patients, with a mean age ranging from 12.4 to 28 years. The type of follow-up, time of insulin use, the dose and implementation schedule were very heterogeneous between studies. Conclusions: There are theoretical reasons to believe that insulin has a beneficial effect in the studied population. The different methods and populations assessed in the studies do not allow us to state whether early insulin therapy should or should not be carried out in patients with cystic fibrosis prior to the diagnosis of diabetes. Therefore, studies with larger samples and insulin use standardization are required.

  7. The Efficacy of MAG-DHA for Correcting AA/DHA Imbalance of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

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    Caroline Morin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementations are thought to improve essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD as well as reduce inflammation in Cystic Fibrosis (CF, but their effectiveness in clinical studies remains unknown. The aim of the study was to determine how the medical food containing docosahexaenoic acid monoglyceride (MAG-DHA influenced erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and the expression levels of inflammatory circulating mediators. We conducted a randomized, double blind, pilot trial including fifteen outpatients with Cystic Fibrosis, ages 18–48. The patients were divided into 2 groups and received MAG-DHA or a placebo (sunflower oil for 60 days. Patients took 8 × 625 mg MAG-DHA softgels or 8 × 625 mg placebo softgels every day at bedtime for 60 days. Lipid analyses revealed that MAG-DHA increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels and decrease arachidonic acid (AA ratio (AA/DHA in erythrocytes of CF patients following 1 month of daily supplementation. Data also revealed a reduction in plasma human leukocyte elastase (pHLE complexes and interleukin-6 (IL-6 expression levels in blood samples of MAG-DHA supplemented CF patients. This pilot study indicates that MAG-DHA supplementation corrects erythrocyte AA/DHA imbalance and may exert anti-inflammatory properties through the reduction of pHLE complexes and IL6 in blood samples of CF patients. Trial registration: Pro-resolving Effect of MAG-DHA in Cystic Fibrosis (PREMDIC, NCT02518672.

  8. Validation and comparison of seventeen noninvasive models for evaluating liver fibrosis in Chinese hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Minhui; Wu, Jingwen; Yu, Xueping; Li, Jing; Yang, Sisi; Qi, Xun; Mao, Richeng; Zhang, Yongmei; Yu, Jie; Zhu, Haoxiang; Yang, Feifei; Qin, Yanli; Zhang, Jiming

    2018-01-03

    To avoid liver biopsy, many noninvasive models comprised of serum markers for liver fibrosis assessment have been developed. Given that most of them were developed in hepatitis C cohorts and few of them have been validated in Chinese hepatitis B patients, we aim to conduct this validation and compare their diagnostic accuracies in such a population. A total of 937 HBV-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy were included in this single-centre retrospective study. The diagnostic accuracies of the 17 noninvasive models were assessed by areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROCs), using histologically evaluated fibrotic stages of the biopsy specimens as standards. To compare efficiencies of the models, a grading system based on AUROC levels was developed. For discriminating significant fibrosis in all patients, the best three noninvasive models were King's score (AUROC = 0.756), Virahep-C model (AUROC = 0.756) and GPR (AUROC = 0.744); and for diagnosing cirrhosis, Lok index (AUROC = 0.832), FI (AUROC = 0.820) and FIB-4 (AUROC = 0.818) got the first three places. AUROCs in HBeAg-positive group were generally higher than those in HBeAg-negative group. In addition, based on the grading system, Virahep-C and GPR outstood others in evaluating liver fibrosis in all patients. In Chinese HBV-infected patients, Virahep-C models and GPR had high accuracies in diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, while the most discussed models like APRI and FIB-4 did not outstand. Assessment should take into account the HBeAg sero-status, since these noninvasive models were more appropriate for HBeAg-positive patients than HBeAg-negative ones. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Lung Cancer in Patients With Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. A Descriptive Study in a Spanish Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Karina; Perez-Rodas, Nancy; García-Olivé, Ignasi; Guasch-Arriaga, Ignasi; Centeno, Carmen; Serra, Pere; Becker-Lejuez, Caroline; Sanz-Santos, José; Andreo García, Felip; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2017-06-01

    Information on the association of lung cancer (LC) and combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is limited and derived almost exclusively from series in Asian populations. The main objective of the study was to assess the impact of LC on survival in CPFE patients and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A retrospective study was performed with data from patients with CFPE and IPF diagnosed in our hospital over a period of 5 years. Sixty-six patients were included, 29 with CPFE and 37 with IPF. Nine had a diagnosis of LC (6 with CPFE and 3 with IPF). Six patients (67%) received palliative treatment even though 3 of them were diagnosed atstage i-ii. Overall mortality did not differ significantly between groups; however, in patients with LC, survival was significantly lower compared to those without LC (P=.044). The most frequent cause of death was respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary fibrosis exacerbation (44%). In a multivariate analysis, the odds ratio of death among patients with LC compared to patients without LC was 6.20 (P=.037, 95% confidence interval: 1.11 to 34.48). Lung cancer reduces survival in both entities. The diagnostic and therapeutic management of LC is hampered by the increased risk of complications after any treatment modality, even after palliative treatment. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. A first-year dornase alfa treatment impact on clinical parameters of patients with cystic fibrosis: the Brazilian cystic fibrosis multicenter study

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    Tatiana Rozov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical impact of the first year treatment with dornase alfa, according to age groups, in a cohort of Brazilian Cystic Fibrosis (CF patients. METHODS: The data on 152 eligible patients, from 16 CF reference centers, that answered the medical questionnaires and performed laboratory tests at baseline (T0, and at six (T2 and 12 (T4 months after dornase alfa initiation, were analyzed. Three age groups were assessed: six to 11, 12 to 13, and >14 years. Pulmonary tests, airway microbiology, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, emergency and routine treatments were evaluated. Student's t-test, chi-square test and analysis of variance were used when appropriated. RESULTS: Routine treatments were based on respiratory physical therapy, regular exercises, pancreatic enzymes, vitamins, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and antibiotics. In the six months prior the study (T0 phase, hospitalizations for pulmonary exacerbations occurred in 38.0, 10.0 and 61.4% in the three age groups, respectively. After one year of intervention, there was a significant reduction in the number of emergency room visits in the six to 11 years group. There were no significant changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (VEF1, in forced vital capacity (FVC, in oxygen saturation (SpO2, and in Tiffenau index for all age groups. A significant improvement in Shwachman-Kulczychi score was observed in the older group. In the last six months of therapy, chronic or intermittent colonization by P. aeruginosa was detected in 75.0, 71.4 and 62.5% of the studied groups, respectively, while S. aureus colonization was identified in 68.6, 66.6 and 41.9% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment with dornase alfa promoted the maintenance of pulmonary function parameters and was associated with a significant reduction of emergency room visits due to pulmonary exacerbations in the six to 11 years age group, with better clinical scores in the >14 age group, one

  11. The distribution of immunomodulatory cells in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuovo, Gerard J.; Hagood, James S.; Magro, Cynthia M.; Chin, Nena; Kapil, Rubina; Davis, Luke; Marsh, Clay B.; Folcik, Virginia A.

    2011-01-01

    We have characterized the immune system involvement in the disease processes of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in novel ways. To do so, we analyzed lung tissue from 21 cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 21 (non-fibrotic, non-cancerous) controls for immune cell and inflammation-related markers. The immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue was grouped by patterns of severity in disease pathology. There were significantly greater numbers of CD68+ and CD80+ cells, and significantly fewer CD3+, CD4+, and CD45RO+ cells in areas of relatively (histologically) normal lung in biopsies from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients compared to controls. In zones of active disease, characterized by epithelial cell regeneration and fibrosis, there were significantly more cells expressing CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, CD80, CCR6, S100, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and retinoic acid-related orphan receptors compared to histologically normal lung areas from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. Inflammation was implicated in these active regions by the cells that expressed retinoid orphan receptor-α, -β, and -γ, CCR6, and IL-17. The regenerating epithelial cells predominantly expressed these pro-inflammatory molecules, as evidenced by co-expression analyses with epithelial cytokeratins. Macrophages in pseudo-alveoli and CD3+ T cells in the fibrotic interstitium also expressed IL-17. Co-expression of IL-17 with retinoid orphan receptors, and epithelial cytoskeletal proteins, CD68, and CD3 in epithelial cells, macrophages, and T-cells, respectively, confirmed the production of IL-17 by these cell types. There was little staining for Foxp3, CD56, or CD34 in any idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung regions. The fibrotic regions had fewer immune cells overall. In summary, our study shows participation of innate and adaptive mononuclear cells in active-disease regions of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung, where the regenerating epithelial cells appear to propagate inflammation

  12. Diagnosis of Fibrosis and Activity by a Combined Use of Strain and Shear Wave Imaging in Patients with Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Norihisa; Tamaki, Nobuhura; Koizumi, Yohei; Hirooka, Masashi; Nakashima, Osamu; Hiasa, Yoichi; Izumi, Namiki; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Performing shear wave imaging is simple, but can be difficult when inflammation, jaundice, and congestion are present. Therefore, the correct diagnosis of liver fibrosis using shear wave imaging alone might be difficult in mild-to-moderate fibrosis cases. Strain imaging can diagnose liver fibrosis without the influence of inflammation. Therefore, the combined use of strain and shear wave imaging (combinational elastography) for cases without jaundice and congestion might be useful for evaluating fibrosis and inflammation. We enrolled consecutive patients with liver disease, without jaundice or liver congestion. Strain and shear wave imaging, blood tests, and liver biopsy were performed on the same day. The liver fibrosis index (LF index) was calculated by strain imaging; real-time tissue elastography, and the shear wave velocity (Vs) was calculated by shear wave imaging. Fibrosis index (F index) and activity index (A index) were calculated as a multiple regression equation for determining hepatic fibrosis and inflammation using histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. The diagnostic ability of F index for fibrosis and A index for inflammation were compared using LF index and Vs. The total number of enrolled cases was 388. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) was 0.87, 0.80, 0.83, and 0.80, at diagnosis of fibrosis stage with an F index of F1 or higher, F2 or higher, F3 or higher, and F4, respectively. The AUROC was 0.94, 0.74, and 0.76 at diagnosis of activity grade with an A index of A1 or higher, A2 or higher, and A3, respectively. The diagnostic ability of F index for liver fibrosis and A index for inflammation was higher than for other conventional diagnostic values. The combined use of strain and shear wave imaging (combinational elastography) might increase the positive diagnosis of liver fibrosis and inflammation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Determinants of antibiotic prescription in paediatric patients: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... differences (p>0.05) in the prescription rates of the hospitals. The most commonly used antibiotics were beta-lactams (57.3%), aminoglycosides (28.3%) and co-trimoxazole (9.4%). Antibiotics were prescribed in all cases of bronchopneumonia, fever, sepsis and acute gastroenteritis. For malaria and undefined diagnoses, ...

  14. Prophylactic Antibiotics for Endoscopy-Associated Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Hsu; Li, I-Jung; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chih-Wei; Tian, Ya-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis may develop after endoscopic procedures, and the benefit of prophylactic antibiotics is unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether prophylactic antibiotics reduce the incidence of peritonitis in these patients. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed all endoscopic procedures, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, cystoscopy, hysteroscopy, and hysteroscopy-assisted intrauterine device (IUD) implantation/removal, performed in CAPD patients at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, between February 2001 and February 2012. Results Four hundred and thirty-three patients were enrolled, and 125 endoscopies were performed in 45 patients. Eight (6.4%) peritonitis episodes developed after the examination. Antibiotics were used in 26 procedures, and none of the patients had peritonitis (0% vs. 8.1% without antibiotic use; p = 0.20). The peritonitis rate was significantly higher in the non-EGD group than in the EGD group (15.9% [7/44] vs. 1.2% [1/81]; pperitonitis rate compared to that without antibiotic use (0% [0/16] vs. 25% [7/28]; pPeritonitis only occurred if invasive procedures were performed, such as biopsy, polypectomy, or IUD implantation, (noninvasive procedures, 0% [0/20] vs. invasive procedures, 30.4% [7/23]; pperitonitis was noted if antibiotics were used prior to examination with invasive procedures (0% [0/10] vs. 53.8% [7/13] without antibiotic use; pperitonitis (antibiotics, 0% [0/4] vs. no antibiotics, 55.6% [5/9]; p = 0.10). Conclusion Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced endoscopy-associated PD peritonitis in the non-EGD group. Endoscopically assisted invasive procedures, such as biopsy, polypectomy, IUD implantation/removal, and dilatation and curettage (D&C), pose a high risk for peritonitis. Prophylactic antibiotics for peritonitis prevention may be required in colonoscopic procedures and gynecologic procedures

  15. Enhanced liver fibrosis test using ELISA assay accurately discriminates advanced stage of liver fibrosis as determined by transient elastography fibroscan in treatment naïve chronic HCV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Dalia; Yosry, Ayman; Darweesh, Samar K; Nabeel, Mohammed M; El-Beshlawey, Mohammed; Saif, Sameh; Fared, Azza; Hassany, Mohamed; Zayed, Rania A

    2018-02-01

    Evaluation of liver fibrosis stage is crucial in the assessment of chronic HCV patients, regarding decision to start treatment and during follow-up. Our aim was to assess the validity of the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score in discrimination of advanced stage of liver fibrosis in naïve chronic HCV patients. We prospectively evaluated liver fibrosis stage in one hundred eighty-one naïve chronic HCV Egyptian patients by transient elastography (TE)-FibroScan. Patients were categorized into mild to moderate fibrosis (≤F2) group and advanced fibrosis (≥F3) group. The ELF score components, hyaluronic acid (HA), amino-terminal propeptide of type-III-procollagen (PIIINP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase type-1 (TIMP-1), were done using ELISA test. The mean values of ELF and its individual components significantly correlated with the hepatic fibrosis stage as measured by TE-FibroScan (P value 0.001). ELF cutoff value of 9.8 generated a sensitivity of 77.8%, specificity of 67.1%, area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.76 with 95% confidence interval [CI] (0.68-0.83) for detecting advanced fibrosis (F ≥ 3). ELF panel is a good, reliable noninvasive test and showed comparable results to TE-FibroScan in detecting liver fibrosis stage in treatment naïve chronic HCV patients.

  16. Antibiotic prophylaxis for haematogenous bacterial arthritis in patients with joint disease: a cost effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Krijnen (Pieta); C.J. Kaandorp; E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); D. van Schaardenburg (Dirkjan); H.J. Moens; J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the cost effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for haematogenous bacterial arthritis in patients with joint disease. METHODS: In a decision analysis, data from a prospective study on bacterial arthritis in 4907 patients with joint

  17. Lung fibrosis-associated soluble mediators and bronchoalveolar lavage from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients promote the expression of fibrogenic factors in subepithelial lung myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouros, Evangelos; Filidou, Eirini; Arvanitidis, Konstantinos; Mikroulis, Dimitrios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Bamias, George; Bouros, Demosthenes; Kolios, George

    2017-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, excessive collagen production and accumulation of myofibroblasts. We explored the possible role of subepithelial lung myofibroblasts (SELMs) in the development of fibrosis in IPF. SELMs, isolated from surgical specimens of healthy lung tissue, were cultured with pro-inflammatory factors or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with IPF or idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (iNSIP) and their fibrotic activity was assessed. Stimulation of SELMs with pro-inflammatory factors induced a significant increase of Tissue Factor (TF) and Tumor necrosis factor-Like cytokine 1 A (TL1A) expression and collagen production in culture supernatants. Stimulation with BALF from IPF patients with mild to moderate, but not severe disease, and from iNSIP patients induced a significant increase of TF expression. BALF from all IPF patients induced a significant increase of TL1A expression and collagen production, while BALF from iNSIP patients induced a significant increase of TL1A, but not of collagen production. Interestingly, TGF-β1 and BALF from all IPF, but not iNSIP patients, induced a significant increase in SELMs migration. In conclusion, BALF from IPF patients induces fibrotic activity in lung myofibroblasts, similar to mediators associated with lung fibrosis, indicating a key role of SELMs in IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hearing thresholds at high frequency in patients with cystic fibrosis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora T.M. Caumo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: High-frequency audiometry may contribute to the early detection of hearing loss caused by ototoxic medications. Many ototoxic drugs are widely used in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis. Early detection of hearing loss should allow known harmful drugs to be identified before the damage affects speech frequencies. The damage caused by ototoxicity is irreversible, resulting in important social and psychological consequences. In children, hearing loss, even when restricted to high frequencies, can affect the development of language. Objective: To investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of hearing monitoring through high-frequency audiometry in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. Methods: Electronic databases PubMed, MedLine, Web of Science and LILACS were searched, from January to November 2015. The selected studies included those in which high-frequency audiometry was performed in patients with cystic fibrosis, undergoing treatment with ototoxic drugs and published in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The GRADE system was chosen for the evaluation of the methodological quality of the articles. Results: During the search process carried out from January 2015 to November 2015, 512 publications were identified, of which 250 were found in PubMed, 118 in MedLine, 142 in Web of Science and 2 in LILACS. Of these, nine articles were selected. Conclusion: The incidence of hearing loss was identified at high frequencies in cystic fibrosis patients without hearing complaints. It is assumed that high-frequency audiometry can be an early diagnostic method to be recommended for hearing investigation of patients at risk of ototoxicity.

  19. Do all patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis warrant a trial of therapeutic intervention? A pro-con perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Yuben; Corte, Tamera; Richeldi, Luca; King, Talmadge E

    2015-04-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an incurable condition that is characterized by progressive pulmonary fibrosis, architectural distortion of the lung and loss of gas exchange units. Until recently, there was no effective treatment for this condition. However, there were two landmark trials published earlier this year, which have changed the management of this condition. Pirfenidone (Assessment of Pirfenidone to Confirm Efficacy and Safety in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis trial) and nintedanib (Efficacy and Safety of Nintedanib in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis-1 and -2 trials) have both demonstrated positive outcomes in patients with IPF. In this perspective, we critically discuss the role of these agents in IPF and in the broader pulmonary fibrosis population. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Pentoxifylline and vitamin E for treatment or prevention of radiation-induced fibrosis in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Marks, Lawrence B; Jones, Ellen L

    2018-04-23

    Radiation therapy (RT) plays an important role in the management of breast cancer. Radiation-induced fibrosis is a side effect of radiation therapy and may occur in up to 13% of the cases in patients (Radiother Oncol, 2009;90:80), fortunately usually is modest/localized and not associated with marked symptoms. However, occasionally, fibrosis can be moderate-to-severe, and cause clinically-meaningful symptoms. The current review summarizes the use of pentoxifylline and vitamin E of treatment or prevention of radiation-induced fibrosis in breast cancer patients. Even though data are limited, this regimen may reduce RT-associated toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Clinical management and outcomes of patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome pulmonary fibrosis evaluated for lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chemaly, Souheil; O'Brien, Kevin J; Nathan, Steven D; Weinhouse, Gerald L; Goldberg, Hilary J; Connors, Jean M; Cui, Ye; Astor, Todd L; Camp, Philip C; Rosas, Ivan O; Lemma, Merte; Speransky, Vladislav; Merideth, Melissa A; Gahl, William A; Gochuico, Bernadette R

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, fatal manifestation of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). Some patients with advanced HPS pulmonary fibrosis undergo lung transplantation despite their disease-associated bleeding tendency; others die while awaiting donor organs. The objective of this study is to determine the clinical management and outcomes of a cohort with advanced HPS pulmonary fibrosis who were evaluated for lung transplantation. Six patients with HPS-1 pulmonary fibrosis were evaluated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center and one of two regional lung transplant centers. Their median age was 41.5 years pre-transplant. Three of six patients died without receiving a lung transplant. One of these was referred with end-stage pulmonary fibrosis and died before a donor organ became available, and donor organs were not identified for two other patients sensitized from prior blood product transfusions. Three of six patients received bilateral lung transplants; they did not have a history of excessive bleeding. One patient received peri-operative desmopressin, one was transfused with intra-operative platelets, and one received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and intra-operative prothrombin complex concentrate, platelet transfusion, and desmopressin. One transplant recipient experienced acute rejection that responded to pulsed steroids. No evidence of chronic lung allograft dysfunction or recurrence of HPS pulmonary fibrosis was detected up to 6 years post-transplant in these three lung transplant recipients. In conclusion, lung transplantation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are viable options for patients with HPS pulmonary fibrosis. Alloimmunization in HPS patients is an important and potentially preventable barrier to lung transplantation; interventions to limit alloimmunization should be implemented in HPS patients at risk of pulmonary fibrosis to optimize their candidacy for future lung transplants.

  2. Duration of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Wendy L; Taddonio, Michael A; Arbabi, Saman; Hemmila, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Shorter compared with longer courses of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mixed medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs) have been reported to produce equivalent outcomes. There have been few studies on the duration of antibiotic therapy for VAP in the burn population. We hypothesized that a shorter duration of antibiotic therapy for VAP would produce similar outcomes in our burn ICU. All burn patients from July 2001 to December 2006 admitted to the burn ICU requiring mechanical ventilation were studied. VAP was diagnosed prospectively by our Infection Control Liaison using bronchoalveolar lavage for cultures. Patients were cohorted into two groups: before July 1, 2004, antibiotic therapy duration was directed by the discretion of the attending physician (preprotocol), and after, the goal was 8 days of appropriate therapy or longer based on physician discretion (postprotocol). There were 98 patients treated for VAP with similar rates of inhalation injury, %TBSA burn size, age, and need for mechanical ventilation between the groups. The incidence of recurrent VAP was the same: 17% for the preprotocol and 15% for the postprotocol periods. The overall duration of antibiotic therapy did not change from 11 +/- 4 to 12 +/- 6 days. For patients treated longer than the target of 8 days, 66% had positive respiratory cultures at 4 days after initiation of antibiotic therapy. For the majority of patients with aspiration-type organisms or nonvirulent strains, there were fewer antibiotic days overall at 10 +/- 5 days (P VAP with the same bacteria. Despite a focused effort to decrease antibiotic usage for VAP in burn patients, the overall duration of therapy did not change. The majority of patients with virulent organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or nonfermenting Gram-negative rods still had clinical signs of pneumonia and positive cultures, leading clinicians to continue antibiotics. In patients without virulent

  3. Clinical efficacy of cycling empirical antibiotic therapy for febrile neutropenia in pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Hideto; Koga, Yuhki; Nishio, Hisanori; Kato, Wakako; Ono, Hiroaki; Kanno, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Kentaro; Takada, Hidetoshi

    2017-07-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main treatment-related cause of mortality among children with cancer, as the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in these patients. Antibiotic cycling has been reported to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among adult patients. However, no studies have evaluated pediatric patients with FN. Between September 2011 and February 2014, 126 pediatric cancer patients were admitted to our center for chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were included in this study. Retrospective and prospective data collection were performed before and after antibiotic cycling, respectively. Between September 2011 and November 2012 (before antibiotic cycling was implemented), intravenous cefpirome was used as the empirical therapy for FN. Between December 2012 and February 2014 (after antibiotic cycling was implemented), the monthly antibiotic cycling involved intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ), intravenous meropenem or ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and intravenous cefepime in that order. For children aged ≥13 years, the monthly cycling involved intravenous PIPC/TAZ, and CPFX was administered. The detection rates for extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers in blood and stool culture samples decreased significantly after the implementation of antibiotic cycling (0.33/1000 patient-days vs 0/1000 patient-days, p = 0.03; 1.00/1000 patient-days vs 0/1000 patient-days, p Antibiotic cycling was associated with a decreased emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence of hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is associated with the oxidative stress caused by chronic lung inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Riis, Bente; Pressler, Tacjana

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by chronic lung inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is characterized by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) liberated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We formulated the hypothesis that oxidation...

  5. Relative contribution of Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to lung pathology in airways of patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Martina; Beer, Isabelle; Braitmaier, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections produce endobronchial mucus plugs allowing growth of obligate anaerobes including Prevotella spp. Whether obligate anaerobes contribute to the pathophysiology of CF lung disease is unknown....

  6. Development of low-dose protocols for thin-section CT assessment of cystic fibrosis in pediatric patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-12-01

    To develop low-dose thin-section computed tomographic (CT) protocols for assessment of cystic fibrosis (CF) in pediatric patients and determine the clinical usefulness thereof compared with chest radiography.

  7. The adult cystic fibrosis patient with abdominal pain: what the radiologist needs to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liong, S.Y.; Awad, D. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of South Manchester, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Jones, A.M. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of South Manchester, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sukumar, S.A., E-mail: Sathi.Sukumar@uhsm.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of South Manchester, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    As the life expectancy of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients continues to increase, abdominal manifestations of CF are increasingly being encountered by clinicians and radiologists. Imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of adult CF patients with abdominal pain as a cause is often not discernable clinically. Accurate diagnosis is crucial in these patients as some causes may be managed conservatively, whilst others may require surgical intervention. In this review, we describe clinical presentation, imaging findings, and management of adult CF patients presenting with abdominal pain.

  8. Inhalable Antimicrobials for Treatment of Bacterial Biofilm-Associated Sinusitis in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klodzinska, Sylvia Natalie; Priemel, Petra Alexandra; Rades, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm-associated chronic sinusitis in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections and the lack of available treatments for such infections constitute a critical aspect of CF disease management. Currently, inhalation therapies to combat P. aeruginosa infec...... and management of biofilm infections caused by P. aeruginosa and discusses critical issues related to novel antimicrobial drug formulation design approaches.......Bacterial biofilm-associated chronic sinusitis in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections and the lack of available treatments for such infections constitute a critical aspect of CF disease management. Currently, inhalation therapies to combat P. aeruginosa....... aeruginosa from the respiratory tract after a first infection has been shown to delay chronic pulmonary infection with the bacteria for up to two years. The challenges with providing a suitable treatment for bacterial sinusitis include: (i) identifying a suitable antimicrobial compound; (ii) selecting...

  9. Antibiotic and synergistic effect of Leu-Lys rich peptide against antibiotic resistant microorganisms isolated from patients with cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Nari; Kim, Jin-Young; Park, Seong-Cheol; Lee, Jong-Kook; Gopal, Ramamourthy; Yoo, Suyeon; Son, Byoung Kwan; Hahm, Joon Soo; Park, Yoonkyung; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2010-09-03

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has eventually developed resistance against flomoxef sodium, isepamicin and cefpiramide. Therefore, in this study, the antibacterial activity and synergistic effects of the amphipathic-derived P5-18mer antimicrobial peptide were tested against pathogens associated with cholelithiasis that have developed resistance against commonly used antibiotics. The results were then compared with the activities of the amphipathic-derived peptide, P5-18mer, melittin and common antibiotics. Growth inhibition of planktonic bacteria was tested using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The bactericidal activity of the antimicrobial peptides was measured using time-kill curves. Synergistic effects were evaluated by testing the effects of P5-18mer alone and in combination with flomoxef sodium, isepamicin or cefpiramide at 0.5xMIC. P5-18mer peptide displayed strong activity against pathogens and flomoxef sodium, isepamicin and cefpiramide-resistant bacteria cell lines obtained from a patient with gallstones; however, it did not exert cytotoxicity against the human keratinocyte HaCat cell line. In addition, the results of time-kill curves indicated that P5-18mer peptide exerted bactericidal activity against four strains of P. aeruginosa. Finally, the use of P5-18mer and antibiotics exerted synergistic effects against cell lines that were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. These results indicate that this class of peptides has a rapid microbicidal effect on flomoxef sodium, isepamicin and cefpiramide-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Therefore, these peptides may be used as a lead drug for the treatment of acquired pathogens from patients with cholelithiasis who are affected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tezacaftor-Ivacaftor in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Homozygous for Phe508del.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L; Munck, Anne; McKone, Edward F; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Moeller, Alexander; Simard, Christopher; Wang, Linda T; Ingenito, Edward P; McKee, Charlotte; Lu, Yimeng; Lekstrom-Himes, Julie; Elborn, J Stuart

    2017-11-23

    Combination treatment with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators tezacaftor (VX-661) and ivacaftor (VX-770) was designed to target the underlying cause of disease in patients with cystic fibrosis. In this phase 3, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, we evaluated combination therapy with tezacaftor and ivacaftor in patients 12 years of age or older who had cystic fibrosis and were homozygous for the CFTR Phe508del mutation. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 100 mg of tezacaftor once daily and 150 mg of ivacaftor twice daily or matched placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was the absolute change in the percentage of the predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) through week 24 (calculated in percentage points); relative change in the percentage of the predicted FEV 1 through week 24 (calculated as a percentage) was a key secondary end point. Of the 510 patients who underwent randomization, 509 received tezacaftor-ivacaftor or placebo, and 475 completed 24 weeks of the trial regimen. The mean FEV 1 at baseline was 60.0% of the predicted value. The effects on the absolute and relative changes in the percentage of the predicted FEV 1 in favor of tezacaftor-ivacaftor over placebo were 4.0 percentage points and 6.8%, respectively (Pcystic fibrosis and were homozygous for the CFTR Phe508del mutation. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals; EVOLVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02347657 .).

  11. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) Reduces Antibiotics Dose and Prevents Antibiotics-Caused Side Effects in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) Patients with Spinal Fusion Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Xu, Jinyu; Zhou, Haohan; Dong, Rongpeng; Kang, Mingyang; Zhao, Jianwu

    2017-03-14

    Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily), experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily), and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily). The average follow-up was one month, and infection severity and side effects were analyzed. The effects of COS on isolated pathogens were analyzed. SSI rates were 2%, 3% and 8% for spine wounds and 1%, 2% and 7% for iliac wound in CG, EG and PG ( p antibiotics ( p antibiotics dose and antibiotics-caused side effects in AIS patients with spinal fusion surgery by improving antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. COS should be developed as potential adjuvant for antibiotics therapies.

  12. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS Reduces Antibiotics Dose and Prevents Antibiotics-Caused Side Effects in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS Patients with Spinal Fusion Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily, experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily, and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily. The average follow-up was one month, and infection severity and side effects were analyzed. The effects of COS on isolated pathogens were analyzed. SSI rates were 2%, 3% and 8% for spine wounds and 1%, 2% and 7% for iliac wound in CG, EG and PG (p < 0.05, respectively. COS reduces the side effects caused by antibiotics (p < 0.05. COS improved biochemical indexes and reduced the levels of interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha. COS reduced the antibiotics dose and antibiotics-caused side effects in AIS patients with spinal fusion surgery by improving antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. COS should be developed as potential adjuvant for antibiotics therapies.

  13. [A pilot study of antibiotic cycling for the treatment of febrile neutropenia patients with hematological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Keiichi; Urasaki, Yoshimasa; Tsutani, Hiroshi; Ueda, Takanori

    2004-03-01

    Two antibiotics recommended by the guideline of Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) were selected for treatment of febrile neutropenia, and these paired antibiotics were changed periodically three times. The clinical efficacy of each antibiotic was retrospectively evaluated at the end of the final period. There was no significant difference about efficacy rate between two kinds of antibiotics in the same sequential period. However, the efficacy rate has been rising and febrile duration has been shortening by degrees. Only a few drug resistant bacteria were recognized by the surveillance culture during antibiotic cycling. Recently, antibiotic cycling therapy has attracted attention especially in the ICU. However, a clinical study of treatment for febrile neutropenia has not been reported. Our trial suggests that cycling therapy may be useful for febrile neutropenia. However, Some deviation in the patients characteristics of each period may affect the result. It seems that further examination is necessary about usefullness of the cycling therapy for febrile neutropenia.

  14. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment is associated with improvement of liver stiffness in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feen, Cathelijne; van der Doef, Hubert P J; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Houwen, Roderick H J

    2016-11-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) might prevent progression of cystic fibrosis liver disease, but objective parameters for its effect are lacking. We used liver stiffness measurements to evaluate the effect of Ursodeoxycholic acid. Paired measurements of liver stiffness were done in 73 patients without UDCA and in 32 patients with UDCA. In the latter group, 6 patients had cirrhosis; in 15 patients, UDCA was started based on Colombo criteria, and in 11 patients for other reasons. In patients without UDCA, liver stiffness increased: 0.19 (-0.03 to 0.59)kPa/year. Liver stiffness also increased in patients with cirrhosis: 4.6 (0.67-12.4)kPa/year. In patients who had UDCA based on Colombo criteria, a decrease of liver stiffness was observed: 0.70 (-1.6 to 0.55)kPa/year (P=0.01). In patients on UDCA for other reasons, liver stiffness increased: 0.23 (-0.20 to 0.51)kPa/year. UDCA reduced liver stiffness in patients with well-defined, mild liver disease. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of MRSA screening and antibiotics prophylaxis in orthopaedic trauma patients; The risk of surgical site infection with inadequate antibiotic prophylaxis in patients colonized with MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, H J; Ponniah, N; Long, S; Rath, N; Kent, M

    2017-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether orthopaedic trauma patients receive appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis keeping in view the results of their MRSA screening. The secondary aim was to analyse the risk of developing MRSA surgical site infection with and without appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis in those colonized with MRSA. We reviewed 400 consecutive orthopaedic trauma patient episodes. Preoperative MRSA screening results, operative procedures, prophylactic antibiotics and postoperative course were explored. In addition to these consecutive patients, the hospital MRSA database over the previous 5 years identified 27 MRSA colonized acute trauma patients requiring surgery. Of the 400 consecutive patient episodes, 395(98.7%) had MRSA screening performed on admission. However, in 236 (59.0%) cases, the results were not available before the surgery. Seven patient episodes (1.8%) had positive MRSA colonization. Analysis of 27 MRSA colonized patients revealed that 20(74%) patients did not have the screening results available before the surgery. Only 5(18.5%) received Teicoplanin and 22(81.4%) received cefuroxime for antibiotic prophylaxis before their surgery. Of those receiving cefuroxime, five (22.73%) patients developed postoperative MRSA surgical site infection (SSI) but none of those (0%) receiving Teicoplanin had MRSA SSI. The absolute risk reduction for SSI with Teicoplanin as antibiotic prophylaxis was 22.73% (CI=5.22%-40.24%) and NNT (Number Needed to Treat) was 5 (CI=2.5-19.2) CONCLUSION: Lack of available screening results before the surgery may lead to inadequate antibiotic prophylaxis increasing the risk of MRSA surgical site infection. Glycopeptide (e.g.Teicoplanin) prophylaxis should be considered when there is history of MRSA colonization or MRSA screening results are not available before the surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the older dental patient: how do dentists respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetchkenbaum, Samuel R; Overbeck, Kevin J; Pomerantz, Sherry C

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal complications from antibiotic use, including Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), can have significant morbidity, especially among older patients. This descriptive study surveyed dentists to find out how they would respond to a patient with signs indicating potential CDI. A survey on prescribing medications for older patients was mailed to 1,000 dentists in New Jersey. Questions were asked regarding antibiotic selection, probiotic use, and approach to a patient scenario of diarrhea after antibiotic use. Respondents chose amoxicillin most frequently as an antibiotic, and clindamycin if penicillin allergy. When informed their patients had diarrhea, 64.5% advised them to stop the antibiotic. If the patient continued to have diarrhea on follow-up, 75.5% contacted the patient's physician. Most (61.6%) do not prescribe probiotics prophylactically. Most dentists respond appropriately to antibiotic-associated diarrhea in advising to stop the antibiotic, and seeking physician involvement if no improvement, but there are still many who make recommendations that could delay appropriate care. Dentists may wish to learn more about benefits of probiotics. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Patients insist on antibiotics for sinusitis? Here is a good reason to say "no".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Sarah-Anne; Hickner, John

    2008-07-01

    Stop prescribing antibiotics for adults with a clinical diagnosis of acute sinusitis, unless the patient has severe symptoms. Antibiotics have little if any positive effects on the severity and duration of symptoms, and they cause adverse effects and create unnecessary expense.

  18. National guidelines for the use of antibiotics in hospitalised adult patients: the SWAB guidelines revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J. M.; Kullberg, B. J.; Gyssens, I. C.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1996, the Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (Stichting Werkgroep AntibioticaBeleid, SWAB) has been developing national guidelines for the use of antibiotics in hospitalised adult patients. As a result of both an inventory of the wishes of the users of these guidelines and the recently

  19. Predictors for antibiotic prescribing in patients with exacerbations of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars; Munck, Anders

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the antibiotic prescribing rate in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), to analyse predictors for antibiotic prescribing and to explore the influence of the use C-reactive protein (CRP) rapid test. ME...

  20. Point shear wave elastography of the pancreas in patients with cystic fibrosis: a comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfahler, Matthias Hermann Christian; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Leichsenring, Michael; Graeter, Tilmann; Schmidt, Stefan Andreas; Wendlik, Inka; Lormes, Elisabeth; Schmidberger, Julian; Fabricius, Dorit

    2018-02-19

    Manifestations of cystic fibrosis in the pancreas are gaining in clinical importance as patients live longer. Conventional ultrasonography and point shear wave elastography (pSWE) imaging are non-invasive and readily available diagnostic methods that are easy to perform. The aim of this study was to perform conventional ultrasonography and obtain pSWE values in the pancreases of patients with cystic fibrosis and to compare the findings with those of healthy controls. 27 patients with cystic fibrosis (13 women/14 men; mean age 27.7 ± 13.7 years; range 9-58 years) and 60 healthy control subjects (30 women/30 men; mean age 30.3 ± 10.0 years; range 22-55 years) underwent examinations of the pancreas with conventional ultrasound and pSWE imaging. Patients with cystic fibrosis have an echogenic pancreatic parenchyma. We found cystic lesions of the pancreas in six patients. pSWE imaging of the pancreatic parenchyma gave significantly lower shear wave velocities in patients with cystic fibrosis than in the control group (1.01 m/s vs 1.30 m/s; p cystic fibrosis than in a healthy control population.

  1. A mixed methods study to understand patient expectations for antibiotics for an upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaarslev, Christina; Yee, Melissa; Chan, Georgi; Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Khan, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a public health challenge supplemented by inappropriate prescribing, especially for an upper respiratory tract infection in primary care. Patient/carer expectations have been identified as one of the main drivers for inappropriate antibiotics prescribing by primary care physicians. The aim of this study was to understand who is more likely to expect an antibiotic for an upper respiratory tract infection from their doctor and the reasons underlying it. This study used a sequential mixed methods approach: a nationally representative cross sectional survey ( n  = 1509) and four focus groups. The outcome of interest was expectation and demand for an antibiotic from a doctor when presenting with a cold or flu. The study found 19.5 % of survey respondents reported that they would expect the doctor to prescribe antibiotics for a cold or flu. People younger than 65 years of age, those who never attended university and those speaking a language other than English at home were more likely to expect or demand antibiotics for a cold or flu. People who knew that 'antibiotics don't kill viruses' and agreed that 'taking an antibiotic when one is not needed means they won't work in the future' were less likely to expect or demand antibiotics. The main reasons for expecting antibiotics were believing that antibiotics are an effective treatment for a cold or flu and that they shortened the duration and potential deterioration of their illness. The secondary reason centered around the value or return on investment for visiting a doctor when feeling unwell. Our study found that patients do not appear to feel they have a sufficiently strong incentive to consider the impact of their immediate use of antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance. The issue of antibiotic resistance needs to be explained and reframed as a more immediate health issue with dire consequences to ensure the success of future health campaigns.

  2. A mixed methods study to understand patient expectations for antibiotics for an upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gaarslev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is a public health challenge supplemented by inappropriate prescribing, especially for an upper respiratory tract infection in primary care. Patient/carer expectations have been identified as one of the main drivers for inappropriate antibiotics prescribing by primary care physicians. The aim of this study was to understand who is more likely to expect an antibiotic for an upper respiratory tract infection from their doctor and the reasons underlying it. Methods This study used a sequential mixed methods approach: a nationally representative cross sectional survey (n = 1509 and four focus groups. The outcome of interest was expectation and demand for an antibiotic from a doctor when presenting with a cold or flu. Results The study found 19.5 % of survey respondents reported that they would expect the doctor to prescribe antibiotics for a cold or flu. People younger than 65 years of age, those who never attended university and those speaking a language other than English at home were more likely to expect or demand antibiotics for a cold or flu. People who knew that ‘antibiotics don’t kill viruses’ and agreed that ‘taking an antibiotic when one is not needed means they won’t work in the future’ were less likely to expect or demand antibiotics. The main reasons for expecting antibiotics were believing that antibiotics are an effective treatment for a cold or flu and that they shortened the duration and potential deterioration of their illness. The secondary reason centered around the value or return on investment for visiting a doctor when feeling unwell. Conclusion Our study found that patients do not appear to feel they have a sufficiently strong incentive to consider the impact of their immediate use of antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance. The issue of antibiotic resistance needs to be explained and reframed as a more immediate health issue with dire consequences to ensure the

  3. Increased serum concentration of G-CSF in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, C; Kharazmi, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the major reason for premature death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Infected patients experience a progressive deterioration of the lung tissue caused by a persistent accumulation of PMNs. We investigated if the pulmonary...... was reduced. CONCLUSION: G-CSF in the sera may contribute to the pulmonary inflammation in CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection by regulating the number of PMNs available for migration and may be considered as an indicator of clinical status....

  4. Muscular strength after different types of training in physically active patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlberg, M.; Svantesson, U.; Magnusson, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Physical training is important in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Optimal types of training and intensity are unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on muscular strength after 6 months of endurance training (ET) and/or resistance training (RT). Twenty patients....... Vitamin E and cytokines were analyzed. Fifteen tests of muscular strength were used. Handgrip strength in females and quadriceps strength in males were significantly decreased compared with healthy age- and sex-matched controls and positively associated with lung function. Sixteen patients completed...

  5. Doppler ultrasonography combined with transient elastography improves the non-invasive assessment of fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijevic, Tamara; Zec, Simon; Nikolic, Vladimir; Veljkovic, Aleksandar; Stojanovic, Zoran; Matovic, Vera; Milosavljevic, Tomica

    2017-01-31

    Accurate clinical assessment of liver fibrosis is essential and the aim of our study was to compare and combine hemodynamic Doppler ultrasonography, liver stiffness by transient elastography, and non-invasive serum biomarkers with the degree of fibrosis confirmed by liver biopsy, and thereby to determine the value of combining non-invasive method in the prediction significant liver fibrosis. We included 102 patients with chronic liver disease of various etiology. Each patient was evaluated using Doppler ultrasonography measurements of the velocity and flow pattern at portal trunk, hepatic and splenic artery, serum fibrosis biomarkers, and transient elastography. These parameters were then input into a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network with two hidden layers, and used to create models for predicting significant fibrosis. According to METAVIR score, clinically significant fibrosis (≥F2) was detected in 57.8% of patients. A model based only on Doppler parameters (hepatic artery diameter, hepatic artery systolic and diastolic velocity, splenic artery systolic velocity and splenic artery Resistance Index), predicted significant liver fibrosis with a sensitivity and specificity of75.0% and 60.0%. The addition of unrelated non-invasive tests improved the diagnostic accuracy of Doppler examination. The best model for prediction of significant fibrosis was obtained by combining Doppler parameters, non-invasive markers (APRI, ASPRI, and FIB-4) and transient elastography, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88.9% and 100%. Doppler parameters alone predict the presence of ≥F2 fibrosis with fair accuracy. Better prediction rates are achieved by combining Doppler variables with non-invasive markers and liver stiffness by transient elastography.

  6. Diagnostic value of real-time tissue elastography for liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Guosheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the diagnostic value of real-time tissue elastography (RTE in evaluating liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. MethodsEighty-six patients with CHB, who visited Beijing Tiantan Hospital and Beijing You′an Hospital from March to August, 2013, were grouped according to the pathological stages of liver fibrosis. They were examined by RTE, biochemical tests, and liver biopsy. Then, liver fibrosis index (LFI and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI were calculated. Comparison between groups was made by one-way analysis of variance, followed by LSD t-test for multiple comparisons. The correlation between LFI and pathological stage of liver fibrosis was analyzed by Spearman correlation test. The sensitivity and specificity of LFI for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis were calculated. Regarding S≥2 (significant liver fibrosis and S≥4 (early liver cirrhosis as the positive standards, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was drawn and compared with APRI. ResultsLFI differed significantly across the groups (P=0.000, except the comparison between S0 and S1 (P=0.298. LFI was significantly correlated with pathological stage (r=0.831, P<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve of LFI in diagnosing significant liver fibrosis and early liver cirrhosis were 0873 (P<0.001 and 0.923 (P=0002, respectively; the diagnostic thresholds were 2.74 and 3.61, respectively; the sensitivity and specificity were 0.766/0.872 and 0.833/0.878, respectively. LFI was significantly superior to APRI. ConclusionRTE has high diagnostic values for significant liver fibrosis and early liver cirrhosis and is an important noninvasive diagnostic method for liver fibrosis in patients with CHB.

  7. Four case reports of Chinese cystic fibrosis patients and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Yin, Yong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Shuhua; Zhang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an extremely rare disease in Asians. Here, we report four Chinese children with CF and review the literature about Chinese CF patients. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene testing was performed on four suspected patients for CF screening. We also reviewed the literature about Chinese CF patients from 1970s. The clinical data of all these CF patients were summarized. We diagnosed four CF patients who had mutations in the CFTR gene. We identified six different mutations in the four patients. The c.1766+5G>T, c.595C>T, c.2909G>A, and c.4056G>C had been reported already. The two splicing mutations of c.579+1_579+2insACAT and c.1117-1G>C were novel mutations. There have been 46 Chinese CF patients reported in literature from 1974 up to present (2016.12). The clinical manifestations of CF involved several systems. The most common symptom was recurrent pulmonary infections. Thirty-three different mutations were identified; c.1766 + 5G>T was the most common mutation among Chinese CF patients. Only one of these mutations (R553X) was in the Caucasian CF screening panel. The spectrum of CFTR mutations in Chinese was highly different from that of Caucasian. There was a high risk of misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of CF even in suspected cases in China. It is necessary to educate Chinese clinicians about the signs, symptoms, and diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and promote the implementation of the sweat chloride test. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in chronic hepatitis C patients

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    Roberto Gomes da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available In chronic hepatitis C (CHC, liver biopsy is the gold standard method for assessing liver histology, however it is invasive and can have complications. Non-invasive markers have been proposed and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI has been shown as an easy and inexpensive marker of liver fibrosis. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of APRI for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in CHC patients. This study included treatment-naive CHC patients who had undergone liver biopsy from January 2000 to August 2006. All histological slides were reviewed according to the METAVIR system. APRI was calculated based on laboratory results performed within four months from the biopsy. Twenty-eight (56% patients had significant fibrosis (F2-F4 and 13 (26% had cirrhosis (F4. The area under ROC curves of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.92 (0.83-1.00 and 0.92 (0.85-1.00, respectively. Using cut-off values recommended by prior studies, significant fibrosis could be identified, in accordance with liver biopsy, in 44% and cirrhosis in 66% of patients. APRI could identify significant fibrosis and cirrhosis at a high degree of accuracy in studied patients.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental patients with prosthetic joints: Comparisons of antibiotic regimens for patients with total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaar, Daniel D; Park, Taehwan; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Kuntz, Karen M

    2015-11-01

    Clinician uncertainty concerning the need for antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent prosthetic joint infection (PJI) after undergoing dental procedures persists. Improved understanding of the potential clinical and economic risks and benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis will help inform the debate and facilitate the continuing evolution of clinical management guidelines for dental patients with prosthetic joints. The authors developed a Markov decision model to compare the lifetime cost-effectiveness of alternative antibiotic prophylaxis strategies for dental patients aged 65 years who had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA). On the basis of the authors' interpretation of previous recommendations from the American Dental Association and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, they compared the following strategies: no prophylaxis, prophylaxis for the first 2 years after arthroplasty, and lifetime prophylaxis. A strategy of foregoing antibiotic prophylaxis before dental visits was cost-effective and resulted in lower lifetime accumulated costs ($11,909) and higher accumulated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (12.375) when compared with alternative prophylaxis strategies. The results of Markov decision modeling indicated that a no-antibiotic prophylaxis strategy was cost-effective for dental patients who had undergone THA. These results support the findings of case-control studies and the conclusions of an American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs report that questioned general recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures. The results of cost-effectiveness decision modeling support the contention that routine antibiotic prophylaxis for dental patients with total joint arthroplasty should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences in antibiotic use between patients with and without a regular doctor in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tai Pong; Wun, Yuk Tsan; Lam, Kwok Fai; Sun, Kai Sing

    2015-12-15

    Literature shows that continuity of care from a primary care physician is associated with better patient satisfaction and preventive care. This may also have an effect on patients' use of antibiotics. This study investigated the differences in antibiotic use between patients with and without a regular doctor in a pluralistic health care system. A cross-sectional telephone questionnaire survey using randomly selected household phone numbers was conducted in Hong Kong. Several key areas about antibiotic use were compared between the respondents with a regular doctor and those without. The response rate was 68.3 %. Of the 2,471 respondents, 1,450 (58.7 %) had a regular doctor, 942 (38.1 %) without, and 79 (3.2 %) did not give a clear answer. The respondents with a regular doctor were more likely to report that they always finished the full course of antibiotics (74.2 % vs 62.4 %), as well as using antibiotics for their last upper respiratory tract infections (17.4 % vs 10.1 %). The association with antibiotic use remained significant in the multivariable logistic regression analysis after adjusting for other confounding factors (P antibiotics, they also had nearly twice the chance of reporting antibiotic use for upper respiratory tract infections. This challenges the common belief of the benefits in having a regular doctor.

  11. Influence of Pulmonary Hypertension on Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Awaiting Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Don; Black, Sylvester M; Tobias, Joseph D; Kirkby, Stephen; Mansour, Heidi M; Whitson, Bryan A

    2016-01-01

    The influence of varying levels of pulmonary hypertension (PH) on survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is not well defined. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried from 2005 to 2013 to identify first-time lung transplant candidates listed for lung transplantation who were tracked from waitlist entry date until death or censoring to determine the influence of PH on patients with advanced lung disease. Using data for right heart catheterization measurements, mild PH was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or more, and severe as 35 mm Hg or more. Of 6,657 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients, 6,651 were used for univariate analysis, 6,126 for Kaplan-Meier survival function, 6,013 for multivariate Cox models, and 5,186 (mild PH) and 2,014 (severe PH) for propensity score matching, respectively. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis found significant differences in survival for mild PH (hazard ratio [HR] 1.689, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.434 to 1.988, p idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis awaiting lung transplantation, so referral should be considered early in the disease course. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro biofilm formation by methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cystic fibrosis patients

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    Antonietta Lambiase

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens isolated from respiratory tracts of Cystic Fibrosis patients (CF. The infection by this pathogen starts in early infancy, often preceding chronic infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The infection and colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are, by then, events very frequent among CF patients and this bacterial isolation leads to complications in therapeutic management because of the limited treatment options. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus are able to produce biofilms on natural or synthetic surfaces. Biofilms are sophisticated communities of matrix-encased bacteria and infections by biofilm-producing bacteria are particularly problematic because sessile bacteria can often withstand host immune responses and are generally much more tolerant to antibiotics. The first aim of this work is to evaluate the ability of MRSA strains isolated from respiratory secretions of CF patients to develop biofilms in comparison with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA strains obtained from respiratory secretions of CF patients.Therefore, our second aim is to evaluate the environmental influence on this ability. To evaluate the development of biofilm on solid matrix and the possible environmental influence,we applied the method described by Christensen et al. We found that a significantly higher number of MRSA strains were biofilm positive compared with MSSA strains (p<0.05.The presence of glucose did not influence the ability to form biofilm in our MRSA strains (p=0.165. MSSA strains are not strong biofilm-producers, but, when grown in TSB added with 0.25% glucose, the number of biofilm-forming strains increases, as expected. These data suggest a possible association between methicillin-resistance and biofilm formation.

  13. Non-coding keratin variants associate with liver fibrosis progression in patients with hemochromatosis.

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    Pavel Strnad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keratins 8 and 18 (K8/K18 are intermediate filament proteins that protect the liver from various forms of injury. Exonic K8/K18 variants associate with adverse outcome in acute liver failure and with liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection or primary biliary cirrhosis. Given the association of K8/K18 variants with end-stage liver disease and progression in several chronic liver disorders, we studied the importance of keratin variants in patients with hemochromatosis. METHODS: The entire K8/K18 exonic regions were analyzed in 162 hemochromatosis patients carrying homozygous C282Y HFE (hemochromatosis gene mutations. 234 liver-healthy subjects were used as controls. Exonic regions were PCR-amplified and analyzed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and DNA sequencing. Previously-generated transgenic mice overexpressing K8 G62C were studied for their susceptibility to iron overload. Susceptibility to iron toxicity of primary hepatocytes that express K8 wild-type and G62C was also assessed. RESULTS: We identified amino-acid-altering keratin heterozygous variants in 10 of 162 hemochromatosis patients (6.2% and non-coding heterozygous variants in 6 additional patients (3.7%. Two novel K8 variants (Q169E/R275W were found. K8 R341H was the most common amino-acid altering variant (4 patients, and exclusively associated with an intronic KRT8 IVS7+10delC deletion. Intronic, but not amino-acid-altering variants associated with the development of liver fibrosis. In mice, or ex vivo, the K8 G62C variant did not affect iron-accumulation in response to iron-rich diet or the extent of iron-induced hepatocellular injury. CONCLUSION: In patients with hemochromatosis, intronic but not exonic K8/K18 variants associate with liver fibrosis development.

  14. What patients with pulmonary fibrosis and their partners think: a live, educative survey in the Netherlands and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Mirjam J.G.; Kreuter, Michael; van den Blink, Bernt; Oltmanns, Ute; Palmowski, Karin; Brunnemer, Eva; Hummler, Simone; Tak, Nelleke C.; van den Toorn, Leon; Miedema, Jelle; Hoogsteden, Henk C.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis greatly impacts patients and their partners. Unmet needs of patients are increasingly acknowledged; the needs of partners often remain unnoticed. Little is known about the best way to educate patients and partners. We investigated pulmonary fibrosis patients' and partners' perspectives and preferences in care, and the differences in these between the Netherlands and Germany. Additionally, we evaluated whether interactive interviewing could be a novel education method in this population. Patients and partners were interviewed during pulmonary fibrosis patient information meetings. In the Netherlands, voting boxes were used and results were projected directly. In Germany, questionnaires were used. In the Netherlands, 278 patients and partners participated; in Germany, 51. Many participants experienced anxiety. Almost all experienced misunderstanding, because people do not know what pulmonary fibrosis is. All expressed a need for information, psychological support and care for partners. Use of the interactive voting system was found to be pleasant (70%) and informative (94%). This study improves the knowledge of care needs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and their partners. There were no major differences between the Netherlands and Germany. Interactive interviewing could be an attractive method to acquire insights into the needs and preferences of patients and partners, while providing them with information at the same time. PMID:28229083

  15. What patients with pulmonary fibrosis and their partners think: a live, educative survey in the Netherlands and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam J.G. van Manen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis greatly impacts patients and their partners. Unmet needs of patients are increasingly acknowledged; the needs of partners often remain unnoticed. Little is known about the best way to educate patients and partners. We investigated pulmonary fibrosis patients' and partners' perspectives and preferences in care, and the differences in these between the Netherlands and Germany. Additionally, we evaluated whether interactive interviewing could be a novel education method in this population. Patients and partners were interviewed during pulmonary fibrosis patient information meetings. In the Netherlands, voting boxes were used and results were projected directly. In Germany, questionnaires were used. In the Netherlands, 278 patients and partners participated; in Germany, 51. Many participants experienced anxiety. Almost all experienced misunderstanding, because people do not know what pulmonary fibrosis is. All expressed a need for information, psychological support and care for partners. Use of the interactive voting system was found to be pleasant (70% and informative (94%. This study improves the knowledge of care needs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and their partners. There were no major differences between the Netherlands and Germany. Interactive interviewing could be an attractive method to acquire insights into the needs and preferences of patients and partners, while providing them with information at the same time.

  16. A sigmoidal fit for pressure-volume curves of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients on mechanical ventilation: clinical implications

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    Juliana C. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Respiratory pressure-volume curves fitted to exponential equations have been used to assess disease severity and prognosis in spontaneously breathing patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Sigmoidal equations have been used to fit pressure-volume curves for mechanically ventilated patients but not for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. We compared a sigmoidal model and an exponential model to fit pressure-volume curves from mechanically ventilated patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: Six idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients and five controls underwent inflation pressure-volume curves using the constant-flow technique during general anesthesia prior to open lung biopsy or thymectomy. We identified the lower and upper inflection points and fit the curves with an exponential equation, V = A-B.e-k.P, and a sigmoid equation, V = a+b/(1+e-(P-c/d. RESULTS: The mean lower inflection point for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients was significantly higher (10.5 ± 5.7 cm H2O than that of controls (3.6 ± 2.4 cm H2O. The sigmoidal equation fit the pressure-volume curves of the fibrotic and control patients well, but the exponential equation fit the data well only when points below 50% of the inspiratory capacity were excluded. CONCLUSION: The elevated lower inflection point and the sigmoidal shape of the pressure-volume curves suggest that respiratory system compliance is decreased close to end-expiratory lung volume in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients under general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. The sigmoidal fit was superior to the exponential fit for inflation pressure-volume curves of anesthetized patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and could be useful for guiding mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia in this condition.

  17. Assessment of liver fibrosis stage influence on clinical course of periodontal diseases in patients with chronic hepatitis C

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    О. М. Slaba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim. To assess the influence of liver fibrosis stage on the clinical course of periodontal diseases in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Material and Methods. 122 patients with chronic hepatitis C, treated at the 7th department ofLvivRegionalInfectiousDiseasesHospital during 2013 – 2015 were included into dental investigation. The periodontal disease was diagnosed in accordance with the classification of M. F. Danilevsky (1994. The clinical condition of periodontium was assessed by the papillary marginal alveolar index (PMA in the modification ofParma, by the periodontal index – PI (AL Russel, 1956, by the Muhlemann and Son index – the degree of bleeding in the region of the gingival papilla (PBI. The stage of liver fibrosis was determined according to the medical history. The significance of the difference between two or more relative indicators was calculated using the Fisher test with the Metropolis algorithm. The correlation dependence between the clinical condition of periodontal tissues and the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis C was studied using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results. The highest percentage of patients with stage of liver fibrosis F0 (70.00 ± 15.28 % was registered in patients with healthy periodont, the lowest - in patients with generalized periodontitis of the third stage (7.89 ± 4.37 %. The highest frequency of patients with the stage of liver fibrosis F3 (73.68 ± 7.14 % was also observed in persons suffering from generalized periodontitis stage III (73.68 ± 7.14 %. Conclusions. The distribution of periodontal lesion severity statistically significant (p < 0.001 depended on the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Direct (R = 0.70; p < 0.001 strong correlation between the clinical state of periodontal tissues and the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient has been determined

  18. Acute infective conjunctivitis in primary care: who needs antibiotics? An individual patient data meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, Joanna; Perera, Rafael; Everitt, Hazel; van Weert, Henk; Rietveld, Remco; Glasziou, Paul; Rose, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute infective conjunctivitis is a common problem in primary care, traditionally managed with topical antibiotics. A number of clinical trials have questioned the benefit of topical antibiotics for patients with acute infective conjunctivitis Aim To determine the benefit of antibiotics for the treatment of acute infective conjunctivitis in primary care and which subgroups benefit most Design An individual patient data meta-analysis Method Relevant trials were identified and individual patient data gathered for meta-analysis and subgroup analysis Results Three eligible trials were identified. Individual patient data were available from all primary care trials and data were available for analysis in 622 patients. Eighty per cent (246/308) of patients who received antibiotics and 74% (233/314) of controls were cured at day 7. There was a significant benefit of antibiotics versus control for cure at seven days in all cases combined (risk difference 0.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.01 to 0.14). Subgroups that showed a significant benefit from antibiotics were patients with purulent discharge (risk difference 0.09, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.17) and patients with mild severity of red eye (risk difference 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.18), while the type of control used (placebo drops versus nothing) showed a statistically significant interaction (P=0.03) Conclusion Acute conjunctivitis seen in primary care can be thought of as a self-limiting condition, with most patients getting better regardless of antibiotic therapy. Patients with purulent discharge or a mild severity of red eye may have a small benefit from antibiotics. Prescribing practices need to be updated, taking into account these results PMID:22152728

  19. Quantitative analysis of the IgG and IgG subclass immune responses to chromosomal Pseudomonas aeruginosa beta-lactamase in serum from patients with cystic fibrosis by western blotting and laser scanning densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T D; Ciofu, O; Pressler, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) are markers of the development of resistance of P aeruginosa to beta-lactam antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection. The role of these antibodies in patients with chronic...... of the chronic infection the a beta ab titres were higher in patients with good lung function than in those with poor lung function. CONCLUSIONS: The association of a weak IgG3 and a strong IgG4 a beta ab response suggests that the contribution of a beta ab antibodies to lung diseases mediated by immune...... complexes might be less important than other antipseudomonal antibodies. A beneficial neutralising effect of the a beta ab antibodies on the antibiotic destroying enzymes may be an additional factor....

  20. Prophylactic antibiotics for endoscopy-associated peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients.

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    Hsin-Hsu Wu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD peritonitis may develop after endoscopic procedures, and the benefit of prophylactic antibiotics is unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether prophylactic antibiotics reduce the incidence of peritonitis in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all endoscopic procedures, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, cystoscopy, hysteroscopy, and hysteroscopy-assisted intrauterine device (IUD implantation/removal, performed in CAPD patients at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, between February 2001 and February 2012. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirty-three patients were enrolled, and 125 endoscopies were performed in 45 patients. Eight (6.4% peritonitis episodes developed after the examination. Antibiotics were used in 26 procedures, and none of the patients had peritonitis (0% vs. 8.1% without antibiotic use; p=0.20. The peritonitis rate was significantly higher in the non-EGD group than in the EGD group (15.9% [7/44] vs. 1.2% [1/81]; p<0.005. Antibiotic use prior to non-EGD examinations significantly reduced the endoscopy-associated peritonitis rate compared to that without antibiotic use (0% [0/16] vs. 25% [7/28]; p<0.05. Peritonitis only occurred if invasive procedures were performed, such as biopsy, polypectomy, or IUD implantation, (noninvasive procedures, 0% [0/20] vs. invasive procedures, 30.4% [7/23]; p<0.05. No peritonitis was noted if antibiotics were used prior to examination with invasive procedures (0% [0/10] vs. 53.8% [7/13] without antibiotic use; p<0.05. Although not statistically significant, antibiotics may play a role in preventing gynecologic procedure-related peritonitis (antibiotics, 0% [0/4] vs. no antibiotics, 55.6% [5/9]; p=0.10. CONCLUSION: Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced endoscopy-associated PD peritonitis in the non-EGD group. Endoscopically assisted invasive procedures, such

  1. Pentraxin 3 Is a Predictor for Fibrosis and Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Kadir Ozturk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether pentraxin 3 (PTX3 can be a new noninvasive marker for prediction of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. We also aimed to evaluate the relationship between PTX3 and atherosclerosis in patients with NAFLD. Method. Fifty-four male patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 20 apparently healthy male volunteers were included. PTX3 levels were determined, using an ELISA method (R&D Sysytems, Quantikine ELISA, USA. To detect the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in NAFLD, measurements of CIMT, FMD, and cf-PWV levels were performed. Results. PTX3 levels in NAFLD patients with fibrosis were higher than both NAFLD patients without fibrosis and controls (P=0.032 and P=0.028, respectively, but there was no difference between controls and NAFLD patients without fibrosis in terms of PTX3 levels (P=0.903. PTX3 levels were strongly correlated with cf-PWV (r=0.359, P=0.003, whereas no significant correlation was found with other atherosclerosis markers, CIMT and FMD. Conclusion. Elevated plasma PTX3 levels are associated with the presence of fibrosis in patients with NAFLD, independently of metabolic syndrome components. This study demonstrated that for the first time there is a close association between elevated PTX3 levels and increased arterial stiffness in patients with NAFLD.

  2. Molecular epidemiology and dynamics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Lars; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Frost, Anne Louise Viborg

    2007-01-01

    The ability to establish lifelong persistent infections is a fundamental aspect of the interactions between many pathogenic microorganisms and their mammalian hosts. One example is chronic lung infections by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients....... This infection process is associated with extensive genetic adaptation and microevolution of the infecting bacteria. Through investigations of P. aeruginosa populations and infection dynamics in a group of CF patients followed at the Danish CF Clinic in Copenhagen, we have identified two distinct and dominant...

  3. Critical evaluation of lung scintigraphy in cystic fibrosis: study of 113 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepsz, A.; Wetzburger, C.; Spehl, M.; Machin, D.; Dab, I.; Ham, H.R.; Vandevivere, J.; Baran, D.

    1980-01-01

    A long-term study has been performed on 285 lung perfusion scintigrams obtained from 113 patients with cystic fibrosis. Transverse and longitudinal comparisons with clinical and radiological scores, as well as retrospective analysis of the deceased patients, were the methods used in order to evaluate the importance of the scintigraphic images. It appears that lung scintigraphy is the best index of the regional lung impairment, and contributes, as does a chest radiograph, to the early detection of lung lesions, the two methods being complementary

  4. Trampoline use as physiotherapy for cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, A; Wexler, I D; Efrati, O; Bentur, L; Augarten, A; Mussaffi, H; Avital, A; Rivlin, J; Aviram, M; Yahav, Y; Kerem, E

    2005-01-01

    Physicians and physiotherapists who care for CF patients have recommended the use of trampolines as a physiotherapeutic tool for enhancing cardiopulmonary performance, encouraging sputum production, and improving general well-being. Despite some therapeutic and recreational benefits associated with trampoline use, papers in the general pediatric population mostly document an increased incidence of injuries, ranging from minor trauma to spinal cord injuries and even death. The aim of this review is to examine the accumulated published data regarding the use of trampolines, to assess their potential contributions and disadvantages for CF patients, and to define whether trampoline use should be recommended. An extensive search in the published medical literature retrieved approximately 60 articles that primarily dealt with trampolines, out of which only two dealt with CF. The preponderance of these articles are reports pertaining to injuries related to the use of trampolines, with only a few describing the medical, physiologic, and/or psychological benefits of trampolines. Based on the accumulated data, the presumed benefits of trampoline use for CF patients are not proven. Furthermore, the suggested benefits could be acquired using other types of exercise. Weighing the known risks of trampolines against the potential benefits that are not unique to this modality suggests that the use of trampolines for CF should not be recommended.

  5. Should prophylactic antibiotics be used routinely in epistaxis patients with nasal packs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, K; Patel, NN; Salib, RJ

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The current mainstream practice in otolaryngology departments relating to the use of prophylactic antibiotics in epistaxis patients requiring nasal packing is highly variable. This is due primarily to the lack of any validated guidelines. As such, we introduced a new treatment algorithm resulting in significant reduction of use in the systemic antibiotics, with emphasis instead on the use of topical antibiotics. The results were validated through a complete audit cycle. Methods A total of 57 patients undergoing nasal packing for spontaneous epistaxis were studied. Reaudit occurred after the implementation of new guidelines. Telephone surveys were conducted six weeks after hospital discharge, assessing infective nasal symptoms as well as rebleeding and readmission rates. Results Systemic antibiotic prescribing in anterior nasal packing fell by 58.2% between audit cycles with no statistically significant associated increase in infective nasal symptoms, rebleeding or readmission rates six weeks following hospital discharge. Conclusions Systemic prophylactic antibiotics are unnecessary in the majority of epistaxis patients with nasal packs. The use of topical antibiotics such as Naseptin® may be more appropriate, cheaper and as effective. Implementation of this treatment algorithm will help standardise systemic antibiotic usage in epistaxis patients with nasal packing and should reduce costs associated with unnecessary use of such medication. PMID:23317726

  6. An atypical presentation of sinus mucopyocele in a pediatric cystic fibrosis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horesh E

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Elan Horesh, Andrew A Colin, Roy Casiano, Sara T WesterBascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: This case report details an association of chronic allergic conjunctivitis and respiratory tract colonization in a cystic fibrosis (CF patient due to an ethmoidal mucocele infected with Escherichia coli. A 3-year-old CF patient presented for evaluation with complaints of chronic periocular erythema, conjunctival injection, and irritation for 2 years. He was treated for presumed allergic conjunctivitis with no improvement and continued to have overall worsening of symptoms on the right greater than the left eye in a waxing and waning pattern. On presentation to the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, he was noted to have telecanthus and prominent erythema in the region of the medial canthus. Orbital imaging disclosed a mucocele in the right ethmoid sinus. The patient underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery, with successful marsupialization of the ethmoidal mucocele, which was found on culture to be infected with E. coli. Post-operatively with continuous pulmonary care, the patient remains free of allergic conjunctivitis and E. coli colonization of the upper airway. This case highlights the importance of analyzing the adjacent sinus in patients with chronic, relapsing allergic conjunctivitis refractory to medical management, particularly in patients with underlying systemic diseases such as CF.Keywords: allergic conjuncitivitis, Escherichia Coli, cystic fibrosis, mucocele

  7. Prospective evaluation of antibiotic treatment for urological procedure in patients presenting with neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglinski, L; Rouzaud, C; Even, A; Bouchand, F; Davido, B; Duran, C; Salomon, J; Perronne, C; Denys, P; Chartier-Kastler, E; Dinh, A

    2016-09-01

    Patients presenting with neurogenic bladder often require urological procedures (urodynamic testing and botulinum toxin injections) and a preventive antibiotic therapy. We aimed to assess the efficacy of this little known strategy in a cohort of patients. All patients presenting with neurogenic bladder who underwent urological procedure were included in the study. They received an antibiotic therapy in accordance with the urine cytobacteriological examination results. The antibiotic therapy was initiated two days before the procedure and prolonged up until two days after the procedure if the culture was positive. Patients were treated with a single dose of fosfomycin-trometamol in case of a negative culture. The main study outcome was the occurrence of urinary tract infection (UTI), defined by a positive urine culture and symptoms, up until 14 days after the procedure. A total of 80 urological procedures were performed. Mean patient age was 47±13.1 years (sex ratio 1.22); 59 (73.8%) presented with asymptomatic bacteriuria before the procedure. Nine (11.1%) UTIs were recorded on Day 14, of which one (1.2%) was febrile. Two patients required an additional curative antibiotic therapy. No patient was hospitalized. Overall, 77.8% of UTIs were cured without antibiotic therapy. Screening and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria before urological procedures seems unnecessary and vainly exposes this population at high risk of infectious diseases to antibiotic therapies. This data should be confirmed by a randomized clinical trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibiotic prescribing in patients with acute rhinosinusitis is not in agreement with European recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars Christian; Friis Christensen, Sarah; Cordoba Currea, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the potential overprescribing in patients with acute rhinosinusitis across six countries with different antibiotic prescribing rates and different prevalence of antibiotic resistance. Design, setting and subjects. A cross-sectional study including GPs from two Nordic...... tract infections" (HAPPY AUDIT). Main outcome measures. Use of antibiotics for acute rhinosinusitis based on the recommendations in the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2007 (EP3OS). Results. In total, 618 participating GPs registered 33 273 patients with RTI of whom 1150 (3...... overprescribing) and 23% had symptoms recommendations (EP3OS guidelines). To prevent overprescribing, efforts should be made to implement...

  9. Serum Levels of Surfactant Proteins in Patients with Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema (CPFE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriana I Papaioannou

    Full Text Available Emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF present either per se or coexist in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE. Serum surfactant proteins (SPs A, B, C and D levels may reflect lung damage. We evaluated serum SP levels in healthy controls, emphysema, IPF, and CPFE patients and their associations to disease severity and survival.122 consecutive patients (31 emphysema, 62 IPF, and 29 CPFE and 25 healthy controls underwent PFTs, ABG-measurements, 6MWT and chest HRCT. Serum levels of SPs were measured. Patients were followed-up for 1-year.SP-A and SP-D levels differed between groups (p = 0.006 and p<0.001 respectively. In post-hoc analysis, SP-A levels differed only between controls and CPFE (p<0.05 and CPFE and emphysema (p<0.05. SP-D differed between controls and IPF or CPFE (p<0.001 for both comparisons. In IPF SP-B correlated to pulmonary function while SP-A, correlated to the Composite Physiological Index (CPI. Controls current smokers had higher SP-A and SP-D levels compared to non-smokers (p = 0.026 and p = 0.023 respectively. SP-D levels were higher in CPFE patients with extended emphysema (p = 0.042. In patients with IPF, SP-B levels at the upper quartile of its range (≥26 ng/mL presented a weak association with reduced survival (p = 0.05.In conclusion, serum SP-A and SP-D levels were higher where fibrosis exists or coexists and related to disease severity, suggesting that serum SPs relate to alveolar damage in fibrotic lungs and may reflect either local overproduction or overleakage. The weak association between high levels of SP-B and survival needs further validation in clinical trials.

  10. Lung fibrosis in deceased HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica J Shaddock

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP is one of the most common opportunistic infections found in patients with HIV. The prognosis if ventilation is required is poor, with mortality of 36 - 80%. Although more recent studies have shown improved survival, our experience has been that close to 100% of such patients die, and we therefore decided to investigate further. Methods. All patients with confirmed or suspected PcP who died owing to respiratory failure were eligible for the study. Where consent was obtained, trucut lung biopsies were performed post mortem, stored in formalin and sent for histopathological assessment. Results. Twelve adequate lung biopsies were obtained from 1 July 2008 to 28 February 2011 – 3 from men and 9 from women. The mean age was 34.7 years (range 24 - 46, and the mean admission CD4 count was 20.8 (range 1 - 68 cells/μl and median 18.5 cells/μl. All specimens demonstrated typical PcP histopathology; in addition, 9 showed significant interstitial fibrosis. Three had co-infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV, two of which had fibrosis present. There was no evidence of TB or other fungal infections. Conclusion. The high mortality seen in this cohort of PcP patients was due to intractable respiratory failure from interstitial lung fibrosis. whereas the differential includes ventilator induced lung injury, drug resistance or co-infections, we suggest that this is part of the disease progression in certain individuals. Further studies are required to identify interventions that could modify this process and improve outcomes in patients with PcP who require mechanical ventilation. S Afr J HIV Med 2012;13(2:64-67.

  11. Volúmenes pulmonares normales en pacientes con fibrosis pulmonar idiopática y enfisema Normal lung volumes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Casas

    2008-08-01

    pattern with hyperinflation results in emphysema by loss of elastic recoil, expiratory collapse of the peripheral airways and air trapping. Previous reports suggest that when both diseases coexist, pulmonary volumes are compensated and a smaller than expected reduction or even normal lung volumes can be found. We report 4 male patients of 64, 60, 73 and 70 years, all with heavy cigarette smoking history and progressive breathlessness. Three of them had severe limitation in their quality of life. All four showed advanced lung interstitial involvement, at high resolution CT scan, fibrotic changes predominantly in the subpleural areas of lower lung fields and concomitant emphysema in the upper lobes. Emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis was confirmed by open lung biopsy in one patient. The four patients showed normal spirometry and lung volumes with severe compromise of gas exchange and poor exercise tolerance evaluated by 6 minute walk test. Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension was also confirmed in three patients. Normal lung volumes does not exclude diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in patients with concomitant emphysema. The relatively preserved lung volumes may underestimate the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and attenuate its effects on lung function parameters.

  12. Easing the strain of unnecessary antibiotic requests. Physicians called on to change patient expectations about antibiotic use; experts say it's about communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Beth Thomas

    2014-01-10

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the world's major public health challenges, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While medical providers are heeding the call, patient pressure about receiving antibiotic prescriptions remains a significant influencer, says the National Committee for Quality Assurance.

  13. Prescription for antibiotics at drug shops and strategies to improve quality of care and patient safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to assess practices of antibiotic prescription at registered drug shops with a focus on upper respiratory tract infections among children in order to provide data for policy discussions aimed at improving quality of care and patient safety......-line drug for treatment of pneumonia in children according to the guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: There is urgent need to regulate drug shop practices of prescribing and selling antibiotics, for the safety of patients seeking care at these outlets....

  14. Meta-analysis: antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding - an updated Cochrane review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez-Tapia, N C; Barrientos-Gutierrez, T; Tellez-Avila, F

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis seems to decrease the incidence of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is considered standard of care. However, there is no updated information regarding the effects of this intervention.......Antibiotic prophylaxis seems to decrease the incidence of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is considered standard of care. However, there is no updated information regarding the effects of this intervention....

  15. When does germ cell loss and fibrosis occur in patients with Klinefelter syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Saen, D; Vloeberghs, V; Gies, I; Mateizel, I; Sermon, K; De Schepper, Jean; Tournaye, H; Goossens, E

    2018-06-01

    When does germ cell loss and fibrosis occur in patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS)? In KS, germ cell loss is not observed in testicular tissue from fetuses in the second semester of pregnancy but present at a prepubertal age when the testicular architecture is still normal, while fibrosis is highly present at an adolescent age. Most KS patients are azoospermic at adult age because of a massive germ cell loss. However, the timing when this germ cell loss starts is not known. It is assumed that germ cell loss increases at puberty. Therefore, testicular sperm extraction (TESE) at an adolescent age has been suggested to increase the chances of sperm retrieval at onset of spermatogenesis. However, recent data indicate that testicular biopsies from peripubertal KS patients contain only a few germ cells. In this study, we give an update on fertility preservation in adolescent KS patients and evaluate whether fertility preservation would be beneficial at prepubertal age. The possibility of retrieving testicular spermatozoa by TESE was evaluated in adolescent and adult KS men. The presence of spermatogonia and the degree of fibrosis were also analysed in testicular biopsies from KS patients at different ages. The patients were divided into four age groups: foetal (n = 5), prepubertal (aged 4-7 years; n = 4), peripubertal (aged 12-16 years; n = 20) and adult (aged 18-41 years; n = 27) KS patients. In peripubertal and adult KS patients, retrieval of spermatozoa was attempted by semen analysis after masturbation, vibrostimulation, electroejaculation or by TESE. MAGE-A4 immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the presence of germ cells in testicular biopsies from foetal, prepubertal, peripubertal and adult KS patients. Tissue morphology was evaluated by haematoxylin-periodic acid Schiff (H/PAS) staining. Testicular spermatozoa were collected by TESE in 48.1% of the adult KS patients, while spermatozoa were recovered after TESE in only one peripubertal patient (5

  16. Predictors for individual patient antibiotic treatment effect in hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, A F; van Werkhoven, C H; Schweitzer, V A; Viasus, D; Carratalà, J; Postma, D F; Oosterheert, J J; Bonten, M J M

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to identify clinical predictors of antibiotic treatment effects in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who were not in the intensive care unit (ICU). Post-hoc analysis of three prospective cohorts (from the Netherlands and Spain) of adult patients with CAP admitted to a non-ICU ward having received either β-lactam monotherapy, β-lactam + macrolide, or a fluoroquinolone-based therapy as empirical antibiotic treatment. We evaluated candidate clinical predictors of treatment effects in multiple mixed-effects models by including interactions of the predictors with empirical antibiotic choice and using 30-day mortality, ICU admission and length of hospital stay as outcomes. Among 8562 patients, empirical treatment was β-lactam in 4399 (51.4%), fluoroquinolone in 3373 (39.4%), and β-lactam + macrolide in 790 (9.2%). Older age (interaction OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.23-2.29, p 0.034) and current smoking (interaction OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.34-4.17, p 0.046) were associated with lower effectiveness of fluoroquinolone on 30-day mortality. Older age was also associated with lower effectiveness of β-lactam + macrolide on length of hospital stay (interaction effect ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.22, p 0.008). Older age and smoking could influence the response to specific antibiotic regimens. The effect modification of age and smoking should be considered hypothesis generating to be evaluated in future trials. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibiotic efficacy in patients with a moderate probability of acute rhinosinusitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstaller, Jakob M; Steurer, Johann; Holzmann, David; Geiges, Gabriel; Soyka, Michael B

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the results of original studies assessing antibiotic efficacy at different time points after initiating treatment in patients with a moderate probability of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. We searched the Cochrane library for systematic reviews on the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared treatment of any antibiotic with placebo were included. The synthesis of the results of six RCTs showed a benefit of antibiotic treatment compared to placebo for the rate of improvement after 3 [pooled odds ratio (OR) 2.78 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.39-5.58)] and 7 [OR 2.29 (95 % CI 1.19-4.41)] days after initiation in patients with symptoms and signs of ARS lasting for 7 or more days. After 10 days [pooled OR 1.36 (95 % CI 0.66-2.90)], improvement rates did not differ significantly between patients treated with or without antibiotics. Compared to placebo, antibiotic treatment relieves symptoms in a significantly higher proportion of patients within the first days of treatment. Reporting an overall average treatment efficacy may underestimate treatment benefits in patients with a self-limiting illness.

  18. Randomized, single blind, controlled trial of inhaled glutathione vs placebo in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, C; Tosco, A; Abete, P; Carnovale, V; Basile, C; Magliocca, A; Quattrucci, S; De Sanctis, S; Alatri, F; Mazzarella, G; De Pietro, L; Turino, C; Melillo, E; Buonpensiero, P; Di Pasqua, A; Raia, V

    2015-03-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) the defective CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein may be responsible for the impaired transport of glutathione (GSH), the first line defense of the lung against oxidative stress. The aim of this single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of inhaled GSH in patients with CF. 54 adult and 51 pediatric patients were randomized to receive inhaled GSH or placebo twice daily for 12 months. Twelve month treatment with inhaled GSH did not achieve our predetermined primary outcome measure of 15% improvement in FEV1%. Only in patients with moderate lung disease, 3, 6 and 9 months therapy with GSH resulted in a statistically significant increase of FEV1 values from the baseline. Moreover GSH therapy improved 6-minute walking test in pediatric population. GSH was well tolerated by all patients. Inhaled GSH has slight positive effects in CF patients with moderate lung disease warranting further study. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01450267; URL: www.clinicaltrialsgov. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Is there an association between vitamin D and liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinca da Silva OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Vitamin D is known for its immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties, which are quite relevant in the pathogenesis and treatment of many causes of chronic liver disease. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the association between serum vitamin D levels and the histopathological findings in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. METHODS Cross-sectional study composed of patients with chronic hepatitis C. All patients underwent vitamin D 25 dosage and anthropometric data analysis. Liver biopsy was performed in a maximum 36-month period before inclusion in the study. RESULTS Of the 74 patients included in the study, 45 (60.8% were women, mean age was 57.03±9.24 years, and 63 (85.1% were white. No association was observed between the serum levels of vitamin D and inflammatory activity (P=0.699 nor with the degree of liver fibrosis (P=0.269. CONCLUSION In this study, no association was observed between vitamin D and inflammatory activity, as well as the degree of liver fibrosis, in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  20. Oral glucose tolerance test and continuous glucose monitoring to assess diabetes development in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente León, María; Bilbao Gassó, Laura; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Campos Martorrell, Ariadna; Gartner Tizzano, Silvia; Yeste Fernández, Diego; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) undergo a slow and progressive process toward diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is recommended to diagnose impaired glucose levels in these patients. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measures glucose profiles under real-life conditions. To compare OGTT and CGM results in CF patients. Paired OGTT and 6-day CGM profiles (146.2±9.1h/patient) were performed in 30 CF patients aged 10-18 years. According to OGTT, 14 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 14 abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), and two cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). In 27 patients (13 NGT, 13 AGT, 1 CFRD), CGM showed glucose values ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL during similar monitoring times (2%-14% with NGT, 1%-16.9% with AGT, and 3% with CFRD). Glucose peak levels ≥200mg/dL were seen in seven patients (3 NGT, 3 AGT, 1 CFRD). According to CGM, two patients had all glucose values under 140mg/dL (1 NGT, 1 AGT). Seventeen patients had glucose levels ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL (10 NGT, 6 AGT, 1 CFRD). Ten patients (3 NGT, 7 AGT) had glucose values ≥200mg/dL for ≤1% of the monitoring time and one (CFRD) for >1% of the monitoring time. OGTT results did not agree with those of the CGM. CGM allows for diagnosis of glucose changes not detected by OGTT. Such changes may contribute to optimize pre-diabetes management in CF patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. The association between insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C: an observational, multicenter study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dökmeci, Abdulkadir; Ustündağ, Yücel; Hulagu, Saadettin; Tuncer, Ilyas; Akdoğan, Meral; Demirsoy, Hüseyin; Köklü, Seyfettin; Güzelbulut, Fatih; Doğan, Ibrahim; Demir, Ali; Akarsu, Mesut; Yüceyar, Hakan; Ozdoğan, Osman Cavit; Ozdener, Fatih; Erdoğan, Seda

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the association between insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A total of 104 chronic hepatitis C patients were included in this non-interventional, open-label, observational, multicenter, cross-sectional study conducted at 20 gastroenterology clinics in Turkey. The primary end point was the correlation between stage of hepatic fibrosis and insulin resistance evaluated via the homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance index. Confounders of hepatic fibrosis and insulin resistance were the secondary end points. The mean age of patients was 52.8 years; 65.4% were female. Type 2 diabetes was present in 6.8% and insulin resistance noted in 38.0% of patients. Further, 45.7% of the patients had mild (A0/A1) and the remaining had moderate/severe (A2/A3) hepatic necroinflammatory activity. Patient distribution according to Metavir fibrosis stage was as follows: F0/F1 (57.0%); F2 (6.5%); F3 (23.7%); and F4 (12.9%). A univariate analysis revealed significant positive correlations between Metavir fibrosis stage and insulin resistance (r=0.297; p=0.007). Logistic regression analysis showed that significant predictors of insulin resistance were high alanine transaminase levels (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.944-0.997) and liver fibrosis stage (odds ratio, 0.114; 95% confidence interval, 0.021-0.607). Our findings revealed significant associations between insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis.

  2. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography for fibrosis evaluation in patients with chronic hepatitis C: An international multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: isporea@umft.ro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara (Romania); Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara (Romania); Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus, E-mail: markus.peck@meduniwien.ac.at [Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Sirli, Roxana, E-mail: roxanasirli@gmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara (Romania); Tanaka, Hironori, E-mail: hironori@hyo-med.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Iijima, Hiroko, E-mail: hiroko.iijima@nifty.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Badea, Radu, E-mail: rbadea2003@yahoo.com [3rd Medical Clinic, University of Medicine, Cluj Napoca (Romania); Lupsor, Monica, E-mail: monica.lupsor@umfcluj.ro [3rd Medical Clinic, University of Medicine, Cluj Napoca (Romania); Fierbinteanu-Braticevici, Carmen, E-mail: cfierbinteanu@yahoo.com [2nd Medical Clinic and Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Bucharest (Romania); Petrisor, Ana, E-mail: ana1petrisor@yahoo.com [2nd Medical Clinic and Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Bucharest (Romania); Saito, Hidetsugu, E-mail: hidetsugusaito@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Ebinuma, Hirotoshi, E-mail: ebinuma@a5.keio.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Friedrich-Rust, Mireen, E-mail: Mireen.Friedrich-Rust@kgu.de [Department of Internal Medicine, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Sarrazin, Christoph, E-mail: sarrazin@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Department of Internal Medicine, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); and others

    2012-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this international multicenter study was to evaluate the reliability of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography for predicting fibrosis severity, in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Patients and methods: We compared ARFI to liver biopsy (LB) in 914 patients (10 centers, 5 countries) with chronic hepatitis C. In each patient LB (evaluated according to the METAVIR score) and ARFI measurements were performed (median of 5–10 valid measurements, expressed in meters/second – m/s). In 400 from the 914 patients, transient elastography (TE) was also performed (median of 6–10 valid measurements, expressed in kiloPascals – kPa). Results: Valid ARFI measurements were obtained in 911 (99.6%) of 914 cases. On LB 61 cases (6.7%) had F0, 241 (26.4%) had F1, 202 (22.1%) had F2, 187 (20.4%) had F3, and 223 (24.4%) had F4 fibrosis. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.654) was found between ARFI measurements and fibrosis (p < 0.0001). The predictive values of ARFI for various stages of fibrosis were: F ≥ 1 – cut-off > 1.19 m/s (AUROC = 0.779), F ≥ 2 – cut-off > 1.33 m/s (AUROC = 0.792), F ≥ 3 – cut-off > 1.43 m/s (AUROC = 0.829), F = 4 – cut-off > 1.55 m/s (AUROC = 0.842). The correlation with histological fibrosis was not significantly different for TE in comparison with ARFI elastography: r = 0.728 vs. 0.689, p = 0.28. TE was better than ARFI for predicting the presence of liver cirrhosis (p = 0.01) and fibrosis (F ≥ 1, METAVIR) (p = 0.01). Conclusion: ARFI elastography is a reliable method for predicting fibrosis severity in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  3. Determinants of antibiotic prescription in paediatric patients: The case of two hospitals in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L G S Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The need for healthcare in paediatric patients is often due to respiratory diseases, acute diarrhoea and viral fever, which suggests a limited need for the use of antibiotics. Objectives. To identify the determinants of antibiotic prescription in hospitalised paediatric patients in Mozambique. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2015. A total of 454 medical prescriptions and clinical records of children aged 0 - 14 years from Hospital Central de Maputo (HCM and Hospital Geral de Mavalane (HGM were analysed. Results. Antibiotics were used in 97.6% of the patients, with no significant differences (p>0.05 in the prescription rates of the hospitals. The most commonly used antibiotics were beta-lactams (57.3%, aminoglycosides (28.3% and co-trimoxazole (9.4%. Antibiotics were prescribed in all cases of bronchopneumonia, fever, sepsis and acute gastroenteritis. For malaria and undefined diagnoses, antibiotics were prescribed 97.8% and 99.3% of cases, respectively. It was clear that most severe clinical conditions (odds ratio (OR 9.06; 1.13 - 12.14 and age <5 years (OR 5.47;1.54 - 7.60 were treated with antibiotics. Conclusion. The prescription of antibiotics for paediatric patients at both HCM and HGM was largely influenced by patients’ clinical condition and age. It showed that physicians used an empirical approach, in the absence of laboratory tests, often leading to unnecessary antibiotic treatments with negative causative effects. Physicians should be encouraged to use an evidence-based approach for managing the cases correctly.

  4. Prevalence and Severity of Dysphonia in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, John; Michael, Deirdre D; Boyer, Holly; Misono, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    To assess the prevalence and severity of dysphonia in patients with cystic fibrosis sinusitis. We hypothesized that patients with CF sinusitis, compared with 2 control groups, would have higher self-reported prevalence of dysphonia and greater severity of dysphonia, according to patient-reported outcome measures as well as auditory-perceptual evaluation by expert listeners. Cross-sectional comparative pilot study. Academic tertiary care clinic. Analysis included 37 study participants: 17 patients with CF sinusitis, 10 healthy individuals, and 10 patients with non-CF sinusitis. All participants completed the 10-item Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) questionnaire and provided voice samples. On all samples, 6 blinded speech-language pathologists independently performed auditory-perceptual evaluation, using Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice. To assess severity of sinonasal symptoms, we used the 20-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20). Standard parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis was performed. The differences between the 3 groups in prevalence of abnormal VHI-10 scores were not statistically significant. SNOT-20 scores were similar in the 2 sinusitis patient groups. VHI-10 scores were highest in patients with CF sinusitis, intermediate in patients with non-CF sinusitis, and lowest in healthy individuals (P = .005). Auditory-perceptual evaluation demonstrated greater overall severity of dysphonia in patients with CF sinusitis compared with the 2 control groups (P = .0005). Cystic fibrosis sinusitis appeared to be associated with worse vocal function as measured by patient self-report as well as auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice compared with patients with non-CF sinusitis and healthy controls. Further investigation in this area is warranted. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  5. Suggestions for the optimization of the initial tobramycin dose in adolescent and adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Vinks, A A; Heijerman, H G; Hermans, J; Bakker, W

    Clinical pharmacokinetic data of intravenously administered tobramycin in 34 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were correlated with patient parameters. Patients began tobramycin therapy with 10 mg/kg/day in three divided doses. Peak and trough serum concentrations were measured. Tobramycin dose was

  6. Optimising the administration of antibiotics in critically ill patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug exposure varies according to molecular weight, degree of ionisation ... a much lower Vd. The latter is influenced by a number of factors, such as .... The pharmacokinetics of antibiotics (MIC = minimum inhibitory concentration; T>MIC = time above the MIC .... makes a bolus dose necessary to achieve therapeutic effect.

  7. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in patients with acute stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Willeke F.; Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Vermeij, Frederique; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stroke is the main cause of disability in high income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce infections and improve outcome.

  8. Antibiotic prescribing in patients with self-reported sore throat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, Nishchay; Schilder, Anne; Fragaszy, Ellen; E R Evans, Hannah; Dukes, Oliver; Manikam, Logan; Little, Paul; Smith, Sarah C; Hayward, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the predictors of general practitioner (GP) consultation and antibiotic use in those developing sore throat. METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study on 4461 participants in two rounds (2010-11) from 1897 households. RESULTS: Participants reported

  9. Expression of cytokine signaling genes in morbidly obese patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, J Michael; Baranova, Ancha; Hossain, Noreen; Elariny, Hazem; Ankrah, Kathy; Afendy, Arian; Chandhoke, Vikas; Younossi, Zobair M

    2009-05-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) from visceral adiposity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Development of NASH and its progression to fibrosis is partially due to cytokines and adipokines produced by WAT. The aim of this study was to assess the association of hepatic fibrosis and NASH by evaluating the intrinsic differences in the inflammatory cytokine signaling in the visceral adipose tissue obtained from morbidly obese patients. We used targeted microarrays representing human genes involved in the inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions to profile visceral adipose samples of 15 well-matched NASH patients with and without fibrosis. Additionally, visceral adipose samples were subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction profiling of 84 inflammations related genes. Eight genes (CCL2, CCL4, CCL18, CCR1, IL10RB, IL15RA, and LTB) were differentially expressed in NASH with fibrosis. Additionally, an overlapping but distinct list of the differentially expressed genes were found in NASH with type II diabetes (DM; IL8, BLR1, IL2RA, CD40LG, IL1RN, IL15RA, and CCL4) as compared to NASH without DM. Inflammatory cytokines are differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of NASH with fibrosis, as well in NASH with DM. These findings point at the interaction of adipose inflammatory cytokines, DM, hepatic fibrosis in NASH, and its progression to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease.

  10. Evaluation of a bovine antibody test for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tacjana; Katzenstein, Terese L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to test a commercial bovine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for investigating antibody activity against Mycobacterium avium complex. Methods: All patients at the Copenhagen Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Center who had culture for nontuberculous mycobacteria...... before and after culture conversion was performed in case patients. Results: Out of 286 included subjects, six had clinical M. avium complex pulmonary disease at the time of sera sampling. These patients presented with higher antibody test values (P-value ... at ruling out pulmonary disease. Screening sera from patients with CF could guide clinicians to focus attention on patients at higher risk of M. avium complex pulmonary disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:34–40....

  11. Benchmarking antibiotic use in Finnish acute care hospitals using patient case-mix adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Mari; Ollgren, Jukka; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2011-11-01

    It is difficult to draw conclusions about the prudence of antibiotic use in different hospitals by directly comparing usage figures. We present a patient case-mix adjustment model of antibiotic use to rank hospitals while taking patient characteristics into account. Data on antibiotic use were collected during the national healthcare-associated infection (HAI) prevalence survey in 2005 in Finland in all 5 tertiary care, all 15 secondary care and 10 (25% of 40) other acute care hospitals. The use of antibiotics was measured using use-days/100 patient-days during a 7day period and the prevalence of patients receiving at least two antimicrobials during the study day. Case-mix-adjusted antibiotic use was calculated by using multivariate models and an indirect standardization method. Parameters in the model included age, sex, severity of underlying diseases, intensive care, haematology, preceding surgery, respirator, central venous and urinary catheters, community-associated infection, HAI and contact isolation due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The ranking order changed one position in 12 (40%) hospitals and more than two positions in 13 (43%) hospitals when the case-mix-adjusted figures were compared with those observed. In 24 hospitals (80%), the antibiotic use density observed was lower than expected by the case-mix-adjusted use density. The patient case-mix adjustment of antibiotic use ranked the hospitals differently from the ranking according to observed use, and may be a useful tool for benchmarking hospital antibiotic use. However, the best set of easily and widely available parameters that would describe both patient material and hospital activities remains to be determined.

  12. Clinical Model for NASH and Advanced Fibrosis in Adult Patients With Diabetes and NAFLD: Guidelines for Referral in NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazick, Jessica; Donithan, Michele; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Kleiner, David; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Wilson, Laura; Doo, Ed; Lavine, Joel; Tonascia, James; Loomba, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Approximately 18 million people in the U.S. have coexisting type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is not known who among these patients has nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with advanced fibrosis. Therefore, we aimed to determine factors that are associated with both NASH and advanced fibrosis in patients with diabetes and NAFLD in order to identify who should be prioritized for referral to a hepatologist for further diagnostic evaluation and treatment. This study was derived from the NASH Clinical Research Network studies and included 1,249 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (including a model development cohort of 346 patients and an independent validation cohort of 100 patients with type 2 diabetes as defined by the American Diabetes Association criteria). Outcome measures were presence of NASH or advanced fibrosis (stage 3 or 4) using cross-validated, by jackknife method, multivariable-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and 95% CI. The mean ± SD age and BMI of patients with diabetes and NAFLD was 52.5 ± 10.3 years and 35.8 ± 6.8 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of NASH and advanced fibrosis was 69.2% and 41.0%, respectively. The model for NASH included white race, BMI, waist, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, HbA1c, HOMA of insulin resistance, and ferritin with an AUROC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.84, P = 0.007). The specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive values (NPVs), and positive predictive values (PPVs) were 90.0%, 56.8%, 47.7%, and 93.2%, respectively, and the model correctly classified 67% of patients as having NASH. The model for predicting advanced fibrosis included age, Hispanic ethnicity, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, hypertension, ALT-to-AST ratio, alkaline phosphatase, isolated abnormal alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin (total and direct), globulin, albumin, serum insulin, hematocrit, international normalized ratio, and platelet count with

  13. Value of FibroScan in diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Junhua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the value of transient elastography (FibroScan, FS in predicting hepatic fibrosis in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB. MethodsOne hundred and four patients with HBeAg-negative CHB, who were diagnosed and treated in Hubei Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from June 2011 to May 2013, were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent FS for liver stiffness measurement before liver biopsy. Statistical analysis was applied to compare liver stiffness (kPa with fibrosis stage (determined by liver biopsy. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of FS was constructed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUROC was calculated to analyze the accuracy of live stiffness in predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis. Comparison between groups was made by Kruskal-Wallis H test, followed by Mann-Whitney U test for multiple comparisons. The correlation between two variables was analyzed by Spearman rank and Pearson correlation test. ResultsLiver stiffness gradually rose as the degree of hepatic fibrosis increased, with significant differences between groups (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Liver stiffness was positively correlated with the stage of hepatic fibrosis (r=0.810, P<0.01. The AUROC of liver stiffness for detecting liver cirrhosis was 0.956; the cut-off value for diagnosing liver cirrhosis was 13.1 kPa; the sensitivity was 92.7%, and the specificity was 80%. ConclusionFS is a promising noninvasive method for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with HBeAg-negative CHB; particularly, it has high accuracy in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. FS combined with direct or indirect markers may play an important role in differential diagnosis and efficacy evaluation in patients with hepatic fibrosis.

  14. Patient considerations and drug selection in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trawinska MA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria A Trawinska,1 Ruwani D Rupesinghe,1 Simon P Hart1,2 1Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, 2Hull York Medical School, Academic Respiratory Medicine, Castle Hill Hospital, Cottingham, East Yorkshire, UK Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. Approximately 5,000 people are diagnosed with IPF in the UK every year. People with IPF suffer significant morbidity and, without any curative treatment at present, survival rates remain poor with a median survival of 3 years. While treatment remains largely supportive, many drug therapies have been trialed in IPF over the years. Pirfenidone and nintedanib are newly licensed treatments for IPF and the first drugs to have shown convincing evidence of slowing disease progression. In addition to evaluating clinical evidence, we also discuss elements affecting drug choice from the viewpoint of patients and health care professionals. We discuss pharmacological and nonpharmacological aspects of providing best supportive care for patients with IPF. However, few good quality studies exist focusing on controlling symptoms specifically in patients with IPF, and recommendations are often extrapolated from evidence in other chronic diseases. In covering these topics, we hope to provide readers with a comprehensive review of the available evidence pertaining to all aspects of care for patients suffering with IPF. Keywords: interstitial lung disease, high-resolution computed tomography, forced vital capacity, usual interstitial pneumonia, clinical trials, decision making, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

  15. Comparison of AI techniques for prediction of liver fibrosis in hepatitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltch, Brian; Lin, Yuan; Bayrak, Coskun

    2014-08-01

    Globally one in twelve people have the Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C virus. Diagnosis and treatment of this disease is guided by liver biopsies where a small amount of tissue is removed by a surgeon and examined by a pathologist to determine the fibrosis stage from F(0) (no damage) to F(4) (cirrhosis). Biopsies are costly and carry some risk for the patient. Non-invasive techniques for determining fibrosis stage have been developed and evaluated since 2003. Non-invasive methods have utilized serum markers, imaging test, and genetic studies. The accuracy of these non-invasive techniques has not achieved sufficient acceptance and so the invasive biopsy is still considered the gold standard.Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) use decision support system theory and technology to assist clinicians in the evaluation and treatment process. Using historical clinical data and the relationship processed by Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid physicians in their decision making process is the goal of CDSS. The CDSS provides a large number of medical support functions to help clinicians make the most reasonable diagnosis and choose the best treatment measures.This paper applies four artificial intelligence predictive techniques to publicly available data on 424 Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C patients. Demographic and standard serum markers are utilized to predict fibrosis stage and compare these predictions to known biopsy results. A final decision tree evaluation is applied to make a final prediction. We have also developed a publically available web application that can be used as a prototype for presenting AI predictive results in a CDSS environment based on these models. This technique along with others could mitigate the need for some liver biopsies in the more than 500 million Hepatitis B and C patients worldwide with additional validation and verification.

  16. Effect of host-related factors on the intensity of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Luciano Bello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the identification of factors associated with liver disease progression in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. We assessed host-related factors associated with a histologically advanced stage of this disease and determined the rate of liver fibrosis progression in HCV-infected patients. We included patients submitted to liver biopsy, who were anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive, who showed a parenteral risk factor (blood transfusion or intravenous drug use, and who gave information about alcohol consumption.Patients were divided into two groups for analysis: group 1 - grades 0 to 2; group 2 - grades 3 to 4. The groups were compared in terms of sex, age at the time of infection, estimated duration of infection and alcoholism. The rate of fibrosis progression (index of fibrosis was determined based on the relationship between disease stage and duration of infection (years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age at the time of infection (P or = 40 years (median = 0.47. The main factors associated with a more rapid fibrosis progression were age at the time of infection and the estimated duration of infection. Patients who acquired HCV after 40 years of age showed a higher rate of fibrosis progression.

  17. Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a patient with a single functioning kidney

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    Byung Sun Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF is a rare disease characterized by the presence of fibroinflammatory tissue around the abdominal aorta and ureteral entrapment in most cases. Idiopathic RPF is frequently reported in association with autoimmune diseases; however, there have been few reports of idiopathic RPF associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Here, we report a case of idiopathic RPF with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a patient with a single functioning kidney, which was successfully treated by corticosteroid therapy and transient intraureteral stent insertion with a double-J catheter.

  18. Cedecea davisae’s Role in a Polymicrobial Lung Infection in a Cystic Fibrosis Patient

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    Thayer G. Ismaael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic airway colonization and infection are the hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia cepacia are well-documented bacterial culprits in this chronic suppurative airway disease. Advanced molecular diagnostics have uncovered a possible role of a larger group of microorganisms in CF. Cedecea is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is an emerging pathogen. We present a case of a polymicrobial healthcare-associated pneumonia in a CF patient caused by Cedecea davisae, among other bacteria.

  19. Changes of liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in patients with trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Senhua; Xie Guoqiang; Zeng Zeming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the liver function damage and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels changes in patients suffering from trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis. Methods: Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PC III), type IV collagen ( IV C) levels (with RIA), mono-amine oxidase (MAO) activity (with chemo-colorimetry) and liver function tests (including ALT, AGT, total protein, albumin, total bile acid, with automated biochemical analysis system) were determined in 30 controls and 30 patients with trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis. Results: Severe liver function damage was demonstrated in all the patients. The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels were significantly increased (vs controls, P<0.01) and correlated well with the degree of hepatic damage. Conclusion: Liver damage occurred early in patients with trichloroethylene induced dermatitis, accompanied with laboratory evidence of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  20. Bronchial artery embolization for therapy of pulmonary bleeding in patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalhammer, A.; Jacobi, V.; Balzer, J.; Straub, R.; Vogl, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Acute pulmonary emergencies in patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) can be found in cases of pneumothorax as well as hemoptysis. If the bleeding cannot be stopped by conservative methods, an embolization of the bronchial arteries should be done. Materials and Method: 11 patients were embolized using a combination of PVA particles and microcoils. Results: From January 1996 to June 2001 17 bronchial arteries in 11 patients were embolized. 7 patients suffered from chronical hemoptysis, 4 patients had an acute hemoptysis. In 4 patients both sides were embolized, in 3 patients only one side. The remaining 4 patients needed a second intervention, embolizing the other side. The primary embolizated bronchial artery was still closed in all 4 patients. In 1 patient the selective catheterization of a bronchial artery was not successful, thus the embolization could not be carried out. 1 patient died 5 days after the intervention due to a fulminant pneumonia (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) without recurrent bleeding. In two patients atypical branches from intercostal arteries feeding the bronchial arteries were detected and successfully embolized. All patients profited from the therapy, as bleeding could be stopped or at least be reduced. 3 patients suffered from back pain during or after intervention. There were no severe complications like neurological deficiencies or necroses. (orig.) [de

  1. Antibiotic treatment failure when consulting patients with respiratory tract infections in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordado Sköld, Margrethe; Aabenhus, Rune; Guassora, Ann Dorrit

    2017-01-01

    as cases of antibiotic treatment failure (ATF). Objectives: We studied antibiotic treatment failure in patients with acute RTIs from a general practitioner (GP) perspective, aiming to explore (i) GPs’ views of ATF in primary care; (ii) how ATF influences the doctor-patient relationship; and (iii) GPs....... GPs used many communicative tools to maintain trust with patients in cases of ATF, but they did not consider such incidents to affect the doctor-patient relationship adversely. Conclusion: These findings suggest a possible communication gap between doctors and patients, partly due to a narrow medical...... definition of ATF. Studies describing patients’ views are still missing. General practitioners’ experiences and views on antibiotic treatment failure in acute respiratory infections or its effects on the doctor–patient relationship have not been studied previously....

  2. Antibiotic treatment and mortality in patients with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis or bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thønnings, S; Knudsen, J D; Schønheyder, H C; Søgaard, M; Arpi, M; Gradel, K O; Østergaard, C

    2016-08-01

    Invasive Listeria monocytogenes infections carry a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. The rareness of the infection makes it difficult to improve antibiotic treatment through randomized clinical trials. This observational study investigated clinical features and outcome of invasive L. monocytogenes infections including the efficacy of empiric and definitive antibiotic therapies. Demographic, clinical and biochemical findings, antibiotic treatment and 30-day mortality for all episodes of L. monocytogenes bacteraemia and/or meningitis were collected by retrospective medical record review in the North Denmark Region and the Capital Region of Denmark (17 hospitals) from 1997 to 2012. Risk factors for 30-day all-cause mortality were assessed by logistic regression. The study comprised 229 patients (median age: 71 years), 172 patients had bacteraemia, 24 patients had meningitis and 33 patients had both. Significant risk factors for 30-day mortality were septic shock (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.4), altered mental state (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.6) and inadequate empiric antibiotic therapy (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.1). Cephalosporins accounted for 90% of inadequately treated cases. Adequate definitive antibiotic treatment was administered to 195 patients who survived the early period (benzylpenicillin 72, aminopenicillin 84, meropenem 28, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 6, and piperacillin/tazobactam 5). Definitive antibiotic treatment with benzylpenicillin or aminopenicillin resulted in a lower 30-day mortality in an adjusted analysis compared with meropenem (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.8). In conclusion, inadequate empiric antibiotic therapy and definitive therapy with meropenem were both associated with significantly higher 30-day mortality. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Antibiotics in Sub-Saharan African Patient Populations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jeannet C; van Hest, Reinier M; Prins, Jan M

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), severe febrile illness accounts for a large majority of medical admissions. SSA patients may also suffer from cachexia and organ dysfunction resulting from tuberculosis, hepatitis B, and hypertension. It is hard to tell how these conditions influence the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antibiotics in this population. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize antibiotic PK data of SSA adult patient populations to clarify whether inappropriate drug concentrations that may also lead to antimicrobial resistance are likely to occur. An electronic search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and the African Index Medicus collecting studies from 1946 to May 2016. Reviewers independently selected studies reporting outcome data on volume of distribution (V), clearance, and half-life. Relevant information was abstracted and quality assessed. Twelve studies were selected, addressing 6 antibiotic classes. There were 6 studies on fluoroquinolones and 1 on β-lactam antibiotics. Nine out of 12 originated from South Africa and 6 of those dealt with intensive care unit (ICU) populations. The quality of most studies was low. Studies on amikacin, teicoplanin, and ertapenem (n = 4) displayed a pattern of a large V with low drug concentrations. Fluoroquinolone PK changes were less prominent and more diverse whereas the probability of pharmacodynamic target attainment was low for the treatment of tuberculosis in South Africa. Interindividual variability of V was high for 10/12 studies. Antibiotic PK data of SSA adult patient populations are scarce, but disease-induced inappropriate drug concentrations do occur. Data from non-ICU, severely ill patients, and β-lactam data are particularly lacking, whereas β-lactam antibiotics are commonly used, and typically vulnerable to disease-induced PK changes. Studies investigating the PK and pharmacodynamics of β-lactam antibiotics in severely ill, adult SSA patient populations are needed to improve local

  4. Adherence to tobramycin inhaled powder vs inhaled solution in patients with cystic fibrosis: analysis of US insurance claims data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed K

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kamal Hamed,1 Valentino Conti,2 Hengfeng Tian,1 Emil Loefroth3 1Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2Novartis Global Service Center, Dublin, Ireland; 3Novartis Sverige AB, Täby, Sweden Purpose: Tobramycin inhalation powder (TIP, the first dry-powder inhaled antibiotic for pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, is associated with reduced treatment burden, increased patient satisfaction, and higher self-reported adherence for cystic fibrosis (CF patients. We compared adherence in CF patients newly treated with TIP with those newly treated with the traditional tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS, using US insurance claims data.Patients and methods: From the Truven MarketScan® database, we identified CF patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa who had been prescribed TIP between May 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014, or TIS between September 1, 2010 to April 30, 2012 with at least 12 months of continuous medical and pharmacy benefits prior to and following prescription. TIP and TIS adherence levels were assessed.Results: A total of 145 eligible patients were identified for the TIP cohort and 306 for the TIS cohort. Significant differences in age distribution (25.0 vs 21.9 years for TIP vs TIS, respectively, P=0.017, type of health plan (P=0.014, employment status (72.4% vs 63.4% of TIP vs TIS patients in full-time employment, P=0.008, and some comorbidities were observed between the two cohorts. Although a univariate analysis found no significant differences between TIP and TIS (odds ratio [OR] 1.411, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.949–2.098, TIP was moderately associated with higher adherence levels compared with TIS in a multivariable analysis, once various demographic and clinical characteristics were adjusted for. These included geographic location (OR: 1.566, CI: 1.016–2.413 and certain comorbidities.Conclusion: This study of US patient data supports previous findings that TIP is associated with better

  5. An exploration of partnership through interactions between young 'expert' patients with cystic fibrosis and healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kath; Irvine, Lindesay; Smith, Margaret Coulter

    2015-12-01

    To explore how young 'expert patients' living with Cystic Fibrosis and the healthcare professionals with whom they interact perceive partnership and negotiate care. Modern healthcare policy encourages partnership, engagement and self-management of long-term conditions. This philosophy is congruent with the model adopted in the care of those with Cystic Fibrosis, where self-management, trust and mutual respect are perceived to be integral to the development of the ongoing patient/professional relationship. Self-management is associated with the term; 'expert patient'; an individual with a long-term condition whose knowledge and skills are valued and used in partnership with healthcare professionals. However, the term 'expert patient' is debated in the literature as are the motivation for its use and the assumptions implicit in the term. A qualitative exploratory design informed by Interpretivism and Symbolic Interactionism was conducted. Thirty-four consultations were observed and 23 semi-structured interviews conducted between 10 patients, 2 carers and 12 healthcare professionals. Data were analysed thematically using the five stages of 'Framework' a matrix-based qualitative data analysis approach and were subject to peer review and respondent validation. The study received full ethical approval. Three main themes emerged; experiences of partnership, attributes of the expert patient and constructions of illness. Sub-themes of the 'ceremonial order of the clinic', negotiation and trust in relationships and perceptions of the expert patient are presented. The model of consultation may be a barrier to person-centred care. Healthcare professionals show leniency in negotiations, but do not always trust patients' accounts. The term 'expert patient' is unpopular and remains contested. Gaining insight into structures and processes that enable or inhibit partnership can lead to a collaborative approach to service redesign and a revision of the consultation model. © 2015

  6. Pathomorphology of liver fibrosis in trepanobioptates of patients with steatohepatitis: main types, sources of development, features of progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tumanskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, among the pathologists, hepatologists and gastroenterologists, a discussion continues on the morphogenesis and gradation of liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic patients (NASH and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH. Purpose of the study. Studying the main types and sources of liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic and alcoholic steatohepatitis, justifying the gradation of its severity, taking into account the quantitative dynamics of fibrogenic producer cells, the relative area of fibrosis and the deposition of type I, III and IV collagen in the liver. Material and methods. Histological and histochemical examination of liver fibrosis was performed in 198 patients with NASH of 18-79 years and in 79 patients with ASH of 47-63 years. Immunohistochemical study with measurement of the area of expression of activated αSMA + perisinusoidal stellate cells and αSMA + portal myofibroblasts with F1 (mild, F2 (moderate, F3 (severe fibrosis and F4 fibrosis / cirrhosis was performed in 80 trepanobioptates of patients with NASH (20 cases in each group, electron microscopic examination of the liver – in 10 deceased patients suffering from NASH. Results. In patients with NASH and ASH, there are two major types of liver fibrosis progress: the perisinusoidal pericellular and portal-Z3 perisinusoidal fibrosis, the development of which is the new generation of αSMA + star cells and αSMA + portal myofibroblasts of the fibrogenic immunophenotype, with co-expression of fascin and vimentin and absence of desmine expression. As the perisinusoidal pericellular fibrosis progresses from the mild F1 degree, to the severe F3 fibrosis and to the extremely severe F4 fibrosis / cirrhosis of the pericellular type, the area of the Masson-positive extracellular molecular-fibrous matrix (H = 88,70 р = 0,05 and the area of αSMA + collagen-producing stellate cells of perisinusoidal-pericellular localization (H = 45,12, p = 0,05. According to the data of

  7. Chronic Respiratory Infection in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: What Is the Role of Antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Anzueto, Antonio

    2017-06-23

    Chronic infections are associated with exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The major objective of the management of these patients is the prevention and effective treatment of exacerbations. Patients that have increased sputum production, associated with purulence and worsening shortness of breath, are the ones that will benefit from antibiotic therapy. It is important to give the appropriate antibiotic therapy to prevent treatment failure, relapse, and the emergence of resistant pathogens. In some patients, systemic corticosteroids are also indicated to improve symptoms. In order to identify which patients are more likely to benefit from these therapies, clinical guidelines recommend stratifying patients based on their risk factor associated with poor outcome or recurrence. It has been identified that patients with more severe disease, recurrent infection and presence of purulent sputum are the ones that will be more likely to benefit from this therapy. Another approach related to disease prevention could be the use of prophylactic antibiotics during steady state condition. Some studies have evaluated the continuous or the intermittent use of antibiotics in order to prevent exacerbations. Due to increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the presence of side effects, several antibiotics have been developed to be nebulized for both treatment and prevention of acute exacerbations. There is a need to design long-term studies to evaluate these interventions in the natural history of the disease. The purpose of this publication is to review our understanding of the role of bacterial infection in patients with COPD exacerbation, the role of antibiotics, and future interventions.

  8. Sinonasal inhalation of tobramycin vibrating aerosol in cystic fibrosis patients with upper airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Jochen G; Schädlich, Katja; Schien, Claudia; Michl, Ruth; Schelhorn-Neise, Petra; Koitschev, Assen; Koitschev, Christiane; Keller, Peter M; Riethmüller, Joachim; Wiedemann, Baerbel; Beck, James F

    2014-01-01

    Rationale In cystic fibrosis (CF), the paranasal sinuses are sites of first and persistent colonization by pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pathogens subsequently descend to the lower airways, with P. aeruginosa remaining the primary cause of premature death in patients with the inherited disease. Unlike conventional aerosols, vibrating aerosols applied with the PARI Sinus™ nebulizer deposit drugs into the paranasal sinuses. This trial assessed the effects of vibrating sinonasal inhalation of the antibiotic tobramycin in CF patients positive for P. aeruginosa in nasal lavage. Objectives To evaluate the effects of sinonasal inhalation of tobramycin on P. aeruginosa quantification in nasal lavage; and on patient quality of life, measured with the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20), and otologic and renal safety and tolerability. Methods Patients were randomized to inhalation of tobramycin (80 mg/2 mL) or placebo (2 mL isotonic saline) once daily (4 minutes/nostril) with the PARI Sinus™ nebulizer over 28 days, with all patients eligible for a subsequent course of open-label inhalation of tobramycin for 28 days. Nasal lavage was obtained before starting and 2 days after the end of each treatment period by rinsing each nostril with 10 mL of isotonic saline. Results Nine patients participated, six initially receiving tobramycin and three placebo. Sinonasal inhalation was well tolerated, with serum tobramycin <0.5 mg/L and stable creatinine. P. aeruginosa quantity decreased in four of six (67%) patients given tobramycin, compared with zero of three given placebo (non-significant). SNOT-20 scores were significantly lower in the tobramycin than in the placebo group (P=0.033). Conclusion Sinonasal inhalation of vibrating antibiotic aerosols appears promising for reducing pathogen colonization of paranasal sinuses and for control of symptoms in patients with CF. PMID:24596456

  9. Celiac Disease in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis-Related Bone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Putman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both cystic fibrosis (CF and celiac disease can cause low bone mineral density (BMD and fractures. Celiac disease may occur at a higher frequency in patients with CF than the general population, and symptoms of these conditions may overlap. We report on two patients presenting with CF-related bone disease in the past year who were subsequently found to have concurrent celiac disease. Because adherence to a gluten-free diet may improve BMD in patients with celiac disease, this could have important implications for treatment. Clinicians should consider screening for celiac disease in patients with CF who have low BMD, worsening BMD in the absence of other risk factors, and/or difficult to treat vitamin D deficiency.

  10. SERS detection of the biomarker hydrogen cyanide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures isolated from cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Madsen Sommer, Lea Mette; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the primary cause of chronic airway infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Persistent infections are seen from the first P. aeruginosa culture in about 75% of young CF patients, and it is important to discover new ways to detect P. aeruginosa at an earlier stage...... long-term infection, a mutation in the patho-adaptive lasR gene can alter the expression of HCN, which is why it is sometimes not possible to detect HCN in the breath of chronically infected patients. Four P. aeruginosa reference strains and 12 clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from CF children...... were evaluated, and HCN was clearly detected from overnight cultures of all wild type-like isolates and half of the later isolates from the same patients. The clinical impact could be that P. aeruginosa infections could be detected at an earlier stage, because daily breath sampling with an immediate...

  11. Listening to motivational music while walking elicits more positive affective response in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Cakmak, Aslihan; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Bozdemir-Ozel, Cemile; Sonbahar-Ulu, Hazal; Arikan, Hulya; Yalcin, Ebru; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of motivational and relaxation music on affective responses during exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirty-seven patients with CF performed the 6-min walk test (6MWT) under three experimental conditions: listening to no music, relaxation music, and motivational music. 6-min distance × body weight product (6MWORK) was calculated for each trial. Patients' affective responses during exercise was evaluated with Feeling Scale (FS). The motivational qualities of music were evaluated with the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2). 6MWORK was significantly lower while listening to relaxation music compared to 6MWORK without music (p motivational music than 6MWT with relaxation music (p motivational music can lead to positive affective response during exercise and increase the enjoyment of patients from exercises in CF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CT analysis of the effect of pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasawa, Tae; Ogura, Takashi; Sakai, Fumikazu; Kanauchi, Tetsu; Komagata, Takanobu; Baba, Tomohisa; Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Morita, Satoshi; Yazawa, Takuya; Inoue, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Pirfenidone is a new, anti-fibrotic drug used for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of computed tomography (CT) in the imaging assessment of the response to pirfenidone therapy. Materials and methods: Subjects were 78 patients with IPF who underwent CT on two occasions with one-year interval (38 consecutive patients treated with pirfenidone and 40 age-matched control). Changes in the fibrous lesion on sequential CTs were assessed as visual score by two radiologists. We measured the volume and change per year of fibrous pattern (F-pattern) quantitatively using a computer-aided system on sequential CTs. Results: The baseline vital capacity (%pred VC) was 74.0 ± 14.0% in the pirfenidone group and 74.6 ± 16.6% in controls (p = NS). Deterioration of respiratory status was defined as 10% or greater decline in %pred VC value after 12-month treatment. A significantly larger proportion of pirfenidone-treated patients showed stable respiratory status (21 of 38, 65.6%) than the control (15 of 40, 37.5%). The change in fibrous lesion was significantly smaller in the pirfenidone group than the control in both of visual score (p = 0.006) and computer analysis (p < 0.001). The decline in VC correlated significantly with the increase in fibrotic lesion (p < 0.001). Conclusion: CT can be used to assess pirfenidone-induced slowing of progression of pulmonary fibrosis.

  13. Fibrosis assessment in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Pathik; Ryan, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver morbidity and mortality worldwide. While a proportion of the 250 million individuals chronically infected with HBV will not come to significant harm or require therapy, many others risk developing complications of the end-stage liver disease such as decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), without intervention. Due to the complex natural history of HBV infection, patients require an expert assessment to interpret biochemistry, viral serology and appropriately stage the disease, and to initiate monitoring and/or therapy where indicated. The detection and quantification of liver fibrosis is a key factor for disease management and prognostication for an individual with HBV. The reliance on invasive liver biopsy to stage disease is diminishing with the advent of robust non-invasive blood- and imaging-based algorithms which can reliably stage disease in many cases. These tests are now incorporated into International guidelines for HBV management and relied upon daily to inform clinical judgement. Both blood- and imaging-based approaches have advantages over liver biopsy, including minimal risks, lower cost, better patient acceptance and speed of results, while disadvantages include lower diagnostic accuracy in intermediate disease stages and variability with co-existing hepatic inflammation or steatosis. This review outlines the methods of fibrosis assessment in chronic HBV infection and focuses on the most commonly used blood- and imaging-based non-invasive tests, reviewing their diagnostic performance and applicability to patient care. PMID:28251119

  14. CT analysis of the effect of pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasawa, Tae, E-mail: tae_i_md@wb3.so-net.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, Yokohama (Japan); Ogura, Takashi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, Yokohama (Japan); Sakai, Fumikazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, International Medical Center of Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Kanauchi, Tetsu [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, Saitama (Japan); Komagata, Takanobu [Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, Yokohama (Japan); Baba, Tomohisa [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, Yokohama (Japan); Gotoh, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Morita, Satoshi [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center (Japan); Yazawa, Takuya [Department of Pathology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology Yokohama City University, School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Pirfenidone is a new, anti-fibrotic drug used for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of computed tomography (CT) in the imaging assessment of the response to pirfenidone therapy. Materials and methods: Subjects were 78 patients with IPF who underwent CT on two occasions with one-year interval (38 consecutive patients treated with pirfenidone and 40 age-matched control). Changes in the fibrous lesion on sequential CTs were assessed as visual score by two radiologists. We measured the volume and change per year of fibrous pattern (F-pattern) quantitatively using a computer-aided system on sequential CTs. Results: The baseline vital capacity (%pred VC) was 74.0 ± 14.0% in the pirfenidone group and 74.6 ± 16.6% in controls (p = NS). Deterioration of respiratory status was defined as 10% or greater decline in %pred VC value after 12-month treatment. A significantly larger proportion of pirfenidone-treated patients showed stable respiratory status (21 of 38, 65.6%) than the control (15 of 40, 37.5%). The change in fibrous lesion was significantly smaller in the pirfenidone group than the control in both of visual score (p = 0.006) and computer analysis (p < 0.001). The decline in VC correlated significantly with the increase in fibrotic lesion (p < 0.001). Conclusion: CT can be used to assess pirfenidone-induced slowing of progression of pulmonary fibrosis.

  15. Lung fibrosis quantified by HRCT in scleroderma patients with different disease forms and ANA specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mancin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the prevalence of interstitial lung fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc and its relationship with the different clinical forms of disease and ANA specificities. Methods: fifty patients with SSc were submitted to pulmonary high resolution computed tomography (HRCT. Lung abnormalities were evaluated according to Warrick’s score that considers both the severity and the extent of fibrotic lesions. Results: pulmonary HRCT abnormalities were observed in 84% of SSc patients. Ground glass aspects (60%, irregular pleural margins (56% and septal/subpleural lines (68% were the most common lesions. The distribution of these abnormalities favoured the posterior basilar segments of both lungs. HRCT findings were significantly more frequent in males and in patients with the cutaneous diffuse form of SSc and with the specific antibody anti-Scl70. Conclusions: HRCT is a very useful method for the diagnosis of interstitial lung fibrosis in SSc. Warrick’s score permits to quantify the HRCT findings and to evaluate their relationship with the disease clinical forms and ANA specificities.

  16. [Relation between gene mutations and pancreatic exocrine function in patients with cystic fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radivojević, D; Guć-Sćekić, M; Djurisić, M; Lalić, T; Minić, P; Kanavakis, E

    2001-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), is the most common autosomal-recessive disease in Caucasians, with an incidence of approximately 1:2500 live births and a carrier frequency of approximately 4-5%. Causes of the disease are mutations in the CF gene which is located on chromosome 7 (region 7q31). Although a single mutation, a deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (DF508) in exon 10, accounts for almost 70% of all CF chromosomes, over 900 other mutations have been identified in this large gene. CF gene encodes a membrane protein, which functions as aion channel- CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein). The exocrine pancreas is a gland that secretes water, enzymes and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. These enzymes are needed for the normal digestion of food, and their reduced secretion in cystic fibrosis will cause malabsortion and malnutrition in CF patients. Pancreatic dysfunction in CF begins in uteri. Most patients with CF typically present insufficient pancreatic exocrine function (PI phenotype) and 10-15% of CF patients are pancreatic sufficient (PS phenotype). It has been shown elsewhere that the pancreatic function status in CF could be correlated to mutations in the CFTR gene. To determine the relation between genotype and pancreatic status, we analyzed 32 CF patients in whom both CF gene mutant alleles were identified (Table 1). Patients included in this study attended the Paediatric Department of Mother and Child Health Institute in Belgrade. The diagnosis was based on typical clinical manifestations and high levels of sweat chloride concentration (higher than 60 mmol/L). Of the 32 patients studied, only one (3.12%) was PS and the rest (96.88%) had PI phenotype. For each CF genotype the number of patients who were PI or PS is given in Table 1. The most striking observation was that all given genotypes correlated with either PI or PS, but not with both. On the basis of both preceding hypotheses and our present data (Table 2 and Table 3), it was

  17. Diagnosis of chronic rhino sinusitis in patients with cystic fibrosis: correlation between anamnesis, nasal endoscopy and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boari, Leticia; Castro Junior, Ney Penteado de

    2005-01-01

    The sinonasal involvement is one of the most common manifestations in cystic fibrosis. Data show a high incidence of chronic rhino sinusitis in these patients. Although it has been found radiographic opacification of the sinus in more than 90% of cases, few are symptomatic. So that, it is difficult to recognize nasossinusal disease in patients with cystic fibrosis. Questionnaire, nasal endoscopy and CT-scan are very important methods in this approach. Aim: to evaluate the diagnosis of chronic rhino sinusitis in patients with cystic fibrosis by anamnesis, nasal endoscopy and CT-scan and compare those results.Study Design: Clinical prospective. Material and method: evaluation of 34 patients - older than 6 years and with a confirmed diagnoses of cystic fibrosis - by anamnesis (questionnaire), nasal endoscopy (score Lund-Kennedy) and CT-scan (score Lund-Mackay). Results: chronic rhino sinusitis was confirmed in: 20,58% of cases by the questionnaire, 73,52% of the cases by the nasal endoscopy and in 93,54% of the cases by the CT-scan. The results showed significant differences. The correlation between nasal endoscopy score (Lund-Kennedy score) and CT-scan score (Lund-Mackay score) was statistically significant. Conclusion: the diagnosis of chronic rhino sinusitis was statistically different between the three methods. It was higher in imaging analysis and lower in questionnaire. The nasal endoscopy is an excellent method to evaluate nasossinusal disease in cystic fibrosis. (author)

  18. Lymphocyte aggregates persist and accumulate in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd NW

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nevins W Todd,1,2 Rachel G Scheraga,1,3 Jeffrey R Galvin,1,4 Aldo T Iacono,1 E James Britt,1 Irina G Luzina,1,2 Allen P Burke,5,* Sergei P Atamas1,2,* 1Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Baltimore VA Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Critical Care Medicine Department, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a fatal lung disease with no known effective therapy. It is often assumed, but has not been objectively evaluated, that pulmonary inflammation subsides as IPF progresses. The goal of this work was to assess changes in the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration, particularly lymphocytic infiltration, over the duration of illness in IPF. Methods: Sixteen patients with confirmed IPF were identified in patients whom surgical lung biopsy (SLB was performed in early disease, and in patients whom lung transplantation was subsequently performed in end stage disease. A numerical scoring system was used to histologically quantify the amount of fibrosis, honeycomb change, fibroblastic foci, and lymphocyte aggregates in each SLB and lung explant tissue sample. Analyses of quantitative scores were performed by comparing paired, matched samples of SLB to lung explant tissue. Results: Median time [1st, 3rd quartiles] from SLB to lung transplantation was 24 [15, 29] months. Histologic fibrosis and honeycomb change were more pronounced in the explant samples compared with SLB (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively, and most notably, higher numbers of lymphocyte aggregates were observed in the explant samples compared to SLB (P = 0.013. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed abundant CD3+ (T lymphocyte and CD20+ (B

  19. Is co-morbidity taken into account in the antibiotic management of elderly patients with acute bronchitis and COPD exacerbations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, Jettie; Hak, Eelko; Birkhoff, Christine E; Hoes, Arno W; Verheij, Theo J M

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines on acute lower respiratory tract infections recommend restrictive use of antibiotics, however, in patients with relevant co-morbid conditions treatment with antibiotics should be considered. Presently, it is unknown whether GPs adhere to these guidelines and target antibiotic

  20. Factors affecting nebulised medicine adherence in adult patients with cystic fibrosis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Alice; Bonney, Mary-Ann; Brien, Jo-Anne; Karamy, Rita; Aslani, Parisa

    2015-02-01

    Nebulised medicines contribute to the high treatment burden experienced by patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study explored experiences of adult patients with CF when using nebulised medicines, factors impacting on their adherence to nebulised therapy and strategies they used to facilitate adherence. Community setting, in Sydney, Australia. Ten patients with CF were recruited through a CF patient organisation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted, addressing the study objectives. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and content analysed for anticipated and emergent themes. Experiences with using nebulised medicines; and barriers and facilitators of adherence to nebulised medicines. Participants' age ranged from 22 to 45 years, with half being male. Four broad themes (with more specific sub-themes) were identified from the interviews: experiences with using nebulised medicines (cleaning nebuliser, time taken to use nebuliser medicine, flexibility in use of nebuliser); feelings about using nebulised medicines (necessary/important, dislike, part of life); factors impacting non-adherence (time consuming therapy, side effects/effects of medicine, work/social demands, lack of perceived importance); factors and strategies facilitating adherence (perceived medicine importance, habit/routine, support, health benefits, technology/medicine dose form, timetabling). Nebulised therapy for cystic fibrosis patients takes a substantial amount of time, with patients trying to alter their routine to incorporate nebulising into their daily lives. However there are still many factors that lead to low adherence, including work/social demands and travelling. Patients balance the necessity for nebulised therapy against the barriers, and engage in intentional non-adherence at times. Future strategies and resources should target and address specific factors identified by patients with CF as being important and impacting their adherence to nebulised

  1. Antibiotic complications during the treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease in Australian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel P; Friedman, Deborah; Hughes, Andrew; Walton, Aaron; Athan, Eugene

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotics are the recommended first-line treatment for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease. Antibiotic toxicity is common in Australian patients, yet antibiotic complication rates and their risk factors have not been determined. To determine the incidence rate and risk factors for antibiotic toxicity in Australian patients treated for M. ulcerans disease. An analysis of severe antibiotic complications was performed using data from a prospective cohort of M. ulcerans cases managed at Barwon Health from 1 January 1998 to 30 June 2016. A severe antibiotic complication was defined as an antibiotic adverse event that required its cessation. Antibiotic complication rates and their associations were assessed using a Poisson regression model. A total of 337 patients was included; 184 (54.6%) males and median age 57 years (interquartile range (IQR) 36-73 years). Median antibiotic treatment duration was 56 days (IQR 49-76 days). Seventy-five (22.2%) patients experienced severe antibiotic complications after a median 28 days (IQR 17-45 days) at a rate of 141.53 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI) 112.86-177.47). Eleven (14.7%) patients required hospitalisation. Compared with rifampicin/clarithromycin combinations, severe complication rates were not increased for rifampicin/ciprofloxacin (rate ratio (RR) 1.49, 95% CI 0.89-2.50, P = 0.13) or rifampicin/moxifloxacin (RR 2.54, 95% CI 0.76-8.50, P = 0.13) combinations, but were significantly increased for 'other' combinations (RR 2.53, 95% CI 1.13-5.68, P = 0.03). In a multivariable analysis, severe complication rates were significantly increased with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rates (EGFR) (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 2.65, 95% CI 1.24-5.65 for EGFR 60-89 mL/min and aRR 1.31, 95% CI 0.49-3.53 for EGFR 0-59 mL/min compared with EGFR ≥90 mL/min, P antibiotic complications during M. ulcerans treatment are high with increased rates independently associated with reduced renal function and female

  2. Pulmonary function impairment in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with and without airflow obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitaguchi Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiaki Kitaguchi,1,2 Keisaku Fujimoto,3 Masayuki Hanaoka,1 Takayuki Honda,4 Junichi Hotta,2 Jiro Hirayama2 1First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Okaya City Hospital, Okaya, 3Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 4Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan Background: The syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE is a recently described entity associating upper-lobe emphysema and lower-lobe fibrosis. We sought to evaluate differences in pulmonary function between CPFE patients with and without airflow obstruction. Subjects and methods: Thirty-one CPFE patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of irreversible airflow obstruction based on spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <70% following inhalation of a β2-agonist as follows: CPFE patients with airflow obstruction (CPFE OB+ group, n=11, and CPFE patients without airflow obstruction (CPFE OB– group, n=20. Pulmonary function, including respiratory impedance evaluated using impulse oscillometry and dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation, was retrospectively analyzed in comparison with that observed in 49 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients (n=49. Results: In imaging findings, low-attenuation-area scores on chest high-resolution computed tomography, representing the degree of emphysema, were significantly lower in the CPFE OB– group than in the CPFE OB+ and COPD groups. In contrast, the severity of pulmonary fibrosis was greater in the CPFE OB– group than in the CPFE OB+ group. In pulmonary function, lung hyperinflation was not apparent in the CPFE OB– group. Impairment of diffusion capacity was severe in both the CPFE OB– and CPFE OB+ groups. Impulse oscillometry showed that respiratory resistance was not

  3. Evaluation of respiratory dynamics by volumetric capnography during submaximal exercise protocol of six minutes on treadmill in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzi, Paloma L F; Marson, Fernando A L; Ribeiro, Maria A G O; Schivinski, Camila I S; Ribeiro, José D

    2017-11-29

    Volumetric capnography provides the standard CO 2 elimination by the volume expired per respiratory cycle and is a measure to assess pulmonary involvement. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory dynamics of healthy control subjects and those with cystic fibrosis in a submaximal exercise protocol for six minutes on the treadmill, using volumetric capnography parameters (slope 3 [Slp3], Slp3/tidal volume [Slp3/TV], and slope 2 [Slp2]). This was a cross-sectional study with 128 subjects (cystic fibrosis, 64 subjects; controls, 64 subjects]. Participants underwent volumetric capnography before, during, and after six minutes on the treadmill. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests, considering age and sex. An alpha=0.05 was considered. Six minutes on the treadmill evaluation: in cystic fibrosis, volumetric capnography parameters were different before, during, and after six minutes on the treadmill; the same was observed for the controls, except for Slp2. Regarding age, an Slp3 difference was observed in cystic fibrosis patients regardless of age, at all moments, and in controls for age≥12 years; a difference in Slp3/TV was observed in cystic fibrosis and controls, regardless of age; and an Slp2 difference in the cystic fibrosis, regardless of age. Regarding sex, Slp3 and Slp3/TV differences were observed in cystic fibrosis regardless of sex, and in controls in male participants; an Slp2 difference was observed in the cystic fibrosis and female participants. The analysis between groups (cystic fibrosis and controls) indicated that Slp3 and Slp3/TV has identified the CF, regardless of age and sex, while the Slp2 showed the CF considering age. Cystic fibrosis showed greater values of the parameters before, during, and after exercise, even when stratified by age and sex, which may indicate ventilation inhomogeneity in the peripheral pathways in the cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2017

  4. Use of antibiotics in patients with Crohn's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jie Wen; Ma, Jing Jing; Zhang, Hong Jie

    2015-02-01

    Some studies have suggested that antibiotic treatment might be efficient for patients with active Crohn's disease (CD). However, the results are conflicting. The aim of this study was to summarize the available evidence on the efficacy of antibiotics, especially ciprofloxacin, in treating patients with CD. A literature search was conducted on the PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) for manuscripts published until March 2014. Randomized controlled trials that mainly evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with CD using clinical remission or response as the key outcome of interest were included. Intention-to-treat analyses were used to evaluate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In all, 15 randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials involving 1407 participants were included in the meta-analysis. A pooled analysis revealed that compared with placebo, antibiotics benefited CD patients to a certain extent (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.17-1.51, P antibiotics was beneficial for patients with CD. Nevertheless, subgroup analyses indicated that treatment with ciprofloxacin alone was significantly efficient for CD patients with perianal fistulas. © 2014 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Impact of an emergency medicine pharmacist on initial antibiotic prophylaxis for open fractures in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Somer; Brad Hall, A; Wilson, Kayla

    2018-02-01

    Targeted antibiotic treatment reduces the infection risk of open fractures when soft tissue and bone are exposed to the environment. The risk of infection increases with higher degrees of injury. The Gustilo-Anderson system was developed to identify the degree of injury of open fractures and can be utilized to guide initial antibiotic therapy. Few studies have been published evaluating the potential impact of emergency medicine pharmacists in trauma, and currently no study has evaluated a pharmacist's influence on antibiotic selection and timing for open fractures. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an emergency medicine pharmacist on initial antibiotic selection and timing in trauma patients with open fractures. This was a retrospective cohort study. Trauma alerts with open fractures from May 1, 2014 to June 30, 2016 were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was to determine if pharmacist participation during trauma resuscitation was associated with an increased proportion of initial antibiotic selection meeting guideline recommendations. The secondary outcome was the door-to-antibiotic administration time during resuscitation. Initial prophylactic antibiotic recommendations were met in 81% of trauma resuscitations when a pharmacist was present versus 47% without a pharmacist present (pfractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of cystic fibrosis gener product (CFTR) function in patients with pancreas divisum and recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelrud, Andres; Sheth, Sunil; Banerjee, Subhas; Weed, Deborah; Shea, Julie; Chuttani, Ram; Howell, Douglas A; Telford, Jennifer J; Carr-Locke, David L; Regan, Meredith M; Ellis, Lynda; Durie, Peter R; Freedman, Steven D

    2004-08-01

    The mechanism by which pancreas divisum may lead to recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis in a subset of individuals is unknown. Abnormalities of the cystic fibrosis gene product (CFTR) have been implicated in the genesis of idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to determine if CFTR function is abnormal in patients with pancreas divisum and recurrent acute pancreatitis (PD/RAP). A total of 69 healthy control subjects, 12 patients with PD/RAP, 16 obligate heterozygotes with a single CFTR mutation, and 95 patients with cystic fibrosis were enrolled. CFTR function was analyzed by nasal transepithelial potential difference testing in vivo. The outcomes of the PD/RAP patients following endoscopic and surgical treatments were concomitantly analyzed. Direct measurement of CFTR function in nasal epithelium in response to isoproterenol demonstrated that the values for PD/RAP were intermediate between those observed for healthy controls and cystic fibrosis patients. The median value was 13 mV for PD/RAP subjects, which was statistically different from healthy controls (22 mV, p= 0.001) and cystic fibrosis pancreatic sufficient (-1 mV, p < 0.0001) and pancreatic insufficient (-3 mV, p < 0.0001) patients. These results suggest a link between CFTR dysfunction and recurrent acute pancreatitis in patients with pancreas divisum and may explain why a subset of patients with pancreas divisum develops recurrent acute pancreatitis. Copyright 2004 American College of Gastroenterology

  7. Nebulized hypertonic saline via positive expiratory pressure versus via jet nebulizer in patients with severe cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-06-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline is a highly effective therapy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet 10% of patients are intolerant of hypertonic saline administered via jet nebulizer. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) nebulizers splint open the airways and offers a more controlled rate of nebulization.

  8. Clinical Predictors of Liver Fibrosis in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection From Children to Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Feng; Song, Shih-Hsi; Lee, Chee-Seng; Chen, Huey-Ling; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Hsu, Hong-Yuan; Wu, Tzee-Chung; Chang, Mei-Hwei

    2018-04-11

    This study aimed to elucidate predictors of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Transient elastography was performed to define liver stiffness in 533 patients with chronic HBV infection (mean age ± standard deviation, 30.72 ± 0.57 years). Protein array was performed on serum samples and lysates of Huh7 cells transfected with HBV mutants; the results were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding interleukin 1β (IL-1β) were examined in patients with chronic HBV infection with and without liver fibrosis. Male sex, age ≥18 years, and serum α-fetoprotein level >3.6 ng/mL were independent predictors of a liver stiffness measurement of ≥7 kPa (P = .005, .019, and rs16944 and the CC genotype at rs1143627 in the gene encoding IL-1β were associated with higher serum IL-1β levels and liver fibrosis. Male sex, age ≥18 years, elevated α-fetoprotein level, and HBeAg-negative hepatitis are risk factors for liver fibrosis. IL-1β is involved in the progression of liver fibrosis in subjects with HBeAg-negative hepatitis.

  9. Evaluation of Teriparatide for Treatment of Osteoporosis in Four Patients with Cystic Fibrosis: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranan Siwamogsatham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bone disease is a common complication of cystic fibrosis (CF. To date, there have been no reports on the effectiveness of teriparatide, recombinant human parathyroid hormone, to treat CF-related bone disease. Case Presentation. We report on four patients with CF-related bone disease who were treated with teriparatide. Three patients completed two years of therapy with teriparatide, and all had significant improvements in their bone mineral density (BMD. One patient was unable to tolerate teriparatide and discontinued treatment 1 week into therapy. Conclusion. Teriparatide may be a potential treatment option for CF-related bone disease. This report highlights the need for further investigation into the use of teripartide in the CF population.

  10. Lung transplantation for high-risk patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Nilto C; Julliard, Walker; Osaki, Satoru; Maloney, James D; Cornwell, Richard D; Sonetti, David A; Meyer, Keith C

    2016-10-07

    Survival for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and high lung allocation score (LAS) values may be significantly reduced in comparison to those with lower LAS values. To evaluate outcomes for high-risk IPF patients as defined by LAS values ≥46 (N=42) versus recipients with LAS values pulmonary complications was increased for the higher LAS group versus recipients with LAS <46, 30-day mortality and actuarial survival did not differ between the two cohorts. Although lung transplantation in patients with IPF and high LAS values is associated with increased risk of early post-transplant complications, long-term post-transplant survival for our high-LAS cohort was equivalent to that for the lower LAS recipients.

  11. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes restrict growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have increased susceptibility to chronic lung infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but the ecophysiology within the CF lung during infections is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vivo growth physiology of P. aeruginosa within lungs...... of chronically infected CF patients. A novel, quantitative peptide nucleic acid (PNA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH)-based method was used to estimate the in vivo growth rates of P. aeruginosa directly in lung tissue samples from CF patients and the growth rates of P. aeruginosa in infected lungs...... in a mouse model. The growth rate of P. aeruginosa within CF lungs did not correlate with the dimensions of bacterial aggregates but showed an inverse correlation to the concentration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) surrounding the bacteria. A growth-limiting effect on P. aeruginosa by PMNs was also...

  12. Chest computed tomography scores are predictive of survival in patients with cystic fibrosis awaiting lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Hop, Wim C. J.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Up to a third of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients awaiting lung transplantation (LTX) die while waiting. Inclusion of computed tomography (CT) scores may improve survival prediction models such as the lung allocation score (LAS). Objectives: This study investigated the association between...... CT and survival in CF patients screened for LTX. Methods: Clinical data and chest CTs of 411 CF patients screened for LTX between 1990 and 2005 were collected from 17 centers. CTs were scored with the Severe Advanced Lung Disease (SALD) 4-category scoring system, including the components "infection....../inflammation" (INF), air trapping/hypoperfusion (AT), normal/hyperperfusion (NOR) and bulla/cysts (BUL). The volume of each component was computed using semi-automated software. Survival analysis included Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox-regression models. Measurements and main results: 366 (186 males) out of 411...

  13. FEATURES OF METABOLIC INDEXES OF BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IN THE PATIENTS WITH EPIDURAL FIBROSIS FOLLOWING LUMBAR MICRODISCECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Isaeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A complex immunologic examination of fifty patients with clinically significant postoperative fibrosis has been performed. Immunogram indexes were determined, and activities of basic oxidation-reduction enzymes were investigated in blood lymphocytes. What concerned immune status of the patients under study, some peculiar features have been revealed, with respect to cellular and humoral compartments, i.e., relative increase in CD3+ population, a shift to CD4+ cells in the ratio of lymphocyte subpopulations, higher indexes of immune regulation and phagocytosis, increased IgG level, and lower content of IgA, as compared to appropriate controls. Metabolic parameters of lymphocytes reflect their functional activation, being expressed as an enhanced ability for intracellular synthetic processes, elevated functional activity of lymphocytes, and increased immune response. The general pattern of changes in immune status and metabolic indexes of lymphocytes allow us to assume participation of autoimmune component in progression of epidural fibrosis. The data obtained may be used in combined diagnostics and correction of this disorder. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 6, pp 589-592.

  14. A computerized education module improves patient knowledge and attitudes about appropriate antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika Leemann; Mackenzie, Thomas D; Metlay, Joshua P; Camargo, Carlos A; Gonzales, Ralph

    2011-12-01

    Over-use of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) increases antimicrobial resistance, treatment costs, and side effects. Patient desire for antibiotics contributes to over-use. To explore whether a point-of-care interactive computerized education module increases patient knowledge and decreases desire for antibiotics. Bilingual (English/Spanish) interactive kiosks were available in 8 emergency departments as part of a multidimensional intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. The symptom-tailored module included assessment of symptoms, knowledge about ARIs (3 items), and desire for antibiotics on a 10-point visual analog scale. Multivariable analysis assessed predictors of change in desire for antibiotics. Of 686 adults with ARI symptoms, 63% initially thought antibiotics might help. The proportion of patients with low (1-3 on the scale) desire for antibiotics increased from 22% pre-module to 49% post-module (pknowledge about antibiotics and ARIs. Learning correlated with changes in personal desire for antibiotics. By reducing desire for antibiotics, point-of-care interactive educational computer technology may help decrease inappropriate use for antibiotics for ARIs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and Profile of Fibrosis in Diabetic Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and the Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, Ignatius Bima; Hasan, Irsan; Wisnu, Wismandari; Rumende, Cleopas Martin

    2017-04-01

    the risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is increasing in patients with type-2 diabetes. Prevalence and factors related to the increased risk of NAFLD in diabetic patients in Indonesia has never been studied before. Data regarding the profile of fibrosis in the population has also been unknown. This study aimed to identify the difference on the profile of diabetic patients with and without NAFLD as well as the degree of fibrosis. the study was conducted using a cross-sectional method in type-2 diabetic patients who were treated at the outpatient clinic of endocrinology and metabolic division in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Sampling was done consecutively. Collected data comprised of age, duration of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, HDL, triglyceride, and HbA1C levels. Abdominal ultrasonography was conducted for all patients to determine the presence of NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD were subsequently underwent transient elastography in order to assess their degree of liver fibrosis. Chi-square or Fisher's-Exact tests were used for bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. as many as 186 patients were analyzed in the study and 84 patients (45.2%) were demonstrated to have NAFLD. Transient elastography examinations were carried out in 68 patients and 17 patients (25.0%) were found with severe fibrosis. Univariate analysis showed significant differences on BMI (PR=1.878; 95%CI= 1.296-2.721; pdiabetic patients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital has reached 45.2% and 25.0% among them had severe fibrosis. BMI is the only factor found to be associated with the occurrence of NAFLD.

  16. Arteriovenous fistula stenosis in hemodialysis patients is characterized by an increased adventitial fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Simona; Loverre, Antonia; Cariello, Marica; Divella, Chiara; Castellano, Giuseppe; Gesualdo, Loreto; Pertosa, Giovanni; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) stenosis is the major cause of vascular access failure in hemodialysis. Adventitial remodeling has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AVF stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate adventitial fibrosis in stenotic AVF and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Forty-four patients undergoing surgery for AVF creation were examined; ten presented AVF failure, with histological-proven AVF stenosis. In stenotic AVF we observed a significant increase of adventitia extracellular matrix deposition and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)(+) cell numbers; most of these cells were myofibroblast (α-SMA(+)/vimentin(+)). Phosphorylated platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (p-PDGFRβ) was significantly increased within the adventitia of stenotic compared to native AVF, along with a marked increase in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, two key kinases in PDGFRβ signalling. Myofibroblasts were the main cell type associated with the activation of p-PDGFRβ. At the same time, we observed a significant adventitial vessels rarefaction in stenotic AVF, as demonstrated by a reduced CD34 expression. This event was associated with a marked reduction in the expression of KDR/fetal liver kinase-1, the main vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. The degree of adventitial fibrosis was directly correlated with the extent of adventitial α-SMA and inversely associated with adventitial CD34 expression. Finally, we observed an increase in CD34(+)/α-SMA(+) cells within the adventitia of failed AVF. This study suggests that AVF failure is associated with an increased adventitial fibrosis, myofibroblast activation and capillary rarefaction, potentially linked with endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In this scenario, our data suggest that PDGF may play a pathogenic role.

  17. Antibiotic treatment and mortality in patients with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis or bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thønnings, S; Knudsen, J D; Schønheyder, H C

    2016-01-01

    . monocytogenes infections including the efficacy of empiric and definitive antibiotic therapies. Demographic, clinical and biochemical findings, antibiotic treatment and 30-day mortality for all episodes of L. monocytogenes bacteraemia and/or meningitis were collected by retrospective medical record review...... in the North Denmark Region and the Capital Region of Denmark (17 hospitals) from 1997 to 2012. Risk factors for 30-day all-cause mortality were assessed by logistic regression. The study comprised 229 patients (median age: 71 years), 172 patients had bacteraemia, 24 patients had meningitis and 33 patients had...... both. Significant risk factors for 30-day mortality were septic shock (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.4), altered mental state (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.6) and inadequate empiric antibiotic therapy (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.1). Cephalosporins accounted for 90% of inadequately treated cases. Adequate definitive...

  18. Clinical impact of depression and anxiety in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jin Lee

    Full Text Available Although depression and anxiety represent significant yet treatable comorbidities in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, their impact on the clinical course and prognosis of IPF remain unclear.We investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of depression and anxiety in patients with IPF.The present study included a prospective cohort comprising 112 Korean patients with IPF who had completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire.Symptoms of depression and anxiety were present in 25.9% and 21.4% of patients with IPF, respectively (HADS scores ≥8. No significant differences in demographic data, age, sex, smoking status, Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MMRC scores, pulmonary function tests, or Gender-Age-Physiology Index for IPF were observed between patients with depression or anxiety and those without. However, in patients with anxiety, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ scores were significantly higher than those of patients without anxiety (40.5 versus 23.5; p = 0.003. The survival rate and total number of hospital admissions did not significantly differ between patients with depression/anxiety and those without.Our findings indicate that depression and anxiety are relatively common in patients with IPF. Although no significant differences were noted with regard to survival rate and hospitalization, the present study suggests that depression and anxiety significantly influence quality of life in patients with IPF.

  19. Experience with perioperative pirfenidone for lung cancer surgery in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takekazu; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Nagato, Kaoru; Nakajima, Takahiro; Suzuki, Hidemi; Tagawa, Tetsuzo; Mizobuchi, Teruaki; Ota, Satoshi; Nakatani, Yukio; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive diffuse lung disease associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Patients with IPF sometimes develop a life-threatening acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) after lung cancer surgery. In this retrospective study, pirfenidone, an antifibrotic agent, was perioperatively administered to IPF patients with lung cancer with the aim of preventing postoperative AE-IPF, and the feasibility and clinical outcomes were investigated. Twelve IPF patients with concomitant lung cancer who received perioperative pirfenidone treatment (PPT) for lung cancer surgery were retrospectively investigated. Sixteen IPF patients undergoing lung cancer surgery without PPT were analyzed as historical controls. Compared to the controls, the PPT patients had a more severely impaired preoperative pulmonary function and a larger number of limited pulmonary resections. There was a significant preoperative decrease in the serum KL-6 levels of the PPT patients. No severe pirfenidone-related complications or IPF-related events occurred in the PPT patients, while six control patients developed AE-IPF (P = 0.0167). A quantitative histopathological evaluation of resected lung specimens found that tissue changes associated with IPF were significantly fewer in the PPT patients (P = 0.021). PPT is a feasible perioperative treatment for IPF patients with lung cancer. Its effectiveness in preventing postoperative AE-IPF thus warrants prospective verification.

  20. Intestinal fibrosis is reduced by early elimination of inflammation in a mouse model of IBD: impact of a "Top-Down" approach to intestinal fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura A; Luke, Amy; Sauder, Kay; Moons, David S; Horowitz, Jeffrey C; Higgins, Peter D R

    2012-03-01

    The natural history of Crohn's disease follows a path of progression from an inflammatory to a fibrostenosing disease, with most patients requiring surgical resection of fibrotic strictures. Potent antiinflammatory therapies reduce inflammation but do not appear to alter the natural history of intestinal fibrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between intestinal inflammation and fibrogenesis and the impact of a very early "top-down" interventional approach on fibrosis in vivo. In this study we removed the inflammatory stimulus from the Salmonella typhimurium mouse model of intestinal fibrosis by eradicating the S. typhimurium infection with levofloxacin at sequential timepoints during the infection. We evaluated the effect of this elimination of the inflammatory stimulus on the natural history of inflammation and fibrosis as determined by gross pathology, histopathology, mRNA expression, and protein expression. Fibrogenesis is preceded by inflammation. Delayed eradication of the inflammatory stimulus by antibiotic treatment represses inflammation without preventing fibrosis. Early intervention significantly ameliorates but does not completely prevent subsequent fibrosis. This study demonstrates that intestinal fibrosis develops despite removal of an inflammatory stimulus and elimination of inflammation. Early intervention ameliorates but does not abolish subsequent fibrosis, suggesting that fibrosis, once initiated, is self-propagating, suggesting that a very early top-down interventional approach may have the most impact on fibrostenosing disease. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  1. Use of antibiotics and the prevalence of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in patients with spinal cord injuries: an international, multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S; Santullo, P; Hirani, S P; Kumar, N; Chowdhury, J R; García-Forcada, A; Recio, M; Paz, F; Zobina, I; Kolli, S; Kiekens, C; Draulans, N; Roels, E; Martens-Bijlsma, J; O'Driscoll, J; Jamous, A; Saif, M

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the use of antibiotics and the extent of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). To record the use of antibiotics, establish the prevalence of AAD and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and assess if there was any seasonal variation in antibiotic use and incidence of AAD in patients with SCIs. A retrospective study was conducted in six European SCI centres between October 2014 and June 2015. AAD was defined as two or more watery stools (Bristol Stool Scale type 5, 6 or 7) over 24 h. In total, 1267 adults (median age 54 years, 30.7% female) with SCIs (52.7% tetraplegia, 59% complete SCI) were included in this study. Among the 215 (17%) patients on antibiotics, the top three indications for antibiotics were urinary tract infections (UTIs), infected pressure ulcers and other skin infections. Thirty-two of these 215 (14.9%) patients developed AAD and two patients out of the total study population (2/1267; 0.16%) developed CDI. AAD was more common in summer than in spring, autumn or winter (30.3% vs 3.8%, 7.4% and 16.9%, respectively; Pantibiotic use and high-risk antibiotic use. Summer and winter seasons and male sex were identified as independent predictors for the development of AAD. This survey found that AAD is common in patients with SCIs, and UTI is the most common cause of infection. Summer and winter seasons and male sex are unique predictors for AAD. Both AAD and UTIs are potentially preventable; therefore, further work should focus on preventing the over-use of antibiotics, and developing strategies to improve hospital infection control measures. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictive factors for the severity of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C and moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vădan, Roxana; Gheorghe, Liana; Becheanu, Gabriel; Iacob, Răzvan; Iacob, Speranţa; Gheorghe, Cristian

    2003-09-01

    Among the histological lesions seen in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), the presence of steatosis, bile duct lesions and lymphoid aggregates are characteristic. Recent reports suggest that steatosis is an independent risk factor for liver fibrosis in CHC. The aim of our study was to determine the relative contribution of steatosis and moderate alcohol consumption to the severity of liver fibrosis in patients infected with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus. We evaluated the patients with biopsy proven CHC and no or only moderate alcohol intake (<40 g/day). The demographical parameters of the study population, the indices of alcohol consumption: erythrocyte median corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), the histological characteristics were noted and a statistical analysis was performed in order to determine the factors independently associated with severe fibrosis and with severe steatosis. From the 200 patients included in the study, 82 were males and 118 females, with a mean age of 47.75+/-10.42 years. At univariate analysis, advanced (grade 2, 3) fibrosis correlated with: the age at the time of biopsy, increased inflammatory activity (HAI), moderate/severe steatosis, alcohol intake, elevated GGT and MCV values. After multivariate logistic regression only age, HAI and steatosis were independently associated with advanced fibrosis stage. Regarding hepatic steatosis, from the factors found to correlate with severe steatosis at univariate analysis (alcohol intake, elevated GGT and MCV levels, severe fibrosis), after multivariate logistic regression only the elevated level of GGT was an independent prognostic factor for severe steatosis. Steatosis is an important risk factor for the severity of liver disease in CHC patients. Among patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection and moderate alcohol intake, those with serum levels of GGT over two times the normal value are at high risk for severe steatosis.

  3. Plasmid metagenomics reveals multiple antibiotic resistance gene classes among the gut microbiomes of hospitalised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jitwasinkul, Tossawan; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes are rapidly spread between pathogens and the normal flora, with plasmids playing an important role in their circulation. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance plasmids in the gut microbiome of hospitalised patients. Stool samples were collected from seven...... inpatients at Siriraj Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand) and were compared with a sample from a healthy volunteer. Plasmids from the gut microbiomes extracted from the stool samples were subjected to high-throughput DNA sequencing (GS Junior). Newbler-assembled DNA reads were categorised into known and unknown...... in the gut microbiome; however, it was difficult to link these to the antibiotic resistance genes identified. That the antibiotic resistance genes came from hospital and community environments is worrying....

  4. Value of five noninvasive diagnostic techniques and their combinations in diagnosis of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the correlation of aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI, FIB-4, Forns index, S index, and FibroScan with the degree of liver fibrosis, the diagnostic value of these techniques used alone or in combination, and the clinical value of these noninvasive techniques in the assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 91 patients with pathologically confirmed CHB who visited General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and underwent liver biopsy from January 2009 to April 2015. According to the Scheuer pathological stage and liver fibrosis stage (S, the patients were divided into non-liver fibrosis group (a liver fibrosis stage of S0, 32 patients, mild liver fibrosis group (a liver fibrosis stage of <S2, 30 patients, and marked liver fibrosis group (a liver fibrosis stage of ≥S2, 29 patients. The APRI, FIB-4, Forns index, and S index were calculated, and liver stiffness was measured by FibroScan. An analysis of variance was used for the comparison of normally distributed continuous data between three groups, and the Dunnett t-test was used for further comparison between any two groups. The Spearman correlation analysis was also performed. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC were used to evaluate the value of these noninvasive techniques in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis. Results There were significant differences in age, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and platelet count between the three groups (F=3.552, 4.035, 4.374, and 5.992, all P<0.05, and there were significant differences in these parameters between the non-liver fibrosis group and the mild and marked liver fibrosis groups (P<0.05. There were significant differences in APRI, FIB-4, Forns index, S index, and FibroScan between the three groups (F

  5. Web-based symptom screening in cystic fibrosis patients: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzano, Julie; Fresenius, Ashley; Walker, Patricia; Berdella, Maria; Portenoy, Russell K; Bookbinder, Marilyn; Glajchen, Myra; Plachta, Amy; Langfelder-Schwind, Elinor; Chen, Jack; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) causes high illness burden. Screening may identify patients who could potentially benefit from interventions for symptoms or other sources of distress. We evaluated the feasibility of a web-based system for routine monitoring. Adult CF patients enrolled in a study of palliative care service delivery completed web-based assessments every 30 days on global distress, physical and psychological symptom distress, and the perceived benefits of discussing advance care planning (ACP) with CF clinicians. Feasibility was assessed by the rate of survey completion, survey reminders, and missed surveys during a 9-month rolling enrollment period. Of 74 participants (47.3% women, 94.4% white), 36.7% had comorbid diabetes, and 56.9% had an FEV1% predicted score of 40-69. In total, patients completed 456 (80.6%) of 566 surveys every 30 days over the assessment period. Sixty-five (87.8%) completed 405 (79.7%) of 508 surveys online and 9 (12.2%) completed 51 (88.0%) of 58 surveys using a combination of online, telephone, and mail-based methods. Many surveys were completed without reminders (online: 261 [64.4%] of 405; combined methods: 29 [56.9%] of 51), with 166 (36.4%) surveys requiring 1 or more reminders. Further, 23.0% (17) of patients noted elevated global distress; 20.3% (15) endorsed physical symptom distress, 12.2% (9) had psychological distress, and 58.1% (43) reported that discussing ACP would be beneficial. Repeated web-based screening for symptom distress and ACP preferences is feasible in adult CF patients. Future studies should assess the system's generalizability and staff resources when implementing reminders and non-web methods of completion. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of Correlation between Sweat Chloride Levels and Clinical Features of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Manzoor A; Khan, Mosin S; Malik, Showkat A; Raina, Ab Hameed; Makhdoomi, Mudassir J; Bhat, Javed I; Mudassar, Syed

    2016-12-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder and the incidence of this disease is undermined in Northern India. The distinguishable salty character of the sweat belonging to individuals suffering from CF makes sweat chloride estimation essential for diagnosis of CF disease. The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the relationship of sweat chloride levels with clinical features and pattern of CF. A total of 182 patients, with clinical features of CF were included in this study for quantitative measurement of sweat chloride. Sweat stimulation and collection involved pilocarpine iontophoresis based on the Gibson and Cooks methodology. The quantitative estimation of chloride was done by Schales and Schales method with some modifications. Cystic Fibrosis Trans Membrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutation status was recorded in case of patients with borderline sweat chloride levels to correlate the results and for follow-up. Out of 182 patients having clinical features consistent with CF, borderline and elevated sweat chloride levels were present in 9 (5%) and 41 (22.5%) subjects respectively. Elevated sweat chloride levels were significantly associated with wheeze, Failure To Thrive (FTT), history of CF in Siblings, product of Consanguineous Marriage (CM), digital clubbing and steatorrhoea on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis only wheeze, FTT and steatorrhoea were found to be significantly associated with elevated sweat chloride levels (p<0.05). Among the nine borderline cases six cases were positive for at least two CFTR mutations and rest of the three cases were not having any mutation in CFTR gene. The diagnosis is often delayed and the disease is advanced in most patients at the time of diagnosis. Sweat testing is a gold standard for diagnosis of CF patients as genetic mutation profile being heterozygous and unlikely to become diagnostic test.

  7. Evaluation of Medication-related Self-care Skills in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kelsey Lackey; John, Barnabas; Condren, Michelle; Carter, Sandra M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) increases, the focus on ensuring success with medication therapies is increasingly important. The ability of patients to autonomously manage medications and related therapies is poorly described in the literature. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this project was to assess the level of medication-related knowledge and self-care skills in patients with CF. METHODS: This project took place in a Cystic Fibrosis Foundation accredited affiliate center. Eighty-nine patients between the ages of 6 and 60 were eligible to participate based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pharmacists administered a 16-item questionnaire and detailed medication history during clinic visits from January through May 2014. RESULTS: Forty-five patients 6 to 41 years old participated in the study. The skills most often performed independently were preparing nebulizer treatments (85%) and telling someone if they feel their medicines are causing a problem (89%). Skills least often performed were carrying a medication list (82%) and bringing a medication list to appointments (76%). In respondents 21 years of age and older, less than 75% of respondents were involved with obtaining financial resources, maintaining equipment, carrying a medication list, or rinsing their mouth after using inhaled medicines. Participants were able to provide drug name, dose, and frequency of use for pancreatic enzymes and azithromycin 37% and 24% of the time, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In the population surveyed, many medication-related skills had not been acquired by early adulthood. Assessing and providing education for medication-related self-care skills at all ages are needed.

  8. The pattern of infection and antibiotics use in terminal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.A.; Al-Zahrani, A.S.; Sherisher, M.A.; Alnagar, A.A.; EL-Shentenawy, A.; El-Kashif, A.T.; Mohammed, A.A.; Alnagar, A.A.; EL-Shentenawy, A.; El-Kashif, A.T.; Sherisher, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although cancer patients are susceptible to infection, there is no evidence based published guideline on the appropriate use of antimicrobial treatment in this group of patients. Methods: We retrospectively collected medical records of all terminal cancer patients who died in the oncology department over a 15-month period and were reviewed for the pattern of infection and causes of antimicrobial use during the patients’ last admission of life. Results: A total of 258 eligible patients were enrolled, there was an equal distribution of males and females (M/F: 129/129), and the mean age was 60.5 years. 221 patients admitted with fever (85%), 22 patients (8.5%) got fever after hospitalization and 15 patients (5.8%) did not suffer from fever. Among patients with fever, 46 patients (18.9%) had two infection episodes and 197 patients (81.1%) had only one infection episode. The culture results revealed positive in 98 patients (40%) with gram-negative organisms were the dominant organisms. The major infection sites were the respiratory tract, urinary tract and wound. 114 patients (47%) received one antibiotic and 129 patients (53%) received more than one. The mean duration of hospitalization was significantly longer for infected patients than for uninfected patients (8.00 vs. 18.15 days, p= 0.0001). Outcome of antibiotic use revealed 42 patients (17.3%) with symptoms improved 71 patients (29.2%) with stationary symptoms and 130 patients (53.5%) revealed symptom deterioration. Conclusions: Our study revealed that antibiotic therapy for terminal cancer patients should be on a clear rationale. We need further study to clarify if there is survival effect with antibiotic use or not.

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteremia among Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Patients: Relation to Initial Antibiotic Therapy and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migiyama, Yohei; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kaku, Norihito; Harada, Yosuke; Yamada, Koichi; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Matsuda, Junichi; Izumikawa, Koichi; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. However, P. aeruginosa bacteremia in immunocompetent patients has also been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of P. aeruginosa bacteremia in relation to the immune status of the patients. The medical records of 126 adult patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia in Nagasaki University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed between January 2003 and December 2012. Of 126 patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia, 60 patients (47.6%) were classified as immunocompetent. Mortality in immunocompetent patients tended to be lower than in immunocompromised patients (7-day mortality, 8% vs. 30%, P antibiotic therapy (HR: 0.21, P immunocompromised, but not immunocompetent patients, initial appropriate antibiotic therapy was associated with lower mortality (30-day mortality 20.5% vs. 66.7%, P < 0.01 by log-rank test).

  10. Evaluation of the biomarker candidate MFAP4 for non-invasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis C patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bracht, Thilo; Mölleken, Christian; Ahrens, Maike

    2016-01-01

    in a retrospective study including n = 542 hepatitis C patients. We applied a univariate logistic regression model based on MFAP4 serum levels and furthermore derived a multivariate model including also age and gender. Youden-optimal cutoffs for binary classification were determined for both models without......). CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed the applicability of MFAP4 as a novel serum biomarker for assessment of hepatic fibrosis and identification of high-risk patients with severe fibrosis stages in hepatitis C. The combination of MFAP4 with existing tests might lead to a more accurate non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic...... fibrosis and allow a cost-effective disease management in the era of new direct acting antivirals....

  11. Molecular profiling of early stage liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieche, Ivan; Asselah, Tarik; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Vidaud, Dominique; Degot, Claude; Paradis, Valerie; Bedossa, Pierre; Valla, Dominique-Charles; Marcellin, Patrick; Vidaud, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, end-stage hepatitis (cirrhosis), and hepatocellular carcinoma have been extensively studied, but little is known of the changes in liver gene expression during the early stages of liver fibrosis associated with chronic HCV infection, that is, the transition from normal liver (NL) of uninfected patients to the first stage of liver fibrosis (F1-CH-C). To obtain insight into the molecular pathogenesis of F1-CH-C, we used real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to study the mRNA expression of 240 selected genes in liver tissue with F1-CH-C, in comparison with NL. The expression of 54 (22.5%) of the 240 genes was significantly different between F1-CH-C and NL; 46 genes were upregulated and 8 were downregulated in F1-CH-C. The most noteworthy changes in gene expression mainly affected the transcriptional network regulated by interferons (IFNs), including both IFN-α/β-inducible genes (STAT1, STAT2, ISGF3G/IRF9, IFI27, G1P3, G1P2, OAS2, MX1) and IFN-γ-inducible genes (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11). Interesting, upregulation of IFN-α/β-inducible genes (but not IFN-γ-inducible genes) was independent of histological scores (grade and stage of fibrosis) and HCV characteristics (hepatic HCV mRNA levels and the HCV genotype), and was specific to HCV (as compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV)). Other genes dysregulated in F1-CH-C, albeit less markedly than IFN-α/β- and IFN-γ-inducible genes, were mainly involved in the activation of lymphocytes infiltrating the liver (IFNG, TNF, CXCL6, IL6, CCL8, CXCR3, CXCR4, CCR2), cell proliferation (p16/CDKN2A, MKI67, p14/ARF), extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP9, ITGA2), lymphangiogenesis (XLKD1/LYVE), oxidative stress (CYP2E1), and cytoskeleton microtubule organization (STMN2/SCG10). Thus, a limited number of signaling pathways, and particularly the transcriptional network regulated by interferons, are dysregulated in the first

  12. The relation between bevacizumab injection and the formation of subretinal fibrosis in diabetic patients with panretinal photocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Cosar; Ozdamar, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    To report the development of subretinal fibrosis after the injection of intravitreal bevacizumab in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) refractory to panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP). Twenty-one eyes of 15 patients treated with PRP and intravitreal injection of bevacizumab were included in this study. The clinical outcomes of 21 eyes having subretinal fibrosis after intravitreal bevacizumab injection were reviewed. There were 9 men and 6 women with a mean age of 51.3 +/- 8.9 years. All eyes had PDR refractory to panretinal photocoagulation and were treated with at least one intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg of bevacizumab (mean number of injections: 1.8). Before injection, there was subretinal fibrosis in 5 eyes and vitreoretinal traction in 19 eyes. After a mean follow-up period of 7 months, the development or progression of subretinal fibrosis was detected in all eyes. Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab may cause formation or progression of subretinal fibrosis in patients with PDR refractory to PRP. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Prediction of liver-related events using fibroscan in chronic hepatitis B patients showing advanced liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Up Kim

    Full Text Available Liver stiffness measurement (LSM using transient elastography (FibroScan® can assess liver fibrosis noninvasively. This study investigated whether LSM can predict the development of liver-related events (LREs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients showing histologically advanced liver fibrosis.Between March 2006 and April 2010, 128 CHB patients with who underwent LSM and liver biopsy (LB before starting nucleot(side analogues and showed histologically advanced fibrosis (≥F3 with a high viral loads [HBV DNA ≥2,000 IU/mL] were enrolled. All patients were followed regularly to detect LRE development, including hepatic decompensation (variceal bleeding, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.The mean age of the patient (72 men, 56 women was 52.2 years. During the median follow-up period [median 27.8 (12.6-61.6 months], LREs developed in 19 (14.8% patients (five with hepatic decompensation, 13 with HCC, one with both. Together with age, multivariate analysis identified LSM as an independent predictor of LRE development [P19 kPa were at significantly greater risk than those with LSM≤19 kPa for LRE development (HR, 7.176; 95% CI, 2.257-22.812; P = 0.001.LSM can be a useful predictor of LRE development in CHB patients showing histologically advanced liver fibrosis.

  14. Respiratory infections by Achromobacter xylosoxidans in a cohort of Cystic Fibrosis patients: identification, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Lambiase

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections by Gram-negative bacteria such as Achromobacter xylosoxidans are recovered frequently in patients with Cystic Fibrosis. Aims of this study were to value the isolation frequency of A.xylosoxidans strains in a cohort of Cystic Fibrosis patients, to investigate their antimicrobial sensitivity and to establish possible clonal likeness among strains.A retrospective study was undertaken between January 2004 and December 2008 on 300 patients receiving care at the Regional Cystic Fibrosis Centre of “Federico II” University, Naples. Sputum samples were collected and selective media as well as commercial systems for bacterial identification were used. The activity of antimicrobial agents was determined using diffusion and micro-dilution methods. For DNA-fingerprinting, a genomic DNA macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was carried out. A total of 238 strains from 51 patients were isolated. Strains were resistant to aztreonam, about half of these were resistant to gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. They were sensitive to piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and also to carbapenems, quinolones, cephalosporines. Macrorestriction analysis applied on some isolates showed substantial heterogeneity among strains.Actually, the prognostic role of A. xylosoxidans in Cystic Fibrosis is unclear, but this finding must imply difficulties on therapeutic approach. So, it is need to be on the look out regard such microorganisms. Preliminary results of DNA-fingerprinting indicate no evidence of clonal likeness and then of patient-to-patient spread.

  15. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy prior to dental treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C W; Saad, T F

    1999-01-01

    In the United States, there is a large and growing population of patients undergoing dialysis because of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). These patients present special management considerations for dentists, including antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis (BE). ESRD patients, particularly those with an arteriovenous shunt for hemodialysis access, are predisposed to valvular endocarditis. Thus, BE prevention is the primary goal of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental or other invasive procedures in these patients. Bacteremia may predispose to infection of synthetic vascular access grafts, although this form of endovascular infection in ESRD patients has not been as well-characterized as BE. Antibiotic prophylaxis may be of some benefit for prevention of synthetic graft infections as well as BE. Poor dentist and physician compliance with BE prophylaxis regimens, as well as errors in dosing, timing, or duration of prophylaxis, have been reported. These problems are of particular concern in the treatment of chronically ill patients. In this article, we review the rationale for prophylactic antibiotic therapy prior to dental procedures in ESRD patients with vascular access. We also elaborate on the current American Heart Association guidelines for BE prophylaxis, and address special considerations for ESRD patients.

  16. Views on respiratory tract symptoms and antibiotics of Dutch general practitioners, practice staff and patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, H.J. van; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Verheij, T.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore views on respiratory tract symptoms (cough, sore throat and earache) and antibiotics of GPs, practice staff, and patients. METHODS: In a nationwide study, 181 GPs, 204 practice staff members and 1250 patients from 90 practices participated by answering 14 items relating to

  17. Frequency and antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated bacteria from positive blood culture of hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Vahedi

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: The most prevalent bacterial isolate among the blood cultures of patients was Pseudomonas. The patients more than 50 years were more susceptible to blood stream infections. The most bacteria were isolated from the internal medicine department of hospital. The antibiotic resistance was also increasing especially in Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus coagulase negative, Escherichia coil and Klebsiella

  18. Urinary tract infection in male general practice patients: uropathogens and antibiotic susceptibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijers, J.J.; Verbon, A.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Bartelds, A.; Donker, G.; Nys, S.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate uropathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in male general practitioner (GP) patients presenting with an uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Material and Methods: A population-based study was conducted among males, 18 years and older, general practice patients,

  19. An assessment of antibiotic therapy of urinary tract infection in elderly, hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaig, D J; Stewart, D; Harvey, Y; Downie, G; Scott, C J

    1995-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the antibiotic treatment actually received by elderly, hospitalised patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) with 'optimal' therapy (as gauged by compliance with antibiotic policy, infecting organism, sensitivity data, patient renal function and cost). UTI was more common in females and in catheterised patients and E.Coli was the commonest pathogen. Trimethoprim and co-amoxiclav were the drugs used most frequently for either empirical or sensitivity data-based treatment. In 96% of infections a drug with appropriate action was administered. Often, however, treatment could have been optimised by substituting a cheaper suitable antibiotic, by standardising duration of therapy and ensuring that doses were adjusted for renal impairment. Savings from the use of 'optimal' therapy were estimated at 17%. There is clearly considerable scope for positive input from the clinical pharmacist in this area.

  20. Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: A Retrospective Clinical Data Analysis of 30 Patients in a 10-year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jiang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF is an uncommon disease that is characterized by development of fibrosclerotic tissues involving retroperitoneal structures. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of 30 patients with RPF in a single center in Beijing in a 10-year period. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data on demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, radiological findings, modalities of treatments, outcomes and prognosis of 30 patients with RPF. Patients were treated in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital between January 2003 and December 2013. Results: The mean age of patients with RPF was 56.7 ± 14.4 years. Twenty-three patients were men and seven patients were women. Acute phase reactants were elevated in most patients. Rheumatic factor was positive in 4/25 (16.0% patients, and antinuclear antibody was positive in 6/22 (27.3% patients. Elevation of IgG4 was observed in 9/22 (40.9% patients. The most common type was I + III (n = 13, followed by I + II + III (n = 12. Five patients undertook an 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography examination and increased uptake was detected in four patients. Eight patients received combination therapy with glucocorticoids and tamoxifen. Surgical intervention treatments included intraureteral double-J stent implantation (n = 26, percutaneous nephrostomy (n = 2, open ureterolysis and intraperitonealization of the ureters (n = 5 and laparoscopic ureterolysis and intraperitonealization of the ureters (n = 5. Three patients underwent hemodialysis because of renal failure. Conclusions: Clinical characteristics of RPF patients in our study are similar to those previously reported. Steroids and immunosuppressive therapy combined with ureterolysis could be a viable choice of treatment for RPF. More prospective, multi-center studies with a longer follow-up are warranted.

  1. [Nocardia farcinica lung infection in a patient with cystic fibrosis and a lung transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, C F; Vicente, R; Ramos, F; Porta, J; Lopez Maldonado, A; Ansotegui, E

    2015-03-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis have a higher risk of developing chronic respiratory infectious diseases. The Nocardia farcinica lung infection is rare in this group of patients, and there are limited publications about this topic. Its diagnosis is complex, due to the clinical and the radiology signs being non-specific. Identification of the agent responsible in the sputum culture is occasionally negative. It is a slow growing organism and for this reason treatment is delayed, which can lead to an increase in complications, hospitable stays, and mortality. A case is reported on a 26 year-old woman with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung colonization by Nocardia farcinica and Aspergillus fumigatus, on long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and posaconazole, who was admitted to ICU after bilateral lung transplantation. The initial post-operative progress was satisfactory. After discharge, the patient showed a gradual respiratory insufficiency with new chest X-ray showing diffuse infiltrates. Initially, the agent was not seen in the sputum culture. Prompt and aggressive measures were taken, due to the high clinical suspicion of a Nocardia farcinica lung infection. Treatment with a combination of amikacin and meropenem, and later combined with linezolid, led to the disappearance of the lung infiltrates and a clinical improvement. In our case, we confirm the rapid introduction of Nocardia farcinica in the new lungs. The complex identification and the delay in treatment increased the morbimortality. There is a special need for its eradication in patients with lung transplant, due to the strong immunosuppressive treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Breathing pattern and chest wall volumes during exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis and COPD before and after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, H; Weingard, B; Lo Mauro, A; Schena, E; Pedotti, A; Sybrecht, G W; Aliverti, A

    2010-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF), cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often cause chronic respiratory failure (CRF). In order to investigate if there are different patterns of adaptation of the ventilatory pump in CRF, in three groups of lung transplant candidates with PF (n=9, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))=37+/-3% predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC)=32+/-2% predicted), CF (n=9, FEV(1)=22+/-3% predicted, FVC=30+/-3% predicted) and COPD (n=21, FEV(1)=21+/-1% predicted, FVC=46+/-2% predicted), 10 healthy controls and 16 transplanted patients, total and compartmental chest wall volumes were measured by opto-electronic plethysmography during rest and exercise. Three different breathing patterns were found during CRF in PF, CF and COPD. Patients with COPD were characterised by a reduced duty cycle at rest and maximal exercise (34+/-1%, pvolume (0.75+/-0.10 and 0.79+/-0.07 litres) (pvolumes increased significantly in patients with COPD and CF but not in those with PF. End-inspiratory volumes did not increase in CF and PF. The breathing pattern of transplanted patients was similar to that of healthy controls. There are three distinct patterns of CRF in patients with PF, CF and COPD adopted by the ventilatory pump to cope with the underlying lung disease that may explain why patients with PF and CF are prone to respiratory failure earlier than patients with COPD. After lung transplantation the chronic adaptations of the ventilatory pattern to advanced lung diseases are reversible and indicate that the main contributing factor is the lung itself rather than systemic effects of the disease.

  3. Imaging of Myocardial Fibrosis in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: Current Limitations and Future Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. M. Graham-Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD is driven by a different set of processes than in the general population. These processes lead to pathological changes in cardiac structure and function that include the development of left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular dilatation and the development of myocardial fibrosis. Reduction in left ventricular hypertrophy has been the established goal of many interventional trials in patients with chronic kidney disease, but a recent systematic review has questioned whether reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy improves cardiovascular mortality as previously thought. The development of novel imaging biomarkers that link to cardiovascular outcomes and that are specific to the disease processes in ESRD is therefore required. Postmortem studies of patients with ESRD on hemodialysis have shown that the extent of myocardial fibrosis is strongly linked to cardiovascular death and accurate imaging of myocardial fibrosis would be an attractive target as an imaging biomarker. In this article we will discuss the current imaging methods available to measure myocardial fibrosis in patients with ESRD, the reliability of the techniques, specific challenges and important limitations in patients with ESRD, and how to further develop the techniques we have so they are sufficiently robust for use in future clinical trials.

  4. Lung Ultrasonography in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Evaluation of a Simplified Protocol With High-Resolution Computed Tomographic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassalou, Evangelia E; Raissaki, Maria; Magkanas, Eleftherios; Antoniou, Katerina M; Karantanas, Apostolos H

    2018-03-01

    To compare a simplified ultrasonographic (US) protocol in 2 patient positions with the same-positioned comprehensive US assessments and high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) findings in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Twenty-five consecutive patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were prospectively enrolled and examined in 2 sessions. During session 1, patients were examined with a US protocol including 56 lung intercostal spaces in supine/sitting (supine/sitting comprehensive protocol) and lateral decubitus (decubitus comprehensive protocol) positions. During session 2, patients were evaluated with a 16-intercostal space US protocol in sitting (sitting simplified protocol) and left/right decubitus (decubitus simplified protocol) positions. The 16 intercostal spaces were chosen according to the prevalence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-related changes on high-resolution CT. The sum of B-lines counted in each intercostal space formed the US scores for all 4 US protocols: supine/sitting and decubitus comprehensive US scores and sitting and decubitus simplified US scores. High-resolution CT-related Warrick scores (J Rheumatol 1991; 18:1520-1528) were compared to US scores. The duration of each protocol was recorded. A significant correlation was found between all US scores and Warrick scores and between simplified and corresponding comprehensive scores (P idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The 16-intercostal space simplified protocol in the lateral decubitus position correlated better with high-resolution CT findings and was less time-consuming compared to the sitting position. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Effects of antibiotics on quorum sensing in pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skindersø, Mette Elena; Alhede, Morten; Phipps, Richard Kerry

    2008-01-01

    in animal infection models. Treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa with the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) has been demonstrated to improve the clinical outcome. Several studies indicate that AZM may accomplish its beneficial action in CF patients....... Three of the antibiotics tested, AZM, ceftazidime (CFT), and ciprofloxacin (CPR), were very active in the assay and were further examined for their effects on QS-regulated virulence factor production in P. aeruginosa. The effects of the three antibiotics administered at subinhibitory concentrations were...... by impeding QS, thereby reducing the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. This led us to investigate whether QS inhibition is a common feature of antibiotics. We present the results of a screening of 12 antibiotics for their QS-inhibitory activities using a previously described QS inhibitor selector 1 strain...

  6. NIKEI: a new inexpensive and non-invasive scoring system to exclude advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münevver Demir

    Full Text Available AIMS: To develop, validate and compare a non-invasive fibrosis scoring system for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD derived from routinely obtained clinical and biochemical parameters. METHODS: 267 consecutive patients with biopsy proven fatty liver or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were randomly assigned to the estimation (2/3 or validation (1/3 group to develop a model for the prediction of advanced fibrosis. Univariate statistics were performed to compare patients with and without advanced fibrosis, and following a multivariate logistic regression analysis a new scoring system was constructed. This non-invasive Koeln-Essen-index (NIKEI was validated and compared to the FIB-4 index by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. We evaluated a stepwise combination of both scoring systems for the precise prediction of advanced fibrosis. To set in contrast, we additionally tested the diagnostic accuracy of the AST/ALT ratio, BARD score and the NAFLD fibrosis score in our cohort. RESULTS: Age, AST, AST/ALT ratio, and total bilirubin were identified as significant predictors of advanced fibrosis and used to construct the NIKEI with an AUC of 0.968 [0.937; 0.998] compared to 0.929 [0.869; 0.989] for the FIB-4 index. The absence of advanced fibrosis could be confirmed with excellent accuracy (99-100%. The positive predictive value of the FIB-4 index was higher (100% vs. 60%, however, the false negative rate was also high (33%. With a stepwise combination of both indices 82%-84% of biopsies would have been avoidable without a single misclassification. The AUROC for AST/ALT ratio, the NAFLD fibrosis score, and the BARD score were 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.90, 0.96 (95% CI 0.92-0.99, and 0.67 (95% CI 0.55-0.78, respectively. CONCLUSION: The NIKEI can reliably exclude advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. In combination with the FIB-4 index misclassification with inadequate clinical management can be avoided while

  7. Conjunctival bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance pattern in patients undergoing cataract surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.R.; Modani, H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conjunctival bacterial flora and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern in eyes of patients undergoing cataract surgery. Conjunctival soap was obtained on the day of surgery before the application of topical anesthetic, antibiotic or povidone-iodine. Culture and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed. The data was analysed with X/sup 2/ and T tests. Of the 170 patients 89 cases (52.4%) had positive cultures in the eyes. In 79 eyes (88.8%) found coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS). Eighty two cases (95.3%) of isolated Staphylococcus were susceptible to Amikacin, 86 (100%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and 42 (48.8%) sensitive to Ceftazidime. Average susceptibility and resistancy to antibiotics was 2.6 (+-1.8) antibiotics in women and 1.6(+-1.4) in men (P= 0.009). This study showed that the bacterium most frequently found in the conjunctival flora of the patients undergoing cataract surgery was CoNS. Isolates of this bacterium had low CoNS susceptibility rates to Caftazidime and Vancomycin and high susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin and Amikacin. (author)

  8. Emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in patients with Fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Chao, Chien-Ming; Lin, Hsin-Lan; Hung, Ming-Chran; Lai, Chih-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the bacteriology and associated patterns of antibiotic resistance Fournier gangrene. Patients with Fournier's gangrene from 2008 to 2012 were identified from the computerized database in a medical center in southern Taiwan. The medical records of all patients with Fournier's gangrene were reviewed retrospectively. There were 61 microorganisms, including 60 bacteria and one Candida spp, isolated from clinical wound specimens from 32 patients. The most common isolates obtained were Streptococcus spp. (n=12), Peptoniphilus spp. (n=8), Staphylococcus aureus (n=7), Escherichia coli (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=7). Among 21 strains of gram-negative bacilli, five (23.8%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and three isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone. Two E. coli strains produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. Four of the seven S. aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant. Among 15 anaerobic isolates, nine (60%) were resistant to penicillin, and eight (53.3%) were resistant to clindamycin. Four (26.7%) isolates were resistant to metronidazole. The only independent risk factor associated with mortality was inappropriate initial antibiotic treatment (p=0.021). Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are emerging in the clinical setting of Fournier gangrene. Clinicians should use broad-spectrum antibiotics initially to cover possible antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  9. Ten-Year Survival in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis After Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Klooster, Liesbeth; Nossent, George D; Kwakkel-van Erp, Johanna M; van Kessel, Diana A; Oudijk, Erik J; van de Graaf, Ed A; Luijk, Bart; Hoek, Rogier A; van den Blink, Bernt; van Hal, Peter Th; Verschuuren, Erik A; van der Bij, Wim; van Moorsel, Coline H; Grutters, Jan C

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal fibrosing lung disease with a median survival of approximately 3 years after diagnosis. The only medical option to improve survival in IPF is lung transplantation (LTX). The purpose of this study was to evaluate trajectory data of IPF patients listed for LTX and to investigate the survival after LTX. Data were retrospectively collected from September 1989 until July 2011 of all IPF patients registered for LTX in the Netherlands. Patients were included after revision of the diagnosis based on the criteria set by the ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT. Trajectory data, clinical data at time of screening, and donor data were collected. In total, 98 IPF patients were listed for LTX. During the waiting list period, 30 % of the patients died. Mean pulmonary artery pressure, 6-min walking distance, and the use of supplemental oxygen were significant predictors of mortality on the waiting list. Fifty-two patients received LTX with a median overall survival after transplantation of 10 years. This study demonstrated a 10-year survival time after LTX in IPF. Furthermore, our study demonstrated a significantly better survival after bilateral LTX in IPF compared to single LTX although bilateral LTX patients were significantly younger.

  10. in pediAtriC CystiC FiBrosis pAtients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Gorski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive disease affecting the epithelial lining of the respiratory tract andexocrine glands (1-5. many children suffering from CF are often diagnosed and treated for various co-morbidities, includingchronic rhinosinusitis (Crs and nasal polyposis (np (3, 4, 6, 7, which will remain the focus of this article.Aim. the aim of this study was to examine the characteristic of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF admitted to the pediatricotolaryngology department due to coexisting chronic rhinosinusitis (Crs or nasal polyposis (np. the study focused on thedemographics, symptoms and management of children with CF with coexisting Crs and/or np. the data was then compared tothe results that had been presented in the literature.Material and methods. A retrospective study of 26 pediatric patients previously diagnosed with CF that were admitted to thedepartment of pediatric otolaryngology of the medical University of Warsaw between 2010 and 2015 was conducted. patients’medical histories were carefully reviewed. data on patients’ age, gender, symptoms and CF comorbidities were collected. thenumber and type of procedures performed on each patient were documented. Further assessment of the localization of polypswas performed in all np-positive patients.Results. the study included 26 patients (15 males and 11 females. mean age was 9 years. Crs and np was present in 100% and88.5% of the patients, respectively. 23 children underwent a total of 35 sinus surgeries due to Crs and/or np. 6 patients requiredone or more revision surgeries, with a total revision rate of 54.1%. Adenoidectomy (At and/or adenotonsillectomy (Att wasperformed in 10 patients. 5 children were disqualified from the surgery, due to various reasons. the most common localizationof np was maxillary sinus, followed by ethmoid sinus, sphenoid sinus, frontal sinus, and nasal cavity.Conclusions. due to a wide range of clinical findings in many organs

  11. Evolution of noninvasive tests of liver fibrosis is associated with prognosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergniol, Julien; Boursier, Jérôme; Coutzac, Clélia; Bertrais, Sandrine; Foucher, Juliette; Angel, Camille; Chermak, Faiza; Hubert, Isabelle Fouchard; Merrouche, Wassil; Oberti, Frédéric; de Lédinghen, Victor; Calès, Paul

    2014-07-01

    No data are available about the prediction of long-term survival using repeated noninvasive tests of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We aimed to assess the prognostic value of 3-year liver stiffness measurement (LSM), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis 4 (FIB-4) evolution in CHC. CHC patients with two LSM (1,000-1,500 days interval) were prospectively included. Blood fibrosis tests APRI and FIB-4 were calculated the day of baseline (bLSM) and follow-up (fLSM) LSM. Evolution of fibrosis tests was expressed as delta: (follow-up-baseline results)/duration. Date and cause of death were recorded during follow-up that started the day of fLSM. In all, 1,025 patients were included. Median follow-up after fLSM was 38.0 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 27.7-46.1) during which 35 patients died (14 liver-related death) and seven had liver transplantation. Prognostic accuracy (Harrell C-index) of multivariate models including baseline and delta results was not significantly different between LSM and FIB-4 (P ≥ 0.24), whereas FIB-4 provided more accurate prognostic models than APRI (P = 0.03). By multivariate analysis including LSM variables, overall survival was independently predicted by bLSM, delta (dLSM), and sustained virological response (SVR). Prognosis was excellent in patients having bLSM 0 kPa/year) in ≥ 14 kPa bLSM had the worst prognosis. Baseline and delta FIB-4 also identified patient subgroups with significantly different prognosis. Three-year evolution of noninvasive tests of liver fibrosis has a strong prognostic value in CHC patients. These tests should be repeated to monitor patients and predict their outcome. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. A Metagenomic and in Silico Functional Prediction of Gut Microbiota Profiles May Concur in Discovering New Cystic Fibrosis Patient-Targeted Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernocchi, Pamela; Del Chierico, Federica; Quagliariello, Andrea; Ercolini, Danilo; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Putignani, Lorenza

    2017-12-09

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting hereditary disorder that results in aberrant mucosa in the lungs and digestive tract, chronic respiratory infections, chronic inflammation, and the need for repeated antibiotic treatments. Probiotics have been demonstrated to improve the quality of life of CF patients. We investigated the distribution of gut microbiota (GM) bacteria to identify new potential probiotics for CF patients on the basis of GM patterns. Fecal samples of 28 CF patients and 31 healthy controls (HC) were collected and analyzed by 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis of GM, to produce CF-HC paired maps of the distribution of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and by Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biomarker prediction. The maps were scanned to highlight the distribution of bacteria commonly claimed as probiotics, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, and of butyrate-producing colon bacteria, such as Eubacterium spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. The analyses highlighted 24 OTUs eligible as putative probiotics. Eleven and nine species were prevalently associated with the GM of CF and HC subjects, respectively. Their KEGG prediction provided differential CF and HC pathways, indeed associated with health-promoting biochemical activities in the latter case. GM profiling and KEGG biomarkers concurred in the evaluation of nine bacterial species as novel putative probiotics that could be investigated for the nutritional management of CF patients.

  13. A Metagenomic and in Silico Functional Prediction of Gut Microbiota Profiles May Concur in Discovering New Cystic Fibrosis Patient-Targeted Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Vernocchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a life-limiting hereditary disorder that results in aberrant mucosa in the lungs and digestive tract, chronic respiratory infections, chronic inflammation, and the need for repeated antibiotic treatments. Probiotics have been demonstrated to improve the quality of life of CF patients. We investigated the distribution of gut microbiota (GM bacteria to identify new potential probiotics for CF patients on the basis of GM patterns. Fecal samples of 28 CF patients and 31 healthy controls (HC were collected and analyzed by 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis of GM, to produce CF-HC paired maps of the distribution of operational taxonomic units (OTUs, and by Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG biomarker prediction. The maps were scanned to highlight the distribution of bacteria commonly claimed as probiotics, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, and of butyrate-producing colon bacteria, such as Eubacterium spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. The analyses highlighted 24 OTUs eligible as putative probiotics. Eleven and nine species were prevalently associated with the GM of CF and HC subjects, respectively. Their KEGG prediction provided differential CF and HC pathways, indeed associated with health-promoting biochemical activities in the latter case. GM profiling and KEGG biomarkers concurred in the evaluation of nine bacterial species as novel putative probiotics that could be investigated for the nutritional management of CF patients.

  14. Improvement of health-related quality of life and work productivity in chronic hepatitis C patients with early and advanced fibrosis treated with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair M; Stepanova, Maria; Afdhal, Nezam; Kowdley, Kris V; Zeuzem, Stefan; Henry, Linda; Hunt, Sharon L; Marcellin, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    New interferon-free anti-HCV regimens are highly efficacious with a favorable safety profile. We assessed health-related quality of life (HRQL) and work productivity in patients with different stages of hepatic fibrosis treated with sofosbuvir+ledipasvir. Four questionnaires [Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-HCV (CLDQ-HCV), Short Form-36 (SF-36), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F), Work Productivity and Activity Index:Specific Health Problem (WPAI:SHP)] were administered at baseline, during, and after treatment with sofosbuvir+ledipasvir+ribavirin or sofosbuvir+ledipasvir (ION-1,2,3 clinical trials). Metavir fibrosis stage was determined from pre-treatment liver biopsies. There were 1005 patients included (stage F0: n=94; F1: n=311; F2: n=301; F3: n=197; F4: n=102). At baseline, patients with more advanced fibrosis had more HRQL impairments, predominantly related to physical functioning (stage 0 vs. stage 4 by up to 0.126 on a normalized 0-1 scale p0.05 across fibrosis stages). In multivariate analysis, advanced fibrosis was independently associated with impairment of HRQL and work productivity (beta up to -0.056 in comparison with none-to-mild fibrosis, pwork productivity after viral clearance was not related to the stage of fibrosis (all p>0.05). Although advanced hepatic fibrosis is associated with HRQL and work productivity impairment, viral eradication with sofosbuvir+ledipasvir leads to HRQL improvement regardless of fibrosis stage. HCV patients with early fibrosis experience similar improvement of patient reported outcomes as those with advanced fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of sinus surgery with intensive follow-up on pathogenic sinus bacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanaes, Kasper; von Buchwald, Christian; Hjuler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Most patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have chronic rhinosinusitis; their sinuses are often colonized with bacteria that can initiate and maintain deleterious pulmonary infections. Theoretically, eradication of the sinus bacteria should reduce the frequency of lung infections and thereby reduce...... pulmonary morbidity. This article addressed whether bacteria in CF sinuses are eligible for eradication by sinus surgery and postoperative treatment....

  16. Comparing the harmful effects of nontuberculous mycobacteria and Gram negative bacteria on lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Taylor-Robinson, David; Waldmann, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To better understand the relative effects of infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria and Gram negative bacteria on lung function decline in cystic fibrosis, we assessed the impact of each infection in a Danish setting. METHODS: Longitudinal registry study of 432 patients with cystic...

  17. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis in patients with IgG4-related kidney disease: pathological findings on repeat renal biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arai, Haruna; Hayashi, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kazuo; Koide, Shigehisa; Sato, Waichi; Hasegawa, Midori; Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Aten, Jan; Ito, Yasuhiko; Yuzawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Renal parenchymal lesions in patients with IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) are characterized by tubulointerstitial nephritis with storiform fibrosis and infiltration by high numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathological effects of

  18. Unusual distribution of Burkholderia cepacia complex species in Danish cystic fibrosis clinics may stem from restricted transmission between patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Fenger, Mette G

    2010-01-01

    Forty-four of 48 Burkholderia cepacia complex strains cultured from Danish cystic fibrosis patients were Burkholderia multivorans, a distribution of species that has not been reported before. Although cases of cross infections were demonstrated, no major epidemic clone was found. The species...

  19. Optimal Antibiotic Dosage for Chronic Kidney Disease Patient: A Pharmacological Manual for Oral Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Ramasamy

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease, (CKD) a gradual and inevitable deterioration in renal function, is the disease with the most associations in dentistry. Dosage adjustment is one amongst the vital elements to be familiar with during their oral care. CKD patients take extended duration to filter out medications, therefore dosage must always be tailored under the supervision of nephrologist. The relished benefits from antibiotic could transform as anti-microbial resistance on their abuse and nephrotoxic when contraindicated drugs are encouraged. New patented drug belonging to oxazoliodine group has driven the researchers to handle the emerging AMR. The present communication discusses the pharmacological factors influencing in prescribing the antibiotics for CKD patient from the dentist's point of view. The formulas destined for calculating the optimal dosage of antibiotics have been documented to aid oral physicians.

  20. Comparison of isolates and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in pediatric and adult cancer patients; is it different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhash, K; Bajpai, J; Gokarn, A; Arora, B; Kurkure, P A; Medhekar, A; Kelkar, R; Biswas, S; Gupta, S; Naronha, V; Shetty, N; Goyel, G; Banavali, S D

    2014-01-01

    Infection is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer patients. Organisms are becoming resistant to antibiotics; age appears to be one of the factors responsible. We analyzed common organisms and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in the correlation with age. This is a single institutional, retrospective analysis of all culture positive adult and pediatric cancer patients from January 2007 to December 2007. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test for trend was used and P values were obtained. Of 1251 isolates, 262 were from children 12 years of age). Gram-negative organisms were predominant (64.95) while Gram-positive constituted 35.09% of isolates. The most common source in all age groups was peripheral-blood, accounting to 47.8% of all samples. The most common organisms in adults were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.3%) while in children it was coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus (19.8%). Antibiotic sensitivity was different in both groups. In pediatric group higher sensitivity was seen for Cefoparazone-sulbactum, Cefipime, Amikacin, and Tobramycin. No resistance was found for Linezolid. The isolates in both children and adults were predominantly Gram-negative though children had proportionately higher Gram-positive organisms. High-dose cytarabine use, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, and frequent use of central lines in children especially in hematological malignancies could explain this observation. Children harbor less antibiotic resistance than adults; Uncontrolled, cumulative exposure to antibiotics in our community with increasing age, age-related immune factors and variable bacterial flora in different wards might explain the higher antibiotic resistance in adults. Thus age is an important factor to be considered while deciding empirical antibiotic therapy.

  1. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keravec, Marlene; Mounier, Jerome; Prestat , Emmanuel; Vallet, Sophie; Jansson, Janet K.; Bergaud , Gaetaqn; Rosec, Silvain; Gourious, Stephanie; Rault, Gilles; Coton, Emmanuel; Barbier, George; Hery-Arnaud, Geneveieve

    2015-08-09

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly more prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.

  2. The development of diabetes among Danish cystic fibrosis patients over the last two decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karin B; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Eriksen, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cystic fibrosis (CF)-related diabetes (CFRD) is correlated with age and has been associated with a decline in body mass index (BMI), pulmonary function, and survival. Over the last two decades, the focus has been on the early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes; therefore, in this study...... of a birth cohort consisting of 161 CF patients born between 1975 and 1994 and followed until 2011. RESULTS: Over two decades, the incidence of CFRD among 11- to 16-year-old children remained unchanged at 12-14%, while the proportion of children with chronic pulmonary infection at age 10 declined from 31...... to 8% (p pulmonary function, BMI or survival was identified when comparing CFRD...

  3. Change in fibrosis score as a predictor of mortality among HIV-infected patients with viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mamta K; Seremba, Emmanuel; Bhore, Rafia; Dao, Doan; Joshi, Reeti; Attar, Nahid; Yuan, He-Jun; Lee, William M

    2012-02-01

    Noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis, measured at baseline, have been shown to predict liver-related mortality. It remains unknown if a change in the value of the scores over time predicts mortality in patients with HIV and viral hepatitis. In this retrospective study, survival in HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV; n = 67), HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV; n = 43), and HIV/HBV/HCV (n = 41) patients was examined using Kaplan-Meier life table analysis. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB-4 scores, two noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis, were calculated at baseline and at last available clinical follow-up to determine the change in fibrosis score. Factors associated with mortality were assessed by Cox proportional hazards, including the change in the noninvasive marker score between the two time points. All-cause mortality was determined by Social Security Death Index and chart review. Sixty-seven were coinfected with HIV/HBV, 43 with HIV/HCV, and 41 were triply infected (HIV/HBV/HCV). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed similar survival for the three groups at 7 years of follow-up (p = 0.10). However, median length of follow-up was lower in HIV/HCV (60.5; range 0-102) compared to HIV/HBV (75.7; 12.3-126.5) and HIV/HBV/HCV (80.0; 2.7-123) months, respectively, p = 0.02. Baseline fibrosis score (p = 0.002), an increase in the value for noninvasive measurements for fibrosis (p < 0.001), and the presence of HIV/HCV coinfection (p = 0.041) were each associated with higher risk for mortality. Baseline fibrosis score (p = 0.03) and an increase in FIB-4 score (p = 0.05) were independent predictors of all-cause mortality, but liver-related mortality was not evaluated. In this study, baseline fibrosis score was predictive of 7-year all-cause mortality. Further studies are needed in a prospective cohort to evaluate the predictive value of monitoring changes in fibrosis scores over time to predict mortality in patients with viral hepatitis.

  4. Role of hyaluronic acid and laminin as serum markers for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of serum HA and LN as serum markers for predicting significant fibrosis in CHB patients. METHODS: Serum HA and LN levels of 87 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 19 blood donors were assayed by RIA. Liver fibrosis stages were determined according to the Metavir scoring-system. The diagnostic performances of all indexes were evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. RESULTS: Serum HA and LN concentrations increased significantly with the stage of hepatic fibrosis, which showed positive correlation with the stages of liver fibrosis (HA: r = 0.875, p < 0.001; LN: r = 0.610, p < 0.001. There were significant differences of serum HA and LN levels between F2-4 group in comparison with those in F0-F1 group (p < 0.001 and controls (p < 0.001, respectively. From ROC curves, 185.3 ng/mL as the optimal cut-off value of serum HA for diagnosis of significant fibrosis, giving its sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR- and AC of 84.2%, 83.3%, 90.6%, 73.5%, 5.04, 0.19 and 83.9, respectively. While 132.7 ng/mL was the optimal cut-off value of serum LN, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR- and AC were 71.9%, 80.0%, 87.2%, 60.0%, 3.59%, 0.35% and 74.7, respectively. Combinations of HA and LN by serial tests showed a perfect specificity and PPV of 100%, at the same time sensitivity declined to 63.2% and LR+ increased to 18.9, while parallel tests revealed a good sensitivity of 94.7%, NPV to 86.4%, and LR- declined to 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: Serum HA and LN concentrations showed positive correlation with the stages of liver fibrosis. Detection of serum HA and LN in predicting significant fibrosis showed good diagnostic performance, which would be further optimized by combination of the two indices. HA and LN would be clinically useful serum markers for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B, when liver biopsy is

  5. Case series of omalizumab for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nové-Josserand, Raphaële; Grard, Soazic; Auzou, Lila; Reix, Philippe; Murris-Espin, Marlène; Brémont, François; Mammar, Benyebka; Mely, Laurent; Hubert, Dominique; Durieu, Isabelle; Burgel, Pierre-Régis

    2017-02-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) affects up to 15% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Corticosteroids are used as first-line therapy, but relapse and adverse effects commonly occur. Case reports have suggested the efficacy of the anti-IgE recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody omalizumab. A retrospective multicenter observational French study retrieved 32 CF patients (11 children and 21 adults) who have received omalizumab for more than 3 months in the context of ABPA. Clinical characteristics, concomitant medications (inhaled and oral corticosteroids, antifungal drugs), lung function, body mass index (BMI), and serum IgE were compared at the start and during the first year of omalizumab therapy. Omalizumab-related adverse effects and costs were also evaluated. No significant difference with omalizumab could be demonstrated with regard to lung function, BMI, or the number of patients receiving oral corticosteroids. At the time of initiation of omalizumab, 56% of patients were receiving oral corticosteroids. Five patients were able to discontinue corticosteroids during follow-up and nine patients were able to reduce their daily dose. A total of 78% of the patients had received antifungal therapy at the time of the initiation of omalizumab. Treatment tolerance was good (12.5% of patients experienced side effects). The median cost of omalizumab treatment was €3,620 per patient per month. Omalizumab may represent a steroid-sparing therapy in CF patients with ABPA. A randomized-controlled trial is urgently required to provide higher level of evidence regarding the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of omalizumab in CF patients with ABPA. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:190-197. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Preemptive antibiotic treatment based on gram staining reduced the incidence of ARDS in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Asako; Tasaki, Osamu; Shimizu, Kentaro; Tomono, Kazunori; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2008-08-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the major complications in the intensive care unit. VAP sometimes results in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the associated mortality is high. We hypothesized that preemptive antibiotic therapy based on results of bedside gram staining would reduce the incidence of VAP. Patients who were endotracheally intubated in our intensive care unit for more than 72 hours were included. Patients younger than 16 years of age or patients died because of brain death were excluded. The study was divided into two periods. During the first period, we used antibiotics according to the American Thoracic Society guidelines. During the second period, antibiotics were given according to the results of bedside gram staining even before radiographic infiltrate appeared. One hundred twenty-eight patients and 133 patients were included in the first and second periods, respectively. The incidence of VAP was significantly decreased in the second period (first period, 22%; second period, 9%, p gram staining significantly reduced the incidences of VAP and ARDS without an increase in the use of antibiotics.

  7. Association of MICA gene polymorphisms with liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis patients in the Dongting Lake region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zheng; Luo, Qi-Zhi; Lin, Lin [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Su, Yu-Ping; Peng, Hai-Bo [Central Blood Bank in Yueyang, Yueyang, Hunan Province (China); Du, Kun; Yu, Ping [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Wang, Shi-Ping [Key Laboratory of Schistosomiasis in Hunan, Department of Parasitology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China)

    2012-03-02

    Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA) is a highly polymorphic gene located within the MHC class I region of the human genome. Expressed as a cell surface glycoprotein, MICA modulates immune surveillance by binding to its cognate receptor on natural killer cells, NKG2D, and its genetic polymorphisms have been recently associated with susceptibility to some infectious diseases. We determined whether MICA polymorphisms were associated with the high rate of Schistosoma parasitic worm infection or severity of disease outcome in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan Province, China. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming (PCR-SSP) and sequencing-based typing (SBT) were applied for high-resolution allele typing of schistosomiasis cases (N = 103, age range = 36.2-80.5 years, 64 males and 39 females) and healthy controls (N = 141, age range = 28.6-73.3 years, 73 males and 68 females). Fourteen MICA alleles and five short-tandem repeat (STR) alleles were identified among the two populations. Three (MICA*012:01/02, MICA*017 and MICA*027) showed a higher frequency in healthy controls than in schistosomiasis patients, but the difference was not significantly correlated with susceptibility to S. japonicum infection (Pc > 0.05). In contrast, higher MICA*A5 allele frequency was significantly correlated with advanced liver fibrosis (Pc < 0.05). Furthermore, the distribution profile of MICA alleles in this Hunan Han population was significantly different from those published for Korean, Thai, American-Caucasian, and Afro-American populations (P < 0.01), but similar to other Han populations within China (P > 0.05). This study provides the initial evidence that MICA genetic polymorphisms may underlie the severity of liver fibrosis occurring in schistosomiasis patients from the Dongting Lake region.

  8. Association Study for 26 Candidate Loci in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients from Four European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kishore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF affects lung parenchyma with progressing fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to replicate MUC5B rs35705950 variants and determine new plausible candidate variants for IPF among four different European populations. We genotyped 26 IPF candidate loci in 165 IPF patients from four European countries: Czech Republic (n = 41, Germany (n = 33, Greece (n = 40, France (n = 51 and performed association study comparing observed variant distribution with this obtained in a genetically similar Czech healthy control population (n = 96 described in our earlier data report. A highly significant association for a promoter variant (rs35705950 of mucin encoding MUC5B gene was observed in all IPF populations, individually and combined [OR (95% CI; p-value as 5.23 (8.94-3.06; 1.80x10-11. Another non-coding variant, rs7934606 in MUC2 was significant among German patients [2.85 (5.05-1.60; 4.03x10-4] and combined European IPF cases [2.18 (3.16-1.50; 3.73x10-5]. The network analysis for these variants indicated gene-gene and gene-phenotype interactions in IPF and lung biology. With replication of MUC5B rs35705950 previously reported in U.S. populations of European descent and indicating other plausible polymorphic variants relevant for IPF, we provide additional reference information for future extended functional and population studies aimed, ideally with inclusion of clinical parameters, at identification of IPF genetic markers.

  9. Association of MICA gene polymorphisms with liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis patients in the Dongting Lake region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Zheng; Luo, Qi-Zhi; Lin, Lin; Su, Yu-Ping; Peng, Hai-Bo; Du, Kun; Yu, Ping; Wang, Shi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA) is a highly polymorphic gene located within the MHC class I region of the human genome. Expressed as a cell surface glycoprotein, MICA modulates immune surveillance by binding to its cognate receptor on natural killer cells, NKG2D, and its genetic polymorphisms have been recently associated with susceptibility to some infectious diseases. We determined whether MICA polymorphisms were associated with the high rate of Schistosoma parasitic worm infection or severity of disease outcome in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan Province, China. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming (PCR-SSP) and sequencing-based typing (SBT) were applied for high-resolution allele typing of schistosomiasis cases (N = 103, age range = 36.2-80.5 years, 64 males and 39 females) and healthy controls (N = 141, age range = 28.6-73.3 years, 73 males and 68 females). Fourteen MICA alleles and five short-tandem repeat (STR) alleles were identified among the two populations. Three (MICA*012:01/02, MICA*017 and MICA*027) showed a higher frequency in healthy controls than in schistosomiasis patients, but the difference was not significantly correlated with susceptibility to S. japonicum infection (Pc > 0.05). In contrast, higher MICA*A5 allele frequency was significantly correlated with advanced liver fibrosis (Pc < 0.05). Furthermore, the distribution profile of MICA alleles in this Hunan Han population was significantly different from those published for Korean, Thai, American-Caucasian, and Afro-American populations (P < 0.01), but similar to other Han populations within China (P > 0.05). This study provides the initial evidence that MICA genetic polymorphisms may underlie the severity of liver fibrosis occurring in schistosomiasis patients from the Dongting Lake region

  10. Performance of transient elastography for the staging of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Eun Chon

    Full Text Available Transient elastography (TE, a non-invasive tool that measures liver stiffness, has been evaluated in meta-analyses for effectiveness in assessing liver fibrosis in European populations with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. However, these data cannot be extrapolated to populations in Asian countries, where chronic hepatitis B (CHB is more prevalent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the overall performance of TE for assessing liver fibrosis in patients with CHB.Studies from the literature and international conference abstracts which enrolled only patients with CHB or performed a subgroup analysis of such patients were enrolled. Combined effects were calculated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC and diagnostic accuracy values of each study.A total of 18 studies comprising 2,772 patients were analyzed. The mean AUROCs for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (F2, severe fibrosis (F3, and cirrhosis (F4 were 0.859 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.857-0.860, 0.887 (95% CI, 0.886-0.887, and 0.929 (95% CI, 0.928-0.929, respectively. The estimated cutoff for F2 was 7.9 (range, 6.1-11.8 kPa, with a sensitivity of 74.3% and specificity of 78.3%. For F3, the cutoff value was determined to be 8.8 (range, 8.1-9.7 kPa, with a sensitivity of 74.0% and specificity of 63.8%. The cutoff value for F4 was 11.7 (range, 7.3-17.5 kPa, with a sensitivity of 84.6% and specificity of 81.5%.TE can be performed with good diagnostic accuracy for quantifying liver fibrosis in patients with CHB.

  11. Role of phytotherapy associated with antibiotic prophylaxis in female patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Frumenzio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a phytotherapic which includes Solidago, Orthosiphon and Birch extract (Cistimev® in association with antibiotic prophylaxis in female patients affected by recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIr. Materials and methods: Patients affected by UTIr older than 18 years started a 3-months antibiotic prophylaxis (Prulifloxacin 600 mg, 1 cps/week or Phosphomicyn 1 cachet/week according to antibiogram after urine culture. The patients were divided in 2 groups: Group A: antibiotic prophylaxis plus phytotherapy (1 cps/die for 3 months and Group B: antibiotic prophylaxis alone. Results: 164 consecutive patients were studied: 107 were included in group A (mean age 59 ± 17.3 years and 57 (mean age 61 ± 15.7 in group B. During the treatment period the relapse frequencies between the two groups were not significantly different (p = 0.854: 12/107 (11.21% patients interrupted the treatment for UTIr in group A and 6/57 (10.52% in group B. In the long term follow-up the relapse UTI risk was significant different in the two groups with a relapse risk 2.5 greater in group B than in group A (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that in female patients affected by recurrent UTI, the association between antibiotic prophylaxis and of a phytotherapic which includes Solidago, Orthosiphon and Birch extract reduced the number of UTI in the 12 months following the end of prophylaxis and obtained a longer relapsing time, greatly improving the quality of life of the patients.

  12. Clinical effects of diet supplementation with DHA in pediatric patients suffering from cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggieri, E; De Biase, R V; Savi, D; Zullo, S; Halili, I; Quattrucci, S

    2013-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients present an altered fatty acid (FA) metabolism characterized by imbalance in the arachidonic/docosohexasenoic acid (AA/DHA) ratio in favour of the former which can contribute to the increase in pulmonary inflammation. The present study aims to assess respiratory, nutritional, clinical and laboratory parameters, and inflammatory markers after six months of DHA supplementation in paediatric patients suffering from CF. A dose of 1 g/10 kg/die was administered to ten CF patients of paediatric age for the first month and 250 mg/10 kg/die for the remaining 5 months. We carried out follow-ups at T0 (baseline), T6 (after six months of the diet) and T12 (six months after supplementation was interrupted) during which respiratory, nutritional, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. After six months of DHA supplementation inflammatory marker levels had diminished: interleukin 8 (IL-8) and Tumour Necrosis Factor Alfa (TNF-α) in serum, and calprotectin in stools. In addition, auxometric parameters were improved as was the clinical condition of patients, who tolerated DHA well. Dietetic integration with DHA seems to improve clinical condition and the inflammatory pulmonary and intestinal state of pediatric patients suffering from CF.

  13. MR Differentiation of Lung Cancer from Progressive Massive Fibrosis in Patients with Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Jung, Jung Im; Park, Seog Hee; Lim, Young; Koo, Jung Wan

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the potential of MR to distinguish lung cancer from progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) in patients with coal worker's pneumoconiosis. The study consisted of 9 patients with pathologically proven lung cancer and 26 PMFs in 17 patients. All the patients had radiologic evidence of pneumoconiosis. T1-weighted FLASH images were obtained before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 minutes after injection of Gd-DTPA. T2-weighted fast spin-echo images were obtained. The imaging findings were evaluated for enhancement time curve, contrast uptake equivalent (CE), and enhancement factor (EF). On T1WI, there was no significant signal intensity difference between lung cancer and PMF. On T2WI, all lung cancer showed high signal intensity, as opposed to all PMFs which showed low signal intensity except for one PMF. Only one PMF showed high signal intensity on T2WI. For the dynamic contrast study, lung cancer showed faster and slightly stronger enhancement than PMFs. For a delayed image, most of the lung cancers (78%) showed washout, as opposed to a plateau in most of PMFs (73%) (p=0.0153). However, no difference was detected between the EFmax of lung cancer and PMFs (p=0.349). MR is potentially a useful tool in distinguishing lung cancer from PMFs in patients with coal worker's pneumoconiosis

  14. Comparison of CPI and GAP models in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Park, Jong Sun; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Dong Soon; Kim, Young Whan; Chung, Man Pyo; Uh, Soo Taek; Park, Choon Sik; Park, Sung Woo; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Hong Lyeol; Shin, Jong Wook; Lee, Eun Joo; Lee, Jin Hwa; Jegal, Yangin; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Moo Suk

    2018-03-19

    The clinical course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is difficult to predict, partly owing to its heterogeneity. Composite physiologic index (CPI) and gender-age-physiology (GAP) models are easy-to-use predictors of IPF progression. This study aimed to compare the predictive values of these two models. From 2003 to 2007, the Korean Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) Study Group surveyed ILD patients using the 2002 ATS/ERS criteria. A total of 832 patients with IPF were enrolled in this study. CPI was calculated as follows: 91.0 - (0.65 × %DL CO ) - [0.53 × %FVC + [0.34 × %FEV 1 . GAP stage was calculated based on gender (0-1 points), age (0-2 points), and two physiologic lung function parameters (0-5 points). The two models had similar significant predictive values for patients with IPF (p GAP for prediction of 1-, 2-, and 3-year mortality in this study. The AUC was higher for surgically diagnosed IPF patients than for clinically diagnosed patients. However, neither CPI nor GAP yielded good predictions of outcomes; the AUC was approximately 0.61~0.65. Although both CPI and GAP stage are significantly useful predictors for IPF, they have limited capability to accurately predict outcomes.

  15. Burkholderia species infections in patients with cystic fibrosis in British Columbia, Canada. 30 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlosnik, James E A; Zhou, Guohai; Brant, Rollin; Henry, Deborah A; Hird, Trevor J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Chilvers, Mark A; Wilcox, Pearce; Speert, David P

    2015-01-01

    We have been collecting Burkholderia species bacteria from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) for the last 30 years. During this time, our understanding of their multispecies taxonomy and infection control has evolved substantially. To evaluate the long-term (30 year) epidemiology and clinical outcome of Burkholderia infection in CF, and fully define the risks associated with infection by each species. Isolates from Burkholderia-positive patients (n=107) were speciated and typed annually for each infected patient. Microbiological and clinical data were evaluated by thorough review of patient charts, and statistical analyses performed to define significant epidemiological factors. Before 1995, the majority of new Burkholderia infections were caused by epidemic clones of Burkholderia cenocepacia. After implementation of new infection control measures in 1995, Burkholderia multivorans became the most prevalent species. Survival analysis showed that patients with CF infected with B. cenocepacia had a significantly worse outcome than those with B. multivorans, and a novel finding was that, after Burkholderia infection, the prognosis for females was significantly worse than for males. B. multivorans and B. cenocepacia have been the predominant Burkholderia species infecting people with CF in Vancouver. The implementation of infection control measures were successful in preventing new acquisition of epidemic strains of B. cenocepacia, leaving nonclonal B. multivorans as the most prevalent species. Historically, survival after infection with B. cenocepacia has been significantly worse than B. multivorans infection, and, of new significance, we show that females tend toward worse clinical outcomes.

  16. [Structured care in an ISO certified centre for patients with cystic fibrosis and their families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemunter, H; Eder, J; Steinkamp, G

    2011-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic, life-shortening disease of multiple organ systems. Guidelines recommend that patients should be treated in specialised CF centres with multi-professional teams. We describe the organisation of medical care at the CF centre of Innsbruck University as well as results of treatment. Procedures and delivery of multi-professional care have been elaborated and structured. Since 2006 the Centre has been repeatedly certified according to DIN ISO 9001:2000. The patient database is being used during the doctor's consultation and for the continuous monitoring of treatment results. In 2010, 71 of the 148 patients (48%) were between 18 and 56 years old. The total number of patients has doubled and the proportion of adults tripled since 1995. Nevertheless, median FEV1 remained stable (>80% of predicted) during the last 15 years. Compared with 18 CF centres of the German Benchmarking Group, patients treated in Innsbruck had favourable FEV1 values: 52% of adults had a normal FEV1 (>80% pred.) and only 23% an FEV1 <50% of predicted. A structured programme of multi-professional care was associated with favourable treatment results, both longitudinally and in comparison to other CF centres. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Fibrogenesis assessed by serological type III collagen formation identifies patients with progressive liver fibrosis and responders to a potential antifibrotic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Henriksen, Kim; Nielsen, Mette Juul

    2016-01-01

    There are no approved treatments for liver fibrosis. To aid development of antifibrotic therapies, noninvasive biomarkers that can identify patients with progressive fibrosis and that permit monitoring of the response to antifibrotic therapy are much needed. Samples from a phase II antifibrotic t...

  18. DALI: Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients: a multi-centre point of prevalence study to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason A; De Waele, Jan J; Dimopoulos, George; Koulenti, Despoina; Martin, Claude; Montravers, Philippe; Rello, Jordi; Rhodes, Andrew; Starr, Therese; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2012-07-06

    The clinical effects of varying pharmacokinetic exposures of antibiotics (antibacterials and antifungals) on outcome in infected critically ill patients are poorly described. A large-scale multi-centre study (DALI Study) is currently underway describing the clinical outcomes of patients achieving pre-defined antibiotic exposures. This report describes the protocol. DALI will recruit over 500 patients administered a wide range of either beta-lactam or glycopeptide antibiotics or triazole or echi