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Sample records for fibroblasts retain intact

  1. Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts retain intact transforming growth factor-β responsiveness

    Mori, Yasuji; Hinchcliff, Monique; Wu, Minghua; Warner-Blankenship, Matthew; Lyons, Karen M.; Varga, John

    2008-01-01

    Background: The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) has been implicated in pathological fibrosis, but its physiologic role remains elusive. In vitro, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces CCN2 expression in mesenchymal cells. Because CCN2 can enhance profibrotic responses elicited by TGF-β, it has been proposed that CCN2 functions as an essential downstream signaling mediator for TGF-β. To explore this notion, we characterized TGF-β-induced activation of fibroblasts from CCN2-null (CCN2 -/- ) mouse embryos. Methods: The regulation of CCN2 expression was examined in vivo in a model of fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Cellular TGF-β signal transduction and regulation of collagen gene expression were examined in CCN2 -/- MEFs by immunohistochemistry, Northern, Western and RT-PCR analysis, immunocytochemistry and transient transfection assays. Results: Bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in the mouse was associated with substantial CCN2 up-regulation in lesional fibroblasts. Whereas in vitro proliferation rate of CCN2 -/- MEFs was markedly reduced compared to wild type MEFs, TGF-β-induced activation of the Smad pathways, including Smad2 phosphorylation, Smad2/3 and Smad4 nuclear accumulation and Smad-dependent transcriptional responses, were unaffected by loss of CCN2. The stimulation of COL1A2 and fibronectin mRNA expression and promoter activity, and of corresponding protein levels, showed comparable time and dose-response in wild type and CCN2 -/- MEFs, whereas stimulation of alpha smooth muscle actin and myofibroblast transdifferentiation showed subtle impairment in MEFs lacking CCN2. Conclusion: Whereas endogenous CCN2 plays a role in regulation of proliferation and TGF-β-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation, it appears to be dispensable for Smad-dependent stimulation of collagen and extracellular matrix synthesis in murine embryonic fibroblasts

  2. An atomic-force-microscopy study of the structure of surface layers of intact fibroblasts

    Khalisov, M. M.; Ankudinov, A. V.; Penniyaynen, V. A.; Nyapshaev, I. A.; Kipenko, A. V.; Timoshchuk, K. I.; Podzorova, S. A.; Krylov, B. V.

    2017-02-01

    Intact embryonic fibroblasts on a collagen-treated substrate have been studied by atomic-force microscopy (AFM) using probes of two types: (i) standard probes with tip curvature radii of 2-10 nm and (ii) special probes with a calibrated 325-nm SiO2 ball radius at the tip apex. It is established that, irrespective of probe type, the average maximum fibroblast height is on a level of 1.7 μm and the average stiffness of the probe-cell contact amounts to 16.5 mN/m. The obtained AFM data reveal a peculiarity of the fibroblast structure, whereby its external layers move as a rigid shell relative to the interior and can be pressed inside to a depth dependent on the load only.

  3. Retained sensitivity to cytotoxic pyrimidine nucleoside analogs in thymidine kinase 2 deficient human fibroblasts

    Bjerke, Mia; Solaroli, Nicola; Lesko, Nicole; Balzarini, Jan; Johansson, Magnus; Karlsson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside kinase that phosphorylates several nucleoside analogs used in anti-viral and anti-cancer therapy. A fibroblast cell line with decreased TK2 activity was investigated in order to obtain insights in the effects of TK2 deficiency on nucleotide metabolism. The role of TK2 for the sensitivity against cytotoxic nucleoside analogs was also investigated. The TK2 deficient cells retained their sensitivity against all pyrimidine nucleoside...

  4. In vitro comparison of human fibroblasts from intact and ruptured ACL for use in tissue engineering

    T Brune

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares fibroblasts extracted from intact and ruptured human anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL for creation of a tissue engineered ACL-construct, made of porcine small intestinal submucosal extracellular matrix (SIS-ECM seeded with these ACL cells. The comparison is based on histological, immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analyses. Differences were observed between cells in a ruptured ACL (rACL and cells in an intact ACL (iACL, particularly with regard to the expression of integrin subunits and smooth muscle actin (SMA. Despite these differences in the cell source, both cell populations behaved similarly when seeded on an SIS-ECM scaffold, with similar cell morphology, connective tissue organization and composition, SMA and integrin expression. This study shows the usefulness of naturally occurring scaffolds such as SIS-ECM for the study of cell behaviour in vitro, and illustrates the possibility to use autologous cells extracted from ruptured ACL biopsies as a source for tissue engineered ACL constructs.

  5. Retained sensitivity to cytotoxic pyrimidine nucleoside analogs in thymidine kinase 2 deficient human fibroblasts.

    Bjerke, Mia; Solaroli, Nicola; Lesko, Nicole; Balzarini, Jan; Johansson, Magnus; Karlsson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside kinase that phosphorylates several nucleoside analogs used in anti-viral and anti-cancer therapy. A fibroblast cell line with decreased TK2 activity was investigated in order to obtain insights in the effects of TK2 deficiency on nucleotide metabolism. The role of TK2 for the sensitivity against cytotoxic nucleoside analogs was also investigated. The TK2 deficient cells retained their sensitivity against all pyrimidine nucleoside analogs tested. This study suggests that nucleoside analog phosphorylation mediated by TK2 may be less important, compared to other deoxyribonucleoside kinases, for the cytotoxic effects of these compounds.

  6. Supracapsular glued intraocular lens in progressive subluxated cataracts: Technique to retain an intact vitreous face.

    Jacob, Soosan; Narasimhan, Smita; Agarwal, Amar; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Rechichi, Miguel; Agarwal, Athiya

    2017-03-01

    We describe a technique to prevent late intraocular lens (IOL) subluxation and dislocation that can be associated with progressive zonulopathy. Supracapsular glued IOL fixation is done to retain an intact anterior hyaloid face and avoid vitreous disturbance while providing stable long-term IOL fixation. Phacoemulsification is followed by glued IOL implantation above intact anterior and posterior capsules. Sclerotomies are created ab interno in a supracapsular plane under diametrically opposite lamellar scleral flaps without entering the vitreous cavity. Haptics are externalized in the supracapsular plane and tucked into intrascleral tunnels. Intraoperative or postoperative posterior capsulorhexis or capsulotomy and anterior capsule relaxing cuts can prevent capsule phimosis. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in women with anorexia nervosa

    Otani Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23 is a novel phosphaturic factor associated with inorganic phosphate homeostasis. Previous human studies have shown that serum FGF23 levels increase in response to a high phosphate diet. For anorexia nervosa (AN patients, inorganic phosphate homeostasis is important in the clinical course, such as in refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23 in restricting-type AN (AN-R patients, binge-eating/purging-type AN (AN-BP patients, and healthy controls. Methods The subjects consisted of 6 female AN-R patients, 6 female AN-BP patients, and 11 healthy female controls; both inpatients and outpatients were included. Plasma iFGF23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH2D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD levels were measured. Data are presented as the median and the range. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess differences among the three groups, and a value of p Results There were no differences between AN-R patients and controls in the iFGF23 and 1,25-(OH2D levels. In AN-BP patients, the iFGF23 level (41.3 pg/ml; range, 6.1–155.5 pg/ml was significantly higher than in controls (3.8 pg/ml; range, not detected-21.3 pg/ml; p = 0.001, and the 1,25-(OH2D was significantly lower in AN-BP patients (7.0 pg/ml; range, 4.2–33.7 pg/ml than in controls (39.7 pg/ml; range, 6.3–58.5 pg/ml; p = 0.015. No differences in plasma 25-OHD levels were observed among the groups. Conclusion This preliminary study is the first to show that plasma iFGF23 levels are increased in AN-BP patients, and that these elevated plasma FGF23 levels might be related to the decrease in plasma 1,25-(OH2D levels.

  8. Novel GALNT3 mutations causing hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome result in low intact fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations.

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Guigonis, Vincent; Imel, Erik A; Courouble, Mélanie; Heissat, Sophie; Henley, John D; Sorenson, Andrea H; Petit, Barbara; Lienhardt, Anne; Econs, Michael J

    2007-05-01

    Hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome (HHS) is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by hyperphosphatemia and localized hyperostosis. HHS is caused by mutations in GALNT3, which encodes UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N- acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3. Familial tumoral calcinosis (TC), characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia, is caused by mutations in the GALNT3 or fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) genes. Our objective was to identify mutations in FGF23 or GALNT3 and determine serum FGF23 levels in an HHS patient. Mutation detection in FGF23 and GALNT3 was performed by DNA sequencing, and serum FGF23 concentrations were measured by ELISA. A 5-year-old French boy with HHS and his family members participated. The patient presented with painful cortical lesions in his leg. Radiographs of the affected bone showed diaphyseal hyperostosis. The lesional tissue comprised trabeculae of immature, woven bone surrounded by fibrous tissue. Biochemistry revealed elevated phosphate, tubular maximum rate for phosphate reabsorption per deciliter of glomerular filtrate, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The patient was a compound heterozygote for two novel GALNT3 mutations. His parents and brother were heterozygous for one of the mutations and had no biochemical abnormalities. Intact FGF23 level in the patient was low normal, whereas C-terminal FGF23 was elevated, a pattern similar to TC. The presence of GALNT3 mutations and elevated C-terminal, but low intact serum FGF23, levels in HHS resemble those seen in TC, suggesting that HHS and TC are different manifestations of the same disorder. The absence of biochemical abnormalities in the heterozygous individuals suggests that one normal allele is sufficient for secretion of intact FGF23.

  9. Ablation of the Galnt3 Gene Leads to Low-Circulating Intact Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (Fgf23) Concentrations and Hyperphosphatemia Despite Increased Fgf23 Expression

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Sorenson, Andrea H.; Austin, Anthony M.; Mackenzie, Donald S.; Fritz, Timothy A.; Moh, Akira; Hui, Siu L.; Econs, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Familial tumoral calcinosis is characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), Klotho (KL), and uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3). In vitro studies indicate that GALNT3 O-glycosylates a phosphaturic hormone, FGF23, and prevents its proteolytic processing, thereby allowing secretion of intact FGF23. In this study we generat...

  10. Plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in women with bulimia nervosa: A cross-sectional pilot study

    Yoshiuchi Kazuhiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fibroblast growth factor (FGF 23, a circulating 26-kDa peptide produced by osteogenic cells, is a novel phosphaturic factor. In our previous study, binge-eating/purging type anorexia nervosa (AN-BP patients had elevated plasma intact FGF23 (iFGF23 levels, while restricting type (AN-R patients had plasma iFGF23 levels similar to healthy controls. Although bulimia nervosa (BN patients as well as some patients with AN-BP regularly engage in binge eating, there have been no studies regarding plasma iFGF23 levels in BN patients. Therefore, this study was performed to determine plasma iFGF23 concentrations in BN patients and healthy controls. The study population consisted of 13 female BN patients and 11 healthy female controls. Blood samples were collected from all subjects after overnight fasting. Plasma iFGF23 was measured using an ELISA kit in a cross-sectional manner. The two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test was used to assess differences between BN patients and healthy controls. In addition, BN patients were divided into two groups based on questionnaire-reported binge eating frequency immediately prior to participation in this study: high frequency of binge eating (once a week or more; HF group; n = 8 and low frequency of binge eating (less than once a week; LF group; n = 5. Two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni's correction was performed after the Kruskal-Wallis test to assess differences between HF group, LF group, and healthy controls. Median (quartiles plasma iFGF23 levels were greater in BN patients (35.5 [14.8-65.0] pg/ml than in controls (3.8 [not detected-5.3] pg/ml; p = 0.002. In addition, median (quartiles plasma iFGF23 levels were greater in the HF group (62.3 [44.4-73.4] pg/ml than in controls (p

  11. Ablation of the Galnt3 gene leads to low-circulating intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23) concentrations and hyperphosphatemia despite increased Fgf23 expression.

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Sorenson, Andrea H; Austin, Anthony M; Mackenzie, Donald S; Fritz, Timothy A; Moh, Akira; Hui, Siu L; Econs, Michael J

    2009-06-01

    Familial tumoral calcinosis is characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), Klotho (KL), and uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3). In vitro studies indicate that GALNT3 O-glycosylates a phosphaturic hormone, FGF23, and prevents its proteolytic processing, thereby allowing secretion of intact FGF23. In this study we generated mice lacking the Galnt3 gene, which developed hyperphosphatemia without apparent calcifications. In response to hyperphosphatemia, Galnt3-deficient mice had markedly increased Fgf23 expression in bone. However, compared with wild-type and heterozygous littermates, homozygous mice had only about half of circulating intact Fgf23 levels and higher levels of C-terminal Fgf23 fragments in bone. Galnt3-deficient mice also exhibited an inappropriately normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Furthermore, renal expression of sodium-phosphate cotransporters and Kl were elevated in Galnt3-deficient mice. Interestingly, there were sex-specific phenotypes; only Galnt3-deficient males showed growth retardation, infertility, and significantly increased bone mineral density. In summary, ablation of Galnt3 impaired secretion of intact Fgf23, leading to decreased circulating Fgf23 and hyperphosphatemia, despite increased Fgf23 expression. Our findings indicate that Galnt3-deficient mice have a biochemical phenotype of tumoral calcinosis and provide in vivo evidence that Galnt3 plays an essential role in proper secretion of Fgf23 in mice.

  12. Effect of DNA polymerase inhibitors on DNA repair in intact and permeable human fibroblasts: Evidence that DNA polymerases δ and β are involved in DNA repair synthesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

    Hammond, R.A.; Miller, M.R.; McClung, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    The involvement of DNA polymerases α, β, and δ in DNA repair synthesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was investigated in human fibroblasts (HF). The effects of anti-(DNA polymerase α) monoclonal antibody, (p-n-butylphenyl)deoxyguanosine triphosphate (BuPdGTP), dideoxythymidine triphosphate (ddTTP), and aphidicolin on MNNG-induced DNA repair synthesis were investigated to dissect the roles of the different DNA polymerases. A subcellular system (permeable cells), in which DNA repair synthesis and DNA replication were differentiated by CsCl gradient centrifugation of BrdUMP density-labeled DNA, was used to examine the effects of the polymerase inhibitors. Another approach investigated the effects of several of these inhibitors of MNNG-induced DNA repair synthesis in intact cells by measuring the amount of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporated into repair DNA as determined by autoradiography and quantitation with an automated video image analysis system. In permeable cells, MNNG-induced DNA repair synthesis was inhibited 56% by 50 μg of aphidicolin/mL, 6% by 10 μM BuPdGTP, 13% by anti-(DNA polymerse α) monoclonal antibodies, and 29% by ddTTP. In intact cells, MNNG-induced DNA repair synthesis was inhibited 57% by 50 μg of aphidicolin/mL and was not significantly inhibited by microinjecting anti-(DNA polymerase α) antibodies into HF nuclei. These results indicate that both DNA polymerase δ and β are involved in repairing DNA damage caused by MNNG

  13. Retainer Positioner

    Sanjeeb Kumar Sahu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several techniques are used to keep the retainer wire in the proper position during direct bonding, of lingual bonded retainers. Proper placement helps prevent occlusal wear of the composite over the retainer wire, thus reducing the risk of breakage. This article describes a new chairside time saving retainer positioner which allows accurate placement and direct bonding of all types of fixed lingual retainers, with solid or multistranded wires.

  14. Clear retainer

    Priyakorn Chaimongkol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear retainer is a removable retainer that is popular in the present day. Compared with conventional fixed and removable orthodontic retainers, it is a more esthetic, comfortable, and inexpensive appliance. Although several studies have been published about clear retainers, it could be difficult to interpret the results because of the variety of study designs, sample sizes, and research methods. This article is intended to compile the content from previous studies and discuss advantages, disadvantages, fabrication, insertion, and adjustment. Moreover, the effectiveness in maintaining dental position, occlusion, retention protocols, thickness, and survival rate of clear retainers is discussed.

  15. Intact glycopeptide characterization using mass spectrometry

    Cao, Li; Qu, Yi; Zhang, Zhaorui; Wang, Zhe; Prykova, Iya; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most prominent and extensively studied protein post-translational modifications. However, traditional proteomic studies at the peptide level (bottom-up) rarely characterize intact glycopeptides (glycosylated peptides without removing glycans), so no glycoprotein heterogeneity information is retained. Intact glycopeptide characterization, on the other hand, provides opportunities to simultaneously elucidate the glycan structure and the glycosylation site needed to r...

  16. Intact glycopeptide characterization using mass spectrometry.

    Cao, Li; Qu, Yi; Zhang, Zhaorui; Wang, Zhe; Prytkova, Iya; Wu, Si

    2016-05-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most prominent and extensively studied protein post-translational modifications. However, traditional proteomic studies at the peptide level (bottom-up) rarely characterize intact glycopeptides (glycosylated peptides without removing glycans), so no glycoprotein heterogeneity information is retained. Intact glycopeptide characterization, on the other hand, provides opportunities to simultaneously elucidate the glycan structure and the glycosylation site needed to reveal the actual biological function of protein glycosylation. Recently, significant improvements have been made in the characterization of intact glycopeptides, ranging from enrichment and separation, mass spectroscopy (MS) detection, to bioinformatics analysis. In this review, we recapitulated currently available intact glycopeptide characterization methods with respect to their advantages and limitations as well as their potential applications.

  17. Fibroblastic rheumatism

    Jyoti Ranjan Parida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblastic rheumatism (FR is a rare dermoarthopathy reported from different parts of the world since 1980. Although the exact cause is unknown, few reports implicate infection may be a triggering event. Patients usually present with multiple skin nodules and polyarthropathy with progressive skin contractures. Laboratory parameters including acute phase reactants are usually normal. The confirmatory diagnosis is based on histopathologic study of skin nodules, which demonstrate fibroblastic proliferation, thickened collagen fibers, dermal fibrosis, and decreased number of elastic fibers. Immunoreactivity for b-catenin, smooth muscle actin, and the monoclonal antibody HHF35 show myofibroblastic differentiation. Treatments with oral prednisolone and other disease-modifying drugs such as methotrexate, infliximab, and interferon have been tried with variable success. In general, skin lesions respond more aptly than joint symptoms indicating that skin fibroblast is more amenable to treatment than synovial fibroblasts. Awareness regarding this orphan disease among clinicians and pathologists will help in more reporting of such cases and finding out optimal treatment regimen.

  18. (Photosynthesis in intact plants)

    1990-01-01

    Progress in the two years since the last renewal application has been excellent. We have made substantial contributions on both main fronts of the projects, and are particularly happy with the progress of our research on intact plants. The approach of basing our field work on a sound foundation of laboratory studies has enabled is to use methods which provide unambiguous assays of well characterized reactions. We have also made excellent progress in several laboratory studies which will have direct applications in future field work, and have introduced to the laboratory a range of molecular genetics techniques which will allow us to explore new options in the attempt to understand function at the level of molecular structure.

  19. Recruiting and Retaining Cyberwarriors

    Westermeyer, Roger H

    2008-01-01

    .... Recruiting and retaining this highly skilled workforce is a significant challenge for the Air Force due to the high public and private sector demand for people with IT and related engineering skills...

  20. Reality of Retainers

    ... the cafeteria take out his retainer before eating lunch. Carefully, he places it in a plastic container to make sure that it's safe while he eats. You can tell that this small plastic and metal mouthpiece is important to him. ...

  1. Earth retaining structures manual

    2009-10-29

    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  2. A retained menstrual cup.

    Day, S

    2012-05-01

    A 20-year-old woman attended a genitourinary clinic with a retained vaginal Mooncup that she had inserted the night before. A Mooncup is one type of menstrual cup. On speculum examination the device was visualized high in the vagina and the cervix appeared firmly lodged within it. The physician experienced difficulty in retrieving the cup despite following product instructions. This case highlights a new adverse event with an increasingly used sanitation product. It is important that clinicians are familiar with the cup, its removal process and are able to counsel patients with retained devices on future correct placement.

  3. Retained surgical sponge

    Koyama, Masashi; Kurono, Kenji; Iida, Akihiko; Suzuki, Hirochika; Hara, Masaki; Mizutani, Hirokazu; Ohba, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaru; Nakajima, Yoichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The CT, US, and MRI findings of confirmed retained surgical sponges were reviewed. The CT examinations in eight lesions demonstrated round or oval masses with heterogeneous internal structures. The US examinations in 5 lesions demonstrated low echogenic masses with high echogenic internal structures, which suggested retained surgical sponges. MR imagings in three lesions showed slightly high intensity comparable to that of muscles on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, suggesting fluid collections of high protein concentration. (author)

  4. An unrecognized foreign body retained in the calcaneus

    Lee, Ro Woon; Choi, Soo Jung; Hwang, Jae Kwang; Ahn, Jae Hong; Kang, Chae Hoon; Shin, Dong Rock [Gangneung Asan Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We describe a case of an unrecognized foreign body retained in the calcaneus. The patient denied any history of trauma. The skin overlying the calcaneus was intact with no local signs of inflammation. The retained foreign body was not observed on the radiograph of the calcaneus. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed a tubular low signal intensity lesion in the calcaneal body, surrounded by strongly enhanced soft tissue and bone marrow edema caused by a foreign body reaction. A foreign body retained in the calcaneus was suspected on the basis of these findings. Surgical exploration and curettage was performed, and a rod shaped wooden fragment was found.

  5. Control component retainer

    Walton, L.A.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  6. Retained gas inventory comparison

    BARTON, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Gas volume data derived from four different analytical methods were collected and analyzed for comparison to volumes originally used in the technical basis for the Basis for Interim Operations (BIO). The original volumes came from Hodgson (1996) listed in the reference section of this document. Hodgson (1996) screened all 177 single and double-shell tanks for the presence of trapped gas in waste via two analytical methods: Surface Level Rise (SLR), and Barometric Pressure Effect (BPE). More recent gas volume projections have been calculated using different analytical techniques along with updates to the parameters used as input to the SLR and BPE models. Gas volumes derived from new analytical instruments include those as measured by the Void Fraction Instrument (VFI) and Retained Gas Sampler (RGS). The results of this comparison demonstrate that the original retained gas volumes of Hodgson (1996) used as a technical basis in developing the BIO were conservative, and were conservative from a safety analysis standpoint. These results represent only comparisons to the original reported volumes using the limited set of newly acquired data that is available

  7. Retained Herrick Plug

    Justin B. Hellman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old female with a history of keratoconjunctivitis sicca presented with several years of epiphora of both eyes. Thirteen years earlier, intracanalicular Herrick lacrimal plugs (Lacrimedics, Eastsound, WA, USA had been placed in both eyes to treat her dry eye syndrome. After 13 years the patient felt the epiphora was intolerable and underwent endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR of the left, then the right side. Intraoperatively, during the right endoscopic DCR, a Herrick lacrimal plug was found in the common canaliculus into the lacrimal sac. Postoperatively, the patient did well with improved epiphora. The Herrick plug is designed to be intracanalicular, and this case illustrates that the plug can migrate and be retained for many years. Collared punctal plugs have a lower risk of this type of complication.

  8. Interspecific variation of intracellular localization and postirradiation movement of Ku70-protein in fibroblastic cells

    Endoh, Daiji; Hayashi, Masanobu; Okui, Toyo; Kawase, Shiro; Kon, Yasushiro

    2003-01-01

    Ku (Ku70 and Ku80) Proteins are known as components of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and play an important role for DNA repair. We previously reported that more than 70% of Ku proteins were located in cytoplasm of rat cells, the Ku proteins moved into nuclei of normal rat cells after X-irradiation, Ku proteins also moved into nuclei after X-irradiation but were not retained in nucleus of radiosensitive LEC rat cells. While reports have been shown about mechanisms on nuclear localization of Ku proteins, how Ku proteins export from nucleus is poorly understood. Here we show that C-terminal region of Ku70 protein is important for its cytoplasmic localization. When transfected into LEC rat cells, exogenous intact Ku70 (1-609) tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-Ku70) localized mainly in the cytoplasm, whereas C-terminal-deletion mutant of Ku70 (1-593) tagged with EGFP (EGFP-Ku70D) was mainly localized in the nucleus. After X-irradiation, the endogenous intact EGFP-Ku70 once moved into nucleus, but returned into the cytoplasm. On the other hand, EGFP-Ku70D was retained in nucleus for two hours after X-irradiation. These results suggest that C-terminal region of Ku70 is included in the postirradiation nuclear export. Next, we investigated the intracellular localization of Ku70 proteins and the movement after X-irradiation of fibroblastic cells prepared from some mammalian species. Ku70 proteins were localized in nucleus and the postirradiation-extranuclear transport was not observed in human and African green monkey cells. On the other hand, Ku70 proteins were mainly localized in cytoplasm and moved into nucleus in mouse, Chinese hamster, Golden hamster, cotton rat, squirrel, cat and dog cells. These results may show that alternatively Ku70 protein is localized in the cytoplasm or nucleus depends on species and translocation of cytoplasmic Ku70 into nucleus is a response against low dose irradiation in fibroblasts of rodents, cats and dogs

  9. Spatial and Single-Cell Transcriptional Profiling Identifies Functionally Distinct Human Dermal Fibroblast Subpopulations.

    Philippeos, Christina; Telerman, Stephanie B; Oulès, Bénédicte; Pisco, Angela O; Shaw, Tanya J; Elgueta, Raul; Lombardi, Giovanna; Driskell, Ryan R; Soldin, Mark; Lynch, Magnus D; Watt, Fiona M

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mouse dermis is composed of functionally distinct fibroblast lineages. To explore the extent of fibroblast heterogeneity in human skin, we used a combination of comparative spatial transcriptional profiling of human and mouse dermis and single-cell transcriptional profiling of human dermal fibroblasts. We show that there are at least four distinct fibroblast populations in adult human skin, not all of which are spatially segregated. We define markers permitting their isolation and show that although marker expression is lost in culture, different fibroblast subpopulations retain distinct functionality in terms of Wnt signaling, responsiveness to IFN-γ, and ability to support human epidermal reconstitution when introduced into decellularized dermis. These findings suggest that ex vivo expansion or in vivo ablation of specific fibroblast subpopulations may have therapeutic applications in wound healing and diseases characterized by excessive fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fibroblast growth factor 23

    Dr Olaleye

    Systemic phosphate homeostasis is maintained through several hormonal mechanisms which involve fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), α-klotho, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone. FGF-23 is known to be the major regulator of phosphate balance (Mirams et al., 2004). FGF-23 is a phosphaturic hormone, which is.

  11. Binding, uptake, and release of nicotine by human gingival fibroblasts

    Hanes, P.J.; Schuster, G.S.; Lubas, S.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of nicotine on fibroblasts have reported an altered morphology and attachment of fibroblasts to substrates and disturbances in protein synthesis and secretion. This altered functional and attachment response may be associated with changes in the cell membrane resulting from binding of the nicotine, or to disturbances in cell metabolism as a result of high intracellular levels of nicotine. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to (1) determine whether gingival fibroblasts bound nicotine and if any binding observed was specific or non-specific in nature; (2) determine whether gingival fibroblasts internalized nicotine, and if so, at what rate; (3) determine whether gingival fibroblasts also released nicotine back into the extracellular environment; and (4) if gingival fibroblasts release nicotine intact or as a metabolite. Cultures of gingival fibroblasts were prepared from gingival connective tissue biopsies. Binding was evaluated at 4 degree C using a mixture of 3 H-nicotine and unlabeled nicotine. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between 3 H-nicotine bound in the presence and absence of unlabeled nicotine. The cells bound 1.44 (+/- 0.42) pmols/10(6) cells in the presence of unlabeled nicotine and 1.66 (+/- 0.55) pmols/10(6) cells in the absence of unlabeled nicotine. The difference was not significant. Uptake of nicotine was measured at 37 degree C after treating cells with 3 H-nicotine for time periods up to 4 hours. Uptake in pmols/10(6) cells was 4.90 (+/- 0.34) at 15 minutes, 8.30 (+/- 0.75) at 30 minutes, 12.28 (+/- 2.62) at 1 hour and 26.31 (+/- 1.15) at 4 hours

  12. NERVA turbopump bearing retainer fabrication on nonmetallic retainer

    Accinelli, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The need for a low-wear, lightweight, high strength bearing retainer material with a radiation degradation threshold of 10 to the 9th power rads (C) prompted development of nonmetallic reinforced polymers of the following types: (1) polybenzimidazole, (2) polyimide, and (3) polyquinoxaline. Retainers were machined from tubular laminates (billets), including reinforcement by either glass or graphite fabric or filament. Fabrication of billets involves hot preimpregnation of the reinforcement fabric or filament with polymer followed by wrapping this prepreg over a heated mandrel to form a tube with the required thickness and length.

  13. 7 CFR 1767.25 - Retained earnings.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retained earnings. 1767.25 Section 1767.25....25 Retained earnings. The retained earnings accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Retained Earnings 433-439 [Reserved] Retained Earnings 433-439 [Reserved] ...

  14. Identification of specific gene expression profiles in fibroblasts derived from middle ear cholesteatoma.

    Yoshikawa, Mamoru; Kojima, Hiromi; Wada, Kota; Tsukidate, Toshiharu; Okada, Naoko; Saito, Hirohisa; Moriyama, Hiroshi

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the role of fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. Tissue specimens were obtained from our patients. Middle ear cholesteatoma-derived fibroblasts (MECFs) and postauricular skin-derived fibroblasts (SFs) as controls were then cultured for a few weeks. These fibroblasts were stimulated with interleukin (IL) 1alpha and/or IL-1beta before gene expression assays. We used the human genome U133A probe array (GeneChip) and real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine and compare the gene expression profiles of the MECFs and SFs. Six patients who had undergone tympanoplasty. The IL-1alpha-regulated genes were classified into 4 distinct clusters on the basis of profiles differentially regulated by SF and MECF using a hierarchical clustering analysis. The messenger RNA expressions of LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), GMCSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), epiregulin, ICAM1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1), and TGFA (transforming growth factor alpha) were more strongly up-regulated by IL-1alpha and/or IL-1beta in MECF than in SF, suggesting that these fibroblasts derived from different tissues retained their typical gene expression profiles. Fibroblasts may play a role in hyperkeratosis of middle ear cholesteatoma by releasing molecules involved in inflammation and epidermal growth. These fibroblasts may retain tissue-specific characteristics presumably controlled by epigenetic mechanisms.

  15. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. Results Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1-fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity Conclusions Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  16. 47 CFR 32.4550 - Retained earnings.

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4550 Retained earnings. (a) This account shall include the undistributed balance of retained earnings derived from the...

  17. Strategies for Analyzing Data from Intact Groups.

    Cross, Lawrence H.; Lane, Carolyn E.

    Action research often necessitates the use of intact groups for the comparison of educational treatments or programs. This paper considers several analytical methods that might be used for such situations when pretest scores indicate that these intact groups differ significantly initially. The methods considered include gain score analysis of…

  18. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy

    Tsou, P.; Griffiths, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  19. Bilirubin glucuronidation by intact Gunn rat fibroblasts expressing bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase

    Seppen, J.; Tada, K.; Hellwig, S.; Bakker, C. T.; Prasad, V. R.; Roy Chowdhury, N.; Roy Chowdhury, J.; Bosma, P. J.; Oude Elferink, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar (CN) disease is an inherited disorder of bilirubin metabolism. The disease is caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (B-UGT). Patients with CN disease have high serum levels of the toxic compound, unconjugated bilirubin. The only defect in

  20. The hallmarks of fibroblast ageing.

    Tigges, Julia; Krutmann, Jean; Fritsche, Ellen; Haendeler, Judith; Schaal, Heiner; Fischer, Jens W; Kalfalah, Faiza; Reinke, Hans; Reifenberger, Guido; Stühler, Kai; Ventura, Natascia; Gundermann, Sabrina; Boukamp, Petra; Boege, Fritz

    2014-06-01

    Ageing is influenced by the intrinsic disposition delineating what is maximally possible and extrinsic factors determining how that frame is individually exploited. Intrinsic and extrinsic ageing processes act on the dermis, a post-mitotic skin compartment mainly consisting of extracellular matrix and fibroblasts. Dermal fibroblasts are long-lived cells constantly undergoing damage accumulation and (mal-)adaptation, thus constituting a powerful indicator system for human ageing. Here, we use the systematic of ubiquitous hallmarks of ageing (Lopez-Otin et al., 2013, Cell 153) to categorise the available knowledge regarding dermal fibroblast ageing. We discriminate processes inducible in culture from phenomena apparent in skin biopsies or primary cells from old donors, coming to the following conclusions: (i) Fibroblasts aged in culture exhibit most of the established, ubiquitous hallmarks of ageing. (ii) Not all of these hallmarks have been detected or investigated in fibroblasts aged in situ (in the skin). (iii) Dermal fibroblasts aged in vitro and in vivo exhibit additional features currently not considered ubiquitous hallmarks of ageing. (iv) The ageing process of dermal fibroblasts in their physiological tissue environment has only been partially elucidated, although these cells have been a preferred model of cell ageing in vitro for decades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Odynophagia following retained bee stinger

    S Viswanathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly half of Hymenoptera stings affect the head and neck region of victims, but reports on oropharyngeal bee stings are very few. We describe the case of a patient with odynophagia and suffocation in mass envenomation. He had a retained bee stinger whose removal was delayed for more than 24 hours following the sting, due to persisting angioedema. Odynophagia receded after removal of the stinger and treatment with paracetamol, steroids and metronidazole. The patient also developed rhabdomyolysis, renal failure and hepatitis that were treated with conservative therapy. Oropharyngeal stings can simulate symptoms of persisting angioedema in victims of mass envenomation.

  2. DNA excision repair in permeable human fibroblasts

    Kaufmann, W.K.; Bodell, W.J.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    U.v. irradiation of confluent human fibroblasts activated DNA repair, aspects of which were characterized in the cells after they were permeabilized. Incubation of intact cells for 20 min between irradiation and harvesting was necessary to obtain a maximum rate of reparative DNA synthesis. Cells harvested immediately after irradiation before repair was initiated displayed only a small stimulation of DNA synthesis, indicating that permeable cells have a reduced capacity to recognize pyrimidine dimers and activate repair. The distribution of sizes of DNA strands labeled during 10 min of reparative DNA synthesis resembled that of parental DNA. However, during a 60-min incubation of permeable cells at 37 degrees C, parental DNA and DNA labeled by reparative DNA synthesis were both cleaved to smaller sizes. Cleavage also occurred in unirradiated cells, indicating that endogenous nuclease was active during incubation. Repair patches synthesized in permeable cells displayed increased sensitivity to digestion by micrococcal nuclease. However, the change in sensitivity during a chase with unlabeled DNA precursors was small, suggesting that reassembly of nucleosome structure at sites of repair was impaired. To examine whether this deficiency was due to a preponderance of incomplete or unligated repair patches, 3H-labeled (repaired) DNA was purified, then digested with exonuclease III and nuclease S1 to probe for free 3' ends and single-stranded regions. About 85% of the [3H]DNA synthesized during a 10-min pulse resisted digestion, suggesting that a major fraction of the repair patches that were filled were also ligated. U.v. light-activated DNA synthesis in permeable cells, therefore, appears to represent the continuation of reparative gap-filling at sites of excision repair activated within intact cells. Gap-filling and ligation were comparatively efficient processes in permeable cells

  3. Rat embryo fibroblasts require both the cell-binding and the heparin-binding domains of fibronectin for survival

    Jeong, J; Han, I; Lim, Y

    2001-01-01

    of the cell-binding domain of FN with integrin is sufficient to rescue rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) from detachment-induced apoptosis. REFs attached and spread normally after plating on substrates coated with either intact FN or a FN fragment, FN120, that contains the cell-binding domain but lacks the C...

  4. Secretion of intact proteins and peptide fragments by lysosomal pathways of protein degradation

    Isenman, L.D.; Dice, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    We report that degradation of proteins microinjected into human fibroblasts is accompanied by release into the culture medium of peptide fragments and intact proteins as well as single amino acids. For the nine proteins and polypeptides microinjected, acid-precipitable radioactivity, i.e. peptide fragments and/or intact proteins, ranged from 10 to 67% of the total released radioactivity. Peptide fragments and/or intact protein accounted for 60% of the radioactivity released into the medium by cells microinjected with ribonuclease A. Two major radiolabeled peptide fragments were found, and one was of an appropriate size to function as an antigen in antigen-presenting cells. The peptides released from microinjected ribonuclease A were derived from lysosomal pathways of proteolysis based on several lines of evidence. Previous studies have shown that microinjected ribonuclease A is degraded to single amino acids entirely within lysosomes. We show that release of free amino acids and peptide fragments and/or intact protein was equivalently stimulated by serum deprivation and equivalently inhibited by NH4Cl. We also show that lysosomal degradation of endocytosed [3H]ribonuclease A was accompanied by the release of two peptide fragments similar in size and charge to those from microinjected [ 3 H]ribonuclease A. These findings demonstrate that degradation within lysosomes occurs in a manner that spares specific peptides; they also suggest a previously unsuspected pathway by which cells can secrete cytosol-derived polypeptides

  5. 9 CFR 441.10 - Retained water.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retained water. 441.10 Section 441.10... STANDARDS: RAW PRODUCTS § 441.10 Retained water. (a) Raw livestock and poultry carcasses and parts will not be permitted to retain water resulting from post-evisceration processing unless the establishment...

  6. Key role of the kidney in the regulation of fibroblast growth factor 23

    Mace, Maria L; Gravesen, Eva; Hofman-Bang, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    was significantly increased in BNX rats. The rapid rise in FGF23 after BNX was independent of parathyroid hormone or FGF receptor signaling. No evidence of early stimulation of FGF23 gene expression in the bone was found. Furthermore, acute severe hyperphosphatemia or hypercalcemia had no impact on intact FGF23......High circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) have been demonstrated in kidney failure, but mechanisms of this are not well understood. Here we examined the impact of the kidney on the early regulation of intact FGF23 in acute uremia as induced by bilateral or unilateral...

  7. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer.

    Wang, Shuwei; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.

  8. DNA synthesis in vitro in human fibroblast preparations

    Kaufmann, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    When confluent cultures of human fibroblasts were ultraviolet irradiated and either permeabilized or lysed, three types of DNA synthesis were subsequently observed during incubation in vitro: (A) a low level of DNA replication, which ceased after 15-30 min incubation at 37/sup 0/C; (B) radiation-dependent reparative gap-filling, which also ceased after 15 min at 37/sup 0/C; and (C) radiation-independent DNA synthesis, which was not semiconservative and proceeded at a linear rate for 1 hr at 37/sup 0/C. Normal and xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts displayed different rates of radiation-dependent reparative gap-filling after lysis but similar rates of radiation-independent DNA synthesis. The rates of DNA replication and radiation-independent DNA synthesis were less in the permeable cell system than in the lysed cell system, whereas radiation-dependent reparative gap-filling was the same in both. Preparations of permeable and lysed cells activated radiation-dependent reparative gap-filling at about 15% of the rate estimated for intact cells. No radiation-dependent DNA strand breaks, as assayed by alkaline elution, were observed in the lysed cell preparation. Some radiation-dependent breaks were observed in the permeable cell preparation, but radiation-dependent DNA breakage was less than that seen in intact cells. This inability to incise DNA at damaged sites could account for the low rate of activation of reparative gap-filling in vitro. DNA strand breaks were produced in fibroblast preparations nonspecifically during lysis or permeabilization and incubation in vitro, and this breakage of DNA probably was responsible for the radiation-independent DNA synthesis.

  9. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Kidney Disease Progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Chonchol, Michel; Gitomer, Berenice; Isakova, Tamara; Cai, Xuan; Salusky, Isidro; Pereira, Renata; Abebe, Kaleab; Torres, Vicente; Steinman, Theodor I; Grantham, Jared J; Chapman, Arlene B; Schrier, Robert W; Wolf, Myles

    2017-09-07

    Increases in fibroblast growth factor 23 precede kidney function decline in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; however, the role of fibroblast growth factor 23 in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease has not been well characterized. We measured intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in baseline serum samples from 1002 participants in the HALT-PKD Study A ( n =540; mean eGFR =91±17 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ) and B ( n =462; mean eGFR =48±12 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ). We used linear mixed and Cox proportional hazards models to test associations between fibroblast growth factor 23 and eGFR decline, percentage change in height-adjusted total kidney volume, and composite of time to 50% reduction in eGFR, onset of ESRD, or death. Median (interquartile range) intact fibroblast growth factor 23 was 44 (33-56) pg/ml in HALT-PKD Study A and 69 (50-93) pg/ml in Study B. In adjusted models, annualized eGFR decline was significantly faster in the upper fibroblast growth factor 23 quartile (Study A: quartile 4, -3.62; 95% confidence interval, -4.12 to -3.12 versus quartile 1, -2.51; 95% confidence interval, -2.71 to -2.30 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ; P for trend kidney volume in adjusted models (quartile 4, 6.76; 95% confidence interval, 5.57 to 7.96 versus quartile 1, 6.04; 95% confidence interval, 5.55 to 6.54; P for trend =0.03). In Study B, compared with the lowest quartile, the highest fibroblast growth factor 23 quartile was associated with elevated risk for the composite outcome (hazard ratio, 3.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.84 to 5.25). Addition of fibroblast growth factor 23 to a model of annualized decline in eGFR≥3.0 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 did not improve risk prediction. Higher serum fibroblast growth factor 23 concentration was associated with kidney function decline, height-adjusted total kidney volume percentage increase, and death in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. However, fibroblast growth factor 23 did not substantially

  10. Intacting Integrity in coping with health issues

    Jepsen, Stine Leegaard; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Fridlund, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formal substantive theory (FST) on the multidimensional behavioral process of coping with health issues. Intacting integrity while coping with health issues emerged as the core category of this FST. People facing health issues strive to safeguard and keep...

  11. Epispadias in boys with an intact prepuce

    Bos, E. M. E.; Kuijper, C. F.; Chrzan, R. J.; Dik, P.; Klijn, A. J.; de Jong, T. P. V. M.

    2014-01-01

    To present an overview of the clinical presentation and pathological anatomy, and the results of surgical correction of 7 cases of epispadias with intact prepuce; a rare condition that has only occasionally been reported in literature. A retrospective search was performed in the surgical and

  12. HYDROCARBON VAPOR DIFFUSION IN INTACT CORE SLEEVES

    The diffusion of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP) and 2,2,5-trimethylhexane (TMH) vapors put of residually contaminated sandy soil from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) field research site at Traverse City, Michigan, was measured and modeled. The headspace of an intact ...

  13. Early detection of degraded A14-125I-insulin in human fibroblasts by the use of high performance liquid chromatography

    Stentz, F.B.; Harris, H.L.; Kitabchi, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    We studied the metabolism of A14-125I-insulin in intact human fibroblasts using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect and separate its early degradation products. The high resolving power of HPLC enabled us to separate what has been considered ''intact insulin'' by Sephadex G-50 chromatography or TCA precipitability into two additional peaks that had decreased biochemical properties with respect to immunoprecipitability and receptor binding but not decreased TCA precipitability. We conclude that human fibroblast is capable of metabolizing insulin within 2 min at 37 degrees C into intermediate molecules that can be detected by HPLC but not by TCA precipitability or molecular sieve chromatography

  14. Microprobe analysis of human fibroblasts

    Allan, G.L.; Zhu, J.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Melbourne Proton Microprobe has been used to study the copper content in human skin fibroblast cells derived from patients with the genetic disease Menkes Syndrome. Both normal and diseased cells have been studied to investigate any elemental differences occurring between the two cell types. This paper details the preparatory techniques necessary for individual cell analysis and presents the elemental information with a new three dimensional contour mapping technique. These maps are used to highlight elemental differences between normal and mutant fibroblasts. The work also confirms the expected copper excess found in the Menkes cell and indicates that the microprobe can be used for rapid identification of a Menkes carrier

  15. Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE)

    Nishioka, Ken-Ji; Carle, G. C.; Bunch, T. E.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE) will develop technologies and engineering techniques necessary to capture nearly intact, uncontaminated cosmic and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). Successful capture of such particles will benefit the exobiology and planetary science communities by providing particulate samples that may have survived unaltered since the formation of the solar system. Characterization of these particles may contribute fundamental data to our knowledge of how these particles could have formed into our planet Earth and, perhaps, contributed to the beginnings of life. The term 'uncontaminated' means that captured cosmic and IDP particles are free of organic contamination from the capture process and the term 'nearly intact capture' means that their chemical and elemental components are not materially altered during capture. The key to capturing cosmic and IDP particles that are organic-contamination free and nearly intact is the capture medium. Initial screening of capture media included organic foams, multiple thin foil layers, and aerogel (a silica gel); but, with the exception of aerogel, the requirements of no contamination or nearly intact capture were not met. To ensure no contamination of particles in the capture process, high-purity aerogel was chosen. High-purity aerogel results in high clarity (visual clearness), a useful quality in detection and recovery of embedded captured particles from the aerogel. P. Tsou at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) originally described the use of aerogel for this purpose and reported laboratory test results. He has flown aerogel as a 'GAS-can Lid' payload on STS-47 and is evaluating the results. The Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE), a Eureca 1 experiment, is also flying aerogel and is scheduled for recovery in late April.

  16. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    Hostick, D.J.; Larson, L.L.; Hostick, C.J.

    1998-03-01

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region

  17. Abnormal Retained Earnings Around The World

    Alves, Paulo; Silva, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Using a firm-level survey database covering 50 countries we evaluate firms´ abnormal retained earnings. The results of our work indicate that firms located in emerging markets retain more earnings than firms from developed countries. On the other hand, firms located on common law based countries retain earnings above the expected and higher than firms placed on civil law based countries. A possible explanation, according to our results, can be seen in the economic growth that these countries ...

  18. Case report 511: Fibroblastic rheumatism

    Hernandez, R.J.; Martel, W.; Headington, J.T.; Kaufman, R.A.; Cincinnati Univ., OH

    1989-01-01

    We report a ten-year-old child with the newly described entity of fibroblastic rheumatism. This child developed rapid, progressive, symmetrical polyarthritis, similar to the radiographic appearance of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, except for the rapidity of progression. The polyarthritis was preceded by the development of skin nodules with characteristic histological changes. (orig./GDG)

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Debus, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression

  20. Measurement of diffusive properties of intact rock

    Harvey, K B

    1996-12-01

    In the Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System for the Disposal of Canada`s Nuclear Fuel Waste (Goodwin et al. 1994) the disposal vault is assumed to be surrounded by a zone of intact rock, referred to as the `exclusion zone.` A sensitivity analysis of the relative effectiveness of the several engineered and natural barriers that contribute to the safety of the reference disposal system has shown that this zone of intact rock is the most effective of these barriers to the movement of radionuclides through the reference system. Peer review of the geosphere model used in the case study for the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has identified the need to quantify the properties of the intact rock surrounding the disposal vault that would control the transport of radionuclides by diffusion. The Postclosure Assessment also identified the need for appropriate values of the free water diffusion coefficient (D{sub o}) for {sup 129}1 and {sup 14}C. The measurement of rock resistivity allows the calculation of the Formation Factor for a rock This review describes the Formation Factor, diffusivity, permeability, and porosity, and how these properties might be measured or inferred for insitu rock under the conditions that apply to the intact rock surrounding a potential disposal vault. The importance of measuring the intrinsic diffusion coefficient (D{sup i}) of diffusing species under solution salinities simulating those of groundwaters is emphasised, and a method of measurement is described that is independent of the diffusing medium, and which would be appropriate for measurements made in chemically complex media such as groundwaters. (author). 95 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs.

  1. Measurement of diffusive properties of intact rock

    Harvey, K.B.

    1996-12-01

    In the Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System for the Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste (Goodwin et al. 1994) the disposal vault is assumed to be surrounded by a zone of intact rock, referred to as the 'exclusion zone.' A sensitivity analysis of the relative effectiveness of the several engineered and natural barriers that contribute to the safety of the reference disposal system has shown that this zone of intact rock is the most effective of these barriers to the movement of radionuclides through the reference system. Peer review of the geosphere model used in the case study for the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has identified the need to quantify the properties of the intact rock surrounding the disposal vault that would control the transport of radionuclides by diffusion. The Postclosure Assessment also identified the need for appropriate values of the free water diffusion coefficient (D o ) for 129 1 and 14 C. The measurement of rock resistivity allows the calculation of the Formation Factor for a rock This review describes the Formation Factor, diffusivity, permeability, and porosity, and how these properties might be measured or inferred for insitu rock under the conditions that apply to the intact rock surrounding a potential disposal vault. The importance of measuring the intrinsic diffusion coefficient (D i ) of diffusing species under solution salinities simulating those of groundwaters is emphasised, and a method of measurement is described that is independent of the diffusing medium, and which would be appropriate for measurements made in chemically complex media such as groundwaters. (author). 95 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD. Analysis of ASD populations, whether high-functioning, Asperger's or autism Broad Phenotype, studied over a range of executive functions including response inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and alerting networks indicates an absence of damage/impairment compared to the typically-developed normal control subjects. These findings of intact executive functioning in ASD subjects provide a strong foundation on which to construct applications for growth environments and the rehabilitation of autistic subjects.

  3. Reoccurrence of retained placenta at vaginal delivery

    Nikolajsen, Sys; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery.......To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery....

  4. Unexpected complications of bonded mandibular lingual retainers.

    Katsaros, C.; Livas, C.; Renkema, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) retainer is the most frequently used type of fixed retainer bonded on all 6 anterior teeth. Our aim in this article was to demonstrate unexpected posttreatment changes in the labiolingual position of the mandibular anterior teeth associated with the use

  5. 76 FR 69126 - Graduated Retained Interests

    2011-11-08

    ... in trust or otherwise) includible in the grantor's gross estate if the grantor has retained the use..., or for a period that does not in fact end before the grantor's death. The final regulations will... trust corpus of a grantor retained annuity or unitrust trust (GRT) that is includible in the grantor's...

  6. Physiological Actions of Fibroblast Growth Factor-23

    Reinhold G. Erben

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23 is a bone-derived hormone suppressing phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D hormone synthesis in the kidney. At physiological concentrations of the hormone, the endocrine actions of FGF23 in the kidney are αKlotho-dependent, because high-affinity binding of FGF23 to FGF receptors requires the presence of the co-receptor αKlotho on target cells. It is well established that excessive concentrations of intact FGF23 in the blood lead to phosphate wasting in patients with normal kidney function. Based on the importance of diseases associated with gain of FGF23 function such as phosphate-wasting diseases and chronic kidney disease, a large body of literature has focused on the pathophysiological consequences of FGF23 excess. Less emphasis has been put on the role of FGF23 in normal physiology. Nevertheless, during recent years, lessons we have learned from loss-of-function models have shown that besides the paramount physiological roles of FGF23 in the control of 1α-hydroxylase expression and of apical membrane expression of sodium-phosphate co-transporters in proximal renal tubules, FGF23 also is an important stimulator of calcium and sodium reabsorption in distal renal tubules. In addition, there is an emerging role of FGF23 as an auto-/paracrine regulator of alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization in bone. In contrast to the renal actions of FGF23, the FGF23-mediated suppression of alkaline phosphatase in bone is αKlotho-independent. Moreover, FGF23 may be a physiological suppressor of differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into the erythroid lineage in the bone microenvironment. At present, there is little evidence for a physiological role of FGF23 in organs other than kidney and bone. The purpose of this mini-review is to highlight the current knowledge about the complex physiological functions of FGF23.

  7. Blood epididymal barrier to [3H]-inulin in intact and vasectomized hamsters

    Turner, T.T.; D'Addario, D.A.; Howards, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The net transport of [ 3 H]-inulin into the fluids of the hamster seminiferous and caput, corpus, and cauda epididymal tubules was examined in both intact animals and those vasectomized 10 months previously. Mean isotope concentrations in reproductive tract tubule fluids did not exceeded 10 per cent of blood plasma isotope concentrations during the experiment. There were no significant differences in net transport of [ 3 H]-inulin into any of the tubule fluids sampled. Ten months after vasectomy, the seminiferous tubule, and all regions of the epididymal tubule retain the capacity to exclude [ 3 H]-insulin. Thus in the hamster 10 months after vasectomy, the blood testis and blood epididymal barriers to inulin are intact

  8. Postpartum MR diagnosis of retained placenta accreta

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Itai, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8575, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shigemitsu, Sadahiko [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ryugasaki Saiseikai General Hospital, Ryagasaki (Japan); Ichikawa, Yoshihito; Sohda, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8575, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-06-01

    Retained placenta accreta can cause catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. This study aims to determine whether MR imaging can differentiate retained placenta accreta from postpartum hemorrhage caused by other conditions. Fourteen cases suspicious for retained placenta were examined with MR imaging. Signal intensity, the enhancing pattern of uterine contents, and flow voids within the myometrium were retrospectively studied. As hysterectomy was performed in only two cases, final diagnosis was based on clinical outcome and analysis of uterine contents. Final diagnoses were retained placenta accreta in seven cases, retained normally attached placenta in four, hematoma in two, and placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in one. All seven cases with placenta accreta had a very hyperintense area on T2-weighted images, showing transient early enhancement. None demonstrated delayed strong enhancement around the hyperintense area. In two cases with retained normally attached placenta and in both with hematomas, there were no hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images. Of these, only one showed transient early enhancement. Flow voids were observed in four cases with placenta accreta, one with normally attached placenta, and the case with PSTT. A markedly hyperintense area on T2-weighted images and transient early enhancement without delayed strong enhancement between the mass and the myometrium can indicate retained placenta accreta. (orig.)

  9. Postpartum MR diagnosis of retained placenta accreta

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Itai, Yuji; Shigemitsu, Sadahiko; Ichikawa, Yoshihito; Sohda, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Retained placenta accreta can cause catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. This study aims to determine whether MR imaging can differentiate retained placenta accreta from postpartum hemorrhage caused by other conditions. Fourteen cases suspicious for retained placenta were examined with MR imaging. Signal intensity, the enhancing pattern of uterine contents, and flow voids within the myometrium were retrospectively studied. As hysterectomy was performed in only two cases, final diagnosis was based on clinical outcome and analysis of uterine contents. Final diagnoses were retained placenta accreta in seven cases, retained normally attached placenta in four, hematoma in two, and placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in one. All seven cases with placenta accreta had a very hyperintense area on T2-weighted images, showing transient early enhancement. None demonstrated delayed strong enhancement around the hyperintense area. In two cases with retained normally attached placenta and in both with hematomas, there were no hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images. Of these, only one showed transient early enhancement. Flow voids were observed in four cases with placenta accreta, one with normally attached placenta, and the case with PSTT. A markedly hyperintense area on T2-weighted images and transient early enhancement without delayed strong enhancement between the mass and the myometrium can indicate retained placenta accreta. (orig.)

  10. How can we conserve intact tropical peatlands?

    Lawson, Ian; Roucoux, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    The scientific community has, for more than three decades, been expressing increasing alarm about the fate of peatlands in parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive land-use conversion and drainage for rice and oil palm have greatly compromised peatland hydrology, ecology, biological richness, and carbon storage. The discourse in the literature on these peatlands is now moving on from attempts to preserve the last remaining fragments of peat-swamp forest, towards discussion of how best to restore damaged ecosystems, and whether it is possible to manage plantations more 'sustainably'. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that peatlands occur quite widely in other parts of the lowland tropics, including parts of Amazonia and the Congo Basin, and many of these peatlands can reasonably be described as 'intact': although few if any parts of the tropics are totally unaffected by human actions, the hydrology and functional ecology of these systems appear to be close to a 'natural' state. The question then arises as to what should be done with the knowledge of their existence. Here we analyse the arguments in favour of protecting intact peatlands, and the potential conflicts with other priorities such as economic development and social justice. We evaluate alternative mechanisms for protecting intact peatlands, focusing on the particular issues raised by peatlands as opposed to other kinds of tropical ecosystem. We identify ways in which natural science agendas can help to inform these arguments, using our own contributions in palaeoecology and carbon mapping as examples. Finally, we argue for a radical reconsideration of research agendas in tropical peatlands, highlighting the potential contribution of methodologies borrowed from the social sciences and humanities.

  11. Inhibition of EGF processing in responsive and nonresponsive human fibroblasts

    Schaudies, R.P.; Wray, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the proteolytic processing of radiolabeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) in EGF growth-responsive human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) versus EGF nonresponsive human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL). Previous studies have shown that both cell lines demonstrate similar binding affinities and numbers of binding sites, as well as similar rates of internalization and degradation of the bound, radiolabeled hormone. We have used nondenaturing electrophoresis to compare how these two cell lines process EGF at its carboxy terminus. EGF lacking either one [des-(53)-EGF] or six [des (48-53)-EGF] carboxy terminal amino acids could be distinguished by this method. Chloroquine or leupeptin were added to the incubation system in an attempt to accentuate potential differences in hormonal processing between the responsive and nonresponsive cell lines. In the absence of inhibitors, the responsive and nonresponsive cells generated similar distributions of processed forms of EGF after 30-minutes incubation. However, after 4-hours incubation in the constant presence of 125I-EGF, the electrophoretic profiles of extracted hormone were substantially different. The radiolabel within the responsive cells, as well as that released from them, migrated predominantly at the dye front, indicating complete degradation of EGF. In contrast, the majority of the radiolabel within the nonresponsive cells migrated as partially processed forms of hormone, while the released radiolabel migrated at the dye front. Addition of chloroquine to either cell line inhibited processing of EGF beyond removal of the carboxyl terminal arginine residue. Both intact 125I-EGF, and 125I-EGF lacking the carboxyl terminal arginine were released from chloroquine-treated cells in a ratio equal to that present in the intact cells

  12. Floating retained root lesion mimicking apical periodontitis.

    Chung, Ming-Pang; Chen, Chih-Ping; Shieh, Yi-Shing

    2009-10-01

    A case of a retained root tip simulating apical periodontitis on radiographic examination is described. The retained root tip, originating from the left lower first molar, floated under the left lower second premolar apical region mimicking apical periodontitis. It appeared as an ill-defined periapical radiolucency containing a smaller radiodense mass on radiograph. The differential diagnosis included focal sclerosing osteomyelitis (condensing osteitis) and ossifying fibroma. Upon exicisional biopsy, a retained root associated with granulation tissue was found. After 1-year follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and the periradicular lesion was healing. Meanwhile, the associated tooth showed a normal response to stimulation testing.

  13. Sorption of cesium in intact rock

    Puukko, E.

    2014-04-01

    The mass distribution coefficient K d is used in performance assessment (PA) to describe sorption of a radionuclide on rock. The R d is determined using crushed rock which causes uncertainty in converting the R d values to K d values for intact rock. This work describes a method to determine the equilibrium of sorption on intact rock. The rock types of the planned Olkiluoto waste disposal site were T-series mica gneiss (T-MGN), T-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (T-TGG), P-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (P-TGG) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). These rocks contain different amount of biotite which is the main sorbing mineral. The sorption of cesium on intact rock slices was studied by applying an electrical field to speed up migration of cesium into the rock. Cesium is in the solution as a noncomplex cation Cs + and it is sorbed by ion exchange. The tracer used in the experiments was 134 Cs. The experimental sorption on the intact rock is compared with values calculated using the in house cation exchange sorption model (HYRL model) in PHREEQC program. The observed sorption on T-MGN and T-TGG rocks was close to the calculated values. Two PGR samples were from a depth of 70 m and three samples were from a depth of 150 m. Cesium sorbed more than predicted on the two 70 m PGR samples. The sorption of Cs on the three 150 m PGR samples was small which was consistent with the calculations. The pegmatitic granite PGR has the smallest content of biotite of the four rock types. In the case of P-TGG rock the observed values of sorption were only half of the calculated values. Two kind of slices were cut from P-TGG drill core. The slices were against and to the direction of the foliation of the biotite rims. The sorption of cesium on P-TGG rock was same in both cases. The results indicated that there was no effect of the directions of the electric field and the foliation of biotite in the P-TGG rock. (orig.)

  14. Quantitative proteomic analysis of intact plastids.

    Shiraya, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Plastids are specialized cell organelles in plant cells that are differentiated into various forms including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts, and fulfill important functions in maintaining the overall cell metabolism and sensing environmental factors such as sunlight. It is therefore important to grasp the mechanisms of differentiation and functional changes of plastids in order to enhance the understanding of vegetality. In this chapter, details of a method for the extraction of intact plastids that makes analysis possible while maintaining the plastid functions are provided; in addition, a quantitative shotgun method for analyzing the composition and changes in the content of proteins in plastids as a result of environmental impacts is described.

  15. Oxidation of molecular tritium by intact soils

    Sweet, C.W.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors on the rate of oxidation of molecular tritium (T 2 ) to tritiated water (HTO) were determined for intact soils during field exposures. Maximum deposition velocities of approximately 0.03 cm/sec were measured for T 2 at low wind speeds for a variety of soils over a wide range of conditions. Deposition velocities were slightly inhibited in wet soils and at 0 0 C. In dry soils, oxidation of T 2 to HTO occurred deeper in the soil profile, but deposition velocities were unaffected

  16. Fibroblast-matrix interplay: Nintedanib and pirfenidone modulate the effect of IPF fibroblast-conditioned matrix on normal fibroblast phenotype.

    Epstein Shochet, Gali; Wollin, Lutz; Shitrit, David

    2018-03-12

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with poor prognosis. Activated fibroblasts are the key effector cells in fibrosis, producing excessive amounts of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Whether the ECM conditioned by IPF fibroblasts determines the phenotype of naïve fibroblasts is difficult to explore. IPF-derived primary fibroblasts were cultured on Matrigel and then cleared using ammonium hydroxide, creating an IPF-conditioned matrix (CM). Normal fibroblast CM served as control. Normal fibroblasts were cultured on both types of CM, and cell count, cell distribution and markers of myofibroblast differentiation; transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling; and ECM expression were assessed. The effects of the anti-fibrotic drugs nintedanib and pirfenidone at physiologically relevant concentrations were also explored. Normal fibroblasts cultured on IPF-CM arranged in large aggregates as a result of increased proliferation and migration. Moreover, increased levels of pSmad3, pSTAT3 (phospho signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and Collagen1a were found, suggesting a differentiation towards a myofibroblast-like phenotype. SB505124 (10 μmol/L) partially reversed these alterations, suggesting a TGFβ contribution. Furthermore, nintedanib at 100 nmol/L and, to a lesser extent, pirfenidone at 100 μmol/L prevented the IPF-CM-induced fibroblast phenotype alterations, suggesting an attenuation of the ECM-fibroblast interplay. IPF fibroblasts alter the ECM, thus creating a CM that further propagates an IPF-like phenotype in normal fibroblasts. This assay demonstrated differences in drug activities for approved IPF drugs at clinically relevant concentrations. Thus, the matrix-fibroblast phenotype interplay might be a relevant assay to explore drug candidates for IPF treatment. © 2018 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...

  18. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. EMMPRIN is secreted by human uterine epithelial cells in microvesicles and stimulates metalloproteinase production by human uterine fibroblast cells.

    Braundmeier, A G; Dayger, C A; Mehrotra, P; Belton, R J; Nowak, R A

    2012-12-01

    Endometrial remodeling is a physiological process involved in the gynecological disease, endometriosis. Tissue remodeling is directed by uterine fibroblast production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Several MMPs are regulated directly by the protein extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and also by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)1-α/β. We hypothesized that human uterine epithelial cells (HESs) secrete intact EMMPRIN to stimulate MMPs. Microvesicles from HES cell-conditioned medium (CM) expressed intact EMMPRIN protein. Treatment of HES cells with estradiol or phorbyl 12-myristate-13-acetate increased the release of EMMPRIN-containing microvesicles. The HES CM stimulated MMP-1, -2, and -3 messenger RNA levels in human uterine fibroblasts (HUFs) and EMMPRIN immunodepletion from HES-cell concentrated CM reduced MMP stimulation (P EMMPRIN, in response to ovarian hormones, proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of protein kinase C.

  20. Fibroblast spheroids as a model to study sustained fibroblast quiescence and their crosstalk with tumor cells

    Salmenperä, Pertteli, E-mail: pertteli.salmenpera@helsinki.fi [Department of Virology, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FIN-00014 (Finland); Karhemo, Piia-Riitta [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, and Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 (Finland); Räsänen, Kati [Department of Virology, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FIN-00014 (Finland); Laakkonen, Pirjo [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, and Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 (Finland); Vaheri, Antti [Department of Virology, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FIN-00014 (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Stromal fibroblasts have an important role in regulating tumor progression. Normal and quiescent fibroblasts have been shown to restrict and control cancer cell growth, while cancer-associated, i. e. activated fibroblasts have been shown to enhance proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. In this study we describe generation of quiescent fibroblasts in multicellular spheroids and their effects on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) growth in soft-agarose and xenograft models. Quiescent phenotype of fibroblasts was determined by global down-regulation of expression of genes related to cell cycle and increased expression of p27. Interestingly, microarray analysis showed that fibroblast quiescence was associated with similar secretory phenotype as seen in senescence and they expressed senescence-associated-β-galactosidase. Quiescent fibroblasts spheroids also restricted the growth of RT3 SCC cells both in soft-agarose and xenograft models unlike proliferating fibroblasts. Restricted tumor growth was associated with marginally increased tumor cell senescence and cellular differentiation, showed with senescence-associated-β-galactosidase and cytokeratin 7 staining. Our results show that the fibroblasts spheroids can be used as a model to study cellular quiescence and their effects on cancer cell progression. - Highlights: • Fibroblasts acquire a sustained quiescence when grown as multicellular spheroids. • This quiescence is associated with drastic change in gene expression. • Fibroblasts spheroids secrete various inflammation-linked cytokines and chemokines. • Fibroblasts spheroids reduced growth of RT3 SCC cells in xenograft model.

  1. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    Niemi, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ( 3 H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented

  2. A new infusion pathway intactness monitoring system.

    Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sata, Koji; Hamada, Shingo; Caldwell, W Morton

    2006-01-01

    A new infusion pathway monitoring system has been developed for hospital and home use. The system consists of linear integrated circuits and a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer which constantly monitors the infusion pathway intactness. An AC (alternating current) voltage is induced on the patient's body by electrostatic coupling from the normal 100 volt, 60 Hz AC power line wiring field in the patient's room. The induced AC voltage can be recorded by a main electrode wrapped around the infusion polyvinyl chloride tube. A reference electrode is wrapped on the electrode to monitor the AC voltage around the main electrode. If the injection needle or infusion tube becomes detached, then the system detects changes in the induced AC voltages and alerts the nursing station, via the nurse call system or PHS (personal handy phone system).

  3. Reconciling certification and intact forest landscape conservation.

    Kleinschroth, Fritz; Garcia, Claude; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2018-05-29

    In 2014, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) added a new criterion to its principles that requires protection of intact forest landscapes (IFLs). An IFL is an extensive area of forest that lacks roads and other signs of human activity as detected through remote sensing. In the Congo basin, our analysis of road networks in formally approved concessionary logging areas revealed greater loss of IFL in certified than in noncertified concessions. In areas of informal (i.e., nonregulated) extraction, road networks are known to be less detectable by remote sensing. Under the current definition of IFL, companies certified under FSC standards are likely to be penalized relative to the noncertified as well as the informal logging sector on account of their planned road networks, despite an otherwise better standard of forest management. This could ultimately undermine certification and its wider adoption, with implications for the future of sustainable forest management.

  4. Fibroblasts from long-lived Snell dwarf mice are resistant to oxygen-induced in vitro growth arrest

    Maynard, Scott P; Miller, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Snell dwarf mice live longer than controls, and show lower age-adjusted rates of lethal neoplastic diseases. Fibroblast cells from adult dwarf mice are resistant to the lethal effects of oxidative and nonoxidative stresses, including the carcinogen methyl methanesulfonate. We now report that dwar...... in skin fibroblasts by the hormonal milieu of the Snell dwarf lead to resistance to multiple forms of injury, including the oxidative damage that contributes to growth arrest in vitro and neoplasia in intact mice.......Snell dwarf mice live longer than controls, and show lower age-adjusted rates of lethal neoplastic diseases. Fibroblast cells from adult dwarf mice are resistant to the lethal effects of oxidative and nonoxidative stresses, including the carcinogen methyl methanesulfonate. We now report that dwarf...

  5. Radiosensitivity in cultured human fibroblasts

    Cox, R.; Masson, W.K.

    1980-01-01

    Caution is urged in the use of freshly isolated cultures of human diploid fibroblasts for quantitative studies of radiosensitivity. The distribution of x ray sensitivities of 'normal' human fibroblast cultures of foetal origin (10 subjects, skin or lung biopsy) and post-foetal origin (34 subjects, skin biopsy) are compared with the distribution in 12 patients with ataxia telangiectasia (probability of including any one of these in a normal post-foetal distribution is 0.01%). Cultures from nominally normal subjects showed a broad distribution of D 0 range of 98 +- 160 rad and assuming normal distribution, a mean +- one standard deviation of 122 +- 17 rad. Mean D 0 values for foetal origin cultures were 117 +- 12; values for post-foetal cultures D 0 were 124 +- 18. No systematic variation in D 0 was observed for age of donor, number of cell divisions in culture or for cloning efficiency. For ataxia telangiectasia D 0 values were 46 +- 7 rad. (U.K.)

  6. Evaluation of Causes of Retaining Wall Failure

    Mu'azu Mohammed ABDULLAHI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Retaining structures are vital geotechnical structure, because the topography of the earth surface is a combination of plain, sloppy and undulating terrain. The retaining wall resists thrust of a bank of earth as well as providing soil stability of a change of ground elevation. Earth pressures on retaining wall are designed from theories of Soil Mechanics, but unfortunately the engineers using them do not always realize the significance of the assumption in their development. This is usually accompanied by with failure and partial failures because of designed based on rules and formulae that fit only limited conditions. In addition there are also problems of using bad backfill materials without taking precautionary measures against built–up of hydrostatic pressure by provision of drainage and also poor workmanship.

  7. Chinese hamster ovary cell lysosomes retain pinocytized horseradish peroxidase and in situ-radioiodinated proteins

    Storrie, B.; Sachdeva, M.; Viers, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    We used Chinese hamster ovary cells, a cell line of fibroblastic origin, to investigate whether lysosomes are an exocytic compartment. To label lysosomal contents, Chinese hamster ovary cells were incubated with the solute marker horseradish peroxidase. After an 18-h uptake period, horseradish peroxidase was found in lysosomes by cell fractionation in Percoll gradients and by electron microscope cytochemistry. Over a 24-h period, lysosomal horseradish peroxidase was quantitatively retained by Chinese hamster ovary cells and inactivated with a t 1/2 of 6 to 8 h. Lysosomes were radioiodinated in situ by soluble lactoperoxidase internalized over an 18-h uptake period. About 70% of the radioiodine incorporation was pelleted at 100,000 X g under conditions in which greater than 80% of the lysosomal marker enzyme beta-hexosaminidase was released into the supernatant. By one-dimensional electrophoresis, about 18 protein species were present in the lysosomal membrane fraction, with radioiodine incorporation being most pronounced into species of 70,000 to 75,000 daltons. After a 30-min or 2-h chase at 37 degrees C, radioiodine that was incorporated into lysosomal membranes and contents was retained in lysosomes. These observations indicate that lysosomes labeled by fluid-phase pinocytosis are a terminal component of endocytic pathways in fibroblasts

  8. Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Miller, W.O.; Unal, C.; Fujita, R.K.

    1995-01-13

    This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space.

  9. Migration of innumerable chronically retained acupuncture needles

    Frances Lazarow, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 50-year-old female with a 2-day history of back and abdominal pain who was discovered to have innumerable chronically retained acupuncture needles, which had migrated throughout her abdomen and pelvis. Although many of these needles were in precarious positions, including the epidural space, renal parenchyma, small bowel, and vasculature, there was no evidence for acute injury. We also briefly discuss evidence for the magnetic resonance imaging compatibility of acupuncture needles. Although a rare complication, given the high frequency of acupuncture therapy in the United States, physicians must be aware of the potential for retained and migrated needles.

  10. Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Miller, W.O.; Unal, C.; Fujita, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space

  11. Large Scale Testing of Drystone Retaining Structures

    Mundell, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Drystone walls have been used extensively around the world as earth retaining structures wherever suitable stone is found. Commonly about 0.6m thick (irrespective of height), there are about 9000km of drystone retaining walls on the UK road network alone, mostly built in the 19th and early 20th centuries, with an estimated replacement value in excess of £1 billion[1]. Drystone wall design is traditionally empirical, based on local knowledge of what has worked in the past. Methods vary from re...

  12. Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage

    Persson, H.; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    beam milling and scanning electron microscopy, highly curved but intact nuclear membranes are observed, showing no direct contact between the nanowires and the DNA. The nanowires possibly induce cellular stress and high respiration rates, which trigger the formation of ROS, which in turn results in DNA......Nanowires are commonly used as tools for interfacing living cells, acting as biomolecule-delivery vectors or electrodes. It is generally assumed that the small size of the nanowires ensures a minimal cellular perturbation, yet the effects of nanowires on cell migration and proliferation remain...... largely unknown. Fibroblast behaviour on vertical nanowire arrays is investigated, and it is shown that cell motility and proliferation rate are reduced on nanowires. Fibroblasts cultured on long nanowires exhibit failed cell division, DNA damage, increased ROS content and respiration. Using focused ion...

  13. Comparison of Intact PTH and Bio-Intact PTH Assays Among Non-Dialysis Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Einbinder, Yael; Benchetrit, Sydney; Golan, Eliezer; Zitman-Gal, Tali

    2017-09-01

    The third-generation bio-intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-84) assay was designed to overcome problems associated with the detection of C-terminal fragments by the second-generation intact PTH assay. The two assays have been compared primarily among dialysis populations. The present study evaluated the correlations and differences between these two PTH assays among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5 not yet on dialysis. Blood samples were collected from 98 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5. PTH concentrations were measured simultaneously by using the second-generation - PTH intact-STAT and third-generation bio-intact 1-84 PTH assays. Other serum biomarkers of bone mineral disorders were also assessed. CKD stage was calculated by using the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration (EPI) formula. Serum bio-intact PTH concentrations were strongly correlated but significantly lower than the intact PTH concentrations (r=0.963, Pbio-intact PTH) positively correlated with urea (r=0.523, r=0.504; P=0.002, respectively), phosphorus (r=0.532, r=0.521; Pbio-intact PTH assay detected significantly lower PTH concentrations compared with intact PTH assay. Additional studies that correlate the diagnosis and management of CKD mineral and bone disorders with bone histomorphometric findings are needed to determine whether bio-intact PTH assay results are better surrogate markers in these early stages of CKD. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  14. Retained Gas Sampler Calibration and Simulant Tests

    CRAWFORD, B.A.

    2000-01-05

    This test plan provides a method for calibration of the retained gas sampler (RGS) for ammonia gas analysis. Simulant solutions of ammonium hydroxide at known concentrations will be diluted with isotopically labeled 0.04 M ammonium hydroxide solution. Sea sand solids will also be mixed with ammonium hydroxide solution and diluent to determine the accuracy of the system for ammonia gas analysis.

  15. Placemaking: Attracting and Retaining Today's Students

    Knight, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that the appearance of a college campus--both inside and out--is a significant criterion in college selection. As community colleges are finding it increasingly important to attract and retain students, placemaking is becoming an effective and efficient platform to support recruitment and retention. Placemaking is imagining and…

  16. Health matters in hiring and retaining personnel

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Health is the most important issue when an employer is deciding whether to hire a worker, according to a new study from the Netherlands. The research looked at the results of a ‘vignette’ study on employer preferences when hiring or retaining personnel. It also showed that when an employer is

  17. Retained Gas Sampler Calibration and Simulant Tests

    CRAWFORD, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    This test plan provides a method for calibration of the retained gas sampler (RGS) for ammonia gas analysis. Simulant solutions of ammonium hydroxide at known concentrations will be diluted with isotopically labeled 0.04 M ammonium hydroxide solution. Sea sand solids will also be mixed with ammonium hydroxide solution and diluent to determine the accuracy of the system for ammonia gas analysis

  18. [Conventional retaining of removable partial dentures

    Keltjens, H.M.A.M.; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical and biological criteria have to be met in retaining the metal frame of a removable partial denture. Additionally, a removable partial denture is part of the occlusal interface by the clasps and the denture teeth. With respect to mechanical aspects, all rigid parts of the removable partial

  19. Pathophysiology of preterm labor with intact membranes.

    Talati, Asha N; Hackney, David N; Mesiano, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Preterm labor with intact membranes is a major cause of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). To prevent sPTB a clear understanding is needed of the hormonal interactions that initiate labor. The steroid hormone progesterone acting via its nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine cells is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and disruption of PR signaling (i.e., functional progesterone/PR withdrawal) is key trigger for labor. The process of parturition is also associated with inflammation within the uterine tissues and it is now generally accepted that inflammatory stimuli from multiple extrinsic and intrinsic sources induce labor. Recent studies suggest inflammatory stimuli induce labor by affecting PR transcriptional activity in uterine cells to cause functional progesterone/PR withdrawal. Advances in understanding the functional interaction of inflammatory load on the pregnancy uterus and progesterone/PR signaling is opening novel areas of research and may lead to rational therapeutic strategies to effectively prevent sPTB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Excitons in intact cells of photosynthetic bacteria.

    Freiberg, Arvi; Pajusalu, Mihkel; Rätsep, Margus

    2013-09-26

    Live cells and regular crystals seem fundamentally incompatible. Still, effects characteristic to ideal crystals, such as coherent sharing of excitation, have been recently used in many studies to explain the behavior of several photosynthetic complexes, especially the inner workings of the light-harvesting apparatus of the oldest known photosynthetic organisms, the purple bacteria. To this date, there has been no concrete evidence that the same effects are instrumental in real living cells, leaving a possibility that this is an artifact of unnatural study conditions, not a real effect relevant to the biological operation of bacteria. Hereby, we demonstrate survival of collective coherent excitations (excitons) in intact cells of photosynthetic purple bacteria. This is done by using excitation anisotropy spectroscopy for tracking the temperature-dependent evolution of exciton bands in light-harvesting systems of increasing structural complexity. The temperature was gradually raised from 4.5 K to ambient temperature, and the complexity of the systems ranged from detergent-isolated complexes to complete bacterial cells. The results provide conclusive evidence that excitons are indeed one of the key elements contributing to the energetic and dynamic properties of photosynthetic organisms.

  1. Adverse fibrosis in the aging heart depends on signaling between myeloid and mesenchymal cells; role of inflammatory fibroblasts.

    Cieslik, Katarzyna A; Trial, JoAnn; Crawford, Jeffrey R; Taffet, George E; Entman, Mark L

    2014-05-01

    Aging has been associated with adverse fibrosis. Here we formulate a new hypothesis and present new evidence that unresponsiveness of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and fibroblasts to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), due to reduced expression of TGF-β receptor I (TβRI), provides a foundation for cardiac fibrosis in the aging heart via two mechanisms. 1) TGF-β promotes expression of Nanog, a transcription factor that retains MSC in a primitive state. In MSC derived from the aging heart, Nanog expression is reduced and therefore MSC gradually differentiate and the number of mesenchymal fibroblasts expressing collagen increases. 2) As TGF-β signaling pathway components negatively regulate transcription of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a reduced expression of TβRI prevents aging mesenchymal cells from shutting down their own MCP-1 expression. Elevated MCP-1 levels that originated from MSC attract transendothelial migration of mononuclear leukocytes from blood to the tissue. MCP-1 expressed by mesenchymal fibroblasts promotes further migration of monocytes and T lymphocytes away from the endothelial barrier and supports the monocyte transition into macrophages and finally into myeloid fibroblasts. Both myeloid and mesenchymal fibroblasts contribute to fibrosis in the aging heart via collagen synthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Myocyte-Fibroblast Signalling in Myocardium ". © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies, life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior. Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families.

  3. Impact of matrix stiffness on fibroblast function

    El-Mohri, Hichem; Wu, Yang; Mohanty, Swetaparna; Ghosh, Gargi, E-mail: gargi@umich.edu

    2017-05-01

    Chronic non-healing wounds, caused by impaired production of growth factors and reduced vascularization, represent a significant burden to patients, health care professionals, and health care system. While several wound dressing biomaterials have been developed, the impact of the mechanical properties of the dressings on the residing cells and consequently on the healing of the wounds is largely overlooked. The primary focus of this study is to explore whether manipulation of the substrate mechanics can regulate the function of fibroblasts, particularly in the context of their angiogenic activity. A photocrosslinkable hydrogel platform with orthogonal control over gel modulus and cell adhesive sites was developed to explore the quantitative relationship between ECM compliance and fibroblast function. Increase in matrix stiffness resulted in enhanced fibroblast proliferation and stress fiber formation. However, the angiogenic activity of fibroblasts was found to be optimum when the cells were seeded on compliant matrices. Thus, the observations suggest that the stiffness of the wound dressing material may play an important role in the progression of wound healing. - Highlights: • Proliferation and stress fiber formation of fibroblasts increase with increasing matrix mechanics. • Cell area correlates with the growth of fibroblasts. • Angiogenic activity of fibroblasts optimum when cells seeded on compliant gels.

  4. Abdominal retained surgical sponges: CT appearance

    Kalovidouris, A.; Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Pentea, S.; Vlahos, L. [Department of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    1999-09-01

    Retention of surgical sponges is rare. They cause either an aseptic reaction without significant symptoms or an exudative reaction which results in early but nonspecific symptoms. Computed tomography is very useful for recognition of retained sponges. The appearance of retained sponges is widely variable. Air trapping into a surgical sponge results in the spongiform pattern which is characteristic but unfortunately uncommon. A low-density, high-density, or complex mass is found in the majority of cases, but these patterns are not specific. Sometimes, a thin high-density capsule may be seen. Rim or internal calcification is a rare finding. Finally, a radiopaque marker is not a reliable sign. Differentiation from abscess and hematoma is sometimes difficult. (orig.) With 11 figs., 12 refs.

  5. Abdominal retained surgical sponges: CT appearance

    Kalovidouris, A.; Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Pentea, S.; Vlahos, L.

    1999-01-01

    Retention of surgical sponges is rare. They cause either an aseptic reaction without significant symptoms or an exudative reaction which results in early but nonspecific symptoms. Computed tomography is very useful for recognition of retained sponges. The appearance of retained sponges is widely variable. Air trapping into a surgical sponge results in the spongiform pattern which is characteristic but unfortunately uncommon. A low-density, high-density, or complex mass is found in the majority of cases, but these patterns are not specific. Sometimes, a thin high-density capsule may be seen. Rim or internal calcification is a rare finding. Finally, a radiopaque marker is not a reliable sign. Differentiation from abscess and hematoma is sometimes difficult. (orig.)

  6. Isolation of intact elastin fibers devoid of microfibrils.

    Daamen, W.F.; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2005-01-01

    Purification protocols for elastin generally result in greatly damaged elastin fibers and this likely influences the biological response. We here describe a novel protocol for the isolation of elastin whereby the fibers stay intact, and introduce the term "elastin fiber" for intact elastic fibers

  7. 50 CFR 622.38 - Landing fish intact.

    2010-10-01

    ... that is operating under the respective trip limits. Such cut-off fish also may be sold. A maximum of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Landing fish intact. 622.38 Section 622.38... Landing fish intact. The operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring that fish...

  8. Tooth Retained Implant: No More an Oxymoron

    Divya Bhat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontally af-fected teeth are treated in one of the two ways. (1 Tooth retention after periodontal surgery, in which the degree of regeneration achieved is unpredictable. (2 Tooth extrac-tion and implant placement. Implants have an osseointegrated surface which does not provide adequate shock absorption. Regeneration can be achieved by resecting the crown of the affected tooth and submerging the root. This technique has not had a clinical application so far as the tooth becomes difficult to restore. Placing an implant within the root can make the retained root restorable. At the same time, as the implant is placed within the root surface it achieves a periodontal integration which dampens occlusal forces better than osseointegration. Therefore, such a “tooth retained implant” may serve as an additional treatment option with significant benefits over tooth retention and implant placement alone. The hypothesis: Implants placed within retained roots have shown cementum deposition and attachment of periodontal ligament fibers over their surface. This periodontal attachment may be able to dam-pen forces better than in an osseointegrated implant. Moreover, since an implant is being placed, the crown of the tooth can be resected and submerged. This prevents epithelial migration, allows for the periodontal ligament cells to populate the wound and favors regeneration.Evaluation of the hypothesis: The technique of placing implants within cavities prepared in the root and then submerging them are simple for any practitioner placing implants routinely.

  9. Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Liberman, U.A.; Eil, C.; Marx, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    We evaluated the interaction of [ 3 H]1,25(OH) 2 D 3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH) 2 D [1,25(OH) 2 D]. We analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer containing 300 mM KCl and 10 mM sodium molybdate. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of [ 3 H]1,25(OH) 2 D 3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of [ 3 H]1,25(OH) 2 D 3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH) 2 D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds

  10. Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Liberman, U.A.; Eil, C.; Marx, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    The authors evaluated the interaction of [ 3 H]1,25(OH) 2 D3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH) 2 D [1,25(OH) 2 D]. They analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of [ 3 H]1,25(OH) 2 D3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. The following four patterns of interaction with [ 3 H]1,25(OH) 2 D3 were observed with cells cultured from affected patients. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of [ 3 H]1,25(OH) 2 D3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH) 2 D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds

  11. Kansal′s Retainer: A Removable, Tooth-Borne Orthodontic Retainer

    Sudhanshu Kansal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate retention of a finished orthodontic patient can be the difference between a successful or an unsuccessful treatment. The acrylic portion of the conventional Hawley′s appliance causes a reduced compliance in many orthodontic patients. In an attempt to overcome the drawbacks of the previously used orthodontic retainers a tooth-borne orthodontic retainer was designed, also called the ′Kansal′s retainer′ (Patent pending.

  12. Fibroblast cultures in duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Ionasescu, V.; Lara-Braud, C.; Zellweger, H.; Ionasescu, R.; Burmeister, L.

    1977-01-01

    Primary skin fibroblast cultures were grown from forearm pinch skin biopsies obtained from 24 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and ten normal controls matched for sex and age. The first subcultures were grown for 7 days and incubated with L-( 3 H)-proline for 24 hours. Intracellular collagen incoption was significantly decreased (2.2 X) and extracellular collagen incorporation significantly increased (1.8 X) in fibroblast cultures from patients with DMD by both collagenase assay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The synthesis of noncollagen proteins showed low values from the DMD fibroblast cultures. The alterations in synthesis and secretion of collagen and noncollagen proteins were characteristic only for the log phase of DMD fibroblasts. (author)

  13. ADP-ribosylation of actins in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts by botulinum C2 toxin: Influence on microfilament morphology and migratory behavior

    Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Petersen, Ole William

    1996-01-01

    botulinum C2 toxin. The substrate for C2 toxin is globular actin, which upon ribosylation cannot incorporate into microfilaments. The pattern of actin ADP-ribosylation in (myo)fibroblasts in the presence of [32P]NAD was analyzed by isoelectric focusing, fluorography and immunoblotting. The influence of C2...... toxin on microfilaments in intact cells was further assessed by immunofluorescence, and motility was measured in a mass migration assay and by computerized video time-lapse microscopy. We show here that C2 toxin specifically ribosylates - and -actin in both fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Whereas...

  14. Serum steroid levels in intact and endocrine ablated BALB/c nude mice and their intact littermates

    Brünner, N; Svenstrup, B; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was made of the serum steroid levels found in intact and endocrine ablated nude mice of both sexes and in their intact homozygous littermates. The results showed that nude mice have a normal steroidogenesis, but with decreased levels of circulating steroids compared to those...

  15. Fibroblasts in fibrosis: novel roles and mediators

    Ryan Thomas Kendall

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are the most common cell type of the connective tissues found throughout the body and the principal source of the extensive extracellular matrix (ECM characteristic of these tissues. They are also the central mediators of the pathological fibrotic accumulation of ECM and the cellular proliferation and differentiation that occurs in response to prolonged tissue injury and chronic inflammation. The transformation of the fibroblast cell lineage involves classical developmental signaling programs and includes a surprisingly diverse range of precursor cell types—most notably, myofibroblasts that are the apex of the fibrotic phenotype. Myofibroblasts display exaggerated ECM production; constitutively secrete and are hypersensitive to chemical signals such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors; and are endowed with a contractile apparatus allowing them to manipulate the ECM fibers physically to close open wounds. In addition to ECM production, fibroblasts have multiple concomitant biological roles, such as in wound healing, inflammation, and angiogenesis, which are each interwoven with the process of fibrosis. We now recognize many common fibroblast-related features across various physiological and pathological protracted processes. Indeed, a new appreciation has emerged for the role of noncancerous fibroblast interactions with tumors in cancer progression. Although the predominant current clinical treatments of fibrosis involve nonspecific immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative drugs, a variety of potential therapies under investigation specifically target fibroblast biology.

  16. Effect of Abutment Modification and Cement Type on Retention of Cement-Retained Implant Supported Crowns

    Farzin, Mitra; Torabi, Kianoosh; Ahangari, Ahmad Hasan; Derafshi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Provisional cements are commonly used to facilitate retrievability of cement-retained fixed implant restorations; but compromised abutment preparation may affect the retention of implant-retained crowns.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abutment design and type of luting agent on the retentive strength of cement-retained implant restorations. Materials and Method: Two prefabricated abutments were attached to their corresponding analogs and embedded in an acrylic resin block. The first abutment (control group) was left intact without any modifications. The screw access channel for the first abutment was completely filled with composite resin. In the second abutment, (test group) the axial wall was partially removed to form an abutment with 3 walls. Wax models were made by CAD/CAM. Ten cast copings were fabricated for each abutment. The prepared copings were cemented on the abutments by Temp Bond luting agent under standardized conditions (n=20). The assemblies were stored in 100% humidity for one day at 37°C prior to testing. The cast crown was removed from the abutment using an Instron machine, and the peak removal force was recorded. Coping/abutment specimens were cleaned after testing, and the testing procedure was repeated for Dycal luting agent (n=20). Data were analyzed with two- way ANOVA (α=0.05). Results: There was no significant difference in the mean transformed retention (Ln-R) between intact abutments (4.90±0.37) and the abutments with 3 walls (4.83±0.25) using Dycal luting agent. However, in TempBond group, the mean transformed retention (Ln-R) was significantly lower in the intact abutment (3.9±0.23) compared to the abutment with 3 walls (4.13±0.33, P=0.027). Conclusion: The retention of cement-retained implant restoration can be improved by the type of temporary cement used. The retention of cast crowns cemented to implant abutments with TempBond is influenced by the wall removal. PMID:25628660

  17. Effect of abutment modification and cement type on retention of cement-retained implant supported crowns.

    Mitra Farzin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Provisional cements are commonly used to facilitate retrievability of cement-retained fixed implant restorations; but compromised abutment preparation may affect the retention of implant-retained crowns.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abutment design and type of luting agent on the retentive strength of cement-retained implant restorations.Two prefabricated abutments were attached to their corresponding analogs and embedded in an acrylic resin block. The first abutment (control group was left intact without any modifications. The screw access channel for the first abutment was completely filled with composite resin. In the second abutment, (test group the axial wall was partially removed to form an abutment with 3 walls. Wax models were made by CAD/CAM. Ten cast copings were fabricated for each abutment. The prepared copings were cemented on the abutments by Temp Bond luting agent under standardized conditions (n=20. The assemblies were stored in 100% humidity for one day at 37°C prior to testing. The cast crown was removed from the abutment using an Instron machine, and the peak removal force was recorded. Coping/abutment specimens were cleaned after testing, and the testing procedure was repeated for Dycal luting agent (n=20. Data were analyzed with two- way ANOVA (α=0.05.There was no significant difference in the mean transformed retention (Ln-R between intact abutments (4.90±0.37 and the abutments with 3 walls (4.83±0.25 using Dycal luting agent. However, in TempBond group, the mean transformed retention (Ln-R was significantly lower in the intact abutment (3.9±0.23 compared to the abutment with 3 walls (4.13±0.33, P=0.027.The retention of cement-retained implant restoration can be improved by the type of temporary cement used. The retention of cast crowns cemented to implant abutments with TempBond is influenced by the wall removal.

  18. Human diploid fibroblasts have receptors for the globular domain of C1Q

    Bordin, S.; Page, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors showed that mass cultures of fibroblasts grown from gingival explants in DB medium with 10% human serum are enriched in a phenotype that binds C1q with an affinity much higher than the rest of the population. Because of potential biologic importance of C1q receptors, the authors studied whether the interaction between C1q and this phenotype was mediated by the globular or collagenous domains of the molecule. Globular fragments were prepared by digesting C1q with collagenase, and collagenous fragments obtained after pepsin treatment. C1q binding on cells in suspension was determined by reaction with 125 I-C1q as reported. Competition experiments were performed under conditions in which intact 125 I-C1q binding saturated all available receptors. The results showed that collagenous fragments inhibited 20% of the 125 I-C1q binding to high affinity receptors, whereas inhibition by globular fragments was 70%. Unlabeled intact C1q and collagen type 1 were used as controls, and inhibited 92% and 17% of C1q binding, respectively. These studies show that C1q interacts with the fibroblast phenotype expressing high affinity receptors through its globular domain. The authors suggest that at sites of trauma, native C1 may bind to the surface of these cells via the globular domain of C1q, and that this unique phenotype may play an important role in tissue repair

  19. Zymosterol is located in the plasma membrane of cultured human fibroblasts

    Echevarria, F.; Norton, R.A.; Nes, W.D.; Lange, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Zymosterol (5 alpha-cholesta-8(9),24-dien-3 beta-ol) comprised a negligible fraction of the mass of sterol in cultured human fibroblasts but was well labeled biosynthetically with radioactive acetate. Treatment of cells with triparanol, a potent inhibitor of sterol delta 24-reductase, led to a marked increase in labeled zymosterol while its mass rose to 1 mol% of total sterol. All of this sterol could be chased into cholesterol. Furthermore, cell homogenates converted exogenous radiolabeled zymosterol to cholesterol. Three lines of evidence suggested that biosynthetically labeled zymosterol was associated with the plasma membrane. (1) About 80% of radiolabeled zymosterol was oxidized by the impermeant enzyme, cholesterol oxidase, in glutaraldehyde-fixed intact cells. (2) Sucrose density gradient analysis of homogenates showed that the equilibrium buoyant density profile of newly synthesized zymosterol was identical with that of the plasma membrane. (3) Newly synthesized zymosterol was transferred as readily from fixed intact fibroblasts to exogenous acceptors as was cholesterol. Given that cholesterol is synthesized within the cell, it is unclear why most of the zymosterol is in the plasma membrane. The pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis may compel zymosterol to flux through the plasma membrane. Alternatively, plasma membrane zymosterol may represent a separate pool, in equilibrium with the zymosterol in the intracellular biosynthetic pool

  20. Retained Surgical Foreign Bodies after Surgery

    Valon A. Zejnullahu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of retained surgical bodies (RSB after surgery is an issue for surgeons, hospitals and the entire medical team. They have potentially harmful consequences for the patient as they can be life threatening and usually, a further operation is necessary. The incidence of RSB is between 0.3 to 1.0 per 1,000 abdominal operations, and they occur due to a lack of organisation and communication between surgical staff during the process. Typically, the RSB are surgical sponges and instruments located in the abdomen, retroperitoneum and pelvis.

  1. The Analysis Stability of Anchor Retaining Wall

    Benamara, F. Z.; Belabed, L

    2011-01-01

    The construction of anchored retaining walls reach every day in the field of Civil Engineering especially in public works. Their dimensioning and stability are the axes of research for geotechnical. The rule is to reduce the active forces of the slide and increase the effective normal stress on the rupture surface. So that, we anchored tied-back (constituted by steel cables) in the stable ground located under the failure surface and we apply at the top a traction force. This effort can be distributed over the ground surface by means of small plates or massive reinforced concrete. The study of the stability of anchored retaining wall was also performed by using software GEO4. Many cases can be solved using analytical solutions available in the group GEO4 program, but for our standard model solution studied analytically proved unsatisfactory so we used a numerical analysis based on the method of finite element in this program. The results obtained by numerical study were interpreted to identify the precision numerical predictions. Moreover these methods were useful and economics in the realization of reinforced slopes by tied-buck. (author)

  2. Intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation and segregation in a rat fibroblast cell line transfected with a human insulin receptor gene

    Levy, J.R.; Olefsky, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The cellular processing of insulin and insulin receptors was studied using a rat fibroblast cell line that had been transfected with a normal human insulin receptor gene, expressing approximately 500 times the normal number of native fibroblasts insulin receptors. These cells bind and internalize insulin normally. Biochemically assays based on the selective precipitation by polyethylene glycol of intact insulin-receptor complexes but not of free intracellular insulin were developed to study the time course of intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation. Fibroblasts were incubated with radiolabeled insulin at 4 0 C, and internalization of insulin-receptor complexes was initiated by warming the cells to 37 0 C. Within 2 min, 90% of the internalized radioactivity was composed of intact insulin-receptor complexes. The dissociation of insulin from internalized insulin-receptor complexes was markedly inhibited by monensin and chloroquine. Furthermore, chloroquine markedly increased the number of cross-linkable intracellular insulin-receptor complexes, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiography. These findings suggest that acidification of intracellular vesicles is responsible for insulin-receptor dissociation. Physical segregation of dissociated intracellular insulin from its receptor was monitored. The results are consistent with the view that segregation of insulin and receptor occurs 5-10 min after initiation of dissociation. These studies demonstrate the intracellular itinerary of insulin-receptor complexes, including internalization, dissociation of insulin from the internalized receptor within an acidified compartment, segregation of insulin from the receptor, and subsequent ligand degradation

  3. N-cadherin is overexpressed in Crohn's stricture fibroblasts and promotes intestinal fibroblast migration.

    Burke, John P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibroblasts mediate stricture formation in Crohn\\'s disease (CD). Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is important in fibroblast activation, while cell attachment and migration is regulated by the adhesion molecule N-cadherin. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of N-cadherin in intestinal fibroblasts in patients with fibrostenosing CD. METHODS: Intestinal fibroblasts were cultured from seromuscular biopsies from patients undergoing resection for terminal ileal fibrostenosing CD (n = 14) or controls patients (n = 8). N-cadherin expression was assessed using Western blot and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Fibroblasts were stimulated with TGF-beta and selective pathway inhibitors Y27632, PD98050, and LY294002 were used to examine the Rho\\/ROCK, ERK-1\\/2, and Akt signaling pathways, respectively. Cell migration was assessed using a scratch wound assay. N-cadherin was selectively overexpressed using a plasmid. RESULTS: Fibroblasts from fibrostenosing CD express increased constitutive N-cadherin mRNA and protein and exhibit enhanced basal cell migration relative to those from directly adjacent normal bowel. Control fibroblasts treated with TGF-beta induced N-cadherin in a dose-dependent manner which was inhibited by Rho\\/ROCK and Akt pathway modulation. Control fibroblasts exhibited enhanced cell migration in response to treatment with TGF-beta or transfection with an N-cadherin plasmid. CONCLUSIONS: Fibroblasts from strictures in CD express increased constitutive N-cadherin and exhibit enhanced basal cell migration. TGF-beta is a potent inducer of N-cadherin in intestinal fibroblasts resulting in enhanced cell migration. The TGF-beta-mediated induction of N-cadherin may potentiate Crohn\\'s stricture formation.

  4. Dependence of u.v.-induced DNA excision repair on deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate concentrations in permeable human fibroblasts: a model for the inhibition of repair by hydroxyurea

    Hunting, D.J.; Dresler, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that the inhibition by hydroxyurea of repair patch ligation and chromatin rearrangement during u.v.-induced DNA excision repair results from a reduction in cellular deoxyribonucleotide concentrations and not from a direct effect of hydroxyurea on the repair process. Using permeable human fibroblasts, we have shown that hydroxyurea has no direct effect on either repair synthesis or repair patch ligation. We also have shown that by reducing the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate concentrations in the permeable cell reaction mixture, we can mimic the inhibition of repair patch ligation and chromatin rearrangement seen when u.v.-damaged intact confluent fibroblasts are treated with hydroxyurea. Our results are consistent with the concept that hydroxyurea inhibits DNA repair in intact cells by inhibiting deoxyribonucleotide synthesis through its effect on ribonucleotide reductase and, conversely, that continued deoxyribonucleotide synthesis is required for the excision repair of u.v.-induced DNA damage even in resting cells

  5. Transabdominal Migration of Retained Surgical Sponge

    Ali Guner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained surgical sponge (RSS is a rare surgical complication. The RSSs are mostly located intra-abdominally but they can also be left in the thorax, spine, extremity, cranium, and breast. RSS is often difficult to diagnose because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms and radiologic findings. Clinically, RSS may present as an exudative reaction in the early postoperative period or may also cause an aseptic fibrous tissue response. A foreign body may remain asymptomatically silent for a long time, and it may later present with obstruction, fistulization, or mass formation. In this report, we present a case in which an RSS has migrated through the abdominal wall and caused an anterior abdominal wall abscess.

  6. Delayed inflammation associated with retained perfluorocarbon liquid

    S Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old woman, with history of cataract surgery 1 year back, presented with features of ocular inflammation for last 3 months. She had no history of any other intraocular surgery. On examination, anterior segment showed frothy material in the inferior angle with moderate anterior chamber reaction (cells+/flare+ and sulcus intraocular lens with large posterior capsule rent. Fundoscopy showed multiple, small to medium-sized transparent bubbles of perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL with membranes in the vitreous cavity. Ultrasonography confirmed the presence of PFCL in the vitreous cavity. Pars plana vitrectomy with anterior chamber wash was done which led to good visual recovery. To conclude, retained PFCL can cause late onset fibrinous inflammation after a quiescent period but surgical intervention may lead to good visual outcome.

  7. Nuclear fuel element nut retainer cup

    Walton, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    A typical embodiment has an end fitting for a nuclear reactor fuel element that is joined to the control rod guide tubes by means of a nut plate assembly. The nut plate assembly has an array of nuts, each engaging the respective threaded end of the control rod guide tubes. The nuts, moreover, are retained on the plate during handling and before fuel element assembly by means of hollow cylindrical locking cups that are brazed to the plate and loosely circumscribe the individual enclosed nuts. After the nuts are threaded onto the respective guide tube ends, the locking cups are partially deformed to prevent one or more of the nuts from working loose during reactor operation. The locking cups also prevent loose or broken end fitting parts from becoming entrained in the reactor coolant

  8. Primary cultured fibroblasts derived from patients with chronic wounds: a methodology to produce human cell lines and test putative growth factor therapy such as GMCSF

    Coppock Donald L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple physiologic impairments are responsible for chronic wounds. A cell line grown which retains its phenotype from patient wounds would provide means of testing new therapies. Clinical information on patients from whom cells were grown can provide insights into mechanisms of specific disease such as diabetes or biological processes such as aging. The objective of this study was 1 To culture human cells derived from patients with chronic wounds and to test the effects of putative therapies, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF on these cells. 2 To describe a methodology to create fibroblast cell lines from patients with chronic wounds. Methods Patient biopsies were obtained from 3 distinct locations on venous ulcers. Fibroblasts derived from different wound locations were tested for their migration capacities without stimulators and in response to GM-CSF. Another portion of the patient biopsy was used to develop primary fibroblast cultures after rigorous passage and antimicrobial testing. Results Fibroblasts from the non-healing edge had almost no migration capacity, wound base fibroblasts were intermediate, and fibroblasts derived from the healing edge had a capacity to migrate similar to healthy, normal, primary dermal fibroblasts. Non-healing edge fibroblasts did not respond to GM-CSF. Six fibroblast cell lines are currently available at the National Institute on Aging (NIA Cell Repository. Conclusion We conclude that primary cells from chronic ulcers can be established in culture and that they maintain their in vivo phenotype. These cells can be utilized for evaluating the effects of wound healing stimulators in vitro.

  9. 18 CFR 367.2160 - Account 216, Unappropriated retained earnings.

    2010-04-01

    ..., Unappropriated retained earnings. 367.2160 Section 367.2160 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... retained earnings. This account must include the balances, either debit or credit, of unappropriated retained earnings arising from earnings of the service company. This account must not include any amounts...

  10. 17 CFR 256.215 - Appropriated retained earnings.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appropriated retained earnings... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.215 Appropriated retained earnings. This account shall include the amount of retained earnings which has been appropriated or set...

  11. 18 CFR 367.2150 - Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings. 367.2150 Section 367.2150 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... retained earnings. This account must include the amount of retained earnings that has been appropriated or...

  12. Soil Retaining Structures : Development of models for structural analysis

    Bakker, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the development of models for the structural analysis of soil retaining structures. The soil retaining structures being looked at are; block revetments, flexible retaining walls and bored tunnels in soft soil. Within this context typical structural behavior of these

  13. 31 CFR 203.16 - Retainer and investor depositaries.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retainer and investor depositaries... TREASURY TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM PATAX § 203.16 Retainer and investor depositaries. (a) Credit to TIP main account balance. On the business day that the TSC receives an AOC from a retainer or investor depositary...

  14. Testosterone metabolism of fibroblasts grown from prostatic carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia and skin fibroblasts

    Schweikert, H.U.; Hein, H.J.; Romijn, J.C.; Schroeder, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of [1,2,6,7-3H]testosterone was assessed in fibroblast monolayers derived from tissue of 5 prostates with benign hyperplasia (BPH), 4 prostates with carcinoma (PC), and 3 biopsy samples of skin, 2 nongenital skin (NG) and 1 genital skin. The following metabolites could be identified: androstanedione androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, epiandrosterone, androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Testosterone was metabolized much more rapidly in fibroblasts originating from prostatic tissue than in fibroblasts derived from NG. A significantly higher formation of 5 alpha-androstanes and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids could be observed in fibroblasts from BPH as compared to PC. 17-ketosteroid formation exceeded 5 alpha-androstane formation in BPH, whereas 5 alpha-reduction was the predominant pathway in fibroblasts grown from PC and NG. Since testosterone metabolism in fibroblasts of prostatic origin therefore resembles in many aspects that in whole prostatic tissue, fibroblasts grown from prostatic tissues might be a valuable tool for further investigation of the pathogenesis of human BPH and PC

  15. Hedgehog signaling contributes to basic fibroblast growth factor-regulated fibroblast migration

    Zhu, Zhong Xin [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Sun, Cong Cong [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wenzhou People' s Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Ting Zhu, Yu; Wang, Ying; Wang, Tao; Chi, Li Sha; Cai, Wan Hui [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zheng, Jia Yong [Wenzhou People' s Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhou, Xuan [Ningbo First Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang (China); Cong, Wei Tao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Li, Xiao Kun, E-mail: proflxk@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Jin, Li Tai, E-mail: jin_litai@126.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-06-15

    Fibroblast migration is a central process in skin wound healing, which requires the coordination of several types of growth factors. bFGF, a well-known fibroblast growth factor (FGF), is able to accelerate fibroblast migration; however, the underlying mechanism of bFGF regulation fibroblast migration remains unclear. Through the RNA-seq analysis, we had identified that the hedgehog (Hh) canonical pathway genes including Smoothened (Smo) and Gli1, were regulated by bFGF. Further analysis revealed that activation of the Hh pathway via up-regulation of Smo promoted fibroblast migration, invasion, and skin wound healing, but which significantly reduced by GANT61, a selective antagonist of Gli1/Gli2. Western blot analyses and siRNA transfection assays demonstrated that Smo acted upstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-β-catenin to promote cell migration. Moreover, RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that Hh pathway genes including Smo and Gli1 were under control of β-catenin, suggesting that β-catenin turn feedback activates Hh signaling. Taken together, our analyses identified a new bFGF-regulating mechanism by which Hh signaling regulates human fibroblast migration, and the data presented here opens a new avenue for the wound healing therapy. - Highlights: • bFGF regulates Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in fibroblasts. • The Smo and Gli two master regulators of Hh signaling positively regulate fibroblast migration. • Smo facilitates β-catenin nuclear translocation via activation PI3K/JNK/GSK3β. • β-catenin positively regulates fibroblast cell migration and the expression of Hh signaling genes including Smo and Gli.

  16. Hedgehog signaling contributes to basic fibroblast growth factor-regulated fibroblast migration

    Zhu, Zhong Xin; Sun, Cong Cong; Ting Zhu, Yu; Wang, Ying; Wang, Tao; Chi, Li Sha; Cai, Wan Hui; Zheng, Jia Yong; Zhou, Xuan; Cong, Wei Tao; Li, Xiao Kun; Jin, Li Tai

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast migration is a central process in skin wound healing, which requires the coordination of several types of growth factors. bFGF, a well-known fibroblast growth factor (FGF), is able to accelerate fibroblast migration; however, the underlying mechanism of bFGF regulation fibroblast migration remains unclear. Through the RNA-seq analysis, we had identified that the hedgehog (Hh) canonical pathway genes including Smoothened (Smo) and Gli1, were regulated by bFGF. Further analysis revealed that activation of the Hh pathway via up-regulation of Smo promoted fibroblast migration, invasion, and skin wound healing, but which significantly reduced by GANT61, a selective antagonist of Gli1/Gli2. Western blot analyses and siRNA transfection assays demonstrated that Smo acted upstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-β-catenin to promote cell migration. Moreover, RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that Hh pathway genes including Smo and Gli1 were under control of β-catenin, suggesting that β-catenin turn feedback activates Hh signaling. Taken together, our analyses identified a new bFGF-regulating mechanism by which Hh signaling regulates human fibroblast migration, and the data presented here opens a new avenue for the wound healing therapy. - Highlights: • bFGF regulates Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in fibroblasts. • The Smo and Gli two master regulators of Hh signaling positively regulate fibroblast migration. • Smo facilitates β-catenin nuclear translocation via activation PI3K/JNK/GSK3β. • β-catenin positively regulates fibroblast cell migration and the expression of Hh signaling genes including Smo and Gli.

  17. Unchanged thymidine triphosphate pools and thymidine metabolism in two lines of thymidine kinase 2-mutated fibroblasts.

    Frangini, Miriam; Rampazzo, Chiara; Franzolin, Elisa; Lara, Mari-Carmen; Vilà, Maya R; Martí, Ramon; Bianchi, Vera

    2009-02-01

    Mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine in mitochondria. Its function becomes essential for dTTP synthesis in noncycling cells, where cytosolic dTTP synthesis via R1/R2 ribonucleotide reductase and thymidine kinase 1 is turned down. Mutations in the nuclear gene for TK2 cause a fatal mtDNA depletion syndrome. Only selected cell types are affected, suggesting that the other cells compensate for the TK2 deficiency by adapting the enzyme network that regulates dTTP synthesis outside S-phase. Here we looked for such metabolic adaptation in quiescent cultures of fibroblasts from two TK2-deficient patients with a slow-progressing syndrome. In cell extracts, we measured the activities of TK2, deoxycytidine kinase, thymidine phosphorylase, deoxynucleotidases and the amounts of the three ribonucleotide reductase subunits. Patient cells contained 40% or 5% TK2 activity and unchanged activities of the other enzymes. However, their mitochondrial and cytosolic dTTP pools were unchanged, and also the overall composition of the dNTP pools was normal. TK2-dependent phosphorylation of [(3)H]thymidine in intact cells and the turnover of the dTTP pool showed that even the fibroblasts with 5% residual TK2 activity synthesized dTTP at an almost normal rate. Normal fibroblasts apparently contain more TK2 than needed to maintain dTTP during quiescence, which would explain why TK2-mutated fibroblasts do not manifest mtDNA depletion despite their reduced TK2 activity.

  18. A fibroblast-associated antigen: Characterization in fibroblasts and immunoreactivity in smooth muscle differentiated stromal cells

    Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Celis, Julio E.; van Deurs, Bo

    1992-01-01

    major brands migrating at apparent Mr of 38,000, 45,000, and 80,000, in addition to many minor bands between Mr 45,000 and 97,000, including Mr 52,000. The Mr 45,000 and 38,000 were associated with the cell membrane and Mr 52,000 as well as Mr 38,000 were associated with the lysosomes. The 1B10......Fibroblasts with smooth muscle differentiation are frequently derived from human breast tissue. Immunofluorescence cytochemistry of a fibroblast-associated antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAb), 1B10, was analyzed with a view to discriminating smooth muscle differentiated fibroblasts...

  19. Role of periodontal ligament fibroblasts in osteoclastogenesis: a review

    Sokos, D.; Everts, V.; de Vries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade it has become clear that periodontal ligament fibroblasts may contribute to the in vitro differentiation of osteoclasts. We surveyed the current findings regarding their osteoclastogenesis potential. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts have the capacity to select and attract

  20. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  1. The effect of retained intramedullary nails on tibial bone mineral density.

    Allen, J C; Lindsey, R W; Hipp, J A; Gugala, Z; Rianon, N; LeBlanc, A

    2008-07-01

    Intramedullary nailing has become a standard treatment for adult tibial shaft fractures. Retained intramedullary nails have been associated with stress shielding, although their long-term effect on decreasing tibial bone mineral density is currently unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if retained tibial intramedullary nails decrease tibial mineral density in patients with successfully treated fractures. Patients treated with statically locked intramedullary nails for isolated, unilateral tibia shaft fractures were studied. Inclusion required that fracture had healed radiographically and that the patient returned to the pre-injury activity level. Data on patient demographic, fracture type, surgical technique, implant, and post-operative functional status were tabulated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density in selected regions of the affected tibia and the contralateral intact tibia. Image reconstruction software was employed to ensure symmetry of the studied regions. Twenty patients (mean age 43; range 22-77 years) were studied at a mean of 29 months (range 5-60 months) following intramedullary nailing. There was statistically significant reduction of mean bone mineral density in tibiae with retained intramedullary nails (1.02 g/cm(2) versus 1.06 g/cm(2); P=0.04). A significantly greater decrease in bone mineral density was detected in the reamed versus non-reamed tibiae (-7% versus +6%, respectively; P<0.05). The present study demonstrates a small, but statistically significant overall bone mineral density decrease in healed tibiae with retained nails. Intramedullary reaming appears to be a factor potentiating the reduction of tibia bone mineral density in long-term nail retention.

  2. Fibroblast growth factor 23 - et fosfatregulerende hormon

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Kassem, Moustapha

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og t...

  3. Cryopreservation of canine ovarian and testicular fibroblasts.

    Yu, Il-Jeoung; Leibo, S P; Songsasen, Nucharin; Dresser, Betsy L; Kim, In-Shik

    2009-01-01

    To derive a practical procedure to store canine somatic cells, fibroblasts isolated from testicular or ovarian tissues were cryopreserved in 1.2 M ethylene glycol or in 1.2 M dimethylsulfoxide prepared in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium as cryoprotectants, and were frozen either in plastic straws or vials. Thawed cells were cultured for 24 hr at 38.5 degree C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 percent CO2 95 percent air, and then their membrane integrity was assayed with a double fluorescent stain, Fertilight. In addition, frozen-thawed fibroblasts were cultured for 4 days, and then their functional survival was measured after staining small colonies with trypan blue. After freezing and thawing, membrane integrity of testicular fibroblasts was 55-70 percent and functional survival ranged from 20-40 percent. With frozen-thawed ovarian cells, the average membrane integrity was 55-75 percent and the average functional survival was 35-40 percent. When frozen in ethylene glycol, functional survival of ovarian fibroblasts was significantly higher than that of testicular cells (P less than 0.05). These methods should prove useful to preserve cells collected from canids in the wild.

  4. Assessment of geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay - Expert report

    Amann, F.; Vogelhuber, M.

    2015-11-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI presents an expert report published on the assessment of the geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay. This review report addresses the conceptual constitutive framework for repositories in Opalinus Clay. The author addresses the geomechanical fundamentals that are necessary in order to adequately judge experiments on intact Opalinus Clay and the interpretation of the results. The report assesses in detail the various test series on intact Opalinus Clay carried out along with the interpretations made by experts and NAGRA. Further assessments are quoted including those on sample geometries tested, effective strength properties, undrained shear strength properties and elastic properties. The results of work done by other experts are also presented and discussed. The report is completed with a list of relevant literature

  5. Assessment of geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay - Expert report

    Amann, F. [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETHZ, Zürich (Switzerland); Vogelhuber, M. [Dr. von Moos AG, Geotechnisches Büro, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI presents an expert report published on the assessment of the geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay. This review report addresses the conceptual constitutive framework for repositories in Opalinus Clay. The author addresses the geomechanical fundamentals that are necessary in order to adequately judge experiments on intact Opalinus Clay and the interpretation of the results. The report assesses in detail the various test series on intact Opalinus Clay carried out along with the interpretations made by experts and NAGRA. Further assessments are quoted including those on sample geometries tested, effective strength properties, undrained shear strength properties and elastic properties. The results of work done by other experts are also presented and discussed. The report is completed with a list of relevant literature.

  6. Bicruciate-retaining Total Knee Replacement Provides Satisfactory Function and Implant Survivorship at 23 Years.

    Pritchett, James W

    2015-07-01

    One of the goals of a TKA is to approximate the function of a normal knee. Preserving the natural ligaments might provide a method of restoring close to normal function. Sacrifice of the ACL is common and practical during a TKA. However, this ligament is functional in more than 60% of patients undergoing a TKA and kinematic studies support the concept of bicruciate-retaining (that is, ACL-preserving) TKA; however, relatively few studies have evaluated patients treated with bicruciate-retaining TKA implants. I asked: (1) what is the long-term (minimum 20-year) survivorship, (2) what are the functional results, and (3) what are the reasons for revision of bicruciate-retaining knee arthroplasty prostheses? From January 1989 to September 1992, I performed 639 total knee replacements in 537 patients. Of these, 489 were performed in 390 patients using a bicruciate-retaining, minimally constrained device. During the period in question, this knee prosthesis was used for all patients observed intraoperatively to have an intact, functional ACL with between 15° varus and 15° valgus joint deformity. There were 234 women and 156 men with a mean age at surgery of 65 years (range, 42-84 years) and a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis in 89%. The patella was resurfaced in all knees. The mean followup was 23 years (range, 20-24 years). At the time of this review, 199 (51%) patients had died and 31 (8%) patients were lost to followup, leaving 160 (41%) patients (214 knees) available for review. Component survivorship was determined by competing-risks analysis and Kaplan Meier survivorship analysis with revision for any reason as the primary endpoint. Patients were evaluated every 2 years to assess ROM, joint laxity, knee stability, and to determine American Knee Society scores. The Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 89% (95% CI, 82%-93%) at 23 years with revision for any reason as the endpoint. Competing-risks survivorship was 94% (95% CI, 91%%-96 %) at 23 years. At followup, the mean

  7. Periodontal implication of bonded and removable retainers: A comparative study

    Sonali Mondal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the periodontal health of the lower anterior teeth retained with the use of removable and fixed retainers. Fifty four cases receiving comprehensive orthodontic treatment in between 10 to 30 years were randomly selected and divided into 2 groups of 27 each. One group was given removable retainers and other was given fixed retainers. The periodontal status of the patients was accessed with bleeding on probing index, Plaque index and Calculus index. The mean plaque index in case of removable retainers at 1st, 3rd and 6th month were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.7 where as in case of fixed retainers that were 1.8, 3.0 and 4.5. The mean dental calculus index in case of removable retainers at 1st, 3rd and 6th month were 0.0, 0.1 and 0.1 where as in case of fixed retainers that were 0.1, 0.9 and 1.8. In conclusion, removable retainers are superior in oral hygiene maintenance, yet the use of fixed retainers cannot be denied.

  8. Attracting and retaining doctors in rural Nepal.

    Shankar, P R

    2010-01-01

    In Nepal, a number of private sector medical schools have opened recently; although sufficient numbers of doctors are graduating there continues to be a doctor shortage in rural areas. This article analysed the rural doctor shortage in Nepal and reviewed the international literature for strategies that may be suitable for use in Nepal. Original research articles, reviews, magazine articles and project reports dealing with Nepal and other developing countries during the period 1995 to 2010 were sourced via Google, Google Scholar and Pubmed. Full text access was obtained via WHO's HINARI database. The health workforce in Nepal is unevenly distributed resulting in doctor shortages in rural areas. The recent introduction of mandatory rural service for scholarship students was aimed to reduce the loss of medical graduates to developed nations. High tuition fees in private medical schools and low Government wages prevent recent graduates from taking up rural positions, and those who do face many challenges. Potential corrective strategies include community-based medical education, selecting rural-background medical students, and providing a partial or complete tuition fee waiver for medical students who commit to rural service. Traditional healers and paramedical staff can also be trained for and authorized to provide rural health care. A range of strategies developed elsewhere could be used in Nepal, especially community-oriented medical education that involves rural doctors in training medical students. The reimbursement of tuition fees, assistance with relocation, and provision of opportunities for academic and professional advancement for rural doctors should also be considered. Government investment in improving working conditions in rural Nepal would assist rural communities to attract and retain doctors.

  9. Redistribution of retained particles. Effect of hyperpnea

    Valberg, P.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of postexposure hyperpnea on clearance of particles deposited in the lungs of adult male beagle dogs was examined. Sedated dogs inhaled an insoluble 67 Gg 2 O 3 (T 1/2 . 78 h) aerosol (0.12 micron AMD) for one half hour on three separate occasions. Following aerosol exposures 1 and 2, dogs were assigned to either an eupneic (EUP) or hyperpneic (HYP) group and clearance was followed noninvasively for 9 days by whole body counting and gamma camera analysis. After exposure 2, EUP and HYP assignments were interchanged so that each dog was studied under both conditions. Hyperpnea was induced by housing dogs in an atmosphere of 7% CO 2 in air, 6 h per day. Carbon dioxide inhalation increased VE a factor of 3.7 +/- 0.9 (SD). The authors found that pulmonary clearance was retarded by CO 2 -stimulated hyperpnea in 7 of 8 dogs. Following aerosol exposure 3, dogs were divided between EUP and HYP and subsequently were killed in pairs at 3 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days. Distribution of activity in body organs was examined, and translocation to the hilar lymph nodes was followed. Both retention distribution and removal of activity by saline lavage were measured in postmortem lungs. The percentage of lavaged activity associated with pulmonary macrophages increased from 44% at 3 h after exposure to 91% at 4 and 7 days after exposure. Examination of dried lung slices by autoradiography showed clearance of particles from airways and formation of a more punctate distribution in the retained activity at increasing times after exposure. Distinctive differences between HYP and EUP dogs were not seen

  10. Wound healing morbidity in STS patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy in relation to in vitro skin fibroblast radiosensitivity, proliferative capacity and TGF-β activity

    Akudugu, John M.; Bell, Robert S.; Catton, Charles; Davis, Aileen M.; Griffin, Anthony M.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John N.; Ferguson, Peter C.; Wunder, Jay S.; Hill, Richard P.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: In a recent study, we demonstrated that the ability of dermal fibroblasts, obtained from soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients, to undergo initial division in vitro following radiation exposure correlated with the development of wound healing morbidity in the patients following their treatment with preoperative radiotherapy. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is thought to play an important role in fibroblast proliferation and radiosensitivity both of which may impact on wound healing. Thus, in this study we examined the interrelationship between TGF-β activity, radiosensitivity and proliferation of cultured fibroblasts and the wound healing response of STS patients after preoperative radiotherapy to provide a validation cohort for our previous study and to investigate mechanisms. Patients and methods: Skin fibroblasts were established from skin biopsies of 46 STS patients. The treatment group consisted of 28 patients who received preoperative radiotherapy. Eighteen patients constituted a control group who were either irradiated postoperatively or did not receive radiation treatment. Fibroblast cultures were subjected to the colony forming and cytokinesis-blocked binucleation assays (low dose rate: ∼0.02 Gy/min) and TGF-β assays (high dose-rate: ∼1.06 Gy/min) following γ-irradiation. Fibroblast radiosensitivity and initial proliferative ability were represented by the surviving fraction at 2.4 Gy (SF 2.4 ) and binucleation index (BNI), respectively. Active and total TGF-β levels in fibroblast cultures were determined using a biological assay. Wound healing complication (WHC), defined as the requirement for further surgery or prolonged deep wound packing, was the clinical endpoint examined. Results: Of the 28 patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy, 8 (29%) had wound healing difficulties. Fibroblasts from patients who developed WHC showed a trend to retain a significantly higher initial proliferative ability after

  11. Nuclear targeting of IGF-1 receptor in orbital fibroblasts from Graves' disease: apparent role of ADAM17.

    Neil Hoa

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R comprises two subunits, including a ligand binding domain on extra- cellular IGF-1Rα and a tyrosine phosphorylation site located on IGF-1Rβ. IGF-1R is over-expressed by orbital fibroblasts in the autoimmune syndrome, Graves' disease (GD. When activated by IGF-1 or GD-derived IgG (GD-IgG, these fibroblasts produce RANTES and IL-16, while those from healthy donors do not. We now report that IGF-1 and GD-IgG provoke IGF-1R accumulation in the cell nucleus of GD fibroblasts where it co-localizes with chromatin. Nuclear IGF-1R is detected with anti-IGF-1Rα-specific mAb and migrates to approximately 110 kDa, consistent with its identity as an IGF-1R fragment. Nuclear IGF-1R migrating as a 200 kDa protein and consistent with an intact receptor was undetectable when probed with either anti-IGF-1Rα or anti-IGF-1Rβ mAbs. Nuclear redistribution of IGF-1R is absent in control orbital fibroblasts. In GD fibroblasts, it can be abolished by an IGF-1R-blocking mAb, 1H7 and by physiological concentrations of glucocorticoids. When cell-surface IGF-1R is cross-linked with (125I IGF-1, (125I-IGF-1/IGF-1R complexes accumulate in the nuclei of GD fibroblasts. This requires active ADAM17, a membrane associated metalloproteinase, and the phosphorylation of IGF-1R. In contrast, virally encoded IGF-1Rα/GFP fusion protein localizes equivalently in nuclei in both control and GD fibroblasts. This result suggests that generation of IGF-1R fragments may limit the accumulation of nuclear IGF-1R. We thus identify a heretofore-unrecognized behavior of IGF-1R that appears limited to GD-derived fibroblasts. Nuclear IGF-1R may play a role in disease pathogenesis.

  12. Retained Myogenic Potency of Human Satellite Cells from Torn Rotator Cuff Muscles Despite Fatty Infiltration.

    Koide, Masashi; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Kanzaki, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Yukinori; Minowa, Takashi; Takemura, Taro; Ando, Akira; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Yabe, Yutaka; Itoi, Eiji

    2018-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are a common shoulder problem in the elderly that can lead to both muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration due to less physical load. Satellite cells, quiescent cells under the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibers, play a major role in muscle regeneration. However, the myogenic potency of human satellite cells in muscles with fatty infiltration is unclear due to the difficulty in isolating from small samples, and the mechanism of the progression of fatty infiltration has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the population of myogenic and adipogenic cells in disused supraspinatus (SSP) and intact subscapularis (SSC) muscles of the RCTs from the same patients using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The microstructure of the muscle with fatty infiltration was observed as a whole mount condition under multi-photon microscopy. Myogenic differentiation potential and gene expression were evaluated in satellite cells. The results showed that the SSP muscle with greater fatty infiltration surrounded by collagen fibers compared with the SSC muscle under multi-photon microscopy. A positive correlation was observed between the ratio of muscle volume to fat volume and the ratio of myogenic precursor to adipogenic precursor. Although no difference was observed in the myogenic potential between the two groups in cell culture, satellite cells in the disused SSP muscle showed higher intrinsic myogenic gene expression than those in the intact SSC muscle. Our results indicate that satellite cells from the disused SSP retain sufficient potential of muscle growth despite the fatty infiltration.

  13. The effect of tranilast on fibroblast activation protein α (FAP-α expression in normal and keloid fibroblasts in vitro

    Paweł P. Antończak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Tranilast (N-(3’,4’-demethoxycinnamoyl-anthranilic acid is an anti-allergic drug. Its mechanism of action is based on the inhibition of antigen-induced release of chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils. It also reveals antifibroproliferative activities. These properties of tranilast are used in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Keloids are characterized by incorrect extracellular matrix components turnover. Fibroblasts derived from keloids reveal overproduction of collagen type I and decreased degradation of extracellular matrix in comparison with normal fibroblasts. Fibroblast activation protein α (FAP-α may play an important role in remodeling of extracellular matrix and the invasive properties of keloids. Objective . In the present study, the effect of tranilast on expression of FAP-α gene and its protein was evaluated in normal human dermal fibroblasts and fibroblasts derived from keloids cultured in vitro . Materials and methods. In the first stage of the study, the influence of tranilast on cell viability was estimated. The second stage of the study included the quantitative evaluation of FAP-α mRNA expression in normal and keloid fibroblasts treated with tranilast. The third stage of the study comprised fibroblast activation protein α expression analysis in the examined cells treated with tranilast. Results and conclusions . The expression of FAP-α gene and fibroblast activation protein α is higher in keloid fibroblasts. Tranilast at concentrations of 3 μM and 30 μM up-regulated mRNA FAP-α expression in normal fibroblasts but did not influence keloid fibroblasts. The drug, at concentrations of 30 μM and 300 μM up-regulated fibroblast activation protein α expression in normal fibroblasts and did not influence keloid fibroblasts. Tranilast antiproliferative effect is not associated with FAP-α expression in keloid fibroblasts.

  14. Bioavailability and in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates

    Sørensen, Jens Christian; Frandsen, Heidi Blok; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits associated with consumption of cruciferous vegetables have received considerable attention with a hitherto focus on the role and bioactivity of glucosinolate degradation products. We investigated the in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates by following their fate in digesta an...

  15. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectromet of intact proteins

    Domínguez-Vega, Elena; Haselberg, Rob; Somsen, Govert W.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a powerful analytical tool for the characterization of intact proteins. It combines the high separation efficiency, short analysis time, and versatility of CE with the mass selectivity and sensitivity offered by MS

  16. Intact collagen and atelocollagen sponges: Characterization and ESEM observation

    Ruozi, Barbara; Tosi, Giovanni; Leo, Eliana; Parma, Bruna; Vismara, Susanna; Forni, Flavio; Vandelli, Maria Angela

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the chemical-physical and morphological properties of intact and atelocollagen sponges used for tissue engineering. The porous sponges were prepared by lyophilization and their physico-chemical characteristics (water binding capacity, denaturing temperature, amino group content) were investigated. Considering the importance of the 'in vivo' interactions between these sponges and the tissue, our attention was addressed (a) to clarify the relationships between the morphology and the amount of water absorbed and (b) to evaluate the influence of pepsin-alkaline treatment on the reorganization of the atelocollagen fibres. Conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were employed to study the morphology and wetting behaviour of the intact and atelocollagen sponges. The observations by SEM indicated remarkable differences both in the structure and dimension of the pores between intact and atelocollagen sponges. At the data are related to a different water binding capacity. However, the ESEM observations, achieved by changing the relative humidity in the operative chamber, demonstrated that the water adsorbed can be removed with major difficulty from atelocollagen sponges than from intact ones

  17. Phosphorylation of intact erythrocytes in human muscular dystrophy

    Johnson, R.M.; Nigro, M.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of exogenous 32 Pi into the membrane proteins of intact erythrocytes was measured in 8 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. No abnormalities were noted after autoradiographic analysis. This contrasts with earlier results obtained when isolated membranes were phosphorylated with gamma-[ 32 P]ATP, and suggests a possible reinterpretation of those experiments

  18. Behavior Management Style of Single Parents and Intact Families.

    Smith, Douglas K.; And Others

    Studies examining the behavior management styles of parents as a function of family intactness and parent employment status are lacking. To assess parental style of behavior management, the Parental Management Questionnaire (PMQ) was completed by 1,957 parents of elementary school children (50% response rate). The PMQ is based on Aronfreed's…

  19. Non-intact zona improves development of murine preimplantation ...

    ajl5

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... 2College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, ... Key words: Mouse, non-intact zona embryos, adenovirus vector with green fluorescent protein (pAd-GFP), .... Based on microscopic examination, the ZP of some ..... permeable structure of ZP that allowed penetration of.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of erythropoietin in intact and anephric dogs

    Fu, J.S.; Lertora, J.J.; Brookins, J.; Rice, J.C.; Fisher, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The present studies were performed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin in intact and anephric dogs by use of unlabeled crude native erythropoietin (nEp) and iodine 125-labeled purified recombinant erythropoietin (rEp) given by intravenous infusion for 15 minutes. Sephadex G-75 gel filtration was used to confirm that the 125I-rEp molecule remained iodinated in dog plasma during the 24-hour period of these studies. The plasma disappearance of erythropoietin conformed to a biexponential equation for both nEp and 125I-rEp, with the central compartment being larger than the peripheral compartment. The mean distribution half-life of 75.3 +/- 21.2 minutes for nEp was significantly (p less than 0.05) longer than that of 125I-rEp (23.7 +/- 5.0 minutes) in intact dogs. The intercompartmental clearance (CIic) for nEp (0.018 +/- 0.006 L/kg/hr) was significantly smaller than that of 125I-rEp (0.068 +/- 0.018 L/kg/hr) in intact dogs (p less than 0.05). There were no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution, elimination half-life, and elimination clearance (CIe) for nEp and rEp in intact dogs. The mean elimination half-life for 125I-rEp in intact dogs (9.0 +/- 0.6 hours) and anephric dogs (13.8 +/- 1.4 hours) was significantly different (p less than 0.05). The CIe for 125I-rEp in anephric dogs (0.008 +/- 0.001 L/kg/hr) was significantly (p less than 0.05) smaller than that of 125I-rEp in intact dogs (0.011 +/- 0.001 L/kg/hr). There were no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution, distribution half-life, and CIic for 125I-rEp in intact and anephric dogs

  1. Reliability-based design of a retaining wall

    Kim, John Sang

    1995-01-01

    A retaining wall is subject to various limit states such as sliding, overturning and bearing capacity, and it can fail by anyone of them. Since a great deal of uncertainty is involved in the analysis of the limit states~ the use of detenninistic conventional safety factors may produce a misleading result. The main objective of this study is to develop a procedure for the optimum design of a retaining wall by using the reliability theory. Typical gravity retaining walls with fou...

  2. Effectiveness of Horizontal Rebar on Concrete Block Retaining Wall Strength

    Krishpersad Manohar; Rikhi Ramkissoon

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of including a horizontal rebar compared to only a vertical rebar in concrete filled core interlocking concrete block retaining wall sections was investigated with respect to the horizontal retaining force. Experimental results for three specimens of interlocking blocks with vertical rebar and concrete filled cores showed an average horizontal retaining force of 24546 N ± 5.7% at an average wall deflection of 13.3 mm. Experimental results for three wall specimens of interloc...

  3. Threats to intact tropical peatlands and opportunities for their conservation.

    Roucoux, K H; Lawson, I T; Baker, T R; Del Castillo Torres, D; Draper, F C; Lähteenoja, O; Gilmore, M P; Honorio Coronado, E N; Kelly, T J; Mitchard, E T A; Vriesendorp, C F

    2017-12-01

    Large, intact areas of tropical peatland are highly threatened at a global scale by the expansion of commercial agriculture and other forms of economic development. Conserving peatlands on a landscape scale, with their hydrology intact, is of international conservation importance to preserve their distinctive biodiversity and ecosystem services and maintain their resilience to future environmental change. We explored threats to and opportunities for conserving remaining intact tropical peatlands; thus, we excluded peatlands of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive deforestation, drainage, and conversion to plantations means conservation in this region can protect only small fragments of the original ecosystem. We focused on a case study, the Pastaza-Marañón Foreland Basin (PMFB) in Peru, which is among the largest known intact tropical peatland landscapes in the world and is representative of peatland vulnerability. Maintenance of the hydrological conditions critical for carbon storage and ecosystem function of peatlands is, in the PMFB, primarily threatened by expansion of commercial agriculture linked to new transport infrastructure that is facilitating access to remote areas. There remain opportunities in the PMFB and elsewhere to develop alternative, more sustainable land-use practices. Although some of the peatlands in the PMFB fall within existing legally protected areas, this protection does not include the most carbon-dense (domed pole forest) areas. New carbon-based conservation instruments (e.g., REDD+, Green Climate Fund), developing markets for sustainable peatland products, transferring land title to local communities, and expanding protected areas offer pathways to increased protection for intact tropical peatlands in Amazonia and elsewhere, such as those in New Guinea and Central Africa which remain, for the moment, broadly beyond the frontier of commercial development. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  4. Transfer of an expression YAC into goat fetal fibroblasts by cell fusion for mammary gland bioreactor

    Zhang Xufeng; Wu Guoxiang; Chen, Jian-Quan; Zhang Aimin; Liu Siguo; Jiao Binghua; Cheng Guoxiang

    2005-01-01

    Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) as transgenes in transgenic animals are likely to ensure optimal expression levels. Microinjection of YACs is the exclusive technique used to produce YACs transgenic livestock so far. However, low efficiency and high cost are its critical restrictive factors. In this study, we presented a novel procedure to produce YACs transgenic livestock as mammary gland bioreactor. A targeting vector, containing the gene of interest-a human serum albumin minigene (intron 1, 2), yeast selectable marker (G418R), and mammalian cell resistance marker (neo r ), replaced the α-lactalbumin gene in a 210 kb human α-lactalbumin YAC by homogeneous recombination in yeasts. The chimeric YAC was introduced into goat fetal fibroblasts using polyethylene glycol-mediated spheroplast fusion. PCR and Southern analysis showed that intact YAC was integrated in the genome of resistant cells. Perhaps, it may offer a cell-based route by nuclear transfer to produce YACs transgenic livestock

  5. Oral fibroblasts produce more HGF and KGF than skin fibroblasts in response to co-culture with keratinocytes

    Grøn, Birgitte; Stoltze, Kaj; Andersson, Anders

    2002-01-01

    The production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) in subepithelial fibroblasts from buccal mucosa, periodontal ligament, and skin was determined after co-culture with keratinocytes. The purpose was to detect differences between the fibroblast subpopulations...... days by ELISA. When cultured on polystyrene, the constitutive level of KGF and HGF in periodontal fibroblasts was higher than the level in buccal and skin fibroblasts. In the presence of keratinocytes, all three types of fibroblasts in general increased their HGF and KGF production 2-3 times. When...... cells were maintained in collagen, the level of HGF and KGF was decreased mainly in skin cultures. However, in oral fibroblasts, induction after stimulation was at a similar level in collagen compared to on polystyrene. Skin fibroblasts maintained in collagen produced almost no HGF whether...

  6. Lung Fibroblasts, Aging, and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2016-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an aging-associated, progressive, and irreversible lung disease of unknown etiology, elusive pathogenesis, and very limited therapeutic options. The hallmarks of IPF are aberrant activation of alveolar epithelial cells and accumulation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts along with excessive production of extracellular matrix. The linkage of aging with this disorder is uncertain, but a number of changes associated with aging, including telomere attrition, cell senescence, and mitochondrial dysfunction, have been revealed in IPF lungs. Also, aging seems to confer a profibrotic phenotype upon fibroblasts and to increase the severity of the fibrogenic response in non-IPF fibrotic lung disorders. Better knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms linking aging to IPF will advance understanding of its pathogenesis and may provide new therapeutic windows to treatment of this devastating disease.

  7. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  8. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe and Explain Differences Between Intact Groups

    Schoonenboom, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a

  9. Gene targeting in adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts

    Wolf Don P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene targeting in nonhuman primates has the potential to produce critical animal models for translational studies related to human diseases. Successful gene targeting in fibroblasts followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been achieved in several species of large mammals but not yet in primates. Our goal was to establish the protocols necessary to achieve gene targeting in primary culture of adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts as a first step in creating nonhuman primate models of genetic disease using nuclear transfer technology. Results A primary culture of adult male fibroblasts was transfected with hTERT to overcome senescence and allow long term in vitro manipulations. Successful gene targeting of the HPRT locus in rhesus macaques was achieved by electroporating S-phase synchronized cells with a construct containing a SV40 enhancer. Conclusion The cell lines reported here could be used for the production of null mutant rhesus macaque models of human genetic disease using SCNT technology. In addition, given the close evolutionary relationship and biological similarity between rhesus macaques and humans, the protocols described here may prove useful in the genetic engineering of human somatic cells.

  10. Pathways of sphingomyelin metabolism in cultured fibroblasts from normal and sphingomyelin lipidosis subjects.

    Spence, M W; Clarke, J T; Cook, H W

    1983-07-25

    The metabolism of endogenous sphingomyelin labeled with 32P or [methyl-3H]choline and of exogenous [choline-methyl-3H], [32P]-, or [N-acyl-1-14C]sphingomyelin was studied in normal and Niemann-Pick Type A (NP-A) cultured fibroblasts. Despite a greater than 96% decrease in lysosomal sphingomyelinase activity in the NP-A cells, they were able to degrade endogenously produced [32P]- or [methyl-3H]sphingomyelin at normal or near normal rates. Exogenous [methyl-3H]-, [methyl-3H, 32P]-, and [methyl-3H, N-acyl-1-14C] sphingomyelin was taken up intact by normal and NP-A cells, with NP-A cells accumulating 4-8 times more lipid. By 20 h, 50% of the control cell-associated 3H and 32P was recovered in lecithin, and the ratio of activities (3H/32P) indicated most of the phosphorylcholine derived from sphingomyelin had been transferred intact. By comparison in NP-A cells, after a 40-h incubation only 20% of the labeled phosphorylcholine derived from sphingomyelin was recovered in lecithin. With both cell lines, 20 to 50 times more sphingomyelin was hydrolyzed than was taken up by the cells; the reaction products in the medium were ceramide and a mixture of water-soluble compounds such as phosphorylcholine and choline. These results indicate that there are at least two metabolic pathways for sphingomyelin modification in cultured fibroblasts in addition to degradation by the lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase. One route is hydrolysis by a cellular sphingomyelinase. The second is the hydrolysis and/or transfer of phosphorylcholine from sphingomyelin and results in the synthesis of lecithin.

  11. 17 CFR 256.216 - Unappropriated retained earnings.

    2010-04-01

    ... retained earnings. This account shall include the balance, either debit or credit, arising from earnings... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unappropriated retained earnings. 256.216 Section 256.216 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  12. Economic and reproductive consequences of retained placenta in dairy cattle.

    Joosten, I.; Stelwagen, J.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The financial losses due to retained placenta in Dutch dairy cattle were estimated by using two different methods of calculation. A data-set containing the birth records of 160,188 Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cows provided data on the reproductive performance of cows with and without retained placenta. The

  13. The challenge of retaining customers acquired with free trials

    Datta, H.; Foubert, B.; van Heerde, H.J.

    Many service firms acquire customers by offering free-trial promotions. A crucial challenge is to retain customers acquired with these free trials. To address this challenge, firms need to understand how free-trial customers differ from regular customers in terms of their decision making to retain

  14. The use of implants as retainers for removable partial dentures.

    Zinner, Ira D; Markovits, Stanley; Jansen, Curtis E; Reid, Patrick E; Shapiro, Herbert J

    2010-01-01

    There has been little presented in the literature regarding the use of implant bodies as retainers for removable partial dentures. However, these fixtures can be a useful asset for restorative dentists, as they can be used when there is insufficient bone for a fixed prosthesis or as retainers for a provisional appliance until additional dental treatment is possible.

  15. Structural determination of intact proteins using mass spectrometry

    Kruppa, Gary [San Francisco, CA; Schoeniger, Joseph S [Oakland, CA; Young, Malin M [Livermore, CA

    2008-05-06

    The present invention relates to novel methods of determining the sequence and structure of proteins. Specifically, the present invention allows for the analysis of intact proteins within a mass spectrometer. Therefore, preparatory separations need not be performed prior to introducing a protein sample into the mass spectrometer. Also disclosed herein are new instrumental developments for enhancing the signal from the desired modified proteins, methods for producing controlled protein fragments in the mass spectrometer, eliminating complex microseparations, and protein preparatory chemical steps necessary for cross-linking based protein structure determination.Additionally, the preferred method of the present invention involves the determination of protein structures utilizing a top-down analysis of protein structures to search for covalent modifications. In the preferred method, intact proteins are ionized and fragmented within the mass spectrometer.

  16. Does human leukocyte elastase degrade intact skin elastin?

    Schmelzer, Christian E H; Jung, Michael C; Wohlrab, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of intact fibrillar human elastin to human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. Elastin is a vital protein of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, and provides exceptional properties including elasticity and tensile strength to many tissues...... and organs, including the aorta, lung, cartilage, elastic ligaments and skin, and is thus critical for their long-term function. Mature elastin is an insoluble and extremely durable protein that undergoes very little turnover, but sustained exposure to proteases may lead to irreversible and severe damage......, and thus to functional loss of the elastic fiber network. Hence, it is a key issue to understand which enzymes actually initiate elastolysis under certain pathological conditions or during intrinsic aging. In this paper, we provide a complete workflow for isolation of pure and intact elastin from very...

  17. SOLITARY CHEMORECEPTOR CELL SURVIVAL IS INDEPENDENT OF INTACT TRIGEMINAL INNERVATION

    Gulbransen, Brian; Silver, Wayne; Finger, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) are a population of specialized chemosensory epithelial cells presumed to broaden trigeminal chemoreceptivity in mammals (Finger et al., 2003). SCCs are innervated by peptidergic trigeminal nerve fibers (Finger et al., 2003) but it is currently unknown if intact innervation is necessary for SCC development or survival. We tested the dependence of SCCs on innervation by eliminating trigeminal nerve fibers during development with neurogenin-1 knockout mice, during early postnatal development with capsaicin desensitization, and during adulthood with trigeminal lesioning. Our results demonstrate that elimination of innervation at any of these times does not result in decreased SCC numbers. In conclusion, neither SCC development nor mature cell maintenance is dependent on intact trigeminal innervation. PMID:18300260

  18. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... differences, suggesting that there are both qualitative and quantitative changes in the metal ion and radical species present. A major component of the spectra obtained from young nodules is assigned to a complex (Lb-NO) of nitric oxide (NO.) with the heme protein leghemoglobin (Lb). This Lb-NO species, which...... has not been previously detected in intact root nodules of plants grown in the absence of nitrate, is thought to be formed by reaction of nitric oxide with iron(II) leghemoglobin. The nitric oxide may be generated from arginine via a nitric oxide synthase-like activity present in the nodules...

  19. Isolation and Properties of Intact Chromoplasts from Tomato Fruits

    Norio, Iwatsuki; Ryuichi, Moriyama; Tadashi, Asahi; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University

    1984-01-01

    Intact chromoplasts were isolated from tomato fruits at different ripening stages by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The isolated chromoplast fractions were contaminated very little by other organelles, although the fraction from fully ripened fruits contained some mitochondria and microbodies. As the transformation of chloroplasts to chromoplasts proceeded, the density of the plastids decreased from 1.096 to 1.075g・cm^ and the decrease was related to a decrease in chlorophyll and an...

  20. Global forest loss disproportionately erodes biodiversity in intact landscapes.

    Betts, Matthew G; Wolf, Christopher; Ripple, William J; Phalan, Ben; Millers, Kimberley A; Duarte, Adam; Butchart, Stuart H M; Levi, Taal

    2017-07-27

    Global biodiversity loss is a critical environmental crisis, yet the lack of spatial data on biodiversity threats has hindered conservation strategies. Theory predicts that abrupt biodiversity declines are most likely to occur when habitat availability is reduced to very low levels in the landscape (10-30%). Alternatively, recent evidence indicates that biodiversity is best conserved by minimizing human intrusion into intact and relatively unfragmented landscapes. Here we use recently available forest loss data to test deforestation effects on International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List categories of extinction risk for 19,432 vertebrate species worldwide. As expected, deforestation substantially increased the odds of a species being listed as threatened, undergoing recent upgrading to a higher threat category and exhibiting declining populations. More importantly, we show that these risks were disproportionately high in relatively intact landscapes; even minimal deforestation has had severe consequences for vertebrate biodiversity. We found little support for the alternative hypothesis that forest loss is most detrimental in already fragmented landscapes. Spatial analysis revealed high-risk hot spots in Borneo, the central Amazon and the Congo Basin. In these regions, our model predicts that 121-219 species will become threatened under current rates of forest loss over the next 30 years. Given that only 17.9% of these high-risk areas are formally protected and only 8.9% have strict protection, new large-scale conservation efforts to protect intact forests are necessary to slow deforestation rates and to avert a new wave of global extinctions.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of a new intact skin antisepsis formulation.

    Russo, Antonello; Viotti, Pier Luigi; Vitali, Matteo; Clementi, Massimo

    2003-04-01

    Different antiseptic formulations have shown limitations when applied to disinfecting intact skin, notably short-term tolerability and/or efficacy. The purpose of this study was optimizing a new antiseptic formulation specifically targeted at intact skin disinfection and evaluating its in vitro microbicidal activity and in vivo efficacy. The biocidal properties of the antiseptic solution containing 0.5% chloramine-T diluted in 50% isopropyl alcohol (Cloral; Eurospital SpA Trieste, Italy) were measured in vitro versus gram-positive-, gram-negative-, and acid-alcohol-resistant germs and fungi with standard suspension tests in the presence of fetal bovine serum. Virus-inhibiting activity was evaluated in vitro against human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, poliovirus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. Tests used different methods for the different biologic and in vitro replication capacity of these human viruses. Lastly, Cloral tolerability and skin colonization retardation efficacy after disinfection were studied in vivo. The antiseptic under review showed fast and sustained antimicrobial activity. The efficacy of Cloral against clinically important bacterial and viral pathogens and fungi was highlighted under the experimental conditions described in this article. Finally, microbial regrowth lag and no side effects were documented in vivo after disinfection of 11 volunteers. A stable chloramine-T solution in isopropyl alcohol may be suggested for intact skin antisepsis.

  2. Chromosome aberration induction in human diploid fibroblast and epithelial cells

    Scott, D.

    1986-01-01

    The relative sensitivity of cultured human fibroblasts and epithelial cells to radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations was investigated. Lung fibroblast and kidney epithelial cells from the same fetus were compared, as were skin fibroblasts and epithelial keratinocytes from the same foreskin sample. After exposure of proliferating fetal cells to 1.5 Gy X-rays there was a very similar aberration yield in the fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Observations of either little or no difference in chromosomal sensitivity between human fibroblasts and epithelial cells give added confidence that quantitative cytogenetic data obtained from cultured fibroblasts are relevant to the question of sensitivity of epithelial cells which are the predominant cell type in human cancers. (author)

  3. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    Wei, Hongbo; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chen, Bangdao; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; ...

  4. Galvanic microparticles increase migration of human dermal fibroblasts in a wound-healing model via reactive oxygen species pathway.

    Tandon, Nina; Cimetta, Elisa; Villasante, Aranzazu; Kupferstein, Nicolette; Southall, Michael D; Fassih, Ali; Xie, Junxia; Sun, Ying; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Electrical signals have been implied in many biological mechanisms, including wound healing, which has been associated with transient electrical currents not present in intact skin. One method to generate electrical signals similar to those naturally occurring in wounds is by supplementation of galvanic particles dispersed in a cream or gel. We constructed a three-layered model of skin consisting of human dermal fibroblasts in hydrogel (mimic of dermis), a hydrogel barrier layer (mimic of epidermis) and galvanic microparticles in hydrogel (mimic of a cream containing galvanic particles applied to skin). Using this model, we investigated the effects of the properties and amounts of Cu/Zn galvanic particles on adult human dermal fibroblasts in terms of the speed of wound closing and gene expression. The collected data suggest that the effects on wound closing are due to the ROS-mediated enhancement of fibroblast migration, which is in turn mediated by the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway. These results imply that topical low-grade electric currents via microparticles could enhance wound healing. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tumor-secreted LOXL2 activates fibroblasts through FAK signaling

    Barker, Holly E; Bird, Demelza; Lang, Georgina

    2013-01-01

    models. Here, we discovered that tumor-derived LOXL2 directly activated stromal fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment. Genetic manipulation or antibody inhibition of LOXL2 in orthotopically grown mammary tumors reduced the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Using a marker for reticular....... Importantly, in vitro assays revealed that tumor-derived LOXL2 and a recombinant LOXL2 protein induced fibroblast branching on collagen matrices, as well as increased fibroblast-mediated collagen contraction and invasion of fibroblasts through extracellular matrix. Moreover, LOXL2 induced the expression of α...

  6. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    Fahrer, Joerg; Wagner, Silvia; Buerkle, Alexander; Koenigsrainer, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  7. Rapamycin inhibits poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in intact cells

    Fahrer, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.fahrer@uni-ulm.de [Molecular Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz (Germany); Wagner, Silvia [Clinic of General, Visceral- and Transplantation Surgery, ZMF, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany); Buerkle, Alexander [Molecular Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz (Germany); Koenigsrainer, Alfred [Clinic of General, Visceral- and Transplantation Surgery, ZMF, University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-08-14

    Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity inducing changes in cell proliferation. Synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is an immediate cellular response to genotoxic stress catalyzed mostly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), which is also controlled by signaling pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether rapamycin affects PAR production. Strikingly, rapamycin inhibited PAR synthesis in living fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner as monitored by immunofluorescence. PARP-1 activity was then assayed in vitro, revealing that down-regulation of cellular PAR production by rapamycin was apparently not due to competitive PARP-1 inhibition. Further studies showed that rapamycin did not influence the cellular NAD pool and the activation of PARP-1 in extracts of pretreated fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of cellular PAR synthesis by rapamycin is mediated by formation of a detergent-sensitive complex in living cells, and that rapamycin may have a potential as therapeutic PARP inhibitor.

  8. Immortalization of Werner syndrome and progeria fibroblasts

    Saito, H.; Moses, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Human fibroblast cells from two different progeroid syndromes, Werner syndrome (WS) and progeria, were established as immortalized cell lines by transfection with plasmid DNA containing the SV40 early region. The lineage of each immortalized cell line was confirmed by VNTR analysis. Each of the immortalized cell lines maintained its original phenotype of slow growth. DNA repair ability of these cells was also studied by measuring sensitivity to killing by uv or the DNA-damaging drugs methyl methansulfonate, bleomycin, and cis-dichlorodiamine platinum. The results showed that both WS and progeria cells have normal sensitivity to these agents

  9. Coupling of cytoskeleton functions for fibroblast locomotion

    Couchman, J R; Lenn, M; Rees, D A

    1985-01-01

    caused visible protrusions in projected positions at the leading edge. We conclude that fibroblast locomotion may be driven coordinately by a common set of motility mechanisms and that this coordination may be lost as a result of physical or pharmacological disturbance. Taking our evidence with results...... from other Laboratories, we propose the following cytoskeleton functions. (i) Protrusive activity, probably based on solation--gelation cycles of the actin based cytoskeleton and membrane recycling which provides cellular and membrane components for streaming through the cell body to the leading edge...

  10. Differences in motility pattern between human buccal fibroblasts and periodontal and skin fibroblasts

    Lepekhin, Eugene; Grøn, Birgitte; Berezin, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    at these sites can be explained by differences in the motile behavior of their respective fibroblast populations. The migratory characteristics were studied in a two-dimensional culture system. The migration of single cells was time-lapse video recorded at intervals of 15 min for a period of 6 h using a computer...

  11. Replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts irradiated in obtaining feeder layer for the culture of human keratinocytes

    Yoshito, Daniele; Sufi, Bianca S.; Santin, Stefany P.; Mathor, Monica B.; Altran, Silvana C.; Isaac, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Human autologous epithelia cultivated in vitro, have been used successfully in treating damage to skin integrity. The methodology allowed the cultivation of these epithelia was described by Rheinwald and Green in 1975, this methodology consisted in seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate is controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and murine viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, in this present work, we replaced the feeder layer originally composed of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts. To obtain this new feeder layer was necessary to standardize the enough irradiation dose to inhibit the replication of human fibroblasts and the verification of effectiveness of the development of keratinocytes culture on a feeder layer thus obtained. According to the obtained results we can verify that the human fibroblasts irradiated at various tested doses (60, 70, 100, 200, 250 and 300 Gy) had their mitotic activity inactivated by irradiation, allowing the use of any of these doses to confection of the feeder layer, since these fibroblasts irradiated still showed viable until fourteen days of cultivation. In the test of colony formation efficiency was observed that keratinocytes seeded on irradiated human fibroblasts were able to develop satisfactorily, preserving their clonogenic potential. Therefore it was possible the replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts in confection of the feeder layer, in order to eliminate this xenobiotic component of the keratinocytes culture. (author)

  12. Replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts irradiated in obtaining feeder layer for the culture of human keratinocytes

    Yoshito, Daniele; Sufi, Bianca S.; Santin, Stefany P.; Mathor, Monica B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Altran, Silvana C.; Isaac, Cesar [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Lab. de Microcirurgia Plastica; Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M. [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Controle Biologico; Herson, Marisa R. [DonorTissue Bank of Victoria (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Human autologous epithelia cultivated in vitro, have been used successfully in treating damage to skin integrity. The methodology allowed the cultivation of these epithelia was described by Rheinwald and Green in 1975, this methodology consisted in seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate is controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and murine viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, in this present work, we replaced the feeder layer originally composed of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts. To obtain this new feeder layer was necessary to standardize the enough irradiation dose to inhibit the replication of human fibroblasts and the verification of effectiveness of the development of keratinocytes culture on a feeder layer thus obtained. According to the obtained results we can verify that the human fibroblasts irradiated at various tested doses (60, 70, 100, 200, 250 and 300 Gy) had their mitotic activity inactivated by irradiation, allowing the use of any of these doses to confection of the feeder layer, since these fibroblasts irradiated still showed viable until fourteen days of cultivation. In the test of colony formation efficiency was observed that keratinocytes seeded on irradiated human fibroblasts were able to develop satisfactorily, preserving their clonogenic potential. Therefore it was possible the replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts in confection of the feeder layer, in order to eliminate this xenobiotic component of the keratinocytes culture. (author)

  13. Toll-like receptor 9 mediated responses in cardiac fibroblasts.

    Ingrid Kristine Ohm

    Full Text Available Altered cardiac Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 signaling is important in several experimental cardiovascular disorders. These studies have predominantly focused on cardiac myocytes or the heart as a whole. Cardiac fibroblasts have recently been attributed increasing significance in mediating inflammatory signaling. However, putative TLR9-signaling through cardiac fibroblasts remains non-investigated. Thus, our aim was to explore TLR9-signaling in cardiac fibroblasts and investigate the consequence of such receptor activity on classical cardiac fibroblast cellular functions. Cultivated murine cardiac fibroblasts were stimulated with different TLR9 agonists (CpG A, B and C and assayed for the secretion of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α [TNFα], CXCL2 and interferon α/β. Expression of functional cardiac fibroblast TLR9 was proven as stimulation with CpG B and -C caused significant CXCL2 and TNFα-release. These responses were TLR9-specific as complete inhibition of receptor-stimulated responses was achieved by co-treatment with a TLR9-antagonist (ODN 2088 or chloroquine diphosphate. TLR9-stimulated responses were also found more potent in cardiac fibroblasts when compared with classical innate immune cells. Stimulation of cardiac fibroblasts TLR9 was also found to attenuate migration and proliferation, but did not influence myofibroblast differentiation in vitro. Finally, results from in vivo TLR9-stimulation with subsequent fractionation of specific cardiac cell-types (cardiac myocytes, CD45+ cells, CD31+ cells and cardiac fibroblast-enriched cell-fractions corroborated our in vitro data and provided evidence of differentiated cell-specific cardiac responses. Thus, we conclude that cardiac fibroblast may constitute a significant TLR9 responder cell within the myocardium and, further, that such receptor activity may impact important cardiac fibroblast cellular functions.

  14. Assessment of Soil Arching Factor for Retaining Wall Pile Foundations

    2017-03-31

    Despite the prevalence of the soldier piles retaining wall systems as temporary and even permanent shoring systems along state highways, relatively little is known on the effect of the foreslope bench width and the slope inclination on the arching ca...

  15. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Retained Jackson-Pratt Drain Fragment

    Namyslowski, Jan; Halin, Neil J.; Greenfield, Alan J.

    1996-01-01

    A retained intraabdominal Jackson-Pratt drain fragment was percutaneously retrieved using an inflated angioplasty balloon that had been maneuvered inside of the drain lumen over a hydrophilic-coated steerable guidewire

  16. Myomectomy for Retained Placenta Due to Incarcerated Fibroid Mass

    and life threatening complication. We present a patient who had mid-trimester miscarriage, complicated by retained ... the couple gave consent for the termination of the pregnancy. .... In conclusion, it is pertinent to note that uterine fibroid in.

  17. Gossypiboma – the retained surgical swab: An enduring clinical ...

    Retained abdominal swabs remain a difficult problem. This review ... and continues to date, despite advances .... difficult problem to eradicate even though .... to complete multiple emergency surgeries with no rest is great, ... The position.

  18. Probabilistic safety analysis of earth retaining structures during earthquakes

    Grivas, D. A.; Souflis, C.

    1982-07-01

    A procedure is presented for determining the probability of failure of Earth retaining structures under static or seismic conditions. Four possible modes of failure (overturning, base sliding, bearing capacity, and overall sliding) are examined and their combined effect is evaluated with the aid of combinatorial analysis. The probability of failure is shown to be a more adequate measure of safety than the customary factor of safety. As Earth retaining structures may fail in four distinct modes, a system analysis can provide a single estimate for the possibility of failure. A Bayesian formulation of the safety retaining walls is found to provide an improved measure for the predicted probability of failure under seismic loading. The presented Bayesian analysis can account for the damage incurred to a retaining wall during an earthquake to provide an improved estimate for its probability of failure during future seismic events.

  19. Retained Foreign Bodies: A Serious Threat in the Indian Operation ...

    hanumantp

    report cases of RFBs. Keywords: Medical negligence, Radiography, Retained foreign bodies. Review Article ... different technology used to reduce medical errors was included in this review. ..... body mimicking a spinal mass. Eur Spine J 2006 ...

  20. Retaining professional nurses in South Africa: Nurse managers ...

    Retaining professional nurses in South Africa: Nurse managers' perspectives. ... This implies that creating a favourable environment in the workplace situation ... Unsafe working environments and a lack of resources threaten the safety and ...

  1. Knowledge and attitude of dentists toward implant retained ...

    2014-09-13

    Sep 13, 2014 ... and 80% of GDP used SRR in <50% and <25% of their implant practice respectively. ..... micro‑gap formation resulting in plaque accumulation and .... opening in screw‑or cement‑retained implant fixed partial denture designs.

  2. Feasible pickup from intact ossicular chain with floating piezoelectric microphone.

    Kang, Hou-Yong; Na, Gao; Chi, Fang-Lu; Jin, Kai; Pan, Tie-Zheng; Gao, Zhen

    2012-02-22

    Many microphones have been developed to meet with the implantable requirement of totally implantable cochlear implant (TICI). However, a biocompatible one without destroying the intactness of the ossicular chain still remains under investigation. Such an implantable floating piezoelectric microphone (FPM) has been manufactured and shows an efficient electroacoustic performance in vitro test at our lab. We examined whether it pick up sensitively from the intact ossicular chain and postulated whether it be an optimal implantable one. Animal controlled experiment: five adult cats (eight ears) were sacrificed as the model to test the electroacoustic performance of the FPM. Three groups were studied: (1) the experiment group (on malleus): the FPM glued onto the handle of the malleus of the intact ossicular chains; (2) negative control group (in vivo): the FPM only hung into the tympanic cavity; (3) positive control group (Hy-M30): a HiFi commercial microphone placed close to the site of the experiment ear. The testing speaker played pure tones orderly ranged from 0.25 to 8.0 kHz. The FPM inside the ear and the HiFi microphone simultaneously picked up acoustic vibration which recorded as .wav files to analyze. The FPM transformed acoustic vibration sensitively and flatly as did the in vitro test across the frequencies above 2.0 kHz, whereas inefficiently below 1.0 kHz for its overloading mass. Although the HiFi microphone presented more efficiently than the FPM did, there was no significant difference at 3.0 kHz and 8.0 kHz. It is feasible to develop such an implantable FPM for future TICIs and TIHAs system on condition that the improvement of Micro Electromechanical System and piezoelectric ceramic material technology would be applied to reduce its weight and minimize its size.

  3. Feasible pickup from intact ossicular chain with floating piezoelectric microphone

    Kang Hou-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Many microphones have been developed to meet with the implantable requirement of totally implantable cochlear implant (TICI. However, a biocompatible one without destroying the intactness of the ossicular chain still remains under investigation. Such an implantable floating piezoelectric microphone (FPM has been manufactured and shows an efficient electroacoustic performance in vitro test at our lab. We examined whether it pick up sensitively from the intact ossicular chain and postulated whether it be an optimal implantable one. Methods Animal controlled experiment: five adult cats (eight ears were sacrificed as the model to test the electroacoustic performance of the FPM. Three groups were studied: (1 the experiment group (on malleus: the FPM glued onto the handle of the malleus of the intact ossicular chains; (2 negative control group (in vivo: the FPM only hung into the tympanic cavity; (3 positive control group (Hy-M30: a HiFi commercial microphone placed close to the site of the experiment ear. The testing speaker played pure tones orderly ranged from 0.25 to 8.0 kHz. The FPM inside the ear and the HiFi microphone simultaneously picked up acoustic vibration which recorded as .wav files to analyze. Results The FPM transformed acoustic vibration sensitively and flatly as did the in vitro test across the frequencies above 2.0 kHz, whereas inefficiently below 1.0 kHz for its overloading mass. Although the HiFi microphone presented more efficiently than the FPM did, there was no significant difference at 3.0 kHz and 8.0 kHz. Conclusions It is feasible to develop such an implantable FPM for future TICIs and TIHAs system on condition that the improvement of Micro Electromechanical System and piezoelectric ceramic material technology would be applied to reduce its weight and minimize its size.

  4. The uptake of radioactive iodine in rat intact Graafian follicles

    Lieberman, L.M.; Lieberman, G.L.; Lieberman, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of iodine-131 in the ovaries of mammals has important implications in the use of I-131 for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease in women. The authors studied the I-131 uptake in whole ovaries and in isolated Graafian follicles of sexually mature rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, in groups of 5-6 animals, were injected IP with 10-50 μCi of I-131, at 3, 12, and 24 hrs prior to the day of proestrus and killed on the day of proestrus. The thyroid gland and ovaries were removed intact and these organs, as well as eight other tissue specimens, were weighed. The large preovulatory follicles (6-9/ovary) were then isolated under a dissecting microscope and the remaining ovary weighed. All samples were counted in a gamma well counter and the % dose/g estimated. The thyroid gland showed 23.7% dose/organ at 24 hrs. Blood decreased from 1.6% dose/g at 3 hrs to 0.5% dose/g at 24 hrs with the uterus showing 1.1% dose/g and 0.4% dose/g at the same times. Ovarian tissue was 0.5, 0.1, and 0.1% dose/g at 3,12, and 24 hrs respectively, while the intact Graafian follicles had from one-tenth to one-third the concentration of the ovary at the same times. (0.05, 0.03, and 0.03% dose/g). The authors found that the intact Graafian follicle concentrates approximately one-thirtieth to one-sixteenth of the I-131 in the blood and one-tenth to one-third of the I-131 in the ovary. This suggests that there is no active uptake of I-131 in the follicle or follicular fluid

  5. Implant retention systems for implant-retained overdentures.

    Laverty, D P; Green, D; Marrison, D; Addy, L; Thomas, M B M

    2017-03-10

    Implant retained overdentures are being increasingly utilised in both general and specialist practice to rehabilitate patients with missing teeth, particularly those that are edentate. This article aims to inform the reader of a variety of retention systems that are available to retain an implant overdenture and to understand how these systems work, their advantages and disadvantages and to outline some of the clinical and treatment planning considerations involved in selecting the most appropriate retention system for patients.

  6. Recruiting and Retaining Army Nurses: An Annotated Bibliography

    Roberts, Benjamin J.; Kocher, Kathryn M.

    1988-01-01

    This listing of annotated references includes studies dealing with the labor market behavior of registered nurses. References describing both the military and the civilian working environments for RNs are contained in the bibliography. Because the Army must recruit and retain nurses in the context of the national labor market for nurses, a broad perspective was maintained in selecting publication. Studies dealing with the factors influential in attracting and retaining Army Active Duty and Re...

  7. ORGANIZING, TRAINING, AND RETAINING INTELLIGENCE PROFESSIONALS FOR CYBER OPERATIONS

    2016-02-13

    in Education,” Preventing School Failure 57(3), (2013): 162-170. Wall , Andru, “Demystifying the Title 10-Title 50 Debate,” Harvard Law School...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ORGANIZING, TRAINING, AND RETAINING INTELLIGENCE PROFESSIONALS FOR CYBER OPERATIONS by Melissa A...to adequately organize, train and retain cyber expertise. This is especially true within Air Force intelligence, a critical component of the

  8. Attachment retained overdentures: a report on their maintenance requirements.

    Shaw, M J

    1984-07-01

    Twenty-three patients who received attachment retained overdentures between 1964 and 1977 are reviewed. One third of the patients examined had carious abutment teeth, oral hygiene was poor, and periodontal disease prevalent. Overdentures opposed by natural teeth required more extensive prosthetic maintenance than overdentures opposed by a conventional complete denture. Three quarters of the teeth retaining the prostheses were functioning adequately after a mean period of 7 years.

  9. Total rewards that retain: A study of demographic preferences

    Monica Pregnolato; Mark H.R. Bussin; Anton F. Schlechter

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: Changing workplace demographics and a dearth of employees with scarce skills have forced employers to better understand the various factors that retain talented employees. Research purpose: In this empirical study, the reward preferences and ideal combination of total reward elements (based on an estimation of their relative importance) that retain employees from various demographic groups, including employees of different race, gender and age groups, were investigated. M...

  10. Radionuclide sorption on crushed and intact granitic rock

    Eriksen, Tryggve E.; Locklund, Birgitta

    1989-05-01

    The specific surface areas and distribution ratios for sorption of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 152 Eu were measured for crushed and intact granite rock. The experimental data can be accommodated by a sorption model encompassing sorption on outer and inner surface. It is clearly demonstrated that the time required to obtain reliable Kd-values for the sorption of strongly sorbing radionuclides like 152 Eu is very long due to solution depletion and slow diffusion into the rock. A combination of surface area measurements and batch sorption with small particles may therefore be preferable when studying strongly sorbing nuclides. (authors) (17 figs., 6 tabs.)

  11. Radioiodination of an outer membrane protein in intact Rickettsia prowazekii

    Smith, D.K.; Winkler, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    Intact Rickettsia prowazekii was radiolabeled with the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method of iodination. Separation of the rickettsial extract into cytoplasmic, outer and inner membrane fractions demonstrated that the outer membrane was preferentially labeled. Analysis of the polypeptides of these fractions on high-resolution slab polyacrylamide gels showed that most of the 125 I was in polypeptide T49, an outer membrane constituent. Additional outer membrane polypeptides were iodinated in broken envelope preparations, demonstrating that T49 is uniquely accessible to the external environment and the asymmetric polypeptide organization of the outer membrane

  12. Human umbilical cord blood-derived f-macrophages retain pluripotentiality after thrombopoietin expansion

    Zhao Yong; Mazzone, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    We have previously characterized a new type of stem cell from human peripheral blood, termed fibroblast-like macrophage (f-MΦ). Here, using umbilical cord blood as a source, we identified cells with similar characteristics including expression of surface markers (CD14, CD34, CD45, CD117, and CD163), phagocytosis, and proliferative capacity. Further, thrombopoietin (TPO) significantly stimulated the proliferation of cord blood-derived f-MΦ (CB f-MΦ) at low dosage without inducing a megakaryocytic phenotype. Additional experiments demonstrated that TPO-expanded cord blood-derived f-MΦ (TCB f-MΦ) retained their surface markers and differentiation ability. Treatment with vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) gave rise to endothelial-like cells, expressing Flt-1, Flk-1, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), CD31, acetylated low density lipoprotein internalization, and the ability to form endothelial-like cell chains. In the presence of lipopolyssacharide (LPS) and 25 mM glucose, the TCB f-MΦ differentiated to express insulin mRNA, C-peptide, and insulin. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that these insulin-positive cells could release insulin in response to glucose and other secretagogues. These findings demonstrate a potential use of CB f-MΦ and may lead to develop new therapeutic strategy for treating dominant disease

  13. Induction of Pluripotency in Adult Equine Fibroblasts without c-MYC

    Khodadad Khodadadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tremendous efforts on isolation of pluripotent equine embryonic stem (ES cells, to date there are few reports about successful isolation of ESCs and no report of in vivo differentiation of this important companion species. We report the induction of pluripotency in adult equine fibroblasts via retroviral transduction with three transcription factors using OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4 in the absence of c-MYC. The cell lines were maintained beyond 27 passages (more than 11 months and characterized. The equine iPS (EiPS cells stained positive for alkaline phosphatase by histochemical staining and expressed OCT4, NANOG, SSEA1, and SSEA4. Gene expression analysis of the cells showed the expression of OCT4, SOX2 NANOG, and STAT3. The cell lines retained a euploid chromosome count of 64 after long-term culture cryopreservation. The EiPS demonstrated differentiation capacity for the three embryonic germ layers both in vitro by embryoid bodies (EBs formation and in vivo by teratoma formation. In conclusion, we report the derivation of iPS cells from equine adult fibroblasts and long-term maintenance using either of the three reprogramming factors.

  14. Preparation and biological evaluation of a fibroblast growth factor-2-apatite composite layer on polymeric material

    Sasaki, Kenkichi; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Ioku, Koji [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Oyane, Ayako [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 4, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Hyodo, Koji [Human Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu, E-mail: a-oyane@aist.go.j [Human Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 6, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    A polymeric percutaneous device with good biocompatibility and resistance to bacterial infection is required clinically. In this study, a fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-hydroxyapatite (HAp) composite layer (FHAp layer) was formed on the surfaces of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) specimens using a coating process in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution supplemented with FGF-2. FGF-2 in the FHAp layer retained its biological activity to promote proliferation of fibroblasts. The EVOH specimens coated with HAp and FHAp layers were percutaneously implanted in the scalp of rats. Not only the HAp layer but also the FHAp layer showed good biocompatibility, and FGF-2 showed no harmful effects on the skin tissue responses to the implanted specimen as long as 14 d. No significantly higher infection resistance was verified for the FHAp layer over the HAp layer, although an FHAp layer coated on a metallic percutaneous device for bone fixation demonstrated higher resistance to bacterial infection over an HAp layer in the previous study. The efficacy of FHAp layers coated on percutaneous implants in resistance to bacterial infection depends on physical factors including fixation condition, stiffness and movement of implants.

  15. Myogenic conversion of bladder fibroblasts by construction and ...

    The cultured primary bladder fibroblasts were transfected by pEGFP-Myod1 with Lipofection 2000 reagent. The results showed that expression of Myod1 could cause myogenic differentiation of bladder fibroblasts. These findings support the possibility of an alternative approach to exploit the capacity of Myod1 to activate ...

  16. Rac inhibition reverses the phenotype of fibrotic fibroblasts.

    Shi-wen Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibrosis, the excessive deposition of scar tissue by fibroblasts, is one of the largest groups of diseases for which there is no therapy. Fibroblasts from lesional areas of scleroderma patients possess elevated abilities to contract matrix and produce alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA, type I collagen and CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor, CTGF. The basis for this phenomenon is poorly understood, and is a necessary prerequisite for developing novel, rational anti-fibrotic strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Compared to healthy skin fibroblasts, dermal fibroblasts cultured from lesional areas of scleroderma (SSc patients possess elevated Rac activity. NSC23766, a Rac inhibitor, suppressed the persistent fibrotic phenotype of lesional SSc fibroblasts. NSC23766 caused a decrease in migration on and contraction of matrix, and alpha-SMA, type I collagen and CCN2 mRNA and protein expression. SSc fibroblasts possessed elevated Akt phosphorylation, which was also blocked by NSC23766. Overexpression of rac1 in normal fibroblasts induced matrix contraction and alpha-SMA, type I collagen and CCN2 mRNA and protein expression. Rac1 activity was blocked by PI3kinase/Akt inhibition. Basal fibroblast activity was not affected by NSC23766. CONCLUSION: Rac inhibition may be considered as a novel treatment for the fibrosis observed in SSc.

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells induce dermal fibroblast responses to injury

    Smith, Andria N.; Willis, Elise; Chan, Vincent T.; Muffley, Lara A.; Isik, F. Frank; Gibran, Nicole S.; Hocking, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote repair when applied to cutaneous wounds, the mechanism for this response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of paracrine signaling from mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast responses to injury including proliferation, migration and expression of genes important in wound repair. Dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in inserts, which allowed for paracrine interactions without direct cell contact. In this co-culture model, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and gene expression. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts show increased proliferation and accelerated migration in a scratch assay. A chemotaxis assay also demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts migrate towards bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A PCR array was used to analyze the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast gene expression. In response to mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts up-regulate integrin alpha 7 expression and down-regulate expression of ICAM1, VCAM1 and MMP11. These observations suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may provide an important early signal for dermal fibroblast responses to cutaneous injury.

  18. Collagen expression in fibroblasts with a novel LMNA mutation

    Nguyen, Desiree; Leistritz, Dru F.; Turner, Lesley; MacGregor, David; Ohson, Kamal; Dancey, Paul; Martin, George M.; Oshima, Junko

    2007-01-01

    Laminopathies are a group of genetic disorders caused by LMNA mutations; they include muscular dystrophies, lipodystrophies, and progeroid syndromes. We identified a novel heterozygous LMNA mutation, L59R, in a patient with the general appearance of mandibuloacral dysplasia and progeroid features. Examination of the nuclei of dermal fibroblasts revealed the irregular morphology characteristic of LMNA mutant cells. The nuclear morphological abnormalities of LMNA mutant lymphoblastoid cell lines were less prominent compared to those of primary fibroblasts. Since it has been reported that progeroid features are associated with increased extracellular matrix in dermal tissues, we compared a subset of these components in fibroblast cultures from LMNA mutants with those of control fibroblasts. There was no evidence of intracellular accumulation or altered mobility of collagen chains, or altered conversion of procollagen to collagen, suggesting that skin fibroblast-mediated matrix production may not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this particular laminopathy

  19. Novel therapeutic strategies targeting fibroblasts and fibrosis in heart disease

    Gourdie, Robert G.; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Kohl, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of cardiac fibroblast functions has moved beyond their roles in heart structure and extracellular matrix generation, and now includes contributions to paracrine, mechanical and electrical signalling during ontogenesis and normal cardiac activity. Fibroblasts have central roles in pathogenic remodelling during myocardial ischaemia, hypertension and heart failure. As key contributors to scar formation, they are crucial for tissue repair after interventions including surgery and ablation. Novel experimental approaches targeting cardiac fibroblasts are promising potential therapies for heart disease. Indeed, several existing drugs act, at least partially, through effects on cardiac connective tissue. This Review outlines the origins and roles of fibroblasts in cardiac development, homeostasis and disease; illustrates the involvement of fibroblasts in current and emerging clinical interventions; and identifies future targets for research and development. PMID:27339799

  20. Metabolism of inhaled ethane and pentane by the intact rat

    Daugherty, M.S.; Luddent, T.M.; Burk, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of exhaled ethane or pentane is a noninvasive technique for studying in vivo lipid peroxidation. Many past studies have assumed that pentane and ethane are not metabolized. Radiolabeled ( 14 C) ethane and pentane were used to study the disposition of these compounds in intact rats. Rats were placed for 8 h in a closed plexiglass chamber fitted with a system for replenishing chamber atmospheric O 2 . Evolved CO 2 was trapped by recirculating chamber air through 3 N NaOH contained in a vessel external to the chamber. Radiolabeled ethane or pentane was injected into the chamber at the start of each experiment. The percent of 14 C-activity added to the chamber recovered in the CO 2 trap, urine, and chamber air at the end of the experiment (8 h) in the [ 14 C]-ethane (n=5) and [ 14 C]-pentane (n=4) studies are presented. Results indicate that both ethane and pentane are metabolized to CO 2 in the intact rat. Possible changes in ethane and pentane metabolism must be considered if the exhalation rates of these hydrocarbons are to be used as indices of in vivo lipid peroxidation

  1. Surface plasmon resonance sensing: from purified biomolecules to intact cells.

    Su, Yu-Wen; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-12

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has become a well-recognized label-free technique for measuring the binding kinetics between biomolecules since the invention of the first SPR-based immunosensor in 1980s. The most popular and traditional format for SPR analysis is to monitor the real-time optical signals when a solution containing ligand molecules is flowing over a sensor substrate functionalized with purified receptor molecules. In recent years, rapid development of several kinds of SPR imaging techniques have allowed for mapping the dynamic distribution of local mass density within single living cells with high spatial and temporal resolutions and reliable sensitivity. Such capability immediately enabled one to investigate the interaction between important biomolecules and intact cells in a label-free, quantitative, and single cell manner, leading to an exciting new trend of cell-based SPR bioanalysis. In this Trend Article, we first describe the principle and technical features of two types of SPR imaging techniques based on prism and objective, respectively. Then we survey the intact cell-based applications in both fundamental cell biology and drug discovery. We conclude the article with comments and perspectives on the future developments. Graphical abstract Recent developments in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging techniques allow for label-free mapping the mass-distribution within single living cells, leading to great expansions in biomolecular interactions studies from homogeneous substrates functionalized with purified biomolecules to heterogeneous substrates containing individual living cells.

  2. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite.

  3. Doubling potential of fibroblasts from different species after ionising radiation

    Macieira-Coelho, A.; Diatloff, C.; Malaise, E.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that whereas chicken fibroblasts invariably die after a certain number of doublings in vitro, and this fact is never altered by chemical or physical agents, mouse fibroblasts invariably acquire spontaneously an infinite growth potential. In the human species fibroblasts never acquire spontaneously the capacity to divide for ever, although they can become permanent cell lines after treatment with certain viruses. This behaviour of fibroblasts in vitro has been attributed to different nutritional requirements. Experiments are described with human and mouse fibroblasts in which it was found that the response to ionising radiation matches the relative tendencies of the fibroblasts to yield permanent cell lines. Irradiation was commenced during the phase of active proliferation. Human fibroblast cultures irradiated with 100 R stopped dividing earlier than the controls, whereas cultures irradiated with 200, 300 and 500 R had the same lifespan as the control cultures. Cultures irradiated with 400 R showed the longest survival. With mouse fibroblasts the growth curves of the irradiated cells were of the same type as in the controls, but recovery occurred earlier. The results indicated that ionising radiation accelerates a natural phenomenon; in cells with a limited growth potential (chicken) it shortens the lifespan, whereas in cells that can acquire an unlimited growth potential (mouse) it accelerates acquisition of this potential; human fibroblasts showed an intermediate response, since ionising radiation neither established the cultures as with mouse cells nor reduced the number of cells produced as with chicken fibroblasts. Possible explanations for the different behaviour of the species are offered. (U.K.)

  4. Peripartal leukogram in cows with and without retained placenta

    Lužajić Tijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether prepartal leukogram in cows with retained placenta could indicate the presence of subclinical systemic inflammatory response before the onset of disease. After calving, sixteen highly pregnant Holstein cows, aged 3 to 9 years, without clinical signs of the disease prior to calving were divided into two groups: the first group (n=9 were animals without retained placenta, or any visible inflammation after birth; the second group (n=7 were cows with retained placenta. Blood was sampled three times before parturition, at intervals of one week, and once 24 hours after birth. The number of total leukocytes, segmented and non segmented neutrophilic granulocytes (NG, lymphocytes and monocytes were determined by standard laboratory techniques. The results have shown that in the group of cows with retained placenta the number of mature neutrophils was slightly elevated in the third, second and last week before calving, and equal number of non segmented neutrophils in regard to the group with no retention. The results have also shown that, in both groups of cows, 24 hours after calving, the number of total leukocytes and the number of segmented neutrophils decreased, but the number of the non segmented neutrophils increased. Based on this, we can conclude that cows with retained placenta had no systemic inflammatory response during three weeks prepartal period, but 24 hours after calving, systemic inflammatory response was documented in all the cows. Moreover, the intensity of inflammatory response in cows with retained placenta was not more pronounced in comparison to cows without retained placenta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  5. Irradiation performance of coated fuel particles with fission product retaining kernel additives

    Foerthmann, R.

    1979-10-01

    The four irradiation experiments FRJ2-P17, FRJ2-P18, FRJ2-P19, and FRJ2-P20 for testing the efficiency of fission product-retaining kernel additives in coated fuel particles are described. The evaluation of the obtained experimental data led to the following results: - zirconia and alumina kernel additives are not suitable for an effective fission product retention in oxide fuel kernels, - alumina-silica kernel additives reduce the in-pile release of Sr 90 and Ba 140 from BISO-coated particles at temperatures of about 1200 0 C by two orders of magnitude, and the Cs release from kernels by one order of magnitude, - effective transport coefficients including all parameters which contribute to kernel release are given for (Th,U)O 2 mixed oxide kernels and low enriched UO 2 kernels containing 5 wt.% alumina-silica additives: 10g sub(K)/cm 2 s -1 = - 36 028/T + 6,261 (Sr 90), 10g Dsub(K)/cm 2 c -2 = - 29 646/T + 5,826 (Cs 134/137), alumina-silica kernel additives are ineffective for retaining Ag 110 m in coated particles. However, also an intact SiC-interlayer was found not to be effective at temperatures above 1200 0 C, - the penetration of the buffer layer by fission product containing eutectic additive melt during irradiation can be avoided by using additives which consist of alumina and mullite without an excess of silica, - annealing of LASER-failed irradiated particles and the irradiation test FRJ12-P20 indicate that the efficiency of alumina-silica kernel additives is not altered if the coating becomes defect. (orig.) [de

  6. Seismic analysis for translational failure of landfills with retaining walls.

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Li-Ya

    2010-11-01

    In the seismic impact zone, seismic force can be a major triggering mechanism for translational failures of landfills. The scope of this paper is to develop a three-part wedge method for seismic analysis of translational failures of landfills with retaining walls. The approximate solution of the factor of safety can be calculated. Unlike previous conventional limit equilibrium methods, the new method is capable of revealing the effects of both the solid waste shear strength and the retaining wall on the translational failures of landfills during earthquake. Parameter studies of the developed method show that the factor of safety decreases with the increase of the seismic coefficient, while it increases quickly with the increase of the minimum friction angle beneath waste mass for various horizontal seismic coefficients. Increasing the minimum friction angle beneath the waste mass appears to be more effective than any other parameters for increasing the factor of safety under the considered condition. Thus, selecting liner materials with higher friction angle will considerably reduce the potential for translational failures of landfills during earthquake. The factor of safety gradually increases with the increase of the height of retaining wall for various horizontal seismic coefficients. A higher retaining wall is beneficial to the seismic stability of the landfill. Simply ignoring the retaining wall will lead to serious underestimation of the factor of safety. Besides, the approximate solution of the yield acceleration coefficient of the landfill is also presented based on the calculated method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. LXA4 actions direct fibroblast function and wound closure

    Herrera, Bruno S.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Zarrough, Ahmed; Hasturk, Hatice; Leung, Kai P.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Timely resolution of inflammation is crucial for normal wound healing. Resolution of inflammation is an active biological process regulated by specialized lipid mediators including the lipoxins and resolvins. Failure of resolution activity has a major negative impact on wound healing in chronic inflammatory diseases that is manifest as excess fibrosis and scarring. Lipoxins, including Lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4 ), have known anti-fibrotic and anti-scarring properties. The goal of this study was to elucidate the impact of LXA 4 on fibroblast function. Mouse fibroblasts (3T3 Mus musculus Swiss) were cultured for 72 h in the presence of TGF-β1, to induce fibroblast activation. The impact of exogenous TGF-β1 (1 ng/mL) on LXA 4 receptor expression (ALX/FPR2) was determined by flow cytometry. Fibroblast proliferation was measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and migration in a “scratch” assay wound model. Expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen types I and III were measured by Western blot. We observed that TGF-β1 up-regulates LXA 4 receptor expression, enhances fibroblast proliferation, migration and scratch wound closure. α-SMA levels and Collagen type I and III deposition were also enhanced. LXA 4 slowed fibroblast migration and scratch wound closure at early time points (24 h), but wound closure was equal to TGF-β1 alone at 48 and 72 h. LXA 4 tended to slow fibroblast proliferation at both concentrations, but had no impact on α-SMA or collagen production by TGF-β1 stimulated fibroblasts. The generalizability of the actions of resolution molecules was examined in experiments repeated with resolvin D2 (RvD2) as the agonist. The activity of RvD2 mimicked the actions of LXA 4 in all assays, through an as yet unidentified receptor. The results suggest that mediators of resolution of inflammation enhance wound healing and limit fibrosis in part by modulating fibroblast function. - Highlights: • TGF-β1 up-regulates LXA 4 receptor (ALX

  8. Radiation-induced adaptive response in the intact mouse

    Yonezawa, Morio

    2009-01-01

    The author and coworkers have revealed that radiation adaptive response (AR) is seen also in the bone marrow of the intact mouse, of which details are described here. First, SPF ICR mice were pre-irradiated (PI) with 0-0.1 Gy of X-ray and after 2 months, subsequently irradiated (SI) with 7.75 Gy. Survival rates at 30 days after SI were about 14% in mice with PI 0-0.025 Gy whereas 40% or more in animals with PI 0.05-0.1 Gy: bone marrow death was found significantly suppressed in this effective PI dose range. The death 2 weeks after SI was found also inhibited at PI 0.3-0.5 Gy. Second, PI doses and interval between PI and SI for acquiring the radio-resistance (RR) were studied and third, the PI 0.3-0.5 Gy with SI 8.0 Gy at 9-17 days later revealed that regional PI of the head (central nervous system) was found unnecessary for RR and of abdomen (systems of hemopoiesis, immunity and digestion), essential. Fourth, strain difference of RR was shown by the fact that RR was observed only in C57BL mouse as well, but neither in BALB/c nor C3H strain. Next, at 12 days after SI 4.25-6.75 Gy (PI 0.5 Gy at 14 days before), mouse spleen cells were subjected to colony formation analysis by counting the endogenous hemopoietic stem cells, which revealed that those cells were increased to about 5 times by PI. Suppression of SI-induced hemorrhage was found in mice with PI by the decreased fecal hemoglobin content. Finally, AR was similarly studied in p53 +/+ and its knockout C57BL mice and was not found in the latter animal, indicating the participation of p53 in AR of the intact mouse. Elucidation of AR mechanisms in the intact animal seems to require somewhat different aspect from that in cells. The results were controvertible to the general concept that radiation risk is proportional to cumulative dose, suggesting that low dose radiation differs from high dose one in biological effect. (K.T.)

  9. The stability of gabion walls for earth retaining structures

    Mahyuddin Ramli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of earth retaining structures in flood prone areas has become a serious problem in many countries. The two most basic causes of failure arising from flooding are scouring and erosion of the foundation of the superstructure. Hence, a number of structures like bridges employ scour-arresting devices, e.g., gabions to acting on the piers and abutments during flooding. Research was therefore undertaken to improve gabion resistance against lateral movement by means of an interlocking configuration instead of the conventional stack-and-pair system. This involved simulating lateral thrusts against two dimensionally identical retaining wall systems configured according to the rectangular and hexagonal gabion type. The evolution of deformation observed suggested that the interlocking design exhibits better structural integrity than the conventional box gabion-based wall in resisting lateral movement and therefore warrants consideration for use as an appropriate scour-arresting device for earth retaining structures.

  10. Lead poisoning from retained bullets: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management

    Linden, M.A.; Manton, W.I.; Stewart, R.M.; Thal, E.R.; Feit, H.

    1982-01-01

    Lead intoxication (plumbism) from retained bullets has rarely been reported but may be fatal if unrecognized. Bullets lodged within joint spaces or pseudocysts are more likely to develop this complication, although patients with retained missiles in other locations may also be at risk. Subtle findings such as the occurrence of unexplained anemia, abdominal colic, nephropathy, or neurologic deterioration in patients with retained missiles may suggest consideration of plumbism. An intercurrent metabolic stress such as infection, endocrinopathy, or alcoholism may be a precipitating factor. Among the various diagnostic studies available, mass spectrometric stable isotope dilution analysis may be the most reliable. It is important to employ chelation therapy prior to any operative intervention. This will reduce the mobilization of lead from bone during or following the surgical procedure

  11. Dust retaining properties of leaves of some tree species

    Gusev, M I

    1960-05-01

    A study was made in Tashkent, Russia of the dust-retaining power of leaves of several tree species. Investigations were made in a park where these tree species were growing in close proximity, exposed to the effects of dust from the main city street and from the highway passing through the park. Observations on the dust-retaining power of leaves were made mostly during the summer and fall months. The dust-retaining power of leaves of different tree species varied with the dust concentration in the air. In the summer and fall when rains are scarce a steady accumulation of dust was observed on the surface of the leaves. 1 table.

  12. Ultrastructure and Light Microscope Analysis of Intact Skin after a Varying Number of Low Level Laser Irradiations in Mice

    Mamie Mizusaki Iyomasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low level laser therapy (LLLT has been used to relieve pain, inflammation, and wound healing processes. Thus, the skin is overexposed to laser and this effect is not completely understood. This study analyzed the effects of the number of laser applications (three, six, and 10 on the intact skin of the masseteric region in mice of strain HRS/J. The animals (n=30 were equally divided into control (0 J/cm2 and irradiated (20 J/cm2, and each of these groups was further equally divided according to the number of laser applications (three, six, and 10 and underwent LLLT on alternate days. Samples were analyzed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The animals receiving applications exhibited open channels more dilated between the keratinocytes and photobiomodulation effect on endothelial cells and fibroblasts by TEM. Under the light microscope after 10 laser applications, the type I collagen decreased (P<0.05 compared to the three and six applications. Under these experimental conditions, all numbers of applications provided photobiomodulatory effect on the epidermis and dermis, without damage. More studies are needed to standardize the energy density and number of applications recommended for laser therapy to have a better cost-benefit ratio associated with treatment.

  13. Transport of indoleacetic acid in intact corn coleoptiles

    Parker, K.E.; Briggs, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized the transport of [ 3 H]indoleacetic acid (IAA) in intact corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles. We have used a wide range of concentrations of added IAA (28 femtomoles to 100 picomoles taken up over 60 minutes). The shape of the transport curve varies with the concentration of added IAA, although the rate of movement of the observed front of tracer is invariant with concentration. At the lowest concentration of tracer used, the labeled IAA in the transport stream is not detectably metabolized or immobilized, curvature does not develop as a result of tracer application, and normal phototropic and gravitropic responsiveness are not affected. Therefore we believe we are observing the transport of true tracer quantities of labeled auxin at this lowest concentration

  14. Simple Genome Editing of Rodent Intact Embryos by Electroporation.

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas system is a powerful tool for genome editing in animals. Recently, new technology has been developed to genetically modify animals without using highly skilled techniques, such as pronuclear microinjection of endonucleases. Technique for animal knockout system by electroporation (TAKE method is a simple and effective technology that produces knockout rats by introducing endonuclease mRNAs into intact embryos using electroporation. Using TAKE method and CRISPR/Cas system, the present study successfully produced knockout and knock-in mice and rats. The mice and rats derived from embryos electroporated with Cas9 mRNA, gRNA and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN comprised the edited targeted gene as a knockout (67% of mice and 88% of rats or knock-in (both 33%. The TAKE method could be widely used as a powerful tool to produce genetically modified animals by genome editing.

  15. Selective dansylation of M protein within intact influenza virions

    Robertson, B.H.; Bennett, J.C.; Compans, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    Exposure of purified influenza virions to (/sup 14/C)dansyl chloride resulted in the covalent attachment of the dansyl chromophore to the virion. Gel electrophoresis revealed that the dansyl chromophore was specifically coupled to the internal membrane (M) protein. Purification of the M protein by gel filtration followed by cyanogen bromide cleavage and peptide fractionation revealed that four of six peptide peaks contained dansyl label. Acid hydrolysis of the separated peptide peaks followed by thin-layer chromatography revealed that dansyl label was coupled to lysine residues present in these peptides. The results of these investigations have demonstrated that the M protein molecule is the major viral polypeptide labeled when intact virions are exposed to dansyl chloride.

  16. Selective dansylation of M protein within intact influenza virions

    Robertson, B.H.; Bennett, J.C.; Compans, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure of purified influenza virions to [ 14 C]dansyl chloride resulted in the covalent attachment of the dansyl chromophore to the virion. Gel electrophoresis revealed that the dansyl chromophore was specifically coupled to the internal membrane (M) protein. Purification of the M protein by gel filtration followed by cyanogen bromide cleavage and peptide fractionation revealed that four of six peptide peaks contained dansyl label. Acid hydrolysis of the separated peptide peaks followed by thin-layer chromatography revealed that dansyl label was coupled to lysine residues present in these peptides. The results of these investigations have demonstrated that the M protein molecule is the major viral polypeptide labeled when intact virions are exposed to dansyl chloride

  17. LIF Mediates Proinvasive Activation of Stromal Fibroblasts in Cancer

    Jean Albrengues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Signaling crosstalk between tumor cells and fibroblasts confers proinvasive properties to the tumor microenvironment. Here, we identify leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF as a tumor promoter that mediates proinvasive activation of stromal fibroblasts independent of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression. We demonstrate that a pulse of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β establishes stable proinvasive fibroblast activation by inducing LIF production in both fibroblasts and tumor cells. In fibroblasts, LIF mediates TGF-β-dependent actomyosin contractility and extracellular matrix remodeling, which results in collective carcinoma cell invasion in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, carcinomas from multiple origins and melanomas display strong LIF upregulation, which correlates with dense collagen fiber organization, cancer cell collective invasion, and poor clinical outcome. Blockade of JAK activity by Ruxolitinib (JAK inhibitor counteracts fibroblast-dependent carcinoma cell invasion in vitro and in vivo. These findings establish LIF as a proinvasive fibroblast producer independent of α-SMA and may open novel therapeutic perspectives for patients with aggressive primary tumors.

  18. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    Goodger Jason QD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

  19. Intact calcium signaling in adrenergic-deficient embryonic mouse hearts.

    Peoples, Jessica N; Taylor, David G; Katchman, Alexander N; Ebert, Steven N

    2018-01-22

    Mouse embryos that lack the ability to produce the adrenergic hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI), due to disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh -/- ) gene inevitably perish from heart failure during mid-gestation. Since adrenergic stimulation is well-known to enhance calcium signaling in developing as well as adult myocardium, and impairments in calcium signaling are typically associated with heart failure, we hypothesized that adrenergic-deficient embryonic hearts would display deficiencies in cardiac calcium signaling relative to adrenergic-competent controls at a developmental stage immediately preceding the onset of heart failure, which first appears beginning or shortly after mouse embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). To test this hypothesis, we used ratiometric fluorescent calcium imaging techniques to measure cytosolic calcium transients, [Ca 2+ ] i in isolated E10.5 mouse hearts. Our results show that spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i oscillations were intact and robustly responded to a variety of stimuli including extracellular calcium (5 mM), caffeine (5 mM), and NE (100 nM) in a manner that was indistinguishable from controls. Further, we show similar patterns of distribution (via immunofluorescent histochemical staining) and activity (via patch-clamp recording techniques) for the major voltage-gated plasma membrane calcium channel responsible for the L-type calcium current, I Ca,L , in adrenergic-deficient and control embryonic cardiac cells. These results demonstrate that despite the absence of vital adrenergic hormones that consistently leads to embryonic lethality in vivo, intracellular and extracellular calcium signaling remain essentially intact and functional in embryonic mouse hearts through E10.5. These findings suggest that adrenergic stimulation is not required for the development of intracellular calcium oscillations or extracellular calcium signaling through I Ca,L and that aberrant calcium signaling does not likely contribute

  20. Optimized Planning Target Volume for Intact Cervical Cancer

    Khan, Alvin; Jensen, Lindsay G.; Sun Shuai; Song, William Y.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Zhang Fuquan; Jiang, Steve B.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To model interfraction clinical target volume (CTV) variation in patients with intact cervical cancer and design a planning target volume (PTV) that minimizes normal tissue dose while maximizing CTV coverage. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 50 patients undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for intact cervical cancer using daily online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCTs (n = 972) for each patient were rigidly registered to the planning CT. The CTV was delineated on the planning CT (CTV 0 ) and the set of CBCTs ({CTV 1 –CTV 25 }). Manual (n = 98) and automated (n = 668) landmarks were placed over the surface of CTV 0 with reference to defined anatomic structures. Normal vectors were extended from each landmark, and the minimum length required for a given probability of encompassing CTV 1 –CTV 25 was computed. The resulting expansions were used to generate an optimized PTV. Results: The mean (SD; range) normal vector length to ensure 95% coverage was 4.3 mm (2.7 mm; 1–16 mm). The uniform expansion required to ensure 95% probability of CTV coverage was 13 mm. An anisotropic margin of 20 mm anteriorly and posteriorly and 10 mm superiorly, inferiorly, and laterally also would have ensured a 95% probability of CTV coverage. The volume of the 95% optimized PTV (1470 cm 3 ) was significantly lower than both the anisotropic PTV (2220 cm 3 ) and the uniformly expanded PTV (2110 cm 3 ) (p 0 , 5–10 mm along the interfaces of CTV 0 with the bladder and rectum, and 10–14 mm along the anterior surface of CTV 0 at the level of the uterus. Conclusion: Optimizing PTV definition according to surface landmarking resulted in a high probability of CTV coverage with reduced PTV volumes. Our results provide data justifying planning margins to use in practice and clinical trials.

  1. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide promotes profibrotic activation of intestinal fibroblasts.

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts play a critical role in intestinal wound healing. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a cell wall component of commensal gut bacteria. The effects of LPS on intestinal fibroblast activation were characterized. METHODS: Expression of the LPS receptor, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, was assessed in cultured primary human intestinal fibroblasts using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Fibroblasts were treated with LPS and\\/or transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. Nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) pathway activation was assessed by inhibitory kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) degradation and NFkappaB promoter activity. Fibroblast contractility was measured using a fibroblast-populated collagen lattice. Smad-7, a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression were assessed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The NFkappaB pathway was inhibited by IkappaBalpha transfection. RESULTS: TLR-4 was present on the surface of intestinal fibroblasts. LPS treatment of fibroblasts induced IkappaBalpha degradation, enhanced NFkappaB promoter activity and increased collagen contraction. Pretreatment with LPS (before TGF-beta1) significantly increased CTGF production relative to treatment with TGF-beta1 alone. LPS reduced whereas TGF-beta1 increased smad-7 expression. Transfection with an IkappaBalpha plasmid enhanced basal smad-7 expression. CONCLUSION: Intestinal fibroblasts express TLR-4 and respond to LPS by activating NFkappaB and inducing collagen contraction. LPS acts in concert with TGF-beta1 to induce CTGF. LPS reduces the expression of the TGF-beta1 inhibitor, smad-7.

  2. Effects of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Vitt, Anton; Slizen, Veronica; Boström, Elisabeth A; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Kats, Anna; Sugars, Rachael V; Gustafsson, Anders; Buhlin, Kåre

    2017-10-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P) was compared to chlorhexidine (CHX) in order to determine potential cytotoxic and immune-modulatory effects on human gingival fibroblasts. Cytotoxic effects of PHMG-P and CHX on human gingival fibroblasts were assessed using cell viability assay at various time points and concentrations. The effects of PHMG-P and CHX on the secretion of prostaglandin (PG) E 2 , interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 by non-stimulated or IL-1β stimulated fibroblasts were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. PHMG-P concentration 0.00009% led to the total loss of fibroblast viability within 24 h, whereas inhibition of fibroblast viability by CHX occurred at significantly higher concentrations of 0.0009% (p PHMG-P led to loss of fibroblast viability after 5 min, whilst cells exposed to 0.005% CHX survived 30 min of treatment (p PHMG-P or CHX at concentrations of 0.000045 or 0.0.00009% resulted in significantly decreased PGE 2 , IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-1 levels. PHMG-P or CHX alone did not affect the baseline secretion of PGE 2 , IL-6, IL-8 or MMP-1 by gingival fibroblasts. Cytotoxic effects on gingival fibroblasts were triggered by both PHMG-P and CHX at concentrations below those used in clinical practice. The tested antiseptics did not cause inflammation and reduced IL-1β-induced secretion of inflammatory mediators and collagenase by gingival fibroblasts, which suggests anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts promotes angiogenesis in breast cancer.

    Julie A Wallace

    Full Text Available Tumor fibroblasts are active partners in tumor progression, but the genes and pathways that mediate this collaboration are ill-defined. Previous work demonstrates that Ets2 function in stromal cells significantly contributes to breast tumor progression. Conditional mouse models were used to study the function of Ets2 in both mammary stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Conditional inactivation of Ets2 in stromal fibroblasts in PyMT and ErbB2 driven tumors significantly reduced tumor growth, however deletion of Ets2 in epithelial cells in the PyMT model had no significant effect. Analysis of gene expression in fibroblasts revealed a tumor- and Ets2-dependent gene signature that was enriched in genes important for ECM remodeling, cell migration, and angiogenesis in both PyMT and ErbB2 driven-tumors. Consistent with these results, PyMT and ErbB2 tumors lacking Ets2 in fibroblasts had fewer functional blood vessels, and Ets2 in fibroblasts elicited changes in gene expression in tumor endothelial cells consistent with this phenotype. An in vivo angiogenesis assay revealed the ability of Ets2 in fibroblasts to promote blood vessel formation in the absence of tumor cells. Importantly, the Ets2-dependent gene expression signatures from both mouse models were able to distinguish human breast tumor stroma from normal stroma, and correlated with patient outcomes in two whole tumor breast cancer data sets. The data reveals a key function for Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts in signaling to endothelial cells to promote tumor angiogenesis. The results highlight the collaborative networks that orchestrate communication between stromal cells and tumor cells, and suggest that targeting tumor fibroblasts may be an effective strategy for developing novel anti-angiogenic therapies.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition reduces contraction by dupuytren fibroblasts.

    Townley, William A; Cambrey, Alison D; Khaw, Peng T; Grobbelaar, Adriaan O

    2008-11-01

    Dupuytren's disease is a common fibroproliferative condition of the hand characterized by fibrotic lesions (nodules and cords), leading to disability through progressive digital contracture. Although the etiology of the disease is poorly understood, recent evidence suggests that abnormal matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity may play a role in cell-mediated collagen contraction and tissue scarring. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ilomastat, a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, in an in vitro model of Dupuytren fibroblast-mediated contraction. Nodule-derived and cord-derived fibroblasts were isolated from Dupuytren patients; carpal ligament-derived fibroblasts acted as control. Stress-release fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs) were used as a model of contraction. FPCLs were allowed to develop mechanical stress (48 hours) during treatment with ilomastat (0-100 micromol/L), released, and allowed to contract over a 48-hour period. Contraction was estimated by measuring lattice area compared with untreated cells or treatment with a control peptide. MMP-1, MMP-2, and MT1-MMP levels were assessed by zymography, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nodule-derived fibroblasts contracted lattices (69% +/- 2) to a greater extent than did cord-derived (55% +/- 3) or carpal ligament-derived (55% +/- 1) fibroblasts. Exposure to ilomastat led to significant inhibition of lattice contraction by all fibroblasts, although a reduction in lattice contraction by nodule-derived fibroblasts was most prominent (84% +/- 8). In addition, treatment with ilomastat led to a concomitant suppression of MMP-1 and MMP-2 activity, whereas MT1-MMP activity was found to be upregulated. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of MMP activity results in a reduction in extracellular matrix contraction by Dupuytren fibroblasts and suggest that MMP activity may be a critical target in preventing recurrent contracture caused by this disease.

  5. Extracellular matrix organization modulates fibroblast growth and growth factor responsiveness.

    Nakagawa, S; Pawelek, P; Grinnell, F

    1989-06-01

    To learn more about the relationship between extracellular matrix organization, cell shape, and cell growth control, we studied DNA synthesis by fibroblasts in collagen gels that were either attached to culture dishes or floating in culture medium during gel contraction. After 4 days of contraction, the collagen density (initially 1.5 mg/ml) reached 22 mg/ml in attached gels and 55 mg/ml in floating gels. After contraction, attached collagen gels were well organized; collagen fibrils were aligned in the plane of cell spreading; and fibroblasts had an elongated, bipolar morphology. Floating collagen gels, however, were unorganized; collagen fibrils were arranged randomly; and fibroblasts had a stellate morphology. DNA synthesis by fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels was suppressed if the gels were floating in medium but not if the gels were attached, and inhibition was independent of the extent of gel contraction. Therefore, growth of fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels could be regulated by differences in extracellular matrix organization and cell shape independently of extracellular matrix density. We also compared the responses of fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels and monolayer culture to peptide growth factors including fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta, and interleukin 1. Cells in floating collagen gels were generally unresponsive to any of the growth factors. Cells in attached collagen gels and monolayer culture were affected similarly by fibroblast growth factor but not by the others. Our results indicate that extracellular matrix organization influenced not only cell growth, but also fibroblast responsiveness to peptide growth factors.

  6. A Two-Pronged Approach to Retaining Millennial Nurses.

    Koppel, Jenna; Deline, Marisa; Virkstis, Katherine

    2017-12-01

    Despite increased staff engagement and improved new hire on-boarding, organizations struggle to retain millennial nurses. One dominant trait is shared by organizations that have successfully reduced turnover for this group: investment in select strategies that cement loyalty to the organization. In this article, the authors describe 2 strategies for retaining early-tenure millennial nurses. In the 1st article of this series, the authors described why nursing leaders must supplement their organization's current investments in engagement with strategies targeted at millennials in their 1st 3 years. This 2nd part of the series will outline these strategies.

  7. The cyclops lesion after bicruciate-retaining total knee replacement

    Mark A. Klaassen, MD, FACS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cyclops lesion is a localized anterior arthrofibrosis most commonly seen following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The lesion forms at the anterior cruciate ligament insertion creating a painful extension block between femoral intercondylar notch and tibial plateau. We present 2 cases (3 knees in which cyclops lesions appeared atypically following bicruciate-retaining total knee replacement. Two lesions occurred in a single patient following bilateral knee replacement. One lesion occurred in an active sportswoman. All 3 resolved following arthroscopic debridement. We describe the presentation of this unusual complication and suggest keys to its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Keywords: Cyclops lesion, Bicruciate-retaining, Total knee arthroplasty, Extension deficit

  8. Estradiol enhances retention but not organization of hippocampus-dependent memory in intact male mice.

    Al Abed, Alice Shaam; Sellami, Azza; Brayda-Bruno, Laurent; Lamothe, Valérie; Noguès, Xavier; Potier, Mylène; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Marighetto, Aline

    2016-07-01

    Because estrogens have mostly been studied in gonadectomized females, effects of chronic exposure to environmental estrogens in the general population are underestimated. Estrogens can enhance hippocampus-dependent memory through the modulation of information storage. However, declarative memory, the hippocampus-dependent memory of facts and events, demands more than abilities to retain information. Specifically, memory of repetitive events of everyday life such as "where I parked" requires abilities to organize/update memories to prevent proactive interference from similar memories of previous "parking events". Whether such organizational processes are estrogen-sensitive is unknown. We here studied, in intact young and aged adult mice, drinking-water (1μM) estradiol effects on both retention and organizational components of hippocampus-dependent memory, using a radial-maze task of everyday-like memory. Demand on retention vs organization was manipulated by varying the time-interval separating repetitions of similar events. Estradiol increased performance in young and aged mice under minimized organizational demand, but failed to improve the age-associated memory impairment and diminished performance in young mice under high organizational demand. In fact, estradiol prolonged mnemonic retention of successive events without improving organization abilities, hence resulted in more proactive interference from irrelevant memories. c-Fos imaging of testing-induced brain activations showed that the deterioration of young memory was associated with dentate gyrus dysconnectivity, reminiscent of that seen in aged mice. Our findings support the view that estradiol is promnesic but also reveal that such property can paradoxically impair memory. These findings have important outcomes regarding health issues relative to the impact of environmental estrogens in the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alzheimer skin fibroblasts show increased susceptibility to free radicals.

    Tesco, G; Latorraca, S; Piersanti, P; Piacentini, S; Amaducci, L; Sorbi, S

    1992-11-01

    We have studied the response to toxic oxygen metabolites of fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies of 5 patients with familial (FAD) and 4 with sporadic (AD) Alzheimer's disease compared with those derived from 4 normal controls. Fibroblasts were damaged by the generation of oxygen metabolites during the enzymatic oxidation of acetaldehyde by 50 munits of xanthine-oxidase (Xo). To quantify cell damage we measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the culture medium and cell viability in fibroblast cultures. We found a significant increase in LDH activity in the FAD vs. controls and also in the AD vs. controls.

  10. Uptake of intact TPGS (d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) a water-miscible form of vitamin E by human cells in vitro

    Traber, M.G.; Thellman, C.A.; Rindler, M.J.; Kayden, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which TPGS (alpha-tocopheryl succinate esterified to polyethylene glycol 1000 [PEG 1000]) delivers tocopherol (vitamin E) was studied in human fibroblasts and erythrocytes and a human intestinal cell line, Caco-2. The total cellular tocopherol content of saponified samples of fibroblasts or Caco-2 incubated for 4 h with TPGS (4 mumol/L) increased 10-fold without an increase in the free tocopherol content of nonsaponified samples. A 24-h incubation resulted in a free tocopherol content of approximately 20%, suggesting that intracellular hydrolysis of ester bonds had occurred. The increase in total tocopherol content after a 4-h incubation with TPGS was temperature dependent; no change was measurable at 4 degrees C. Addition of metabolic inhibitors during incubation with TPGS at 37 degrees C did not prevent the increase. [ 14 C]TPGS (synthesized from [ 14 C]PEG 1000) was taken up by Caco-2 cells but [ 14 C]PEG 1000 was not. The intracellular total tocopherol (pmol) equaled the [ 14 C]TPGS (pmol), unequivocally demonstrating uptake of the intact TPGS molecule

  11. Cultured human foreskin fibroblasts produce a factor that stimulates their growth with properties similar to basic fibroblast growth factor

    Story, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    To determine if fibroblasts could be a source of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in tissue, cells were initiated in culture from newborn human foreskin. Fibroblast cell lysates promoted radiolabeled thymidine uptake by cultured quiescent fibroblasts. Seventy-nine percent of the growth-promoting activity of lysates was recovered from heparin-Sepharose. The heparin-binding growth factor reacted on immunoblots with antiserum to human placenta-derived basic FGF and competed with iodinated basic FGF for binding to antiserum to (1-24)bFGF synthetic peptide. To confirm that fibroblasts were the source of the growth factor, cell lysates were prepared from cells incubated with radiolabeled methionine. Heparin affinity purified material was immunoprecipitated with basic FGF antiserum and electrophoresed. Radiolabeled material was detected on gel autoradiographs in the same molecular weight region as authentic iodinated basic FGF. The findings are consistant with the notion that cultured fibroblasts express basic FGF. As these cells also respond to the mitogen, it is possible that the regulation of their growth is under autocrine control. Fibroblasts may be an important source of the growth factor in tissue

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate modulation in SHIP2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Blero, Daniel; Zhang, Jing; Pesesse, Xavier; Payrastre, Bernard; Dumont, Jacques E; Schurmans, Stéphane; Erneux, Christophe

    2005-05-01

    SHIP2, the ubiquitous SH2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatase, includes a series of protein interacting domains and has the ability to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)]in vitro. The present study, which was undertaken to evaluate the impact of SHIP2 on PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) levels, was performed in a mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) model using SHIP2 deficient (-/-) MEF cells derived from knockout mice. PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) was upregulated in serum stimulated -/- MEF cells as compared to +/+ MEF cells. Although the absence of SHIP2 had no effect on basal PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) levels, we show here that this lipid was significantly upregulated in SHIP2 -/- cells but only after short-term (i.e. 5-10 min) incubation with serum. The difference in PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) levels in heterozygous fibroblast cells was intermediate between the +/+ and the -/- cells. In our model, insulin-like growth factor-1 stimulation did not show this upregulation. Serum stimulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity appeared to be comparable between +/+ and -/- cells. Moreover, protein kinase B, but not mitogen activated protein kinase activity, was also potentiated in SHIP2 deficient cells stimulated by serum. The upregulation of protein kinase B activity in serum stimulated cells was totally reversed in the presence of the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY-294002, in both +/+ and -/- cells. Altogether, these data establish a link between SHIP2 and the acute control of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) levels in intact cells.

  13. The capsule of Porphyromonas gingivalis reduces the immune response of human gingival fibroblasts

    van Winkelhoff Arie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periodontitis is a bacterial infection of the periodontal tissues. The Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a major causative agent. One of the virulence factors of P. gingivalis is capsular polysaccharide (CPS. Non-encapsulated strains have been shown to be less virulent in mouse models than encapsulated strains. Results To examine the role of the CPS in host-pathogen interactions we constructed an insertional isogenic P. gingivalis knockout in the epimerase-coding gene epsC that is located at the end of the CPS biosynthesis locus. This mutant was subsequently shown to be non-encapsulated. K1 capsule biosynthesis could be restored by in trans expression of an intact epsC gene. We used the epsC mutant, the W83 wild type strain and the complemented mutant to challenge human gingival fibroblasts to examine the immune response by quantification of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 transcription levels. For each of the cytokines significantly higher expression levels were found when fibroblasts were challenged with the epsC mutant compared to those challenged with the W83 wild type, ranging from two times higher for IL-1β to five times higher for IL-8. Conclusions These experiments provide the first evidence that P. gingivalis CPS acts as an interface between the pathogen and the host that may reduce the host's pro-inflammatory immune response. The higher virulence of encapsulated strains may be caused by this phenomenon which enables the bacteria to evade the immune system.

  14. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN-depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells.

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E; Warram, Jason M; Knowles, Joseph A; Sweeny, Larissa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2011-08-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma-mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer, there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were cocultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into severe combined immunodeficient mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Coculture experiments showed fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN-silenced cells compared with control vector-transfected cells, whereas inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast coculture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast-mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed that EMMPRIN-silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared with control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast-independent tumor growth.

  15. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E.; Warram, Jason M.; Knowles, Joseph A.; Sweeny, Larrisa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were co-cultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into SCID mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Co-culture experiments demonstrated fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN silenced cells compared to control vector transfected cells, while inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast co-culture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed EMMPRIN silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared to control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast independent tumor growth. PMID:21665938

  16. Management of retained encrusted urethral catheter with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    Sameh Anwar Kunzman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of non-deflating heavily encrusted Foley catheter successfully removed by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL. To our knowledge this is the first case of using ESWL to remove encrusted foley catheter retained in the bladder.

  17. A Market-Driven Approach to Retaining Talent.

    Cappelli, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Employee retention must be rethought in a free-agent market. Compensation can shape who leaves and stays. Job design and customization can tailor jobs to employee needs. Encouraging social ties among colleagues and selecting appealing locations for workplaces are other ways to retain talented workers. (SK)

  18. Good Laboratory Practice. Part 2. Recording and Retaining Raw Data

    Wedlich, Richard C.; Libera, Agata E.; Pires, Amanda; Tellarini, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    A clear understanding of how "raw data" is defined, recorded, and retained in the laboratory record is essential to the chemist employed in the laboratory compliant with the Good Laboratory Practices regulations. This article is intended to provide an understanding by drawing upon examples taken from the modern pharmaceutical analysis…

  19. 40 CFR 98.227 - Records that must be retained.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records that must be retained. 98.227 Section 98.227 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... significant changes to process. (b) Documentation of how process knowledge was used to estimate abatement...

  20. 40 CFR 98.57 - Records that must be retained.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records that must be retained. 98.57 Section 98.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...) Documentation of how process knowledge was used to estimate abatement technology destruction efficiency. (f...

  1. INTRODUCTION The incidence of retained placenta varies greatly ...

    balance between the post-partum haemorrhage risk of leaving the placenta in ... Conclusion: Retained placenta still remains a potentially life threatening condition in ... obstetric services by high skilled health care providers in ensuring a properly conducted .... of the preterm placenta may require more uterine work and time ...

  2. A survey of failed post-retained restorations

    Peutzfeldt, A; Sahafi, A; Asmussen, E

    2008-01-01

    Survival of endodontically treated, post-restored teeth depends on a multitude of factors, all of which are practically impossible to include in a randomized, controlled clinical study. The purpose of this survey was to characterize and analyze reported failures of post-retained restorations...

  3. Retained portion of latex glove during femoral nailing. Case report.

    Sadat-Ali, M; Marwah, S; al-Habdan, I

    1996-11-01

    A case of retained glove during Kuntscher intramedullary nailing is described. An abscess around the glove could have lead to osteomyelitis. One need to be cautious feeling the top end of the nail while femoral nailing to avoid such a complication.

  4. 15 CFR 762.2 - Records to be retained.

    2010-01-01

    ..., Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser; (17) § 748.13, Delivery Verification (DV); (18) § 748.2(c... to be retained; (38) § 764.2, Violations; (39) § 764.5, Voluntary self-disclosure; and (40) § 766.10...

  5. 13 CFR 120.1707 - Seller's retained Loan Interest.

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seller's retained Loan Interest. 120.1707 Section 120.1707 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1707 Seller...

  6. Vesicovaginal fistula, bladder calculus, retained foreign body or all ...

    L. Paik

    Vesicovaginal fistula, bladder calculus, retained foreign body or all of the above? The unusual presentation of a female with total urinary incontinence. L. Paika, S. Smitb,∗. , H. van Heerdenb, K. du Toitb,. A. van der Merweb, C. Heynsb a Department of Urology, Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine, ...

  7. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

    Laura J. Moulton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  8. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review.

    Moulton, Laura J; Jernigan, Amelia M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  9. Diffraction study of the retained austenite content in TRIP steels

    Gnaeupel-Herold, T., E-mail: tg-h@nist.gov [NIST Center for Neuron Research, 100 Bureau Dr., Gaithersburg MD 20899-6102 (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Material Science and Engineering., College Park MD 20742-2142 (United States); Creuziger, A., E-mail: adam.creuziger@nist.gov [NIST Metallurgy Division, 100 Bureau Dr., Gaithersburg MD 20899-8553 (United States); Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (United States)

    2011-04-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Novel orientation averaging scheme for retained austenite content measurement. {yields} assumption of random grain orientation generally not justified. {yields} Averaging scheme allows to disregard texture. {yields} unlike Rietveld method, averaging method does not orientation density function. {yields} Two independent (hkl) are necessary for retained austenite content. - Abstract: The results of a study of using neutron diffraction for determining the retained austenite content of TRIP steels are presented. The study covers a wide area of materials, deformation modes (uniaxial, biaxial and plane strain), strains, and the retained austenite content as a result of these variables. It was determined using basic principles of statistics that a minimum of two reflections (hkl) for each phase is necessary to calculate a phase mass fraction and the associated standard deviation. Texture from processing the steel is the largest source of uncertainty. Through the method of complete orientation averaging described in this paper, the texture effect and with it the standard deviation of the austenite mass fraction can be substantially reduced, regardless of the type or severity of the texture.

  10. Retained Foreign Bodies: A Serious Threat in the Indian Operation ...

    Proper communication among the personnel participating in surgery aimed at preventing this medical negligence would help in mitigating such errors. Finally, the surgeon should not only follow the standard recommended procedure, but also report cases of RFBs. Keywords: Medical negligence, Radiography, Retained ...

  11. The radiation response of human dermal fibroblasts

    Mitchell, Stephen Andrew

    A clinically reliable predictive assay based on normal-tissue radiosensitivity may lead to improved tumour control through individualised dose prescriptions. In-vitro fibroblast radiosensitivity has been shown, in several studies, to correlate with late radiation morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate some of the cellular mechanisms underlying the normal-tissue response. In this study, seventeen primary fibroblast strains were established by enzymatic disaggregation of skin biopsies obtained from patients. These comprised seven who experienced acute tissue reactions to radiotherapy, four patients with a normal response and six non-cancer volunteers. An AT cell line was included as a positive control for radiosensitivity. In-vitro radiosensitivity was measured using a clonogenic assay at both high (HDR: 1.6 Gymin-1) and low dose rate (LDR: 0.01 Gymin-1). The radiation parameter HDR SF2 was the most sensitive in discriminating the seven sensitive patients from the remaining ten normal patients (range 0.11-0.19 sensitive patients compared with 0.17-0.34 control patients: puse of an internal control or LDR radiation protocol increased this discrimination. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to measure the level of initial and residual double-strand breaks following irradiation. No correlation was found between HDR SF2 and initial DNA damage. However, a strong correlation was found between clonogenic survival and both residual DNA damage (measured over 10-70 Gy, allowing 4 h repair, correlation coefficient: 0.90, <0.0001) and the ratio of residual/initial DNA damage, with the sensitive cell lines generally showing a higher level of residual DNA damage. Cell-cycle delays were found in all 18 cell strains in response to 2 Gy irradiation, but were not found to discriminate between sensitive and normal patients. Associated studies found no mutations of the ATM gene in the five radiosensitive patients studied. However, a coding sequence alteration

  12. Comparative study of intact A7 MoAc and F(ab')2 fragments for radioimmunoimaging of human colon cancer in nude mice

    Kojima, Shuji; Suzuki, Naomi; Shimura, Noriko; Kubodera, Akiko; Kubota, Kazuhiko; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu; Takahashi, Toshio; Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru

    1993-01-01

    Differences of pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging ability between intact monoclonal antibody A7 (A7 MoAb) and F(ab) 2 fragments were studied in human colon cancer (LS-174T)-bearing nude mice. The authors examined the yield and the immunoreactivity of F(ab) 2 fragments after treatment with ficin as a function of time. The yield of F(ab) 2 fragments reached about 50% after ficin treatment for 8 h, and the F(ab) 2 retained about 80% of the immunoreactivity of the corresponding MoAb. Longer digestion with ficin produced smaller fragments (less than 92 kDa) with a lower yield and most of the immunoreactivity was lost. In pharmacokinetics studies, the F(ab') 2 was preferentially taken up by the tumor, cleared more rapidly from the blood circulation and seemed to have less non-specific tissue binding than intact A7 MoAb. The tumor image obtained at an early time using 131 I-F(ab') 2 was much superior in quality to that with intact 131 I-A7 MoAb. The use of F(ab') 2 fragments may be effective for tumor diagnosis and therapy. (author)

  13. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    Wei, Hongbo; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chen, Bangdao; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; however, those with diameters of 40 and 50 µm improved the spread, actin stress fiber organization, proliferation and fibronectin secretion of the fibroblasts. The microporous structures with micropore diameters of 40–50 µm may be promising for application in the percutaneous part of an implant. PMID:25054322

  14. Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems

    Hongbo Wei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; however, those with diameters of 40 and 50 µm improved the spread, actin stress fiber organization, proliferation and fibronectin secretion of the fibroblasts. The microporous structures with micropore diameters of 40–50 µm may be promising for application in the percutaneous part of an implant.

  15. Relationship among expression of basic-fibroblast growth factor ...

    Relationship among expression of basic-fibroblast growth factor, MTDH/Astrocyte elevated gene-1, adenomatous polyposis coli, matrix metalloproteinase 9,and COX-2 markers with prognostic factors in prostate carcinomas.

  16. Growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells on wettability gradient surfaces

    Ruardy, TG; Moorlag, HE; Schakenraad, JM; VanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    The growth, spreading, and shape of human skin fibroblasts (PK 84) and human umbilical cord endothelial cells on dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane (DOGS) gradient surfaces were investigated in the presence of serum proteins. Gradient surfaces were prepared on glass using

  17. Factor XIIIa is expressed by fibroblasts in fibrovascular tumors.

    Nemeth, A J; Penneys, N S

    1989-10-01

    Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa), a blood and intracellularly produced coagulation factor, has been found in a variety of cell types including fibroblast-like mesenchymal cells, and has been shown to stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts and some neoplastic cells in vitro. We have already shown that the dendritic fibroblasts composing the fibrous papule contain this factor. We hypothesized that histopathologically similar fibrovascular tumors may also express FXIIIa and, in this report, show that the large stellate fibroblasts found in acquired digital fibrokeratomas, angiofibromas (adenoma sebaceum of Pringle), and oral fibroma (oral fibrous hyperplasia) also express FXIIIa. We postulate that FXIIIa, possibly acting as a growth factor, may be a common denominator in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Another possibility is that these tumors may be the consequence of a local overproduction of FXIIIa in response to an, as yet, unidentified stimulus.

  18. HGF is released from buccal fibroblasts after smokeless tobacco stimulation

    Dabelsteen, S; Christensen, S; Gron, B

    2005-01-01

    on exposure time and on concentration of the tobacco extract. High concentration increased production of HGF 4-fold. KGF production was doubled when high concentration of tobacco was used, low concentration did not stimulate cells. GM-CSF production was low in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells......To investigate the effect of smokeless tobacco (ST) on (1) HGF, KGF and GM-CSF expression by buccal fibroblasts and (2) on keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation. Buccal fibroblasts were stimulated with different concentrations of ST extracts in a double dilution from 0.50% w/v to 0.03% w....... Keratinocytes and fibroblasts showed no increase in proliferation after stimulation with increased concentrations of ST. The results suggest that HGF and KGF may play an important role as a paracrine growth factor in epithelial hyperplasia in ST lesions....

  19. Transient expression of acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea (Pisum ...

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... a 100 W, long-wave UV lamp (Black Ray model B-100 AP; Ultra- ... frequency) was used to estimate the treatment efficiency during 15 days post .... Crystal structure of fibroblast growth factor receptor ectodomain bound to.

  20. Sialylation regulates myofibroblast differentiation of human skin fibroblasts.

    Sasaki, Norihiko; Itakura, Yoko; Toyoda, Masashi

    2017-04-18

    Fibroblasts are key players in maintaining skin homeostasis and in orchestrating physiological tissue repair and skin regeneration. Dysfunctions in fibroblasts that occur with aging and the senescent process lead to the delayed healing observed in elderly people. The molecular mechanisms leading to fibroblast dysfunction during aging and the senescent process have not yet been clarified. Previously, changes in patterns of glycosylation were observed in fibroblasts in aging and the senescent process, but the effect of these changes on the function of fibroblasts has not been well documented. Here, we investigated whether changes in glycosylation during the process to senescence may have functional effects on fibroblasts. The changes in cell surface glycans on skin fibroblasts during the process to senescence were examined in early-passage (EP) and late-passage (LP) skin fibroblasts by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis using lectins. The contributors to the changes in cell surface glycans were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction or Western blot analysis. The effects of changes in glycosylation on proliferation, migration, induction of cellular senescence, and myofibroblast differentiation induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 stimulation were examined in EP fibroblasts. The changes in glycosylation were performed by GalNAc-α-O-benzyl or sialidase treatment. A decrease in sialylation of glycoproteins and an increase in sialidase NEU1 were observed in LP fibroblasts. The reduction of sialylation did not have any effect on proliferation, migration, or induction of cellular senescence. On the other hand, myofibroblast differentiation was inhibited by the reduction of sialylation, indicating that sialylation is important for myofibroblast differentiation. The localization of CD44 in lipid rafts, which is required for myofibroblast differentiation, was inhibited by the reduction of sialylation. Furthermore, reduced myofibroblast

  1. Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro

    Bruzzone, Santina, E-mail: santina.bruzzone@unige.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Battaglia, Florinda [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Mannino, Elena [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Parodi, Alessia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Fruscione, Floriana [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Basile, Giovanna [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Salis, Annalisa; Sturla, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Negrini, Simone; Kalli, Francesca; Stringara, Silvia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Filaci, Gilberto [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Department of Internal Medicine, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genova (Italy); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-{beta}, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

  2. Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro

    Bruzzone, Santina; Battaglia, Florinda; Mannino, Elena; Parodi, Alessia; Fruscione, Floriana; Basile, Giovanna; Salis, Annalisa; Sturla, Laura; Negrini, Simone; Kalli, Francesca; Stringara, Silvia; Filaci, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. ► ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. ► UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. ► SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-β, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

  3. Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0512 TITLE: Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0512 5c. PROGRAM...blocked by the addition of Pim inhibitors. These results suggest that the Pim protein kinase can regulate stromal cell biology to modulate epithelial

  4. CARFMAP: A Curated Pathway Map of Cardiac Fibroblasts.

    Hieu T Nim

    Full Text Available The adult mammalian heart contains multiple cell types that work in unison under tightly regulated conditions to maintain homeostasis. Cardiac fibroblasts are a significant and unique population of non-muscle cells in the heart that have recently gained substantial interest in the cardiac biology community. To better understand this renaissance cell, it is essential to systematically survey what has been known in the literature about the cellular and molecular processes involved. We have built CARFMAP (http://visionet.erc.monash.edu.au/CARFMAP, an interactive cardiac fibroblast pathway map derived from the biomedical literature using a software-assisted manual data collection approach. CARFMAP is an information-rich interactive tool that enables cardiac biologists to explore the large body of literature in various creative ways. There is surprisingly little overlap between the cardiac fibroblast pathway map, a foreskin fibroblast pathway map, and a whole mouse organism signalling pathway map from the REACTOME database. Among the use cases of CARFMAP is a common task in our cardiac biology laboratory of identifying new genes that are (1 relevant to cardiac literature, and (2 differentially regulated in high-throughput assays. From the expression profiles of mouse cardiac and tail fibroblasts, we employed CARFMAP to characterise cardiac fibroblast pathways. Using CARFMAP in conjunction with transcriptomic data, we generated a stringent list of six genes that would not have been singled out using bioinformatics analyses alone. Experimental validation showed that five genes (Mmp3, Il6, Edn1, Pdgfc and Fgf10 are differentially regulated in the cardiac fibroblast. CARFMAP is a powerful tool for systems analyses of cardiac fibroblasts, facilitating systems-level cardiovascular research.

  5. CARFMAP: A Curated Pathway Map of Cardiac Fibroblasts.

    Nim, Hieu T; Furtado, Milena B; Costa, Mauro W; Kitano, Hiroaki; Rosenthal, Nadia A; Boyd, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The adult mammalian heart contains multiple cell types that work in unison under tightly regulated conditions to maintain homeostasis. Cardiac fibroblasts are a significant and unique population of non-muscle cells in the heart that have recently gained substantial interest in the cardiac biology community. To better understand this renaissance cell, it is essential to systematically survey what has been known in the literature about the cellular and molecular processes involved. We have built CARFMAP (http://visionet.erc.monash.edu.au/CARFMAP), an interactive cardiac fibroblast pathway map derived from the biomedical literature using a software-assisted manual data collection approach. CARFMAP is an information-rich interactive tool that enables cardiac biologists to explore the large body of literature in various creative ways. There is surprisingly little overlap between the cardiac fibroblast pathway map, a foreskin fibroblast pathway map, and a whole mouse organism signalling pathway map from the REACTOME database. Among the use cases of CARFMAP is a common task in our cardiac biology laboratory of identifying new genes that are (1) relevant to cardiac literature, and (2) differentially regulated in high-throughput assays. From the expression profiles of mouse cardiac and tail fibroblasts, we employed CARFMAP to characterise cardiac fibroblast pathways. Using CARFMAP in conjunction with transcriptomic data, we generated a stringent list of six genes that would not have been singled out using bioinformatics analyses alone. Experimental validation showed that five genes (Mmp3, Il6, Edn1, Pdgfc and Fgf10) are differentially regulated in the cardiac fibroblast. CARFMAP is a powerful tool for systems analyses of cardiac fibroblasts, facilitating systems-level cardiovascular research.

  6. Digested BLG can induce tolerance when co-administered with intact BLG in Brown Norway rats

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    the human gastro-duodenal digestion process. Four different fractions of BLG-digest was made, based on sizes of peptides or aggregates hereof. Intact BLG and the four fractions of BLG-digesta were characterized by protein chemical analyses. Brown Norway (BN) rats were immunised i.p. three times without......Background: Milk is a major constituent of small children’s diet. Milk allergy is also one of the most common allergies in small children. Prevention, treatment and general understanding of this allergy are therefore important. Methods: Intact BLG was digested in an in vitro model simulating...... the use of adjuvant with either PBS (control), 200 µg of intact BLG, 30 µg of intact BLG, 200 µg of digested BLG (with 30 µg of intact BLG), 200 µg of digested BLG, 200 µg of a fraction of large complexes or 200 µg of a fraction of small complexes (all three without intact BLG). Sera from BN rats were...

  7. Iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance influence circulating fibroblast-growth factor-23 concentrations.

    José Manuel Fernández-Real

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD. Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23 and C-terminal (CtFGF-23 concentrations (ELISA were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1; and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT in 78 subjects (52 women with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2. Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance.

  8. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Metabolic Regulation.

    Nies, Vera J M; Sancar, Gencer; Liu, Weilin; van Zutphen, Tim; Struik, Dicky; Yu, Ruth T; Atkins, Annette R; Evans, Ronald M; Jonker, Johan W; Downes, Michael Robert

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is a growing health problem. Obesity is strongly associated with several comorbidities, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, which all reduce life expectancy and life quality. Several drugs have been put forward in order to treat these diseases, but many of them have detrimental side effects. The unexpected role of the family of fibroblast growth factors in the regulation of energy metabolism provides new approaches to the treatment of metabolic diseases and offers a valuable tool to gain more insight into metabolic regulation. The known beneficial effects of FGF19 and FGF21 on metabolism, together with recently discovered similar effects of FGF1 suggest that FGFs and their derivatives carry great potential as novel therapeutics to treat metabolic conditions. To facilitate the development of new therapies with improved targeting and minimal side effects, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of FGFs is needed. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about the physiological roles of FGF signaling in tissues important for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, we will discuss current concepts regarding their pharmacological properties and effector tissues in the context of metabolic disease. Also, the recent progress in the development of FGF variants will be reviewed. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current concepts and consensuses regarding FGF signaling in metabolic health and disease and to provide starting points for the development of FGF-based therapies against metabolic conditions.

  9. Senescent phenotypes of skin fibroblasts from patients with Tangier disease

    Matsuura, Fumihiko; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Ikegami, Chiaki; Sandoval, Jose C.; Oku, Hiroyuki; Yuasa-Kawase, Miyako; Tsubakio-Yamamoto, Kazumi; Koseki, Masahiro; Masuda, Daisaku; Tsujii, Ken-ichi; Ishigami, Masato; Nishida, Makoto; Shimomura, Iichiro; Hori, Masatsugu; Yamashita, Shizuya

    2007-01-01

    Tangier disease (TD) is characterized by a deficiency of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma and patients with TD have an increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Recently, we reported that fibroblasts from TD exhibited large and flattened morphology, which is often observed in senescent cells. On the other hand, data have accumulated to show the relationship between cellular senescence and development of atherosclerotic CAD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether TD fibroblasts exhibited cellular senescence. The proliferation of TD fibroblasts was gradually decreased at population doubling level (PDL) ∼10 compared with control cells. TD cells practically ceased proliferation at PDL ∼30. DNA synthesis was markedly decreased in TD fibroblasts. TD cells exhibited a higher positive rate for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), which is one of the biomarkers of cellular senescence in vitro. These data showed that TD cells reached cellular senescence at an earlier PDL compared with controls. Although, there was no difference in the telomere length of fibroblasts between TD and controls at the earlier passage (PDL 6), the telomere length of TD cells was shorter than that of controls at the late passage (PDL 25). Taken together, the current study demonstrates that the late-passaged TD fibroblasts showed senescent phenotype in vitro, which might be related to the increased cardiovascular manifestations in TD patients

  10. [Isolation, purification and primary culture of adult mouse cardiac fibroblasts].

    Li, Rujun; Gong, Kaizheng; Zhang, Zhengang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for primary culture of adult mouse cardiac fibroblasts. Methods Myocardial tissues from adult mice were digested with 1 g/L trypsin and 0.8 g/L collagenase IV by oscillating water bath for a short time repeatedly. Cardiac fibroblasts and myocardial cells were isolated with differential adhesion method. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess the purity of cardiac fibroblasts. The cell morphology was observed under an inverted phase contrast microscope. The proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts was analyzed by growth curve and CCK-8 assay. The Smad2/3 phosphorylation induced by TGF-β1 was detected by Western blotting. Results After 90 minutes of differential adhesion, adherent fibroblasts formed spherical cell mass and after 3 days, cells were spindle-shaped and proliferated rapidly. Cells were confluent after 5 days and the growth curve presented nearly "S" shape. The positive expression rate of vimentin was 95%. CCK-8 assay showed that the optimal cell proliferating activity was found from day 3 to day 5. The level of phosphorylated Smad2/3 obviously increased at the second passage induced by TGF-β1. Conclusion This method is economical and stable to isolate cardiac fibroblasts with high activity and high purity from adult mice.

  11. Summary report on the design of the retained gas sampler system (retained gas sampler, extruder and extractor)

    Wootan, D.W.; Bolden, R.C.; Bridges, A.E.; Cannon, N.S.; Chastain, S.A.; Hey, B.E.; Knight, R.C.; Linschooten, C.G.; Pitner, A.L.; Webb, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document summarizes work performs in Fiscal Year 1994 to develop the three main components of Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS). These primary components are the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), the Retained Gas Extruder (RGE), and the Retained Gas Extractor (RGEx). The RGS is based on the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Universal Sampler design, and includes modifications to reduce gas leakage. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. Significant progress has been made in developing the RGSS. The RGSS is being developed by WHC to extract a representative waste sample from a Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks and to measure both the amount and composition of free and open-quotes boundclose quotes gases. Sudden releases of flammable gas mixtures are a safety concern for normal waste storage operations and eventual waste retrieval. Flow visualization testing was used to identify important fluid dynamic issues related to the sampling process. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. The safety analysis for the RGSS is being performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is more than sixty percent (60%) complete

  12. The role of inorganic phosphate in intact human erythrocytes

    Nishiguchi, Eiko; Umeda, Masahiro.

    1988-01-01

    The role of inorganic phosphate in intact human erythrocytes was investigated by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P NMR). When erythrocytes stored for 5 weeks were incubated at 37 deg C, pH 7.4, in medium containing 2 mM adenine and 10 mM inosine, with or without 5 mM glucose, a substance of around 4 ppm, as assessed by 31 P NMR chemical shift, was detected in the mixture. However, this substance disappeared by the addition of inorganic phosphate. When erythrocytes stored for 4 weeks in acid citrate dextrose (ACD) solution were incubated with 2 mM adenine, 10 mM inosine, 5 mM glucose, 50 mM inorganic phosphate and 10 mM pyruvate at 37 deg C, pH 7.4, the 2,3-DPG level increased gradually, whereas the ATP level initially increased and then decreased. Intracellular inorganic phosphate appeared to be used for the synthesis of ATP and 2,3-DPG during the first 30 min. of the reaction. These results suggests that the inorganic phosphate accelerates glycolysis by increasing the activity of glycolytic enzymes rather than its direct involvement in synthesizing organic phosphorus compounds in stored erythrocytes. The results also suggests that the reserve energy from ATP synthesis is not sufficient for the synthesis of 2,3-DPG. (author)

  13. Basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia.

    M C van der Steen

    Full Text Available Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15 and a matched control group (N = 15 on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo. In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument.

  14. Basic Timing Abilities Stay Intact in Patients with Musician's Dystonia

    van der Steen, M. C.; van Vugt, Floris T.; Keller, Peter E.; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15) and a matched control group (N = 15) on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo). In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument. PMID:24667273

  15. Intact information sampling in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Zamarian, Laura; Trinka, Eugen; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Bodner, Thomas; Unterberger, Iris; Luef, Gerhard; Delazer, Margarete

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have reported deficits in decision making under ambiguity for patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). It is unknown whether mTLE is also associated with alterations at a predecisional stage. This study aimed to gain insight into predecisional processing of patients with mTLE. We compared performance of patients with mTLE (n = 25) with that of healthy controls (n = 75) on the information sampling task (IST), a task assessing reflection-impulsivity and predecisional information sampling. Patients and healthy controls showed a similar performance pattern in both conditions of the IST as indicated by the amount of information gathered, the degree of uncertainty tolerated, and the number of decision errors made. They both also demonstrated a significant sensitivity to the different reward characteristics of the task. For the patient group, we found no significant effects on performance on the IST of epilepsy lateralization, abnormality side, structural abnormality (hippocampus vs. amygdala), and medication (monotherapy vs. polytherapy). Reflection processes and predecisional information sampling as tested by the IST are intact in mTLE. Patients collect as much information as healthy individuals and adapt their behavior according to the changing reward conditions. Our findings indicate that in well-defined risk situations, where memory demands are sufficiently minimized, patients with mTLE should be able to gather sufficient information, weight risks and benefits, and make advantageous decisions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Assessment of mechanical strain in the intact plantar fascia.

    Clark, Ross A; Franklyn-Miller, Andrew; Falvey, Eanna; Bryant, Adam L; Bartold, Simon; McCrory, Paul

    2009-09-01

    A method of measuring tri-axial plantar fascia strain that is minimally affected by external compressive force has not previously been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of micro-strain gauges to examine strain in the different axes of the plantar fascia. Two intact limbs from a thawed, fresh-frozen cadaver were dissected, and a combination of five linear and one three-way rosette gauges were attached to the fascia of the foot and ankle. Strain was assessed during two trials, both consisting of an identical controlled, loaded dorsiflexion. An ICC analysis of the results revealed that the majority of gauge placement sites produced reliable measures (ICC>0.75). Strain mapping of the plantar fascia indicates that the majority of the strain is centrally longitudinal, which provides supportive evidence for finite element model analysis. Although micro-strain gauges do possess the limitation of calibration difficulty, they provide a repeatable measure of fascial strain and may provide benefits in situations that require tri-axial assessment or external compression.

  17. Temporal Ventriloquism Reveals Intact Audiovisual Temporal Integration in Amblyopia.

    Richards, Michael D; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2018-02-01

    We have shown previously that amblyopia involves impaired detection of asynchrony between auditory and visual events. To distinguish whether this impairment represents a defect in temporal integration or nonintegrative multisensory processing (e.g., cross-modal matching), we used the temporal ventriloquism effect in which visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) is normally enhanced by a lagging auditory click. Participants with amblyopia (n = 9) and normally sighted controls (n = 9) performed a visual TOJ task. Pairs of clicks accompanied the two lights such that the first click preceded the first light, or second click lagged the second light by 100, 200, or 450 ms. Baseline audiovisual synchrony and visual-only conditions also were tested. Within both groups, just noticeable differences for the visual TOJ task were significantly reduced compared with baseline in the 100- and 200-ms click lag conditions. Within the amblyopia group, poorer stereo acuity and poorer visual acuity in the amblyopic eye were significantly associated with greater enhancement in visual TOJ performance in the 200-ms click lag condition. Audiovisual temporal integration is intact in amblyopia, as indicated by perceptual enhancement in the temporal ventriloquism effect. Furthermore, poorer stereo acuity and poorer visual acuity in the amblyopic eye are associated with a widened temporal binding window for the effect. These findings suggest that previously reported abnormalities in audiovisual multisensory processing may result from impaired cross-modal matching rather than a diminished capacity for temporal audiovisual integration.

  18. Evidence for an intact polysaccharide capsule in Bordetella pertussis.

    Neo, YiLin; Li, Rui; Howe, Josephine; Hoo, Regina; Pant, Aakanksha; Ho, SiYing; Alonso, Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Polysaccharide capsules contribute to the pathogenesis of many bacteria species by providing resistance against various defense mechanisms. The production of a capsule in Bordetella pertussis, the etiologic agent of whooping cough, has remained controversial; earlier studies reported this pathogen as a capsulated microorganism whereas the recent B. pertussis genome analysis revealed the presence of a truncated capsule locus. In this work, using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining approaches, we provide a formal evidence for the presence of an intact microcapsule produced at the surface of both laboratory strain and clinical isolates of B. pertussis. In agreement with previous studies, we found that the capsule is optimally produced in avirulent phase. Unexpectedly, the presence of the capsule was also detected at the surface of virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Consistently, a substantial transcriptional activity of the capsule operon was detected in virulent phase, suggesting that the capsular polysaccharide may play a role during pertussis pathogenesis. In vitro assays indicated that the presence of the capsule does not affect B. pertussis adherence to mammalian cells and does not further protect the bacterium from phagocytosis, complement-mediated killing or antimicrobial peptide attack. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Intact unconscious processing of eye contact in schizophrenia

    Kiley Seymour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of eye gaze is crucial for social interaction, providing essential information about another person’s goals, intentions, and focus of attention. People with schizophrenia suffer a wide range of social cognitive deficits, including abnormalities in eye gaze perception. For instance, patients have shown an increased bias to misjudge averted gaze as being directed toward them. In this study we probed early unconscious mechanisms of gaze processing in schizophrenia using a technique known as continuous flash suppression. Previous research using this technique to render faces with direct and averted gaze initially invisible reveals that direct eye contact gains privileged access to conscious awareness in healthy adults. We found that patients, as with healthy control subjects, showed the same effect: faces with direct eye gaze became visible significantly faster than faces with averted gaze. This suggests that early unconscious processing of eye gaze is intact in schizophrenia and implies that any misjudgments of gaze direction must manifest at a later conscious stage of gaze processing where deficits and/or biases in attributing mental states to gaze and/or beliefs about being watched may play a role.

  20. Stress dependence of permeability of intact and fractured shale cores.

    van Noort, Reinier; Yarushina, Viktoriya

    2016-04-01

    Whether a shale acts as a caprock, source rock, or reservoir, understanding fluid flow through shale is of major importance for understanding fluid flow in geological systems. Because of the low permeability of shale, flow is thought to be largely confined to fractures and similar features. In fracking operations, fractures are induced specifically to allow for hydrocarbon exploration. We have constructed an experimental setup to measure core permeabilities, using constant flow or a transient pulse. In this setup, we have measured the permeability of intact and fractured shale core samples, using either water or supercritical CO2 as the transporting fluid. Our measurements show decreasing permeability with increasing confining pressure, mainly due to time-dependent creep. Furthermore, our measurements show that for a simple splitting fracture, time-dependent creep will also eliminate any significant effect of this fracture on permeability. This effect of confinement on fracture permeability can have important implications regarding the effects of fracturing on shale permeability, and hence for operations depending on that.

  1. Research on intact marine ecosystems: a lost era.

    Stachowitsch, Michael

    2003-07-01

    It is proposed that a new, fifth era should be added to the four historical phases of marine research identified by Rupert Riedl, specifically an era devoted to studying and ameliorating disturbed marine ecosystems. In an age of global environmental deterioration, many marine ecosystems and organisms are high on the list of threatened entities. This poor status prompts research that would otherwise have been unnecessary and hinders research that would normally have been conducted. I argue that research into intact marine ecosystems is becoming increasingly difficult, and that most of our future insights into marine habitats will stem from knowledge gained by examining various disfunctions of those systems rather than their functions. The new era will therefore differ from past research in its underlying aim, the range of topics studied, the selection and funding of those topics, the validity of its conclusions, and in its urgency. Sea turtles and cetaceans are cited as case studies at the organismic level, shallow-water benthic communities, including coral reefs, at the ecosystem level.

  2. Measurement of tritiated norepinephrine metabolism in intact rat brain

    Levitt, M.; Kowalik, S.; Barkai, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for the study of NE metabolism in the intact rat brain is described. The method involves ventriculocisternal perfusion of the adult male rat with artificial CSF containing [ 3 H]NE. Radioactivity in the perfusate associated with NE and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DOMA), 3,4-dihydroxphenylethyleneglycol (DHPG), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), and normetanephrine (NMN) is separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After 80 min the radioactivity in the perfusate reaches an apparent steady-state. Analysis of the steady-state samples shows higher activity in the fractions corresponding to DHPG and MHPG than in those corresponding to DOMA and VMA, confirming glycol formation as the major pathway of NE metabolism in rat brain. Pretreatment with an MAO inhibitor (tranylcypromine) results in a marked decrease in the deaminated metabolites DHPG and MHPG and a concurrent increase in NMN. The results indicate this to be a sensitive procedure for the in vivo determination of changes in NE metabolism. (Auth.)

  3. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-05-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents.

  4. Genetic disruptions of Drosophila Pavlovian learning leave extinction learning intact.

    Qin, H; Dubnau, J

    2010-03-01

    Individuals who experience traumatic events may develop persistent posttraumatic stress disorder. Patients with this disorder are commonly treated with exposure therapy, which has had limited long-term success. In experimental neurobiology, fear extinction is a model for exposure therapy. In this behavioral paradigm, animals are repeatedly exposed in a safe environment to the fearful stimulus, which leads to greatly reduced fear. Studying animal models of extinction already has lead to better therapeutic strategies and development of new candidate drugs. Lack of a powerful genetic model of extinction, however, has limited progress in identifying underlying molecular and genetic factors. In this study, we established a robust behavioral paradigm to study the short-term effect (acquisition) of extinction in Drosophila melanogaster. We focused on the extinction of olfactory aversive 1-day memory with a task that has been the main workhorse for genetics of memory in flies. Using this paradigm, we show that extinction can inhibit each of two genetically distinct forms of consolidated memory. We then used a series of single-gene mutants with known impact on associative learning to examine the effects on extinction. We find that extinction is intact in each of these mutants, suggesting that extinction learning relies on different molecular mechanisms than does Pavlovian learning.

  5. Involvement of DNA polymerase δ in DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts at late times after ultraviolet irradiation

    Dresler, S.L.; Gowans, B.J.; Robinson-Hill, R.M.; Hunting, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    DNA repair synthesis following UV irradiation of confluent human fibroblasts has a biphasic time course with an early phase of rapid nucleotide incorporation and a late phase of much slower nucleotide incorporation. The biphasic nature of this curve suggests that two distinct DNA repair systems may be operative. Previous studies have specifically implicated DNA polymerase δ as the enzyme involved in DNA repair synthesis occurring immediately after UV damage. In this paper, the authors describe studies of DNA polymerase involvement in DNA repair synthesis in confluent human fibroblasts at late times after UV irradiation. Late UV-induced DNA repair synthesis in both intact and permeable cells was found to be inhibited by aphidicolin, indicating the involvement of one of the aphidicolin-sensitive DNA polymerases, α or δ. In permeable cells, the process was further analyzed by using the nucleotide analogue (butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate, which inhibits DNA polymerase α several hundred times more strongly than it inhibits DNA polymerase δ. The (butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate inhibition curve for late UV-induced repair synthesis was very similar to that for polymerase δ. It appears that repair synthesis at late time after UV irradiation, like repair synthesis at early times, is mediated by DNA polymerase δ

  6. Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to biomolecular profiling of cultured fibroblast cells from Gaucher disease patients: A preliminary investigation.

    Igci, Nasit; Sharafi, Parisa; Demiralp, Duygu Ozel; Demiralp, Cemil Ozerk; Yuce, Aysel; Emre, Serap Dokmeci

    2017-10-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is defined as an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.45). Glucocerebrosidase is responsible for the degradation of glucosylceramide into ceramide and glucose. The deficiency of this enzyme results in the accumulation of undegraded glucosylceramide, almost exclusively in macrophages. With Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the complete molecular diversity of the samples can be studied comparatively and the amount of the particular materials can be determined. Also, the secondary structure ratios of proteins can be determined by analysing the amide peaks. The primary aim of this study is to introduce FTIR-ATR spectroscopy technique to GD research for the first time in the literature and to assess its potential as a new molecular method. Primary fibroblast cell cultures obtained from biopsy samples were used, since this material is widely used for the diagnosis of GD. Intact cells were placed onto a FTIR-ATR crystal and dried by purging nitrogen gas. Spectra were recorded in the mid-infrared region between 4500-850 cm-1 wavenumbers. Each peak in the spectra was assigned to as organic biomolecules according to their chemical bond information. A quantitative analysis was performed using peak areas and we also used a hierarchical cluster analysis as a multivariate spectral analysis. We obtained FTIR spectra of fibroblast samples and assigned the biomolecule origins of the peaks. We observed individual heterogeneity in FTIR spectra of GD fibroblast samples, confirming the well-known phenotypic heterogeneity in GD at the molecular level. Significant alterations in protein, lipid and carbohydrate levels related to the enzyme replacement therapy were also observed, which is also supported by cluster analysis. Our results showed that the application of FTIR spectroscopy to GD research deserves more attention and detailed studies with an increased sample size in order to evaluate its

  7. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and cell killing in normal human fibroblasts and ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts

    Kawata, T.; Saito, M.; Uno, T.; Ito, H.; Shigematsu, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: When cells are held in a non-dividing state (G0) after irradiation, an enhanced survival can be observed compared to that of immediate plating. A change of survival depending on post irradiation condition is known to be repair of potentially lethal damage (RPLD). The effects of confluent holding recovery (24-h incubation following irradiation) on chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts (AG1522) and ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts (GM02052C) were examined. A chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to study chromosome aberrations in G2 and M-phase. Results from cell survival showed that the capacity for potentially lethal damage repair was normal in AG1522 cells but very little in GM02052C cells. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in AG1522 cells decreased when cells were allowed to repair for 24-h. Especially complex type exchanges were found to decrease markedly at high doses (4Gy and 6Gy). However, the frequency of chromosome aberrations including complex type exchanges showed little decrease in GM02052C cells. Confluent holding can effectively reduce chromosome aberrations, especially complex type exchanges in normal cells

  8. Phenotype change and migration of adventitial fibroblasts during postangioplasty

    Wang Yongli; Zhang Jiaxing; He Nengshu; Si Tongguo; Fan Hailun; Ge Xihong; Xu Rui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To verify fibroblasts translocation from adventitia into neointima by labeling adventitia cells with bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU) after angioplasty, and to explore the relationship of adventitial fibroblast with restenosis. Methods: Vascular restenosis model was created by injured intima of common carotid artery (CCA) of mouse with guide wire, adventitial fibroblasts were labeled with BrDU, and dynamic distribution of myofibroblasts in adventitia, media and neoitima was observed at different times (3 d, 7 d, 14 d and 28 d) by means of single/double-label immunohistochemistry, light microscope, electronic microscope and image analysis system. Results: 1.Immunohistochemistry: More adventitial fibroblasts combined with BrDU could be found in adventitia on the 3rd day of postangioplasty, and the number of this kind of cells reached the peak on 7th day, and at the same time fibroblasts changed their phenotypes and became myofibroblasts, which produced α-actin and extracellular matrix (ECM). On 14th day, the number of the positive cells decreased in adventitia, increased in media and neointima associated with intima thickening; on 28th day, while the number of fibroblasts labeled by BrDU returned to the basic-line in adventitia, media and intima, nevertheless, intima thickening and vascular stenosis and intimal ELM precipitation were still present. There were significant differences in the number of fibroblasts labeled with BrDU located in three layers of artery (P<0.05). 2. Electronic microscope: After angioplasty, the plasm of fibroblasts became rich, mitochondrious and increase of Golgi apparatus; and the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulums rose with more secretory granules, together with a great amount of collagen synthesized forming the microfilaments; on days of 7th and 14th, the wide pseudopodia of myofibroblasts could be found extending into the windows on the external elastic lamina (ELL) and the internal elastic lamina (ILL); and showing the tendency

  9. Complete endoscopic management of a retained bullet in the bladder.

    Friedman, Ariella A; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Kaul, Sanjeev; Bhandari, Akshay

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old male gunshot victim presented at our institution with gross hematuria following Foley catheter insertion. Computed tomography and cystogram did not show a bladder perforation, but were notable for a left ischial fracture and the presence of a bullet within the bladder. After failed attempts at retrieving the bullet with a resectoscope and loop, as well as a cystoscope and stone crusher, a 26 French nephroscope was inserted transurethrally, and the bullet was successfully engaged and removed using a Perc NCircle (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN) grasper. The extra-peritoneal injury was managed conservatively with catheter drainage. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of successful transurethral management of a retained intravesical bullet. Such an approach may benefit patients with retained intravesical bullets or other challenging intravesical foreign bodies and may be helpful in select circumstances to spare patients from more extensive surgeries.

  10. CT and sonographic diagnosis of retained surgical sponge

    Matsumoto, Syunro; Aikawa, Hisayuki; Miyake, Hidetoshi; Mori, Hiromu; Maeda, Tohru; Nishimura, Hiro; Monzen, Yoshio; Ashizawa, Akira; Isomoto, Ichiro.

    1990-01-01

    Seven cases of pathologically proven retained surgical sponge were reviewed and classified into four types, depending on CT and US findings. CT showed a mass with tiny gas bubbles, and sonogram showed an echogenic area with strong posterior shadow (Type I). CT showed an irregular high density mass with no gas bubble, and sonogram showed an echogenic area with strong posterior shadow (Type II). CT showed a low density mass with irregular internal high density areas, and somogram showed a cystic mass with zigzag internal components (Type III). CT showed an eliptic high density mass with low density area internally. Judging from the experiment and operative findings, these patterns were decided by the number and status of the gauze, volume of the exudate and hematoma, and status of the granulation. The author concludes that these characteristic CT and US findings, together with a history of surgery, permit the correct diagnosis of retained surgical sponge. (author)

  11. Illusory Speed is Retained in Memory during Invisible Motion

    Luca Battaglini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain can retain speed information in early visual short-term memory in an astonishingly precise manner. We investigated whether this (early visual memory system is active during the extrapolation of occluded motion and whether it reflects speed misperception due to contrast and size. Experiments 1A and 2A showed that reducing target contrast or increasing its size led to an illusory speed underestimation. Experiments 1B, 2B, and 3 showed that this illusory phenomenon is reflected in the memory of speed during occluded motion, independent of the range of visible speeds, of the length of the visible trajectory or the invisible trajectory, and of the type of task. These results suggest that illusory speed is retained in memory during invisible motion.

  12. Functional design criteria for the retained gas sampler system

    Wootan, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS) is being developed to capture and analyze waste samples from Hanford Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks to determine both the quantity and composition of gases retained in the waste. The RGSS consists of three main components: the Sampler, Extractor, and Extruder. This report describes the functional criteria for the design of the RGSS components. The RGSS Sampler is based on the WHC Universal Sampler design with modifications to eliminate gas leakage. The primary function of the Sampler is to capture a representative waste sample from a tank and transport the sample with minimal loss of gas content from the tank to the laboratory. The function of the Extruder is to transfer the waste sample from the Sampler to the Extractor. The function of the Extractor is to separate the gases from the liquids and solids, measure the relative volume of gas to determine the void fraction, and remove and analyze the gas constituents

  13. Early Decomposition of Retained Heavy Silicone Oil Droplets

    Touka Banaee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of early decomposition of retained heavy silicone oil droplets. Case Report: The single highly myopic eye of a 16-year-old boy with history of scleral buckling and buckle revision developed redetachment due to inferior retinal dialysis. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy and injection of heavy silicone oil. Early emulsification of the silicone oil was observed following surgery, which was removed 4 weeks later in another operation. Retained heavy silicone droplets lost their heavier- than-water specific gravity within 2 months together with extensive iris depigmentation, and release of pigment granules into the anterior chamber and vitreous cavity. Conclusion: This case report demonstrates that heavy silicone oil droplets can undergo in vivo chemical decomposition with possible toxic effects on ocular tissues.

  14. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 in Bed Rest and Spaceflight

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight. Presented with an imbalanced dietary phosphorus to calcium ratio, increased secretion of FGF23 will inhibit renal phosphorus reabsorption, resulting in increased excretion and reduced circulating phosphorus. Increased intake and excretion of phosphorus is associated with increased kidney stone risk in both the terrestrial and microgravity environments. Highly processed foods and carbonated beverages are associated with higher phosphorus content. Ideally, the dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio should be at minimum 1:1. Nutritional requirements for spaceflight suggest that this ratio not be less than 0.67 (3), while the International Space Station (ISS) menu provides 1020 mg Ca and 1856 mg P, for a ratio of 0.55 (3). Subjects in NASA's bed rest studies, by design, have consumed intake ratios much closer to 1.0 (4). FGF23 also has an inhibitory influence on PTH secretion and 1(alpha)-hydroxylase, both of which are required for activating vitamin D with the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D will result in decreased intestinal phosphorus absorption, and increased urinary phosphorus excretion (via decreased renal reabsorption). Should a decrease in 1

  15. A study of the carbon distribution in retained austenite

    Scott, C.P.; Drillet, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cold-rolled and annealed transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels were overaged to modify the carbon concentrations (C γ ) in retained austenite. Experimental C γ values were directly obtained by electron energy loss spectroscopy and compared with data derived from X-ray diffraction measurements of the austenite lattice parameter (a γ ). In this way, we evaluated the different expressions available in the literature relating C γ to a γ

  16. The cyclops lesion after bicruciate-retaining total knee replacement

    Klaassen, Mark A.; Aikins, Jerry L.

    2017-01-01

    The cyclops lesion is a localized anterior arthrofibrosis most commonly seen following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The lesion forms at the anterior cruciate ligament insertion creating a painful extension block between femoral intercondylar notch and tibial plateau. We present 2 cases (3 knees) in which cyclops lesions appeared atypically following bicruciate-retaining total knee replacement. Two lesions occurred in a single patient following bilateral knee replacement. One les...

  17. Macroeconomic effects of zero corporate income tax on retained earnings

    Jaan Masso; Jaanika Meriküll

    2011-01-01

    International tax competition had led to a lowering of corporate tax rates worldwide. Estonia was the first country to reduce the tax rate on retained earnings to zero, while distributed profits remained taxed at the pre-reform level. This paper seeks to analyse the effects of this unique tax reform implemented in year 2000. We apply a neoclassical exogenous growth general equilibrium model with an extension for endogenous corporate finance. Our findings indicate that the reform had a strong ...

  18. Removal of Retained Lead Shot Through Laparoscopic Appendectomy

    Lloyd, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a patient presenting with lead shot in his appendix. A plain radiograph of his lumbar spine was performed for back pain, and an incidental finding of lead shot retained within the appendix was seen. Lead shot in the appendix is associated with appendicitis, and 2 cases have been reported of lead intoxication. We suggest that an elective laparoscopic appendectomy should be offered to patients as a possible management option. PMID:12856854

  19. Intravitreal Phacoemulsification Using Torsional Handpiece for Retained Lens Fragments

    Kumar, Vinod; Takkar, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of intravitreal phacoemulsification with torsional hand piece in eyes with posteriorly dislocated lens fragments. Methods: In this prospective, interventional case series, 15 eyes with retained lens fragments following phacoemulsification were included. All patients underwent standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal phacoemulsification using sleeveless, torsional hand piece (OZiL™, Alcon's Infiniti Vision System). Patients were followed up...

  20. The stability of gabion walls for earth retaining structures

    Mahyuddin Ramli; T.J.r. Karasu; Eethar Thanon Dawood

    2013-01-01

    The stability of earth retaining structures in flood prone areas has become a serious problem in many countries. The two most basic causes of failure arising from flooding are scouring and erosion of the foundation of the superstructure. Hence, a number of structures like bridges employ scour-arresting devices, e.g., gabions to acting on the piers and abutments during flooding. Research was therefore undertaken to improve gabion resistance against lateral movement by means of an interlocking ...

  1. Implant-Retained Auricular Prosthesis: A Case Report

    Ozturk, A. Nilgun; Usumez, Aslihan; Tosun, Zekeriya

    2010-01-01

    Extraoral implant retained prosthesis have been proven to be a predictable treatment option for maxillofacial rehabilitation. This case report describes the clinical and laboratory procedures for fabricating an auricular prosthesis. In this case report, an auricular prosthesis was fabricated for a patient who lost the left and right external ear in an electrical burn. Extraoral implants and bar-and-clip retention for the proper connection of the auricular prosthesis to implant were used. This...

  2. An integrated framework for transmission cost allocation retaining efficiency concepts

    Lima, J.W. Marangon [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Gorenstin, B G; Vieira Filho, X [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chipp, H J; Alvarenga Filho, S [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hirota, M [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil); Pereira, M V.F. [Power System Research, Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a methodology for allocating transmission costs among utilities and wheeling agents. The proposed approach is based on the extension of marginal cost theory to take into account discrete component sizes and economy of scale, while retaining desirable economic properties such as revenue reconciliation and incentives for all participants to remain in the pool. The methodology is illustrated in case studies with the Brazilian system. (author) 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Fibroblast growth factor signaling in metabolic regulation

    Vera eNies

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is a growing health problem. Obesity is strongly associated with several comorbidities, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which all reduce life expectancy and life quality. Several drugs have been put forward in order to treat these diseases, but many of them have detrimental side effects. The unexpected role of the family of fibroblast growth factors in the regulation of energy metabolism provides new approaches to the treatment of metabolic diseases, and offers a valuable tool to gain more insight into metabolic regulation. The known beneficial effects of FGF19 and FGF21 on metabolism, together with recently discovered similar effects of FGF1 suggest that FGFs and their derivatives carry great potential as novel therapeutics to treat metabolic conditions. To facilitate the development of new therapies with improved targeting and minimal side effects, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of FGFs is needed.In this review we will discuss what is currently known about the physiological roles of FGF signaling in tissues important for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, we will discuss current concepts regarding their pharmacological properties and effector tissues in the context of metabolic disease. Also the recent progress in the development of FGF variants will be reviewed. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current concepts and consensuses regarding FGF signaling in metabolic health and disease, and to provide starting points for the development of FGF-based therapies against metabolic conditions.

  4. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-01-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 μmol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 μCi [ 14 C]acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest [ 14 C]acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total 14 C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1

  5. Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in wound healing

    Darby IA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ian A Darby,1 Betty Laverdet,2 Frédéric Bonté3, Alexis Desmoulière2 1School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Physiology and EA 6309, FR 3503, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Limoges, Limoges, France; 3LVMH Recherche, Saint Jean de Braye, France Abstract: (Myofibroblasts are key players for maintaining skin homeostasis and for orchestrating physiological tissue repair. (Myofibroblasts are embedded in a sophisticated extracellular matrix (ECM that they secrete, and a complex and interactive dialogue exists between (myofibroblasts and their microenvironment. In addition to the secretion of the ECM, (myofibroblasts, by secreting matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, are able to remodel this ECM. (Myofibroblasts and their microenvironment form an evolving network during tissue repair, with reciprocal actions leading to cell differentiation, proliferation, quiescence, or apoptosis, and actions on growth factor bioavailability by binding, sequestration, and activation. In addition, the (myofibroblast phenotype is regulated by mechanical stresses to which they are subjected and thus by mechanical signaling. In pathological situations (excessive scarring or fibrosis, or during aging, this dialogue between the (myofibroblasts and their microenvironment may be altered or disrupted, leading to repair defects or to injuries with damaged and/or cosmetic skin alterations such as wrinkle development. The intimate dialogue between the (myofibroblasts and their microenvironment therefore represents a fascinating domain that must be better understood in order not only to characterize new therapeutic targets and drugs able to prevent or treat pathological developments but also to interfere with skin alterations observed during normal aging or premature aging induced by a deleterious environment. Keywords: myofibroblast, fibroblast, α-smooth muscle actin

  6. Retainment of r-process material in dwarf galaxies

    Beniamini, Paz; Dvorkin, Irina; Silk, Joe

    2018-04-01

    The synthesis of r-process elements is known to involve extremely energetic explosions. At the same time, recent observations find significant r-process enrichment even in extremely small ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies. This raises the question of retainment of those elements within their hosts. We estimate the retainment fraction and find that it is large ˜0.9, unless the r-process event is very energetic (≳ 1052erg) and / or the host has lost a large fraction of its gas prior to the event. We estimate the r-process mass per event and rate as implied by abundances in UFDs, taking into account imperfect retainment and different models of UFD evolution. The results are consistent with previous estimates (Beniamini et al. 2016b) and with the constraints from the recently detected macronova accompanying a neutron star merger (GW170817). We also estimate the distribution of abundances predicted by these models. We find that ˜0.07 of UFDs should have r-process enrichment. The results are consistent with both the mean values and the fluctuations of [Eu/Fe] in galactic metal poor stars, supporting the possibility that UFDs are the main 'building blocks' of the galactic halo population.

  7. animal trial on imaging appearances of abdominally retained gauze

    Wang Longxia; An Ningyu; Yin Hui; Wang Xiangdong; Li Jia; Bai Ying

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging appearances of abdominally retained crumpled gauze with US, CT and MRI and the changes with time. Methods: Eight rabbits were operated and crumpled gauze was put into in their abdominal cavity. US , plain and enhanced CT and MRI scan were performed on the day of operation, and 1 to 7 weeks after operation. The imaging appearances were compared with operation findings. Pathologic examination was done simultaneously. Results: Abdominally retained crumpled gauze was instantly adhesive with omentum and neighboring intestines tightly. Fibro-connective tissue membrane was produced at the adhesion site gradually, spreading out to enclose the crumpled gauze. The enclosure was finished completely in 3 to 4 weeks. Thickened membrane also invaded into the spaces within the gauze. The crumpled gauze was eventually infected. These changes could be revealed on US, CT or MRI scans. The US appearance exhibited a hyper echoic arc zone with broad clean acoustic shadow behind. It appeared as a soft tissue mass to CT and MRI scans. In early stage CT scan could easily show the gas within the crumpled gauze. CT and MRI enhanced scans showed only the enhanced membrane and no enhancement of the crumpled gauze. Conclusion: US, CT and MRI have quite characteristic appearances of the abdominally retained crumpled gauze, especially when combined imaging techniques were employed, which can lead to a correct diagnosis together with a history of operation

  8. The fibroblast surface markers FAP, anti-fibroblast, and FSP are expressed by cells of epithelial origin and may be altered during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Kahounová, Zuzana; Kurfürstová, Daniela; Bouchal, Jan; Kharaishvili, Gvantsa; Navrátil, Jiří; Remšík, Ján; Šimečková, Šárka; Študent, Vladimír; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    2017-04-06

    The identification of fibroblasts and cancer-associated fibroblasts from human cancer tissue using surface markers is difficult, especially because the markers used currently are usually not expressed solely by fibroblasts, and the identification of fibroblast-specific surface molecules is still under investigation. It was aimed to compare three commercially available antibodies in the detection of different surface epitopes of fibroblasts (anti-fibroblast, fibroblast activation protein α, and fibroblast surface protein). The specificity of their expression, employing fibroblast cell lines and tumor-derived fibroblasts from breast and prostate tissues was investigated. Both the established fibroblast cell line HFF-1 and ex vivo primary fibroblasts isolated from breast and prostate cancer tissues expressed the tested surface markers to different degrees. Surprisingly, those markers were expressed also by permanent cell lines of epithelial origin, both benign and cancer-derived (breast-cell lines MCF 10A, HMLE and prostate-cell lines BPH-1, DU 145, and PC-3). The expression of fibroblast activation protein α increased on the surface of previously described models of epithelial cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to treatment with TGF-β1. To prove the co-expression of the fibroblast markers on cells of epithelial origin, we used freshly dissociated human prostate and breast cancer tissues. The results confirmed the co-expression of anti-fibroblast and fibroblast surface protein on CD31/CD45-negative/EpCAM-positive epithelial cells. In summary, our data support the findings that the tested fibroblast markers are not fibroblast specific and may be expressed also by cells of epithelial origin (e.g., cells undergoing EMT). Therefore, the expression of these markers should be interpreted with caution, and the combination of several epitopes for both positive (anti-fibroblast or fibroblast activation protein α) and negative (Ep

  9. 18 CFR 367.4360 - Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings.

    2010-04-01

    ..., Appropriations of retained earnings. 367.4360 Section 367.4360 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4360 Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings. This account must include appropriations of retained earnings as follows: (a) Appropriations required...

  10. The intact capture of hypervelocity dust particles using underdense foams

    Maag, Carl R.; Borg, J.; Tanner, William G.; Stevenson, T. J.; Bibring, J.-P.

    1994-01-01

    probability of survival for the impacting particle. The primary objectives of the experiment are to (1) Examine the morphology of primary and secondary hypervelocity impact craters. Primary attention will be paid to craters caused by ejecta during hypervelocity impacts of different substrates. (2) Determine the size distribution of ejecta by means of witness plates and collect fragments of ejecta from craters by means of momentum-sensitive mcropore foam. (3) Assess the directionality of the flux by means of penetration-hole alignment of thin films placed above the cells. (4) Capture intact the particles that perforated the thin film and entered the cell. Capture media consisted of both previously flight-tested micropore foams and aerogel. The foams had different latent heats of fusion and, accordingly, will capture particles over a range of momenta. Aerogel was incorporated into the cells to determine the minimum diameter than can be captured intact.

  11. Intensity modulated tangential beam irradiation of the intact breast

    Hong, L.; Hunt, M.; Chui, C.; Forster, K.; Lee, H.; Lutz, W.; Yahalom, J.; Kutcher, G.J.; McCormick, B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of intensity modulated tangential beams in the irradiation of the intact breast. The primary goal was to develop an intensity modulated treatment which would substantially decrease the dose to coronary arteries, lung and contralateral breast while still using a standard tangential beam arrangement. Improved target dose homogeneity, within the limits imposed by opposed fields, was also desired. Since a major goal of the study was the development of a technique which was practical for use on a large population of patients, the design of 'standard' intensity profiles analogous in function to conventional wedges was also investigated. Materials and Methods: Three dimensional treatment planning was performed using both conventional and intensity modulated tangential beams. Plans were developed for both the right and left breast for a range of patient sizes and shapes. For each patient, PTV, lung, heart, origin and peripheral branches of the coronary artery, and contralateral breast were contoured. Optimum tangential beam direction and shape were designed using Beams-Eye-View display and then used for both the conventional and intensity modulated plans. For the conventional plan, the optimum wedge combination and beam weighting were chosen based on the dose distribution in a single transverse plane through the field center. Intensity modulated plans were designed using an algorithm which allows the user to specify the prescribed, maximum and minimum acceptable doses and dose volume constraints for each organ of interest. Plans were compared using multiple dose distributions and DVHs. Results: Significant improvements in the doses to critical structures were achieved using the intensity modulated plan. Coronary artery dose decreased substantially for patients treated to the left breast. Ipsilateral lung and contralateral breast doses decreased for all patients. For one patient treated to

  12. Intact suppression of increased false recognition in schizophrenia.

    Weiss, Anthony P; Dodson, Chad S; Goff, Donald C; Schacter, Daniel L; Heckers, Stephan

    2002-09-01

    Recognition memory is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, as they rely largely on item familiarity, rather than conscious recollection, to make mnemonic decisions. False recognition of novel items (foils) is increased in schizophrenia and may relate to this deficit in conscious recollection. By studying pictures of the target word during encoding, healthy adults can suppress false recognition. This study examined the effect of pictorial encoding on subsequent recognition of repeated foils in patients with schizophrenia. The study included 40 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy comparison subjects. After incidental encoding of 60 words or pictures, subjects were tested for recognition of target items intermixed with 60 new foils. These new foils were subsequently repeated following either a two- or 24-word delay. Subjects were instructed to label these repeated foils as new and not to mistake them for old target words. Schizophrenic patients showed greater overall false recognition of repeated foils. The rate of false recognition of repeated foils was lower after picture encoding than after word encoding. Despite higher levels of false recognition of repeated new items, patients and comparison subjects demonstrated a similar degree of false recognition suppression after picture, as compared to word, encoding. Patients with schizophrenia displayed greater false recognition of repeated foils than comparison subjects, suggesting both a decrement of item- (or source-) specific recollection and a consequent reliance on familiarity in schizophrenia. Despite these deficits, presenting pictorial information at encoding allowed schizophrenic subjects to suppress false recognition to a similar degree as the comparison group, implying the intact use of a high-level cognitive strategy in this population.

  13. Mapping the World's Intact Forest Landscapes by Remote Sensing

    Peter Potapov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection of large natural forest landscapes is a highly important task to help fulfill different international strategic initiatives to protect forest biodiversity, to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and to stimulate sustainable forest management practices. This paper introduces a new approach for mapping large intact forest landscapes (IFL, defined as an unbroken expanse of natural ecosystems within areas of current forest extent, without signs of significant human activity, and having an area of at least 500 km2. We have created a global IFL map using existing fine-scale maps and a global coverage of high spatial resolution satellite imagery. We estimate the global area of IFL within the current extent of forest ecosystems (forest zone to be 13.1 million km2 or 23.5% of the forest zone. The vast majority of IFL are found in two biomes: Dense Tropical and Subtropical Forests (45.3% and Boreal Forests (43.8%. The lowest proportion of IFL is found in Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests. The IFL exist in 66 of the 149 countries that together make up the forest zone. Three of them - Canada, Russia, and Brazil - contain 63.8% of the total IFL area. Of the world's IFL area, 18.9% has some form of protection, but only 9.7% is strictly protected, i.e., belongs to IUCN protected areas categories I-III. The world IFL map presented here is intended to underpin the development of a general strategy for nature conservation at the global and regional scales. It also defines a baseline for monitoring deforestation and forest degradation that is well suited for use with operational and cost-effective satellite data. All project results and IFL maps are available on a dedicated web site (http://www.intactforests.org.

  14. Preferential flow through intact soil cores: Effects of matrix head

    Langner, H.W.; Gaber, H.M.; Wraith, J.M.; Huwe, B.; Inskeep, W.P.

    1999-12-01

    Continuous soil pores may act as pathways for preferential flow depending on their size and water status (filled or drained), the latter being largely controlled by the soil matrix head (h). The literature contains a wide range of proposed minimal pore sizes that may contribute to preferential flow. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between h (and corresponding pore sizes) and preferential solute transport in a naturally structured soil. Tracer ({sup 3}H{sub 2}O and pentafluorobenzoic acid, [PFBA]) miscible displacement experiments were performed at several h values in intact soil cores (15-cm diameter, 30-cm length) using an apparatus especially suited to maintain constant h while collecting large effluent volumes. To test for the occurrence of preferential flow, observed breakthrough curves (BTCs) were evaluated for physical nonequilibrium (PNE) using a comparison between fitted local equilibrium (PNE) and PNE models. Fitting results of the observed BTCs indicated absence of PNE in all solute transport experiments at h {le} {minus}10 cm. Experiments at h {ge} {minus}5 cm consistently exhibited PNE conditions, indicating the presence of preferential flow. These results suggest that soil pores with effective radii of 150 {micro}m and smaller (water-filled at h = {minus}10 cm) do not contribute to preferential flow. Observed pore water velocities were not indicative of the presence or absence of preferential flow conditions. Continuous measurements of soil water content ({theta}) using time domain reflectometry (TDR) revealed that at h = {minus}10 cm, <2% of the soil volume had drained.

  15. Increased fibroblast functionality on CNN2-loaded titania nanotubes

    Wei HB

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hongbo Wei*, Shuyi Wu*, Zhihong Feng, Wei Zhou, Yan Dong, Guofeng Wu, Shizhu Bai, Yimin Zhao Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Infection and epithelial downgrowth are major problems associated with maxillofacial percutaneous implants. These complications are mainly due to the improper closure of the implant–skin interface. Therefore, designing a percutaneous implant that better promotes the formation of a stable soft tissue biologic seal around percutaneous sites is highly desirable. Additionally, the fibroblast has been proven to play an important role in the formation of biologic seals. In this study, titania nanotubes were filled with 11.2 kDa C-terminal CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor fragment, which could exert full CCN2 activity to increase the biological functionality of fibroblasts. This drug delivery system was fabricated on a titanium implant surface. CCN2 was loaded into anodized titania nanotubes using a simplified lyophilization method and the loading efficiency was approximately 80%. Then, the release kinetics of CCN2 from these nanotubes was investigated. Furthermore, the influence of CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes on fibroblast functionality was examined. The results revealed increased fibroblast adhesion at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours, increased fibroblast viability over the course of 5 days, as well as enhanced actin cytoskeleton organization on CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes surfaces compared to uncoated, unmodified counterparts. Therefore, the results from this in vitro study demonstrate that CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes have the ability to increase fibroblast functionality and should be further studied as a method of promoting the formation of a stable soft tissue biologic seal around percutaneous sites.Keywords: anodization, titania nanotubes, adhesion, connective

  16. Central Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Browns White Fat via Sympathetic Action in Male Mice.

    Douris, Nicholas; Stevanovic, Darko M; Fisher, Ffolliott M; Cisu, Theodore I; Chee, Melissa J; Nguyen, Ngoc L; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Flier, Jeffrey S; Bartness, Timothy J; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has multiple metabolic actions, including the induction of browning in white adipose tissue. Although FGF21 stimulated browning results from a direct interaction between FGF21 and the adipocyte, browning is typically associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system through cold exposure. We tested the hypothesis that FGF21 can act via the brain, to increase sympathetic activity and induce browning, independent of cell-autonomous actions. We administered FGF21 into the central nervous system via lateral ventricle infusion into male mice and found that the central treatment increased norepinephrine turnover in target tissues that include the inguinal white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. Central FGF21 stimulated browning as assessed by histology, expression of uncoupling protein 1, and the induction of gene expression associated with browning. These effects were markedly attenuated when mice were treated with a β-blocker. Additionally, neither centrally nor peripherally administered FGF21 initiated browning in mice lacking β-adrenoceptors, demonstrating that an intact adrenergic system is necessary for FGF21 action. These data indicate that FGF21 can signal in the brain to activate the sympathetic nervous system and induce adipose tissue thermogenesis.

  17. Comparing the mechanical influence of vinculin, focal adhesion kinase and p53 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    Klemm, Anna H.; Diez, Gerold; Alonso, Jose-Luis; Goldmann, Wolfgang H.

    2009-01-01

    Cytoskeletal reorganization is an ongoing process when cells adhere, move or invade extracellular substrates. The cellular force generation and transmission are determined by the intactness of the actomyosin-(focal adhesion complex)-integrin connection. We investigated the intracellular course of action in mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in the focal adhesion proteins vinculin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the nuclear matrix protein p53 using magnetic tweezer and nanoparticle tracking techniques. Results show that the lack of these proteins decrease cellular stiffness and affect cell rheological behavior. The decrease in cellular binding strength was higher in FAK- to vinculin-deficient cells, whilst p53-deficient cells showed no effect compared to wildtype cells. The intracellular cytoskeletal activity was lowest in wildtype cells, but increased in the following order when cells lacked FAK+p53 > p53 > vinculin. In summary, cell mechanical processes are differently affected by the focal adhesion proteins vinculin and FAK than by the nuclear matrix protein, p53.

  18. Differences in School Behavior and Achievement between Children from Intact, Reconstituted, and Single-Parent Families.

    Featherstone, Darin R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed differences in school behavior and achievement among students (n=530) in grades six through nine from intact, reconstituted, and single-parent families. Students from intact, two-parent families had fewer absences and tardies, higher grade point averages, and fewer negative and more positive teacher behavioral ratings than did those from…

  19. Visual Speech Fills in Both Discrimination and Identification of Non-Intact Auditory Speech in Children

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; McAlpine, Rachel P.; Abdi, Herve

    2018-01-01

    To communicate, children must discriminate and identify speech sounds. Because visual speech plays an important role in this process, we explored how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification by children. Critical items had intact visual speech (e.g. baez) coupled to non-intact (excised onsets) auditory speech (signified…

  20. Dysregulated proinflammatory and fibrogenic phenotype of fibroblasts in cystic fibrosis.

    François Huaux

    Full Text Available Morbi-mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF is mainly related to chronic lung infection and inflammation, uncontrolled tissue rearrangements and fibrosis, and yet the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We evaluated inflammatory and fibrosis responses to bleomycin in F508del homozygous and wild-type mice, and phenotype of fibroblasts explanted from mouse lungs and skin. The effect of vardenafil, a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, was tested in vivo and in culture. Responses of proinflammatory and fibrotic markers to bleomycin were enhanced in lungs and skin of CF mice and were prevented by treatment with vardenafil. Purified lung and skin fibroblasts from CF mice proliferated and differentiated into myofibroblasts more prominently and displayed higher sensitivity to growth factors than those recovered from wild-type littermates. Under inflammatory stimulation, mRNA and protein expression of proinflammatory mediators were higher in CF than in wild-type fibroblasts, in which CFTR expression reached similar levels to those observed in other non-epithelial cells, such as macrophages. Increased proinflammatory responses in CF fibroblasts were reduced by half with submicromolar concentrations of vardenafil. Proinflammatory and fibrogenic functions of fibroblasts are upregulated in CF and are reduced by vardenafil. This study provides compelling new support for targeting cGMP signaling pathway in CF pharmacotherapy.

  1. Cultured Human Fibroblast Biostimulation Using a 940 nm Diode Laser

    Illescas-Montes, Rebeca; Melguizo-Rodríguez, Lucía; Manzano-Moreno, Francisco Javier; García-Martínez, Olga; Ruiz, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fibroblasts are the main cells involved in regeneration during wound healing. The objective was to determine the effect of 940 nm diode laser on cultured human fibroblasts using different irradiation regimens. Methods: The CCD-1064Sk human epithelial fibroblast cell line was treated with a 940 nm diode laser at different energy doses (power: 0.2–1 W and energy density: 1–7 J/cm2) using different transmission modes (continuous or pulsed). The effect on cell growth at 24 and 72 h post-treatment was examined by measuring the proliferative capacity, the impact on the cell cycle, and the effect on cell differentiation. Results: fibroblast proliferative capacity was increased at 24 and 72 h post-treatment as a function of the energy dose. The greatest increase was observed with a power of 0.2 or 0.5 W and energy density between 1 and 4 J/cm2; no difference was observed between continuous and pulsed modes. There were no significant differences in cell cycle between treated groups and controls. α-actin expression was increased by treatment, indicating enhanced cell differentiation. Conclusion: The 940 nm diode laser has biostimulating effects on fibroblasts, stimulating proliferative capacity and cell differentiation without altering the cell cycle. Further researches are necessary to explore its potential clinical usefulness in wound healing. PMID:28773152

  2. Cell proliferation in vitro modulates fibroblast collagenase activity

    Lindblad, W.J.; Flood, L.

    1986-01-01

    Collagenase enzyme activity is regulated by numerous control mechanisms which prevent excessive release and activation of this protease. A primary mechanism for regulating enzyme extracellular activity may be linked to cell division, therefore they have examined the release of collagenase by fibroblasts in vitro in response to cellular proliferation. Studies were performed using fibroblasts derived from adult rat dermis maintained in DMEM containing 10% newborn calf serum, 25 mM tricine buffer, and antibiotics. Cells between subculture 10 and 19 were used with enzyme activity determined with a 14 C-labelled soluble Type I collagen substrate with and without trypsin activation. Fibroblasts, trypsinized and plated at low density secreted 8.5 fold more enzyme than those cells at confluence (975 vs. 115 dpm/μg DNA). This diminution occurred gradually as the cells went from logrithmic growth towards confluence. Confluent fibroblast monolayers were scraped in a grid arrangement, stimulating the remaining cells to divide, without exposure to trypsin. Within 24-48 hr postscraping enzyme levels had increased 260-400%, accompanied by enhanced incorporation of 3 H-thymidine and 3 H-uridine into cell macromolecules. The burst of enzyme release began to subside 12 hr later. These results support a close relationship between fibroblast proliferation and collagenase secretion

  3. Cultured Human Fibroblast Biostimulation Using a 940 nm Diode Laser

    Rebeca Illescas-Montes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibroblasts are the main cells involved in regeneration during wound healing. The objective was to determine the effect of 940 nm diode laser on cultured human fibroblasts using different irradiation regimens. Methods: The CCD-1064Sk human epithelial fibroblast cell line was treated with a 940 nm diode laser at different energy doses (power: 0.2–1 W and energy density: 1–7 J/cm2 using different transmission modes (continuous or pulsed. The effect on cell growth at 24 and 72 h post-treatment was examined by measuring the proliferative capacity, the impact on the cell cycle, and the effect on cell differentiation. Results: fibroblast proliferative capacity was increased at 24 and 72 h post-treatment as a function of the energy dose. The greatest increase was observed with a power of 0.2 or 0.5 W and energy density between 1 and 4 J/cm2; no difference was observed between continuous and pulsed modes. There were no significant differences in cell cycle between treated groups and controls. α-actin expression was increased by treatment, indicating enhanced cell differentiation. Conclusion: The 940 nm diode laser has biostimulating effects on fibroblasts, stimulating proliferative capacity and cell differentiation without altering the cell cycle. Further researches are necessary to explore its potential clinical usefulness in wound healing.

  4. Liver polyribosome distribution in intact and adrenalectomized rats exposed to. gamma. radiation

    Yatvin, M B; Abdel-Halim, M N [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Human Oncology)

    1978-06-01

    The mechanism(s) by which gamma radiation influences liver polyribosome distribution was studied in groups of intact and adrenalectomized male rats. A shift from light to heavy aggregates occurred in the polyribosomes of both intact and adrenalectomized rats after they were exposed to gamma rays. In irradiated adrenalectomized rats, however, the shift to heavier aggregates was not as great as that which occurred in irradiated adrenal-intact animals. Subcutaneous injection of cortisone acetate (10 mg/100 g body weight) also altered the liver polyribosome patterns of both intact and adrenalectomized rats within 8 hours of its administration. The shift which occurred following cortisone administration, however, was less striking than that seen after irradiation only. Thus, although adrenal glucocorticoids contribute to the radiation-indu ied shift in liver polyribosomes in adrenal-intact rats, other factors appear to be involved, since the shift is also obtained in adrenalectomized animals.

  5. Intensity-modulated tangential beam irradiation of the intact breast

    Hong, L.; Hunt, M.; Chui, C.; Spirou, S.; Forster, K.; Lee, H.; Yahalom, J.; Kutcher, G.J.; McCormick, B.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential benefits of intensity modulated tangential beams in the irradiation of the intact breast. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional treatment planning was performed on five left and five right breasts using standard wedged and intensity modulated (IM) tangential beams. Optimal beam parameters were chosen using beams-eye-view display. For the standard plans, the optimal wedge angles were chosen based on dose distributions in the central plane calculated without inhomogeneity corrections, according to our standard protocol. Intensity-modulated plans were generated using an inverse planning algorithm and a standard set of target and critical structure optimization criteria. Plans were compared using multiple dose distributions and dose volume histograms for the planning target volume (PTV), ipsilateral lung, coronary arteries, and contralateral breast. Results: Significant improvements in the doses to critical structures were achieved using intensity modulation. Compared with a standard-wedged plan prescribed to 46 Gy, the dose from the IM plan encompassing 20% of the coronary artery region decreased by 25% (from 36 to 27 Gy) for patients treated to the left breast; the mean dose to the contralateral breast decreased by 42% (from 1.2 to 0.7 Gy); the ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 46 Gy decreased by 30% (from 10% to 7%); the volume of surrounding soft tissue receiving more than 46 Gy decreased by 31% (from 48% to 33%). Dose homogeneity within the target volume improved greatest in the superior and inferior regions of the breast (approximately 8%), although some decrease in the medial and lateral high-dose regions (approximately 4%) was also observed. Conclusion: Intensity modulation with a standard tangential beam arrangement significantly reduces the dose to the coronary arteries, ipsilateral lung, contralateral breast, and surrounding soft tissues. Improvements in dose homogeneity throughout the target volume can also be

  6. Chemical Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Functional Schwann Cells

    Eva C. Thoma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct transdifferentiation of somatic cells is a promising approach to obtain patient-specific cells for numerous applications. However, conversion across germ-layer borders often requires ectopic gene expression with unpredictable side effects. Here, we present a gene-free approach that allows efficient conversion of human fibroblasts via a transient progenitor stage into Schwann cells, the major glial cell type of peripheral nerves. Using a multikinase inhibitor, we transdifferentiated fibroblasts into transient neural precursors that were subsequently further differentiated into Schwann cells. The resulting induced Schwann cells (iSCs expressed numerous Schwann cell-specific proteins and displayed neurosupportive and myelination capacity in vitro. Thus, we established a strategy to obtain mature Schwann cells from human postnatal fibroblasts under chemically defined conditions without the introduction of ectopic genes.

  7. Biosynthesis of collagen by fibroblasts kept in culture

    Machado-Santelli, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    The sinthesis of collagen is studied in fibroblasts of different origins with the purpose of obtaining an appropriate system for the study of its biosynthesis and processing. The percentage of collagen synthesis vary according to the fibroblast origin. Experiences are performed with fibroblasts kept in culture from: chicken - and guinea pig embryos, carragheenin - induced granulomas in adult guinea pig and from human skin. The collagen pattern synthesized after acetic acid - or saline extractions in the presence of inhibitors is also determined. This pattern is then assayed by poliacrilamide - 5% - SDS gel electrophoresis accompanied by fluorography. The importance of the cell culture system in the elucidation of collagen biosynthesis is pointed out. (M.A.) [pt

  8. Crystallography of lath martensite and stabilization of retained austenite

    Sarikaya. M.

    1982-10-01

    TEM was used to study the morphology and crystallography of lath martensite in low and medium carbon steels in the as-quenched and 200/sup 0/C tempered conditions. The steels have microduplex structures of dislocated lath martensite and continuous thin films of retained austenite at the lath interfaces. Stacks of laths form the packets which are derived from different (111) variants of the same austenite grain. The residual parent austenite enables microdiffraction experiments with small electron beam spot sizes for the orientation relationships (OR) between austenite and martensite. All three most commonly observed ORs, namely Kurdjumov-Sachs, Nishiyama-Wassermann, and Greninger-Troiano, operate within the same sample.

  9. Crystallography of lath martensite and stabilization of retained austenite

    Sarikaya, M.

    1982-10-01

    TEM was used to study the morphology and crystallography of lath martensite in low and medium carbon steels in the as-quenched and 200 0 C tempered conditions. The steels have microduplex structures of dislocated lath martensite and continuous thin films of retained austenite at the lath interfaces. Stacks of laths form the packets which are derived from different [111] variants of the same austenite grain. The residual parent austenite enables microdiffraction experiments with small electron beam spot sizes for the orientation relationships (OR) between austenite and martensite. All three most commonly observed ORs, namely Kurdjumov-Sachs, Nishiyama-Wassermann, and Greninger-Troiano, operate within the same sample

  10. Spherical powder for retaining thermosetting acrylic resin veneers.

    Tanaka, T; Atsuta, M; Uchiyama, Y; Nakabayashi, N; Masuhara, E

    1978-03-01

    1. Nine different sizes of spherical powder were prepared, and their effectiveness as retentive devices was evaluated against those available commercially. 2. Smaller-diameter spherical powder (No. 5) gave the best results of all retaining devices tested. 3. The physical properties of the resins play an important role in the retentive strength with No. 5 retention beads. The retentive strength was reduced when brittle resin was used. 4. The retentive strength of the resin veneer was greatly affected by the angle of stress at the incisal resin. The retentive strength increased as the angle between the longitudinal axis of the specimen and the direction of stress decreased.

  11. Total rewards that retain: A study of demographic preferences

    Monica Pregnolato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Changing workplace demographics and a dearth of employees with scarce skills have forced employers to better understand the various factors that retain talented employees. Research purpose: In this empirical study, the reward preferences and ideal combination of total reward elements (based on an estimation of their relative importance that retain employees from various demographic groups, including employees of different race, gender and age groups, were investigated. Motivation for study: Organisations are competing for talented employees and to benefit from the value these individuals add, it is required of them to stay at the respective businesses. Previous studies have indicated that employees who are offered a reward package that is aligned to their personal preferences are prone to stay longer at the organisation and to be more engaged at work. However, new and novel ways need to be found to identify the reward preferences of employees. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach and descriptive research design was employed to estimate the individual reward preferences and identify an ideal mix of total reward elements that retain different cohorts of employees. Three questionnaires were distributed, including a Remuneration Managers Questionnaire (n = 7, a Remuneration Preference Questionnaire (n = 368 and a Choice-based Conjoint Task Questionnaire (n = 368. The latter two questionnaires were distributed as an online questionnaire to South African businesses and consisted of eight choice-based conjoint tasks, as well as a field survey. Main findings: The results of the choice-based conjoint analysis revealed that all respondents considered financial rewards (Benefits, Performance and Recognition, Remuneration, Career, in that order as relatively speaking, the most important components in their total rewards package that would lead to their retention. For most demographic groups, the remaining three places

  12. Connective tissue fibroblasts and Tcf4 regulate myogenesis

    Mathew, Sam J.; Hansen, Jody M.; Merrell, Allyson J.; Murphy, Malea M.; Lawson, Jennifer A.; Hutcheson, David A.; Hansen, Mark S.; Angus-Hill, Melinda; Kardon, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    Muscle and its connective tissue are intimately linked in the embryo and in the adult, suggesting that interactions between these tissues are crucial for their development. However, the study of muscle connective tissue has been hindered by the lack of molecular markers and genetic reagents to label connective tissue fibroblasts. Here, we show that the transcription factor Tcf4 (transcription factor 7-like 2; Tcf7l2) is strongly expressed in connective tissue fibroblasts and that Tcf4GFPCre mice allow genetic manipulation of these fibroblasts. Using this new reagent, we find that connective tissue fibroblasts critically regulate two aspects of myogenesis: muscle fiber type development and maturation. Fibroblasts promote (via Tcf4-dependent signals) slow myogenesis by stimulating the expression of slow myosin heavy chain. Also, fibroblasts promote the switch from fetal to adult muscle by repressing (via Tcf4-dependent signals) the expression of developmental embryonic myosin and promoting (via a Tcf4-independent mechanism) the formation of large multinucleate myofibers. In addition, our analysis of Tcf4 function unexpectedly reveals a novel mechanism of intrinsic regulation of muscle fiber type development. Unlike other intrinsic regulators of fiber type, low levels of Tcf4 in myogenic cells promote both slow and fast myogenesis, thereby promoting overall maturation of muscle fiber type. Thus, we have identified novel extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms regulating myogenesis. Most significantly, our data demonstrate for the first time that connective tissue is important not only for adult muscle structure and function, but is a vital component of the niche within which muscle progenitors reside and is a critical regulator of myogenesis. PMID:21177349

  13. Agminated Fibroblastic Conective Tissue Nevus: A New Clinical Presentation.

    Downey, Camila; Requena, Luis; Bagué, Silvia; Sánchez Martínez, Miquel Ángel; Lloreta, Josep; Baselga, Eulalia

    2016-07-01

    Connective tissue nevi are benign hamartomatous lesions in which one or several of the components of the dermis (collagen, elastin, glicosaminoglycans) show predominance or depletion. Recently, de Feraudy et al broadened the spectrum of connective tissue nevus, describing fibroblastic connective tissue nevus (FCTN), which is characterized by proliferation of CD34(+) cells of fibroblastic and myofibroblastic lineage. Only solitary papules and nodules have been described. We present the first case of FCTN with multiple agminated lesions on the leg of an infant and the difficulties encountered in the differential diagnosis with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Chloride transport in human fibroblasts is activated by hypotonic shock

    Rugolo, M.; Mastocola, T.; Flamigni, A.; Lenaz, G. (Universita' di Bologna (Italy))

    1989-05-15

    Incubation of human skin fibroblasts in hypotonic media induced the activation of {sup 36}Cl- efflux which was roughly proportional to the decrease in the osmolality of the media. The efflux of {sup 36}Cl- was insensitive to DIDS plus furosemide and inhibited by addition of a Cl- channel blocker such as 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). We propose that a conductive pathway for Cl- transport, almost silent in isotonic conditions, is activated by exposing human fibroblasts to hypotonic shock, this conclusion being supported by evidence that also {sup 36}Cl- influx was enhanced by hypotonic medium.

  15. Retained austenite thermal stability in a nanostructured bainitic steel

    Avishan, Behzad; Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Yazdani, Sasan; Caballero, Francisca G.

    2013-01-01

    The unique microstructure of nanostructured bainite consists of very slender bainitic ferrite plates and high carbon retained austenite films. As a consequence, the reported properties are opening a wide range of different commercial uses. However, bainitic transformation follows the T 0 criteria, i.e. the incomplete reaction phenomena, which means that the microstructure is not thermodynamically stable because the bainitic transformation stops well before austenite reaches an equilibrium carbon level. This article aims to study the different microstructural changes taking place when nanostructured bainite is destabilized by austempering for times well in excess of that strictly necessary to end the transformation. Results indicate that while bainitic ferrite seems unaware of the extended heat treatment, retained austenite exhibits a more receptive behavior to it. - Highlights: • Nanostructured bainitic steel is not thermodynamically stable. • Extensive austempering in these microstructures has not been reported before. • Precipitation of cementite particles is unavoidable at longer austempering times. • TEM, FEG-SEM and XRD analysis were used for microstructural characterization

  16. Retained austenite thermal stability in a nanostructured bainitic steel

    Avishan, Behzad, E-mail: b_avishan@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Garcia-Mateo, Carlos, E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), MATERALIA Research Group, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Yazdani, Sasan, E-mail: yazdani@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Caballero, Francisca G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), MATERALIA Research Group, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    The unique microstructure of nanostructured bainite consists of very slender bainitic ferrite plates and high carbon retained austenite films. As a consequence, the reported properties are opening a wide range of different commercial uses. However, bainitic transformation follows the T{sub 0} criteria, i.e. the incomplete reaction phenomena, which means that the microstructure is not thermodynamically stable because the bainitic transformation stops well before austenite reaches an equilibrium carbon level. This article aims to study the different microstructural changes taking place when nanostructured bainite is destabilized by austempering for times well in excess of that strictly necessary to end the transformation. Results indicate that while bainitic ferrite seems unaware of the extended heat treatment, retained austenite exhibits a more receptive behavior to it. - Highlights: • Nanostructured bainitic steel is not thermodynamically stable. • Extensive austempering in these microstructures has not been reported before. • Precipitation of cementite particles is unavoidable at longer austempering times. • TEM, FEG-SEM and XRD analysis were used for microstructural characterization.

  17. A new skeletal retention system for retaining anterior open bites

    Bodore Albaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Relapse of anterior open bite after treatment poses a challenge to orthodontists and warrants finding new methods. We aimed to compare the effect of a skeletal retention (SR system to the conventional retention (CR commonly used. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients participated in this study. SR group ten patients (five females and five males with mean age of 16.2 years, CR group ten patients (five females and five males with mean age of 17.1 years in pretreatment stage. The SR system is comprised of four self-drilling miniscrews and vacuum retainers with interarch elastics where the CR group is comprised of removable or fixed retainers. Pretreatment (T1, posttreatment (T2, and 1-year follow up (T3 lateral cephalograms were taken and analyzed to compare the stability of both retention modalities. Results: The overbite in the CR group showed more relapse in the form of significant reduction when compared to the SR group (P < 0.001. The overbite was reduced only by 0.1 mm (±0.3 in the SR group compared to 1.4 mm (±0.9 in the CR group. In the CR group, the upper incisors and first molar showed a more significant relapse compared to the SR group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Skeletal retention using miniscrews and vertical elastic is an effective method for retention of anterior open bite cases.

  18. Arctic water tracks retain phosphorus and transport ammonium

    Harms, T.; Cook, C. L.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Godsey, S.; Gooseff, M. N.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic flowpaths propagate biogeochemical signals among adjacent ecosystems, but reactions may attenuate signals by retaining, removing, or transforming dissolved and suspended materials. The theory of nutrient spiraling describes these simultaneous reaction and transport processes, but its application has been limited to stream channels. We applied nutrient spiraling theory to water tracks, zero-order channels draining Arctic hillslopes that contain perennially saturated soils and flow at the surface either perennially or in response to precipitation. In the Arctic, experimental warming results in increased availability of nitrogen, the limiting nutrient for hillslope vegetation at the study site, which may be delivered to aquatic ecosystems by water tracks. Increased intensity of rain events, deeper snowpack, earlier snowmelt, and increasing thaw depth resulting from climate change might support increased transport of nutrients, but the reactive capacity of hillslope flowpaths, including sorption and uptake by plants and microbes, could counter transport to regulate solute flux. Characteristics of flowpaths might influence the opportunity for reaction, where slower flowpaths increase the contact time between solutes and soils or roots. We measured nitrogen and phosphorus uptake and transient storage of water tracks through the growing season and found that water tracks retain inorganic phosphorus, but transport ammonium. Nutrient uptake was unrelated to transient storage, suggesting high capacity for nutrient retention by shallow organic soils and vegetation. These observations indicate that increased availability of ammonium, the biogeochemical signal of warming tundra, is propagated by hillslope flowpaths, whereas water tracks attenuate delivery of phosphorus to aquatic ecosystems, where its availability typically limits production.

  19. Salary is not enough to attract and retain the best

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations face the challenge of attracting and retaining talented staff. In some instances, a reference to the existence of a war for talent is made. It is that way that the retention of workers has stopped being managed, exclusively, with the offer of good salaries. This paper explores, in a first instance, the theoretical framework that describes the principal tools of talent retention that companies develop, and that are considered as part of the total remuneration that workers receive: economic compensations, recognition, career plans and staff development, feedback, personal and professional life balance, social network and team making, proper relationship with superiors and organizational climate life. Later, the results that were obtained from interviews with ten of the best companies to work for in Peru, according to the Great Place to Work Institute ranking in 2007, on retaining talent tools that they implement are shown. Finally, conclusions on the case studies are presented.

  20. MULTIPLE RETAINED TEETH IN MANDIBLE: A Case Report

    Cvetan Cvetanov

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this science report is to show a rare case of multiple impacted teeth at adult patient and our propose clinical approach.Materials and methods: The clinical case is showed from adult man /64-year old/ with multiple impacted teeth (6 impacted teeth in the anterior place on the mandible were not suggestive of any syndrome or metabolic disorder. The extraction of the impacted teeth was made on two stage with piezosurgery unit under local anaesthesia. For prevention of postsurgical complications, as a swelling and prevention of postsurgical resorbtion were used coneshapes from pressure xeno colagen. To base on clinical and radiological examination we will discuss the differential diagnosis and we will offer a clinical approach about decided the case.Result and Conclusion: The incidence of multiple retained teeth by literature research range from 10.9% to 40.4%, most frequently is the retention of the third molars. In the literature most rarely have clinical reports about multiple retained teeth which differ from third molars at adult patients. The rare clinical case we showed is very demonstrative and the medicative approach which we used gave excellent result.

  1. USING BRANDING TO ATTRACT, RECRUIT, AND RETAIN TALENTED STAFF

    Nicoleta Valentina FLOREA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this environment in continuous changing it is hard for organizations toattract and maintain the best candidates. The organizations use manymethods to recruit and hire, but now it is time to use the organization’s brandto attract talents the organization would like. This article will define theemployer brand as the organization’s image, as an exceptional place to workin the minds of the current employees as well as potential candidates, clients,customers, and stakeholders. The case study is made in six largeorganizations from Dambovita County, Romania, and describes how to usethe organization’s brand to attract, retain, and engage the people it needs. Imade a survey and the data collected I putted them in a model of analyzeand can be applied to any organization which wants to find out if it is usingcorrectly its strong powers to attract and retain the best candidates. Theemployer brand is the value proposition that organization conveys itsemployees and the external labor market. Great organizations create such astrong brand that it draws the talent to them rather than having to spendsignificant time and money on selling the organization to the talent market.Many benefits in the recruiting world are provided by a strong employmentbrand.

  2. Viability test of fish scale collagen (Oshpronemus gouramy on baby hamster kidney fibroblasts-21 fibroblast cell culture

    Chiquita Prahasanti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to examine the toxicity of collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales (Oshpronemus gouramy by evaluating its viability against baby hamster kidney fibroblasts-21. Materials and Methods: Collagen was extracted from gouramy fish scales (O. gouramy with 6% acetic acid. Its results were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and freeze-dried technique. Its morphology then was analyzed with scanning electron microscope. Afterward, 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was conducted to compare cells with and without fish scale collagen treatment. Results: Collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales had no influence statistically on cultured fibroblast cells with a statistical significance (2-tailed value of 0.754 (p>00025. Conclusion: Collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales has high viability against BHK21 fibroblast cells.

  3. Acquisition and Retaining Granular Samples via a Rotating Coring Bit

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This device takes advantage of the centrifugal forces that are generated when a coring bit is rotated, and a granular sample is entered into the bit while it is spinning, making it adhere to the internal wall of the bit, where it compacts itself into the wall of the bit. The bit can be specially designed to increase the effectiveness of regolith capturing while turning and penetrating the subsurface. The bit teeth can be oriented such that they direct the regolith toward the bit axis during the rotation of the bit. The bit can be designed with an internal flute that directs the regolith upward inside the bit. The use of both the teeth and flute can be implemented in the same bit. The bit can also be designed with an internal spiral into which the various particles wedge. In another implementation, the bit can be designed to collect regolith primarily from a specific depth. For that implementation, the bit can be designed such that when turning one way, the teeth guide the regolith outward of the bit and when turning in the opposite direction, the teeth will guide the regolith inward into the bit internal section. This mechanism can be implemented with or without an internal flute. The device is based on the use of a spinning coring bit (hollow interior) as a means of retaining granular sample, and the acquisition is done by inserting the bit into the subsurface of a regolith, soil, or powder. To demonstrate the concept, a commercial drill and a coring bit were used. The bit was turned and inserted into the soil that was contained in a bucket. While spinning the bit (at speeds of 600 to 700 RPM), the drill was lifted and the soil was retained inside the bit. To prove this point, the drill was turned horizontally, and the acquired soil was still inside the bit. The basic theory behind the process of retaining unconsolidated mass that can be acquired by the centrifugal forces of the bit is determined by noting that in order to stay inside the interior of the bit, the

  4. Different proliferative capacity of lung fibroblasts obtained from control subjects and patients with emphysema

    Noordhoek, JA; Postma, DS; Chong, LL; Vos, JTWM; Kauffman, HF; Timens, W; van Straaten, JFM

    2003-01-01

    To characterize the possible role of a dysregulated proliferative capacity of pulmonary fibroblasts in insufficient tissue repair in lungs from patients with pulmonary emphysema, the authors undertook in vitro proliferative studies with pulmonary fibroblasts obtained from lung tissue of patients

  5. Gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts differ in their inflammatory response to viable Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Scheres, N; Laine, M L; de Vries, T J; Everts, V; van Winkelhoff, A J

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen strongly associated with destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues in human periodontitis. Gingival fibroblasts (GF) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) are functionally different cell types in the periodontium that can

  6. Keratinocyte growth factor mRNA expression in periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Dabelsteen, S; Wandall, H H; Grøn, B

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a fibroblast growth factor which mediates epithelial growth and differentiation. KGF is expressed in subepithelial fibroblasts, but generally not in fibroblasts of deep connective tissue, such as fascia and ligaments. Here we demonstrate that KGF mRNA is expres......Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a fibroblast growth factor which mediates epithelial growth and differentiation. KGF is expressed in subepithelial fibroblasts, but generally not in fibroblasts of deep connective tissue, such as fascia and ligaments. Here we demonstrate that KGF m......RNA is expressed in periodontal ligament fibroblasts, and that the expression is increased upon serum stimulation. Fibroblasts from human periodontal ligament, from buccal mucosa, from gingiva, and from skin were established from explants. Alkaline phosphatase activity was used as an indicator of the periodontal...

  7. DNA synthesis in periportal and perivenous hepatocytes of intact and hepatectomized young mice.

    Fernández-Blanco, A; Inda, A M; Errecalde, A L

    2015-01-01

    DNA synthesis of hepatocytes in two areas of Intact and Hepatectomized young mice liver along a circadian period was studied. DNA synthesis was significantly different at all analyzed time points in Intact and Hepatectomized animals. Differences between periportal and perivenous hepatocytes were found in hepatectomized animals at 04/42 and 08/46 hr of day/hour post-hepatectomy. DNAs peak in periportal hepatocytes regenerating liver occurs 4 hr earlier than in perivenous hepatocytes, probably reflecting their shorter G1 phase. Besides, daily mean values of regenerating livers were higher than those observed in Intact animals, as a consequence of surgical removal.

  8. Posterior tibial slope impacts intraoperatively measured mid-flexion anteroposterior kinematics during cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty.

    Dai, Yifei; Cross, Michael B; Angibaud, Laurent D; Hamad, Cyril; Jung, Amaury; Jenny, Jean-Yves

    2018-02-23

    Posterior tibial slope (PTS) for cruciate-retaining (CR) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is usually pre-determined by the surgeon. Limited information is available comparing different choices of PTS on the kinematics of the CR TKA, independent of the balancing of the extension gap. This study hypothesized that with the same balanced extension gap, the choice of PTS significantly impacts the intraoperatively measured kinematics of CR TKA. Navigated CR TKAs were performed on seven fresh-frozen cadavers with healthy knees and intact posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). A custom designed tibial baseplate was implanted to allow in situ modification of the PTS, which altered the flexion gap but maintained the extension gap. Knee kinematics were measured by performing passive range of motion (ROM) tests from full extension to 120° of flexion on the intact knee and CR TKAs with four different PTSs (1°, 4°, 7°, and 10°). The measured kinematics were compared across test conditions to assess the impact of PTS. With a consistent extension gap, the change of PTS had significant impact on the anteroposterior (AP) kinematics of the CR TKA knees in mid-flexion range (45°-90°), but not so much for the high-flexion range (90°-120°). No considerable impacts were found on internal/external (I/E) rotation and hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle. However, the findings on the individual basis suggested the impact of PTS on I/E rotation and HKA angle may be patient-specific. The data suggested that the choice of PTS had the greatest impact on the mid-flexion AP translation among the intraoperatively measured kinematics. This impact may be considered while making surgical decisions in the context of AP kinematics. When using a tibial component designed with "center" pivoting PTS, a surgeon may be able to fine tune the PTS to achieve proper mid-flexion AP stability.

  9. Demonstration of functional low-density lipoprotein receptors by protein blotting in fibroblasts from a subject with homozygous receptor-negative familial hypercholesterolemia

    Semenkovich, C.F.; Ostlund, R.E. Jr.; Yang, J.; Reaban, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    We report the detection of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors by the technique of receptor blotting in fibroblasts from a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC) previously classified as ''receptor negative.'' Solubilized receptors were electrophoresed, transferred to nitrocellulose paper, treated with LDL followed by radiolabeled antibody to LDL, and visualized by autoradiography. GM 2000 FHC fibroblasts revealed LDL receptors with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 140,000, the same as in normal cells. LDL receptor activity by blotting in GM 2000 cells was greatly diminished in comparison with normal cells, but was calcium dependent. Receptor activity was also detectable by conventional monolayer binding and degradation assays. Thus, GM 2000 cells have profoundly diminished LDL receptor activity, but retain the genetic capacity to make LDL receptor material of normal molecular weight that is capable of binding LDL. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of trace amounts of immunoreactive LDL receptor protein in fibroblasts from some receptor-negative FHC homozygotes. These studies are extended by demonstrating the ability of this material to bind LDL

  10. Direct Reprogramming of Fibroblasts via a Chemically Induced XEN-like State.

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Defang; Ma, Yantao; Du, Xiaomin; Jing, Junzhan; Wang, Lipeng; Xie, Bingqing; Sun, Da; Sun, Shaoqiang; Jin, Xueqin; Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Ting; Guan, Jingyang; Yi, Zexuan; Lai, Weifeng; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhuo; Chang, Yanzhong; Chai, Zhen; Xu, Jun; Deng, Hongkui

    2017-08-03

    Direct lineage reprogramming, including with small molecules, has emerged as a promising approach for generating desired cell types. We recently found that during chemical induction of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse fibroblasts, cells pass through an extra-embryonic endoderm (XEN)-like state. Here, we show that these chemically induced XEN-like cells can also be induced to directly reprogram into functional neurons, bypassing the pluripotent state. The induced neurons possess neuron-specific expression profiles, form functional synapses in culture, and further mature after transplantation into the adult mouse brain. Using similar principles, we were also able to induce hepatocyte-like cells from the XEN-like cells. Cells in the induced XEN-like state were readily expandable over at least 20 passages and retained genome stability and lineage specification potential. Our study therefore establishes a multifunctional route for chemical lineage reprogramming and may provide a platform for generating a diverse range of cell types via application of this expandable XEN-like state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interleukin-8 induces motile behavior and loss of focal adhesions in primary fibroblasts

    Dunlevy, J R; Couchman, J R

    1995-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a proinflammatory cytokine that promotes neutrophil migration. Although fibroblasts are known to secrete IL-8, the actions of this cytokine on fibroblasts have not been previously reported. We have found that in subconfluent populations of cultured primary fibroblasts, IL-8...

  12. Constitutive Reprogramming of Fibroblast Mitochondrial Metabolism in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie; Tauber, Jan; Li, M.; Zhang, H.; Flockton, A. R.; Pullamsetti, S. S.; Chelladurai, P.; D'Alessandro, A.; El Kasmi, K. C.; Ježek, Petr; Stenmark, K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2016), s. 47-57 ISSN 1044-1549 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11055; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15071 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondria * complex I * oxidative metabolism * pulmonary hypertension * adventitial fibroblasts Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.100, year: 2016

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Alters the Nature of Extinction

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Richardson, Rick

    2011-01-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr) antagonist MK801 on reacquisition and re-extinction of a conditioned fear that had been previously extinguished before injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) or vehicle. Recent findings have shown that relearning and re-extinction, unlike initial learning and extinction,…

  14. Arachidonic acid metabolism in fibroblasts derived from canine myocardium

    Weber, D.R.; Prescott, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Canine fibroblasts from normal or healing infarcted myocardium were grown in culture. The cells were morphologically indistinguishable, but the doubling time of cells from healing myocardium was 39.6 +/- 3.5 hr whereas that of normals was 24 +/- 3.7 (n=5, p 3 H]arachidonate (AA) into phospholipids. Calcium ionophore A23187 (10 μM) caused release and metabolism of [ 3 H] AA. A23187 or AA (10μM) induced production of 6-keto PGF1α, PGE2, and a hydroxy metabolite of AA. RIA of 6-keto PGF1α showed that subconfluent cells from healing myocardium produced 1202 +/- 354 pg/mg protein whereas that of normals was 551 +/- 222 (n=7, p 3 H]AA released but did not metabolize [ 3 H]AA. In coincubations, fibroblasts incorporated myocyte-derived AA. Subsequent stimulation of the fibroblasts with A23187 induced the synthesis of 6-keto PGF1α, PGE2 and a hydroxy metabolite. The fibroblast content of healing myocardium was 35-1000 times that of normal tissue (n=7). Thus even a moderate change in AA metabolism, amplified by the AA released from deteriorating myocytes, may be a significant physiologic or pathologic event

  15. Transfer of fibroblast sheets cultured on thermoresponsive dishes with membranes.

    Kawecki, Marek; Kraut, Małgorzata; Klama-Baryła, Agnieszka; Łabuś, Wojciech; Kitala, Diana; Nowak, Mariusz; Glik, Justyna; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Utrata-Wesołek, Alicja; Trzebicka, Barbara; Dworak, Andrzej; Szweda, Dawid

    2016-06-01

    In cell or tissue engineering, it is essential to develop a support for cell-to-cell adhesion, which leads to the generation of cell sheets connected by extracellular matrix. Such supports must be hydrophobic and should result in a detachable cell sheet. A thermoresponsive support that enables the cultured cell sheet to detach using only a change in temperature could be an interesting alternative in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate plates covered with thermoresponsive polymers as supports for the formation of fibroblast sheets and to develop a damage-free procedure for cell sheet transfer with the use of membranes as transfer tools. Human skin fibroblasts were seeded on supports coated with a thermoresponsive polymer: commercial UpCell™ dishes (NUNC™) coated with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and dishes coated with thermoresponsive poly(tri(ethylene glycol) monoethyl ether methacrylate) (P(TEGMA-EE)). Confluent fibroblast sheets were effectively cultured and harvested from both commercial PNIPAM-coated dishes and laboratory P(TEGMA-EE)-coated dishes. To transfer a detached cell sheet, two membranes, Immobilon-P(®) and SUPRATHEL(®), were examined. The use of SUPRATHEL for relocating the cell sheets opens a new possibility for the clinical treatment of wounds. This study established the background for implementing thermoresponsive supports for transplanting in vitro cultured fibroblasts.

  16. Cytotoxicity of four denture adhesives on human gingival fibroblast cells.

    Lee, Yoon; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Chung, Shin-Hye; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Ju, Sung-Won; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of four denture adhesives on human gingival fibroblast cells. Immortalized human gingival fibroblasts were cultured with one of four different denture adhesives, Polident, Protefix, Staydent or Denfix-A, which was placed in insert dishes (10% w/v concentration) for 48 h. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and flow cytometric apoptosis assay were used to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis rates. The fibroblasts were also examined under a scanning electron microscope. The MTT assay showed that all denture adhesives resulted in a significantly lower cell viability compared to the control cells propagated in normal culture medium (p 0.05). Staydent showed the highest apoptosis rate. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the cells of the Staydent group underwent cytoplasmic membrane shrinkage, with cell free areas containing residual fragments of the membrane of dead cells. The four denture adhesives evaluated in this study imparted cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblast cells. Staydent showed the highest toxicity.

  17. fibroblast growth factor, MTDH/Astrocyte elevated gene-1

    2012-12-05

    Dec 5, 2012 ... Expression of basic FGF, MTDH/AEG-1, APC, matrix metalloproteinase 9, and COX-2 markers in prostate carcinomas many genetic and epigenetic alterations have been detected in human PC.[1]. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), also known as. FGF2 is a member of the FGF family, a group of more.

  18. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana; Tessa, Alessandra; Tonin, Paola; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Mole, Sara E.; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Simonati, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. ► Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. ► Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  19. Primary skin fibroblasts as a model of Parkinson's disease

    Auburger, G.; Klinkenberg, M.; Droste, J.A.H.; Marcus, K.; Morales-Gordo, B.; Kunz, W.S.; Brandt, U.; Broccoli, V.; Reichmann, H.; Gispert, S.; Jendrach, M.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. While most cases occur sporadic mutations in a growing number of genes including Parkin (PARK2) and PINK1 (PARK6) have been associated with the disease. Different animal models and cell models like patient skin fibroblasts

  20. Endocytosis and intracellular protein degradation in cystic fibrosis fibroblasts

    Jessup, W.; Dean, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Normal rates of pinocytosis of [ 3 H]sucrose were measured in cystic fibrosis fibroblasts, and were not affected by the addition of cystic fibrosis serum. Bulk protein degradation (a significant proportion of which occurs intralysosomally following autophagy) and its regulation by growth state were apparently identical in normal and cystic fibrosis cultures. (Auth.)

  1. DETACHMENT OF HUMAN FIBROBLASTS FROM FEP-TEFLON SURFACES

    VANKOOTEN, TG; SCHAKENRAAD, JM; VANDERMEI, HC; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1991-01-01

    In this study a comparison is made between the detachment behavior of human fibroblasts adhered to hydrophobic FEP-Teflon (water contact angle 109 degrees) and to hydrophilic glass (water contact angle smaller than 15 degrees) during exposure to a laminar, incrementally loaded flow. Detachment from

  2. Excessive Cellular Proliferation Negatively Impacts Reprogramming Efficiency of Human Fibroblasts.

    Gupta, Manoj K; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Bhatt, Shweta; Kleinridders, Andre; Shirakawa, Jun; Takatani, Tomozumi; Hu, Jiang; De Jesus, Dario F; Windmueller, Rebecca; Wagers, Amy J; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2015-10-01

    The impact of somatic cell proliferation rate on induction of pluripotent stem cells remains controversial. Herein, we report that rapid proliferation of human somatic fibroblasts is detrimental to reprogramming efficiency when reprogrammed using a lentiviral vector expressing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC in insulin-rich defined medium. Human fibroblasts grown in this medium showed higher proliferation, enhanced expression of insulin signaling and cell cycle genes, and a switch from glycolytic to oxidative phosphorylation metabolism, but they displayed poor reprogramming efficiency compared with cells grown in normal medium. Thus, in contrast to previous studies, our work reveals an inverse correlation between the proliferation rate of somatic cells and reprogramming efficiency, and also suggests that upregulation of proteins in the growth factor signaling pathway limits the ability to induce pluripotency in human somatic fibroblasts. The efficiency with which human cells can be reprogrammed is of interest to stem cell biology. In this study, human fibroblasts cultured in media containing different concentrations of growth factors such as insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 exhibited variable abilities to proliferate, with consequences on pluripotency. This occurred in part because of changes in the expression of proteins involved in the growth factor signaling pathway, glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation. These findings have implications for efficient reprogramming of human cells. ©AlphaMed Press.

  3. Transfection of Primary Human Skin Fibroblasts for Peroxisomal Studies

    Koster, Janet; Waterham, Hans R.

    2017-01-01

    Functional studies with primary human skin fibroblasts from patients with a peroxisomal disorder often require efficient transfection with plasmids to correct the genetic defect or to express heterologous reporter proteins. Here, we describe a protocol we commonly use for efficient nonviral

  4. Scleral fibroblast response to experimental glaucoma in mice

    Tezel, Gülgün; Cone-Kimball, Elizabeth; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Jefferys, Joan; Pease, Mary E.; Quigley, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the detailed cellular and molecular changes in the mouse sclera subjected to experimental glaucoma. Methods Three strains of mice underwent experimental bead-injection glaucoma and were euthanized at 3 days and 1, 3, and 6 weeks. Scleral protein expression was analyzed with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using 16O/18O labeling for quantification in 1- and 6-week tissues. Sclera protein samples were also analyzed with immunoblotting with specific antibodies to selected proteins. The proportion of proliferating scleral fibroblasts was quantified with Ki67 and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) labeling, and selected proteins were studied with immunohistochemistry. Results Proteomic analysis showed increases in molecules involved in integrin-linked kinase signaling and actin cytoskeleton signaling pathways at 1 and 6 weeks after experimental glaucoma. The peripapillary scleral region had more fibroblasts than equatorial sclera (p=0.001, n=217, multivariable regression models). There was a sixfold increase in proliferating fibroblasts in the experimental glaucoma sclera at 1 week and a threefold rise at 3 and 6 weeks (p=0.0005, univariate regression). Immunoblots confirmed increases for myosin, spectrin, and actinin at 1 week after glaucoma. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), HINT1, vimentin, actinin, and α-smooth muscle actin were increased according to immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Scleral fibroblasts in experimental mouse glaucoma show increases in actin cytoskeleton and integrin-related signaling, increases in cell division, and features compatible with myofibroblast transition. PMID:26900327

  5. Instability restricts signaling of multiple fibroblast growth factors

    Buchtová, Marcela; Chaloupková, R.; Zakrzewska, M.; Veselá, I.; Celá, Petra; Barathová, J.; Gudernová, I.; Zajíčková, R.; Trantírek, L.; Martin, J.; Kostas, M.; Otlewski, J.; Damborský, J.; Kozubík, Alois; Wiedlocha, A.; Krejčí, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 12 (2015), s. 2445-2459 ISSN 1420-682X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31540S; GA ČR GBP302/12/G157 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor * FGF * unstable Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 5.694, year: 2015

  6. Entrainment of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Fibroblasts by Temperature Cycles

    Sládek, Martin; Sumová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    The functional state of the circadian system of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) differs in several characteristics from the functional state of normotensive Wistar rats. Some of these changes might be due to the compromised ability of the central pacemaker to entrain the peripheral clocks. Daily body temperature cycles represent one of the important cues responsible for the integrity of the circadian system, because these cycles are driven by the central pacemaker and are able to entrain the peripheral clocks. This study tested the hypothesis that the aberrant peripheral clock entrainment of SHR results from a compromised peripheral clock sensitivity to the daily temperature cycle resetting. Using cultured Wistar rat and SHR fibroblasts transfected with the circadian luminescence reporter Bmal1-dLuc, we demonstrated that two consecutive square-wave temperature cycles with amplitudes of 2.5°C are necessary and sufficient to restart the dampened oscillations and entrain the circadian clocks in both Wistar rat and SHR fibroblasts. We also generated a phase response curve to temperature cycles for fibroblasts of both rat strains. Although some of the data suggested a slight resistance of SHR fibroblasts to temperature entrainment, we concluded that the overall effect it too weak to be responsible for the differences between the SHR and Wistar in vivo circadian phenotype. PMID:24116198

  7. Chenodeoxycholic acid stimulated fibroblast growth factor 19 response

    Borup, C; Wildt, S; Rumessen, J J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bile acid diarrhoea is underdiagnosed and better diagnostic tests are needed. Fasting serum fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) has insufficient diagnostic value, but this may be improved by stimulation. AIM: To explore if an impaired FGF19 response identifies primary bile acid...

  8. Anti-fibrotic effects of theophylline on lung fibroblasts

    Yano, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Hoshino, Shigenori; Inoue, Koji; Kida, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Masahiko; Takimoto, Takayuki; Hirata, Haruhiko; Kijima, Takashi; Kumagai, Toru; Osaki, Tadashi; Tachibana, Isao; Kawase, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Theophylline has been used in the management of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for over 50 years. It has not only a bronchodilating effect, but also an anti-inflammatory one conducive to the inhibition of airway remodeling, including subepithelial fibrosis. To date however, whether theophylline has a direct inhibitory effect on airway fibrosis has not been established. To clarify this question, we examined whether theophylline affected the function of lung fibroblasts. Theophylline suppressed TGF-β-induced type I collagen (COL1) mRNA expression in lung fibroblasts and also inhibited fibroblast proliferation stimulated by FBS and TGF-β-induced α-SMA protein. A cAMP analog also inhibited TGF-β-induced COL1 mRNA expression in lung fibroblasts. A PKA inhibitor reduced the inhibitory effect of theophylline on TGF-β-induced COL1 mRNA expression. These results indicate that theophylline exerts anti-fibrotic effects, at least partly, through the cAMP-PKA pathway

  9. Ignalina RBMK-1500 building capability in retaining radioactive releases

    Nilsson, Lars; Johansson, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Ignalina reactor building structures are capable of retaining substantial fractions of radioactive emissions from the fuel core, in those accident sequences where pressurization failure of structures can be averted by pressure relief arrangements. In stage 1 of the IBBA project it was demonstrated that enhanced retention of radioactive fission products within the plant can be achieved if natural convection is facilitated in the upper building compartments. In this report of stage 2 is discussed for which accident sequences the introduction of natural convection in combination with the existing forced convection ventilation and the accident localization system can improve the total safety of Ignalina 1-2. The purpose of this stage is to provide a basis for further review and more detailed studies of the natural convection concept, its benefits and disadvantages, and of the feasability to introduce the concept in existing plants

  10. Teeth in the Line of Fracture: To Retain or Remove?

    Samson, Jimson; John, Reena; Jayakumar, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze mandibular fracture site, relationship of the fracture line to the periodontium, vitality of teeth, displacement of the fracture segments and their implications, and determine whether to retain or remove the teeth in the fracture line. Fifty patients with 62 fractures were involved in this study. An electric pulp tester was used to measure the pulpal response. The degree of fracture displacement and the relationship of the fracture line to the periodontium were evaluated using panoramic radiographs. Fractures of the parasymphysis region constituted a majority of 60.87% in the gross displacement category. Four of 50 patients showed no response presurgically and minimal response postoperatively on pulp vitality testing. Patients with teeth in the fracture line showing no response on pulp vitality testing should be advised extraction to avoid further complications. PMID:22132255

  11. Apparatus and Process for Controlled Nanomanufacturing Using Catalyst Retaining Structures

    Nguyen, Cattien (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the controlled fabrication of nanostructures using catalyst retaining structures is disclosed. The apparatus includes one or more modified force microscopes having a nanotube attached to the tip portion of the microscopes. An electric current is passed from the nanotube to a catalyst layer of a substrate, thereby causing a localized chemical reaction to occur in a resist layer adjacent the catalyst layer. The region of the resist layer where the chemical reaction occurred is etched, thereby exposing a catalyst particle or particles in the catalyst layer surrounded by a wall of unetched resist material. Subsequent chemical vapor deposition causes growth of a nanostructure to occur upward through the wall of unetched resist material having controlled characteristics of height and diameter and, for parallel systems, number density.

  12. Intravitreal Phacoemulsification Using Torsional Handpiece for Retained Lens Fragments.

    Kumar, Vinod; Takkar, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the results of intravitreal phacoemulsification with torsional hand piece in eyes with posteriorly dislocated lens fragments. In this prospective, interventional case series, 15 eyes with retained lens fragments following phacoemulsification were included. All patients underwent standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal phacoemulsification using sleeveless, torsional hand piece (OZiL™, Alcon's Infiniti Vision System). Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications. The preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from light perception to 0.3. No complications such as thermal burns of the scleral wound, retinal damage due to flying lens fragments, or difficult lens aspiration occurred during intravitreal phacoemulsification. Mean post-operative BCVA at the final follow-up was 0.5. Two eyes developed cystoid macular edema, which was managed medically. No retinal detachment was noted. Intravitreal phacoemulsification using torsional hand piece is a safe and effective alternative to conventional longitudinal phacofragmentation.

  13. Retainment of the antimicrobial agent triclosan in a septic tank.

    Kirjanova, Ala; Rimeika, Mindaugas; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the fate of the antimicrobial agent triclosan (TCS) in a conventional septic tank. The main mechanism of TCS removal from wastewater was identified to be rapid TCS sorption to suspended particles followed by settling of these particles to the bottom of the septic tank. Sorption to particles was completed within minutes while the settling took several days. Therefore, in a septic tank the removal of TCS from wastewater is mainly determined by the removal of suspended particles by sedimentation. Over 5 days of hydraulic residence time the initial dissolved TCS concentration of 100 μg L(-1) was reduced by 87 ± 8%. During the first 24 hours, 66-86% of all removed TCS was retained, whereas during the remainder of the experiment a slight but steady decrease in TCS concentration was observed. This was most likely caused by TCS diffusion and its subsequent sorption onto the septic sludge.

  14. Analysis of the Retained Gas Sample (RGS) Extruder Assembly

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    In order for the Retained Gas Sample (RGS) Extruder Assembly to be safely used it was determined by the cognizant engineer that analysis was necessary. The use of the finite-element analysis (FEA) progarm COSMOS/M version 1.71 permitted a quick, easy, and detailed stress analysis of the RGS Extruder Assembly. The FEA model is a three dimensional model using the SHELL4T element type. From the results of the FEA, the cognizant engineer determined that the RGS extruder would be rated at 10,000 lbf and load tested to 12,000 lbf. The respective input and output files for the model are EXTR02.GFM and EXTR02.OUT and can be found on the attached tape

  15. The aging nursing workforce: How to retain experienced nurses.

    Cohen, Jeremye D

    2006-01-01

    In the face of an anticipated nursing shortage, healthcare organizations must evaluate their culture, operations, and compensation system to ensure that these elements align with organizational efforts to retain nurses who are approaching retirement age. Management should focus on enhancing elements of job satisfaction and job embeddedness that will motivate nurses to remain both in the workforce and with their employer. Although much of this responsibility falls on the nurse manager, nurse managers are often not provided the necessary support by top management and are neither recognized nor held accountable for nurse turnover. Other retention initiatives can include altering working conditions to reduce both physical and mental stress and addressing issues of employee health and safety. As for compensation, organizations may be well-served by offering senior nursing staff flexible working hours, salary structures that reward experience, and benefit programs that hold value for an aging workforce.

  16. Language comprehenders retain implied shape and orientation of objects.

    Pecher, Diane; van Dantzig, Saskia; Zwaan, Rolf A; Zeelenberg, René

    2009-06-01

    According to theories of embodied cognition, language comprehenders simulate sensorimotor experiences to represent the meaning of what they read. Previous studies have shown that picture recognition is better if the object in the picture matches the orientation or shape implied by a preceding sentence. In order to test whether strategic imagery may explain previous findings, language comprehenders first read a list of sentences in which objects were mentioned. Only once the complete list had been read was recognition memory tested with pictures. Recognition performance was better if the orientation or shape of the object matched that implied by the sentence, both immediately after reading the complete list of sentences and after a 45-min delay. These results suggest that previously found match effects were not due to strategic imagery and show that details of sensorimotor simulations are retained over longer periods.

  17. Recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in psychotherapy research.

    Miranda, J; Azocar, F; Organista, K C; Muñoz, R F; Lieberman, A

    1996-10-01

    This article offers suggestions for recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in treatment studies. Because Latinos underuse traditional mental health services, places such as medical centers or churches with large Latino constituents are suggested as useful alternative sources. To keep Latinos in research protocols, providing culturally sensitive treatments are necessary. Culturally sensitive treatments should incorporate families as part of recruitment efforts, particularly older men in the family. In addition, showing respect is an important aspect of traditional Latino culture that includes using formal titles and taking time to listen carefully. Finally, traditional Latinos tend to like interactions with others that are more warm and personal than is generally part of a research atmosphere.

  18. Tightening techniques for the retaining screws of universal abutment

    Alexandre Wittcinski REGALIN

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose This study evaluated the torque maintenance of universal abutment retaining screws using different tightening techniques, and coated or uncoated screws. Material and method The screws were tightened to implants as following: Control – 32 Ncm torque; H20 – holding 32 Ncm torque for 20 s; R – 32 Ncm torque, repeated after 10 min (retorque; and H20+R – combining the two tightening techniques. Titanium and coated screws were also evaluated. Result Statistical analysis showed higher maintained torque for titanium screws (p<0.001. The H20+R technique showed the highest maintained torque (p=0.003, but the H20 technique’s maintained torque was similar. Conclusion Titanium screws associating the two tightening techniques can improve maintained torque.

  19. Differences between Solution and Membrane Forms of Chitosan on the In Vitro Activity of Fibroblasts

    Bahar Uslu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chitosan, a linear polysaccharide, has been recently used in biomedical applications. In vitro studies have demonstrated its effect on cellular growth and its stimulatory action on cellular layer formation. Aims: The present study aims to compare the proliferative effects of chitosan in two forms, membranous and solution forms, on Swiss 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Study Design: In vitro study. Methods: Three experimental groups were formed: cells were cultured in a normal medium without chitosan (Control Group; cells were cultured either in a medium containing 2.0% chitosan in membranous form (Membrane Group or chitosan solution at a concentration of 2.0% (Solution Group.Two different methods were used in the experiments: cells cultured on the medium containing chitosan in solution or membranous forms (method 1; and chitosan solution or membranous forms were added into the medium containing previously cultured cells (method 2. Results: Scanning electron microscopic investigations of the experimental groups revealed cells with well-defined cellular projections, intact cellular membranes and tight intercellular junctions. They were especially prominent in the membrane group of method 1 and in the membrane and solution groups of method 2. Mouse monoclonal anti-collagen 1 primary antibody was used to indicate collagen synthesis. Prominent collagen synthesis was detected in the membrane groups on the 10th day of culture for both methods. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and MTT assays were performed in order to assess cellular proliferation and viability, respectively. BrdU labelling tests indicated a higher proliferation index in the membrane group of method 1 on the 5th and 10th days. For the second method, the membranous form on the 10th day and solution form on the 5th day were the most effective groups in terms of cellular proliferation. MTT results reflected a high cellular viability in method 1 on the 5th day of treatment with the

  20. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection of Animal Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Liu, Wei; Krump, Nathan A; MacDonald, Margo; You, Jianxin

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the first polyomavirus to be associated with human cancer. Mechanistic studies attempting to fully elucidate MCPyV's oncogenic mechanisms have been hampered by the lack of animal models for MCPyV infection. In this study, we examined the ability of MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus (containing a green fluorescent protein [GFP] reporter construct), MCPyV recombinant virions, and several MCPyV chimeric viruses to infect dermal fibroblasts isolated from various model animals, including mouse ( Mus musculus ), rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ), rat ( Rattus norvegicus ), chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ), rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ), patas monkey ( Erythrocebus patas ), common woolly monkey ( Lagothrix lagotricha ), red-chested mustached tamarin ( Saguinus labiatus ), and tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri ). We found that MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus was able to enter the dermal fibroblasts of all species tested. Chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts were the only type that supported vigorous MCPyV gene expression and viral replication, and they did so to a level beyond that of human dermal fibroblasts. We further demonstrated that both human and chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts produce infectious MCPyV virions that can successfully infect new cells. In addition, rat dermal fibroblasts supported robust MCPyV large T antigen expression after infection with an MCPyV chimeric virus in which the entire enhancer region of the MCPyV early promoter has been replaced with the simian virus 40 (SV40) analog. Our results suggest that viral transcription and/or replication events represent the major hurdle for MCPyV cross-species transmission. The capacity of rat dermal fibroblasts to support MCPyV early gene expression suggests that the rat is a candidate model organism for studying viral oncogene function during Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) oncogenic progression. IMPORTANCE MCPyV plays an important role in the development of a highly aggressive form of skin cancer, Merkel

  1. 31P NMR study of phosphate metabolites in intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard

    Gambhir, P.N.; Pande, P.C.; Ratcliffe, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The study of 31 P NMR spectra of intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard and its possible use for assessing the relative degree of hypoxia under in vivo conditions are reported. 7 refs., 2 figs

  2. Toward best practices in data processing and analysis for intact biotherapeutics by MS in quantitative bioanalysis.

    Kellie, John F; Kehler, Jonathan R; Karlinsey, Molly Z; Summerfield, Scott G

    2017-12-01

    Typically, quantitation of biotherapeutics from biological matrices by LC-MS is based on a surrogate peptide approach to determine molecule concentration. Recent efforts have focused on quantitation of the intact protein molecules or larger mass subunits of monoclonal antibodies. To date, there has been limited guidance for large or intact protein mass quantitation for quantitative bioanalysis. Intact- and subunit-level analyses of biotherapeutics from biological matrices are performed at 12-25 kDa mass range with quantitation data presented. Linearity, bias and other metrics are presented along with recommendations made on the viability of existing quantitation approaches. This communication is intended to start a discussion around intact protein data analysis and processing, recognizing that other published contributions will be required.

  3. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for predicting amino acids content in intact processed animal proteins.

    De la Haba, Maria José; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio; Pérez-Marín, Dolores C

    2006-10-04

    Near-infrared calibrations were developed for the instantaneous prediction of amino acids composition of processed animal proteins (PAPs). Two sample presentation modes were compared (ground vs intact) for demonstrating the viability of the analysis in the intact form, avoiding the need for milling. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) equations for the prediction of amino acids in PAPs were developed using the same set of samples (N = 92 PAPs) analyzed in ground and intact form and in three cups differing in the optical window size. The standard error for cross validation (SECV) and the coefficient of determination (1-VR) values yielded with the calibrations developed using the samples analyzed in the intact form showed similar or even better accuracy than those obtained with finely ground samples. The excellent predictive ability (1-VR > 0.90; CV marketing of these important protein feed ingredients, alleviating the costs and time associated with the routine quality controls.

  4. Cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane: histopathologic evidence for a tympanic membrane origin.

    Sudhoff, H; Linthicum, F H

    2001-07-01

    Several theories have been proposed with respect to the origin and pathogenesis of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane. The authors describe a case of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane in a 71-year-old man with a history of tympanic membrane retraction fixed to the incus without evidence of a perforation. The membrane eventually became detached, and remnants of keratinizing squamous epithelium were found on the incus. Mechanisms such as metaplasia, ectopic epidermis rests, or ingrowth of meatal epidermis have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane. These findings, based on temporal bone histopathology, support the role of an acquired epidermal rest. This case report provides evidence that cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane can be established from a resolved retraction of the pars tensa of the tympanic membrane.

  5. Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.

    Monk, David H

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching

  6. Reliability Coupled Sensitivity Based Design Approach for Gravity Retaining Walls

    Guha Ray, A.; Baidya, D. K.

    2012-09-01

    Sensitivity analysis involving different random variables and different potential failure modes of a gravity retaining wall focuses on the fact that high sensitivity of a particular variable on a particular mode of failure does not necessarily imply a remarkable contribution to the overall failure probability. The present paper aims at identifying a probabilistic risk factor ( R f ) for each random variable based on the combined effects of failure probability ( P f ) of each mode of failure of a gravity retaining wall and sensitivity of each of the random variables on these failure modes. P f is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis of each random variable is carried out by F-test analysis. The structure, redesigned by modifying the original random variables with the risk factors, is safe against all the variations of random variables. It is observed that R f for friction angle of backfill soil ( φ 1 ) increases and cohesion of foundation soil ( c 2 ) decreases with an increase of variation of φ 1 , while R f for unit weights ( γ 1 and γ 2 ) for both soil and friction angle of foundation soil ( φ 2 ) remains almost constant for variation of soil properties. The results compared well with some of the existing deterministic and probabilistic methods and found to be cost-effective. It is seen that if variation of φ 1 remains within 5 %, significant reduction in cross-sectional area can be achieved. But if the variation is more than 7-8 %, the structure needs to be modified. Finally design guidelines for different wall dimensions, based on the present approach, are proposed.

  7. Complete overdentures retained by mini implants: A systematic review.

    Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Batista, Victor Eduardo de Souza; Júnior, Joel Ferreira Santiago; Mello, Caroline Cantieri; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the use of mini implants to retain complete overdentures in terms of survival rates of mini implants, marginal bone loss, satisfaction, and quality of life. This report followed the PRISMA Statement and PICO question. This review has been registered at PROSPERO under the number CRD42016036141. Two independent reviewers performed a comprehensive search of studies published until September 2016 and listed in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Library databases. The focused question was: is the use of mini implants feasible for prosthodontic rehabilitation with complete overdentures? The 24 studies selected for review evaluated 1273 patients whose mean age was 65.93 years; these patients had received 2494 mini implants and 386 standard implants for retaining overdenture prosthesis. The mean follow-up time was 2.48 years (range: 1-7 years). There was a higher survival rate of mini implants (92.32%). More frequent failures for maxillary (31.71%) compared with mandibular arches (4.89%). The majority of studies revealed marginal bone loss values similar to those of standard implants (overdenture prosthesis is considered an alternative treatment when standard treatment is not possible, since it presents high survival rates, acceptable marginal bone loss, and improvements in variables related to satisfaction and quality of life. Based on the results of this study, the use of a minimum 4 and 6 mini implants can be considered a satisfactory treatment option for rehabilitation of the mandibular and maxillary arches respectively with a complete overdenture. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Compartmental analysis of roots in intact rapidly-growing Spergularia marina and Lactuca sativa: partial characterization of the symplasms functional in the radial transport of Na+ and K+

    Lazof, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques of compartmental analysis were adapted to the study of intact roots of rapidly-growing Spergularia marine and Lactuca sativa. Using large numbers of plants short time-courses of uptake and chase, 42 K + and 22 Na + transport could be resolved, even during a chase following a brief 10 minute labeling period. The use of intact plant systems allowed distinction of that portion of the isotope flux into the root, associated with the ion-conducting symplasms. A small compartment, which rapidly (t/sub .5/ + , accounting for the observed obtention of linear translocation rates within minutes of transferring to labeled solution. The ion contents of this compartment varied in proportion to the external ion concentration. When K + was at a high external concentration, labeled K + exchanged into this same symplasm, but chasing a short pulse indicated that K + transport to the xylem was not through a rapidly-exchanging compartment. At physiological concentrations of K + the evidence indicated that transport of K + across the root proceeded through a compartment which was not exchanging rapidly with the external medium. The rise to a linear rate of isotope translocation was gradual and translocation during a chase, following a brief pulse,was prolonged, indicating that this compartment retained its specific activity for a considerable period

  9. The effects of acoustic vibration on fibroblast cell migration.

    Mohammed, Taybia; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; Burton, David R; Bezombes, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Cells are known to interact and respond to external mechanical cues and recent work has shown that application of mechanical stimulation, delivered via acoustic vibration, can be used to control complex cell behaviours. Fibroblast cells are known to respond to physical cues generated in the extracellular matrix and it is thought that such cues are important regulators of the wound healing process. Many conditions are associated with poor wound healing, so there is need for treatments/interventions, which can help accelerate the wound healing process. The primary aim of this research was to investigate the effects of mechanical stimulation upon the migratory and morphological properties of two different fibroblast cells namely; human lung fibroblast cells (LL24) and subcutaneous areolar/adipose mouse fibroblast cells (L929). Using a speaker-based system, the effects of mechanical stimulation (0-1600Hz for 5min) on the mean cell migration distance (μm) and actin organisation was investigated. The results show that 100Hz acoustic vibration enhanced cell migration for both cell lines whereas acoustic vibration above 100Hz was found to decrease cell migration in a frequency dependent manner. Mechanical stimulation was also found to promote changes to the morphology of both cell lines, particularly the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. Overall lamellipodia was the most prominent actin structure displayed by the lung cell (LL24), whereas filopodia was the most prominent actin feature displayed by the fibroblast derived from subcutaneous areolar/adipose tissue. Mechanical stimulation at all the frequencies used here was found not to affect cell viability. These results suggest that low-frequency acoustic vibration may be used as a tool to manipulate the mechanosensitivity of cells to promote cell migration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-proliferative effect of olmesartan on Tenon's capsule fibroblasts

    Xuan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the inhibitive effect of olmesartan to fibroblast proliferation and the anti-scarring effect in Tenon’s capsule, both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Human primary Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts were cultured in vitro, treated with up titrating concentrations of olmesartan. The rate of inhibition was tested with methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT method. Real-time PCR was performed to analyze changes in mRNA expressions of the fibrosis-related factors: matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1,2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Thirty rabbits were divided into 5 groups (3, 7, 14, 21, and 28d. A rabbit conjunctiva flap model was created in each eye. Olmesartan solution was injected subconjunctivally and then evaluated its anti-proliferation and anti-fibrosis effects through the histological morphology and immunohistochemistry of MMP-2 and PCNA in each group. Only the 7d group was treated with Masson’s trichrome to compare the neovascularization in the subconjunctiva area. RESULTS: In vitro, cultured Tenon's capsule human fibroblasts showed a dose dependent inhibition by olmesartan in MTT. Olmesartan reduced mRNA expressions of MMP-2 and PCNA but increased mRNA expressions of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. In vivo, the rabbit eyes treated with olmesartan at 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st days demonstrated a significant reduced expressions of MMP-2 and PCNA compared with control eye, no significant difference observed in 28th day group. The cellular proliferation and neovascularization was suppressed by olmesartan in Masson’s trichrome observation. CONCLUSION: By inhibiting fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo, olmesartan prevents the proliferation and activity of fibroblasts in scar tissue formation, which might benefit glaucoma filtering surgery.

  11. A novel role of EMMPRIN/CD147 in transformation of quiescent fibroblasts to cancer-associated fibroblasts by breast cancer cells

    Xu, Jing; Lu, Yang; Qiu, Songbo; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Fan, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    We tested the novel hypothesis that EMMPRIN/CD147, a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed in breast cancer cells, has a previously unknown role in transforming fibroblasts to cancer-associated fibroblasts, and that cancer-associated fibroblasts in turn induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells. Co-culture of fibroblasts with breast cancer cells or treatment of fibroblasts with breast cancer cell conditioned culture medium or recombinant EMMPRIN/CD147 induced expression of α-SMA in the fibroblasts in an EMMPRIN/CD147-dependent manner and promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells and enhanced cell migration potential. These findings support a novel role of EMMPRIN/CD147 in regulating the interaction between cancer and stroma. PMID:23474495

  12. Superolateral Dislocation of Intact Mandibular Condyle: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Saikrishna, Degala; Shyam Sundar, S.; Mamata, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Anteromedial fracture dislocation of the mandibular condyle is common but a superolateral dislocation of an intact condyle is quite rare. This type of dislocation is often misdiagnosed or completely overlooked and hence inadequately addressed. We report a case of a 41-year-old male patient who experienced superolateral dislocation of the intact condyle with symphysis fracture and panfacial fracture following a road-traffic accident, and review of literature of superolateral dislocations from ...

  13. Impulse radar scanning of intact salt at the Avery Island Mine

    Cook, C.W.

    1980-05-01

    A series of experiments was run in the Avery Island Mine to evaluate the capability of an impulse radar to locate anomalies and simulated waste targets in intact dome salt. Voids in salt were difficult to detect. On the positive side, metal targets and simulated waste (glass) were easily located in intact salt. Radar scanning at ranges of greater than 25 meters and short-range resolution of target positions to within a few centimeters were achieved

  14. Prediction of valid acidity in intact apples with Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy*

    Liu, Yan-de; Ying, Yi-bin; Fu, Xia-ping

    2005-01-01

    To develop nondestructive acidity prediction for intact Fuji apples, the potential of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) method with fiber optics in interactance mode was investigated. Interactance in the 800 nm to 2619 nm region was measured for intact apples, harvested from early to late maturity stages. Spectral data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques including partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods. A total of 120 Fuji appl...

  15. Occurence of translocations between irradiated and intact chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster

    Myasnyankina, E.N.; Abeleva, Eh.A.; Generalova, M.V.

    1980-01-01

    Two translocations between irradiated father and intact mother autosomes are obtained in Drosophila melanogaster. Five out of 283 regular translocations (between the second and the third chromosomes of an irradiated male) are accompanied by a recombination over the second or the third chromosomes. Nine flies out of twenty considered to be recombinants, could originate due to mutations. The data obtained prove that intact female autosomes can take part in the exchange with homologic (recombinations) and heterologic (translocations) irradiated male autosomes

  16. Risks for Conduct Disorder Symptoms Associated with Parental Alcoholism in Stepfather Families versus Intact Families from a Community Sample

    Foley, Debra L.; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael; Gardner, Charles O.; Maes, Hermine H.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is not known if the prevalence of parental psychiatric disorders is higher in stepfather than intact families, or if parental alcoholism is differentially associated with risk for conduct disorder (CD) symptoms in stepfather families versus intact families. Method: The sample comprised 839 girls and 741 boys from 792 intact families…

  17. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  18. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    Renkema, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  19. 18 CFR 367.4390 - Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings. 367.4390 Section 367.4390 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4390 Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings. (a...

  20. 21 CFR 882.4800 - Self-retaining retractor for neurosurgery.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-retaining retractor for neurosurgery. 882...-retaining retractor for neurosurgery. (a) Identification. A self-retaining retractor for neurosurgery is a self-locking device used to hold the edges of a wound open during neurosurgery. (b) Classification...

  1. Investigation of Mitochondrial Dysfunction by Sequential Microplate-Based Respiration Measurements from Intact and Permeabilized Neurons

    Clerc, Pascaline; Polster, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a component of many neurodegenerative conditions. Measurement of oxygen consumption from intact neurons enables evaluation of mitochondrial bioenergetics under conditions that are more physiologically realistic compared to isolated mitochondria. However, mechanistic analysis of mitochondrial function in cells is complicated by changing energy demands and lack of substrate control. Here we describe a technique for sequentially measuring respiration from intact and saponin-permeabilized cortical neurons on single microplates. This technique allows control of substrates to individual electron transport chain complexes following permeabilization, as well as side-by-side comparisons to intact cells. To illustrate the utility of the technique, we demonstrate that inhibition of respiration by the drug KB-R7943 in intact neurons is relieved by delivery of the complex II substrate succinate, but not by complex I substrates, via acute saponin permeabilization. In contrast, methyl succinate, a putative cell permeable complex II substrate, failed to rescue respiration in intact neurons and was a poor complex II substrate in permeabilized cells. Sequential measurements of intact and permeabilized cell respiration should be particularly useful for evaluating indirect mitochondrial toxicity due to drugs or cellular signaling events which cannot be readily studied using isolated mitochondria. PMID:22496810

  2. Congestive heart failure effects on atrial fibroblast phenotype: differences between freshly-isolated and cultured cells.

    Kristin Dawson

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are important in the atrial fibrillation (AF substrate resulting from congestive heart failure (CHF. We previously noted changes in in vivo indices of fibroblast function in a CHF dog model, but could not detect changes in isolated cells. This study assessed CHF-induced changes in the phenotype of fibroblasts freshly isolated from control versus CHF dogs, and examined effects of cell culture on these differences.Left-atrial fibroblasts were isolated from control and CHF dogs (ventricular tachypacing 240 bpm × 2 weeks. Freshly-isolated fibroblasts were compared to fibroblasts in primary culture. Extracellular-matrix (ECM gene-expression was assessed by qPCR, protein by Western blot, fibroblast morphology with immunocytochemistry, and K(+-current with patch-clamp. Freshly-isolated CHF fibroblasts had increased expression-levels of collagen-1 (10-fold, collagen-3 (5-fold, and fibronectin-1 (3-fold vs. control, along with increased cell diameter (13.4 ± 0.4 µm vs control 8.4 ± 0.3 µm and cell spreading (shape factor 0.81 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.87 ± 0.02, consistent with an activated phenotype. Freshly-isolated control fibroblasts displayed robust tetraethylammonium (TEA-sensitive K(+-currents that were strongly downregulated in CHF. The TEA-sensitive K(+-current differences between control and CHF fibroblasts were attenuated after 2-day culture and eliminated after 7 days. Similarly, cell-culture eliminated the ECM protein-expression and shape differences between control and CHF fibroblasts.Freshly-isolated CHF and control atrial fibroblasts display distinct ECM-gene and morphological differences consistent with in vivo pathology. Culture for as little as 48 hours activates fibroblasts and obscures the effects of CHF. These results demonstrate potentially-important atrial-fibroblast phenotype changes in CHF and emphasize the need for caution in relating properties of cultured fibroblasts to in vivo systems.

  3. Caspase 3 activity in isolated fetal rat lung fibroblasts and rat periodontal ligament fibroblasts: cigarette smoke-induced alterations

    James Elliot Scott

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary, oral and systemic diseases. Smoking during pregnancy is clearly a risk factor for the developing fetus and may be a major cause of infant mortality. Moreover, the oral cavity is the first site of exposure to cigarette smoke and may be a possible source for the spread of toxins to other organs of the body. Fibroblasts in general are morphologically heterogeneous connective tissue cells with diverse functions. Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a crucial process during embryogenesis and for the maintenance of homeostasis throughout life. Deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in abnormal lung development in the fetus and disease progression in adults. Caspases, are proteases which belong to the family of cysteine aspartic acid proteases and are the key components for the downstream amplification of intra-cellular apoptotic signals. Of the 14 caspases known, caspase-3 is the key executioner of apoptosis. Fetal rat lung fibroblasts but not PDL viability is reduced by exposure to CSE. In addition Caspase 3 activity is elevated after CSE exposure in fetal lung fibroblasts but not in PDLs. Expression of caspase 3 is induced in CSE exposed lung fibroblasts but not in PDLs. Caspase 3 was localized to the cytoplasm in both cell types.

  4. The impact of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on cardiac fibroblasts grown under altered gravity conditions

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Leder, Annekatrin; Pietsch, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Myocardium is very sensitive to gravitational changes. During a spaceflight cardiovascular atrophy paired with rhythm problems and orthostatic intolerance can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor...

  5. Telomerase-mediated life-span extension of human primary fibroblasts by human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector

    Shitara, Shingo; Kakeda, Minoru; Nagata, Keiko; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Sano, Akiko; Osawa, Kanako; Okazaki, Akiyo; Katoh, Motonobu; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Tomizuka, Kazuma

    2008-01-01

    Telomerase-mediated life-span extension enables the expansion of normal cells without malignant transformation, and thus has been thought to be useful in cell therapies. Currently, integrating vectors including the retrovirus are used for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-mediated expansion of normal cells; however, the use of these vectors potentially causes unexpected insertional mutagenesis and/or activation of oncogenes. Here, we established normal human fibroblast (hPF) clones retaining non-integrating human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors harboring the hTERT expression cassette. In hTERT-HAC/hPF clones, we observed the telomerase activity and the suppression of senescent-associated SA-β-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, the hTERT-HAC/hPF clones continued growing beyond 120 days after cloning, whereas the hPF clones retaining the silent hTERT-HAC senesced within 70 days. Thus, hTERT-HAC-mediated episomal expression of hTERT allows the extension of the life-span of human primary cells, implying that gene delivery by non-integrating HAC vectors can be used to control cellular proliferative capacity of primary cultured cells

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of ETAS®50 by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor-κB p65 Nuclear Import in Ultraviolet-B-Irradiated Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Ken Shirato

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV irradiation induces proinflammatory responses in skin cells, including dermal fibroblasts, accelerating premature skin aging (photoaging. ETAS 50, a standardized extract from the Asparagus officinalis stem, is a novel and unique functional food that suppresses proinflammatory responses of hydrogen peroxide-stimulated skin fibroblasts and interleukin- (IL- 1β-stimulated hepatocytes. To elucidate its antiphotoaging potencies, we examined whether ETAS 50 treatment after UV-B irradiation attenuates proinflammatory responses of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs. UV-B-irradiated NHDFs showed reduced levels of the cytosolic inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB α (IκBα protein and increased levels of nuclear p65 protein. The nuclear factor-κB nuclear translocation inhibitor JSH-23 abolished UV-B irradiation-induced IL-1β mRNA expression, indicating that p65 regulates transcriptional induction. ETAS 50 also markedly suppressed UV-B irradiation-induced increases in IL-1β mRNA levels. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that ETAS 50 retained p65 in the cytosol after UV-B irradiation. Western blotting also showed that ETAS 50 suppressed the UV-B irradiation-induced increases in nuclear p65 protein. Moreover, ETAS 50 clearly suppressed UV-B irradiation-induced distribution of importin-α protein levels in the nucleus without recovering cytosolic IκBα protein levels. These results suggest that ETAS 50 exerts anti-inflammatory effects on UV-B-irradiated NHDFs by suppressing the nuclear import machinery of p65. Therefore, ETAS 50 may prevent photoaging by suppressing UV irradiation-induced proinflammatory responses of dermal fibroblasts.

  7. Forms of newly retained phosphorus in mineral soils

    Armi Kaila

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of soluble phosphate in various fractions of soil phosphorus was studied by treating 1 g-samples of 180 mineral soils with 50 ml of a KH2PO4- solution containing P 5 mg/l for 24 hours, and carrying out the fractionation by the method of CHANG and JACKSON after the solution was removed and the moist samples had stood for 3 days at room temperature. The amount of retained phosphorus in the different fractions was computed by taking the difference between the treated and check samples. In the 70 samples of clay soils, the mean proportion of the retained phosphorus was 57 per cent of the 250 mg/kg applied, in the 62 samples of the sand and fine sand soils the corresponding part was 45 per cent, and in the 48 samples of loam and silt soils it was 44 per cent. The higher retention in the clay soils was mainly due to a higher retention in the alkali-soluble fraction. The net increase in the fluoride-soluble forms was of the same order in these three soil groups. On the average, more than 95 per cent of the sorbed phosphorus was found in the fluoride-soluble and alkali-soluble fractions. In one third of the samples a low net increase in the acid soluble fraction was detected, but this may be partly due to changes in the solubility of the native phosphorus in the treated samples. Owing to the fairly large variation, the tendency to somewhat higher mean values for the sorption in the subsoils compared with those of the topsoils was not statistically significant. The ratio between the sorbed amounts of fluoride-soluble and alkali soluble forms was higher in the sand and fine sand soils than in the clay soils. Only in 15 samples, most of them Litorina-soils, the net increase in the alkali-soluble forms was higher than in the fluoride-soluble fraction. Probably, because an equilibrium in the phosphorus conditions was not yet reached at the end of the treatment, the attempt failed to find any clear connection between the distribution of the

  8. Coupling fibroblast growth factor 23 production and cleavage: iron deficiency, rickets, and kidney disease.

    Wolf, Myles; White, Kenneth E

    2014-07-01

    High levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) cause the rare disorders of hypophosphatemic rickets and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite major advances in understanding FGF23 biology, fundamental aspects of FGF23 regulation in health and in CKD remain mostly unknown. Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage, but affected individuals experience a waxing and waning course of phosphate wasting. This led to the discovery that iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. Unlike osteocytes in ADHR, normal osteocytes couple increased FGF23 production with commensurately increased FGF23 cleavage to ensure that normal phosphate homeostasis is maintained in the event of iron deficiency. Simultaneous measurement of FGF23 by intact and C-terminal assays supported these breakthroughs by providing minimally invasive insight into FGF23 production and cleavage in bone. These findings also suggest a novel mechanism of FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient and demonstrate increased FGF23 production and decreased FGF23 cleavage, consistent with an acquired state that mimics the molecular pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency stimulates FGF23 production, but normal osteocytes couple increased FGF23 production with increased cleavage to maintain normal circulating levels of biologically active hormone. These findings uncover a second level of FGF23 regulation within osteocytes, failure of which culminates in elevated levels of biologically active FGF23 in ADHR and perhaps CKD.

  9. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the extracellular matrix of human lung fibroblasts. Isolation, purification, and core protein characterization

    Heremans, A.; Cassiman, J.J.; Van den Berghe, H.; David, G.

    1988-01-01

    Confluent cultured human lung fibroblasts were labeled with 35SO4(2-). After 48 h of labeling, the pericellular matrix was prepared by Triton X-100 and deoxycholate extraction of the monolayers. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) accounted for nearly 80% of the total matrix [35S]proteoglycans. After solubilization in 6 M guanidinium HCl and cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation, the majority (78%) of these [35S] HSPG equilibrated at an average buoyant density of 1.35 g/ml. This major HSPG fraction was purified by ion-exchange chromatography on Mono Q and by gel filtration on Sepharose CL-4B, and further characterized by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Intact [35S]HSPG eluted with Kav 0.1 from Sepharose CL-4B, whereas the protein-free [35S]heparan sulfate chains, obtained by alkaline borohydride treatment of the proteoglycan fractions, eluted with Kav 0.45 (Mr approximately 72,000). When analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography, core (protein) preparations, obtained by heparitinase digestion of 125I-labeled HSPG fractions, yielded one major labeled band with apparent molecular mass of approximately 300 kDa. Reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol slightly increased the apparent Mr of the labeled band, suggesting a single polypeptide structure and the presence of intrachain disulfide bonds. Immunoadsorption experiments and immunostaining of electrophoretically separated heparitinase-digested core proteins with monoclonal antibodies raised against matrix and cell surface-associated HSPG suggested that the major matrix-associated HSPG of cultured human lung fibroblasts is distinct from the HSPG that are anchored in the membranes of these cells. Binding studies suggested that this matrix HSPG interacts with several matrix components, both through its glycosaminoglycan chains and through its heparitinase-resistant core. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    Tashiro, Kanae [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shishido, Mayumi [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Fujimoto, Keiko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirota, Yuko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshitaka, E-mail: tanakay@bioc.phar.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility.

  11. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    Tashiro, Kanae; Shishido, Mayumi; Fujimoto, Keiko; Hirota, Yuko; Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility

  12. Performance of intact and castrated beef cattle in an intensive croppasture rotation system

    Tercilio Turini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to evaluate the performance of intact or castrated beef cattle in a croppasture rotation system. The experiment was conducted during 2004 and 2005, and carried out at the Cooperativa Agropecuária Mourãoense (COAMO Experimental Farm, in Campo Mourão city, Paraná state. It was used a completely randomized design, with two treatments, intact or castrated. Forty ½Angus+½Nelore crossbred animals, with average age of nine months, were used. Half of the animals were castrated at weaning, and the other half was kept intact. Pasture was composed of two areas. The winter field, established after soybean crop, was composed by a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiforum. The summer field was composed by stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum. During the winter time it was used a continues grazing system, with regulator animals (put and take, and during the summer an intensive rotational system, with regulator animals and fixed grazing period. Intact animals presented higher average daily weight gain (0.907 vs 0.698 kg, slaughter weight (490.9 vs 442.2 kg, and hot carcass weight (250.2 vs 232.6 kg. Slaughter age was influenced by sexual condition, being lesser in the intact animals. Carcass dressing percentage was similar for the groups. Castrated animals showed better finishing fat cover and backfat thickness (3.45 vs 2.70 mm compared to intact ones. Therefore, it can be concluded that intact animals presents better performance than castrated ones when finished in an intensive crop-pasture rotation system, however, they may not present the minimum required fat cover, when slaughter at young ages.

  13. Do we really understand how to retain nurses?

    O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Duffield, Christine; Hayes, Laureen

    2006-05-01

    To compare views of nurse executives with those of nurses who have left the profession on the importance of retention strategies. Although much has been written about nursing turnover, there continues to be dissonance among decision makers as to why nurses leave the profession and what the most crucial issues are for retention. Factor analysis was undertaken to compare responses of nurse executives with those of nurses employed outside of nursing. Contract requirements represented the greatest discrepancy, 1.07, followed by legal and employer issues, 1.02; worklife/homelife balance, 0.91; external values and beliefs about nursing, 0.75; and professional practice, 0.29. A disparity exists between perceptions of nurse executives and those of nurses who have left the profession as to which issues are most critical in retention. We suggest that nurse executives ensure sufficient organizational support for nursing unit managers who are more likely to understand methods of retaining nurses at the clinical interface.

  14. Leading a multigenerational workforce: strategies for attracting and retaining millennials.

    Cahill, Terrence F; Sedrak, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, leaders in healthcare have noticed an increase in generational tension among employees, most often focused on the attitudes and behaviors of the arriving millennials (generation Y). While these employee relations issues were a nuisance, they rarely rose to the level of a priority demanding leadership intervention. Some leaders, in fact, hoped that the issues would resolve themselves as these young employees settled in and learned that they had to demonstrate new behaviors to be successful in the workplace. Most organizations adopted this wait-and-see attitude. Not so today. As the boomer generation has begun its exodus from the workplace, organizations are increasingly looking at the millennials as not a problem but a solution to the workplace manpower transition that is under way. Our problem is that we don't yet know how best to lead such a diverse, multigenerational workforce. This article examines the generational topic and provides advice concerning a variety of changes that leaders may implement to advance their organization's ability to attract and to retain the millennials.

  15. Automated identification of retained surgical items in radiological images

    Agam, Gady; Gan, Lin; Moric, Mario; Gluncic, Vicko

    2015-03-01

    Retained surgical items (RSIs) in patients is a major operating room (OR) patient safety concern. An RSI is any surgical tool, sponge, needle or other item inadvertently left in a patients body during the course of surgery. If left undetected, RSIs may lead to serious negative health consequences such as sepsis, internal bleeding, and even death. To help physicians efficiently and effectively detect RSIs, we are developing computer-aided detection (CADe) software for X-ray (XR) image analysis, utilizing large amounts of currently available image data to produce a clinically effective RSI detection system. Physician analysis of XRs for the purpose of RSI detection is a relatively lengthy process that may take up to 45 minutes to complete. It is also error prone due to the relatively low acuity of the human eye for RSIs in XR images. The system we are developing is based on computer vision and machine learning algorithms. We address the problem of low incidence by proposing synthesis algorithms. The CADe software we are developing may be integrated into a picture archiving and communication system (PACS), be implemented as a stand-alone software application, or be integrated into portable XR machine software through application programming interfaces. Preliminary experimental results on actual XR images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Intravitreal Phacoemulsification Using Torsional Handpiece for Retained Lens Fragments

    Kumar, Vinod; Takkar, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of intravitreal phacoemulsification with torsional hand piece in eyes with posteriorly dislocated lens fragments. Methods: In this prospective, interventional case series, 15 eyes with retained lens fragments following phacoemulsification were included. All patients underwent standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal phacoemulsification using sleeveless, torsional hand piece (OZiL™, Alcon's Infiniti Vision System). Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications. Results: The preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from light perception to 0.3. No complications such as thermal burns of the scleral wound, retinal damage due to flying lens fragments, or difficult lens aspiration occurred during intravitreal phacoemulsification. Mean post-operative BCVA at the final follow-up was 0.5. Two eyes developed cystoid macular edema, which was managed medically. No retinal detachment was noted. Conclusion: Intravitreal phacoemulsification using torsional hand piece is a safe and effective alternative to conventional longitudinal phacofragmentation. PMID:27621783

  17. Grass Plants Bind, Retain, Uptake, and Transport Infectious Prions

    Sandra Pritzkow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrPSc to plants. Small quantities of PrPSc contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrPSc for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves. These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease.

  18. Seniors in Society. Strategies to Retain Individual Autonomy

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The research project on "Seniors in Society. Strategies to Retain Individual Autonomy" (2002 - 2004 is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic. It's importance is empha-sized by the relevance of social and economic aspects of demographic ageing of the popula-tion and that of fundamental changes associated with the transformation of Czech society. The objectives of the research are (1 to find out seniors' material and social resources sup-porting their relative autonomy in everyday life, (2 to record their personal expectations from state, community, or formal and informal support and aid institutions, respectively, and (3 to uncover their engagement in social interaction and individual experiencing of the integration into social groups. The data acquired become the base for (4 identifying the typologies corre-sponding to the levels of seniors' social integration (i.e. groups of relatives, friends, neighbours, special-interest and professional groups. By applying qualitative methods, we explore (5 strategies of everyday life and coping with life cycle events and crisis within par-ticular types. Special attention is paid to the family background of the seniors, including rela-tives in the vertical line. Specifically, we focus on (6 conditions under which family is capa-ble and willing to help or actually is helping it's oldest members, as well as on their interpre-tation within (7 identified types of the relatives supportive systems.

  19. Research and Development on Coatings for Retaining Fission Product Iodine

    Genco, J. M.; Berry, D. A.; Rosenberg, H. S.; Cremeans, G. E.; Morrison, D. L. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1968-12-15

    It is well known that elemental iodine has the propensity for forming charge-transfer complexes with amines. These complexes are stable at ambient temperatures and retain much of this stability at elevated temperatures. Amines also react with methyl iodide and hydrogen iodide to form the quaternary ammonium salts and amine salts, respectively. These chemical properties of amines provide the basis for the development of retentive coatings for fission product iodine. Various amine-containing polymers were studied in steam-air environments at elevated temperatures using dilute quantities of tagged iodine. Both non-condensing and condensing steam conditions were investigated. Several of the polymers showed sorption rates and capacities that would be adequate for the chemical removal of accident-released fission-product iodine and were several times more effective than commercial protective coatings currently being used. The removal capabilities for amine polymers also could be enhanced by impregnating the reactant on a matrix material such as asbestos mat, presumably because the impregnation technique leads to enhanced surface area and porosity. The two most promising coating systems found were 1:10-phenanthroline impregnated upon asbestos and a three component composite film of the co-polymer of Genamid 2000 and Epon 828 as a reactive binder with 1,10-phenanthroline as a reactive filler. The use of a reactive coating as a passive safety system should reduce appreciably the airborne iodine half-life and the hazards associated with iodine release during a nuclear reactor accident. (author)

  20. Grass plants bind, retain, uptake, and transport infectious prions.

    Pritzkow, Sandra; Morales, Rodrigo; Moda, Fabio; Khan, Uffaf; Telling, Glenn C; Hoover, Edward; Soto, Claudio

    2015-05-26

    Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrP(Sc)) to plants. Small quantities of PrP(Sc) contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces) can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrP(Sc) for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves). These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High dose intravenous iron, mineral homeostasis and intact FGF23 in normal and uremic rats

    Gravesen, Eva; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Mace, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    High iron load might have a number of toxic effects in the organism. Recently intravenous (iv) iron has been proposed to induce elevation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia in iron deficient subjects. High levels of FGF23 are associated with increased...

  2. RNA-Guided Activation of Pluripotency Genes in Human Fibroblasts

    Xiong, Kai; Zhou, Yan; Blichfeld, Kristian Aabo

    2017-01-01

    -associated protein 9 (dCas9)-VP64 (CRISPRa) alone, or a combination of dCas9-VP64 and MS2-P65-HSF1 [synergistic activation mediator (SAM) system] mediated activation of five pluripotency genes: KLF4 (K), LIN28 (L), MYC (M), OCT4 (O), and SOX2 (S) in human cells (HEK293T, HeLa, HepG2, and primary fibroblasts...... could be obtained from these SAM fibroblasts. In conclusion, our study showed that CRISPR/Cas9-based ATFs are potent to activate and maintain transcription of endogenous human pluripotent genes. However, future improvements of the system are still required to improve activation efficiency and cellular...

  3. Estradiol stimulation of inositolphospholipid metabolism in human endometrial fibroblasts

    Iida, K.; Imai, A.; Tamaya, T.

    1989-01-01

    Stimulated inositolphospholipid turnover has been proposed to constitute a signal-transducing mechanism in many cell types. To determine the inositolphospholipid turnover during stimulation by 17 beta-estradiol, the turnover kinetics of phospholipids was investigated in human endometrial fibroblasts. In cells incubated with [ 32 P] phosphate for 1 h, estradiol rapidly and persisitently (for at least 30 min) enhanced the rate of 32 P-labeling of phosphatidic acid (PA). On the other hand, after a lag time of 5 min, 32 P-labeling of phosphatidylinositol (PI) was also increased also. These sequential 32 P-labeling of PA and PI demonstrated that inositolphospholipid turnover was stimulated in fibroblasts exposed to estradiol. The rapid estrogen-stimulated inositolphospholipid turnover may not be through the mechanism associated with classical action of estrogen

  4. Bio-artificial pleura using an autologous dermal fibroblast sheet

    Kanzaki, Masato; Takagi, Ryo; Washio, Kaoru; Kokubo, Mami; Yamato, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Air leaks (ALs) are observed after pulmonary resections, and without proper treatment, can produce severe complications. AL prevention is a critical objective for managing patients after pulmonary resection. This study applied autologous dermal fibroblast sheets (DFS) to close ALs. For sealing ALs in a 44-year-old male human patient with multiple bullae, a 5 × 15-mm section of skin was surgically excised. From this skin specimen, primary dermal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured for 4 weeks to produce DFSs that were harvested after a 10-day culture. ALs were completely sealed using surgical placement of these autologous DFSs. DFS were found to be a durable long-term AL sealant, exhibiting requisite flexibility, elasticity, durability, biocompatibility, and usability, resulting reliable AL closure. DFS should prove to be an extremely useful tissue-engineered pleura substitute.

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity of chemical preservatives on human fibroblast cells

    Daniel Gonsales Spindola

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preservatives are widely used substances that are commonly added to various cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to prevent or inhibit microbial growth. In this study, we compared the in vitro cytotoxicity of different types of currently used preservatives, including methylparaben, imidazolidinyl urea (IMU, and sodium benzoate, using the human newborn fibroblast cell line CCD1072Sk. Of the tested preservatives, only IMU induced a reduction in cell viability, as shown using the MTT assay and propidium iodide staining (IMU>methylparaben>sodium benzoate. IMU was shown to promote homeostatic alterations potentially related to the initiation of programed cell death, such as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activation, in the treated cells. Methylparaben and sodium benzoate were shown to have a very low cytotoxic activity. Taken together, our results suggest that IMU induces programed cell death in human fibroblasts by a canonical intrinsic pathway via mitochondrial perturbation and subsequent release of proapoptotic factors.

  6. Tropoelastin regulates chemokine expression in fibroblasts in Costello syndrome

    Tatano, Yutaka; Fujinawa, Reiko; Kozutsumi, Yasunori; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Naohiro; Tsuta, Kohji; Takada, Goro; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Itoh, Kohji

    2008-01-01

    Costello syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly associated with growth and mental retardation, cardiac and skeletal anomalies, and a predisposition to develop neoplasia. Comprehensive expression analysis revealed remarkable up-regulation of several cytokines and chemokines including Gro family proteins, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-8 and MCP-1 but down-regulation of extracellular matrix components including collagens and proteoglycans of skin fibroblasts derived from a Japanese Costello syndrome patient characterized by significantly reduced tropoelastin mRNA, impaired elastogenesis and enhanced cell proliferation. In contrast, decreases in these chemokines and IL-1β expression were observed in Costello fibroblastic cell lines stably expressing the bovine tropoelastin (btEln) gene and in restored elastic fibers. These results strongly suggest that the human TE gene (ELN) transfer could be applicable for the gene therapy of a group of Costello syndrome patients with reduced ELN gene expression

  7. Reduced superoxide dismutase activity in xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts

    Nishigori, C.; Miyachi, Y.; Imamura, S.; Takebe, H.

    1989-01-01

    This study was performed in order to assess the possible protective effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on ultraviolet (UV) damage in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) fibroblasts. SOD activity in fibroblasts originating from seven xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients was significantly lower than that in normal cells (p less than 0.005). Average SOD activity in XP cells belonging to complementation group A was 3.68 +/- 0.54 (n = 7) and that in normal human cells was 5.79 +/- 1.59 (n = 6). Addition of SOD before and during UV irradiation (UVB and UVC) to the cells caused no change in the amount of unscheduled DNA synthesis and UV survival. A possible involvement of reduced SOD in XP and a possible protective effect by SOD on UV damage is discussed

  8. EB1 is required for primary cilia assembly in fibroblasts

    Schrøder, Jacob M; Schneider, Linda; Christensen, Søren T

    2007-01-01

    EB1 is a small microtubule (MT)-binding protein that associates preferentially with MT plus ends and plays a role in regulating MT dynamics. EB1 also targets other MT-associated proteins to the plus end and thereby regulates interactions of MTs with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores, and diff...... that localization of EB1 at the centriole/basal body is required for primary cilia assembly in fibroblasts....

  9. Fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix in right ventricular disease.

    Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2017-10-01

    Right ventricular failure predicts adverse outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), and in subjects with left ventricular heart failure and is associated with interstitial fibrosis. This review manuscript discusses the cellular effectors and molecular mechanisms implicated in right ventricular fibrosis. The right ventricular interstitium contains vascular cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells, enmeshed in a collagen-based matrix. Right ventricular pressure overload in PH is associated with the expansion of the fibroblast population, myofibroblast activation, and secretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Mechanosensitive transduction of adrenergic signalling and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone cascade trigger the activation of right ventricular fibroblasts. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines may contribute to expansion and activation of macrophages that may serve as a source of fibrogenic growth factors, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Endothelin-1, TGF-βs, and matricellular proteins co-operate to activate cardiac myofibroblasts, and promote synthesis of matrix proteins. In comparison with the left ventricle, the RV tolerates well volume overload and ischemia; whether the right ventricular interstitial cells and matrix are implicated in these favourable responses remains unknown. Expansion of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix protein deposition are prominent features of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of arrhythmic events. Prevailing conceptual paradigms on right ventricular remodelling are based on extrapolation of findings in models of left ventricular injury. Considering the unique embryologic, morphological, and physiologic properties of the RV and the clinical significance of right ventricular failure, there is a need further to dissect RV-specific mechanisms of fibrosis and interstitial remodelling. Published on behalf of the European Society of

  10. Rosmarinic acid potentiates carnosic acid induced apoptosis in lung fibroblasts.

    Sana Bahri

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by over-population and excessive activation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts disrupting normal lung structure and functioning. Rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid (CA and rosmarinic acid (RA was reported to cure bleomycin-(BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrate that CA decreased human lung fibroblast (HLF viability with IC50 value of 17.13±1.06 μM, while RA had no cytotoxic effect. In the presence of 50 μM of RA, dose-response for CA shifted to IC50 value of 11.70±1.46 μM, indicating synergic action. TGFβ-transformed HLF, rat lung fibroblasts and L929 cells presented similar sensitivity to CA and CA+RA (20μM+100μM, respectively treatment. Rat alveolar epithelial cells died only under CA+RA treatment, while A549 cells were not affected. Annexin V staining and DNA quantification suggested that HLF are arrested in G0/G1 cell cycle phase and undergo apoptosis. CA caused sustained activation of phospho-Akt and phospho-p38 expression and inhibition of p21 protein.Addition of RA potentiated these effects, while RA added alone had no action.Only triple combination of inhibitors (MAPK-p38, pan-caspase, PI3K/Akt/autophagy partially attenuated apoptosis; this suggests that cytotoxicity of CA+RA treatment has a complex mechanism involving several parallel signaling pathways. The in vivo antifibrotic effect of CA and RA was compared with that of Vitamine-E in BLM-induced fibrosis model in rats. We found comparable reduction in fibrosis score by CA, RA and CA+RA, attenuation of collagen deposition and normalization of oxidative stress markers. In conclusion, antifibrotic effect of CA+RA is due to synergistic pro-apoptotic action on lung fibroblasts and myofibroblasts.

  11. Tryptophan Transport in Human Fibroblast Cells—A Functional Characterization

    Ravi Vumma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are indications that serotonergic neurotransmission is disturbed in several psychiatric disorders. One explanation may be disturbed transport of tryptophan (precursor for serotonin synthesis across cell membranes. Human fibroblast cells offer an advantageous model to study the transport of amino acids across cell membranes, since they are easy to propagate and the environmental factors can be controlled. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize tryptophan transport and to identify the main transporters of tryptophan in fibroblast cell lines from healthy controls. Tryptophan kinetic parameters ( V max and K m at low and high concentrations were measured in fibroblasts using the cluster tray method. Uptake of 3 H (5-L-tryptophan at different concentrations in the presence and absence of excess concentrations of inhibitors or combinations of inhibitors of amino acid transporters were also measured. Tryptophan transport at high concentration (0.5 mM had low affinity and high V max and the LAT1 isoform of system-L was responsible for approximately 40% of the total uptake of tryptophan. In comparison, tryptophan transport at low concentration (50 nM had higher affinity, lower V max and approximately 80% of tryptophan uptake was transported by system-L with LAT1 as the major isoform. The uptake of tryptophan at the low concentration was mainly sodium (Na + dependent, while uptake at high substrate concentration was mainly Na + independent. A series of different transporter inhibitors had varying inhibitory effects on tryptophan uptake. This study indicates that tryptophan is transported by multiple transporters that are active at different substrate concentrations in human fibroblast cells. The tryptophan transport trough system-L was mainly facilitated by the LAT1 isoform, at both low and high substrate concentrations of tryptophan.

  12. Analysis of primary cilia in directional cell migration in fibroblasts

    Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Veland, Iben; Schwab, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    summarize selected methods in analyzing ciliary function in directional cell migration, including immunofluorescence microscopy, scratch assay, and chemotaxis assay by micropipette addition of PDGFRα ligands to cultures of fibroblasts. These methods should be useful not only in studying cell migration....... In particular, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is compartmentalized to the primary cilium to activate signaling pathways that regulate reorganization of the cytoskeleton required for lamellipodium formation and directional migration in the presence of a specific ligand gradient. We...

  13. Radioprotective effect of catecholamines on the cultured Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    Chirkov, Yu.Yu.; Malatsidze, M.A.; Sobolev, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    On cultivated in vitro Chinese hamster fibroblasts radioprotective properties of adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoproterenol in different concentrations are studied. Isoproterenol radiopreventive effect is clearly manifested with its concentration being 1x10 -8 M; adrenaline and noradrenaline are efficient in higher concentrations. Propranolol, blocking β-adrenergic receptors, completely presents radioprotective effect of catecholamines on the cells. β-adrenergic mechanism of catecholamine radioprotective effect on Mammalia cells is discussed

  14. Self-etching adhesive on intact enamel, with and without pre-etching.

    Devarasa, G M; Subba Reddy, V V; Chaitra, N L; Swarna, Y M

    2012-05-01

    Bond strengths of composite resin to enamel using self-etch adhesive (SEA) Clearfil SE bond system on intact enamel and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid were compared. The objective was to determine if the pre-etching would increase the bond strengths of the SEA systems to intact enamel and to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on bond formation of self-etch adhesives on intact enamel. Labial surfaces of 40 caries free permanent upper central and lateral incisors were cleaned, sectioned of their roots. All specimens were mounted on acrylic block and divided randomly into four groups. In two groups the application of self-etch adhesive, Clearfil SE bond was carried as per manufacturer's instructions, composite cylinders were built, whereas in the other two groups, 37% phosphoric acid etching was done before the application of self-etching adhesives. Then the resin tags were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and shear bond strength was measured using Instron universal testing machine. When phosphoric acid was used, there was significant increase in the depth of penetration of resin tags and in the Shear Bond Strength of composite to enamel. The results indicate that out of both treatment groups, pre-etching the intact enamel with 37% phosphoric acid resulted in formation of longer resin tags and higher depth of penetration of resin tags of the Clearfil SE bond, and attaining higher bond strength of the Clearfil SE bond to intact enamel. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fibroblastic osteosarcoma with epithelioid and squamous differentiation in a dog.

    Jenkins, Tiffany L; Agnew, Dalen; Rissi, Daniel R

    2018-04-01

    A fibroblastic osteosarcoma with epithelioid and squamous differentiation in the distal femur of a 9-y-old spayed female Greyhound dog is described. Grossly, the tumor consisted of a pale-white, firm-to-hard mass that replaced the medullary and cortical areas of the distal end of the right femur. Histologically, the mass was composed predominantly of spindle cells admixed with areas of mineralized and non-mineralized osteoid matrix that were surrounded by stellate osteoblasts and scattered multinucleate giant cells, consistent with the diagnosis of a fibroblastic osteosarcoma. In addition, well-demarcated clusters of neoplastic epithelioid cells and foci of squamous differentiation with keratin pearls were present throughout the neoplasm. The spindle cells, epithelioid cells, and areas of squamous differentiation expressed cytoplasmic immunostaining for osteocalcin and osteonectin. The spindle cells and epithelioid cells were also immunopositive for vimentin. Epithelioid cells also expressed occasional cytoplasmic immunostaining for pancytokeratin (PCK) Lu-5, and areas of squamous differentiation were immunoreactive for PCK Lu-5 and high molecular weight CK; these areas were inconsistently immunoreactive for CK 5-6 and immunonegative for low molecular weight CK. Foci of squamous differentiation were not located within blood or lymphatic vessels, given that no immunoreactivity for factor VIII-related antigen was observed around these areas. A thorough autopsy and an evaluation of the medical history excluded a primary carcinoma or other neoplasm elsewhere in the dog. The findings were consistent with a diagnosis of fibroblastic osteosarcoma with epithelioid and squamous differentiation.

  16. Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts

    Sheela, S.; Barrett, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion

  17. Effect of periodontal dressings on human gingiva fibroblasts in vitro

    Eber, R.M.; Shuler, C.F.; Buchanan, W.; Beck, F.M.; Horton, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity studies of periodontal dressings have not generally produced a result consistent with in vivo observations. These prior in vitro studies have not used human intraoral cell lines. We tested the effects of two eugenol containing and two non-eugenol periodontal dressings on cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) (ATCC No. 1292). Replicate HGF cultures grown in microtiter plates were exposed to stock, 1:4 and 1:16 dilutions of extracts made from each of the four periodontal dressings. The HGF cultures were pulse labelled with tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Incorporations of the labelled thymidine were measured using liquid scintillation counting and expressed as counts per minute. The results showed that undiluted extracts from all four periodontal dressings totally inhibited 3HTdR uptake (P less than 0.05). The 1:4 dilution of eugenol dressings inhibited 3HTdR uptake significantly more than non-eugenol dressings (P less than 0.05). Interestingly, at 72 hours the 1:16 dilution of the non-eugenol dressings caused significantly increased 3HTdR uptake which was not observed with the eugenol dressings. The present results suggest that the use of a human fibroblastic cell line for testing the effects of periodontal dressings may provide information about the relative biological effects of these dressings. Using this cell line, we have found that eugenol dressings inhibit fibroblast proliferation to a greater extent than non-eugenol dressings

  18. Potensi Terapeutik Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 terhadap Resistensi Insulin

    Kurniasari Kurniasari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 merupakan salah satu dari anggota FGF yang berperansebagai faktor endokrin. Hepar dan jaringan adiposa merupakan tempat kerja utama FGF21.Ekspresi FGF21 di hepar diatur oleh peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARαsedangkan di jaringan adiposa diatur oleh peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma(PPARγ. Kedua faktor transkripsi tersebut terlibat dalam metabolisme karbohidrat dan lipid. Padaresistensi insulin terdapat hiperglikemia, hiperinsulinemia, dan dislipidemia. Pemberian FGF21pada berbagai studi in vivo dan in vitro telah menunjukan potensi FGF21 dalam mengatasi kelainanakibat resistensi insulin sekaligus meningkatkan sensitivitas jaringan terhadap insulin. Kata kunci: FGF21, PPARγ, PPARα, resistensi insulin Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21 Potension in InsulinResistance Treatment Abstract Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a member of FGF family that plays a role as endocrinefactor. Liver and adipose tissue are major target of FGF21. The expression of FGF21 in liveris regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα, while peroxisomeproliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ regulate FGF21 expression in adipose tissue.Both transcription factors are involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Hyperglycemia,hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia are observed in insulin resistance. Treatment with FGF21 inin vitro and in vivo study showed that FGF21 have the potential to overcome insulin resistance aswell as increasing tissue’s sensitivity towards insulin. Keywords: FGF21, PPARγ, PPARα, insulin resistance Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  19. Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts Are a Promising Therapeutic Target

    Togo, Shinsaku; Polanska, Urszula M.; Horimoto, Yoshiya; Orimo, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Human carcinomas frequently exhibit significant stromal reactions such as the so-called “desmoplastic stroma” or “reactive stroma”, which is characterised by the existence of large numbers of stromal cells and extracellular matrix proteins. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are rich in activated fibroblast populations exemplified by myofibroblasts, are among the predominant cell types present within the tumour-associated stroma. Increased numbers of stromal myofibroblasts are often associated with high-grade malignancies with poor prognoses in humans. CAF myofibroblasts possess abilities to promote primary tumour development, growth and progression by stimulating the processes of neoangiogenesis as well as tumour cell proliferation, survival, migration and invasion. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that CAFs serve as a niche supporting the metastatic colonisation of disseminated carcinoma cells in distant organs. Their contribution to primary and secondary malignancies makes these fibroblasts a potential therapeutic target and they also appear to be relevant to the development of drug resistance and tumour recurrence. This review summarises our current knowledge of tumour-promoting CAFs and discusses the therapeutic feasibility of targeting these cells as well as disrupting heterotypic interactions with other cell types in tumours that may improve the efficacy of current anti-tumour therapies

  20. Effect of phenytoin and age on gingival fibroblast enzymes.

    Surena Vahabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The alteration of cytokine balance is stated to exert greater influence on gingival overgrowth compared to the direct effect of the drug on the regulation of extracellular matrix metabolism. The current study evaluated the effect of phenytoin on the regulation of collagen, lysyl oxidase and elastin in gingival fibroblasts.Normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs were obtained from 4 healthy children and 4 adults. Samples were cultured with phenytoin. MTT test was used to evaluate the proliferation and ELISA was performed to determine the level of IL1β and PGE2 production by HGFs. Total RNA of gingival fibroblasts was extracted and RT-PCR was performed on samples. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the data with an alpha error level less than 0.05.There was a significant difference in the expression of elastin between the controls and treated samples in both adult and pediatric groups and also in the lysyl oxidase expression of adult controls and treated adults. No significant difference was found between collagen expression in adults.The significant difference in elastin and lysyl oxidase expression between adult and pediatric samples indicates the significant effect of age on their production.

  1. Responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to nanostructured platinum surfaces

    Pennisi, C P; Sevcencu, C; Yoshida, K [Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Foss, M; Larsen, A Nylandsted; Besenbacher, F [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Hansen, J Lundsgaard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Zachar, V, E-mail: cpennisi@hst.aau.d [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University (Denmark)

    2009-09-23

    The chronic performance of implantable neural prostheses is affected by the growth of encapsulation tissue onto the stimulation electrodes. Encapsulation is associated with activation of connective tissue cells at the electrode's metallic contacts, usually made of platinum. Since surface nanotopography can modulate the cellular responses to materials, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the 'in vitro' responses of connective tissue cells to platinum strictly by modulating its surface nanoroughness. Using molecular beam epitaxy combined with sputtering, we produced platinum nanostructured substrates consisting of irregularly distributed nanopyramids and investigated their effect on the proliferation, cytoskeletal organization and cellular morphology of primary fibroblasts and transformed glial cells. Cells were cultured on these substrates and their responses to surface roughness were studied. After one day in culture, the fibroblasts were more elongated and their cytoskeleton less mature when cultured on rough substrates. This effect increased as the roughness of the surface increased and was associated with reduced cell proliferation throughout the observation period (4 days). Morphological changes also occurred in glial cells, but they were triggered by a different roughness scale and did not affect cellular proliferation. In conclusion, surface nanotopography modulates the responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to platinum, which may be an important factor in optimizing the tissue response to implanted neural electrodes.

  2. Simultaneous Reprogramming and Gene Correction of Patient Fibroblasts

    Sara E. Howden

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The derivation of genetically modified induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells typically involves multiple steps, requiring lengthy cell culture periods, drug selection, and several clonal events. We report the generation of gene-targeted iPS cell lines following a single electroporation of patient-specific fibroblasts using episomal-based reprogramming vectors and the Cas9/CRISPR system. Simultaneous reprogramming and gene targeting was tested and achieved in two independent fibroblast lines with targeting efficiencies of up to 8% of the total iPS cell population. We have successfully targeted the DNMT3B and OCT4 genes with a fluorescent reporter and corrected the disease-causing mutation in both patient fibroblast lines: one derived from an adult with retinitis pigmentosa, the other from an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency. This procedure allows the generation of gene-targeted iPS cell lines with only a single clonal event in as little as 2 weeks and without the need for drug selection, thereby facilitating “seamless” single base-pair changes.

  3. Radiation-Induced Differentiation in Human Lung Fibroblast

    Park, Sa-Rah; Ahn, Ji-Yeon; Han, Young-Soo; Shim, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young

    2007-01-01

    One of the most common tumors in many countries is lung cancer and patients with lung cancer may take radiotherapy. Although radiotherapy may have its own advantages, it can also induce serious problems such as acute radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive production of α-SMA and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen and fibronectin. There has been a great amount of research about fibrosis but the exact mechanism causing the reaction is not elucidated especially in radiation-induced fibrosis. Until now it has been known that several factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) are related to fibrosis. Among them TGF-β with Smad signaling is known to be the main stream and other signaling molecules such as MAPK, ERK and JNK (3) also participates in the process. In addition to those above factors, it is thought that more diverse and complicate mechanisms may involve in the radiationinduced fibrosis. Therefore, to investigate the underlying mechanisms in radiation induced fibrosis, first of all, we confirmed whether radiation induces trans differentiation in human normal lung fibroblasts. Here, we suggest that not only TGF-β but also radiation can induce trans differentiation in human lung fibroblast WI-38 and IMR-90

  4. Strain characteristics of Marburg double crown-retained implant overdentures compared with bar and ball-retained implant overdentures, with and without a rigid major connector.

    Kazokoğlu, F Şehnaz; Akaltan, Funda

    2014-12-01

    It is hard to identify the most favorable retainer type and the denture design when considering strain levels around implants and in edentulous ridges for implant overdentures (IOVD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the strain transmitted to the implants and edentulous ridges by Marburg double crown (MDC)-retained IOVD as opposed to bar and ball-retained IOVD and the efficiency of a rigid major connector in the maxilla. An in vitro maxillary model was prepared with 4 implants, with strain gauges placed distally to each implant and also in the anterior and posterior edentulous ridges. Five overdentures were fabricated for each MDC and each ball and bar attachment retainers. Vertical loads of 280 N were applied bilaterally on the first molar region. Then the palatal bars of each IOVD were disconnected, and loading procedures were repeated for the prostheses. No significant difference was observed among the MDC and the bar and ball-retained IOVD, with and without a rigid bar according to the data taken from both the implants and edentulous ridges. However, when the strain values attained from each strain gauge separately were considered, a slight difference was observed around the implants of ball-retained overdentures and in the edentulous ridges of MDC-retained overdentures. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, MDC-retained maxillary overdentures with 4 parallel and symmetrically placed implants can be used safely without a rigid major connector as with bar and ball-retained IOVD with regard to the strains generated in the edentulous ridge and around implants. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermoreversible gelation polymer as an embolic material for aneurysm treatment: a delivery device for dermal fibroblasts and basic fibroblast growing factor into experimental aneurysms in rats.

    Dobashi, Hisashi; Akasaki, Yasuharu; Yuki, Ichiro; Arai, Takao; Ohashi, Hiroki; Murayama, Yuichi; Takao, Hiroyuki; Abe, Toshiaki

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluates whether thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) can be used as a delivery device to deploy dermal fibroblasts and cytokines into experimental aneurysms in rats. The right common iliac artery of rats was surgically ligated and an experimental aneurysm was created by applying exogenous elastase. Seven days later, two aneurysms were harvested and used as controls (Group A), two were embolized with pure TGP (Group B), two were embolized with TGP and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (Group C) and two were embolized with TGP loaded with rat dermal fibroblasts (Group D). The aneurysms were also embolized with TGP mixed with dermal fibroblasts and bFGF at different concentrations (10 ng/ml: Group E (n=2), 100 ng/ml: Group F (n=2), 1000 ng/ml: Group G (n=2)). Each aneurysm sample was harvested after 7 days and histologic analyses were performed. The most advanced thrombus organization in the aneurysm, such as prominent fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, was observed in Groups E, F and G, although there was no noticeable difference between the groups. Moderate thrombus organization was seen in Group D and minimal thrombus organization was seen in Groups B and C. TGP mixed with both dermal fibroblasts and bFGF induced the most advanced thrombus organization in the experimental aneurysms followed by TGP mixed only with dermal fibroblasts. TGP may be useful as a delivery device to deploy fibroblasts and cytokines into aneurysms.

  6. Evaluation of stress patterns produced by implant-retained overdentures and implant-retained fixed partial denture.

    Mazaro, José Vitor Quinelli; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Vedovatto, Eduardo; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Rezende, Maria Cristina Rosifini Alves; Zavanelli, Adriana Cristina

    2011-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to photoelastically measure the biomechanical behavior of 4 implants retaining different cantilevered bar mandibular overdenture designs and to compare a fixed partial denture (FPD). A photoelastic model of a human edentulous mandible was fabricated, which contained 4 screw-type implants (3.75 × 10 mm) embedded in the parasymphyseal area. An FPD and 3 overdenture designs with the following attachments were evaluated: 3 plastic Hader clips, 1 Hader clip with 2 posterior resilient cap attachments, and 3 ball/O-ring attachments. Vertical occlusal forces of 100 N were applied between the central incisor and unilaterally to the right and left second premolars and second molars. Stresses that developed in the supporting structure were monitored photoelastically and recorded photographically. The results showed that the anterior loading, the overdenture with 3 plastic Hader clips, displayed the largest stress concentration at the medium implant. With premolar loading, the FPD and overdenture with 3 plastic Hader clips displayed the highest stresses to the ipsilateral terminal implant. With molar loading, the overdenture with 3 ball/O-ring attachments displayed the most uniform stress distribution in the posterior edentulous ridge, with less overloading in the terminal implant. It was concluded that vertical forces applied to the bar-clip overdenture and FPD created immediate stress patterns of greater magnitude and concentration on the ipsilateral implants, whereas the ball/O-ring attachments transferred minimal stress to the implants. The increased cantilever in the FPD caused the highest stresses to the terminal implant.

  7. The role of organizational culture in retaining nursing workforce.

    Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Castle, Nicholas G; Lin, Michael K; Shrivastwa, Nijika; Spreitzer, Gretchen

    2015-06-01

    We examined how organizational culture in nursing homes affects staff turnover, because culture is a first step to creating satisfactory work environments. Nursing home administrators were asked in 2009 to report on facility culture and staff turnover. We received responses from 419 of 1,056 administrators contacted. Respondents reported the strength of cultural values using scales from a Competing Values Framework and percent of staff leaving annually for Registered Nurse (RN), Licensed Practice Nurse (LPN), and nursing aide (NA) staff. We estimated negative binomial models predicting turnover.  Turnover rates are lower than found in past but remain significantly higher among NAs than among RNs or LPNs. Facilities with stronger market values had increased turnover among RNs and LPNs, and among NAs when turnover was adjusted for facilities with few staff. Facilities emphasizing hierarchical internal processes had lower RN turnover. Group and developmental values focusing on staff and innovation only lowered LPN turnover. Finally, effects on NA turnover become insignificant when turnover was adjusted if voluntary turnover was reported. Organizational culture had differential effects on the turnover of RN, LPN, and NA staff that should be addressed in developing culture-change strategies. More flexible organizational culture values were important for LPN staff only, whereas unexpectedly, greater emphasis on rigid internal rules helped facilities retain RNs. Facilities with a stronger focus on customer needs had higher turnover among all staff. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Design principles for engaging and retaining virtual citizen scientists.

    Wald, Dara M; Longo, Justin; Dobell, A R

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science initiatives encourage volunteer participants to collect and interpret data and contribute to formal scientific projects. The growth of virtual citizen science (VCS), facilitated through websites and mobile applications since the mid-2000s, has been driven by a combination of software innovations and mobile technologies, growing scientific data flows without commensurate increases in resources to handle them, and the desire of internet-connected participants to contribute to collective outputs. However, the increasing availability of internet-based activities requires individual VCS projects to compete for the attention of volunteers and promote their long-term retention. We examined program and platform design principles that might allow VCS initiatives to compete more effectively for volunteers, increase productivity of project participants, and retain contributors over time. We surveyed key personnel engaged in managing a sample of VCS projects to identify the principles and practices they pursued for these purposes and led a team in a heuristic evaluation of volunteer engagement, website or application usability, and participant retention. We received 40 completed survey responses (33% response rate) and completed a heuristic evaluation of 20 VCS program sites. The majority of the VCS programs focused on scientific outcomes, whereas the educational and social benefits of program participation, variables that are consistently ranked as important for volunteer engagement and retention, were incidental. Evaluators indicated usability, across most of the VCS program sites, was higher and less variable than the ratings for participant engagement and retention. In the context of growing competition for the attention of internet volunteers, increased attention to the motivations of virtual citizen scientists may help VCS programs sustain the necessary engagement and retention of their volunteers. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Ammonia concentration modeling based on retained gas sampler data

    Terrones, G.; Palmer, B.J.; Cuta, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    The vertical ammonia concentration distributions determined by the retained gas sampler (RGS) apparatus were modeled for double-shell tanks (DSTs) AW-101, AN-103, AN-104, and AN-105 and single-shell tanks (SSTs) A-101, S-106, and U-103. One the vertical transport of ammonia in the tanks were used for the modeling. Transport in the non-convective settled solids and floating solids layers is assumed to occur primarily via some type of diffusion process, while transport in the convective liquid layers is incorporated into the model via mass transfer coefficients based on empirical correlations. Mass transfer between the top of the waste and the tank headspace and the effects of ventilation of the headspace are also included in the models. The resulting models contain a large number of parameters, but many of them can be determined from known properties of the waste configuration or can be estimated within reasonable bounds from data on the waste samples themselves. The models are used to extract effective diffusion coefficients for transport in the nonconvective layers based on the measured values of ammonia from the RGS apparatus. The modeling indicates that the higher concentrations of ammonia seen in bubbles trapped inside the waste relative to the ammonia concentrations in the tank headspace can be explained by a combination of slow transport of ammonia via diffusion in the nonconvective layers and ventilation of the tank headspace by either passive or active means. Slow transport by diffusion causes a higher concentration of ammonia to build up deep within the waste until the concentration gradients between the interior and top of the waste are sufficient to allow ammonia to escape at the same rate at which it is being generated in the waste

  10. Organizational configuration of hospitals succeeding in attracting and retaining nurses.

    Stordeur, Sabine; D'Hoore, William

    2007-01-01

    This paper contrasts structural and managerial characteristics of low- and high-turnover hospitals, and describes the organizational configuration of attractive hospitals. In countries facing nurse shortages and turnover, some hospitals succeed in recruiting and retaining nurses. In Magnet Hospitals, managerial practices and environmental characteristics increase nurses' job satisfaction and their commitment to the organization, which in turn decreases nurse turnover. Such an approach suggests that organizations are best understood as clusters of interconnected structures and practices, i.e. organizational configurations rather than entities whose components can be understood in isolation. From a sample of 12 hospitals whose nurse turnover was studied for 1 year, structural and organizational features of hospitals in the first and fourth quartiles, i.e. attractive (turnover 11.8%) were contrasted. A questionnaire, including perceptions of health-related factors, job demands, stressors, work schedules, organizational climate, and work adjustments antecedent to turnover, was received from 401 nurses working in attractive hospitals (response rate = 53.8%) and 774 nurses in conventional hospitals (response rate = 54.5%). Structural characteristics did not differentiate attractive and conventional hospitals, but employee perceptions towards the organization differed strikingly. Differences were observed for risk exposure, emotional demands, role ambiguity and conflicts, work-family conflicts, effort-reward imbalance and the meaning of work, all in favour of attractive hospitals (P satisfaction with working time, handover shifts and schedules were also better in attractive hospitals (P Job satisfaction and commitment were higher in attractive hospitals, whereas burnout and intention to leave were lower (P retention. Nurses face difficulties in their work situations, but some hospitals are perceived as healthy organizations. The concept of attractive institutions could

  11. Attracting and retaining GPs: a stakeholder survey of priorities.

    Lorant, Vincent; Geerts, Charlotte; Duchesnes, Christiane; Goedhuys, Jo; Ryssaert, Lynn; Remmen, Roy; D'hoore, William

    2011-07-01

    Despite being a key player in the healthcare system, training and practising general practice has become less attractive in many countries and is in need of reform. To identify political priorities for improving GPs' attraction to the profession and their retention within it. Stakeholder face-to-face survey in Belgium, 2008. A total of 102 key stakeholders were recruited from policymakers, professional groups, academia, GP leaders, and the media. All interviewees were asked to score 23 policies on four criteria: effectiveness in attracting and retaining GPs, cost to society, acceptance by other health professionals, and accessibility of care. An overall performance score was computed (from -3 to +3) for each type of policy - training, financing, work-life balance, practice organisation, and governance - and for innovative versus conservative policies. Practice organisation policies and training policies received the highest scores (mean score ≥ 1.11). Financing policies, governance, and work-life balance policies scored poorly (mean score ≤ 0.65) because they had negative effects, particularly in relation to cost, acceptance, and accessibility of care. Stakeholders were keen on moving GPs towards team work, improving their role as care coordinator, and helping them to offload administrative tasks (score ≥ 1.4). They also favoured moves to increase the early and integrated exposure of all medical students to general practice. Overall, conservative policies were better scored than innovative ones (beta = -0.16, 95% confidence interval = -0.28 to -0.03). The reforming of general practice is made difficult by the small-step approach, as well as the importance of decision criteria related to cost, acceptance, and access.

  12. Spontaneous and light-induced photon emission from intact brains of chick embryos

    张锦珠; 于文斗; 孙彤

    1997-01-01

    Photon emission (PE) and light-induced photon emission(LPE) of intact brains isolated from chick embryos have been measured by using the single photon counting device. Experimental results showed that the intensi-ty level of photon emission was detected to be higher from intact brain than from the medium in which the brain was immerged during measuring, and the emission intensity was related to the developmental stages, the healthy situation of the measured embryos, and the freshness of isolated brains as well. After white light illumination, a short-life de-layed emission from intact brains was observed, and its relaxation behavior followed a hyperbolic rather than an expo-nential law. According to the hypothesis of biophoton emission originating from a delocalized coherent electromagnetic field and Frohlich’s idea of coherent long-range interactions in biological systems, discussions were made on the signifi-cance of photon emission in studying cell communication, biological regulation, living system’

  13. Performance of intact and partially degraded concrete barriers in limiting fluid flow

    Walton, J.C.; Seitz, R.R.

    1991-07-01

    Concrete barriers will play a critical role in the long-term isolation of low-level radioactive wastes. Over time the barriers will degrade, and in many cases, the fundamental processes controlling performance of the barriers will be different for intact and degraded conditions. This document examines factors controlling fluid flow through intact and degraded concrete disposal facilities. Simplified models are presented fro predicting build up of fluid above a vault; fluid flow through and around intact vaults, through flaws in coatings/liners applied to a vault, and through cracks in a concrete vault; and the influence of different backfill materials around the outside of the vault. Example calculations are presented to illustrate the parameters and processes that influence fluid flow. 46 refs., 49 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Studies of the in vivo radiosensitivity of human skin fibroblasts

    Hill, Richard P.; Kaspler, Pavel; Griffin, Anthony M.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Catton, Charles; Alasti, Hamideh; Abbas, Ahmar; Heydarian, Moustafa; Ferguson, Peter; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To examine the radiosensitivity of skin cells obtained directly from the irradiated skin of patients undergoing fractionated radiation treatment prior to surgery for treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and to determine if there was a relationship with the development of wound healing complications associated with the surgery post-radiotherapy. Methods: Micronucleus (MN) formation was measured in cells (primarily dermal fibroblasts) obtained from human skin at their first division after being removed from STS patients during post-radiotherapy surgery (2-9 weeks after the end of the radiotherapy). At the time of radiotherapy (planned tumor dose - 50 Gy in 25 daily fractions) measurements were made of surface skin dose at predetermined marked sites. Skin from these sites was obtained at surgery and cell suspensions were prepared directly for the cytokinesis-blocked MN assay. Cultured strains of the fibroblasts were also established from skin nominally outside the edge of the radiation beam and DNA damage (MN formation) was examined following irradiation in vitro for comparison with the results from the in situ irradiations. Results: Extensive DNA damage (MN) was detectable in fibroblasts from human skin at extended periods after irradiation (2-9 weeks after the end of the 5-week fractionated radiotherapy). Analysis of skin receiving a range of doses demonstrated that the level of damage observed was dose dependent. There was no clear correlation between the level of damage observed after irradiation in situ and irradiation of cell strains in culture. Similarly, there was no correlation between the extent of MN formation following in situ irradiation and the propensity for the patient to develop wound healing complications post-surgery. Conclusions: Despite the presence of DNA damage in dermal fibroblasts weeks after the end of the radiation treatment, there was no relationship between this damage and wound healing complications following

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  16. Neural activation differences in amputees during imitation of intact versus amputee movements

    William F Cusack

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mirror neuron system has been attributed with increased activation in motor-related cortical areas upon viewing of another’s actions. Recent work suggests that limb movements that are similar and dissimilar in appearance to that of the viewer equivalently activate the mirror neuron system. It is unclear if this result can be observed in the action encoding areas in amputees who use prosthetic devices. Intact subjects and upper extremity amputee prosthesis users were recruited to view video demonstrations of tools being used by an intact actor and a prosthetic device user. All subjects were asked to pantomime the movements seen in the video while recording electroencephalography. Intact subjects showed equivalent left parietofrontal activity during imitation after watching the intact or prosthetic arm. Likewise, when prosthesis users imitated prosthesis demonstrations, typical left parietofrontal activation was observed during planning. When prosthesis users imitated intact actors, a new pattern was revealed which showed greater bilateral parietal and occipital activity during movement planning (p<0.001. This change may be required for prosthesis users to imitate movements in which the limb states between the observed and the observer do not match. The finding that prosthesis users imitating other prosthesis users showed typical left parietofrontal activation suggests that these subjects engage normal planning related activity when they are able to imitate a limb matching their own. This result has significant implications on rehabilitation, as standard therapy involves training with an intact occupational therapist, which could necessitate atypical planning mechanisms in amputees when learning to use their prosthesis.

  17. Losing a jewel—Rapid declines in Myanmar’s intact forests from 2002-2014

    Horning, Ned; Khaing, Thiri; Thein, Zaw Min; Aung, Kyaw Moe; Aung, Kyaw Htet; Phyo, Paing; Tun, Ye Lin; Oo, Aung Htat; Neil, Anthony; Thu, Win Myo; Songer, Melissa; Huang, Qiongyu; Connette, Grant; Leimgruber, Peter

    2017-01-01

    New and rapid political and economic changes in Myanmar are increasing the pressures on the country’s forests. Yet, little is known about the past and current condition of these forests and how fast they are declining. We mapped forest cover in Myanmar through a consortium of international organizations and environmental non-governmental groups, using freely-available public domain data and open source software tools. We used Landsat satellite imagery to assess the condition and spatial distribution of Myanmar’s intact and degraded forests with special focus on changes in intact forest between 2002 and 2014. We found that forests cover 42,365,729 ha or 63% of Myanmar, making it one of the most forested countries in the region. However, severe logging, expanding plantations, and degradation pose increasing threats. Only 38% of the country’s forests can be considered intact with canopy cover >80%. Between 2002 and 2014, intact forests declined at a rate of 0.94% annually, totaling more than 2 million ha forest loss. Losses can be extremely high locally and we identified 9 townships as forest conversion hotspots. We also delineated 13 large (>100,000 ha) and contiguous intact forest landscapes, which are dispersed across Myanmar. The Northern Forest Complex supports four of these landscapes, totaling over 6.1 million ha of intact forest, followed by the Southern Forest Complex with three landscapes, comprising 1.5 million ha. These remaining contiguous forest landscape should have high priority for protection. Our project demonstrates how open source data and software can be used to develop and share critical information on forests when such data are not readily available elsewhere. We provide all data, code, and outputs freely via the internet at (for scripts: https://bitbucket.org/rsbiodiv/; for the data: http://geonode.themimu.info/layers/geonode%3Amyan_lvl2_smoothed_dec2015_resamp) PMID:28520726

  18. Design and characteristics of cytotoxic fibroblast growth factor 1 conjugate for fibroblast growth factor receptor-targeted cancer therapy

    Szlachcic A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anna Szlachcic, Malgorzata Zakrzewska, Michal Lobocki, Piotr Jakimowicz, Jacek Otlewski Department of Protein Engineering, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs are attractive candidate cancer therapy targets as they are overexpressed in multiple types of tumors, such as breast, prostate, bladder, and lung cancer. In this study, a natural ligand of FGFR, an engineered variant of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1V, was conjugated to a potent cytotoxic drug, monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE, and used as a targeting agent for cancer cells overexpressing FGFRs, similar to antibodies in antibody–drug conjugates. The FGF1V–valine–citrulline–MMAE conjugate showed a favorable stability profile, bound FGFRs on the cell surface specifically, and efficiently released the drug (MMAE upon cleavage by the lysosomal protease cathepsin B. Importantly, the conjugate showed a prominent cytotoxic effect toward cell lines expressing FGFR. FGF1V–vcMMAE was highly cytotoxic at concentrations even an order of magnitude lower than those found for free MMAE. This effect was FGFR-specific as cells lacking FGFR did not show any increased mortality. Keywords: fibroblast growth factor 1, FGF receptor, targeted cancer therapy, cytotoxic conjugates, FGFR-dependent cancer, MMAE, auristatin

  19. Isotope inequilibrium of glucose metabolites in intact cells and particlefree supernatants of Ehrlich ascites tumor

    Daehnfeldt, J.L.; Winge, P.

    1975-01-01

    With an enzyme degradative technique, isotope inequilibrium of glucose metabolites was demonstrated in intact cells and particle-free supernatants of Ehrlich ascites tumor using I- 14 C-glucose as tracer. Inequilibrium was found between glucose and glucose-6-phosphate, glucose and fructose-6-phosphate, glucose and 6-phosphogluconate, while glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate were found to be in near equilibrium within the incubation time investigated. Glucose and lactate were found to be in near equilibrium after 8 min in intact cells. Calculations based on the equilibrium levels found, showed that these inequilibria could not be explained by the effects of the pentose cycle. (U.S.)

  20. Boron-11 MRI and MRS of intact animals infused with a boron neutron capture agent

    Kabalka, G.W.; Davis, M.; Bendel, P.

    1988-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the delivery of boron-containing drugs to a targeted lesion. Currently, the verification and quantification of in vivo boron content is a difficult problem. Boron-11 spectroscopy was utilized to confirm the presence of a dimeric sulfhydryl dodecaborane BNCT agent contained in an intact animal. Spectroscopy experiments revealed that the decay time of transverse magnetization of the boron-11 spins was less than 1 ms which precluded the use of a 2DFT imaging protocol. A back-projection protocol was developed and utilized to generate the first boron-11 image of a BNCT agent in the liver of an intact Fisher 344 rat

  1. DETERMINANTS OF RETAINED EARNINGS IN PROFITABLE STEEL COMPANIES IN INDIA: A STUDY OF STEEL SECTOR

    Dr. Sohaib Masood

    2018-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the important determinants of retained earnings in profitable steel companies in steel sector of India and which have impact on the retention of earnings of steel companies under study. Multiple linear regression is used to identify the determinants of retained earnings for a period of sixteen years. Also the importance of retained earnings as a source of finance for steel sector companies is also studied in the paper.

  2. Model Tests on the Retaining Walls Constructed from Geobags Filled with Construction Waste

    Wen, Hua; Wu, Jiu-jiang; Zou, Jiao-li; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Min; Gu, Chengzhuang

    2016-01-01

    Geobag retaining wall using construction waste is a new flexible supporting structure, and the usage of construction waste to fill geobags can facilitate the construction recycling. In this paper, model tests were performed on geobag retaining wall using construction waste. The investigation was concentrated on the slope top settlement, the distribution characteristics of the earth pressures on retaining walls and horizontal wall displacements, and slope failure modes. The results indicated t...

  3. Effect of Abutment Modification and Cement Type on Retention of Cement-Retained Implant Supported Crowns

    Farzin, Mitra; Torabi, Kianoosh; Ahangari, Ahmad Hasan; Derafshi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Provisional cements are commonly used to facilitate retrievability of cement-retained fixed implant restorations; but compromised abutment preparation may affect the retention of implant-retained crowns.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abutment design and type of luting agent on the retentive strength of cement-retained implant restorations. Materials and Method: Two prefabricated abutments were attached to their corresponding analogs and embedded in an ac...

  4. Seismic performance of geosynthetic-soil retaining wall structures

    Zarnani, Saman

    Vertical inclusions of expanded polystyrene (EPS) placed behind rigid retaining walls were investigated as geofoam seismic buffers to reduce earthquake-induced loads. A numerical model was developed using the program FLAC and the model validated against 1-g shaking table test results of EPS geofoam seismic buffer models. Two constitutive models for the component materials were examined: elastic-perfectly plastic with Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) failure criterion and non-linear hysteresis damping model with equivalent linear method (ELM) approach. It was judged that the M-C model was sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. The mechanical property of interest to attenuate dynamic loads using a seismic buffer was the buffer stiffness defined as K = E/t (E = buffer elastic modulus, t = buffer thickness). For the range of parameters investigated in this study, K ≤50 MN/m3 was observed to be the practical range for the optimal design of these systems. Parametric numerical analyses were performed to generate design charts that can be used for the preliminary design of these systems. A new high capacity shaking table facility was constructed at RMC that can be used to study the seismic performance of earth structures. Reduced-scale models of geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) walls were built on this shaking table and then subjected to simulated earthquake loading conditions. In some shaking table tests, combined use of EPS geofoam and horizontal geosynthetic reinforcement layers was investigated. Numerical models were developed using program FLAC together with ELM and M-C constitutive models. Physical and numerical results were compared against predicted values using analysis methods found in the journal literature and in current North American design guidelines. The comparison shows that current Mononobe-Okabe (M-O) based analysis methods could not consistently satisfactorily predict measured reinforcement connection load distributions at all elevations under both static

  5. Atmospheric Pressure Effect of Retained Gas in High Level Waste

    Weber, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated high level waste tanks in H-Area have unexplained changes in waste-level which have been attributed to environmental effects including pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Previous studies at SRS have considered waste-level changes from causes not including the presence of gas in the salt cake. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of atmospheric pressure on gas in the salt cake and resultant changes in the supernate level of Tank 41H, and to model that effect if possible. A simple theory has been developed to account for changes in the supernate level in a high level waste tank containing damp salt cake as the response of trapped gases to changes in the ambient pressure. The gas is modeled as an ideal gas retained as bubbles within the interstitial spaces in the salt cake and distributed uniformly throughout the tank. The model does not account for consistent long term increases or decreases in the tank level. Any such trend in the tank level is attributed to changes in the liquid content in the tank (from condensation, evaporation, etc.) and is removed from the data prior to the void estimation. Short term fluctuations in the tank level are explained as the response of the entrained gas volume to changes in the ambient pressure. The model uses the response of the tank level to pressure changes to estimate an average void fraction for the time period of interest. This estimate of the void is then used to predict the expected level response. The theory was applied to three separate time periods of the level data for tank 41H as follows: (1) May 3, 1993 through August 3, 1993, (2) January 23, 1994 through April 21, 1994, and (3) June 4, 1994 through August 24, 1994. A strong correlation was found between fluctuations in the tank level and variations in the ambient pressure. This correlation is a clear marker of the presence of entrained gases in the tank. From model calculations, an average void fraction of 11 percent was estimated to

  6. Two-year survival analysis of twisted wire fixed retainer versus spiral wire and fiber-reinforced composite retainers: a preliminary explorative single-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Sobouti, Farhad; Rakhshan, Vahid; Saravi, Mahdi Gholamrezaei; Zamanian, Ali; Shariati, Mahsa

    2016-03-01

    Traditional retainers (both metal and fiber-reinforced composite [FRC]) have limitations, and a retainer made from more flexible ligature wires might be advantageous. We aimed to compare an experimental design with two traditional retainers. In this prospective preliminary clinical trial, 150 post-treatment patients were enrolled and randomly divided into three groups of 50 patients each to receive mandibular canine-to-canine retainers made of FRC, flexible spiral wire (FSW), and twisted wire (TW). The patients were monitored monthly. The time at which the first signs of breakage/debonding were detected was recorded. The success rates of the retainers were compared using chi-squared, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses (α = 0.05). In total, 42 patients in the FRC group, 41 in the FSW group, and 45 in the TW group completed the study. The 2-year failure rates were 35.7% in the FRC group, 26.8% in the FSW group, and 17.8% in the TW group. These rates differed insignificantly (chi-squared p = 0.167). According to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, failure occurred at 19.95 months in the FRC group, 21.37 months in the FSW group, and 22.36 months in the TW group. The differences between the survival rates in the three groups were not significant (Cox regression p = 0.146). Although the failure rate of the experimental retainer was two times lower than that of the FRC retainer, the difference was not statistically significant. The experimental TW retainer was successful, and larger studies are warranted to verify these results.

  7. Fibroblast-mediated contraction in actinically exposed and actinically protected aging skin

    Marks, M.W.; Morykwas, M.J.; Wheatley, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The changes in skin morphology over time are a consequence of both chronologic aging and the accumulation of environmental exposure. Through observation, we know that actinic radiation intensifies the apparent aging of skin. We have investigated the effects of aging and actinic radiation on the ability of fibroblasts to contract collagen-fibroblast lattices. Preauricular and postauricular skin samples were obtained from eight patients aged 49 to 74 undergoing rhytidectomy. The samples were kept separate, and the fibroblasts were grown in culture. Lattices constructed with preauricular fibroblasts consistently contracted more than lattices containing postauricular fibroblasts. The difference in amount of contraction in 7 days between sites was greatest for the younger patients and decreased linearly as donor age increased (r = -0.96). This difference may be due to preauricular fibroblasts losing their ability to contract a lattice as aging skin is exposed to more actinic radiation

  8. Neuropeptide substance P stimulates the formation of osteoclasts via synovial fibroblastic cells

    Matayoshi, Takaaki; Goto, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Eiji; Takano, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of neuropeptide substance P (Sp) on the formation of osteoclasts via synovial fibroblastic cells. Synovial fibroblastic cells derived from rat knee joint expressed the Sp receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK 1 -R). The addition of Sp stimulated the proliferation of synovial fibroblastic cells and this effect was inhibited by Sp or NK 1 -R antagonists. Increased expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (Rankle) in synovial fibroblastic cells after the addition of Sp was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining. Osteoprotegerin expression in synovial fibroblastic cells was decreased after incubation with SP. In co-cultures of synovial fibroblastic cells and rat peripheral blood monocytes, SP stimulated osteoclastogenesis. These results suggest that SP in the joint cavity may cause both hypertrophy of the synovium and induction of increased osteoclast formation through the increased expression of RANKL in the synovium

  9. Effect of storage media on the proliferation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Lauer, H.C.; Mueller, J.G.; Gross, J.; Horster, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of storage media, which are routinely used in replantation, upon the proliferative capacity of periodontal ligament fibroblasts, was compared with the effect of a tissue culture medium. The periodontal tissue was obtained from mandibular central incisors of White New Zealand rabbits. The experiments were performed in fibroblasts derived during second subculture. The storage media were physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol; the tissue culture medium was alpha-minimum essential medium without nucleosides. The incubation period was 1 hour. [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation and cell counts were taken to indicate changes in the proliferative capacity of the fibroblasts. The tissue culture experiments showed that the proliferative ability of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts was dependent upon the composition of the storage medium. Physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol were unable to maintain the metabolism of the fibroblasts. alpha-MEM medium, however, was capable of stimulating proliferation of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts

  10. Growth properties and growth factor responsiveness in skin fibroblasts from centenarians.

    Tesco, G; Vergelli, M; Grassilli, E; Salomoni, P; Bellesia, E; Sikora, E; Radziszewska, E; Barbieri, D; Latorraca, S; Fagiolo, U; Santacaterina, S; Amaducci, L; Tiozzo, R; Franceschi, C; Sorbi, S

    1998-03-27

    Human fibroblast cultures, which have a finite replicative lifespan in vitro, are the most widely used model for the study of senescence at the cellular level. An inverse relationship between replicative capability and donor age has been reported in human fibroblast strains. We studied the growth capacity of fibroblast primary cultures derived from people whose lifespan was as closer as possible to the expected maximum human lifespan, i.e. people over one hundred. Our data suggest that outgrowth of fibroblasts from biopsies, growth kinetics at different population doubling levels, capability to respond to a classical mitogenic stimulus (such as 20% serum) and a variety of growth factors, were remarkably similar in fibroblasts from centenarians and young controls. On the whole, our data challenge the tenet of a simple and strict relationship between in vivo aging and in vitro proliferative capability of human fibroblasts, at least at the individual level.

  11. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression.

    Jaroslaw Suchanski

    Full Text Available In our previous studies we showed that in breast cancer podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated positively with tumor size, grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and poor patients' outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess if podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts can affect malignancy-associated properties of breast cancer cells. Human fibroblastic cell lines (MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst overexpressing podoplanin and control fibroblasts were co-cultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells and the impact of podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts on migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells were studied in vitro. Migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells were not affected by the presence of podoplanin on the surface of fibroblasts. However, ectopic expression of podoplanin highly increases the migration of MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst fibroblasts. The present study also revealed for the first time, that podoplanin expression affects the formation of pseudo tubes by endothelial cells. When human HSkMEC cells were co-cultured with podoplanin-rich fibroblasts the endothelial cell capillary-like network was characterized by significantly lower numbers of nodes and meshes than in co-cultures of endothelial cells with podoplanin-negative fibroblasts. The question remains as to how our experimental data can be correlated with previous clinical data showing an association between the presence of podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, we propose that expression of podoplanin by fibroblasts facilitates their movement into the tumor stroma, which creates a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression by increasing the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which produce numerous factors affecting proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells. In accordance with this, the present study revealed for the first

  12. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression.

    Suchanski, Jaroslaw; Tejchman, Anna; Zacharski, Maciej; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Nowinska, Katarzyna; Rys, Janusz; Dziegiel, Piotr; Kieda, Claudine; Ugorski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies we showed that in breast cancer podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated positively with tumor size, grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and poor patients' outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess if podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts can affect malignancy-associated properties of breast cancer cells. Human fibroblastic cell lines (MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst) overexpressing podoplanin and control fibroblasts were co-cultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells and the impact of podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts on migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells were studied in vitro. Migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells were not affected by the presence of podoplanin on the surface of fibroblasts. However, ectopic expression of podoplanin highly increases the migration of MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst fibroblasts. The present study also revealed for the first time, that podoplanin expression affects the formation of pseudo tubes by endothelial cells. When human HSkMEC cells were co-cultured with podoplanin-rich fibroblasts the endothelial cell capillary-like network was characterized by significantly lower numbers of nodes and meshes than in co-cultures of endothelial cells with podoplanin-negative fibroblasts. The question remains as to how our experimental data can be correlated with previous clinical data showing an association between the presence of podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, we propose that expression of podoplanin by fibroblasts facilitates their movement into the tumor stroma, which creates a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression by increasing the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which produce numerous factors affecting proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells. In accordance with this, the present study revealed for the first time, that such

  13. Academic retainer medicine: an innovative business model for cross-subsidizing primary care.

    Lucier, David J; Frisch, Nicholas B; Cohen, Brian J; Wagner, Michael; Salem, Deeb; Fairchild, David G

    2010-06-01

    Retainer-medicine primary care practices, commonly referred to as "luxury" or "concierge" practices, provide enhanced services to patients beyond those available in traditional practices for a yearly retainer fee. Adoption of retainer practices has been largely absent in academic health centers (AHCs). Reasons for this trend stem primarily from ethical concerns, such as the potential for patient abandonment when physicians downsize from larger, traditional practices to smaller, retainer-medicine practices.In 2004, the Department of Medicine at Tufts Medical Center developed an academic retainer-medicine primary care practice within the Division of General Medicine that not only generates financial support for the division but also incorporates a clinical and business model that is aligned with the mission and ethics of an academic institution.In contrast to private retainer-medicine practices, this unique business model addresses several of the ethical issues associated with traditional retainer practices-it does not restrict net access to care and it neutralizes concerns about patient abandonment. Addressing the growing primary care shortage, the model also presents the opportunity for a retainer practice to cross-subsidize the expansion of general medicine in an academic medical setting. The authors elucidate the benefits, as well as the inherent challenges, of embedding an academic retainer-medicine practice within an AHC.

  14. Supra-aural gossypiboma: case report of a retained textile surgical sponge in an unusual location.

    Chawla, N; Gupta, N; Dhawan, N

    2016-11-01

    Gossypiboma or retained surgical sponge is an infrequently encountered surgical complication, more so in the head and neck region. A literature search did not reveal a previously reported case of retained or concealed surgical sponge after microscopic ear surgery. We present a unique and previously unreported case of a 25-year-old male who presented with a cystic swelling in the right supra-aural region 5 months post-modified radical mastoidectomy of the right ear. Surgical excision of the swelling revealed a retained surgical sponge. We emphasise the importance of counting surgical sponges after every surgical step to minimise the incidence of such retained surgical items.

  15. The impact of family intactness on family functioning, parental control and parent-child relational qualities in a Chinese context

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the differences between intact and non-intact families in family processes, including systematic family functioning, parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities. The participants were 3,328 Secondary One students, with a mean age of 12.59 years, recruited from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Four validated scales were used to assess family processes. Results showed that adolescents in non-intact families perceived relatively poorer family functioning, lower level of paternal and maternal behavioral control, lower level of paternal psychological control and poorer parent-child relational qualities than did adolescents in intact families. This generally indicated that family processes were poorer in non-intact families, compared with those in intact families. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  16. SV40-transformed human fibroblasts: evidence for cellular aging in pre-crisis cells.

    Stein, G H

    1985-10-01

    Pre-crisis SV40-transformed human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cultures have a finite proliferative lifespan, but they do not enter a viable senescent state at end of lifespan. Little is known about either the mechanism for this finite lifespan in SV40-transformed HDF or its relationship to finite lifespan in normal HDF. Recently we proposed that in normal HDF the phenomena of finite lifespan and arrest in a viable senescent state depend on two separate processes: 1) an age-related decrease in the ability of the cells to recognize or respond to serum and/or other mitogens such that the cells become functionally mitogen-deprived at the end of lifespan; and 2) the ability of the cells to enter a viable, G1-arrested state whenever they experience mitogen deprivation. In this paper, data are presented that suggest that pre-crisis SV40-transformed HDF retain the first process described above, but lack the second process. It is shown that SV40-transformed HDF have a progressively decreasing ability to respond to serum as they age, but they continue to traverse the cell cycle at the end of lifespan. Concomitantly, the rate of cell death increases steadily toward the end of lifespan, thereby causing the total population to cease growing and ultimately to decline. Previous studies have shown that when SV40-transformed HDF are environmentally serum deprived, they likewise exhibit continued cell cycle traverse coupled with increased cell death. Thus, these results support the hypothesis that pre-crisis SV40-transformed HDF still undergo the same aging process as do normal HDF, but they end their lifespan in crisis rather than in the normal G1-arrested senescent state because they have lost their ability to enter a viable, G1-arrested state in response to mitogen deprivation.

  17. Multiple functions of gingival and mucoperiosteal fibroblasts in oral wound healing and repair.

    Chiquet, Matthias; Katsaros, Christos; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblasts are cells of mesenchymal origin. They are responsible for the production of most extracellular matrix in connective tissues and are essential for wound healing and repair. In recent years, it has become clear that fibroblasts from different tissues have various distinct traits. Moreover, wounds in the oral cavity heal under very special environmental conditions compared with skin wounds. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the various interconnected functions of gingival and mucoperiosteal fibroblasts during the repair of oral wounds. The MEDLINE database was searched with the following terms: (gingival OR mucoperiosteal) AND fibroblast AND (wound healing OR repair). The data gathered were used to compare oral fibroblasts with fibroblasts from other tissues in terms of their regulation and function during wound healing. Specifically, we sought answers to the following questions: (i) what is the role of oral fibroblasts in the inflammatory response in acute wounds; (ii) how do growth factors control the function of oral fibroblasts during wound healing; (iii) how do oral fibroblasts produce, remodel and interact with extracellular matrix in healing wounds; (iv) how do oral fibroblasts respond to mechanical stress; and (v) how does aging affect the fetal-like responses and functions of oral fibroblasts? The current state of research indicates that oral fibroblasts possess unique characteristics and tightly controlled specific functions in wound healing and repair. This information is essential for developing new strategies to control the intraoral wound-healing processes of the individual patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Stromal fibroblasts derived from mammary gland of bovine with mastitis display inflammation-specific changes

    Chen, Qing; He, Guiliang; Zhang, Wenyao; Xu, Tong; Qi, Hongliang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblasts are predominant components of mammary stromal cells and play crucial roles in the development and involution of bovine mammary gland; however, whether these cells contribute to mastitis has not been demonstrated. Thus, we have undertaken biological and molecular characterization of inflammation-associated fibroblasts (INFs) extracted from bovine mammary glands with clinical mastitis and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from slaughtered dairy cows because of fractured legs during lactation...

  19. Insulin binding and stimulation of hexose and amino acid transport by normal and receptor-defective human fibroblasts

    Longo, N.; Nagata, N.; Danner, D.; Priest, J.; Elsas, L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors analyzed insulin receptors in cells cultured from a sibship of related parents who had two offspring with severe insulin resistance (Leprechaunism). 124 I-Insulin (1 ng/ml) binding to skin fibroblasts from the proband, mother, and father was 9, 60 and 62% of control cells, respectively, at equilibrium, Non-linear regression analysis, utilizing a two receptors model, of curvilinear Scatchard plots indicated a reduced number of high-affinity binding sites in both parents. Influx of L-Proline (System A), L-Serine (ASC) and L-Leucine (L) was similar in control and mutant cells. Similarly, during the depletion of intracellular amino acid pools, there was a release from transinhibition for System A and a decrease of transstimulation of Systems ASC and L in both cell lines. Surprisingly, insulin augmented, normally, A system influx with an ED 50 = 70 ng/ml at 24 0 C and 7 ng/ml at 37 0 C. By contrast insulin failed to simulated 3-0-methyl-D-glucose influx into the proband's cells, while normal cells were stimulated 30% with an ED 50 of 6 ng/ml. These results indicate that defective high-affinity insulin binding is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; that general membrane functions are intact; that insulin regulates A system amino acid and hexose transport by two different mechanisms; and, that the latter mechanism is impaired by this family's receptor mutation

  20. Evaluation of the Effect of Axial Wall Modification and Coping Design on the Retention of Cement-retained Implant-supported Crowns

    Derafshi, Reza; Ahangari, Ahmad Hasan; Torabi, Kianoosh; Farzin, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Because of compromised angulations of implants, the abutments are sometimes prepared. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of removing one wall of the implant abutment on the retention of cement-retained crowns. Materials and methods. Four prefabricated abutments were attached to analogues and embedded in acrylic resin blocks. The first abutment was left intact. Axial walls were partially removed from the remaining abutments to produce abutments with three walls. The screw access channel for the first and second abutments were completely filled with composite resin. For the third and fourth abutments, only partial filling was done. Wax-up models were made by CAD/CAM. Ten cast copings were fabricated for each abutment. The copings of fourth abutment had an extension into the screw access channel. Copings were cemented with Temp Bond. The castings were removed from the abutment using an Instron machine, and the peak removal force was recorded. A one-way ANOVA was used to test for a significant difference followed by the pairwise comparisons. Results. The abutments with opened screw access channel had a significantly higher retention than the two other abutments. The abutment with removed wall and no engagement into the hole by the castings exhibited the highest retention. Conclusion. Preserving the opening of screw access channel significantly increases the retention where one of the axial walls of implant abutments for cement-retained restorations is removed during preparation. PMID:25973152