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Sample records for fibroblasts endothelial cells

  1. Growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells on wettability gradient surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruardy, TG; Moorlag, HE; Schakenraad, JM; VanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    The growth, spreading, and shape of human skin fibroblasts (PK 84) and human umbilical cord endothelial cells on dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane (DOGS) gradient surfaces were investigated in the presence of serum proteins. Gradient surfaces were prepared on glass using

  2. Impairment of lymphocyte adhesion to cultured fibroblasts and endothelial cells by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piela-Smith, T.H.; Aneiro, L.; Nuveen, E.; Korn, J.H.; Aune, T.

    1992-01-01

    A critical component of immune responsiveness is the localization of effector cells at sites of inflammatory lesions. Adhesive molecules that may play a role in this process have been described on the surfaces of both lymphocytes and connective tissue cells. Adhesive interactions of T lymphocytes with fibroblasts or endothelial cells can be inhibited by preincubation of the fibroblasts or endothelial cells with antibody to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) or by preincubation of the T cells with antibody to lymphocyte function-associated Ag 1 (CD11a/CD18), molecules shown to be important in several other cell-cell adhesion interactions. Here the authors show that γ-irradiation of human T lymphocytes impaired their ability to adhere to both fibroblasts and endothelial cells. This impairment was not associated with a loss of cell viability or of cell surface lymphocyte function-associated Ag 1 expression. γ-Irradiation of T cells is known to result in the activation of ADP-ribosyltransferase, an enzyme involved in DNA strand-break repair, causing subsequent depletion of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pools by increasing NAD consumption for poly(ADP-ribose) formation. Preincubation of T cells with either nicotinamide or 3-aminobenzamide, both known inhibitors of ADP-ribosyltransferase, completely reversed the suppressive effects of γ-irradiation on T cell adhesion. The maintenance of adhesion was accompanied by inhibition of irradiation-induced depletion of cellular NAD. These experiments suggest that the impairment of cellular immune function after irradiation in vivo may be caused, in part, by defective T cell emigration and localization at inflammatory sites. 44 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Regulation by basic fibroblast growth factor of glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis in cultured vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, T; Hiraga, S; Ohkawara, S; Inada, M; Yamamoto, C; Kozuka, H; Koizumi, F

    1995-05-01

    The alteration of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells after exposure to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was investigated. It was found that the incorporation of [3H]glucosamine into GAGs was markedly increased by bFGF in both the cell layer and the conditioned medium; however, that of [35S]sulfate was not changed by the growth factor. These results indicated that bFGF enhanced the sugar-chain formation but did not affect their sulfation in endothelial GAG production. Similar changes were observed in either bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells and human fibroblastic IMR-90 cells to greater and lesser degrees, respectively. Characterization of GAGs in the endothelial cell layer and the conditioned medium revealed that bFGF enhanced both heparan sulfate and the other GAGs to a similar degree. The present data suggest that bFGF may be involved in the regulation of the blood coagulation system via altering GAGs of the vascular tissue when the endothelium was damaged.

  4. Paracrine interactions of cancer-associated fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells: tumor allies and foes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, Roberto; Van Ginderachter, Jo A; Turtoi, Andrei

    2018-01-01

    Tumor stroma is composed of many cellular subtypes, of which the most abundant are fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells. During the process of tissue injury, these three cellular subtypes must coordinate their activity to efficiently contribute to tissue regeneration. In tumor, this mechanism is hijacked by cancer cells, which rewire the interaction of stromal cells to benefit tumor development. The present review aims at summarizing most relevant information concerning both pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic actions implicating the three stromal cell subtypes as well as their mutual interactions. Although stromal cells are generally regarded as tumor-supportive and at will manipulated by cancer cells, several novel studies point at many defaults in cancer cell-mediated stromal reprograming. Indeed, parts of initial tissue-protective and homeostatic functions of the stromal cells remain in place even after tumor development. Both tumor-supportive and tumor-suppressive functions have been well described for macrophages, whereas similar results are emerging for fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Recent success of immunotherapies have finally brought the long awaited proof that stroma is key for efficient tumor targeting. However, a better understanding of paracrine stromal interactions is needed in order to encourage drug development not only aiming at disruption of tumor-supportive communication but also re-enforcing, existing, tumor-suppressive mechanisms.

  5. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Suchanski

    Full Text Available In our previous studies we showed that in breast cancer podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated positively with tumor size, grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and poor patients' outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess if podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts can affect malignancy-associated properties of breast cancer cells. Human fibroblastic cell lines (MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst overexpressing podoplanin and control fibroblasts were co-cultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells and the impact of podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts on migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells were studied in vitro. Migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells were not affected by the presence of podoplanin on the surface of fibroblasts. However, ectopic expression of podoplanin highly increases the migration of MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst fibroblasts. The present study also revealed for the first time, that podoplanin expression affects the formation of pseudo tubes by endothelial cells. When human HSkMEC cells were co-cultured with podoplanin-rich fibroblasts the endothelial cell capillary-like network was characterized by significantly lower numbers of nodes and meshes than in co-cultures of endothelial cells with podoplanin-negative fibroblasts. The question remains as to how our experimental data can be correlated with previous clinical data showing an association between the presence of podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, we propose that expression of podoplanin by fibroblasts facilitates their movement into the tumor stroma, which creates a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression by increasing the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which produce numerous factors affecting proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells. In accordance with this, the present study revealed for the first

  6. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanski, Jaroslaw; Tejchman, Anna; Zacharski, Maciej; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Nowinska, Katarzyna; Rys, Janusz; Dziegiel, Piotr; Kieda, Claudine; Ugorski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies we showed that in breast cancer podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated positively with tumor size, grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and poor patients' outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess if podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts can affect malignancy-associated properties of breast cancer cells. Human fibroblastic cell lines (MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst) overexpressing podoplanin and control fibroblasts were co-cultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells and the impact of podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts on migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells were studied in vitro. Migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells were not affected by the presence of podoplanin on the surface of fibroblasts. However, ectopic expression of podoplanin highly increases the migration of MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst fibroblasts. The present study also revealed for the first time, that podoplanin expression affects the formation of pseudo tubes by endothelial cells. When human HSkMEC cells were co-cultured with podoplanin-rich fibroblasts the endothelial cell capillary-like network was characterized by significantly lower numbers of nodes and meshes than in co-cultures of endothelial cells with podoplanin-negative fibroblasts. The question remains as to how our experimental data can be correlated with previous clinical data showing an association between the presence of podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, we propose that expression of podoplanin by fibroblasts facilitates their movement into the tumor stroma, which creates a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression by increasing the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which produce numerous factors affecting proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells. In accordance with this, the present study revealed for the first time, that such

  7. HJURP regulates cellular senescence in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells via a p53-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jong-Ik; Cho, Jung Hee; Kim, Jae-Ryong

    2013-08-01

    Holliday junction recognition protein (HJURP), a centromere protein-A (CENP-A) histone chaperone, mediates centromere-specific assembly of CENP-A nucleosome, contributing to high-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division. However, the role of HJURP in cellular senescence of human primary cells remains unclear. We found that the expression levels of HJURP decreased in human dermal fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells in replicative or premature senescence. Ectopic expression of HJURP in senescent cells partially overcame cell senescence. Conversely, downregulation of HJURP in young cells led to premature senescence. p53 knockdown, but not p16 knockdown, abolished senescence phenotypes caused by HJURP reduction. These data suggest that HJURP plays an important role in the regulation of cellular senescence through a p53-dependent pathway and might contribute to tissue or organismal aging and protection of cellular transformation.

  8. Amino acid sequence preferences to control cell-specific organization of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanie, Kei; Kato, Ryuji; Zhao, Yingzi; Narita, Yuji; Okochi, Mina; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    Effective surface modification with biocompatible molecules is known to be effective in reducing the life-threatening risks related to artificial cardiovascular implants. In recent strategies in regenerative medicine, the enhancement and support of natural repair systems at the site of injury by designed biocompatible molecules have succeeded in rapid and effective injury repair. Therefore, such a strategy could also be effective for rapid endothelialization of cardiovascular implants to lower the risk of thrombosis and stenosis. To achieve this enhancement of the natural repair system, a biomimetic molecule that mimics proper cellular organization at the implant location is required. In spite of the fact that many reported peptides have cell-attracting properties on material surfaces, there have been few peptides that could control cell-specific adhesion. For the advanced cardiovascular implants, peptides that can mimic the natural mechanism that controls cell-specific organization have been strongly anticipated. To obtain such peptides, we hypothesized the cellular bias toward certain varieties of amino acids and examined the cell preference (in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and protein attraction) of varieties and of repeat length on SPOT peptide arrays. To investigate the role of specific peptides in controlling the organization of various cardiovascular-related cells, we compared endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and fibroblasts (FBs). A clear, cell-specific preference was found for amino acids (longer than 5-mer) using three types of cells, and the combinational effect of the physicochemical properties of the residues was analyzed to interpret the mechanism. Copyright © 2011 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Expression of the stem cell factor in fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages in periapical tissues in human chronic periapical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S Q; Wang, R; Huang, S G

    2017-03-08

    Stem cell factor (SCF), an important stem cell cytokine, has multiple functions. Fibroblasts (FBs), mature mast cells, endothelial cells (ECs), and eosinophil granulocytes can produce SCF in the inflammatory process. Therefore, we aimed to observe SCF expression in FBs, ECs, and macrophages (MPs) in periapical tissues in human chronic periapical disease and investigate the effects of cells expressing SCF in pathogenesis of the disease. Healthy (N = 20), periapical cyst (N = 15), and periapical granuloma (N = 15) tissues were fixed in 10% formalin for 48 h, embedded in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to observe histological changes. SCF expression was observed in FBs, ECs, and MPs in periapical tissues by double immunofluorescence. CD334, CD31, and CD14 are specific markers of FBs, ECs, and MPs, respectively. Results showed that densities of CD334-SCF double-positive FBs, CD31-SCF double-positive ECs, and CD14-SCF double-positive MPs were significantly increased in periapical tissue groups (P periapical tissue groups (P > 0.05). CD14-SCF double-positive MP density was considerably higher in periapical granulomas than in cysts (P periapical tissues, suggesting that the cells might be related to occurrence, development, and pathogenesis of chronic periapical disease.

  10. Development and characterization of a spheroidal coculture model of endothelial cells and fibroblasts for improving angiogenesis in tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenger, Andreas; Kowalewski, Nadja; Stahl, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Neovascularization is a critical step in tissue engineering applications since implantation of voluminous grafts without sufficient vascularity results in hypoxic cell death of central tissues. We have developed a three-dimensional spheroidal coculture system consisting of human umbilical vein...... endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human primary fibroblasts (hFBs) to improve angiogenesis in tissue engineering applications. Morphological analysis of cryosections from HUVEC/hFB cospheroids revealed a characteristic temporal and spatial organization with HUVECs located in the center of the cospheroid...... to the formation of heterogenic cell contacts between HUVECs and hFBs within the cospheroid. The model system introduced in this study is suitable for the development of a preformed lumenized capillary-like network ex vivo and may therefore be useful for improving angiogenesis in in vivo tissue engineering...

  11. Multivalent conjugates of basic fibroblast growth factor enhance in vitro proliferation and migration of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, Aline; Browne, Shane; Altiok, Eda I; Svedlund, Felicia L; Jackson, Wesley M; Healy, Kevin E

    2018-05-01

    Growth factors hold great promise for regenerative therapies. However, their clinical use has been halted by poor efficacy and rapid clearance from tissue, necessitating the delivery of extremely high doses to achieve clinical effectiveness which has raised safety concerns. Thus, strategies to either enhance growth factor activity at low doses or to increase their residence time within target tissues are necessary for clinical success. In this study, we generated multivalent conjugates (MVCs) of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a key growth factor involved in angiogenesis and wound healing, to hyaluronic acid (HyA) polymer chains. Multivalent bFGF conjugates (mvbFGF) were fabricated with minimal non-specific interaction observed between bFGF and the HyA chain. The hydrodynamic radii of mvbFGF ranged from ∼50 to ∼75 nm for conjugation ratios of bFGF to HyA chains at low (10 : 1) and high (30 : 1) feed ratios, respectively. The mvbFGF demonstrated enhanced bioactivity compared to unconjugated bFGF in assays of cell proliferation and migration, processes critical to angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. The 30 : 1 mvbFGF outperformed the 10 : 1 conjugate, which could be due to either FGF receptor clustering or interference with receptor mediated internalization and signal deactivation. This study simultaneously investigated the role of both protein to polymer ratio and multivalent conjugate size on their bioactivity, and determined that increasing the protein-to-polymer ratio and conjugate size resulted in greater cell bioactivity.

  12. Modulation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cell and human gingival fibroblast behavior by micropatterned silica coating surfaces for zirconia dental implant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranjeira, Marta S; Carvalho, Ângela; Ferraz, Maria Pia; Monteiro, Fernando Jorge; Pelaez-Vargas, Alejandro; Hansford, Derek; Coimbra, Susana; Costa, Elísio; Santos-Silva, Alice; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    Dental ceramic implants have shown superior esthetic behavior and the absence of induced allergic disorders when compared to titanium implants. Zirconia may become a potential candidate to be used as an alternative to titanium dental implants if surface modifications are introduced. In this work, bioactive micropatterned silica coatings were produced on zirconia substrates, using a combined methodology of sol–gel processing and soft lithography. The aim of the work was to compare the in vitro behavior of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) on three types of silica-coated zirconia surfaces: flat and micropatterned (with pillars and with parallel grooves). Our results showed that cells had a higher metabolic activity (HGF, HDMEC) and increased gene expression levels of fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and collagen type I (COL I) on surfaces with pillars. Nevertheless, parallel grooved surfaces were able to guide cell growth. Even capillary tube-like networks of HDMEC were oriented according to the surface geometry. Zirconia and silica with different topographies have shown to be blood compatible and silica coating reduced bacteria adhesion. All together, the results indicated that microstructured bioactive coating seems to be an efficient strategy to improve soft tissue integration on zirconia implants, protecting implants from peri-implant inflammation and improving long-term implant stabilization. This new approach of micropatterned silica coating on zirconia substrates can generate promising novel dental implants, with surfaces that provide physical cues to guide cells and enhance their behavior. (paper)

  13. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) supports adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells through interaction with RGD-binding integrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yueqing; Hu Xiaobo; Tian Ruiyang; Wei Wangui; Hu Wei; Chen Xia; Han Wei; Chen Huayou; Gong Yi

    2006-01-01

    Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) is a newly identified member of angiopoietin-related proteins (ARPs)/angiopoietin-like proteins (Angptls). AGF has been considered as a novel growth factor in accelerating cutaneous wound healing, as it is capable of stimulating keratinocytes proliferation as well as angiogenesis. But in our paper, we demonstrate that AGF stimulates keratinocytes proliferation only at high protein concentration, however, it can potently promote adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, we confirm that the adhesion and migration cellular events are mediated by RGD-binding integrins, most possibly the α v -containing integrins, by in vitro inhibition assays using synthetic competitive peptides. Our results strongly suggest that AGF is an integrin ligand as well as a mitogenic growth factor and theoretically participates in cutaneous wound healing in a more complex mechanism

  14. Biofabrication enables efficient interrogation and optimization of sequential culture of endothelial cells, fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes for formation of vascular cords in cardiac tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Rohin K; Radisic, Milica; Chiu, Loraine L Y; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that preculture of fibroblasts (FBs) and endothelial cells (ECs) prior to cardiomyocytes (CMs) improved the structural and functional properties of engineered cardiac tissue compared to culture of CMs alone or co-culture of all three cell types. However, these approaches did not result in formation of capillary-like cords, which are precursors to vascularization in vivo. Here we hypothesized that seeding the ECs first on Matrigel and then FBs 24 h later to stabilize the endothelial network (sequential preculture) would enhance cord formation in engineered cardiac organoids. Three sequential preculture groups were tested by seeding ECs (D4T line) at 8%, 15% and 31% of the total cell number on Matrigel-coated microchannels and incubating for 24 h. Cardiac FBs were then seeded (32%, 25% and 9% of the total cell number, respectively) and incubated an additional 24 h. Finally, neonatal rat CMs (60% of the total cell number) were added and the organoids were cultivated for seven days. Within 24 h, the 8% EC group formed elongated cords which eventually developed into beating cylindrical organoids, while the 15% and 31% EC groups proliferated into flat EC monolayers with poor viability. Excitation threshold (ET) in the 8% EC group (3.4 ± 1.2 V cm −1 ) was comparable to that of the CM group (3.3 ± 1.4 V cm −1 ). The ET worsened with increasing EC seeding density (15% EC: 4.4 ± 1.5 V cm −1 ; 31% EC: 4.9 ± 1.5 V cm −1 ). Thus, sequential preculture promoted vascular cord formation and enhanced architecture and function of engineered heart tissues. (paper)

  15. Evodiamine attenuates TGF-β1-induced fibroblast activation and endothelial to mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Qing; Xiao, Yang; Jiang, Xiao-Han; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Zheng; Chang, Wei; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of evodiamine on fibroblast activation in cardiac fibroblasts and endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts were stimulated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) to induce fibroblast activation. After co-cultured with evodiamine (5, 10 μM), the proliferation and pro-fibrotic proteins expression of cardiac fibroblasts were evaluated. HUVECs were also stimulated with TGF-β1 to induce EndMT and treated with evodiamine (5, 10 μM) at the same time. The EndMT response in the HUVECs was evaluated as well as the capacity of the transitioned endothelial cells migrating to surrounding tissue. As a result, Evodiamine-blunted TGF-β1 induced activation of cardiac fibroblast into myofibroblast as assessed by the decreased expressions of α-SMA. Furthermore, evodiamine reduced the increased protein expression of fibrosis markers in neonatal and adult rat cardiac fibroblasts induced by TGF-β1. HUVECs stimulated with TGF-β1 exhibited lower expression levels of CD31, CD34, and higher levels of α-SMA, vimentin than the control cells. This phenotype was eliminated in the HUVECs treated with both 5 and 10 μM evodiamine. Evodiamine significantly reduced the increase in migration ability that occurred in response to TGF-β1 in HUVECs. In addition, the activation of Smad2, Smad3, ERK1/2, and Akt, and the nuclear translocation of Smad4 in both cardiac fibroblasts and HUVEC were blocked by evodiamine treatment. Thus, evodiamine could prevent cardiac fibroblasts from activation into myofibroblast and protect HUVEC against EndMT. These effects may be mediated by inhibition of the TGFβ pathway in both cardiac fibroblasts and HUVECs.

  16. A benzoxazine derivative induces vascular endothelial cell apoptosis in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 by elevating NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; He, Qiuxia; Cheng, Yizhe; Zhao, Baoxiang; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Shangli; Miao, Junying

    2009-09-01

    Previously, we found that 6,8-dichloro-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzoxazine (DBO) promoted apoptosis of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) deprived of growth factors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of DBO and its mechanism of action on angiogenesis and apoptosis of HUVECs in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), which promotes angiogenesis and inhibits apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. DBO significantly inhibited capillary-like tube formation by promoting apoptosis of HUVECs in the presence of FGF-2 in vitro. Furthermore, DBO elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) and increased the activity of NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in promoting apoptosis under this condition. Moreover, when NADPH oxidase was inhibited by its specific inhibitor, dibenziodolium chloride (DPI), DBO could not elevate ROS and NO levels in HUVECs. The data suggest that DBO is a new modulator of apoptosis in vitro, and it might function by increasing the activity of NADPH oxidase and iNOS, subsequently elevating the levels of ROS and NO in HUVECs. The findings of this study provide a new small molecule for investigating the FGF-2/NADPH oxidase/iNOS signaling pathway in apoptosis.

  17. Endothelial MMP14 is required for endothelial-dependent growth support of human airway basal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bi-Sen; Gomi, Kazunori; Rafii, Shahin; Crystal, Ronald G.; Walters, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human airway basal cells are the stem (or progenitor) population of the airway epithelium, and play a central role in anchoring the epithelium to the basement membrane. The anatomic position of basal cells allows for potential paracrine signaling between them and the underlying non-epithelial stromal cells. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that endothelial cells support growth of basal cells during co-culture through vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-mediated signaling. Building on these findings, we found, by RNA sequencing analysis, that basal cells expressed multiple fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ligands (FGF2, FGF5, FGF11 and FGF13) and that only FGF2 and FGF5 were capable of functioning in a paracrine manner to activate classical FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling. Antibody-mediated blocking of FGFR1 during basal-cell–endothelial-cell co-culture significantly reduced the endothelial-cell-dependent basal cell growth. Stimulation of endothelial cells with basal-cell-derived growth factors induced endothelial cell expression of matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14), and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endothelial cell MMP14 significantly reduced the endothelial-cell-dependent growth of basal cells. Overall, these data characterize a new growth-factor-mediated reciprocal ‘crosstalk’ between human airway basal cells and endothelial cells that regulates proliferation of basal cells. PMID:26116571

  18. Infections and endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Tymen T.; Mairuhu, Albert T. A.; de Kruif, Martijn D.; Klein, Saskia K.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; ten Cate, Hugo; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Levi, Marcel; van Gorp, Eric C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Systemic infection by various pathogens interacts with the endothelium and may result in altered coagulation, vasculitis and atherosclerosis. Endothelium plays a role in the initiation and regulation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis. Exposure of endothelial cells may lead to rapid activation of

  19. Atlantic salmon endothelial cells from the heart were more susceptible than fibroblasts from the bulbus arteriosus to four RNA viruses but protected from two viruses by dsRNA pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Phuc H; Tong, Winnie W L; Misk, Ehab; Jones, Ginny; Lumsden, John S; Bols, Niels C

    2017-11-01

    Heart diseases caused by viruses are major causes of Atlantic salmon aquaculture loss. Two Atlantic salmon cardiovascular cell lines, an endothelial cell line (ASHe) from the heart and a fibroblast cell line (BAASf) from the bulbus arteriosus, were evaluated for their response to four fish viruses, CSV, IPNV, VHSV IVa and VHSV IVb, and the innate immune agonist, double-stranded RNA mimic poly IC. All four viruses caused cytopathic effects in ASHe and BAASf. However, ASHe was more susceptible to all four viruses than BAASf. When comparing between the viruses, ASHe cells were found to be moderately susceptible to CSV and VHSV IVb, but highly susceptible to IPNV and VHSV IVa induced cell death. All four viruses were capable of propagating in the ASHe cell line, leading to increases in virus titre over time. In BAASf, CSV and IPNV produced more than one log increase in titre from initial infection, but VHSV IVb and IVa did not. When looking at the antiviral response of both cell lines, Mx proteins were induced in ASHe and BAASf by poly IC. All four viruses induced Mx proteins in BAASf, while only CSV and VHSV IVb induced Mx proteins in ASHe. IPNV and VHSV IVa suppressed Mx proteins expression in ASHe. Pretreatment of ASHe with poly IC to allow for Mx proteins accumulation protected the culture from subsequent infections with IPNV and VHSV IVa, resulting in delayed cell death, reduced virus titres and reduced viral proteins expression. These data suggest that endothelial cells potentially can serve as points of infections for viruses in the heart and that two of the four viruses, IPNV and VHSV IVa, have mechanisms to avoid or downregulate antiviral responses in ASHe cells. Furthermore, the high susceptibility of the ASHe cell line to IPNV and VHSV IVa can make it a useful tool for studying antiviral compounds against these viruses and for general detection of fish viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hematopoietic stem cell cytokines and fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulate human endothelial cell-pericyte tube co-assembly in 3D fibrin matrices under serum-free defined conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie O Smith

    Full Text Available We describe a novel 3D fibrin matrix model using recombinant hematopoietic stem cell cytokines under serum-free defined conditions which promotes the assembly of human endothelial cell (EC tubes with co-associated pericytes. Individual ECs and pericytes are randomly mixed together and EC tubes form that is accompanied by pericyte recruitment to the EC tube abluminal surface over a 3-5 day period. These morphogenic processes are stimulated by a combination of the hematopoietic stem cell cytokines, stem cell factor, interleukin-3, stromal derived factor-1α, and Flt-3 ligand which are added in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 into the fibrin matrix. In contrast, this tube morphogenic response does not occur under serum-free defined conditions when VEGF and FGF-2 are added together in the fibrin matrices. We recently demonstrated that VEGF and FGF-2 are able to prime EC tube morphogenic responses (i.e. added overnight prior to the morphogenic assay to hematopoietic stem cell cytokines in collagen matrices and, interestingly, they also prime EC tube morphogenesis in 3D fibrin matrices. EC-pericyte interactions in 3D fibrin matrices leads to marked vascular basement membrane assembly as demonstrated using immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we show that hematopoietic stem cell cytokines and pericytes stimulate EC sprouting in fibrin matrices in a manner dependent on the α5β1 integrin. This novel co-culture system, under serum-free defined conditions, allows for a molecular analysis of EC tube assembly, pericyte recruitment and maturation events in a critical ECM environment (i.e. fibrin matrices that regulates angiogenic events in postnatal life.

  1. Endothelial network formed with human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in autologous multicellular skin substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponec, Maria; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Dijkman, Remco; Kempenaar, Johanna; van der Pluijm, Gabri; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2004-01-01

    A human skin equivalent from a single skin biopsy harboring keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermal compartment, and fibroblasts and microvascular dermal endothelial cells in the dermal compartment was developed. The results of the study revealed that the nature of the extracellular matrix of the dermal compartments plays an important role in establishment of endothelial network in vitro. With rat-tail type I collagen matrices only lateral but not vertical expansion of endothelial networks was observed. In contrast, the presence of extracellular matrix of entirely human origin facilitated proper spatial organization of the endothelial network. Namely, when human dermal fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells were seeded on the bottom of an inert filter and subsequently epidermal cells were seeded on top of it, fibroblasts produced extracellular matrix throughout which numerous branched tubes were spreading three-dimensionally. Fibroblasts also facilitated the formation of basement membrane at the epidermal/matrix interface. Under all culture conditions, fully differentiated epidermis was formed with numerous melanocytes present in the basal epidermal cell layer. The results of the competitive RT-PCR revealed that both keratinocytes and fibroblasts expressed VEGF-A, -B, -C, aFGF and bFGF mRNA, whereas fibroblasts also expressed VEGF-D mRNA. At protein level, keratinocytes produced 10 times higher amounts of VEGF-A than fibroblasts did. The generation of multicellular skin equivalent from a single human skin biopsy will stimulate further developments for its application in the treatment of full-thickness skin defects. The potential development of biodegradable, biocompatible material suitable for these purposes is a great challenge for future research.

  2. The impact of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on cardiac fibroblasts grown under altered gravity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Leder, Annekatrin; Pietsch, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Myocardium is very sensitive to gravitational changes. During a spaceflight cardiovascular atrophy paired with rhythm problems and orthostatic intolerance can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor...

  3. A Cell Culture Platform to Maintain Long-term Phenotype of Primary Human Hepatocytes and Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Brenton R; Durham, Mitchell J; Monckton, Chase P; Khetani, Salman R

    2018-03-01

    Modeling interactions between primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in vitro can help elucidate human-specific mechanisms underlying liver physiology/disease and drug responses; however, existing hepatocyte/endothelial coculture models are suboptimal because of their use of rodent cells, cancerous cell lines, and/or nonliver endothelial cells. Hence, we sought to develop a platform that could maintain the long-term phenotype of PHHs and primary human LSECs. Primary human LSECs or human umbilical vein endothelial cells as the nonliver control were cocultivated with micropatterned PHH colonies (to control homotypic interactions) followed by an assessment of PHH morphology and functions (albumin and urea secretion, and cytochrome P-450 2A6 and 3A4 enzyme activities) over 3 weeks. Endothelial phenotype was assessed via gene expression patterns and scanning electron microscopy to visualize fenestrations. Hepatic responses in PHH/endothelial cocultures were benchmarked against responses in previously developed PHH/3T3-J2 fibroblast cocultures. Finally, PHH/fibroblast/endothelial cell tricultures were created and characterized as described previously. LSECs, but not human umbilical vein endothelial cells, induced PHH albumin secretion for ∼11 days; however, neither endothelial cell type could maintain PHH morphology and functions to the same magnitude/longevity as the fibroblasts. In contrast, both PHHs and endothelial cells displayed stable phenotype for 3 weeks in PHH/fibroblast/endothelial cell tricultures; furthermore, layered tricultures in which PHHs and endothelial cells were separated by a protein gel to mimic the space of Disse displayed similar functional levels as the coplanar tricultures. PHH/fibroblast/endothelial tricultures constitute a robust platform to elucidate reciprocal interactions between PHHs and endothelial cells in physiology, disease, and after drug exposure.

  4. Effect of human vascular endothelial growth factor gene transfer on endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression in a rat fibroblast and osteoblast culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Li, Claire H; Nauth, Aaron; McKee, Michael D; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2010-09-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in promoting angiogenesis and osteogenesis during fracture repair. Our previous studies have shown that cell-based VEGF gene therapy enhances bone healing of a rabbit tibia segmental bone defect in vivo. The aim of this project was to examine the effect of exogenous human VEGF on the endogenous rat VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in a cell-based gene transfer model. Rat fibroblasts and osteoblasts were harvested from the dermal tissue and periosteum, respectively, of Fisher 344 rats. The cells were then cultured and transfected with pcDNA-human VEGF using Superfect reagent (Qiagen). Four experimental groups were created: 1) fibroblast-VEGF; 2) osteoblast-VEGF; 3) nontransfected fibroblast controls; and 4) nontransfected osteoblast controls. The cultured cells were harvested at 1, 3, and 7 days after the gene transfection. The total mRNA was extracted (Trizol; Invitrogen); both human VEGF and rat VEGF mRNA were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and quantified by VisionWorksLS. The human VEGF165 mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction from transfected fibroblasts and osteoblasts at 1, 3, and 7 days after gene transfection. The human VEGF165 levels peaked at Day 1 and then gradually reduced expression in both transfected fibroblasts and osteoblasts. Two endogenous rat VEGF isoforms were detected in this cell culture model: rat VEGF120 and rat VEGF164. We compared the rat VEGF120 and rat VEGF164 expression level of the fibroblasts or osteoblasts that were transfected with human VEGF165, with nontransfected control cells. Both the transfected fibroblasts and osteoblasts showed greater expression of rat VEGF164 than nontransfected controls at Day 1 (peak level) and Day 3, but not at Day 7. The expression of rat VEGF120 was lower in transfected fibroblasts, but higher in transfected osteoblasts, than the relevant control groups at any time point

  5. Endothelial-regenerating cells: an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Martin; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2010-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common cause for cardiovascular diseases and is based on endothelial dysfunction. A growing body of evidence suggests the contribution of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells, monocytic cells, and mature endothelial cells to vessel formation and endothelial rejuvenation. To this day, various subsets of these endothelial-regenerating cells have been identified according to cellular origin, phenotype, and properties in vivo and in vitro. However, the definition and biology, especially of endothelial progenitor cells, is complex and under heavy debate. In this review, we focus on current definitions of endothelial progenitor cells, highlight the clinical relevance of endothelial-regenerating cells, and provide new insights into cell-cell interactions involved in endothelial cell rejuvenation.

  6. Triazole RGD antagonist reverts TGFβ1-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endothelial precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Francesca; Peppicelli, Silvia; Fabbrizzi, Pierangelo; Biagioni, Alessio; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Menchi, Gloria; Calorini, Lido; Pupi, Alberto; Trabocchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Fibrosis is the dramatic consequence of a dysregulated reparative process in which activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) play a central role. When exposed to TGFβ1, fibroblast and epithelial cells differentiate in myofibroblasts; in addition, endothelial cells may undergo endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and actively participate to the progression of fibrosis. Recently, the role of αv integrins, which recognize the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide, in the release and signal transduction activation of TGFβ1 became evident. In this study, we present a class of triazole-derived RGD antagonists that interact with αvβ3 integrin. Above different compounds, the RGD-2 specifically interferes with integrin-dependent TGFβ1 EndoMT in Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells (ECPCs) derived from circulating Endothelial Precursor Cells (ECPCs). The RGD-2 decreases the amount of membrane-associated TGFβ1, and reduces both ALK5/TGFβ1 type I receptor expression and Smad2 phosphorylation in ECPCs. We found that RGD-2 antagonist reverts EndoMT, reducing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin expression in differentiated ECPCs. Our results outline the critical role of integrin in fibrosis progression and account for the opportunity of using integrins as target for anti-fibrotic therapeutic treatment.

  7. Radiation-induced inhibition of human endothelial cells replicating in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGowin, R.L.; Lewis, L.J.; Mason, R.E.; Borke, M.K.; Hoak, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of some tumors may depend upon the sensitivity of their microvasculature to radiation. Heretofore, the dose-response of human endothelial cells replicating in tissue culture has not been published. In studies reported here, we exposed flasks containing 4 to 7 x 10 4 genetically identical human endothelial cells to doses of x irradiation from 125 to 1000 rad. During the phase of logarithmic growth, cell counts were compared to those of an unirradiated control to construct a dose--response curve. Similar studies were performed with normal fibroblasts. We found that 160 rad suppressed endothelial cell replication by 37 percent. Although recovery was evident with doses of 500 rad, no net increase in cell number occurred in 3 weeks in flasks of endothelial cells that received 750 or 1000 rad. Fibroblasts were slightly less sensitive under these conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a radiation dose--response curve for human endothelial cells replicating in culture

  8. Fibroblast spheroids as a model to study sustained fibroblast quiescence and their crosstalk with tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmenperä, Pertteli, E-mail: pertteli.salmenpera@helsinki.fi [Department of Virology, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FIN-00014 (Finland); Karhemo, Piia-Riitta [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, and Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 (Finland); Räsänen, Kati [Department of Virology, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FIN-00014 (Finland); Laakkonen, Pirjo [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, and Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 (Finland); Vaheri, Antti [Department of Virology, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FIN-00014 (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Stromal fibroblasts have an important role in regulating tumor progression. Normal and quiescent fibroblasts have been shown to restrict and control cancer cell growth, while cancer-associated, i. e. activated fibroblasts have been shown to enhance proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. In this study we describe generation of quiescent fibroblasts in multicellular spheroids and their effects on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) growth in soft-agarose and xenograft models. Quiescent phenotype of fibroblasts was determined by global down-regulation of expression of genes related to cell cycle and increased expression of p27. Interestingly, microarray analysis showed that fibroblast quiescence was associated with similar secretory phenotype as seen in senescence and they expressed senescence-associated-β-galactosidase. Quiescent fibroblasts spheroids also restricted the growth of RT3 SCC cells both in soft-agarose and xenograft models unlike proliferating fibroblasts. Restricted tumor growth was associated with marginally increased tumor cell senescence and cellular differentiation, showed with senescence-associated-β-galactosidase and cytokeratin 7 staining. Our results show that the fibroblasts spheroids can be used as a model to study cellular quiescence and their effects on cancer cell progression. - Highlights: • Fibroblasts acquire a sustained quiescence when grown as multicellular spheroids. • This quiescence is associated with drastic change in gene expression. • Fibroblasts spheroids secrete various inflammation-linked cytokines and chemokines. • Fibroblasts spheroids reduced growth of RT3 SCC cells in xenograft model.

  9. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Melissa A; Hirschi, Karen K

    2009-05-01

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these studies. Using human embryonic stem cells as a model system, we were able to reproducibly and robustly generate differentiated endothelial cells via coculture on OP9 marrow stromal cells. We found that, in contrast to studies in the mouse, bFGF and VEGF had no specific effects on the initiation of human vasculogenesis. However, exogenous Ihh promoted endothelial cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased production of cells with cobblestone morphology that coexpress multiple endothelial-specific genes and proteins, form lumens, and exhibit DiI-AcLDL uptake. Inhibition of BMP signaling using Noggin or BMP4, specifically, using neutralizing antibodies suppressed endothelial cell formation; whereas, addition of rhBMP4 to cells treated with the hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine rescued endothelial cell development. Our studies revealed that Ihh promoted human endothelial cell differentiation from pluripotent hES cells via BMP signaling, providing novel insights applicable to modulating human endothelial cell formation and vascular regeneration for human clinical therapies.

  10. Fibrosis in connective tissue disease: the role of the myofibroblast and fibroblast-epithelial cell interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Thomas; Abraham, David; Lafyatis, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Fibrosis, characterized by excessive extracellular matrix accumulation, is a common feature of many connective tissue diseases, notably scleroderma (systemic sclerosis). Experimental studies suggest that a complex network of intercellular interactions involving endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells, using an array of molecular mediators, drives the pathogenic events that lead to fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β and endothelin-1, which are part of a cytokine hierarchy with connective tissue growth factor, are key mediators of fibrogenesis and are primarily responsible for the differentiation of fibroblasts toward a myofibroblast phenotype. The tight skin mouse (Tsk-1) model of cutaneous fibrosis suggests that numerous other genes may also be important. PMID:17767742

  11. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  12. Stimulated human fibroblast cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.P.; Gale, K.L.; Einspenner, M.; Greenstock, C.L.; Gentner, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for cloning cultured mammalian cells have supported the most universally-accepted method for measuring the induction of lethality by geno-toxicants such as ionizing radiation: the 'survival of colony-forming ability (CFA)' assay. Since most cultured human cell lines exhibit plating efficiency (i.e. the percentage of cells that are capable of reproductively surviving and dividing to form visible colonies) well below 100%, such assays are in essence 'survival of plating efficiency' assays, since they are referred to the plating (or cloning) efficiency of control (i.e. unirradiated) cells. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor expression positively correlates with angiogenesis and peritumoural brain oedema in astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, F.F.; Wei, W.

    2008-01-01

    Astrocytoma is the most malignant intracranial neoplasm and is characterized by high neovascularization and peritumoural brain oedema. Angiogenesis is a complicated process in oncogenesis regulated by the balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. The expression of two angiogenic growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor were investigated using immunohistochemistry for astrocytoma from 82 patients and 11 normal human tissues. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor positively correlate with the pathological grade of astrocytoma, microvessel density numbers and brain oedema, which may be responsible for the increased tumour neovascularization and peritumoural brain oedema. The results support the idea that inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor are useful for the treatment of human astrocytoma and to improve patient's clinical outcomes and prognosis. (author)

  14. Pathology of experimental Ebola virus infection in African green monkeys. Involvement of fibroblastic reticular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K J; Anderson, A O; Geisbert, T W; Steele, K E; Geisbert, J B; Vogel, P; Connolly, B M; Huggins, J W; Jahrling, P B; Jaax, N K

    1997-08-01

    Ebola virus has been responsible for explosive lethal outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in both humans and nonhuman primates. Previous studies showed a predilection of Ebola virus for cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system and endothelial cells. To examine the distribution of lesions and Ebola virus antigen in the tissues of six adult male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) that died 6 to 7 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of Ebola-Zaire (Mayinga) virus. Tissues were examined histologically, immunohistochemically, and ultrastructurally. A major novel finding of this study was that fibroblastic reticular cells were immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally identified as targets of Ebola virus infection. The role of Ebola virus-infected fibroblastic reticular cells in the pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever warrants further investigation. This is especially important because of recent observations indicating that fibroblastic reticular cells, along with the reticular fibers they produce, maximize the efficiency of the immune response.

  15. Tissue factor-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor production by human fibroblasts in response to activated factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, V; Bentolila, S; Chabbat, J; Hakim, J; de Prost, D

    1998-04-15

    The transmembrane protein tissue factor (TF) is the cell surface receptor for coagulation factor VII (FVII) and activated factor VII (FVIIa). Recently, TF has been identified as a regulator of angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. This study was designed to link the binding of FVII(a) to its receptor, TF, with the subsequent triggering of angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by human lung fibroblasts. We report that incubation of fibroblasts, which express constitutive surface TF, with FVII(a) induces VEGF synthesis. FVII(a)-induced VEGF secretion, assessed by a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was time- and concentration-dependent. VEGF secretion was maximal after 24 hours of incubation of the cells with 100 nmol/L FVII(a) and represented a threefold induction of the basal VEGF level. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of VEGF detected three mRNA species of 180, 312, and 384 bp corresponding, respectively, to VEGF121, VEGF165, and VEGF189. A 2.5- to 3.5-fold increase was observed for the 180- and 312-bp transcripts at 12 and 24 hours, respectively. FVII(a)-dependent VEGF production was inhibited by a pool of antibodies against TF, pointing to the involvement of this receptor. On specific active-site inhibition with dansyl-glutamyl-glycinyl-arginyl chloromethyl ketone, FVIIa lost 70% of its capacity to elicit VEGF production. Consistent with this, the native form (zymogen) of FVII only had a 1.8-fold stimulating effect. Protein tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C are involved in signal transduction leading to VEGF production, as shown by the inhibitory effects of genistein and GF 109203X. The results of this study indicate that TF is essential for VIIa-induced VEGF production by human fibroblasts and that its role is mainly linked to the proteolytic activity of the TF-VIIa complex.

  16. Chromosome aberration induction in human diploid fibroblast and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    1986-01-01

    The relative sensitivity of cultured human fibroblasts and epithelial cells to radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations was investigated. Lung fibroblast and kidney epithelial cells from the same fetus were compared, as were skin fibroblasts and epithelial keratinocytes from the same foreskin sample. After exposure of proliferating fetal cells to 1.5 Gy X-rays there was a very similar aberration yield in the fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Observations of either little or no difference in chromosomal sensitivity between human fibroblasts and epithelial cells give added confidence that quantitative cytogenetic data obtained from cultured fibroblasts are relevant to the question of sensitivity of epithelial cells which are the predominant cell type in human cancers. (author)

  17. Fibroblast-derived CXCL12 promotes breast cancer metastasis by facilitating tumor cell intravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahirwar, Dinesh K; Nasser, Mohd W; Ouseph, Madhu M; Elbaz, Mohamad; Cuitiño, Maria C; Kladney, Raleigh D; Varikuti, Sanjay; Kaul, Kirti; Satoskar, Abhay R; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Zhang, Xiaoli; Ostrowski, Michael C; Leone, Gustavo; Ganju, Ramesh K

    2018-05-03

    The chemokine CXCL12 has been shown to regulate breast tumor growth, however, its mechanism in initiating distant metastasis is not well understood. Here, we generated a novel conditional allele of Cxcl12 in mice and used a fibroblast-specific Cre transgene along with various mammary tumor models to evaluate CXCL12 function in the breast cancer metastasis. Ablation of CXCL12 in stromal fibroblasts of mice significantly delayed the time to tumor onset and inhibited distant metastasis in different mouse models. Elucidation of mechanisms using in vitro and in vivo model systems revealed that CXCL12 enhances tumor cell intravasation by increasing vascular permeability and expansion of a leaky tumor vasculature. Furthermore, our studies revealed CXCL12 enhances permeability by recruiting endothelial precursor cells and decreasing endothelial tight junction and adherence junction proteins. High expression of stromal CXCL12 in large cohort of breast cancer patients was directly correlated to blood vessel density and inversely correlated to recurrence and overall patient survival. In addition, our analysis revealed that stromal CXCL12 levels in combination with number of CD31+ blood vessels confers poorer patient survival compared to individual protein level. However, no correlation was observed between epithelial CXCL12 and patient survival or blood vessel density. Our findings describe the novel interactions between fibroblasts-derived CXCL12 and endothelial cells in facilitating tumor cell intrvasation, leading to distant metastasis. Overall, our studies indicate that cross-talk between fibroblast-derived CXCL12 and endothelial cells could be used as novel biomarker and strategy for developing tumor microenvironment based therapies against aggressive and metastatic breast cancer.

  18. Interleukin 1 is an autocrine regulator of human endothelial cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzolino, F.; Torcia, M.; Aldinucci, D.; Ziche, M.; Bani, D.; Almerigogna, F.; Stern, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Proliferation of endothelial cells is regulated through the autocrine production of growth factors and the expression of cognate surface receptors. In this study, the authors demonstrate that interleukin 1 (IL-1) is an inhibitor of endothelial growth in vitro and in vivo. IL-1 arrested growing, cultured endothelial cells in G 1 phase; inhibition of proliferation was dose dependent and occurred in parallel with occupancy of endothelial surface IL-1 receptors. In an angiogenesis model, IL-1 could inhibit fibroblast growth factor-induced vessel formation. The autocrine nature of the IL-1 effect on endothelial proliferation was demonstrated by the observation that occupancy of cell-surface receptors by endogenous IL-1 depressed cell growth. The potential significance of this finding was emphasized by the detection of IL-1 in the native endothelium of human umbilical veins. A mechanism by which IL-1 may exert its inhibitory effect on endothelial cell growth was suggested by studies showing that IL-1 decreased the expression of high-affinity fibroblast growth factor binding sites on endothelium. These results point to a potentially important role of IL-1 in regulating blood vessel growth the suggest that autocrine production of inhibitory factors may be a mechanism controlling proliferation of normal cells

  19. An ibuprofen-antagonized plasmin inhibitor released by human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, W B; Ehrlich, H P

    1991-02-01

    Serum-free culture medium harvested from endothelial cell monolayer cultures derived from human scars and dermis was examined for inhibition of fibrinolysis using a fibrin plate assay. Human cultured fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells did not produce any detectable inhibitory activity. The inhibitor is spontaneously released from the cultured endothelial cells over time. In the fibrin plate assay of plasmin-induced fibrinolysis, one nonsteroidal antiinflammatory (NSAI) drug, ibuprofen, was demonstrated to antagonize the inhibition of fibrinolysis. The antagonistic activity of ibuprofen appears unrelated to its NSAI drug activity because other NSAI drugs such as indomethacin and tolmetin have minimal antagonistic activity. Heating the cultured endothelial cells to 42 degrees C stimulates greater release of the inhibitor in a shorter period of time. This plasmin inhibitor, which is produced by endothelial cells, may contribute to postburn vascular occlusion, leading to secondary progressive necrosis in burn-traumatized patients.

  20. Transport of lipoprotein lipase across endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, U.; Klein, M.G.; Goldberg, I.J.

    1991-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), synthesized in muscle and fat, hydrolyzes plasma triglycerides primarily while bound to luminal endothelial cell surfaces. To obtain information about the movement of LPL from the basal to the luminal endothelial cell surface, the authors studied the transport of purified bovine milk LPL across bovine aortic endothelial cell monolayers. 125 I-labeled LPL ( 125 I-LPL) added to the basal surface of the monolayers was detected on the apical side of the cells in two compartments: (1) in the medium of the upper chamber, and (2) bound to the apical cell surface. The amount of 125 I-LPL on the cell surface, but not in the medium, reached saturation with time and LPL dose. Catalytically active LPL was transported to the apical surface but very little LPL activity appeared in the medium. Heparinase treatment of the basal cell surface and addition of dextran sulfate to the lower chamber decreased the amount of 125 I-LPL appearing on the apical surface. Similarly, the presence of increasing molar ratios of oleic acid/bovine serum albumin at the basal surface decreased the transport of active LPL across the monolayer. Thus, a saturable transport system, which requires haparan sulfate proteoglycans and is inhibited by high concentrations of free fatty acids on the basal side of the cells, appears to exist for passage of enzymatically active LPL across endothelial cells. They postulate that regulation of LPL transport to the endothelial luminal surface modulates the physiologically active pool of LPL in vivo

  1. Jagged gives endothelial tip cells an edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchting, Steven; Eichmann, Anne

    2009-06-12

    Sprouting blood vessels have tip cells that lead and stalk cells that follow. Benedito et al. (2009) now show that competition between endothelial cells for the tip position is regulated by glycosylation of Notch receptors and by the opposing actions of the Notch ligands Jagged1 and Delta-like 4.

  2. The role of shear stress and altered tissue properties on endothelial to mesenchymal transformation and tumor-endothelial cell interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Sara G; Huang, Peter; Murray, Bruce T; Mahler, Gretchen J

    2017-07-01

    Tumor development is influenced by stromal cells in aspects including invasion, growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Activated fibroblasts are one group of stromal cells involved in cancer metastasis, and one source of activated fibroblasts is endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EndMT). EndMT begins when the endothelial cells delaminate from the cell monolayer, lose cell-cell contacts, lose endothelial markers such as vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin), gain mesenchymal markers like alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and acquire mesenchymal cell-like properties. A three-dimensional (3D) culture microfluidic device was developed for investigating the role of steady low shear stress (1 dyne/cm 2 ) and altered extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and stiffness on EndMT. Shear stresses resulting from fluid flow within tumor tissue are relevant to both cancer metastasis and treatment effectiveness. Low and oscillatory shear stress rates have been shown to enhance the invasion of metastatic cancer cells through specific changes in actin and tubulin remodeling. The 3D ECM within the device was composed of type I collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. An increase in collagen and GAGs has been observed in the solid tumor microenvironment and has been correlated with poor prognosis in many different cancer types. In this study, it was found that ECM composition and low shear stress upregulated EndMT, including upregulation of mesenchymal-like markers (α-SMA and Snail) and downregulated endothelial marker protein and gene expression (VE-cadherin). Furthermore, this novel model was utilized to investigate the role of EndMT in breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. Cancer cell spheroids were embedded within the 3D ECM of the microfluidic device. The results using this device show for the first time that the breast cancer spheroid size is dependent on shear stress and that the cancer cell migration rate

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells induce dermal fibroblast responses to injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Andria N.; Willis, Elise; Chan, Vincent T.; Muffley, Lara A.; Isik, F. Frank; Gibran, Nicole S.; Hocking, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote repair when applied to cutaneous wounds, the mechanism for this response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of paracrine signaling from mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast responses to injury including proliferation, migration and expression of genes important in wound repair. Dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in inserts, which allowed for paracrine interactions without direct cell contact. In this co-culture model, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and gene expression. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts show increased proliferation and accelerated migration in a scratch assay. A chemotaxis assay also demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts migrate towards bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A PCR array was used to analyze the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast gene expression. In response to mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts up-regulate integrin alpha 7 expression and down-regulate expression of ICAM1, VCAM1 and MMP11. These observations suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may provide an important early signal for dermal fibroblast responses to cutaneous injury.

  4. Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, Anna; Labinskyy, Nazar; Pinto, John T; Ballabh, Praveen; Zhang, Hanrui; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Pearson, Kevin; de Cabo, Rafael; Pacher, Pal; Zhang, Cuihua; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2009-07-01

    Pathways that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis are potential therapeutic targets for the amelioration of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Resveratrol was shown to impact mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and the liver, but its role in mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells remains poorly defined. The present study determined whether resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured human coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs). In CAECs resveratrol increased mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA content, upregulated protein expression of electron transport chain constituents, and induced mitochondrial biogenesis factors (proliferator-activated receptor-coactivator-1alpha, nuclear respiratory factor-1, mitochondrial transcription factor A). Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was induced, and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) was upregulated in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Knockdown of SIRT1 (small interfering RNA) or inhibition of NO synthesis prevented resveratrol-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. In aortas of type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice impaired mitochondrial biogenesis was normalized by chronic resveratrol treatment, showing the in vivo relevance of our findings. Resveratrol increases mitochondrial content in endothelial cells via activating SIRT1. We propose that SIRT1, via a pathway that involves the upregulation of eNOS, induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Resveratrol induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the aortas of type 2 diabetic mice, suggesting the potential for new treatment approaches targeting endothelial mitochondria in metabolic diseases.

  5. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K

    1990-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...... an endothelial cell cDNA library using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and oligonucleotide primers corresponding to the DNA sequence of the receptor cloned from transformed human fibroblasts (Roldan et al, EMBO J 9:467, 1990). The size of the cDNA (approximately 1,054 base pairs, bp) and the presence...

  6. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohensinner, P.J., E-mail: philipp.hohensinner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ebenbauer, B. [Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster for Cardiovascular Research, Vienna (Austria); Kaun, C.; Maurer, G. [Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Huber, K. [Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster for Cardiovascular Research, Vienna (Austria); 3rd Medical Department, Wilhelminenhospital, Vienna (Austria); Sigmund Freud University, Medical Faculty, Vienna (Austria); Wojta, J. [Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster for Cardiovascular Research, Vienna (Austria); Core Facilities, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-03

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. -- Highlights: •Endothelial cells display signs of aging before reaching proliferative senescence. •Aging endothelial cells express more angiopoietin 1 and less angiopoietin 2 than young endothelial cells. •Migratory capacity is reduced in aging endothelial cells.

  7. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohensinner, P.J.; Ebenbauer, B.; Kaun, C.; Maurer, G.; Huber, K.; Wojta, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. -- Highlights: •Endothelial cells display signs of aging before reaching proliferative senescence. •Aging endothelial cells express more angiopoietin 1 and less angiopoietin 2 than young endothelial cells. •Migratory capacity is reduced in aging endothelial cells.

  8. Orf virus interleukin-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor-E modulate gene expression in cultured equine dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lyn M; Bodaan, Christa J; Mercer, Andrew A; Riley, Christopher B; Theoret, Christine L

    2016-10-01

    Wounds in horses often exhibit sustained inflammation and inefficient vascularization, leading to excessive fibrosis and clinical complications such as "proud flesh". Orf virus-derived proteins, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-E and interleukin (ovIL)-10, enhance angiogenesis and control inflammation and fibrosis in skin wounds of laboratory animals. The study aimed to determine if equine dermal cells respond to VEGF-E and ovIL-10. Equine dermal cells are expected to express VEGF and IL-10 receptors, so viral protein treatment is likely to alter cellular gene expression and behaviour in a manner conducive to healing. Skin samples were harvested from the lateral thoracic wall of two healthy thoroughbred horses. Equine dermal cells were isolated using a skin explant method and their phenotype assessed by immunofluorescence. Cells were treated with recombinant proteins, with or without inflammatory stimuli. Gene expression was examined using standard and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Cell behaviour was evaluated in a scratch assay. Cultured cells were half vimentin(+ve) fibroblasts and half alpha smooth muscle actin(+ve) and vimentin(+ve) myofibroblasts. VEGF-E increased basal expression of IL-10 mRNA, whereas VEGF-A and collagenase-1 mRNA expression was increased by ovIL-10. In cells exposed to inflammatory stimulus, both treatments dampened tumour necrosis factor mRNA expression, and ovIL-10 exacerbated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein. Neither viral protein influenced cell migration greatly. This study shows that VEGF-E and ovIL-10 are active on equine dermal cells and exert anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects that may enhance skin wound healing in horses. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. [The role of endothelial cells and endothelial precursor cells in angiogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreba, Małgorzata; Usnarska-Zubkiewicz, Lidia; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz

    2006-01-01

    Endothelium plays a key role in maintenance of vascular homeostasis in human organism. According to new data endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells have a common precursor in prenatal life--a hemangioblast, which explains the fact of sharing the same determinants on the surface of both type of cells. Circulating endothelial precursors were identified in adults and this suggests that hemangioblasts may be present not only during embriogenesis. In some clinical situations the increased numbers of endothelial cells and endothelial precursors were noted, and especially in patients with neoplastic diseases, which is probably the result of increased angiogenesis. Endothelial precursors are thought to be the promice for therapeutic purposes in future--to increase local angiogenesis.

  10. CXCL10 can inhibit endothelial cell proliferation independently of CXCR3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele S V Campanella

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CXCL10 (or Interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa, IP-10 is an interferon-inducible chemokine with potent chemotactic activity on activated effector T cells and other leukocytes expressing its high affinity G protein-coupled receptor CXCR3. CXCL10 is also active on other cell types, including endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The mechanisms through which CXCL10 mediates its effects on non-leukocytes is not fully understood. In this study, we focus on the anti-proliferative effect of CXCL10 on endothelial cells, and demonstrate that CXCL10 can inhibit endothelial cell proliferation in vitro independently of CXCR3. Four main findings support this conclusion. First, primary mouse endothelial cells isolated from CXCR3-deficient mice were inhibited by CXCL10 as efficiently as wildtype endothelial cells. We also note that the proposed alternative splice form CXCR3-B, which is thought to mediate CXCL10's angiostatic activity, does not exist in mice based on published mouse CXCR3 genomic sequences as an in-frame stop codon would terminate the proposed CXCR3-B splice variant in mice. Second, we demonstrate that human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human lung microvascular endothelial cells that were inhibited by CXL10 did not express CXCR3 by FACS analysis. Third, two different neutralizing CXCR3 antibodies did not inhibit the anti-proliferative effect of CXCL10. Finally, fourth, utilizing a panel of CXCL10 mutants, we show that the ability to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation correlates with CXCL10's glycosaminoglycan binding affinity and not with its CXCR3 binding and signaling. Thus, using a very defined system, we show that CXCL10 can inhibit endothelial cell proliferation through a CXCR3-independent mechanism.

  11. A fibroblast-associated antigen: Characterization in fibroblasts and immunoreactivity in smooth muscle differentiated stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Celis, Julio E.; van Deurs, Bo

    1992-01-01

    major brands migrating at apparent Mr of 38,000, 45,000, and 80,000, in addition to many minor bands between Mr 45,000 and 97,000, including Mr 52,000. The Mr 45,000 and 38,000 were associated with the cell membrane and Mr 52,000 as well as Mr 38,000 were associated with the lysosomes. The 1B10......Fibroblasts with smooth muscle differentiation are frequently derived from human breast tissue. Immunofluorescence cytochemistry of a fibroblast-associated antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAb), 1B10, was analyzed with a view to discriminating smooth muscle differentiated fibroblasts...

  12. Lipoprotein receptors in cultured bovine endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struempfer, A.E.M.

    1983-07-01

    In this study, receptors that may be involved in the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and low density lipoproteins which have been modified by acetylation (AcLDL), were characterized. Aortic epithelial cells were used and a cell culture system which closely resembled the in vivo monolayer was established. Endothelial cell and lipoprotein interactions were examined by incubating the cells with 125 l-labelled lipoproteins under various conditions. The receptor affinity of bovine aortic endothelial cells was higher for AcLDL than that for LDL. Competition studies demonstrated that there were two distinct receptors for LDL and AcLDL on the endothelial cells. AcLDL did not compete with LDL for the LDL receptor, and conversely LDL did not compete with AcLDL for the AcLDL receptor. The receptor activities for LDL and AcLDL were examined as a function of culture age. Whereas the LDL receptor could be regulated, the AcLDL receptor was not as susceptible to regulation. Upon exposing endothelial cells for 72 h to either LDL or AcLDL, it was found that the total amount of cellular cholesterol increased by about 50%. However, the increase of total cholesterol was largely in the form of free cholesterol. This is in contrast to macrophages, where the increase in total cholesterol upon exposure to AcLDL is largely in the form cholesteryl esters

  13. Endothelial progenitor cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Russell P.; Parikh, Megha A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Austin, John H. M.; Smith, Benjamin M.; Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lima, Joao; Gomes, Antoinette; Watson, Karol; Kawut, Steven; Barr, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cell populations (CD34+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells) and circulating endothelial cells (CD45dimCD31+CD146+CD133-) were measured by flow cytometry. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria. Emphysema was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on CT. Full pulmonary function testing and expiratory CTs were measured in a subset. Among 257 participants, both endothelial progenitor cell populations, and particularly CD34+KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells, were reduced in COPD. The CD34+KDR+CD133+ endothelial progenitor cells were associated inversely with emphysema extent. Both endothelial progenitor cell populations were associated inversely with extent of panlobular emphysema and positively with diffusing capacity. Circulating endothelial cells were not significantly altered in COPD but were inversely associated with pulmonary microvascular blood flow on MRI. There was no consistent association of endothelial progenitor cells or circulating endothelial cells with measures of gas trapping. These data provide evidence that endothelial repair is impaired in COPD and suggest that this pathological process is specific to emphysema. PMID:28291826

  14. Qidantongmai Protects Endothelial Cells Against Hypoxia-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced damage. The ability of QDTM to modulate the serum VEGF-A level may play an important role in its effects on endothelial cells. Key words: Traditional Chinese Medicine, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, hypoxia, VEGF ...

  15. Young endothelial cells revive aging blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Vivian Y; Termini, Christina M; Chute, John P

    2017-11-01

    The hematopoietic system declines with age, resulting in decreased hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal capacity, myeloid skewing, and immune cell depletion. Aging of the hematopoietic system is associated with an increased incidence of myeloid malignancies and a decline in adaptive immunity. Therefore, strategies to rejuvenate the hematopoietic system have important clinical implications. In this issue of the JCI, Poulos and colleagues demonstrate that infusions of bone marrow (BM) endothelial cells (ECs) from young mice promoted HSC self-renewal and restored immune cell content in aged mice. Additionally, delivery of young BM ECs along with HSCs following total body irradiation improved HSC engraftment and enhanced survival. These results suggest an important role for BM endothelial cells (ECs) in regulating hematopoietic aging and support further research to identify the rejuvenating factors elaborated by BM ECs that restore HSC function and the immune repertoire in aged mice.

  16. Endothelial cell seeding on crosslinked collagen : Effects of crosslinking on endothelial cell proliferation and functional parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, MJB; van Luyn, MJA; Dijk, F; Poot, AA; Engbers, GHM; Beugeling, T; van Aken, WG; Feijen, J

    Endothelial cell seeding, a promising method to improve the performance of small-diameter vascular grafts, requires a suitable substrate, such as crosslinked collagen. Commonly used crosslinking agents such as glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde cause, however, cytotoxic reactions and thereby hamper

  17. Astrocytes Can Adopt Endothelial Cell Fates in a p53-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Andrew J; Nunez, Stefanie; Doroudchi, Mehdi M; Kawaguchi, Riki; Duan, Jinhzu; Pellegrini, Matteo; Lam, Larry; Carmichael, S Thomas; Deb, Arjun; Hinman, Jason D

    2017-08-01

    Astrocytes respond to a variety of CNS injuries by cellular enlargement, process outgrowth, and upregulation of extracellular matrix proteins that function to prevent expansion of the injured region. This astrocytic response, though critical to the acute injury response, results in the formation of a glial scar that inhibits neural repair. Scar-forming cells (fibroblasts) in the heart can undergo mesenchymal-endothelial transition into endothelial cell fates following cardiac injury in a process dependent on p53 that can be modulated to augment cardiac repair. Here, we sought to determine whether astrocytes, as the primary scar-forming cell of the CNS, are able to undergo a similar cellular phenotypic transition and adopt endothelial cell fates. Serum deprivation of differentiated astrocytes resulted in a change in cellular morphology and upregulation of endothelial cell marker genes. In a tube formation assay, serum-deprived astrocytes showed a substantial increase in vessel-like morphology that was comparable to human umbilical vein endothelial cells and dependent on p53. RNA sequencing of serum-deprived astrocytes demonstrated an expression profile that mimicked an endothelial rather than astrocyte transcriptome and identified p53 and angiogenic pathways as specifically upregulated. Inhibition of p53 with genetic or pharmacologic strategies inhibited astrocyte-endothelial transition. Astrocyte-endothelial cell transition could also be modulated by miR-194, a microRNA downstream of p53 that affects expression of genes regulating angiogenesis. Together, these studies demonstrate that differentiated astrocytes retain a stimulus-dependent mechanism for cellular transition into an endothelial phenotype that may modulate formation of the glial scar and promote injury-induced angiogenesis.

  18. Extraembryonic origin of circulating endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Pardanaud

    Full Text Available Circulating endothelial cells (CEC are contained in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of adult humans and participate to the revascularization of ischemic tissues. These cells represent attractive targets for cell or gene therapy aimed at improving ischemic revascularization or inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. The embryonic origin of CEC has not been addressed previously. Here we use quail-chick chimeras to study CEC origin and participation to the developing vasculature. CEC are traced with different markers, in particular the QH1 antibody recognizing only quail endothelial cells. Using yolk-sac chimeras, where quail embryos are grafted onto chick yolk sacs and vice-versa, we show that CEC are generated in the yolk sac. These cells are mobilized during wound healing, demonstrating their participation to angiogenic repair processes. Furthermore, we found that the allantois is also able to give rise to CEC in situ. In contrast to the yolk sac and allantois, the embryo proper does not produce CEC. Our results show that CEC exclusively originate from extra-embryonic territories made with splanchnopleural mesoderm and endoderm, while definitive hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial cells are of intra-embryonic origin.

  19. Extraembryonic origin of circulating endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardanaud, Luc; Eichmann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are contained in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of adult humans and participate to the revascularization of ischemic tissues. These cells represent attractive targets for cell or gene therapy aimed at improving ischemic revascularization or inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. The embryonic origin of CEC has not been addressed previously. Here we use quail-chick chimeras to study CEC origin and participation to the developing vasculature. CEC are traced with different markers, in particular the QH1 antibody recognizing only quail endothelial cells. Using yolk-sac chimeras, where quail embryos are grafted onto chick yolk sacs and vice-versa, we show that CEC are generated in the yolk sac. These cells are mobilized during wound healing, demonstrating their participation to angiogenic repair processes. Furthermore, we found that the allantois is also able to give rise to CEC in situ. In contrast to the yolk sac and allantois, the embryo proper does not produce CEC. Our results show that CEC exclusively originate from extra-embryonic territories made with splanchnopleural mesoderm and endoderm, while definitive hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial cells are of intra-embryonic origin.

  20. Endothelial cell oxidative stress and signal transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCIO FONCEA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction (ED is an early event in atherosclerotic disease, preceding clinical manifestations and complications. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated as important mechanisms that contribute to ED, and ROS’s may function as intracellular messengers that modulate signaling pathways. Several intracellular signal events stimulated by ROS have been defined, including the identification of two members of the mitogen activated protein kinase family (ERK1/2 and big MAP kinase, BMK1, tyrosine kinases (Src and Syk and different isoenzymes of PKC as redox-sensitive kinases. ROS regulation of signal transduction components include the modification in the activity of transcriptional factors such as NFkB and others that result in changes in gene expression and modifications in cellular responses. In order to understand the intracellular mechanisms induced by ROS in endothelial cells (EC, we are studying the response of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells to increased ROS generation by different pro-atherogenic stimuli. Our results show that Homocysteine (Hcy and oxidized LDL (oxLDL enhance the activity and expression of oxidative stress markers, such as NFkB and heme oxygenase 1. These results suggest that these pro-atherogenic stimuli increase oxidative stress in EC, and thus explain the loss of endothelial function associated with the atherogenic process

  1. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensinner, P J; Ebenbauer, B; Kaun, C; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Wojta, J

    2016-06-03

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endothelial juxtaposition of distinct adult stem cells activates angiogenesis signaling molecules in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Elham; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Siavashi, Vahid; Araghi, Atefeh

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of therapeutic angiogenesis needs a comprehensive understanding of endothelial cell (EC) function and biological factors and cells that interplay with ECs. Stem cells are considered the key components of pro- and anti-angiogenic milieu in a wide variety of physiopathological states, and interactions of EC-stem cells have been the subject of controversy in recent years. In this study, the potential effects of three tissue-specific adult stem cells, namely rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), rat adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs) and rat muscle-derived satellite cells (rSCs), on the endothelial activation of key angiogenic signaling molecules, including VEGF, Ang-2, VEGFR-2, Tie-2, and Tie2-pho, were investigated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat lung microvascular endothelial cells (RLMECs) were cocultured with the stem cells or incubated with the stem cell-derived conditioned media on Matrigel. Following HUVEC-stem cell coculture, CD31-positive ECs were flow sorted and subjected to western blotting to analyze potential changes in the expression of the pro-angiogenic signaling molecules. Elongation and co-alignment of the stem cells were seen along the EC tubes in the EC-stem cell cocultures on Matrigel, with cell-to-cell dye communication in the EC-rBMSC cocultures. Moreover, rBMSCs and rADSCs significantly improved endothelial tubulogenesis in both juxtacrine and paracrine manners. These two latter stem cells dynamically up-regulated VEGF, Ang-2, VREGR-2, and Tie-2 but down-regulated Tie2-pho and the Tie2-pho/Tie-2 ratio in HUVECs. Induction of pro-angiogenic signaling in ECs by marrow- and adipose-derived MSCs further indicates the significance of stem cell milieu in angiogenesis dynamics.

  3. Endothelial cell adhesion to ion implanted polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y; Kusakabe, M [SONY Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Lee, J S; Kaibara, M; Iwaki, M; Sasabe, H [RIKEN (Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research), Saitama (Japan)

    1992-03-01

    The biocompatibility of ion implanted polymers has been studied by means of adhesion measurements of bovine aorta endothelial cells in vitro. The specimens used were polystyrene (PS) and segmented polyurethane (SPU). Na{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +} and Kr{sup +} ion implantations were performed at an energy of 150 keV with fluences ranging from 1x10{sup 15} to 3x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. The chemical and physical structures of ion-implanted polymers have been investigated in order to analyze their tissue compatibility such as improvement of endothelial cell adhesion. The ion implanted SPU have been found to exhibit remarkably higher adhesion and spreading of endothelial cells than unimplanted specimens. By contrast, ion implanted PS demonstrated a little improvement of adhesion of cells in this assay. Results of FT-IR-ATR showed that ion implantation broke the original chemical bond to form new radicals such as OH, ....C=O, SiH and condensed rings. The results of Raman spectroscopy showed that ion implantation always produced a peak near 1500 cm{sup -1}, which indicated that these ion implanted PS and SPU had the same carbon structure. This structure is considered to bring the dramatic increase in the extent of cell adhesion and spreading to these ion implanted PS and SPU. (orig.).

  4. A Cell Culture Approach to Optimized Human Corneal Endothelial Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartakova, Alena; Kuzmenko, Olga; Alvarez-Delfin, Karen; Kunzevitzky, Noelia J.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Cell-based therapies to replace corneal endothelium depend on culture methods to optimize human corneal endothelial cell (HCEC) function and minimize endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). Here we explore contribution of low-mitogenic media on stabilization of phenotypes in vitro that mimic those of HCECs in vivo. Methods HCECs were isolated from cadaveric donor corneas and expanded in vitro, comparing continuous presence of exogenous growth factors (“proliferative media”) to media without those factors (“stabilizing media”). Identity based on canonical morphology and expression of surface marker CD56, and function based on formation of tight junction barriers measured by trans-endothelial electrical resistance assays (TEER) were assessed. Results Primary HCECs cultured in proliferative media underwent EnMT after three to four passages, becoming increasingly fibroblastic. Stabilizing the cells before each passage by switching them to a media low in mitogenic growth factors and serum preserved canonical morphology and yielded a higher number of cells. HCECs cultured in stabilizing media increased both expression of the identity marker CD56 and also tight junction monolayer integrity compared to cells cultured without stabilization. Conclusions HCECs isolated from donor corneas and expanded in vitro with a low-mitogenic media stabilizing step before each passage demonstrate more canonical structural and functional features and defer EnMT, increasing the number of passages and total canonical cell yield. This approach may facilitate development of HCEC-based cell therapies. PMID:29625488

  5. Oxidative stress induced pulmonary endothelial cell proliferation is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellular hyper-proliferation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are hallmarks of the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension. Indeed, pulmonary endothelial cells proliferation is susceptible to redox state modulation. Some studies suggest that superoxide stimulates endothelial cell proliferation while others have ...

  6. Chemical Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Functional Schwann Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C. Thoma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct transdifferentiation of somatic cells is a promising approach to obtain patient-specific cells for numerous applications. However, conversion across germ-layer borders often requires ectopic gene expression with unpredictable side effects. Here, we present a gene-free approach that allows efficient conversion of human fibroblasts via a transient progenitor stage into Schwann cells, the major glial cell type of peripheral nerves. Using a multikinase inhibitor, we transdifferentiated fibroblasts into transient neural precursors that were subsequently further differentiated into Schwann cells. The resulting induced Schwann cells (iSCs expressed numerous Schwann cell-specific proteins and displayed neurosupportive and myelination capacity in vitro. Thus, we established a strategy to obtain mature Schwann cells from human postnatal fibroblasts under chemically defined conditions without the introduction of ectopic genes.

  7. Collective cell motion in endothelial monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, A; Ünnep, R; Méhes, E; Czirók, A; Twal, W O; Argraves, W S; Cao, Y

    2010-01-01

    Collective cell motility is an important aspect of several developmental and pathophysiological processes. Despite its importance, the mechanisms that allow cells to be both motile and adhere to one another are poorly understood. In this study we establish statistical properties of the random streaming behavior of endothelial monolayer cultures. To understand the reported empirical findings, we expand the widely used cellular Potts model to include active cell motility. For spontaneous directed motility we assume a positive feedback between cell displacements and cell polarity. The resulting model is studied with computer simulations and is shown to exhibit behavior compatible with experimental findings. In particular, in monolayer cultures both the speed and persistence of cell motion decreases, transient cell chains move together as groups and velocity correlations extend over several cell diameters. As active cell motility is ubiquitous both in vitro and in vivo, our model is expected to be a generally applicable representation of cellular behavior

  8. Exosomes released by chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induce the transition of stromal cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggetti, Jerome; Haderk, Franziska; Seiffert, Martina; Janji, Bassam; Distler, Ute; Ammerlaan, Wim; Kim, Yeoun Jin; Adam, Julien; Lichter, Peter; Solary, Eric; Berchem, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes derived from solid tumor cells are involved in immune suppression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, but the role of leukemia-derived exosomes has been less investigated. The pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is stringently associated with a tumor-supportive microenvironment and a dysfunctional immune system. Here, we explore the role of CLL-derived exosomes in the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which malignant cells create this favorable surrounding. We show that CLL-derived exosomes are actively incorporated by endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo and in vivo and that the transfer of exosomal protein and microRNA induces an inflammatory phenotype in the target cells, which resembles the phenotype of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). As a result, stromal cells show enhanced proliferation, migration, and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, contributing to a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Exosome uptake by endothelial cells increased angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo, and coinjection of CLL-derived exosomes and CLL cells promoted tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we detected α-smooth actin–positive stromal cells in lymph nodes of CLL patients. These findings demonstrate that CLL-derived exosomes actively promote disease progression by modulating several functions of surrounding stromal cells that acquire features of cancer-associated fibroblasts. PMID:26100252

  9. Do endothelial cells dream of eclectic shape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Katie; Philippides, Andrew; Ravasz Regan, Erzsébet

    2014-04-28

    Endothelial cells (ECs) exhibit dramatic plasticity of form at the single- and collective-cell level during new vessel growth, adult vascular homeostasis, and pathology. Understanding how, when, and why individual ECs coordinate decisions to change shape, in relation to the myriad of dynamic environmental signals, is key to understanding normal and pathological blood vessel behavior. However, this is a complex spatial and temporal problem. In this review we show that the multidisciplinary field of Adaptive Systems offers a refreshing perspective, common biological language, and straightforward toolkit that cell biologists can use to untangle the complexity of dynamic, morphogenetic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reproducible isolation of lymph node stromal cells reveals site-dependent differences in fibroblastic reticular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Fletcher

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Within lymph nodes, non-hematopoietic stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, several recent studies have shown that lymph node stromal cells shape the naïve T cell repertoire, expressing self-antigens which delete self-reactive T cells in a unique and non-redundant fashion. A fundamental role in peripheral tolerance, in addition to an otherwise extensive functional portfolio, necessitates closer study of lymph node stromal cell subsets using modern immunological techniques; however this has not routinely been possible in the field, due to difficulties reproducibly isolating these rare subsets. Techniques were therefore developed for successful ex vivo and in vitro manipulation and characterization of lymph node stroma. Here we discuss and validate these techniques in mice and humans, and apply them to address several unanswered questions regarding lymph node composition. We explored the steady-state stromal composition of lymph nodes isolated from mice and humans, and found that marginal reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells required lymphocytes for their normal maturation in mice. We also report alterations in the proportion and number of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs between skin-draining and mesenteric lymph nodes. Similarly, transcriptional profiling of FRCs revealed changes in cytokine production from these sites. Together, these methods permit highly reproducible stromal cell isolation, sorting, and culture.

  11. Reproducible isolation of lymph node stromal cells reveals site-dependent differences in fibroblastic reticular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Anne L; Malhotra, Deepali; Acton, Sophie E; Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angelique; Curry, Mark; Armant, Myriam; Turley, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Within lymph nodes, non-hematopoietic stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, several recent studies have shown that lymph node stromal cells shape the naïve T cell repertoire, expressing self-antigens which delete self-reactive T cells in a unique and non-redundant fashion. A fundamental role in peripheral tolerance, in addition to an otherwise extensive functional portfolio, necessitates closer study of lymph node stromal cell subsets using modern immunological techniques; however this has not routinely been possible in the field, due to difficulties reproducibly isolating these rare subsets. Techniques were therefore developed for successful ex vivo and in vitro manipulation and characterization of lymph node stroma. Here we discuss and validate these techniques in mice and humans, and apply them to address several unanswered questions regarding lymph node composition. We explored the steady-state stromal composition of lymph nodes isolated from mice and humans, and found that marginal reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells required lymphocytes for their normal maturation in mice. We also report alterations in the proportion and number of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) between skin-draining and mesenteric lymph nodes. Similarly, transcriptional profiling of FRCs revealed changes in cytokine production from these sites. Together, these methods permit highly reproducible stromal cell isolation, sorting, and culture.

  12. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing human basic fibroblast growth factor increase vasculogenesis in ischemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.C. [Department of Vascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Zheng, G.F. [Department of Vascular Surgery, The People' s Hospital of Ganzhou, Ganzhou (China); Wu, L.; Ou Yang, L.Y.; Li, W.X. [Department of Vascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-08-08

    Administration or expression of growth factors, as well as implantation of autologous bone marrow cells, promote in vivo angiogenesis. This study investigated the angiogenic potential of combining both approaches through the allogenic transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF). After establishing a hind limb ischemia model in Sprague Dawley rats, the animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups: MSCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-MSC), MSCs expressing hbFGF (hbFGF-MSC), MSC controls, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) controls. After 2 weeks, MSC survival and differentiation, hbFGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and microvessel density of ischemic muscles were determined. Stable hbFGF expression was observed in the hbFGF-MSC group after 2 weeks. More hbFGF-MSCs than GFP-MSCs survived and differentiated into vascular endothelial cells (P<0.001); however, their differentiation rates were similar. Moreover, allogenic transplantation of hbFGF-MSCs increased VEGF expression (P=0.008) and microvessel density (P<0.001). Transplantation of hbFGF-expressing MSCs promoted angiogenesis in an in vivo hind limb ischemia model by increasing the survival of transplanted cells that subsequently differentiated into vascular endothelial cells. This study showed the therapeutic potential of combining cell-based therapy with gene therapy to treat ischemic disease.

  13. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing human basic fibroblast growth factor increase vasculogenesis in ischemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Administration or expression of growth factors, as well as implantation of autologous bone marrow cells, promote in vivo angiogenesis. This study investigated the angiogenic potential of combining both approaches through the allogenic transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs expressing human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF. After establishing a hind limb ischemia model in Sprague Dawley rats, the animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups: MSCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-MSC, MSCs expressing hbFGF (hbFGF-MSC, MSC controls, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS controls. After 2 weeks, MSC survival and differentiation, hbFGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression, and microvessel density of ischemic muscles were determined. Stable hbFGF expression was observed in the hbFGF-MSC group after 2 weeks. More hbFGF-MSCs than GFP-MSCs survived and differentiated into vascular endothelial cells (P<0.001; however, their differentiation rates were similar. Moreover, allogenic transplantation of hbFGF-MSCs increased VEGF expression (P=0.008 and microvessel density (P<0.001. Transplantation of hbFGF-expressing MSCs promoted angiogenesis in an in vivo hind limb ischemia model by increasing the survival of transplanted cells that subsequently differentiated into vascular endothelial cells. This study showed the therapeutic potential of combining cell-based therapy with gene therapy to treat ischemic disease.

  14. Endothelial cell permeability to water and antipyrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The endothelium provides a structural barrier between plasma constituents and the tissues. The permeability characteristics of the the endothelial cells regulate the transcellular movement of materials across this barrier while other movement is paracellular. In this study the permeability of the endothelial cells to tritiated water ( 3 HHO) and 14 C-labeled antipyrine (AP) was investigated. The cells were isolated non-enzymatically from calf pulmonary artery and were maintained in culture and used between the seventh and fifteenth passage. The cells were removed from the T-flasks with a rubber policeman, titurated with a 22g needle and centrifuged. The cells were mixed with an extracellular marker, drawn into polyethylene tubing and packed by centrifugation for use in the linear diffusion technique. All measurements were made at 37 C. The diffusion coefficients for 3 HHO through the packed cells (D), the intracellular material (D 2 ), and the extracellular material (D 1 ) were 0.682, 0.932 and 2.45 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 and for AP were 0.273, 0.355 and 1.13 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 respectively. The permeability coefficient calculated by the series-parallel pathway model for 3 HHO was higher than that for AP and for both 3 HHO and AP were lower than those calculated for isolated lung cells and erythrocytes

  15. Key endothelial cell angiogenic mechanisms are stimulated by the circulating milieu in sickle cell disease and attenuated by hydroxyurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Flavia C. M.; Traina, Fabiola; Almeida, Camila B.; Leonardo, Flavia C.; Franco-Penteado, Carla F.; Garrido, Vanessa T.; Colella, Marina P.; Soares, Raquel; Olalla-Saad, Sara T.; Costa, Fernando F.; Conran, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    As hypoxia-induced inflammatory angiogenesis may contribute to the manifestations of sickle cell disease, we compared the angiogenic molecular profiles of plasma from sickle cell disease individuals and correlated these with in vitro endothelial cell-mediated angiogenesis-stimulating activity and in vivo neovascularization. Bioplex demonstrated that plasma from patients with steady-state sickle cell anemia contained elevated concentrations of pro-angiogenic factors (angiopoietin-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-D and placental growth factor) and displayed potent pro-angiogenic activity, significantly increasing endothelial cell proliferation, migration and capillary-like structure formation. In vivo neovascularization of Matrigel plugs was significantly greater in sickle cell disease mice than in non-sickle cell disease mice, consistent with an up-regulation of angiogenesis in the disease. In plasma from patients with hemoglobin SC disease without proliferative retinopathy, anti-angiogenic endostatin and thrombospondin-2 were significantly elevated. In contrast, plasma from hemoglobin SC individuals with proliferative retinopathy had a pro-angiogenic profile and more significant effects on endothelial cell proliferation and capillary formation than plasma from patients without retinopathy. Hydroxyurea therapy was associated with significant reductions in plasma angiogenic factors and inhibition of endothelial cell-mediated angiogenic mechanisms and neovascularization. Thus, individuals with sickle cell anemia or hemoglobin SC disease with retinopathy present a highly angiogenic circulating milieu, capable of stimulating key endothelial cell-mediated angiogenic mechanisms. Combination anti-angiogenic therapy to prevent the progression of unregulated neovascularization and associated manifestations in sickle cell disease, such as pulmonary hypertension, may be indicated; furthermore, the

  16. Isolated tumor endothelial cells maintain specific character during long-term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Kohei; Ohga, Noritaka; Hida, Yasuhiro; Muraki, Chikara; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kurosu, Takuro; Akino, Tomoshige; Shih, Shou-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is necessary for solid tumor progression and metastasis. Increasing evidence indicates that tumor endothelial cells (TECs) are more relevant to the study of tumor angiogenesis than normal endothelial cells (NECs) because their morphologies and gene expression are different from NECs. However, it is challenging to isolate and culture large numbers of pure ECs from tumor tissue since the percentage of ECs is only about 1-2% and tumor cells and fibroblasts easily overgrow them. In addition, there has been concern that isolated TECs may lose their special phenotype once they are dissociated from tumor cells. In this study, we have successfully purified murine TECs from four different human tumor xenografts and NECs from murine dermal tissue. Isolated ECs expressed endothelial markers, such as CD31, VE-cadherin (CD144), and endoglin (CD105), for more than 3 months after isolation. TECs maintained tumor endothelial-specific markers, such as tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and aminopeptidase N (APN), as in tumor blood vessels in vivo. In addition, TECs were more proliferative and motile than NECs. TECs showed a higher response to VEGF and higher expression of VEGF receptors-1 and -2 than NECs did. Stem cell antigen-1 was up-regulated in all four TECs, suggesting that they have a kind of stemness. Cultured TECs maintain distinct biological differences from NECs as in vivo. In conclusion, it was suggested that TECs are relevant material for tumor angiogenesis research.

  17. Cell proliferation in vitro modulates fibroblast collagenase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, W.J.; Flood, L.

    1986-01-01

    Collagenase enzyme activity is regulated by numerous control mechanisms which prevent excessive release and activation of this protease. A primary mechanism for regulating enzyme extracellular activity may be linked to cell division, therefore they have examined the release of collagenase by fibroblasts in vitro in response to cellular proliferation. Studies were performed using fibroblasts derived from adult rat dermis maintained in DMEM containing 10% newborn calf serum, 25 mM tricine buffer, and antibiotics. Cells between subculture 10 and 19 were used with enzyme activity determined with a 14 C-labelled soluble Type I collagen substrate with and without trypsin activation. Fibroblasts, trypsinized and plated at low density secreted 8.5 fold more enzyme than those cells at confluence (975 vs. 115 dpm/μg DNA). This diminution occurred gradually as the cells went from logrithmic growth towards confluence. Confluent fibroblast monolayers were scraped in a grid arrangement, stimulating the remaining cells to divide, without exposure to trypsin. Within 24-48 hr postscraping enzyme levels had increased 260-400%, accompanied by enhanced incorporation of 3 H-thymidine and 3 H-uridine into cell macromolecules. The burst of enzyme release began to subside 12 hr later. These results support a close relationship between fibroblast proliferation and collagenase secretion

  18. Cell death induced by hydroxyapatite on L929 fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayat-Hussain, S H; Rajab, N F; Roslie, H; Hussin, A A; Ali, A M; Annuar, B O

    2004-05-01

    Biomaterials intended for end-use application as bone-graft substitutes have to undergo safety evaluation. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxic effects especially to determine the mode of death of two hydroxyapatite compounds (HA2, HA3) which were synthesized locally. The methods used for cytotoxicity was the standard MTT assay whereas AO/PI staining was performed to determine the mode of cell death in HA treated L929 fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that both HA2 and HA3 were not significantly cytotoxic as more than 75% cells after 72 hours treatment were viable. Furthermore, we found that the major mode of cell death in HA treated cells was apoptosis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that these hydroxyapatite compounds are not cytotoxic where the mode of death was primarily via apoptosis.

  19. The effects of acoustic vibration on fibroblast cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Taybia; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; Burton, David R; Bezombes, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Cells are known to interact and respond to external mechanical cues and recent work has shown that application of mechanical stimulation, delivered via acoustic vibration, can be used to control complex cell behaviours. Fibroblast cells are known to respond to physical cues generated in the extracellular matrix and it is thought that such cues are important regulators of the wound healing process. Many conditions are associated with poor wound healing, so there is need for treatments/interventions, which can help accelerate the wound healing process. The primary aim of this research was to investigate the effects of mechanical stimulation upon the migratory and morphological properties of two different fibroblast cells namely; human lung fibroblast cells (LL24) and subcutaneous areolar/adipose mouse fibroblast cells (L929). Using a speaker-based system, the effects of mechanical stimulation (0-1600Hz for 5min) on the mean cell migration distance (μm) and actin organisation was investigated. The results show that 100Hz acoustic vibration enhanced cell migration for both cell lines whereas acoustic vibration above 100Hz was found to decrease cell migration in a frequency dependent manner. Mechanical stimulation was also found to promote changes to the morphology of both cell lines, particularly the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. Overall lamellipodia was the most prominent actin structure displayed by the lung cell (LL24), whereas filopodia was the most prominent actin feature displayed by the fibroblast derived from subcutaneous areolar/adipose tissue. Mechanical stimulation at all the frequencies used here was found not to affect cell viability. These results suggest that low-frequency acoustic vibration may be used as a tool to manipulate the mechanosensitivity of cells to promote cell migration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Syncytin is involved in breast cancer-endothelial cell fusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Holck, S.; Christensen, I.J.

    2006-01-01

    Cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with normal host cells, including endothelial cells, and such fusions may strongly modulate the biological behaviour of tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We now show that human breast cancer cell lines and 63 out of 165 (38%) breast cancer...... specimens express syncytin, an endogenous retroviral envelope protein, previously implicated in fusions between placental trophoblast cells. Additionally, endothelial and cancer cells are shown to express ASCT-2, a receptor for syncytin. Syncytin antisense treatment decreases syncytin expression...... and inhibits fusions between breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. Moreover, a syncytin inhibitory peptide also inhibits fusions between cancer and endothelial cells. These results are the first to show that syncytin is expressed by human cancer cells and is involved in cancer-endothelial cell fusions....

  1. Inhibition of microparticle release triggers endothelial cell apoptosis and detachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abid Hussein, Mohammed N.; Böing, Anita N.; Sturk, Augueste; Hau, Chi M.; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2007-01-01

    Endothelial cell cultures contain caspase 3-containing microparticles (EMP), which are reported to form during or after cell detachment. We hypothesize that also adherent endothelial cells release EMP, thus protecting these cells from caspase 3 accumulation, detachment and apoptosis. Human umbilical

  2. Optimization of human corneal endothelial cell culture: density dependency of successful cultures in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Gary S L; Toh, Kah-Peng; Ang, Heng-Pei; Seah, Xin-Yi; George, Benjamin L; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2013-05-03

    Global shortage of donor corneas greatly restricts the numbers of corneal transplantations performed yearly. Limited ex vivo expansion of primary human corneal endothelial cells is possible, and a considerable clinical interest exists for development of tissue-engineered constructs using cultivated corneal endothelial cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the density-dependent growth of human corneal endothelial cells isolated from paired donor corneas and to elucidate an optimal seeding density for their extended expansion in vitro whilst maintaining their unique cellular morphology. Established primary human corneal endothelial cells were propagated to the second passage (P2) before they were utilized for this study. Confluent P2 cells were dissociated and seeded at four seeding densities: 2,500 cells per cm2 ('LOW'); 5,000 cells per cm2 ('MID'); 10,000 cells per cm2 ('HIGH'); and 20,000 cells per cm2 ('HIGH(×2)'), and subsequently analyzed for their propensity to proliferate. They were also subjected to morphometric analyses comparing cell sizes, coefficient of variance, as well as cell circularity when each culture became confluent. At the two lower densities, proliferation rates were higher than cells seeded at higher densities, though not statistically significant. However, corneal endothelial cells seeded at lower densities were significantly larger in size, heterogeneous in shape and less circular (fibroblastic-like), and remained hypertrophic after one month in culture. Comparatively, cells seeded at higher densities were significantly homogeneous, compact and circular at confluence. Potentially, at an optimal seeding density of 10,000 cells per cm2, it is possible to obtain between 10 million to 25 million cells at the third passage. More importantly, these expanded human corneal endothelial cells retained their unique cellular morphology. Our results demonstrated a density dependency in the culture of primary human corneal endothelial

  3. Insulin resistance in vascular endothelial cells promotes intestinal tumour formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X; Häring, M-F; Rathjen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in vascular endothelial cells. Strikingly, these mice had 42% more intestinal tumours than controls, no change in tumour angiogenesis, but increased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in primary culture of tumour endothelial cells. Insulin decreased VCAM-1 expression and leukocyte...... adhesion in quiescent tumour endothelial cells with intact insulin receptors and partly prevented increases in VCAM-1 and leukocyte adhesion after treatment with tumour necrosis factor-α. Knockout of insulin receptors in endothelial cells also increased leukocyte adhesion in mesenteric venules...

  4. Production of soluble Neprilysin by endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W.; Minond, Dmitriy; Smith, A. Ian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A soluble full-length form of Neprilysin exists in media of endothelial cells. • Exosomal release is the key mechanism for the production of soluble Neprilysin. • Inhibition of ADAM-17 by specific inhibitors reduce Neprilysin release. • Exosome mediated release of Neprilysin is dependent on ADAM-17 activity. - Abstract: A non-membrane bound form of Neprilysin (NEP) with catalytic activity has the potential to cleave substrates throughout the circulation, thus leading to systemic effects of NEP. We used the endothelial cell line Ea.hy926 to identify the possible role of exosomes and A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM-17) in the production of non-membrane bound NEP. Using a bradykinin based quenched fluorescent substrate (40 μM) assay, we determined the activity of recombinant human NEP (rhNEP; 12 ng), and NEP in the media of endothelial cells (10% v/v; after 24 h incubation with cells) to be 9.35 ± 0.70 and 6.54 ± 0.41 μmols of substrate cleaved over 3 h, respectively. The presence of NEP in the media was also confirmed by Western blotting. At present there are no commercially available inhibitors specific for ADAM-17. We therefore synthesised two inhibitors TPI2155-14 and TPI2155-17, specific for ADAM-17 with IC 50 values of 5.36 and 4.32 μM, respectively. Treatment of cells with TPI2155-14 (15 μM) and TPI2155-17 (4.3 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in NEP activity in media (62.37 ± 1.43 and 38.30 ± 4.70, respectively as a % of control; P < 0.0001), implicating a possible role for ADAM-17 in NEP release. However, centrifuging media (100,000g for 1 h at 4 °C) removed all NEP activity from the supernatant indicating the likely role of exosomes in the release of NEP. Our data therefore indicated for the first time that NEP is released from endothelial cells via exosomes, and that this process is dependent on ADAM-17

  5. Cell proliferation and migration are modulated by Cdk-1-phosphorylated endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Schwarz

    Full Text Available Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP II is a secreted protein with well-established anti-angiogenic activities. Intracellular EMAP II expression is increased during fetal development at epithelial/mesenchymal boundaries and in pathophysiologic fibroproliferative cells of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, and scar fibroblast tissue following myocardial ischemia. Precise function and regulation of intracellular EMAP II, however, has not been explored to date.Here we show that high intracellular EMAP II suppresses cellular proliferation by slowing progression through the G2M cell cycle transition in epithelium and fibroblast. Furthermore, EMAP II binds to and is phosphorylated by Cdk1, and exhibits nuclear/cytoplasmic partitioning, with only nuclear EMAP II being phosphorylated. We observed that extracellular secreted EMAP II induces endothelial cell apoptosis, where as excess intracellular EMAP II facilitates epithelial and fibroblast cells migration.Our findings suggest that EMAP II has specific intracellular effects, and that this intracellular function appears to antagonize its extracellular anti-angiogenic effects during fetal development and pulmonary disease progression.

  6. Cytotoxicity of four denture adhesives on human gingival fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Chung, Shin-Hye; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Ju, Sung-Won; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of four denture adhesives on human gingival fibroblast cells. Immortalized human gingival fibroblasts were cultured with one of four different denture adhesives, Polident, Protefix, Staydent or Denfix-A, which was placed in insert dishes (10% w/v concentration) for 48 h. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and flow cytometric apoptosis assay were used to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis rates. The fibroblasts were also examined under a scanning electron microscope. The MTT assay showed that all denture adhesives resulted in a significantly lower cell viability compared to the control cells propagated in normal culture medium (p 0.05). Staydent showed the highest apoptosis rate. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the cells of the Staydent group underwent cytoplasmic membrane shrinkage, with cell free areas containing residual fragments of the membrane of dead cells. The four denture adhesives evaluated in this study imparted cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblast cells. Staydent showed the highest toxicity.

  7. Adverse fibrosis in the aging heart depends on signaling between myeloid and mesenchymal cells; role of inflammatory fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslik, Katarzyna A; Trial, JoAnn; Crawford, Jeffrey R; Taffet, George E; Entman, Mark L

    2014-05-01

    Aging has been associated with adverse fibrosis. Here we formulate a new hypothesis and present new evidence that unresponsiveness of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and fibroblasts to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), due to reduced expression of TGF-β receptor I (TβRI), provides a foundation for cardiac fibrosis in the aging heart via two mechanisms. 1) TGF-β promotes expression of Nanog, a transcription factor that retains MSC in a primitive state. In MSC derived from the aging heart, Nanog expression is reduced and therefore MSC gradually differentiate and the number of mesenchymal fibroblasts expressing collagen increases. 2) As TGF-β signaling pathway components negatively regulate transcription of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a reduced expression of TβRI prevents aging mesenchymal cells from shutting down their own MCP-1 expression. Elevated MCP-1 levels that originated from MSC attract transendothelial migration of mononuclear leukocytes from blood to the tissue. MCP-1 expressed by mesenchymal fibroblasts promotes further migration of monocytes and T lymphocytes away from the endothelial barrier and supports the monocyte transition into macrophages and finally into myeloid fibroblasts. Both myeloid and mesenchymal fibroblasts contribute to fibrosis in the aging heart via collagen synthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Myocyte-Fibroblast Signalling in Myocardium ". © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytomegalovirus-Induced Effector T Cells Cause Endothelial Cell Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Berg, Pablo J. E. J.; Yong, Si-La; Remmerswaal, Ester B. M.; van Lier, René A. W.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been linked to inflammatory diseases that involve vascular endothelial cell damage, but definitive proof for a direct cytopathic effect of CMV in these diseases is lacking. CMV infection is associated with a strong increase in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells

  9. Differentiation state determines neural effects on microvascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muffley, Lara A.; Pan, Shin-Chen; Smith, Andria N.; Ga, Maricar; Hocking, Anne M.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nerves and capillaries interact paracrinely in uninjured skin and cutaneous wounds. Although mature neurons are the predominant neural cell in the skin, neural progenitor cells have also been detected in uninjured adult skin. The aim of this study was to characterize differential paracrine effects of neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons have unique secretory profiles and distinct effects on dermal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and nitric oxide production. Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons secrete different proteins related to angiogenesis. Specific to neural progenitor cells were dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IGFBP-2, pentraxin-3, serpin f1, TIMP-1, TIMP-4 and VEGF. In contrast, endostatin, FGF-1, MCP-1 and thrombospondin-2 were specific to dorsal root ganglion neurons. Microvascular endothelial cell proliferation was inhibited by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. In contrast, microvascular endothelial cell migration in a scratch wound assay was inhibited by neural progenitor cells and unaffected by dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, nitric oxide production by microvascular endothelial cells was increased by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. -- Highlights: ► Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. ► Neural progenitor cells, not dorsal root ganglion neurons, regulate microvascular endothelial cell migration. ► Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons do not effect microvascular endothelial tube formation. ► Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell production of nitric oxide. ► Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root

  10. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and cell killing in normal human fibroblasts and ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, T.; Saito, M.; Uno, T.; Ito, H.; Shigematsu, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: When cells are held in a non-dividing state (G0) after irradiation, an enhanced survival can be observed compared to that of immediate plating. A change of survival depending on post irradiation condition is known to be repair of potentially lethal damage (RPLD). The effects of confluent holding recovery (24-h incubation following irradiation) on chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts (AG1522) and ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts (GM02052C) were examined. A chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to study chromosome aberrations in G2 and M-phase. Results from cell survival showed that the capacity for potentially lethal damage repair was normal in AG1522 cells but very little in GM02052C cells. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in AG1522 cells decreased when cells were allowed to repair for 24-h. Especially complex type exchanges were found to decrease markedly at high doses (4Gy and 6Gy). However, the frequency of chromosome aberrations including complex type exchanges showed little decrease in GM02052C cells. Confluent holding can effectively reduce chromosome aberrations, especially complex type exchanges in normal cells

  11. Sickle erythrocytes inhibit human endothelial cell DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, R.; Zhou, M.A.; Bartlett-Pandite, A.; Wenc, K.

    1990-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell anemia experience severe vascular occlusive phenomena including acute pain crisis and cerebral infarction. Obstruction occurs at both the microvascular and the arterial level, and the clinical presentation of vascular events is heterogeneous, suggesting a complex etiology. Interaction between sickle erythrocytes and the endothelium may contribute to vascular occlusion due to alteration of endothelial function. To investigate this hypothesis, human vascular endothelial cells were overlaid with sickle or normal erythrocytes and stimulated to synthesize DNA. The erythrocytes were sedimented onto replicate monolayers by centrifugation for 10 minutes at 17 g to insure contact with the endothelial cells. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine into endothelial cell DNA was markedly inhibited during contact with sickle erythrocytes. This inhibitory effect was enhanced more than twofold when autologous sickle plasma was present during endothelial cell labeling. Normal erythrocytes, with or without autologous plasma, had a modest effect on endothelial cell DNA synthesis. When sickle erythrocytes in autologous sickle plasma were applied to endothelial monolayers for 1 minute, 10 minutes, or 1 hour and then removed, subsequent DNA synthesis by the endothelial cells was inhibited by 30% to 40%. Although adherence of sickle erythrocytes to the endothelial monolayers was observed under these experimental conditions, the effect of sickle erythrocytes on endothelial DNA synthesis occurred in the absence of significant adherence. Hence, human endothelial cell DNA synthesis is partially inhibited by contact with sickle erythrocytes. The inhibitory effect of sickle erythrocytes occurs during a brief (1 minute) contact with the endothelial monolayers, and persists for at least 6 hours of 3H-thymidine labeling

  12. Tumor and Endothelial Cell Hybrids Participate in Glioblastoma Vasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufiane El Hallani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab has shown a high but transient efficacy in glioblastoma (GBM. Indeed, GBM is one of the most angiogenic human tumors and endothelial proliferation is a hallmark of the disease. We therefore hypothesized that tumor cells may participate in endothelial proliferation of GBM. Materials and Methods. We used EGFR FISH Probe to detect EGFR amplification and anti-CD31, CD105, VE-cadherin, and vWF to identify endothelial cells. Endothelial and GBM cells were grown separately, labeled with GFP and DsRed lentiviruses, and then cocultured with or without contact. Results. In a subset of GBM tissues, we found that several tumor endothelial cells carry EGFR amplification, characteristic of GBM tumor cells. This observation was reproduced in vitro: when tumor stem cells derived from GBM were grown in the presence of human endothelial cells, a fraction of them acquired endothelial markers (CD31, CD105, VE-cadherin, and vWF. By transduction with GFP and DsRed expressing lentiviral vectors, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to cell fusion and not transdifferentiation. Conclusion. A fraction of GBM stem cells thus has the capacity to fuse with endothelial cells and the resulting hybrids may participate in tumor microvascular proliferation and in treatment resistance.

  13. Tenascin-C in the extracellular matrix promotes the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenesis-defective endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Tercia Rodrigues [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Laboratorio de Biologia da Celula Endotelial e da Angiogenese (LabAngio), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho da Fonseca, Anna Carolina [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nunes, Sara Santana; Oliveira da Silva, Aline [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Laboratorio de Biologia da Celula Endotelial e da Angiogenese (LabAngio), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dubois, Luiz Gustavo Feijo; Faria, Jane; Kahn, Suzana Assad [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Viana, Nathan Bessa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Laboratorio de Pincas Oticas, Coordenacao de Programas de Estudos Avancados, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marcondes, Jorge [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Servico de Neurocirurgia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Legrand, Chantal [Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Universite Paris-Diderot, Paris 7, INSERM U553, Paris (France); Moura-Neto, Vivaldo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); and others

    2011-09-10

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains important cues for tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. The matricellular protein tenascin-C (TN-C) is overexpressed in remodeling tissues and cancer. In the present work, we studied the effect of different ECM-which exhibited a significant diversity in their TN-C content-in endothelial survival, proliferation and tubulogenic differentiation: autologous (endothelial) ECM devoid of TN-C, but bearing large amounts of FN; fibroblast ECM, bearing both high TN-C and FN contents; and finally, glioma-derived matrices, usually poor in FN, but very rich in TN-C. HUVECs initially adhered to the immobilized matrix produced by U373 MG glioma cells, but significantly detached and died by anoikis (50 to 80%) after 24 h, as compared with cells incubated with endothelial and fibroblast matrices. Surviving endothelial cells (20 to 50%) became up to 6-fold more proliferative and formed 74-97% less tube-like structures in vitro than cells grown on non-tumoral matrices. An antibody against the EGF-like repeats of tenascin-C (TN-C) partially rescued cells from the tubulogenic defect, indicating that this molecule is responsible for the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenic defective endothelial cells. Interestingly, by using defined substrata, in conditions that mimic glioma and normal cell ECM composition, we observed that fibronectin (FN) modulates the TN-C-induced selection of endothelial cells. Our data show that TN-C is able to modulate endothelial branching morphogenesis in vitro and, since it is prevalent in matrices of injured and tumor tissues, also suggest a role for this protein in vascular morphogenesis, in these physiological contexts.

  14. Tenascin-C in the extracellular matrix promotes the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenesis-defective endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Tercia Rodrigues; Carvalho da Fonseca, Anna Carolina; Nunes, Sara Santana; Oliveira da Silva, Aline; Dubois, Luiz Gustavo Feijo; Faria, Jane; Kahn, Suzana Assad; Viana, Nathan Bessa; Marcondes, Jorge; Legrand, Chantal; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains important cues for tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. The matricellular protein tenascin-C (TN-C) is overexpressed in remodeling tissues and cancer. In the present work, we studied the effect of different ECM-which exhibited a significant diversity in their TN-C content-in endothelial survival, proliferation and tubulogenic differentiation: autologous (endothelial) ECM devoid of TN-C, but bearing large amounts of FN; fibroblast ECM, bearing both high TN-C and FN contents; and finally, glioma-derived matrices, usually poor in FN, but very rich in TN-C. HUVECs initially adhered to the immobilized matrix produced by U373 MG glioma cells, but significantly detached and died by anoikis (50 to 80%) after 24 h, as compared with cells incubated with endothelial and fibroblast matrices. Surviving endothelial cells (20 to 50%) became up to 6-fold more proliferative and formed 74-97% less tube-like structures in vitro than cells grown on non-tumoral matrices. An antibody against the EGF-like repeats of tenascin-C (TN-C) partially rescued cells from the tubulogenic defect, indicating that this molecule is responsible for the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenic defective endothelial cells. Interestingly, by using defined substrata, in conditions that mimic glioma and normal cell ECM composition, we observed that fibronectin (FN) modulates the TN-C-induced selection of endothelial cells. Our data show that TN-C is able to modulate endothelial branching morphogenesis in vitro and, since it is prevalent in matrices of injured and tumor tissues, also suggest a role for this protein in vascular morphogenesis, in these physiological contexts.

  15. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN-depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E; Warram, Jason M; Knowles, Joseph A; Sweeny, Larissa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2011-08-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma-mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer, there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were cocultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into severe combined immunodeficient mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Coculture experiments showed fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN-silenced cells compared with control vector-transfected cells, whereas inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast coculture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast-mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed that EMMPRIN-silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared with control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast-independent tumor growth.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E.; Warram, Jason M.; Knowles, Joseph A.; Sweeny, Larrisa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were co-cultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into SCID mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Co-culture experiments demonstrated fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN silenced cells compared to control vector transfected cells, while inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast co-culture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed EMMPRIN silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared to control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast independent tumor growth. PMID:21665938

  17. Optical Investigations of Endothelial Cell Motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Ninna Struck

    A monolayer of endothelial cells lines the entire circulatory system and create a barrier between the circulatory system and the tissues. To create and maintain an intact barrier, the individual cells have to connect tightly with their neighbors, which causes a highly correlated motion between...... are fascinating from a biophysical point of view. The vasculature also plays a signi cant role in many pathologies. In diabetic blindness or ischemic diseases the ow of blood is insucient to sustain certain tissues or whole limbs. The creation of new blood vessels can relieve or treat such diseases. In other...... pathologies, such as the growth of cancerous tumors and metastasis, the creation of new blood vessels to these tumors worsen the condition and an inhibition of blood vessel creation will relieve the pathology. The thesis is divided into three parts; Part 1 provides some general background knowledge...

  18. Analysis of the receptor-mediated B19V mechanism of internalization in the endothelial B19V infection and adenovirus-mediated reactivation of B19V in endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzuto, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is the causative agent of erythema infectiosum, hydrops fetalis, aplastic crises and polyarthritis. B19V displays a very narrow cell and tissue tropism with productive infection thought to be restricted exclusively to erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow and fetal liver. However, over the last years increasing evidence for the presence of B19V DNA in other cell types and tissues such as synovial fibroblasts, tonsilles and skin as well as endothelial cells ...

  19. Radioprotection of mouse CNS endothelial cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubimova, N.; Coultas, P.; Martin, R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Radioprotection using the minor groove binding DNA ligand Hoechst 33342 has been demonstrated in vitro, and more recently in vivo, in mouse lung. Intravenous administration was used for the lung studies, and both endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells-showed good up-take. Radiation damage to the endothelial cell population has also been postulated as important in late developing radionecrosis of spinal cord and brain. Endothelial cell density in brain can be readily determined by a fluorescent-histochemical technique. Treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and subsequent injection with L-DOPA results in an accumulation of dopamine (DA) in CNS endothelial cells. DA is converted to a fluorophore by exposure to paraformaldehyde, and cell numbers assayed by fluorescence microscopy. Earlier studies used this technique to monitor post-irradiation changes in endothelial cell density in rodent brain and showed the loss, within 24 hours, of a sensitive subpopulation comprising about 15% of the endothelial cells. Ten minutes after intravenous injection of Hoechst 33342 (80mg/kg) the ligand is confined by its limited penetration to the endothelial cells in mouse brain. When we irradiated at this time, there was protection against early endothelial cell loss. Ablation of the sensitive subpopulation in unprotected mice takes place over a dose range of 1 to 3 Gy γ-rays, but doses between 12 to 20 Gy are required in the presence of ligand. This protection equates to a very high dose modification factor of about 7 and possibly reflects a suppression of apoptosis in the sensitive endothelial subpopulation. The extent to which there is enhanced survival in the endothelial population as a whole and how the observed protection affects late CNS necrosis development has yet to be determined. However present results clearly show potential for the use of DNA-binding radioprotectors with limited penetration for investigations into the relative significance of

  20. Curcumin modulates endothelial permeability and monocyte transendothelial migration by affecting endothelial cell dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfoulet, Laurent-Emmanuel; Mercier, Sylvie; Bayle, Dominique; Tamaian, Radu; Barber-Chamoux, Nicolas; Morand, Christine; Milenkovic, Dragan

    2017-11-01

    Curcumin is a phenolic compound that exhibits beneficial properties for cardiometabolic health. We previously showed that curcumin reduced the infiltration of immune cells into the vascular wall and prevented atherosclerosis development in mice. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM) and to decipher the underlying mechanisms of these actions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to curcumin (0.5-1μM) for 3h prior to their activation by Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α). Endothelial permeability, monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration assays were conducted under static condition and shear stress that mimics blood flow. We further investigated the impact of curcumin on signaling pathways and on the expression of genes using macroarrays. Pre-exposure of endothelial cells to curcumin reduced monocyte adhesion and their transendothelial migration in both static and shear stress conditions. Curcumin also prevented changes in both endothelial permeability and the area of HUVECs when induced by TNF-α. We showed that curcumin modulated the expression of 15 genes involved in the control of cytoskeleton and endothelial junction dynamic. Finally, we showed that curcumin inhibited NF-κB signaling likely through an antagonist interplay with several kinases as suggested by molecular docking analysis. Our findings demonstrate the ability of curcumin to reduce monocyte TEM through a multimodal regulation of the endothelial cell dynamics with a potential benefit on the vascular endothelial function barrier. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. TGF-β2 inhibits AKT activation and FGF-2-induced corneal endothelial cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jiawei; Lu Zhenyu; Reinach, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The corneal endothelial cells form a boundary layer between anterior chamber and cornea. This single cell layer is important to maintain cornea transparency by eliciting net fluid transport into the anterior chamber. Injuries of the corneal endothelial layer in humans lead to corneal swelling and translucence. This hindrance is thought to be due to limited proliferative capacity of the endothelial layer. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) are both found in aqueous humor, and these two cytokines promote and inhibit cell growth, respectively. The intracellular signaling mechanisms by which TGF-β2 suppresses the mitogenic response to FGF-2, however, remain unclear. We have addressed this question by investigating potential crosstalk between FGF-2-induced and TGF-β2-regulated intracellular signaling events in cultured bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells. We found that TGF-β2 and FGF-2 oppositely affect BCE cell proliferation and TGF-β2 can override the stimulating effects of FGF-2 by increasing COX-2 expression in these cells. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of COX-2 significantly reduced FGF-2-induced cell proliferation whereas a COX-2 specific inhibitor NS398 reversed the effect of TGF-β2 on FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. The COX-2 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) blocks FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. Whereas FGF-2 stimulates cell proliferation by activating the AKT pathway, TGF-β2 and PGE-2 both inhibit this pathway. In accordance with the effect of PGE-2, cAMP also inhibits FGF-2-induced AKT activation. These findings suggest that the mitogenic response to FGF-2 in vivo in the corneal endothelial layer may be inhibited by TGF-β2-induced suppression of the PI3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway

  2. Strategies to reverse endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Alessandra; Di Fenza, Raffaele; Carvello, Michele; Gatti, Francesca; Secchi, Antonio; Fiorina, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Bone-marrow-derived cells-mediated postnatal vasculogenesis has been reported as the main responsible for the regulation of vascular homeostasis in adults. Since their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells have been depicted as mediators of postnatal vasculogenesis for their peculiar phenotype (partially staminal and partially endothelial), their ability to differentiate in endothelial cell line and to be incorporated into the vessels wall during ischemia/damage. Diabetes mellitus, a condition characterized by cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and micro- and macroangiopathy, showed a dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms involved in diabetes-related dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells, highlighting how hyperglycemia affects the different steps of endothelial progenitor cells lifetime (i.e., bone marrow mobilization, trafficking into the bloodstream, differentiation in endothelial cells, and homing in damaged tissues/organs). Finally, we review preclinical and clinical strategies that aim to revert diabetes-induced dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells as a means of finding new strategies to prevent diabetic complications.

  3. Strategies to Reverse Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Petrelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow-derived cells-mediated postnatal vasculogenesis has been reported as the main responsible for the regulation of vascular homeostasis in adults. Since their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells have been depicted as mediators of postnatal vasculogenesis for their peculiar phenotype (partially staminal and partially endothelial, their ability to differentiate in endothelial cell line and to be incorporated into the vessels wall during ischemia/damage. Diabetes mellitus, a condition characterized by cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and micro- and macroangiopathy, showed a dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms involved in diabetes-related dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells, highlighting how hyperglycemia affects the different steps of endothelial progenitor cells lifetime (i.e., bone marrow mobilization, trafficking into the bloodstream, differentiation in endothelial cells, and homing in damaged tissues/organs. Finally, we review preclinical and clinical strategies that aim to revert diabetes-induced dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells as a means of finding new strategies to prevent diabetic complications.

  4. Endothelial cell cultures as a tool in biomaterial research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkpatrick, CJ; Otto, M; van Kooten, T; Krump, [No Value; Kriegsmann, J; Bittinger, F

    1999-01-01

    Progress in biocompatibility and tissue engineering would today be inconceivable without the aid of in vitro techniques. Endothelial cell cultures represent a valuable tool not just in haemocompatibility testing, but also in the concept of designing hybrid organs. In the past endothelial cells (EC)

  5. Increased endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in murine schistosomiasis: possible priming of endothelial cells by the disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen D S Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Schistosomiasis is an intravascular parasitic disease associated with inflammation. Endothelial cells control leukocyte transmigration and vascular permeability being modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Recent data have shown that endothelial cells primed in vivo in the course of a disease keep the information in culture. Herein, we evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis on endothelial cell-regulated events in vivo and in vitro. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experimental groups consisted of Schistosoma mansoni-infected and age-matched control mice. In vivo infection caused a marked influx of leukocytes and an increased protein leakage in the peritoneal cavity, characterizing an inflamed vascular and cellular profile. In vitro leukocyte-mesenteric endothelial cell adhesion was higher in cultured cells from infected mice as compared to controls, either in the basal condition or after treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF. Nitric oxide (NO donation reduced leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells from control and infected groups; however, in the later group the effect was more pronounced, probably due to a reduced NO production. Inhibition of control endothelial NO synthase (eNOS increased leukocyte adhesion to a level similar to the one observed in the infected group. Besides, the adhesion of control leukocytes to endothelial cells from infected animals is similar to the result of infected animals, confirming that schistosomiasis alters endothelial cells function. Furthermore, NO production as well as the expression of eNOS were reduced in cultured endothelial cells from infected animals. On the other hand, the expression of its repressor protein, namely caveolin-1, was similar in both control and infected groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Schistosomiasis increases vascular permeability and endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in vivo and in vitro. These effects are partially

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea and endothelial progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Qing Wang,1,* Qi Wu,2,* Jing Feng,3,4 Xin Sun5 1The Second Respiratory Department of the First People's Hospital of Kunming, Yunnan, People's Republic of China; 2Tianjin Haihe Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 3Respiratory Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 5Respiratory Department of Tianjin Haihe Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA occurs in 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women in the general population, and the prevalence is even higher in specific patient groups. OSA is an independent risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial injury could be the pivotal determinant in the development of cardiovascular pathology in OSA. Endothelial damage ultimately represents a dynamic balance between the magnitude of injury and the capacity for repair. Bone marrow–derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs within adult peripheral blood present a possible means of vascular maintenance that could home to sites of injury and restore endothelial integrity and normal function. Methods: We summarized pathogenetic mechanisms of OSA and searched for available studies on numbers and functions of EPCs in patients with OSA to explore the potential links between the numbers and functions of EPCs and OSA. In particular, we tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the effects of OSA on EPCs. Conclusion: Intermittent hypoxia cycles and sleep fragmentation are major pathophysiologic characters of OSA. Intermittent hypoxia acts as a trigger of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and sympathetic activation. Sleep fragmentation is associated with a burst of sympathetic activation and systemic inflammation. In most studies, a reduction in circulating EPCs has

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity of chemical preservatives on human fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gonsales Spindola

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preservatives are widely used substances that are commonly added to various cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to prevent or inhibit microbial growth. In this study, we compared the in vitro cytotoxicity of different types of currently used preservatives, including methylparaben, imidazolidinyl urea (IMU, and sodium benzoate, using the human newborn fibroblast cell line CCD1072Sk. Of the tested preservatives, only IMU induced a reduction in cell viability, as shown using the MTT assay and propidium iodide staining (IMU>methylparaben>sodium benzoate. IMU was shown to promote homeostatic alterations potentially related to the initiation of programed cell death, such as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activation, in the treated cells. Methylparaben and sodium benzoate were shown to have a very low cytotoxic activity. Taken together, our results suggest that IMU induces programed cell death in human fibroblasts by a canonical intrinsic pathway via mitochondrial perturbation and subsequent release of proapoptotic factors.

  8. Wound Healing Activity of Extracts and Formulations of Aloe vera, Henna, Adiantum capillus-veneris, and Myrrh on Mouse Dermal Fibroblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahdari, Samira; Galehdari, Hamid; Kesmati, Mahnaz; Rezaie, Anahita; Shariati, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Among the most important factors in wound healing pathways are transforming growth factor beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Fibroblasts are the main cell in all phases wound closure. In this study, the extracts of plant materials such as Adiantum capillus-veneris , Commiphora molmol , Aloe vera , and henna and one mixture of them were used to treatment of normal mouse skin fibroblasts. Cytotoxic effects of each extract and their mixture were assessed on mouse skin fibroblasts cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. We performed migration assays to assess migration properties of mouse skin fibroblasts cells in response to the extracts. Changes in the gene expression of the Tgf β1 and Vegf-A genes were monitored by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A. capillus-veneris , C. molmol and henna extract improved the expression of Tgfβ1 gene. All used extracts upregulated the expression of Vegf-A gene and promoted the migration of mouse fibroblast cells in vitro . The present study demonstrated that the mentioned herbal extracts might be effective in wound healing, through the improvement in the migration of fibroblast cells and regulating the gene expression of Tgfβ1 and Vegf-A genes in fibroblast cells treated with extracts.

  9. Ionizing radiation activates vascular endothelial growth factor-A transcription in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyounji; Kim, Kwang Seok; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Lim, Young Bin [Radiation Cancer Biology Team, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an essential paracrine factor for developmental and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF also exerts its effects in an autocrine manner in VEGF-producing cells. For instance, autocrine VEGF signaling occurs in tumor cells and contributes to key aspects of tumorigenesis, such as in the function of cancer stem cells and tumor initiation, which are independent of angiogenesis. In addition to tumors cells, non-transformed cells also express VEGF. For example, a VEGF dependent intracellular autocrine mechanism is crucial for the survival of hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoiesis. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a novel treatment modality for early primary cancer and oligometastatic disease. SBRT delivers high-dose hypofractionated radiation, such as 20-60 Gy, to tumors in a single fraction or 2-5 fractions. As VEGF is a critical regulator of functional integrity and viability of vascular endothelial cells, we examined whether high-dose irradiation alters VEGF signaling by measuring the expression levels of VEGFA transcript. It is generally believed that endothelial cells do not produce VEGF in response to radiation. In present study, however, we provide the first demonstration of transcriptional regulation of VEGFA in human vascular endothelial cells by IR treatment. Irradiation with doses higher than 10 Gy in a single exposure triggers up-regulation of VEGFA transcription within 2 hours in HUVECs, whereas irradiation with 10 Gy does not alter VEGFA levels. Our data have shown that high-dose irradiation triggers immediate transactivation of VEGFA in human vascular endothelial cells.

  10. Human endothelial precursor cells express tumor endothelial marker 1/endosialin/CD248.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Rebecca G; Rouleau, Cecile; St Martin, Thia; Boutin, Paula; Weber, William; Ruzek, Melanie; Honma, Nakayuki; Nacht, Mariana; Shankara, Srinivas; Kataoka, Shiro; Ishida, Isao; Roberts, Bruce L; Teicher, Beverly A

    2008-08-01

    Angiogenesis occurs during normal physiologic processes as well as under pathologic conditions such as tumor growth. Serial analysis of gene expression profiling revealed genes [tumor endothelial markers (TEM)] that are overexpressed in tumor endothelial cells compared with normal adult endothelial cells. Because blood vessel development of malignant tumors under certain conditions may include endothelial precursor cells (EPC) recruited from bone marrow, we investigated TEM expression in EPC. The expression of TEM1 or endosialin (CD248) and other TEM has been discovered in a population of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2+/CD31+/CD45-/VE-cadherin+ EPC derived from human CD133+/CD34+ cells. EPC share some properties with fully differentiated endothelial cells from normal tissue, yet reverse transcription-PCR and flow cytometry reveal that EPC express higher levels of endosialin at the molecular and protein levels. The elevated expression of endosialin in EPC versus mature endothelial cells suggests that endosialin is involved in the earlier stages of tumor angiogenesis. Anti-endosialin antibodies inhibited EPC migration and tube formation in vitro. In vivo, immunohistochemistry indicated that human EPC continued to express endosialin protein in a Matrigel plug angiogenesis assay established in nude mice. Anti-endosialin antibodies delivered systemically at 25 mg/kg were also able to inhibit circulating murine EPC in nude mice bearing s.c. SKNAS tumors. EPC and bone marrow-derived cells have been shown previously to incorporate into malignant blood vessels in some instances, yet they remain controversial in the field. The data presented here on endothelial genes that are up-regulated in tumor vasculature and in EPC support the hypothesis that the angiogenesis process in cancer can involve EPC.

  11. Fibroblasts derived from human pluripotent stem cells activate angiogenic responses in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Shamis

    Full Text Available Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC/hiPSC are promising cell sources for the derivation of large numbers of specific cell types for tissue engineering and cell therapy applications. We have describe a directed differentiation protocol that generates fibroblasts from both hESC and hiPSC (EDK/iPDK that support the repair and regeneration of epithelial tissue in engineered, 3D skin equivalents. In the current study, we analyzed the secretory profiles of EDK and iPDK cells to investigate the production of factors that activate and promote angiogenesis. Analysis of in vitro secretion profiles from EDK and iPDK cells demonstrated the elevated secretion of pro-angiogenic soluble mediators, including VEGF, HGF, IL-8, PDGF-AA, and Ang-1, that stimulated endothelial cell sprouting in a 3D model of angiogenesis in vitro. Phenotypic analysis of EDK and iPDK cells during the course of differentiation from hESCs and iPSCs revealed that both cell types progressively acquired pericyte lineage markers NG2, PDGFRβ, CD105, and CD73 and demonstrated transient induction of pericyte progenitor markers CD31, CD34, and Flk1/VEGFR2. Furthermore, when co-cultured with endothelial cells in 3D fibrin-based constructs, EDK and iPDK cells promoted self-assembly of vascular networks and vascular basement membrane deposition. Finally, transplantation of EDK cells into mice with hindlimb ischemia significantly reduced tissue necrosis and improved blood perfusion, demonstrating the potential of these cells to stimulate angiogenic responses in vivo. These findings demonstrate that stable populations of pericyte-like angiogenic cells can be generated with high efficiency from hESC and hiPSC using a directed differentiation approach. This provides new cell sources and opportunities for vascular tissue engineering and for the development of novel strategies in regenerative medicine.

  12. Responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to nanostructured platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennisi, C P; Sevcencu, C; Yoshida, K [Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Foss, M; Larsen, A Nylandsted; Besenbacher, F [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Hansen, J Lundsgaard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Zachar, V, E-mail: cpennisi@hst.aau.d [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University (Denmark)

    2009-09-23

    The chronic performance of implantable neural prostheses is affected by the growth of encapsulation tissue onto the stimulation electrodes. Encapsulation is associated with activation of connective tissue cells at the electrode's metallic contacts, usually made of platinum. Since surface nanotopography can modulate the cellular responses to materials, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the 'in vitro' responses of connective tissue cells to platinum strictly by modulating its surface nanoroughness. Using molecular beam epitaxy combined with sputtering, we produced platinum nanostructured substrates consisting of irregularly distributed nanopyramids and investigated their effect on the proliferation, cytoskeletal organization and cellular morphology of primary fibroblasts and transformed glial cells. Cells were cultured on these substrates and their responses to surface roughness were studied. After one day in culture, the fibroblasts were more elongated and their cytoskeleton less mature when cultured on rough substrates. This effect increased as the roughness of the surface increased and was associated with reduced cell proliferation throughout the observation period (4 days). Morphological changes also occurred in glial cells, but they were triggered by a different roughness scale and did not affect cellular proliferation. In conclusion, surface nanotopography modulates the responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to platinum, which may be an important factor in optimizing the tissue response to implanted neural electrodes.

  13. The hematopoietic chemokine CXCL12 promotes integration of human endothelial colony forming cell-derived cells into immature vessel networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newey, Sarah E; Tsaknakis, Grigorios; Khoo, Cheen P; Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Camicia, Rosalba; Zhang, Youyi; Grabowska, Rita; Harris, Adrian L; Roubelakis, Maria G; Watt, Suzanne M

    2014-11-15

    Proangiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) prime endothelial cells to respond to "hematopoietic" chemokines and cytokines by inducing/upregulating expression of the respective chemokine/cytokine receptors. Coculture of human endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC)-derived cells with human stromal cells in the presence of VEGF and FGF-2 for 14 days resulted in upregulation of the "hematopoietic" chemokine CXCL12 and its CXCR4 receptor by day 3 of coculture. Chronic exposure to the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 in this vasculo/angiogenesis assay significantly reduced vascular tubule formation, an observation recapitulated by delayed AMD3100 addition. While AMD3100 did not affect ECFC-derived cell proliferation, it did demonstrate a dual action. First, over the later stages of the 14-day cocultures, AMD3100 delayed tubule organization into maturing vessel networks, resulting in enhanced endothelial cell retraction and loss of complexity as defined by live cell imaging. Second, at earlier stages of cocultures, we observed that AMD3100 significantly inhibited the integration of exogenous ECFC-derived cells into established, but immature, vascular networks. Comparative proteome profiler array analyses of ECFC-derived cells treated with AMD3100 identified changes in expression of potential candidate molecules involved in adhesion and/or migration. Blocking antibodies to CD31, but not CD146 or CD166, reduced the ECFC-derived cell integration into these extant vascular networks. Thus, CXCL12 plays a key role not only in endothelial cell sensing and guidance, but also in promoting the integration of ECFC-derived cells into developing vascular networks.

  14. Analysis of primary cilia in directional cell migration in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Veland, Iben; Schwab, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    summarize selected methods in analyzing ciliary function in directional cell migration, including immunofluorescence microscopy, scratch assay, and chemotaxis assay by micropipette addition of PDGFRα ligands to cultures of fibroblasts. These methods should be useful not only in studying cell migration....... In particular, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is compartmentalized to the primary cilium to activate signaling pathways that regulate reorganization of the cytoskeleton required for lamellipodium formation and directional migration in the presence of a specific ligand gradient. We...

  15. Verocytotoxin-induced apoptosis of human microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijpers, A H; van Setten, P A; van den Heuvel, L P; Assmann, K J; Dijkman, H B; Pennings, A H; Monnens, L A; van Hinsbergh, V W

    2001-04-01

    The pathogenesis of the epidemic form of hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by endothelial cell damage. In this study, the role of apoptosis in verocytotoxin (VT)-mediated endothelial cell death in human glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (GMVEC), human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and foreskin microvascular endothelial cells (FMVEC) was investigated. VT induced apoptosis in GMVEC and human umbilical vein endothelial cells when the cells were prestimulated with the inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). FMVEC displayed strong binding of VT and high susceptibility to VT under basal conditions, which made them suitable for the study of VT-induced apoptosis without TNF-alpha interference. On the basis of functional (flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy using FITC-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide), morphologic (transmission electron microscopy), and molecular (agarose gel electrophoresis of cellular DNA fragments) criteria, it was documented that VT induced programmed cell death in microvascular endothelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, whereas partial inhibition of protein synthesis by VT was associated with a considerable number of apoptotic cells, comparable inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide was not. This suggests that additional pathways, independent of protein synthesis inhibition, may be involved in VT-mediated apoptosis in microvascular endothelial cells. Specific inhibition of caspases by Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO, but not by Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO, was accompanied by inhibition of VT-induced apoptosis in FMVEC and TNF-alpha-treated GMVEC. These data indicate that VT can induce apoptosis in human microvascular endothelial cells.

  16. Protective role of microRNA-29a in denatured dermis and skin fibroblast cells after thermal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study has suggested that downregulated microRNA (miR-29a in denatured dermis might be involved in burn wound healing. However, the exact role of miR-29a in healing of burn injury still remains unclear. Here, we found that expression of miR-29a was notably upregulated in denatured dermis tissues and skin fibroblast cells after thermal injury, and thereafter gradually downregulated compared with control group. By contrast, the expression of collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A were first reduced and subsequently upregulated in denatured dermis tissues and skin fibroblast cells after thermal injury. We further identified COL1A2 as a novel target of miR-29a, which is involved in type I collagen synthesis, and showed that miR-29a negatively regulated the expression level of COL1A2 in skin fibroblast cells. In addition, VEGF-A, another target gene of miR-29a, was also negatively mediated by miR-29a in skin fibroblast cells. Inhibition of miR-29a expression significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of skin fibroblast cells after thermal injury, and knockdown of COL1A2 and VEGF-A reversed the effects of miR-29a on the proliferation and migration of skin fibroblast cells. Furthermore, we found that Notch2/Jagged2 signaling was involved in miR-29a response to burn wound healing. Our findings suggest that downregulated miR-29a in denatured dermis may help burn wound healing in the later phase, probably via upregulation of COL1A2 and VEGF-A expression, which can further enhance type I collagen synthesis and angiogenesis.

  17. Endothelial cells in the eyes of an immunologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M Rita

    2012-10-01

    Endothelial cell activation in the process of tumor angiogenesis and in various aspects of vascular biology has been extensively studied. However, endothelial cells also function in other capacities, including in immune regulation. Compared to the more traditional immune regulatory populations (Th1, Th2, Treg, etc.), endothelial cells have received far less credit as being immune regulators. Their regulatory capacity is multifaceted. They are critical in both limiting and facilitating the trafficking of various immune cell populations, including T cells and dendritic cells, out of the vasculature and into tissue. They also can be induced to stimulate immune reactivity or to be immune inhibitory. In each of these parameters (trafficking, immune stimulation and immune inhibition), their role can be physiological, whereby they have an active role in maintaining health. Alternatively, their role can be pathological, whereby they contribute to disease. In theory, endothelial cells are in an ideal location to recruit cells that can mediate immune reactivity to tumor tissue. Furthermore, they can activate the immune cells as they transmigrate across the endothelium into the tumor. However, what is seen is the absence of these protective effects of endothelial cells and, instead, the endothelial cells succumb to the defense mechanisms of the tumor, resulting in their acquisition of a tumor-protective role. To understand the immune regulatory potential of endothelial cells in protecting the host versus the tumor, it is useful to better understand the other circumstances in which endothelial cells modulate immune reactivities. Which of the multitude of immune regulatory roles that endothelial cells can take on seems to rely on the type of stimulus that they are encountering. It also depends on the extent to which they can be manipulated by potential dangers to succumb and contribute toward attack on the host. This review will explore the physiological and pathological roles

  18. Apoptosis of Endothelial Cells by 13-HPODE Contributes to Impairment of Endothelial Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie E. Ryman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an essential host response during bacterial infections such as bovine mastitis. Endothelial cells are critical for an appropriate inflammatory response and loss of vascular barrier integrity is implicated in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus uberis-induced mastitis. Previous studies suggested that accumulation of linoleic acid (LA oxygenation products derived from 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1 metabolism could regulate vascular functions. The initial LA derivative from the 15-LOX-1 pathway, 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (HPODE, can induce endothelial death, whereas the reduced hydroxyl product, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE, is abundantly produced during vascular activation. However, the relative contribution of specific LA-derived metabolites on impairment of mammary endothelial integrity is unknown. Our hypothesis was that S. uberis-induced LA-derived 15-LOX-1 oxygenation products impair mammary endothelial barrier integrity by apoptosis. Exposure of bovine mammary endothelial cells (BMEC to S. uberis did not increase 15-LOX-1 LA metabolism. However, S. uberis challenge of bovine monocytes demonstrated that monocytes may be a significant source of both 13-HPODE and 13-HODE during mastitis. Exposure of BMEC to 13-HPODE, but not 13-HODE, significantly reduced endothelial barrier integrity and increased apoptosis. Changing oxidant status by coexposure to an antioxidant during 13-HPODE treatment prevented adverse effects of 13-HPODE, including amelioration of apoptosis. A better understanding of how the oxidant status of the vascular microenvironment impacts endothelial barrier properties could lead to more efficacious treatments for S. uberis mastitis.

  19. Endothelial cell energy metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiling; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease characterized by impaired regulation of pulmonary hemodynamics and excessive growth and dysfunction of the endothelial cells that line the arteries in PAH lungs. Establishment of methods for culture of pulmonary artery endothelial cells from PAH lungs has provided the groundwork for mechanistic translational studies that confirm and extend findings from model systems and spontaneous pulmonary hypertension in animals. Endothelial cell hyperproliferation, survival, and alterations of biochemical-metabolic pathways are the unifying endothelial pathobiology of the disease. The hyperproliferative and apoptosis-resistant phenotype of PAH endothelial cells is dependent upon the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, a fundamental regulator of cell survival and angiogenesis. Animal models of PAH, patients with PAH, and human PAH endothelial cells produce low nitric oxide (NO). In association with the low level of NO, endothelial cells have reduced mitochondrial numbers and cellular respiration, which is associated with more than a threefold increase in glycolysis for energy production. The shift to glycolysis is related to low levels of NO and likely to the pathologic expression of the prosurvival and proangiogenic signal transducer, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, and the reduced mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). In this article, we review the phenotypic changes of the endothelium in PAH and the biochemical mechanisms accounting for the proliferative, glycolytic, and strongly proangiogenic phenotype of these dysfunctional cells, which consequently foster the panvascular progressive pulmonary remodeling in PAH. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  20. Mesenchymal Stem/Multipotent Stromal Cells from Human Decidua Basalis Reduce Endothelial Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshabibi, Manal A; Al Huqail, Al Joharah; Khatlani, Tanvir; Abomaray, Fawaz M; Alaskar, Ahmed S; Alawad, Abdullah O; Kalionis, Bill; Abumaree, Mohamed Hassan

    2017-09-15

    Recently, we reported the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from the decidua basalis of human placenta (DBMSCs). These cells express a unique combination of molecules involved in many important cellular functions, which make them good candidates for cell-based therapies. The endothelium is a highly specialized, metabolically active interface between blood and the underlying tissues. Inflammatory factors stimulate the endothelium to undergo a change to a proinflammatory and procoagulant state (ie, endothelial cell activation). An initial response to endothelial cell activation is monocyte adhesion. Activation typically involves increased proliferation and enhanced expression of adhesion and inflammatory markers by endothelial cells. Sustained endothelial cell activation leads to a type of damage to the body associated with inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the ability of DBMSCs to protect endothelial cells from activation through monocyte adhesion, by modulating endothelial proliferation, migration, adhesion, and inflammatory marker expression. Endothelial cells were cocultured with DBMSCs, monocytes, monocyte-pretreated with DBMSCs and DBMSC-pretreated with monocytes were also evaluated. Monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells was examined following treatment with DBMSCs. Expression of endothelial cell adhesion and inflammatory markers was also analyzed. The interaction between DBMSCs and monocytes reduced endothelial cell proliferation and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. In contrast, endothelial cell migration increased in response to DBMSCs and monocytes. Endothelial cell expression of adhesion and inflammatory molecules was reduced by DBMSCs and DBMSC-pretreated with monocytes. The mechanism of reduced endothelial proliferation involved enhanced phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Our study shows for the first time that DBMSCs protect endothelial cells from activation by

  1. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Nacev

    Full Text Available Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA, an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50 dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  2. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, Benjamin A; Liu, Jun O

    2011-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50) dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  3. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection of Animal Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Krump, Nathan A; MacDonald, Margo; You, Jianxin

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the first polyomavirus to be associated with human cancer. Mechanistic studies attempting to fully elucidate MCPyV's oncogenic mechanisms have been hampered by the lack of animal models for MCPyV infection. In this study, we examined the ability of MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus (containing a green fluorescent protein [GFP] reporter construct), MCPyV recombinant virions, and several MCPyV chimeric viruses to infect dermal fibroblasts isolated from various model animals, including mouse ( Mus musculus ), rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ), rat ( Rattus norvegicus ), chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ), rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ), patas monkey ( Erythrocebus patas ), common woolly monkey ( Lagothrix lagotricha ), red-chested mustached tamarin ( Saguinus labiatus ), and tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri ). We found that MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus was able to enter the dermal fibroblasts of all species tested. Chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts were the only type that supported vigorous MCPyV gene expression and viral replication, and they did so to a level beyond that of human dermal fibroblasts. We further demonstrated that both human and chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts produce infectious MCPyV virions that can successfully infect new cells. In addition, rat dermal fibroblasts supported robust MCPyV large T antigen expression after infection with an MCPyV chimeric virus in which the entire enhancer region of the MCPyV early promoter has been replaced with the simian virus 40 (SV40) analog. Our results suggest that viral transcription and/or replication events represent the major hurdle for MCPyV cross-species transmission. The capacity of rat dermal fibroblasts to support MCPyV early gene expression suggests that the rat is a candidate model organism for studying viral oncogene function during Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) oncogenic progression. IMPORTANCE MCPyV plays an important role in the development of a highly aggressive form of skin cancer, Merkel

  4. Nipah virus infection and glycoprotein targeting in endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisner Andrea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV causes fatal respiratory and brain infections in animals and humans. The major hallmark of the infection is a systemic endothelial infection, predominantly in the CNS. Infection of brain endothelial cells allows the virus to overcome the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and to subsequently infect the brain parenchyma. However, the mechanisms of NiV replication in endothelial cells are poorly elucidated. We have shown recently that the bipolar or basolateral expression of the NiV surface glycoproteins F and G in polarized epithelial cell layers is involved in lateral virus spread via cell-to-cell fusion and that correct sorting depends on tyrosine-dependent targeting signals in the cytoplasmic tails of the glycoproteins. Since endothelial cells share many characteristics with epithelial cells in terms of polarization and protein sorting, we wanted to elucidate the role of the NiV glycoprotein targeting signals in endothelial cells. Results As observed in vivo, NiV infection of endothelial cells induced syncytia formation. The further finding that infection increased the transendothelial permeability supports the idea of spread of infection via cell-to-cell fusion and endothelial cell damage as a mechanism to overcome the BBB. We then revealed that both glycoproteins are expressed at lateral cell junctions (bipolar, not only in NiV-infected primary endothelial cells but also upon stable expression in immortalized endothelial cells. Interestingly, mutation of tyrosines 525 and 542/543 in the cytoplasmic tail of the F protein led to an apical redistribution of the protein in endothelial cells whereas tyrosine mutations in the G protein had no effect at all. This fully contrasts the previous results in epithelial cells where tyrosine 525 in the F, and tyrosines 28/29 in the G protein were required for correct targeting. Conclusion We conclude that the NiV glycoprotein distribution is responsible for

  5. Animal study on transplantation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells for corneal endothelial decompensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the feasibility of culturing human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECon acellular corneal stroma and performing the posterior lamellar endothelial keratoplasty(PLEKtreating corneal endothelial decompensation.METHODS: Thirty New-Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups randomly, 10 rabbits for experimental group, 10 for stroma group and 10 for control group. Corneal endothelial cells were removed to establish animal model of corneal endothelial failure. PLEK was performed on the rabbits of experimental group and stroma group, and nothing was transplantated onto the rabbits of control group with the deep layer excised only. Postoperative observation was taken for 3mo. The degree of corneal edema and central corneal thickness were recorded for statistical analysis.RESULTS: Corneas in experimental group were relieved in edema obviously compared with that in stroma group and the control group, and showed increased transparency 7d after the operation. The average density of endothelial cells was 2 026.4±129.3cells/mm2, and average central corneal thickness was 505.2±25.4μm in experimental group, while 1 535.6±114.5μm in stroma group and 1 493.5±70.2μm in control group 3mo after operation.CONCLUSION:We achieved preliminary success in our study that culturing HUVEC on acellular corneal stroma and performing PLEK for corneal endothelial decompensation. HUVEC transplanted could survive in vivo, and have normal biological function of keeping cornea transparent. This study provides a new idea and a new way clinically for the treatment of corneal endothelial diseases.

  6. The Bony Side of Endothelial Cells in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jia; Kang, Yibin

    2017-06-05

    Prostate cancer bone metastases are primarily osteoblastic, but the source of bone-forming cells in these lesions remains poorly defined. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Lin et al. (2017) demonstrate that tumor-associated endothelial cells can give rise to osteoblasts in prostate cancer through endothelial-to-osteoblast (EC-to-OSB) conversion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from fibroblast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Okita, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Masato; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2007-01-01

    Clinical application of embryonic stem (ES) cells faces difficulties regarding use of embryos, as well as tissue rejection after implantation. One way to circumvent these issues is to generate pluripotent stem cells directly from somatic cells. Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state by the injection of a nucleus into an enucleated oocyte or by fusion with ES cells. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these processes. We have recently shown that the combination of four transcription factors can generate ES-like pluripotent stem cells directly from mouse fibroblast cultures. The cells, named induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, can be differentiated into three germ layers and committed to chimeric mice. Here we describe detailed methods and tips for the generation of iPS cells.

  8. CORNEAL ENDOTHELIAL CELL DENSITY IN ACUTE ANGLE CLOSURE GLAUCOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Sultana K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Angle closure is characterised by apposition of the peripheral iris against the trabecular meshwork resulting in obstruction of aqueous outflow. Acute angle-closure glaucoma is characterised by pain, redness and blurred vision. The pain is typically a severe deep ache that follows the trigeminal distribution and maybe associated with nausea, vomiting, bradycardia and profuse sweating. The blurred vision, which is typically marked maybe caused by stretching of the corneal lamellae initially and later oedema of the cornea as well as a direct effect of the IOP on the optic nerve head. The modifications in corneal endothelial cell density after a crisis of angle-closure glaucoma is being evaluated. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The objective of the study is to assess the corneal endothelial cell count (density by specular microscopy in patients presenting with acute angle-closure glaucoma. METHODS Corneal endothelial cell counts of 20 eyes of patients with PACG with an earlier documented symptomatic acute attack unilaterally were compared with 20 fellow eyes. Evaluation of patient included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, disc findings and specular microscopy. RESULTS The mean endothelial cell density was 2104 cells/mm2 in the eye with acute attack and 2615 cells/mm2 in the fellow eye. The average endothelial cell count when the duration of attack lasted more than 72 hours was 1861 cells/mm2 . CONCLUSION Corneal endothelial cell density was found to be significantly reduced in eyes following an acute attack of primary angle closure glaucoma.

  9. Urokinase receptor expression on human microvascular endothelial cells is increased by hypoxia: Implications for capillary-like tube formation in a fibrin matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.E.; Koolwijk, P.; Vecht, B. van der; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Hypoxia stimulates angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels. This study evaluates the direct effect of hypoxia (1% oxygen) on the angiogenic response of human microvascular endothelial cells (hMVECs) seeded on top of a 3-dimensional fibrin matrix, hMVECs stimulated with fibroblast growth

  10. PECAM-1 polymorphism affects monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Reyna S; Kirton, Christopher M; Oostingh, Gertie J; Schön, Michael P; Clark, Michael R; Bradley, J Andrew; Taylor, Craig J

    2008-02-15

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) plays an important role in leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and transmigration. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PECAM-1 encoding amino acid substitutions at positions 98 leucine/valine (L/V), 536 serine/asparagine (S/N), and 643 arginine/glycine (R/G) occur in strong genetic linkage resulting in two common haplotypes (LSR and VNG). These PECAM-1 polymorphisms are associated with graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and with cardiovascular disease, but whether they influence PECAM-1 function is unknown. We examined the effect of homozygous and heterozygous expression of the PECAM-1 LSR and VNG genotypes on the adhesive interactions of peripheral blood monocytes and activated endothelial cell monolayers under shear stress in a flow-based cell adhesion assay. There was no difference in monocyte adhesion between the two homozygous genotypes of PECAM-1 but when monocytes expressed both alleles in heterozygous form, firm adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells was markedly increased. PECAM-1 polymorphism expressed in homozygous or heterozygous form by endothelial cells did not influence monocyte adhesion. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that PECAM-1 genotype can alter the level of monocyte binding to endothelial cells and a demonstration that heterozygous expression of a polymorphic protein may lead to altered function.

  11. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Tran

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC. Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1 colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  12. Biochemical changes to fibroblast cells subjected to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamala; Benghuzzi, Hamed; Tucci, Michelle; Richards, Latoya; Harrison, George; Patel, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    High energy X-rays are capable of interacting with biological membranes to cause both functional and structural modifications. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects human fibroblast cells exposed multiple times to 10 Gy over time. Following exposures of 2, 3, or 4 times to 10 Gy/10min the cells were evaluated for cell number changes, membrane damage, and intracellular glutathione content after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Twenty-four hours following exposure the cell numbers were reduced and increased levels of cellular membrane damage was evident. This trend was observed for the duration of the study. Interestingly, there was not an exposure dependent increase in cell damage or cell loss with time. Intracellular antioxidant systems were activated as indicated by anincrease in total cellular glutathione content. Additional studies are needed to determine if the cellular reduction is caused by a direct effect of the X-rays targeting the DNA or an indirect effect of the X-ray targeting the cellular membrane, which then generates radicals that target cell cycle checkpoints or DNA damage. In conclusion, fibroblast cells can be used to determine early and late events of cellular function following exposure to harmful levels of radiation exposure and results of exposure can be seen within twenty four hours.

  13. Magnetizable stent-grafts enable endothelial cell capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tefft, Brandon J. [Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Uthamaraj, Susheil [Division of Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Harburn, J. Jonathan [School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, Durham University, Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom); Hlinomaz, Ota [Department of Cardioangiology, St. Anne' s University Hospital, Brno (Czech Republic); Lerman, Amir [Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Dragomir-Daescu, Dan [Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Sandhu, Gurpreet S., E-mail: sandhu.gurpreet@mayo.edu [Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Emerging nanotechnologies have enabled the use of magnetic forces to guide the movement of magnetically-labeled cells, drugs, and other therapeutic agents. Endothelial cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have previously been captured on the surface of magnetizable 2205 duplex stainless steel stents in a porcine coronary implantation model. Recently, we have coated these stents with electrospun polyurethane nanofibers to fabricate prototype stent-grafts. Facilitated endothelialization may help improve the healing of arteries treated with stent-grafts, reduce the risk of thrombosis and restenosis, and enable small-caliber applications. When placed in a SPION-labeled endothelial cell suspension in the presence of an external magnetic field, magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured cells to the surface regions adjacent to the stent struts. Implantation within the coronary circulation of pigs (n=13) followed immediately by SPION-labeled autologous endothelial cell delivery resulted in widely patent devices with a thin, uniform neointima and no signs of thrombosis or inflammation at 7 days. Furthermore, the magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured and retained SPION-labeled endothelial cells to select regions adjacent to stent struts and between stent struts, whereas the non-magnetized control stent-grafts did not. Early results with these prototype devices are encouraging and further refinements will be necessary in order to achieve more uniform cell capture and complete endothelialization. Once optimized, this approach may lead to more rapid and complete healing of vascular stent-grafts with a concomitant improvement in long-term device performance. - Highlights: • Magnetic stent-grafts were made from 2205 steel stents and polyurethane nanofibers. • Stent-grafts remained patent and formed a thin and uniform neointima when implanted. • Stent-grafts captured endothelial cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles.

  14. Biostimulatory effects of low-level laser therapy on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with zoledronic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, F. G.; Pansani, T. N.; Turrioni, A. P. S.; Kurachi, C.; Bagnato, V. S.; Hebling, J.; de Souza Costa, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been considered as an adjuvant treatment for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, presenting positive clinical outcomes. However, there are no data regarding the effect of LLLT on oral tissue cells exposed to bisphosphonates. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of LLLT on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts exposed to a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate—zoledronic acid (ZA). Cells were seeded in wells of 24-well plates, incubated for 48 h and then exposed to ZA at 5 μM for an additional 48 h. LLLT was performed with a diode laser prototype—LaserTABLE (InGaAsP—780 nm ± 3 nm, 25 mW), at selected energy doses of 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, and 7 J cm-2 in three irradiation sessions, every 24 h. Cell metabolism, total protein production, gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen type I (Col-I), and cell morphology were evaluated 24 h after the last irradiation. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at 5% significance. Selected LLLT parameters increased the functions of epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with ZA. Gene expression of VEGF and Col-I was also increased. Specific parameters of LLLT biostimulated fibroblasts and epithelial cells treated with ZA. Analysis of these in vitro data may explain the positive in vivo effects of LLLT applied to osteonecrosis lesions.

  15. Biostimulatory effects of low-level laser therapy on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with zoledronic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, F G; Pansani, T N; Turrioni, A P S; Hebling, J; De Souza Costa, C A; Kurachi, C; Bagnato, V S

    2013-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been considered as an adjuvant treatment for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, presenting positive clinical outcomes. However, there are no data regarding the effect of LLLT on oral tissue cells exposed to bisphosphonates. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of LLLT on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts exposed to a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate—zoledronic acid (ZA). Cells were seeded in wells of 24-well plates, incubated for 48 h and then exposed to ZA at 5 μM for an additional 48 h. LLLT was performed with a diode laser prototype—LaserTABLE (InGaAsP—780 nm ± 3 nm, 25 mW), at selected energy doses of 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, and 7 J cm −2 in three irradiation sessions, every 24 h. Cell metabolism, total protein production, gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen type I (Col-I), and cell morphology were evaluated 24 h after the last irradiation. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests at 5% significance. Selected LLLT parameters increased the functions of epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with ZA. Gene expression of VEGF and Col-I was also increased. Specific parameters of LLLT biostimulated fibroblasts and epithelial cells treated with ZA. Analysis of these in vitro data may explain the positive in vivo effects of LLLT applied to osteonecrosis lesions. (paper)

  16. Comparison of Endothelial Cell Loss by Specular Microscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endothelial cell loss was also compared in phacoemulsification group by temporal clear corneal incision (CCI) and by superior scleral incision (SI) technique. ..... vs manual sutureless small-incision extracapsular cataract surgery in Nepal.

  17. Endothelial Cell-Targeted Adenoviral Vector for Suppressing Breast Malignancies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Shuang

    2004-01-01

    .... Our proposal is designed to develop an endothelial cell-targeted adenoviral vector and to use the targeted vector to express high levels of anticancer therapeutic genes in the sites of angiogenenic...

  18. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor; Kong, Say Li; Sengupta, Debarka; Tan, Iain B; Phyo, Wai Min; Lee, Daniel; Hu, Min; Iliescu, Ciprian; Alexander, Irina; Goh, Wei Lin; Rahmani, Mehran; Suhaimi, Nur-Afidah Mohamed; Vo, Jess H; Tai, Joyce A; Tan, Joanna H; Chua, Clarinda; Ten, Rachel; Lim, Wan Jun; Chew, Min Hoe; Hauser, Charlotte; van Dam, Rob M; Lim, Wei-Yen; Prabhakar, Shyam; Lim, Bing; Koh, Poh Koon; Robson, Paul; Ying, Jackie Y; Hillmer, Axel M; Tan, Min-Han

    2016-01-01

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  19. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor

    2016-06-29

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  20. Endothelial cell proliferation in swine experimental aneurysm after coil embolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Mitome-Mishima

    Full Text Available After coil embolization, recanalization in cerebral aneurysms adversely influences long-term prognosis. Proliferation of endothelial cells on the coil surface may reduce the incidence of recanalization and further improve outcomes after coil embolization. We aimed to map the expression of proliferating tissue over the aneurysmal orifice and define the temporal profile of tissue growth in a swine experimental aneurysm model. We compared the outcomes after spontaneous thrombosis with those of coil embolization using histological and morphological techniques. In aneurysms that we not coiled, spontaneous thrombosis was observed, and weak, easily detachable proliferating tissue was evident in the aneurysmal neck. In contrast, in the coil embolization group, histological analysis showed endothelial-like cells lining the aneurysmal opening. Moreover, immunohistochemical and morphological analysis suggested that these cells were immature endothelial cells. Our results indicated the existence of endothelial cell proliferation 1 week after coil embolization and showed immature endothelial cells in septal tissue between the systemic circulation and the aneurysm. These findings suggest that endothelial cells are lead to and proliferate in the former aneurysmal orifice. This is the first examination to evaluate the temporal change of proliferating tissue in a swine experimental aneurysm model.

  1. Redox Regulation of Endothelial Cell Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are present throughout blood vessels and have variable roles in both physiological and pathological settings. EC fate is altered and regulated by several key factors in physiological or pathological conditions. Reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species derived from NAD(P)H oxidases, mitochondria, or nitric oxide-producing enzymes are not only cytotoxic but also compose a signaling network in the redox system. The formation, actions, key molecular interactions, and physiological and pathological relevance of redox signals in ECs remain unclear. We review the identities, sources, and biological actions of oxidants and reductants produced during EC function or dysfunction. Further, we discuss how ECs shape key redox sensors and examine the biological functions, transcriptional responses, and post-translational modifications evoked by the redox system in ECs. We summarize recent findings regarding the mechanisms by which redox signals regulate the fate of ECs and address the outcome of altered EC fate in health and disease. Future studies will examine if the redox biology of ECs can be targeted in pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24633153

  2. Infection of endothelial cells by common human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H M

    1989-01-01

    Common human viruses were evaluated for their ability to replicate in the endothelial cells of human umbilical vein and bovine thoracic aorta in vitro. Infection occurred with most viruses. The susceptibilities of endothelial cells derived from bovine aorta, pulmonary artery, and vena cava were compared. Among the viruses studied, no differences were noted in the ability to grow in endothelial cells from these three large vessels. One virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, was evaluated for its ability to produce persistent infection of endothelial cells. Infection developed and persisted for up to 3 months. After the first week, productive infection was found in less than 1% of cells. Nevertheless, the infection markedly affected the growth and morphology of the endothelial monolayer. Infection with any of several different viruses was noted to alter endothelial cell functions, including adherence of granulocytes, production of colony-stimulating factor, and synthesis of matrix protein. In addition, herpes simplex virus type 1 induced receptors for the Fc portion of IgG and for complement component C3b. These findings indicate that common human viruses can profoundly affect the biology of the endothelium.

  3. Radiation Effects on the Cytoskeleton of Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Monolayer Permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrys, Dorota; Greco, Olga; Patel, Gaurang; Prise, Kevin M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Kanthou, Chryso

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of radiation on the endothelial cytoskeleton and endothelial monolayer permeability and to evaluate associated signaling pathways, which could reveal potential mechanisms of known vascular effects of radiation. Methods and Materials: Cultured endothelial cells were X-ray irradiated, and actin filaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments, and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin junctions were examined by immunofluorescence. Permeability was determined by the passage of fluorescent dextran through cell monolayers. Signal transduction pathways were analyzed using RhoA, Rho kinase, and stress-activated protein kinase-p38 (SAPK2/p38) inhibitors by guanosine triphosphate-RhoA activation assay and transfection with RhoAT19N. The levels of junction protein expression and phosphorylation of myosin light chain and SAPK2/p38 were assessed by Western blotting. The radiation effects on cell death were verified by clonogenic assays. Results: Radiation induced rapid and persistent actin stress fiber formation and redistribution of VE-cadherin junctions in microvascular, but not umbilical vein endothelial cells, and microtubules and intermediate filaments remained unaffected. Radiation also caused a rapid and persistent increase in microvascular permeability. RhoA-guanosine triphosphatase and Rho kinase were activated by radiation and caused phosphorylation of downstream myosin light chain and the observed cytoskeletal and permeability changes. SAPK2/p38 was activated by radiation but did not influence either the cytoskeleton or permeability. Conclusion: This study is the first to show rapid activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase by radiation in endothelial cells and has demonstrated a link between this pathway and cytoskeletal remodeling and permeability. The results also suggest that the RhoA pathway might be a useful target for modulating the permeability and other effects of radiation for therapeutic gain

  4. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 4 Receptor in the Endothelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Profirovic, Jasmina; Vardya, Irina; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana

    2006-01-01

    39 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE 4 RECEPTOR IN THE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. J. Profirovic, I. Vardya, T. Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is an important neurotransmitter that regulates multiple events in the ce......39 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE 4 RECEPTOR IN THE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. J. Profirovic, I. Vardya, T. Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is an important neurotransmitter that regulates multiple events...... gap formation in HUVECs. We are currently investigating the mechanism underlying 5-HT4 receptor-induced actin cytoskeleton changes in the endothelial cells. These data suggest that by activating 5-HT4 receptor, serotonin could be involved in regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in the endothelial...

  5. Adhesion behavior of endothelial progenitor cells to endothelial cells in simple shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Bo; Li, Yu-Qing; Gao, Quan-Chao; Cheng, Bin-Bin; Shen, Bao-Rong; Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Zong-Lai

    2011-12-01

    The adhesion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on endothelial cells (ECs) is one of the critical physiological processes for the regenesis of vascular vessels and the prevention of serious cardiovascular diseases. Here, the rolling and adhesion behavior of EPCs on ECs was studied numerically. A two-dimensional numerical model was developed based on the immersed boundary method for simulating the rolling and adhesion of cells in a channel flow. The binding force arising from the catch bond of a receptor and ligand pair was modeled with stochastic Monte Carlo method and Hookean spring model. The effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) on the expression of the number of adhesion molecules in ECs was analyzed experimentally. A flow chamber system with CCD camera was set up to observe the top view of the rolling of EPCs on the substrate cultivated with ECs. Numerical results prove that the adhesion of EPC on ECs is closely related to membrane stiffness of the cell and shear rate of the flow. It also suggests that the adhesion force between EPC and EC by P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 only is not strong enough to bond the cell onto vessel walls unless contributions of other catch bond are considered. Experimental results demonstrate that TNF- α enhanced the expressions of VCAM, ICAM, P-selectin and E-selectin in ECs, which supports the numerical results that the rolling velocity of EPC on TNF- α treated EC substrate decreases obviously compared with its velocity on the untreated one. It is found that because the adhesion is affected by both the rolling velocity and the deformability of the cell, an optimal stiffness of EPC may exist at a given shear rate of flow for achieving maximum adhesion rates.

  6. The fibroblast surface markers FAP, anti-fibroblast, and FSP are expressed by cells of epithelial origin and may be altered during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahounová, Zuzana; Kurfürstová, Daniela; Bouchal, Jan; Kharaishvili, Gvantsa; Navrátil, Jiří; Remšík, Ján; Šimečková, Šárka; Študent, Vladimír; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    2017-04-06

    The identification of fibroblasts and cancer-associated fibroblasts from human cancer tissue using surface markers is difficult, especially because the markers used currently are usually not expressed solely by fibroblasts, and the identification of fibroblast-specific surface molecules is still under investigation. It was aimed to compare three commercially available antibodies in the detection of different surface epitopes of fibroblasts (anti-fibroblast, fibroblast activation protein α, and fibroblast surface protein). The specificity of their expression, employing fibroblast cell lines and tumor-derived fibroblasts from breast and prostate tissues was investigated. Both the established fibroblast cell line HFF-1 and ex vivo primary fibroblasts isolated from breast and prostate cancer tissues expressed the tested surface markers to different degrees. Surprisingly, those markers were expressed also by permanent cell lines of epithelial origin, both benign and cancer-derived (breast-cell lines MCF 10A, HMLE and prostate-cell lines BPH-1, DU 145, and PC-3). The expression of fibroblast activation protein α increased on the surface of previously described models of epithelial cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to treatment with TGF-β1. To prove the co-expression of the fibroblast markers on cells of epithelial origin, we used freshly dissociated human prostate and breast cancer tissues. The results confirmed the co-expression of anti-fibroblast and fibroblast surface protein on CD31/CD45-negative/EpCAM-positive epithelial cells. In summary, our data support the findings that the tested fibroblast markers are not fibroblast specific and may be expressed also by cells of epithelial origin (e.g., cells undergoing EMT). Therefore, the expression of these markers should be interpreted with caution, and the combination of several epitopes for both positive (anti-fibroblast or fibroblast activation protein α) and negative (Ep

  7. Effect of sunitinib combined with ionizing radiation on endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haiping; Jiao Xiaodong; Li Rui; Wang Jiejun; Takayama, Koichi; Su Bo

    2011-01-01

    The aims of present study were to evaluate the efficacy of combining sunitinib with ionizing radiation (IR) on endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to IR with or without sunitinib pretreatment. Apoptosis assay and cell cycle distribution were analyzed by flow cytometry. Clonogenic survival assay at 3 Gy dose with or without sunitinib was performed. The activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal pathway was detected by Western immunoblot. Lewis lung carcinoma mouse model was built to examine the effect of combination therapy on endothelial cells in vivo. Microvasculature changes were detected by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD31 antibody. Our results showed combination therapy of sunitinib and IR significantly increased apoptosis of endothelial cells and inhibited colony formation compared to sunitinib or radiotherapy alone. It also resulted in cell cycle redistribution (decreasing cells in S phase and increasing cells in G2/M phase). The activity of PI3K/Akt signal pathway was inhibited, which could be the potential mechanisms that account for the enhanced radiation response induced by sunitinib. In vivo analysis showed that combination therapy significantly decreased microvasculature formation. The results demonstrated that combination therapy of sunitinib and IR has the potential to increase the cytotoxic effects on endothelial cells. (author)

  8. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in healthy Turkish eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arıcı, Ceyhun; Arslan, Osman Sevki; Dikkaya, Funda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the normative values of corneal endothelial cell density, morphology, and central corneal thickness in healthy Turkish eyes. Methods. Specular microscopy was performed in 252 eyes of 126 healthy volunteers (M : F, 42 : 84). Parameters studied included mean endothelial cell density (MCD), mean cell area (MCA), coefficient of variation (CV) in cell size, percentage of hexagonal cells, and central corneal thickness (CCT). Results. The mean age of volunteers was 44.3 ± 13.5 (range, 20 to 70) years. There was a statistically significant decrease in MCD (P Filipino eyes and higher than that described in Indian, Thai, and Iranian eyes.

  9. Endothelial Protein C–Targeting Liposomes Show Enhanced Uptake and Improved Therapeutic Efficacy in Human Retinal Endothelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arta, Anthoula; Eriksen, Anne Z.; Melander, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE. To determine whether human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) express the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) and to realize its potential as a targeting moiety by developing novel single and dual corticosteroid–loaded functionalized liposomes that exhibit both enhanced uptake by H...... of cell tube formations in contrast to nontargeting liposomes. CONCLUSIONS. We show that HRECs express EPCR and this receptor could be a promising nanomedicine target in ocular diseases where the endothelial barrier of the retina is compromised....

  10. Congestive heart failure effects on atrial fibroblast phenotype: differences between freshly-isolated and cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Dawson

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are important in the atrial fibrillation (AF substrate resulting from congestive heart failure (CHF. We previously noted changes in in vivo indices of fibroblast function in a CHF dog model, but could not detect changes in isolated cells. This study assessed CHF-induced changes in the phenotype of fibroblasts freshly isolated from control versus CHF dogs, and examined effects of cell culture on these differences.Left-atrial fibroblasts were isolated from control and CHF dogs (ventricular tachypacing 240 bpm × 2 weeks. Freshly-isolated fibroblasts were compared to fibroblasts in primary culture. Extracellular-matrix (ECM gene-expression was assessed by qPCR, protein by Western blot, fibroblast morphology with immunocytochemistry, and K(+-current with patch-clamp. Freshly-isolated CHF fibroblasts had increased expression-levels of collagen-1 (10-fold, collagen-3 (5-fold, and fibronectin-1 (3-fold vs. control, along with increased cell diameter (13.4 ± 0.4 µm vs control 8.4 ± 0.3 µm and cell spreading (shape factor 0.81 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.87 ± 0.02, consistent with an activated phenotype. Freshly-isolated control fibroblasts displayed robust tetraethylammonium (TEA-sensitive K(+-currents that were strongly downregulated in CHF. The TEA-sensitive K(+-current differences between control and CHF fibroblasts were attenuated after 2-day culture and eliminated after 7 days. Similarly, cell-culture eliminated the ECM protein-expression and shape differences between control and CHF fibroblasts.Freshly-isolated CHF and control atrial fibroblasts display distinct ECM-gene and morphological differences consistent with in vivo pathology. Culture for as little as 48 hours activates fibroblasts and obscures the effects of CHF. These results demonstrate potentially-important atrial-fibroblast phenotype changes in CHF and emphasize the need for caution in relating properties of cultured fibroblasts to in vivo systems.

  11. Cultivation of corneal endothelial cells on a pericellular matrix prepared from human decidua-derived mesenchymal cells.

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    Ryohei Numata

    Full Text Available The barrier and pump functions of the corneal endothelium are essential for the maintenance of corneal transparency. Although corneal transplantation is the only current therapy for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction, the potential of tissue-engineering techniques to provide highly efficient and less invasive therapy in comparison to corneal transplantation has been highly anticipated. However, culturing human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs is technically difficult, and there is no established culture protocol. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a pericellular matrix prepared from human decidua-derived mesenchymal cells (PCM-DM as an animal-free substrate for HCEC culture for future clinical applications. PCM-DM enhanced the adhesion of monkey CECs (MCECs via integrin, promoted cell proliferation, and suppressed apoptosis. The HCECs cultured on the PCM-DM showed a hexagonal morphology and a staining profile characteristic of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and ZO-1 at the plasma membrane in vivo, whereas the control HCECs showed a fibroblastic phenotype. The cell density of the cultured HCECs on the PCM-DM was significantly higher than that of the control cells. These results indicate that PCM-DM provides a feasible xeno-free matrix substrate and that it offers a viable in vitro expansion protocol for HCECs while maintaining cellular functions for use as a subsequent clinical intervention for tissue-engineered based therapy of corneal endothelial dysfunction.

  12. Viability test of fish scale collagen (Oshpronemus gouramy on baby hamster kidney fibroblasts-21 fibroblast cell culture

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    Chiquita Prahasanti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to examine the toxicity of collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales (Oshpronemus gouramy by evaluating its viability against baby hamster kidney fibroblasts-21. Materials and Methods: Collagen was extracted from gouramy fish scales (O. gouramy with 6% acetic acid. Its results were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and freeze-dried technique. Its morphology then was analyzed with scanning electron microscope. Afterward, 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was conducted to compare cells with and without fish scale collagen treatment. Results: Collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales had no influence statistically on cultured fibroblast cells with a statistical significance (2-tailed value of 0.754 (p>00025. Conclusion: Collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales has high viability against BHK21 fibroblast cells.

  13. Endothelial cells present antigens in vivo

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    Tellides George

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune recognition of vascular endothelial cells (EC has been implicated in allograft rejection, protection against pathogens, and lymphocyte recruitment. However, EC pervade nearly all tissues and predominate in none, complicating any direct test of immune recognition. Here, we examined antigen presentation by EC in vivo by testing immune responses against E. coli β-galactosidase (β-gal in two lines of transgenic mice that express β-gal exclusively in their EC. TIE2-lacZ mice express β-gal in all EC and VWF-lacZ mice express β-gal in heart and brain microvascular EC. Results Transgenic and congenic wild type FVB mice immunized with β-gal expression vector DNA or β-gal protein generated high titer, high affinity antisera containing comparable levels of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, suggesting equivalent activation of T helper cell subsets. The immunized transgenic mice remained healthy, their EC continued to express β-gal, and their blood vessels showed no histological abnormalities. In response to β-gal in vitro, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from immunized transgenic and FVB mice proliferated, expressed CD25, and secreted IFN-γ. Infection with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding β-gal raised equivalent responses in transgenic and FVB mice. Hearts transplanted from transgenic mice into FVB mice continued to beat and the graft EC continued to express β-gal. These results suggested immunological ignorance of the transgene encoded EC protein. However, skin transplanted from TIE2-lacZ onto FVB mice lost β-gal+ EC and the hosts developed β-gal-specific antisera, demonstrating activation of host immune effector mechanisms. In contrast, skin grafted from TIE2-lacZ onto VWF-lacZ mice retained β-gal+ EC and no antisera developed, suggesting a tolerant host immune system. Conclusion Resting, β-gal+ EC in transgenic mice tolerize specific lymphocytes that would otherwise respond against β-gal expressed by EC within

  14. α-Klotho expression determines nitric oxide synthesis in response to FGF-23 in human aortic endothelial cells.

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    Chih-Ping Chung

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells (ECs express fibroblast growth factor (FGF receptors and are metabolically active after treatment with FGF-23. It is not known if this effect is α-Klotho independent or mediated by humoral or endogenous endothelial α-Klotho. In the present study, we aimed to characterize EC α-Klotho expression within the human vascular tree and to investigate the potential role of α-Klotho in determining FGF-23 mediated EC regulation. Human tissue and ECs from various organs were used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Primary cultures of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs were used to generate in vitro cell models. We found endogenous α-Klotho expression in ECs from various organs except in microvascular ECs from human brain. Furthermore, FGF-23 stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression, nitric oxide (NO production, and cell proliferation in HAECs. Interestingly, these effects were not observed in our HBMEC model in vitro. High phosphate treatment and endothelial α-Klotho knockdown mitigated FGF-23 mediated eNOS induction, NO production, and cell proliferation in HAECs. Rescue treatment with soluble α-Klotho did not reverse endothelial FGF-23 resistance caused by reduced or absent α-Klotho expression in HAECs. These novel observations provide evidence for differential α-Klotho functional expression in the human endothelium and its presence may play a role in determining the response to FGF-23 in the vascular tree. α-Klotho was not detected in cerebral microvascular ECs and its absence may render these cells nonresponsive to FGF-23.

  15. The influence of biomaterials on endothelial cell thrombogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Alison P.; Sefton, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, endothelial cells are being used in combination with biomaterials in a number of applications for the purpose of improving blood compatibility and host integration. Endothelialized vascular grafts are beginning to be used clinically with some success in some centers, while endothelial seeding is being explored as a means of creating a vasculature within engineered tissues. The underlying assumption of this strategy is that when cultured on artificial biomaterials, a confluent layer of endothelial cells maintain their non-thrombogenic phenotype. In this review the existing knowledge base of endothelial cell thrombogenicity cultured on a number of different biomaterials is summarized. The importance of selecting appropriate endpoint measures that are most reflective of overall surface thrombogenicity is the focus of this review. Endothelial cells inhibit thrombosis through three interconnected regulatory systems (1) the coagulation cascade (2) the cellular components of the blood such as leukocytes and platelets and (3) the complement cascade, and also through effects on fibrinolysis and vascular tone, the latter which influences blood flow. Thus, in order to demonstrate the thromobgenic benefit of seeding a biomaterial with EC, the conditions under which EC surfaces are more likely to exhibit lower thrombogenicity than unseeded biomaterial surfaces need to be consistent with the experimental context. The endpoints selected should be appropriate for the dominant thrombotic process that occurs under the given experimental conditions. PMID:17316788

  16. MicroRNAs in Hyperglycemia Induced Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

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    Maskomani Silambarasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia is closely associated with prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Hyperglycemia increases the risk of vascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease and cerebro/cardiovascular diseases. Under hyperglycemic conditions, the endothelial cells become dysfunctional. In this study, we investigated the miRNA expression changes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to different glucose concentrations (5, 10, 25 and 40 mM glucose and at various time intervals (6, 12, 24 and 48 h. miRNA microarray analyses showed that there is a correlation between hyperglycemia induced endothelial dysfunction and miRNA expression. In silico pathways analyses on the altered miRNA expression showed that the majority of the affected biological pathways appeared to be associated to endothelial cell dysfunction and apoptosis. We found the expression of ten miRNAs (miR-26a-5p, -26b-5p, 29b-3p, -29c-3p, -125b-1-3p, -130b-3p, -140-5p, -192-5p, -221-3p and -320a to increase gradually with increasing concentration of glucose. These miRNAs were also found to be involved in endothelial dysfunction. At least seven of them, miR-29b-3p, -29c-3p, -125b-1-3p, -130b-3p, -221-3p, -320a and -192-5p, can be correlated to endothelial cell apoptosis.

  17. Cyclosporine Induces Endothelial Cell Release of Complement-Activating Microparticles

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    Renner, Brandon; Klawitter, Jelena; Goldberg, Ryan; McCullough, James W.; Ferreira, Viviana P.; Cooper, James E.; Christians, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Defective control of the alternative pathway of complement is an important risk factor for several renal diseases, including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Infections, drugs, pregnancy, and hemodynamic insults can trigger episodes of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in susceptible patients. Although the mechanisms linking these clinical events with disease flares are unknown, recent work has revealed that each of these clinical conditions causes cells to release microparticles. We hypothesized that microparticles released from injured endothelial cells promote intrarenal complement activation. Calcineurin inhibitors cause vascular and renal injury and can trigger hemolytic uremic syndrome. Here, we show that endothelial cells exposed to cyclosporine in vitro and in vivo release microparticles that activate the alternative pathway of complement. Cyclosporine-induced microparticles caused injury to bystander endothelial cells and are associated with complement-mediated injury of the kidneys and vasculature in cyclosporine-treated mice. Cyclosporine-induced microparticles did not bind factor H, an alternative pathway regulatory protein present in plasma, explaining their complement-activating phenotype. Finally, we found that in renal transplant patients, the number of endothelial microparticles in plasma increases 2 weeks after starting tacrolimus, and treatment with tacrolimus associated with increased C3 deposition on endothelial microparticles in the plasma of some patients. These results suggest that injury-associated release of endothelial microparticles is an important mechanism by which systemic insults trigger intravascular complement activation and complement-dependent renal diseases. PMID:24092930

  18. Neuropeptide substance P stimulates the formation of osteoclasts via synovial fibroblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matayoshi, Takaaki; Goto, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Eiji; Takano, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of neuropeptide substance P (Sp) on the formation of osteoclasts via synovial fibroblastic cells. Synovial fibroblastic cells derived from rat knee joint expressed the Sp receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK 1 -R). The addition of Sp stimulated the proliferation of synovial fibroblastic cells and this effect was inhibited by Sp or NK 1 -R antagonists. Increased expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (Rankle) in synovial fibroblastic cells after the addition of Sp was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining. Osteoprotegerin expression in synovial fibroblastic cells was decreased after incubation with SP. In co-cultures of synovial fibroblastic cells and rat peripheral blood monocytes, SP stimulated osteoclastogenesis. These results suggest that SP in the joint cavity may cause both hypertrophy of the synovium and induction of increased osteoclast formation through the increased expression of RANKL in the synovium

  19. Dynamics of circulating endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells in breast cancer patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy

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    Kuo Yu-Hsuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The abundance of circulating endothelial cells (CECs and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs, which serve as surrogate markers for angiogenesis, may be affected by chemotherapy. We studied their dynamic change during consecutive cycles of chemotherapy. Methods We collected blood samples from 15 breast cancer patients, who received a total of 56 courses of systemic chemotherapy, and measured the CECs, viable CECs (V-CECs, and CEPs by six-color flow cytometry within the seven days prior to chemotherapy, twice a week during the first and second cycles of chemotherapy, and then once a week during the subsequent cycles. Results The CEC, V-CEC, and CEP levels all significantly decreased from day 1 of treatment to the first week of chemotherapy. After one week of chemotherapy, the CEC and V-CEC levels returned to a level similar to day 1. The CEP level remained significantly reduced after the first week of chemotherapy, but gradually rebounded until the next course of chemotherapy. After six cycles of chemotherapy, the total number of CEC and V-CEC cells trended toward a decrease and the CEP cells toward an increase. Clinical factors, including the existence of a tumor, chemotherapy regimens, and the use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor, did not significantly affect these results. Conclusions The CEC and CEP counts change dynamically during each course of chemotherapy and after the chemotherapy cycles, providing background data for any future study planning to use CECs and CEPs as surrogate markers of angiogenesis in antiangiogenesis treatments combined with chemotherapy.

  20. Endothelial glycocalyx on brain endothelial cells is lost in experimental cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hyttel, Poul; Kurtzhals, Jørgen Al

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that the glycocalyx, which is important for endothelial integrity, is lost in severe malaria. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, resulting in cerebral malaria, or P. chabaudi AS, resulting in uncomplicated malaria. We visualized the glycocalyx with transmission...... electron microscopy and measured circulating glycosaminoglycans by dot blot and ELISA. The glycocalyx was degraded in brain vasculature in cerebral and to a lesser degree uncomplicated malaria. It was affected on both intact and apoptotic endothelial cells. Circulating glycosaminoglycan levels suggested...

  1. Effect of microemulsions on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juyi; Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garti, Nissim

    Microemulsions are optically clear, thermostable and isotropic mixture consisting of water, oil and surfactants. Their advantages of ease preparation, spontaneous formation, long-term stability and enhanced solubility of bioactive materials make them great potentials as vehicles in food and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, comparative in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to select a best formulation of microemulsion with the least toxicity for human dermal fibroblasts. Three different kinds of oils and six different kinds of surfactants were used to form microemulsions by different ratios. The effect of oil type and surfactant type as well as their proportions on cell proliferation and viability were tested.

  2. Development of Cell Analysis Software for Cultivated Corneal Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Naoki; Ishida, Naoya; Kakutani, Kazuya; Hongo, Akane; Hiwa, Satoru; Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Koizumi, Noriko

    2017-11-01

    To develop analysis software for cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs). Software was designed to recognize cell borders and to provide parameters such as cell density, coefficient of variation, and polygonality of cultured HCECs based on phase contrast images. Cultured HCECs with high or low cell density were incubated with Ca-free and Mg-free phosphate-buffered saline for 10 minutes to reveal the cell borders and were then analyzed with software (n = 50). Phase contrast images showed that cell borders were not distinctly outlined, but these borders became more distinctly outlined after phosphate-buffered saline treatment and were recognized by cell analysis software. The cell density value provided by software was similar to that obtained using manual cell counting by an experienced researcher. Morphometric parameters, such as the coefficient of variation and polygonality, were also produced by software, and these values were significantly correlated with cell density (Pearson correlation coefficients -0.62 and 0.63, respectively). The software described here provides morphometric information from phase contrast images, and it enables subjective and noninvasive quality assessment for tissue engineering therapy of the corneal endothelium.

  3. Circulating endothelial cells as marker of endothelial damage in male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milardi, Domenico; Grande, Giuseppe; Giampietro, Antonella; Vendittelli, Francesca; Palumbo, Sara; Tartaglione, Linda; Marana, Riccardo; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; de Marinis, Laura; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency has become a frequently diagnosed condition in today's society affected by epidemic obesity, and is associated with cardiovascular risk. Recent studies have established the importance of altered vascular endothelium function in cardiovascular disease. The damage to the endothelium might also cause endothelial cell detachment, resulting in increased numbers of circulating endothelial cells (CEC) within the bloodstream. To evaluate whether hypogonadism could modify CEC count in peripheral bloodstream, we investigated peripheral blood CEC count using the CellSearch System, a semiautomatic method to accurately and reliably enumerate CECs, which are sorted based on a CD146(+), CD105(+), DAPI(+), CD45(-) phenotype, in a population of 20 patients with hypogonadism. The control group comprised 10 age- and sex-matched healthy participants. CEC count per milliliter was significantly increased in patients with hypogonadism vs the control group. In the group with hypogonadism, an inverse exponential correlation was present between testosterone levels and CEC count per milliliter. A direct linear correlation was present between waist circumference and CECs and between body mass index and CECs. The regression analysis showed that testosterone was the significant independent determinant of CECs. Our results underline that male hypogonadism is associated with endothelial dysfunction. The correlation between CEC and waist circumference underlines that visceral obesity may be synergically implicated in this regulation. Future studies are required to unveil the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of testosterone-induced endothelial disfunction, which may provide novel therapeutic targets to be incorporated in the management of hypogonadism.

  4. Characterization of vascular endothelial progenitor cells from chicken bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are a type of stem cell used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and regeneration. At present, most of the EPCs studied are from human and mouse, whereas the study of poultry-derived EPCs has rarely been reported. In the present study, chicken bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and studied at the cellular level using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Results We found that the majority of chicken EPCs were spindle shaped. The growth-curves of chicken EPCs at passages (P 1, -5 and -9 were typically “S”-shaped. The viability of chicken EPCs, before and after cryopreservation was 92.2% and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, cryopreservation had no obvious effects on the viability of chicken EPCs. Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UAE-1 uptake assays and immunofluorescent detection of the cell surface markers CD34, CD133, VEGFR-2 confirmed that the cells obtained in vitro were EPCs. Observation of endothelial-specific Weibel-Palade bodies using transmission electron microscopy further confirmed that the cells were of endothelial lineage. In addition, chicken EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells upon induction with VEGF and PDGF-BB, respectively, suggesting that the chicken EPCs retained multipotency in vitro. Conclusions These results suggest that chicken EPCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity, but also the potential to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This research provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application of endothelial progenitor cells in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and diabetic complications.

  5. A novel role of EMMPRIN/CD147 in transformation of quiescent fibroblasts to cancer-associated fibroblasts by breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Lu, Yang; Qiu, Songbo; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Fan, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    We tested the novel hypothesis that EMMPRIN/CD147, a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed in breast cancer cells, has a previously unknown role in transforming fibroblasts to cancer-associated fibroblasts, and that cancer-associated fibroblasts in turn induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells. Co-culture of fibroblasts with breast cancer cells or treatment of fibroblasts with breast cancer cell conditioned culture medium or recombinant EMMPRIN/CD147 induced expression of α-SMA in the fibroblasts in an EMMPRIN/CD147-dependent manner and promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells and enhanced cell migration potential. These findings support a novel role of EMMPRIN/CD147 in regulating the interaction between cancer and stroma. PMID:23474495

  6. Comparison of the phosphorylation events in membranes prepared from proliferating versus quiescent endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazlauskas, A.; DiColeto, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Little is known of the intracellular events which regulate the proliferation of endothelial cells (EC). Triton-solubilized membranes from proliferating (sparse) and quiescent (confluent) EC were incubated at pH 6.5 in the presence of divalent cations and [ 32 P]ATP. Membrane proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The overall kinase activity per mg protein was slightly greater in membranes prepared from proliferating versus quiescent cells. They found four proteins labeled in sparse cells to a dramatically greater extent having the following approximate molecular masses: 180, 100, 97 and 55 kilodalton (kd). The first two phosphoproteins were phosphorylated on serine residues exclusively; the 97 kd phosphoprotein contained 39% phosphoserine (p-ser) and 61% phosphothreonine (p-thr); and the 55 kd phosphoprotein contained 62% p-ser, 16% p-thr, and 22% phosphotyrosine (p-tyr). The kinases acting on all four phosphoproteins were independent of Ca 2+ , cAMP, cGMP, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The observed differences in phosphorylation events between sparse and confluent membranes occurred in membranes from two EC lines - pig aortic and bovine aortic - but were not apparent in membranes prepared from human foreskin fibroblasts or 3T3 cells. Sparse endothelial cells made quiescent by serum deprivation were found to resemble confluent cells in the kinase activity; therefore, the enhanced kinase activity in sparse membranes may be growth dependent

  7. Aging impairs transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in human microvascular endothelial cells: implications for angiogenesis and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, A; Jones, M K; Szabo, S; Tarnawski, A S

    2014-04-01

    In some tissues, aging impairs angiogenesis and reduces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), a fundamental regulator of angiogenesis. We previously examined angiogenesis in aging and young gastric mucosa in vivo and in vitro and showed that an imbalance between expressions of VEGF (pro-angiogenic factor) and endostatin (anti-angiogenic protein) results in an aging-related impairment of angiogenesis in rats. However, the human relevance of these findings, and whether these mechanisms apply to endothelial cells derived from other tissues, is not clear. Since P-STAT3 and P-CREB are transcription factors that, in association with HIF-1α, can activate VEGF gene expression in some cells (e.g., liver cancer cells, vascular smooth muscle cells), we examined the expression of these two proteins in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) derived from aging and neonatal individuals. We examined and quantified in vitro angiogenesis, expression of VEGF, P-STAT3, P-CREB and importin-α in HMVECs isolated from neonates (neonatal) and a 66 year old subject (aging). We also examined the effects of treatment with exogenous VEGF and endostatin on in vitro angiogenesis in these cells. Endothelial cells isolated from aging individuals had impaired angiogenesis (vs. neonatal endothelial cells) and reduced expression of VEGF mRNA and protein. Aged HMVECs also had reduced importin-α expression, and reduced expression and nuclear translocation of P-STAT3 and P-CREB. Reduced VEGF gene expression in aged HMVECs strongly correlated with the decreased levels of P-STAT3, P-CREB and importin-α in these cells. Our study clearly demonstrates that endothelial cells from aging individuals have impaired angiogenesis and reduced expression of VEGF likely due to impaired nuclear transport of P-STAT3 and P-CREB transcription factors in these cells.

  8. Effect of tributyltin on mammalian endothelial cell integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, G; Bernardini, C; Zannoni, A; Ventrella, V; Bacci, M L; Forni, M

    2015-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), is a man-made pollutants, known to accumulate along the food chain, acting as an endocrine disruptor in marine organisms, with toxic and adverse effects in many tissues including vascular system. Based on the absence of specific studies of TBT effects on endothelial cells, we aimed to evaluate the toxicity of TBT on primary culture of porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAECs), pig being an excellent model to study human cardiovascular disease. pAECs were exposed for 24h to TBT (100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000nM) showing a dose dependent decrease in cell viability through both apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover the ability of TBT (100 and 500nM) to influence endothelial gene expression was investigated at 1, 7 and 15h of treatment. Gene expression of tight junction molecules, occludin (OCLN) and tight junction protein-1 (ZO-1) was reduced while monocyte adhesion and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) levels increased significantly at 1h. IL-6 and estrogen receptors 1 and 2 (ESR-1 and ESR-2) mRNAs, after a transient decrease, reached the maximum levels after 15h of exposure. Finally, we demonstrated that TBT altered endothelial functionality greatly increasing monocyte adhesion. These findings indicate that TBT deeply alters endothelial profile, disrupting their structure and interfering with their ability to interact with molecules and other cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acrylamide induces accelerated endothelial aging in a human cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Cyril; Boulanger, Eric; Maladry, François; Tessier, Frédéric J; Lorenzi, Rodrigo; Nevière, Rémi; Desreumaux, Pierre; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Puisieux, François; Grossin, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide (AAM) has been recently discovered in food as a Maillard reaction product. AAM and glycidamide (GA), its metabolite, have been described as probably carcinogenic to humans. It is widely established that senescence and carcinogenicity are closely related. In vitro, endothelial aging is characterized by replicative senescence in which primary cells in culture lose their ability to divide. Our objective was to assess the effects of AAM and GA on human endothelial cell senescence. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in vitro were used as model. HUVECs were cultured over 3 months with AAM or GA (1, 10 or 100 μM) until growth arrest. To analyze senescence, β-galactosidase activity and telomere length of HUVECs were measured by cytometry and semi-quantitative PCR, respectively. At all tested concentrations, AAM or GA reduced cell population doubling compared to the control condition (p < 0.001). β-galactosidase activity in endothelial cells was increased when exposed to AAM (≥10 μM) or GA (≥1 μM) (p < 0.05). AAM (≥10 μM) or GA (100 μM) accelerated telomere shortening in HUVECs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in vitro chronic exposure to AAM or GA at low concentrations induces accelerated senescence. This result suggests that an exposure to AAM might contribute to endothelial aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The dependence of fibroblast radiosensitivity on cell pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, A.M.; Kublik, L.N.; Degtyareva, O.V.; Ehjdus, L.Kh.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the change of radiosensitivity of Chinese hamster fibroblasts, irradiated under aerobic and hypoxic conditions in the course of intracellular pH (pHsub(intr.)) change by means of a phosphate buffer has been studied. It has been found that pHsub(intr.) reduction considerably increases the radiosensitivity, the effect being more pronounced on hypoxic cells which is essential for radiotherapy of tumors. The survival rate of cell irradiated under hypoxia conditions does not depend on season while cell resistance in case of irradiation in open air in spring and autumn is different. The effect discovery in case of pHsub(intr.) reduction upon irradiation shows up the influence of the studied factor on repair processes

  11. Uptake of gold nanoparticles in primary human endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingberg, Henrik; Oddershede, Lene B.; Löschner, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are relevant in nanomedicine for drug delivery in the vascular system, where endothelial cells are the first point of contact. We investigated the uptake of 80 nm AuNPs in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by flow cytometry, 3D confocal microscopy......–3 or more particles. Pre-treatment with chlorpromazine inhibited the AuNP-uptake in HUVECs, indicating that internalisation occurred mainly by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Cell activation by exposure to tumour necrosis factor or lipopolysaccharide had a slight or no effect on the uptake of Au...

  12. Nanofiber density determines endothelial cell behavior on hydrogel matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, Fernanda V., E-mail: fernanda@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Rambo, Carlos R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dias, Paulo F. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Porto, Luismar M. [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    When cultured under static conditions, bacterial cellulose pellicles, by the nature of the polymer synthesis that involves molecular oxygen, are characterized by two distinct surface sides. The upper surface is denser in fibers (entangled) than the lower surface that shows greater surface porosity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to exploit how the microarchitecture (i.e., surface porosity, fiber network structure, surface topology, and fiber density) of bacterial cellulose pellicle surfaces influence cell–biomaterial interaction and therefore cell behavior. Adhesion, cell ingrowth, proliferation, viability and cell death mechanisms were evaluated on the two pellicle surface sides. Cell behavior, including secondary necrosis, is influenced only by the microarchitecture of the surface, since the biomaterial is extremely pure (constituted of cellulose and water only). Cell–cellulose fiber interaction is the determinant signal in the cell–biomaterial responses, isolated from other frequently present interferences such as protein and other chemical traces usually present in cell culture matrices. Our results suggest that microarchitecture of hydrogel materials might determine the performance of biomedical products, such as bacterial cellulose tissue engineering constructs (BCTECs). - Highlights: • Topography of BC pellicle is relevant to determine endothelial cells' fate. • Cell–biomaterial response is affected by the topography of BC-pellicle surface. • Endothelial cells exhibit different behavior depending on the BC topography. • Apoptosis and necrosis of endothelial cells were affected by the BC topography.

  13. Nanofiber density determines endothelial cell behavior on hydrogel matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berti, Fernanda V.; Rambo, Carlos R.; Dias, Paulo F.; Porto, Luismar M.

    2013-01-01

    When cultured under static conditions, bacterial cellulose pellicles, by the nature of the polymer synthesis that involves molecular oxygen, are characterized by two distinct surface sides. The upper surface is denser in fibers (entangled) than the lower surface that shows greater surface porosity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to exploit how the microarchitecture (i.e., surface porosity, fiber network structure, surface topology, and fiber density) of bacterial cellulose pellicle surfaces influence cell–biomaterial interaction and therefore cell behavior. Adhesion, cell ingrowth, proliferation, viability and cell death mechanisms were evaluated on the two pellicle surface sides. Cell behavior, including secondary necrosis, is influenced only by the microarchitecture of the surface, since the biomaterial is extremely pure (constituted of cellulose and water only). Cell–cellulose fiber interaction is the determinant signal in the cell–biomaterial responses, isolated from other frequently present interferences such as protein and other chemical traces usually present in cell culture matrices. Our results suggest that microarchitecture of hydrogel materials might determine the performance of biomedical products, such as bacterial cellulose tissue engineering constructs (BCTECs). - Highlights: • Topography of BC pellicle is relevant to determine endothelial cells' fate. • Cell–biomaterial response is affected by the topography of BC-pellicle surface. • Endothelial cells exhibit different behavior depending on the BC topography. • Apoptosis and necrosis of endothelial cells were affected by the BC topography

  14. Transcellular transport of cobalamin in aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Luciana; Bolisetty, Keerthana; Axhemi, Armend; DiBello, Patricia M; Quadros, Edward V; Fedosov, Sergey; Jacobsen, Donald W

    2018-05-09

    Cobalamin [Cbl (or B 12 )] deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and a variety of neuropathies. However, homeostatic mechanisms of cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) and other Cbls by vascular endothelial cells are poorly understood. Herein, we describe our investigation into whether cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) perform transcytosis of B 12 , namely, the complex formed between serum transcobalamin and B 12 , designated as holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC). We show that cultured BAECs endocytose [ 57 Co]-CNCbl-TC (source material) via the CD320 receptor. The bound Cbl is transported across the cell both via exocytosis in its free form, [ 57 Co]-CNCbl, and via transcytosis as [ 57 Co]-CNCbl-TC. Transcellular mobilization of Cbl occurred in a bidirectional manner. A portion of the endocytosed [ 57 Co]-CNCbl was enzymatically processed by methylmalonic aciduria combined with homocystinuria type C (cblC) with subsequent formation of hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and adenosylcobalamin, which were also transported across the cell in a bidirectional manner. This demonstrates that transport mechanisms for Cbl in vascular endothelial cells do not discriminate between various β-axial ligands of the vitamin. Competition studies with apoprotein- and holo-TC and holo-intrinsic factor showed that only holo-TC was effective at inhibiting transcellular transport of Cbl. Incubation of BAECs with a blocking antibody against the extracellular domain of the CD320 receptor inhibited uptake and transcytosis by ∼40%. This study reveals that endothelial cells recycle uncommitted intracellular Cbl for downstream usage by other cell types and suggests that the endothelium is self-sufficient for the specific acquisition and subsequent distribution of circulating B 12 via the CD320 receptor. We posit that the endothelial lining of the vasculature is an essential component for the maintenance of serum-tissue homeostasis of B 12 .-Hannibal, L., Bolisetty, K., Axhemi, A., DiBello, P

  15. Adhesion and endothelialization of endothelial cells on the surface of endovascular stents by the novel rotational culture of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chaojun; Wang Guixue; Cao Yi; Wu Xue; Xie Xiang; Xiao Li

    2008-01-01

    Recent researches indicate that the initial event in the implantation of endovascular stents involves mechanical injury to the vessel wall. Confluent endothelialization of vascular grafts in vitro before implantation has been suggested as a way to reduce injury of the blood vessel. The purpose of this study is to establish a useful way to improve the adhesion of endothelial cells and accelerate endothelialization on the surface of endovascular stents by a novel rotational culture device. Numerical simulation was used to predict the shear stress on the surface of stents. The number of cellular adhesion was calculated by cell counting, the cell growth was observed by scanning electron microscope and fluorescence microscope. Numerical simulation results showed that the stents was exposed to shear stress of 2.66 x 10 -3 to 8.88 x 10 -2 Pa. Rotational culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells could enhance the adhesion of cells and accelerate endothelialization on the surface of stents when the culture conditions for EC adhesion were intermediate rotation speed, higher dynamic incubation times, lower cell densities

  16. Fibroblast growth factor-2-induced host stroma reaction during initial tumor growth promotes progression of mouse melanoma via vascular endothelial growth factor A-dependent neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saiki, Ikuo

    2007-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 has been considered to play a critical role in neovascularization in several tumors; however, its precise role in tumor progression is not fully understood. In the present study, we have characterized the role of FGF-2 in B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells, focusing on effects during the initial phase of tumor growth. FGF-2 was injected at the tumor inoculation site of dorsal skin during the initial phase. FGF-2 induced marked tumor growth and lymph node metastasis. This was well correlated with an increase in neovascularization in the host stroma. FGF-2 also recruited inflammatory and mesenchymal cells in host stroma. Marked tumor growth, pulmonary metastasis and intensive neovascularization in tumor parenchyma were also observed after a single injection of FGF-2 into the footpad inoculation site. In contrast, repeated injections of FGF-2 at a site remote from the footpad tumor were ineffective in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. These promoting activities of FGF-2 were blocked by local injections of a glucocorticoid hormone, suggesting that host inflammatory responses induced by FGF-2 are associated with FGF-2-induced tumor progression. In addition, although FGF-2 did not promote cellular proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA expression in B16-BL6 cells in vitro, FGF-2 induced VEGFA expression in host stroma rather than tumor tissue, and local injections of a neutralizing antibody against VEGFA inhibited these activities of FGF-2 in vivo. These results indicate that abundant FGF-2 during the initial phase of tumor growth induces VEGFA-dependent intensive neovascularization in host stroma, and supports marked tumor growth and metastasis.

  17. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) mediates vascular endothelial-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion by regulating beta-catenin tyrosine phosphorylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buul, Jaap D.; Anthony, Eloise C.; Fernandez-Borja, Mar; Burridge, Keith; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) controls endothelial cell-cell adhesion and preserves endothelial integrity. In order to maintain endothelial barrier function, VE-cadherin function is tightly regulated through mechanisms that involve protein phosphorylation and cytoskeletal dynamics.

  18. [Circulating endothelial cells: biomarkers for monitoring activity of antiangiogenic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Françoise; Bidart, Jean-Michel

    2007-07-01

    Tumor vessel formation is largely dependent on the recruitment of endothelial cells. Rare in healthy individuals, circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are shed from vessel walls and enter the circulation reflecting endothelial damage or dysfunction. Increased numbers of CEC have been documented in different types of cancer. Recent studies have suggested the role for CEC in tumor angiogenesis, but whose presence could also reflect normal endothelium perturbation in cancer. Originating from the bone marrow rather than from vessel walls, endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are mobilized following tissue ischemia and may be recruited to complement local angiogenesis supplied by existing endothelium. Recently, studies in mouse models suggest that the circulating fraction of endothelial progenitors (CEP) is involved in tumor angiogenesis but their contribution is less clear in humans. The detection of CEC and CEP is difficult and impeded by the rarity of these cells. They may have important clinical implication as novel biomarkers susceptible to predict more efficiently and rapidly the therapeutic response to anti-angiogenic treatments. However, a methodological consensus would be necessary in order to correctly evaluate the clinical interest of CEC and CEP in patients.

  19. Magnetizable stent-grafts enable endothelial cell capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Brandon J.; Uthamaraj, Susheil; Harburn, J. Jonathan; Hlinomaz, Ota; Lerman, Amir; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Sandhu, Gurpreet S.

    2017-04-01

    Emerging nanotechnologies have enabled the use of magnetic forces to guide the movement of magnetically-labeled cells, drugs, and other therapeutic agents. Endothelial cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have previously been captured on the surface of magnetizable 2205 duplex stainless steel stents in a porcine coronary implantation model. Recently, we have coated these stents with electrospun polyurethane nanofibers to fabricate prototype stent-grafts. Facilitated endothelialization may help improve the healing of arteries treated with stent-grafts, reduce the risk of thrombosis and restenosis, and enable small-caliber applications. When placed in a SPION-labeled endothelial cell suspension in the presence of an external magnetic field, magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured cells to the surface regions adjacent to the stent struts. Implantation within the coronary circulation of pigs (n=13) followed immediately by SPION-labeled autologous endothelial cell delivery resulted in widely patent devices with a thin, uniform neointima and no signs of thrombosis or inflammation at 7 days. Furthermore, the magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured and retained SPION-labeled endothelial cells to select regions adjacent to stent struts and between stent struts, whereas the non-magnetized control stent-grafts did not. Early results with these prototype devices are encouraging and further refinements will be necessary in order to achieve more uniform cell capture and complete endothelialization. Once optimized, this approach may lead to more rapid and complete healing of vascular stent-grafts with a concomitant improvement in long-term device performance.

  20. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla

    2011-01-01

    endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M) derived from D492, show reduced expression...... of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad) to N-Cadherin (N-Cad) and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high)/CD24(low) ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D......492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close...

  1. Spider angiomas in patients with liver cirrhosis: Role of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Pin; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Lu, Rei-Hwa; Lee, Wei-Ping; Chao, Yee; Wang, Sung-Sang; Chang, Full-Young; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF) are associated with spider angiomas in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Eighty-six patients with liver cirrhosis were enrolled and the number and size of the spider angiomas were recorded. Fifty-three healthy subjects were selected as controls. Plasma levels of VEGF and bFGF were measured in both the cirrhotics and the controls. RESULTS: Plasma VEGF and bFGF were increased in cirrhotics compared with controls (122 ± 13 vs. 71 ± 11 pg/mL, P = 0.003 for VEGF; 5.1 ± 0.5 vs. 3.4 ± 0.5 pg/mL, P = 0.022 for bFGF). In cirrhotics, plasma VEGF and bFGF were also higher in patients with spider angiomas compared with patients without spider angiomas (185 ± 28 vs. 90 ± 10 pg/mL, P = 0.003 for VEGF; 6.8 ± 1.0 vs. 4.1 ± 0.5 pg/mL, P = 0.017 for bFGF). Multivariate logistic regression showed that young age and increased plasma levels of VEGF and bFGF were the most significant predictors for the presence of spider angiomas in cirrhotic patients (odds ratio [OR] = 6.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.02-21.79, P = 0.002; OR = 4.35, 95%CI = 1.35-14.01, P = 0.014; OR = 5.66, 95%CI = 1.72-18.63, P = 0.004, respectively). CONCLUSION: Plasma VEGF and bFGF are elevated in patients with liver cirrhosis. Age as well as plasma levels of VEGF and bFGF are significant predictors for spider angiomas in cirrhotic patients. PMID:14669345

  2. Application of chitosan scaffolds on vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 expressions in tissue engineering principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyati Retno Pratiwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue engineering has given satisfactory results as biological tissue substitutes to restore, replace, or regenerate tissues that have a defect. Chitosan is an organic biomaterial often used in the biomedical field. Chitosan has biocompatible, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Chitosan is osteoconductive, suitable for bone regeneration applications. Bone defect healing begins with inflammatory phase as a response to the presence of vascular injury, so new vascularization is required. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2 are indicators of the beginning of bone regeneration process, playing an important role in angiogenesis. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine the effects of chitosan scaffold application on the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 in tissue engineering principles. Method: Chitosan was dissolved in CH3COOH and NaOH to form a gel. Chitosan gel was then printed in mould to freeze dry for 24 hours. Those rats with defected bones were divided into two groups. Group 1 was the control group which defected bones were not administrated with chitosan scaffolds. Group 2 was the treatment group which defected bones were administrated with chitosan scaffolds. Those rats were sacrificed on day 14. Tissue preparations were made, and then immunohistochemical staining was conducted. Finally, a statistical analysis was conducted using Kruskal Wallis test. Result: There was no significant difference in the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 between the control group and the treatment group (p>0.05. Conclusion: Chitosan scaffolds do not affect the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 during bone regeneration process on day 14 in tissue engineering principles

  3. Post-transcriptional regulation of osteoblastic platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha expression by co-cultured primary endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkenzeller, Günter; Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Schmal, Hagen

    2010-01-01

    -alpha downregulation is dependent on time and cell number. This effect was specific to endothelial cells and was not observed when hOBs were co-cultured with human primary chondrocytes or fibroblasts. Likewise, HUVEC-mediated suppression of PDGFR-alpha expression was only seen in hOBs and mesenchymal stem cells......Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling plays an important role in osteoblast function. Inhibition of PDGFR activity leads to a suppression of osteoblast proliferation, whereas mineralized matrix production is enhanced. In previous experiments, we showed that co......-cultivation of human primary endothelial cells and human primary osteoblasts (hOBs) leads to a cell contact-dependent downregulation of PDGFR-alpha expression in the osteoblasts. In this study, we investigated this effect in more detail, revealing that human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-mediated PDGFR...

  4. Collagen matrix as a tool in studying fibroblastic cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Type I collagen is a fibrillar protein, a member of a large family of collagen proteins. It is present in most body tissues, usually in combination with other collagens and other components of extracellular matrix. Its synthesis is increased in various pathological situations, in healing wounds, in fibrotic tissues and in many tumors. After extraction from collagen-rich tissues it is widely used in studies of cell behavior, especially those of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Cells cultured in a classical way, on planar plastic dishes, lack the third dimension that is characteristic of body tissues. Collagen I forms gel at neutral pH and may become a basis of a 3D matrix that better mimics conditions in tissue than plastic dishes.

  5. Epigenetic and phenotypic profile of fibroblasts derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J Hewitt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS cells offer a novel source of patient-specific cells for regenerative medicine. However, the biological potential of iPS-derived cells and their similarities to cells differentiated from human embryonic stem (hES cells remain unclear. We derived fibroblast-like cells from two hiPS cell lines and show that their phenotypic properties and patterns of DNA methylation were similar to that of mature fibroblasts and to fibroblasts derived from hES cells. iPS-derived fibroblasts (iPDK and their hES-derived counterparts (EDK showed similar cell morphology throughout differentiation, and patterns of gene expression and cell surface markers were characteristic of mature fibroblasts. Array-based methylation analysis was performed for EDK, iPDK and their parental hES and iPS cell lines, and hierarchical clustering revealed that EDK and iPDK had closely-related methylation profiles. DNA methylation analysis of promoter regions associated with extracellular matrix (ECM-production (COL1A1 by iPS- and hESC-derived fibroblasts and fibroblast lineage commitment (PDGFRβ, revealed promoter demethylation linked to their expression, and patterns of transcription and methylation of genes related to the functional properties of mature stromal cells were seen in both hiPS- and hES-derived fibroblasts. iPDK cells also showed functional properties analogous to those of hES-derived and mature fibroblasts, as seen by their capacity to direct the morphogenesis of engineered human skin equivalents. Characterization of the functional behavior of ES- and iPS-derived fibroblasts in engineered 3D tissues demonstrates the utility of this tissue platform to predict the capacity of iPS-derived cells before their therapeutic application.

  6. Endothelial cell-derived microparticles induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation: potential implications in inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelot, Fanny; Seillès, Estelle; Biichlé, Sabeha; Berda, Yael; Gaugler, Béatrice; Plumas, Joel; Chaperot, Laurence; Dignat-George, Françoise; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine

    2009-11-01

    Increased circulating endothelial microparticles, resulting from vascular endothelium dysfunction, and plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation are both encountered in common inflammatory disorders. The aim of our study was to determine whether interactions between endothelial microparticles and plasmacytoid dendritic cells could contribute to such pathologies. Microparticles generated from endothelial cell lines, platelets or activated T cells were incubated with human plasmacytoid dendritic cells sorted from healthy donor blood or with monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Dendritic cell maturation was evaluated by flow cytometry, cytokine secretion as well as naive T-cell activation and polarization. Labeled microparticles were also used to study cellular interactions. Endothelial microparticles induced plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. In contrast, conventional dendritic cells were resistant to endothelial microparticle-induced maturation. In addition to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules, endothelial microparticle-matured plasmacytoid dendritic cells secreted inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 6 and 8, but no interferon-alpha) and also induced allogeneic naive CD4(+) T cells to proliferate and to produce type 1 cytokines such as interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Endothelial microparticle endocytosis by plasmacytoid dendritic cells appeared to be required for plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. Importantly, the ability of endothelial microparticles to induce plasmacytoid dendritic cells to mature was specific as microparticles derived from activated T cells or platelets (the major source of circulating microparticules in healthy subjects) did not induce such plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. Our data show that endothelial microparticles specifically induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation and production of inflammatory cytokines. This novel activation pathway may be implicated in various inflammatory disorders and

  7. Arecoline inhibits endothelial cell growth and migration and the attachment to mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuei-Kuen Tseng

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Arecoline impaired vascular endothelial cells by inhibiting their growth and migration and their adhesion to U937 mononuclear cells. These results reveal that arecoline may contribute to the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis and cardiovascular diseases by affecting endothelial cell function in BQ chewers.

  8. Cell survival of human tumor cells compared with normal fibroblasts following 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Henning, C.B.; Reynolds, S.D.; Holmblad, G.L.; Trier, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Three tumor cell lines, two of which were shown to be HeLa cells, were irradiated with 60 Co gamma irradiation, together with two cell cultures of normal human diploid fibroblasts. Cell survival was studied in three different experiments over a dose range of 2 to 14 gray. All the tumor cell lines showed a very wide shoulder in the dose response curves in contrast to the extremely narrow shoulder of the normal fibroblasts. In addition, the D/sub o/ values for the tumor cell lines were somewhat greater. These two characteristics of the dose response curves resulted in up to 2 orders of magnitude less sensitivity for cell inactivation of HeLa cells when compared with normal cells at high doses (10 gray). Because of these large differences, the extrapolation of results from the irradiation of HeLa cells concerning the mechanisms of normal cell killing should be interpreted with great caution

  9. Mechanotransduction in Endothelial Cells Studied with Fluorescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien Shu [Departments of Bioengineering and Medicine and Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0427 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Mechanotransduction involves the conversion of mechanical stimuli to intracellular signaling to modulate gene and protein expressions and hence cellular functions in endothelial cells, thus playing importance roles in the regulation of homeostasis in health and disease. The aim of this paper is to investigate the dynamics of mechanotransduction in endothelial cells by the use of fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) to study the temporal and spatial activation of Src kinase and focal adhesion kinase, both of which play critical roles in many cellular processes. The results have contributed to the elucidation of the roles of these two important signaling molecules and their interactions in mediating mechanotransduction.

  10. Membrane associated ion transport enzymes in normal and transformed fibroblasts and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1982-01-01

    In an effort to evaluate membrane changes associated with neoplastic transformation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells by radiation and chemicals, alterations in membrane-associated (Na + + K + )-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities were investigated. Cell cultures consisted of normal and radiation transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (HE) and mouse C3H 10T 1/2 fibroblasts, normal and chemically transformed adult rat liver epithelial cells (ARL), as well as hepatocarcinoma cells induced by the liver transformants. Transformed fibroblasts demonstrated a 1-2 fold increase in (Na + + K + )-ATPase activity over the normal, while the transformed liver epithelial cells and carcinoma cells showed a 60% and 40% decrease in activity compared to the normal values, respectively. The 5'-nucleotidase activity was 2 to 3 times higher in the transformed fibroblasts

  11. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  12. Effects of irradiated biodegradable polymer in endothelial cell monolayer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R.; Grosso, Mariela F. del [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Behar, Moni [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); García Bermúdez, Gerardo, E-mail: ggb@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, UNSAM (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study cell adhesion, proliferation and cell morphology of endothelial cell cultured on poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) modified by heavy ion irradiation. Thin films of PLLA samples were irradiated with sulfur (S) at energies of 75 MeV and gold (Au) at 18 MeV ion-beams. Ion beams were provided by the Tandar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and Tandetron (Porto Alegre, Brazil) accelerators, respectively. The growth of a monolayer of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) onto unirradiated and irradiated surfaces has been studied by in vitro techniques in static culture. Cell viability and proliferation increased on modified substrates. But the results on unirradiated samples, indicate cell death (necrosis/apoptosis) with the consequent decrease in proliferation. We analyzed the correlation between irradiation parameters and cell metabolism and morphology.

  13. Effects of irradiated biodegradable polymer in endothelial cell monolayer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R.; Grosso, Mariela F. del; Behar, Moni; García Bermúdez, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study cell adhesion, proliferation and cell morphology of endothelial cell cultured on poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) modified by heavy ion irradiation. Thin films of PLLA samples were irradiated with sulfur (S) at energies of 75 MeV and gold (Au) at 18 MeV ion-beams. Ion beams were provided by the Tandar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and Tandetron (Porto Alegre, Brazil) accelerators, respectively. The growth of a monolayer of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) onto unirradiated and irradiated surfaces has been studied by in vitro techniques in static culture. Cell viability and proliferation increased on modified substrates. But the results on unirradiated samples, indicate cell death (necrosis/apoptosis) with the consequent decrease in proliferation. We analyzed the correlation between irradiation parameters and cell metabolism and morphology

  14. Human Endothelial Cells: Use of Heparin in Cloning and Long-Term Serial Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Susan C.; Mueller, Stephen N.; Levine, Elliot M.

    1983-11-01

    Endothelial cells from human blood vessels were cultured in vitro, with doubling times of 17 to 21 hours for 42 to 79 population doublings. Cloned human endothelial cell strains were established for the first time and had similar proliferative capacities. This vigorous cell growth was achieved by addition of heparin to culture medium containing reduced concentrations of endothelial cell growth factor. The routine cloning and long-term culture of human endothelial cells will facilitate studying the human endothelium in vitro.

  15. Recovery of Corneal Endothelial Cells from Periphery after Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ouk Choi

    Full Text Available Wound healing of the endothelium occurs through cell enlargement and migration. However, the peripheral corneal endothelium may act as a cell resource for the recovery of corneal endothelium in endothelial injury.To investigate the recovery process of corneal endothelial cells (CECs from corneal endothelial injury.Three patients with unilateral chemical eye injuries, and 15 rabbit eyes with corneal endothelial chemical injuries were studied. Slit lamp examination, specular microscopy, and ultrasound pachymetry were performed immediately after chemical injury and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months later. The anterior chambers of eyes from New Zealand white rabbits were injected with 0.1 mL of 0.05 N NaOH for 10 min (NaOH group. Corneal edema was evaluated at day 1, 7, and 14. Vital staining was performed using alizarin red and trypan blue.Specular microscopy did not reveal any corneal endothelial cells immediately after injury. Corneal edema subsided from the periphery to the center, CEC density increased, and central corneal thickness decreased over time. In the animal study, corneal edema was greater in the NaOH group compared to the control at both day 1 and day 7. At day 1, no CECs were detected at the center and periphery of the corneas in the NaOH group. Two weeks after injury, small, hexagonal CECs were detected in peripheral cornea, while CECs in mid-periphery were large and non-hexagonal.CECs migrated from the periphery to the center of the cornea after endothelial injury. The peripheral corneal endothelium may act as a cell resource for the recovery of corneal endothelium.

  16. Detection and Quantification of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Primary Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    Proteins differ widely in their pattern of expression depending on organism, tissue, and regulation in response to changing conditions. In the mammalian vasculature, the endothelium responds to vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) via membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs) to modulate many aspects of vascular physiology including vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and blood pressure. Studies on VEGFR biology are thus dependent on detecting expression levels in different cell types and evaluating how changes in protein levels correlate with changing conditions including circulating VEGF levels. Here, we present a robust immunoblot-based protocol for detecting and quantifying VEGFRs in human endothelial cells. Using internal and external standards, we can rapidly evaluate receptor copy number and assess how this is altered in response to the cellular environment.

  17. Apelin is a novel angiogenic factor in retinal endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Atsushi; Shintani, Norihito; Oda, Maki; Kakuda, Michiya; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Hinuma, Shuji; Baba, Akemichi

    2004-01-01

    There has been much focus recently on the possible functions of apelin, an endogenous ligand for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, in cardiovascular and central nervous systems. We report a new function of apelin as a novel angiogenic factor in retinal endothelial cells. The retinal endothelial cell line RF/6A highly expressed both apelin and APJ transcripts, while human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) only expressed apelin mRNA. In accordance with these observations, apelin at concentrations of 1 pM-1 μM significantly enhanced migration, proliferation, and capillary-like tube formation of RF/6A cells, but not those of HUVECs, whereas VEGF stimulates those parameters of both cell types. In vivo Matrigel plug assay for angiogenesis, the inclusion of 1 nM apelin in the Matrigel resulted in clear capillary-like formations with an increase of hemoglobin content in the plug. This is the first report showing that apelin is an angiogenic factor in retinal endothelial cells

  18. DNA repair in a Fanconi's anemia fibroblast cell strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Little, J.B.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    DNA repair and colony survival were measured in fibroblasts from a patient with Fanconi's anemia, HG 261, and from normal human donors after exposure to these cells to the cross-linking agent mitomycin C, X-rays or ultraviolet light. Survival was similar in HG 261 and normal cells after X-ray or ultraviolet radiation, but was reduced in the Fanconi's anemia cells after treatment with mitomycin C. The level of DNA cross-linking, as measured by the method of alkaline elution, was the same in both cell strains after exposure to various doses of mitomycin C. With incubation after drug treatment, a gradual decrease in the amount of cross-linking was observed, the rate of this apparent repair of cross-link damage was the same in both normal and HG 261 cells. The rejoining of DNA single strand breaks after X-irradiation and the production of excision breaks after ultraviolet radiation were also normal in HG 261 cells as determined by alkaline elution. (Auth.)

  19. DNA repair in a Fanconi's anemia fibroblast cell strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornace, Jr, A J; Little, J B [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (USA); Weichselbaum, R R [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)

    1979-01-26

    DNA repair and colony survival were measured in fibroblasts from a patient with Fanconi's anemia, HG 261, and from normal human donors after exposure to these cells to the cross-linking agent mitomycin C, X-rays or ultraviolet light. Survival was similar in HG 261 and normal cells after X-ray or ultraviolet radiation, but was reduced in the Fanconi's anemia cells after treatment with mitomycin C. The level of DNA cross-linking, as measured by the method of alkaline elution, was the same in both cell strains after exposure to various doses of mitomycin C. With incubation after drug treatment, a gradual decrease in the amount of cross-linking was observed, the rate of this apparent repair of cross-link damage was the same in both normal and HG 261 cells. The rejoining of DNA single strand breaks after X-irradiation and the production of excision breaks after ultraviolet radiation were also normal in HG 261 cells as determined by alkaline elution.

  20. Tumor Response to Radiotherapy Regulated by Endothelial Cell Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barros, Monica; Paris, Francois; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Lyden, David; Rafii, Shahin; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Fuks, Zvi; Kolesnick, Richard

    2003-05-01

    About 50% of cancer patients receive radiation therapy. Here we investigated the hypothesis that tumor response to radiation is determined not only by tumor cell phenotype but also by microvascular sensitivity. MCA/129 fibrosarcomas and B16F1 melanomas grown in apoptosis-resistant acid sphingomyelinase (asmase)-deficient or Bax-deficient mice displayed markedly reduced baseline microvascular endothelial apoptosis and grew 200 to 400% faster than tumors on wild-type microvasculature. Thus, endothelial apoptosis is a homeostatic factor regulating angiogenesis-dependent tumor growth. Moreover, these tumors exhibited reduced endothelial apoptosis upon irradiation and, unlike tumors in wild-type mice, they were resistant to single-dose radiation up to 20 grays (Gy). These studies indicate that microvascular damage regulates tumor cell response to radiation at the clinically relevant dose range.

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor A-stimulated signaling from endosomes in primary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Smith, Gina A; Odell, Adam F; Latham, Antony M; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Harrison, Michael A; Tomlinson, Darren C; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a multifunctional cytokine that stimulates blood vessel sprouting, vascular repair, and regeneration. VEGF-A binds to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs) and stimulates intracellular signaling leading to changes in vascular physiology. An important aspect of this phenomenon is the spatiotemporal coordination of VEGFR trafficking and intracellular signaling to ensure that VEGFR residence in different organelles is linked to downstream cellular outputs. Here, we describe a series of assays to evaluate the effects of VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling from intracellular compartments such as the endosome-lysosome system. These assays include the initial isolation and characterization of primary human endothelial cells, performing reverse genetics for analyzing protein function; methods used to study receptor trafficking, signaling, and proteolysis; and assays used to measure changes in cell migration, proliferation, and tubulogenesis. Each of these assays has been exemplified with studies performed in our laboratories. In conclusion, we describe necessary techniques for studying the role of VEGF-A in endothelial cell function. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of bFGF on radiation-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Qingyang; Wang Dewen; Li Yuejuan; Peng Ruiyun; Dong Bo; Wang Zhaohai; Liu Jie; Deng Hua; Jiang Tao

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of bFGF on radiation-induced apoptosis vascular endothelial cells. Methods: A cell line PAE (porcine aortic endothelial cells) and primary cultured HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays to establish cell apoptosis models. Flow cytometry with annexin-V-FITC + PI labeling was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Different amounts of bFGF were used to study their effects on radiation-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. Results and Conclusions: It is found that bFGF could inhibit radiation-induced endothelial cell apoptosis in a considerable degree

  3. Endothelial cells stimulate growth of normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells in 3D culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Magnus K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial-stromal interaction provides regulatory signals that maintain correct histoarchitecture and homeostasis in the normal breast and facilitates tumor progression in breast cancer. However, research on the regulatory role of the endothelial component in the normal and malignant breast gland has largely been neglected. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of endothelial cells on growth and differentiation of human breast epithelial cells in a three-dimensional (3D co-culture assay. Methods Breast luminal and myoepithelial cells and endothelial cells were isolated from reduction mammoplasties. Primary cells and established normal and malignant breast cell lines were embedded in reconstituted basement membrane in direct co-culture with endothelial cells and by separation of Transwell filters. Morphogenic and phenotypic profiles of co-cultures was evaluated by phase contrast microscopy, immunostaining and confocal microscopy. Results In co-culture, endothelial cells stimulate proliferation of both luminal- and myoepithelial cells. Furthermore, endothelial cells induce a subpopulation of luminal epithelial cells to form large acini/ducts with a large and clear lumen. Endothelial cells also stimulate growth and cloning efficiency of normal and malignant breast epithelial cell lines. Transwell and gradient co-culture studies show that endothelial derived effects are mediated - at least partially - by soluble factors. Conclusion Breast endothelial cells - beside their role in transporting nutrients and oxygen to tissues - are vital component of the epithelial microenvironment in the breast and provide proliferative signals to the normal and malignant breast epithelium. These growth promoting effects of endothelial cells should be taken into consideration in breast cancer biology.

  4. Radiosensitization of human endothelial cells by IL-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation therapy remains an important cancer treatment modality but despite improvements in dose delivery many patients still fail at their primary tumor site. Therefore, new strategies designed to improve local control are needed. Protocols combining radiation with anti-angiogenic agents might be of particular advantage based on their documented low toxicity. In this regard, we have been conducting preclinical investigations of a novel cytokine, mda7/IL-24. Our collaborators have shown that mda7/IL-24 protein targets the endothelial cells of the tumor microvascular system and has potent anti-angiogenic properties in both in vitro and in vivo assays. Recently, we have demonstrated that recombinant mda7/IL-24 protein radiosensitizes human endothelial cells in vitro. Specifically, 10 ng/ml of recombinant human IL-24 protein for 12 hrs reduced the survival at 2 Gy for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from 0.33 to 0.12. We are also working on understanding the molecular basis for this radiosensitizing effect. Preliminary data suggest a model whereby mda7/IL-24 engages a specific receptor on the surface of endothelial cells and initiates a signal transduction pathway that modulates the cell's propensity for radiation-induced apoptosis and capacity for repairing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. Mechanistic insight gained from these studies may have implications for the actions of other anti-angiogenic agents and may generally explain the regulation of radiosensitivity imparted by growth factors and cytokines

  5. Laminar shear stress inhibits endothelial cell metabolism via KLF2-mediated repression of PFKFB3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doddaballapur, Anuradha; Michalik, Katharina M.; Manavski, Yosif; Lucas, Tina; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; You, Xintian; Chen, Wei; Zeiher, Andreas M.; Potente, Michael; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Boon, Reinier A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular metabolism was recently shown to regulate endothelial cell phenotype profoundly. Whether the atheroprotective biomechanical stimulus elicited by laminar shear stress modulates endothelial cell metabolism is not known. Here, we show that laminar flow exposure reduced glucose uptake and

  6. The impact of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on serological values of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziebura Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy is an effective adjunct treatment for ischemic disorders such as chronic infection or chronic wounds. It combines hyperoxic effects with the stimulating potential of post-therapeutic reactive hypoxia. As its crucial effects, stimulation of fibroblast growth, induction of collagen synthesis and the initiation of angiogenesis are discussed. Angiogenesis is a multistage process resulting in the growth of blood vessels. It includes degradation of extracellular matrix, proliferation and migration of different cell populations and finally formation of new vessel structures. This complex chain of procedures is orchestrated by different cytokines and growth factors. Crucial mediators of angiogenesis are basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; their in-vivo function is still not fully understood. Methods Forty-three patients suffering from sudden sensorineural hearing loss or tinnitus were treated with HBO. The therapy included 10 sessions of 90 minutes each, one session a day. Serological levels of bFGF and VEGF were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed according to the manufacturer's instructions on day 1, 2, 5 and 10 of HBO therapy and were compared to mean values of the control group, related to the patient's age and sex, and their development observed over the ten days of HBO. Results There was no sex- or age dependency of bFGF observed in the present study, whereas under HBO our results showed a significant mitigation of the bFGF concentration. In the present data, there was no connection between the VEGF concentration and the patients' ages. Women showed significantly higher levels of VEGF. There was no significant change of VEGF concentration or the VEGF/bFGF ratio during HBO. All scored results varied within the range of standard values as described in the current literature. Conclusions A significant effect of HBO on serum

  7. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and endothelial cells promote self-renewal of rabbit germ cells with spermatogonial stem cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Wu, Xin; Goodyear, Shaun M; Avarbock, Mary R; Brinster, Ralph L

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that exogenous factors crucial for spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) self-renewal are conserved among several mammalian species. Since glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are critical for rodent SSC self-renewal, we hypothesized that they might promote self-renewal of nonrodent SSCs. Therefore, we cultured testicular germ cells from prepubertal rabbits in the presence of GDNF and FGF2 and found they proliferated indefinitely as cellular clumps that displayed characteristics previously identified for rodent SSCs. The rabbit germ cells could not be maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (STO) feeders that support rodent SSC self-renewal in vitro but were rather supported on mouse yolk sac-derived endothelial cell (C166) feeder layers. Proliferation of rabbit germ cells was dependent on GDNF. Of critical importance was that clump-forming rabbit germ cells colonized seminiferous tubules of immunodeficient mice, proliferated for at least 6 mo, while retaining an SSC phenotype in the testes of recipient mice, indicating that they were rabbit SSCs. This study demonstrates that GDNF is a mitogenic factor promoting self-renewal that is conserved between rodent and rabbit SSCs; with an evolutionary separation of ∼ 60 million years. These findings provide a foundation to study the mechanisms governing SSC self-renewal in nonrodent species.

  8. PMab-48 Recognizes Dog Podoplanin of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Itai, Shunsuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari

    2018-02-01

    Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is a specific marker of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Recently, we developed PMab-38, an anti-dog podoplanin monoclonal antibody that did not stain canine LECs. In this study, we newly developed PMab-48 against dog podoplanin. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PMab-48 reacts not only with canine squamous cell carcinoma cells but also with LECs of the normal colon. Therefore, PMab-48 may be useful in investigating the function of dog podoplanin in LECs.

  9. Endothelial Induced EMT in Breast Epithelial Cells with Stem Cell Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla; Fridriksdottir, Agla J. R.; Ringnér, Markus; Villadsen, Rene; Borg, Ake; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Petersen, Ole William; Magnusson, Magnus K.; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell proper...

  10. Generation of hiPSTZ16 (ISMMSi003-A cell line from normal human foreskin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dejosez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human foreskin fibroblasts from a commercial source were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells to establish a clonal stem cell line, hiPSTZ16 (ISMMSi003-A. These cells show a normal karyotype and full differentiation potential in teratoma assays. The described cells provide a useful resource in combination with other iPS cell lines generated from normal human foreskin fibroblasts to study source- and reprogramming method-independent effects in downstream applications.

  11. Endothelial microparticle-mediated transfer of MicroRNA-126 promotes vascular endothelial cell repair via SPRED1 and is abrogated in glucose-damaged endothelial microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Felix; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hoelscher, Marion; Cattelan, Arianna; Schmitz, Theresa; Proebsting, Sebastian; Wenzel, Daniela; Vosen, Sarah; Franklin, Bernardo S; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2013-10-29

    Repair of the endothelium after vascular injury is crucial for preserving endothelial integrity and preventing the development of vascular disease. The underlying mechanisms of endothelial cell repair are largely unknown. We sought to investigate whether endothelial microparticles (EMPs), released from apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs), influence EC repair. Systemic treatment of mice with EMPs after electric denudation of the endothelium accelerated reendothelialization in vivo. In vitro experiments revealed that EMP uptake in ECs promotes EC migration and proliferation, both critical steps in endothelial repair. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, Taqman microRNA array was performed, and microRNA (miR)-126 was identified as the predominantly expressed miR in EMPs. The following experiments demonstrated that miR-126 was transported into recipient human coronary artery endothelial cells by EMPs and functionally regulated the target protein sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 (SPRED1). Knockdown of miR-126 in EMPs abrogated EMP-mediated effects on human coronary artery endothelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro and reendothelialization in vivo. Interestingly, after simulating diabetic conditions, EMPs derived from glucose-treated ECs contained significantly lower amounts of miR-126 and showed reduced endothelial repair capacity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, expression analysis of miR-126 in circulating microparticles from 176 patients with stable coronary artery disease with and without diabetes mellitus revealed a significantly reduced miR-126 expression in circulating microparticles from diabetic patients. Endothelial microparticles promote vascular endothelial repair by delivering functional miR-126 into recipient cells. In pathological hyperglycemic conditions, EMP-mediated miR-126-induced EC repair is altered.

  12. Blood on the tracks: hematopoietic stem cell-endothelial cell interactions in homing and engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Julie R; Sporrij, Audrey; Zon, Leonard I

    2017-08-01

    Cells of the hematopoietic system undergo rapid turnover. Each day, humans require the production of about one hundred billion new blood cells for proper function. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare cells that reside in specialized niches and are required throughout life to produce specific progenitor cells that will replenish all blood lineages. There is, however, an incomplete understanding of the molecular and physical properties that regulate HSC migration, homing, engraftment, and maintenance in the niche. Endothelial cells (ECs) are intimately associated with HSCs throughout the life of the stem cell, from the specialized endothelial cells that give rise to HSCs, to the perivascular niche endothelial cells that regulate HSC homeostasis. Recent studies have dissected the unique molecular and physical properties of the endothelial cells in the HSC vascular niche and their role in HSC biology, which may be manipulated to enhance hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapies.

  13. Corneal Endothelial Cell Density and Morphology in Healthy Turkish Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Arıcı

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the normative values of corneal endothelial cell density, morphology, and central corneal thickness in healthy Turkish eyes. Methods. Specular microscopy was performed in 252 eyes of 126 healthy volunteers (M : F, 42 : 84. Parameters studied included mean endothelial cell density (MCD, mean cell area (MCA, coefficient of variation (CV in cell size, percentage of hexagonal cells, and central corneal thickness (CCT. Results. The mean age of volunteers was 44.3±13.5 (range, 20 to 70 years. There was a statistically significant decrease in MCD (P<0.001; correlation, −0.388 and percentage of hexagonal cells, (P<0.001; correlation, −0.199 with age. There was also a statistically significant increase in MCA (P<0.001; correlation, 0.363 with increasing age. There was no statistically significant difference in MCD, MCA, CV in cell size, percentage of hexagonal cells, and CCT between genders and there was also no significant difference in these parameters between fellow eyes of subjects. Conclusions. Normotive data for the endothelium in the Turkish population are reported. Endothelial cell density in the Turkish eyes is less than that described in the Japanese, American, Chinese, and Filipino eyes and higher than that described in Indian, Thai, and Iranian eyes.

  14. Cellular dysfunction in the diabetic fibroblast: impairment in migration, vascular endothelial growth factor production, and response to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Oren Z; Galiano, Robert D; Armour, Mary; Levine, Jamie P; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2003-01-01

    Although it is known that systemic diseases such as diabetes result in impaired wound healing, the mechanism for this impairment is not understood. Because fibroblasts are essential for wound repair, we compared the in vitro behavior of fibroblasts cultured from diabetic, leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice with wild-type fibroblasts from mice of the same genetic background in processes important during tissue repair. Adult diabetic mouse fibroblast migration exhibited a 75% reduction in migration compared to normal fibroblasts (P under basal or hypoxic conditions, confirming that the results from db/db fibroblasts in mature mice resulted from the diabetic state and were not because of alterations in the leptin-leptin receptor axis. Markers of cellular viability including proliferation and senescence were not significantly different between diabetic and wild-type fibroblasts. We conclude that, in vitro, diabetic fibroblasts show selective impairments in discrete cellular processes critical for tissue repair including cellular migration, VEGF production, and the response to hypoxia. The VEGF abnormalities developed concurrently with the onset of hyperglycemia and were not seen in normoglycemic, leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice. These observations support a role for fibroblast dysfunction in the impaired wound healing observed in human diabetics, and also suggest a mechanism for the poor clinical outcomes that occur after ischemic injury in diabetic patients.

  15. Small GTP-binding proteins in human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, H. P.; Koster, P. M.; Calafat, J.; Janssen, H.; van Zonneveld, A. J.; van Mourik, J. A.; Voorberg, J.

    1998-01-01

    Small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily control an extensive number of intracellular events by alternating between GDP- and GTP-bound conformation. The presence of members of this protein family was examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells employing RT-PCR. Sequence analysis of

  16. Donor-derived circulating endothelial cells after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, ER; Kas-Deelen, AM; Hepkema, BG; van Son, WJ; The, TH; Harmsen, MC

    2002-01-01

    Background. In solid-organ transplantation, the allograft vasculature, in particular the endothelium, is prone to injury inflicted by peritransplantational and posttransplantational factors. Previously, we have shown that circulating endothelial cells (cEC) can be detected in the peripheral blood of

  17. Endothelial cell chimerism after renal transplantation and vascular rejection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagaaij, E.L.; Cramer-Knijnenburg, G.F.; Kemenade, F.J. van; Es, L.A. van; Bruijn, J.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The blood vessels of a transplanted organ are the interface between donor and recipient. The endothelium in the blood vessels is thought to be the major target for graft rejection. Endothelial cells of a transplanted organ are believed to remain of donor origin after transplantation. We

  18. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine on human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Scheffer, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A possible protective effect of propionyl-L-carnitine on human endothelial cells was studied both under basal culture conditions and in the presence of agents capable of influencing oxidative damage, such as glucose/glucose oxidase and oxidized low-density lipoproteins. Propionyl-L-carnitine had no

  19. Endothelial progenitor cell-based neovascularization : implications for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krenning, Guido; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    Ischemic cardiovascular events are a major cause of death globally. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-based approaches can result in improvement of vascular perfusion and might offer clinical benefit. However, although functional improvement is observed, the lack of long-term engraftment of EPCs

  20. Surface determinants of low density lipoprotein uptake by endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeroeg, P.; Pearson, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The surface sialic acid content of aortic endothelial cells in vitro was substantially lower in sparse cultures than at confluence. Binding of LDL to endothelial cells did not change at different culture densities and was unaffected by brief pretreatment with neuraminidase to partially remove surface sialic acid residues. In contrast, internalisation of LDL declined by a factor of 3 between low density cell cultures and confluent monolayers; neuraminidase pretreatment increased LDL uptake and the effect was most marked (>10-fold) at confluence. Pretreatment with cationised ferritin, which removed most of the surface sialic acid residues as well as glycosaminoglycans, increased LDL internalisation by up to 20-fold, again with most effect on confluent monolayers. Thus LDL uptake is inversely correlated with sialic acid content. We conclude that changes in the surface density of sialic acid (and possibly other charged) residues significantly modulate endothelial LDL uptake, and suggest that focal increases in LDL accumulation during atherogenesis may be related to alterations in endothelial endocytic properties at sites of increased cell turnover or damage. (author)

  1. Endothelial cell density after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (Melles technique)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooren, Bart T. H.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Beekhuis, W. Houdijn; Melles, Gerrit R. J.

    2004-01-01

    To measure the recipient endothelial cell loss after the Melles technique for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. In 21 eyes of 21 patients, a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty procedure was performed. Before surgery and at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery, specular microscopy was performed to

  2. Endothelial cell density after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (Melles technique)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dooren, BTH; Mulder, PGH; Nieuwendaal, CP; Beekhuis, WH; Melles, GRJ

    PURPOSE: To measure the recipient endothelial cell loss after the Melles technique for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. METHODS: In 21 eyes of 21 patients, a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty procedure was performed. Before surgery and at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery, specular microscopy

  3. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  4. Dynamics of Receptor-Mediated Nanoparticle Internalization into Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles offer a promising medical tool for targeted drug delivery, for example to treat inflamed endothelial cells during the development of atherosclerosis. To inform the design of such therapeutic strategies, we develop a computational model of nanoparticle internalization into endothelial cells, where internalization is driven by receptor-ligand binding and limited by the deformation of the cell membrane and cytoplasm. We specifically consider the case of nanoparticles targeted against ICAM-1 receptors, of relevance for treating atherosclerosis. The model computes the kinetics of the internalization process, the dynamics of binding, and the distribution of stresses exerted between the nanoparticle and the cell membrane. The model predicts the existence of an optimal nanoparticle size for fastest internalization, consistent with experimental observations, as well as the role of bond characteristics, local cell mechanical properties, and external forces in the nanoparticle internalization process. PMID:25901833

  5. Telmisartan activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Myojo

    Full Text Available Because endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS has anti-inflammatory and anti-arteriosclerotic functions, it has been recognized as one of the key molecules essential for the homeostatic control of blood vessels other than relaxation of vascular tone. Here, we examined whether telmisartan modulates eNOS function through its pleiotropic effect. Administration of telmisartan to mice significantly increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS (Ser1177 in the aortic endothelium, but administration of valsartan had no effect. Similarly, telmisartan treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (Thr172 and eNOS and the concentration of intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP. Furthermore, pretreatment with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK inhibitor suppressed the increased phosphorylation level of eNOS and intracellular cGMP concentration. These data show that telmisartan increases eNOS activity through Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells mainly via p38 MAPK signaling.

  6. Isolation of a cDNA for a Growth Factor of Vascular Endothelial Cells from Human Lung Cancer Cells: Its Identity with Insulin‐like Growth Factor II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Koichi; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Tobita, Masato; Kikyo, Nobuaki; Yazaki, Yoshio

    1995-01-01

    We have found growth‐promoting activity for vascular endothelial cells in the conditioned medium of a human lung cancer cell line, T3M‐11. Purification and characterization of the growth‐promoting activity have been carried out using ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel‐exclusion chromatography. The activity migrated as a single peak just after ribonuclease. It did not bind to a heparin affinity column. These results suggest that the activity is not a heparin‐binding growth factor (including fibroblast growth factors) or a vascular endothelial growth factor. To identify the molecule exhibiting the growth‐promoting activity, a cDNA encoding the growth factor was isolated through functional expression cloning in COS‐1 cells from a cDNA library prepared from T3M‐11 cells. The nucleotide sequence encoded by the cDNA proved to be identical with that of insulin‐like growth factor II. PMID:7730145

  7. Metabolic cooperation between co-cultured lung cancer cells and lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourakis, Michael I; Kalamida, Dimitra; Mitrakas, Achilleas G; Liousia, Maria; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Sivridis, Efthimios; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    Cooperation of cancer cells with stromal cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), has been revealed as a mechanism sustaining cancer cell survival and growth. In the current study, we focus on the metabolic interactions of MRC5 lung fibroblasts with lung cancer cells (A549 and H1299) using co-culture experiments and studying changes of the metabolic protein expression profile and of their growth and migration abilities. Using western blotting, confocal microscopy and RT-PCR, we observed that in co-cultures MRC5 respond by upregulating pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1. In contrast, cancer cells increase the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT1), LDH5, PDH kinase and the levels of phosphorylated/inactivated pPDH. H1299 cells growing in the same culture medium with fibroblasts exhibit a 'metastasis-like' phenomenon by forming nests within the fibroblast area. LDH5 and pPDH were drastically upregulated in these nests. The growth rate of both MRC5 and cancer cells increased in co-cultures. Suppression of LDHA or PDK1 in cancer cells abrogates the stimulatory signal from cancer cells to fibroblasts. Incubation of MRC5 fibroblasts with lactate resulted in an increase of LDHB and of PDH expression. Silencing of PDH gene in fibroblasts, or silencing of PDK1 or LDHA gene in tumor cells, impedes cancer cell's migration ability. Overall, a metabolic cooperation between lung cancer cells and fibroblasts has been confirmed in the context of direct Warburg effect, thus the fibroblasts reinforce aerobic metabolism to support the intensified anaerobic glycolytic pathways exploited by cancer cells.

  8. A role for activated endothelial cells in red blood cell clearance: implications for vasopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fens, Marcel H A M; van Wijk, Richard; Andringa, Grietje

    2012-01-01

    with endothelial cells, marked erythrophagocytosis occurred in the presence of lactadherin under both static and flow conditions. As a consequence, intracellular organization was disturbed and endothelial cells were seen to change shape (‘rounding up’). Increased expression of apoptotic markers indicated...

  9. Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mouse fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Yu; Zhu, Bang-Shang; Wang, Xue-Feng; Lu, Qing-Hua

    2008-09-01

    Nanotitanium dioxide (TiO2) is an important industrial material that is widely used as an additive in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food colorants. Although the small size of the TiO2 nanoparticle is useful in various applications, the biosafety of this material needs to be evaluated. In this study, mouse fibroblast (L929) cells were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of different concentrations (3-600 microg/mL) of homogeneous and weakly aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous solution. The L929 cells became round and even shrank as the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles increased. Moreover, TiO2 nanoparticle-treated cells had condensed fragmented chromatin or were directly necrosed, as observed by acridine orange (AO) staining. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that in cells cultured in a medium containing 300 microg/mL TiO2, the number of lysosomes increased, and some cytoplasmic organelles were damaged. In addition, there was a significant increase in oxidative stress at higher TiO2 nanoparticle concentrations (>60 microg/mL). As the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles increased in the culture medium, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased, while those of methyl tetrazolium cytotoxicity (MTT), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased. A possible mechanism for the cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles is also discussed.

  10. File list: Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells hg19 TFs and others Cardiovascular Brachiocephal...ic endothelial cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Brachiocephal...ic endothelial cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells hg19 DNase-seq Cardiovascular Brachiocephal...ic endothelial cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells.bed ...

  8. Spatial and Single-Cell Transcriptional Profiling Identifies Functionally Distinct Human Dermal Fibroblast Subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippeos, Christina; Telerman, Stephanie B; Oulès, Bénédicte; Pisco, Angela O; Shaw, Tanya J; Elgueta, Raul; Lombardi, Giovanna; Driskell, Ryan R; Soldin, Mark; Lynch, Magnus D; Watt, Fiona M

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mouse dermis is composed of functionally distinct fibroblast lineages. To explore the extent of fibroblast heterogeneity in human skin, we used a combination of comparative spatial transcriptional profiling of human and mouse dermis and single-cell transcriptional profiling of human dermal fibroblasts. We show that there are at least four distinct fibroblast populations in adult human skin, not all of which are spatially segregated. We define markers permitting their isolation and show that although marker expression is lost in culture, different fibroblast subpopulations retain distinct functionality in terms of Wnt signaling, responsiveness to IFN-γ, and ability to support human epidermal reconstitution when introduced into decellularized dermis. These findings suggest that ex vivo expansion or in vivo ablation of specific fibroblast subpopulations may have therapeutic applications in wound healing and diseases characterized by excessive fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in normal Iranian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallah Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in normal Iranian eyes and compare endothelial cell characteristics in the Iranian population with data available in the literature for American and Indian populations. Methods Specular microscopy was performed in 525 eyes of normal Iranian people aged 20 to 85 years old. The studied parameters including mean endothelial cell density (MCD, mean cell area (MCA and coefficient of variation (CV in cell area were analyzed in all of the 525 eyes. Results MCD was 1961 ± 457 cell/mm2 and MCA was 537.0 ± 137.4 μm2. There was no statistically significant difference in MCD, MCA and CV between genders (Student t-test, P = 0.85, P = 0.97 and P = 0.15 respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease in MCD with age (P r = -0.64. The rate of cell loss was 0.6% per year. There was also a statistically significant increase in MCA (P r = 0.56 and CV (P r = 0.30 from 20 to 85 years of age. Conclusion The first normative data for the endothelium of Iranian eyes seems to confirm that there are no differences in MCD, MCA and CV between genders. Nevertheless, the values obtained in Iranian eyes seem to be different to those reported by the literature in Indian and American populations.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Human Lung Lymphatic Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Bruno; Falco, Angela; Madeddu, Denise; Frati, Caterina; Cavalli, Stefano; Graiani, Gallia; Gervasi, Andrea; Rinaldi, Laura; Lagrasta, Costanza; Maselli, Davide; Gnetti, Letizia; Silini, Enrico M.; Quaini, Eugenio; Ampollini, Luca; Carbognani, Paolo; Quaini, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of lymphatic endothelial cells from the respiratory system may be crucial to investigate the role of the lymphatic system in the normal and diseased lung. We describe a simple and inexpensive method to harvest, isolate, and expand lymphatic endothelial cells from the human lung (HL-LECs). Fifty-five samples of healthy lung selected from patients undergoing lobectomy were studied. A two-step purification tool, based on paramagnetic sorting with monoclonal antibodies to CD31 and Podoplanin, was employed to select a pure population of HL-LECs. The purity of HL-LECs was assessed by morphologic criteria, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and functional assays. Interestingly, these cells retain in vitro several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) implicated in cell survival and proliferation. HL-LECs represent a clinically relevant cellular substrate to study lymphatic biology, lymphoangiogenesis, interaction with microbial agents, wound healing, and anticancer therapy. PMID:26137493

  11. The chemotactic activity of beta-carotene in endothelial cell progenitors and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: A microarray analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polus, A.; Kiec-wilk, B.; Hartwich, J.; Balwierz, A.; Stachura, J.; Dyduch, G.; Laidler, P.; Zagajewski, J.; Langman, T.; Schmitz, G.; Goralcsky, R.; Wertz, K.; Riss, G.; Keijer, J.; Dembinska-Kiec, A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Endothelial cells and their progenitors play an important role in angiogenesis that is essential for organogenesis and tissue remodelling, as well as for inflammatory responses and carcinogenesis in all periods of life. In the present study, the authors concentrated on the direct effect

  12. Organizational behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Culture conditions that favor rapid multiplication of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUV-EC) also support long-term serial propagation of the cells. This is routinely achieved when HUV-EC are grown in Medium 199 (M-199) supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) and endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF), on a human fibronectin (HFN) matrix. The HUV-EC can shift from a proliferative to an organized state when the in vitro conditions are changed from those favoring low density proliferation to those supporting high density survival. When ECGF and HFN are omitted, cultures fail to achieve confluence beyond the first or second passage: the preconfluent cultures organize into tubular structures after 4-6 wk. Some tubes become grossly visible and float in the culture medium, remaining tethered to the plastic dish at either end of the tube. On an ultrastructural level, the tubes consist of cells, held together by junctional complexes, arranged so as to form a lumen. The smallest lumens are formed by one cell folding over to form a junction with itself. The cells contain Weibel-Palade bodies and factor VIII-related antigen. The lumens contain granular, fibrillar and amorphous debris. Predigesting the HFN matrix with trypsin (10 min, 37 degrees C) or plasmin significantly accelerates tube formation. Thrombin and plasminogen activator had no apparent effect. Disruption of the largest tubes with trypsin/EDTA permits the cells to revert to a proliferative state if plated on HFN, in M-199, FBS, and ECGF. These observations indicate that culture conditions that do not favor proliferation permit attainment of a state of nonterminal differentiation (organization) by the endothelial cell. Furthermore, proteolytic modification of the HFN matrix may play an important role in endothelial organization. PMID:6813338

  13. Bee products prevent VEGF-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Satoshi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. Bee products [royal jelly (RJ, bee pollen, and Chinese red propolis] from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been used as traditional health foods for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of bee products using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Methods In an in vitro tube formation assay, HUVECs and fibroblast cells were incubated for 14 days with VEGF and various concentrations of bee products [RJ, ethanol extract of bee pollen, ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis and its constituent, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE]. To clarify the mechanism of in vitro angiogenesis, HUVEC proliferation and migration were induced by VEGF with or without various concentrations of RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE. Results RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE significantly suppressed VEGF-induced in vitro tube formation in the descending order: CAPE > Chinese red propolis >> bee pollen > RJ. RJ and Chinese red propolis suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. In contrast, bee pollen and CAPE suppressed only the proliferation. Conclusion Among the bee products, Chinese red propolis and CAPE in particular showed strong suppressive effects against VEGF-induced angiogenesis. These findings indicate that Chinese red propolis and CAPE may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related human diseases.

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor modified macrophages transdifferentiate into endothelial-like cells and decrease foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; He, Yujuan; Dai, Jun; Yang, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ruan, Qiurong

    2017-06-30

    Macrophages are largely involved in the whole process of atherosclerosis from an initiation lesion to an advanced lesion. Endothelial disruption is the initial step and macrophage-derived foam cells are the hallmark of atherosclerosis. Promotion of vascular integrity and inhibition of foam cell formation are two important strategies for preventing atherosclerosis. How can we inhibit even the reverse negative role of macrophages in atherosclerosis? The present study was performed to investigate if overexpressing endogenous human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could facilitate transdifferentiation of macrophages into endothelial-like cells (ELCs) and inhibit foam cell formation. We demonstrated that VEGF-modified macrophages which stably overexpressed human VEGF (hVEGF 165 ) displayed a high capability to alter their phenotype and function into ELCs in vitro Exogenous VEGF could not replace endogenous VEGF to induce the transdifferentiation of macrophages into ELCs in vitro We further showed that VEGF-modified macrophages significantly decreased cytoplasmic lipid accumulation after treatment with oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Moreover, down-regulation of CD36 expression in these cells was probably one of the mechanisms of reduction in foam cell formation. Our results provided the in vitro proof of VEGF-modified macrophages as atheroprotective therapeutic cells by both promotion of vascular repair and inhibition of foam cell formation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. The effect of nicotine on aortic endothelial cell turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, Matthew; McGeachie, John

    1985-01-01

    Endothelial injury and increased mitotic activity are early features in the pathogenesis of intimal thickening in arteries. This study examines the effect of systemic nicotine on mitotic activity in endothelial cells. Nine adult mice were given nicotine in their drinking water for 5 weeks. The dose (5 mg/kg body wt/day) was equivalent to a human smoking 50-100 cigarettes/day. A group of 8 similar mice, not exposed to nicotine, was the control. At the end of the exposure period all mice were injected with ( 3 H)thymidine (1uCi/g body wt) and were killed 24 h later. After perfusion fixation, en-face preparations of aortic endothelium were processed for autoradiography. In nicotine-affected endothelium 0.46.+-0.11% (SEM) of cells were labeled, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than in controls (0.14+-0.06). However, there was no difference in cell density between the groups. On this evidence it was concluded that the rate of cell loss, or cell turnover, was greater in nicotine-affected endothelium. Because other studies have shown that increased mitotic acitivity and cell loss are established features of endothelial injury, the present findings provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that nicotine contributes to the pathogenesis of arterial disease in smokers. (author)

  16. Culture and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Changcheng; Yan, Yang; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    Although emerging evidence demonstrates increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with solid tumors, to our knowledge it is still unknown whether such cells can be cultured from patients with highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma. We cultured and characterized circulating endothelial progenitor cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (percent of CD45(-)CD34(+) VEGF-R2(+) cells in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was quantified in 47 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 40 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated from 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 30 healthy controls to culture and characterize circulating endothelial progenitor cells. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level was significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma than in healthy controls (0.276% vs 0.086%, p cells first emerged significantly earlier in patient than in control preparations (6.72 vs 14.67 days, p culture success rate (87.8% vs 40.0% of participants) and the number of colonies (10.06 vs 1.83) were significantly greater for patients than for controls (each p cell level correlated positively with the number of patient colonies (r = 0.762, p Cells cultured from patients and controls showed a similar growth pattern, immunophenotype, ability to uptake Ac-LDL and bind lectin, and form capillary tubes in vitro. However, significantly more VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitor cells were found in preparations from patients with renal cell carcinoma than from healthy controls (21.1% vs 13.4%, p cell colonies, a higher cell culture success rate and more colonies were found for patients with renal cell carcinoma than for healthy controls. Results indicate the important significance of VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitors in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  17. Young's modulus of elasticity of Schlemm's canal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dehong; Juzkiw, Taras; Read, A Thomas; Chan, Darren W-H; Glucksberg, Matthew R; Ethier, C Ross; Johnson, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Schlemm's canal (SC) endothelial cells are likely important in the physiology and pathophysiology of the aqueous drainage system of the eye, particularly in glaucoma. The mechanical stiffness of these cells determines, in part, the extent to which they can support a pressure gradient and thus can be used to place limits on the flow resistance that this layer can generate in the eye. However, little is known about the biomechanical properties of SC endothelial cells. Our goal in this study was to estimate the effective Young's modulus of elasticity of normal SC cells. To do so, we combined magnetic pulling cytometry of isolated cultured human SC cells with finite element modeling of the mechanical response of the cell to traction forces applied by adherent beads. Preliminary work showed that the immersion angles of beads attached to the SC cells had a major influence on bead response; therefore, we also measured bead immersion angle by confocal microscopy, using an empirical technique to correct for axial distortion of the confocal images. Our results showed that the upper bound for the effective Young's modulus of elasticity of the cultured SC cells examined in this study, in central, non-nuclear regions, ranged between 1,007 and 3,053 Pa, which is similar to, although somewhat larger than values that have been measured for other endothelial cell types. We compared these values to estimates of the modulus of primate SC cells in vivo, based on images of these cells under pressure loading, and found good agreement at low intraocular pressure (8-15 mm Hg). However, increasing intraocular pressure (22-30 mm Hg) appeared to cause a significant increase in the modulus of these cells. These moduli can be used to estimate the extent to which SC cells deform in response to the pressure drop across the inner wall endothelium and thereby estimate the extent to which they can generate outflow resistance.

  18. Upcyte® Microvascular Endothelial Cells Repopulate Decellularized Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dally, Iris; Hartmann, Nadja; Münst, Bernhard; Braspenning, Joris; Walles, Heike

    2013-01-01

    A general problem in tissue engineering is the poor and insufficient blood supply to guarantee tissue cell survival as well as physiological tissue function. To address this limitation, we have developed an in vitro vascularization model in which a decellularized porcine small bowl segment, representing a capillary network within a collagen matrix (biological vascularized scaffold [BioVaSc]), is reseeded with microvascular endothelial cells (mvECs). However, since the supply of mvECs is limited, in general, and as these cells rapidly dedifferentiate, we have applied a novel technology, which allows the generation of large batches of quasi-primary cells with the ability to proliferate, whilst maintaining their differentiated functionality. These so called upcyte mvECs grew for an additional 15 population doublings (PDs) compared to primary cells. Upcyte mvECs retained endothelial characteristics, such as von Willebrandt Factor (vWF), CD31 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, as well as positive Ulex europaeus agglutinin I staining. Upcyte mvECs also retained biological functionality such as tube formation, cell migration, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake, which were still evident after PD27. Initial experiments using MTT and Live/Dead staining indicate that upcyte mvECs repopulate the BioVaSc Scaffold. As with conventional cultures, these cells also express key endothelial molecules (vWF, CD31, and eNOS) in a custom-made bioreactor system even after a prolonged period of 14 days. The combination of upcyte mvECs and the BioVaSc represents a novel and promising approach toward vascularizing bioreactor models which can better reflect organs, such as the liver. PMID:22799502

  19. XIAP reverses various functional activities of FRNK in endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sunyoung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Chi, Sung-Gil; Park, Heonyong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► FRNK domain is recruited into focal adhesion (FA), controlling endothelial cell adhesion. ► XIAP binds the FRNK domain of FAK. ► XIAP inhibits recruitment of FRNK into Fas and FRNK-promoted cell adhesion. ► XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK. -- Abstract: In endothelial cells, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and shear-stimulated activation of MAPK. We recently found that FAK is recruited into focal adhesion (FA) sites through interactions with XIAP (X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) and activated by Src kinase in response to shear stress. In this study, we examined which domain(s) of FAK is(are) important for various vascular functions such as FA recruiting, XIAP-binding and shear stress-stimulated ERK activation. Through a series of experiments, we determined that the FRNK domain is recruited into FA sites and promotes endothelial cell adhesion. Interestingly, XIAP knockdown was shown to reduce FA recruitment of FRNK and the cell adhesive effect of FRNK. In addition, we found that XIAP interacts with FRNK, suggesting cross-talk between XIAP and FRNK. We also demonstrated that FRNK inhibits endothelial cell migration and shear-stimulated ERK activation. These inhibitory effects of FRNK were reversed by XIAP knockdown. Taken together, we can conclude that XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) autocrine enhance breast cancer cells survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Kai Hung; Tan, Boon Shing; Choo, Heng Lungh; Chung, Felicia Fei-Lei; Hii, Ling-Wei; Tan, Si Hoey; Khor, Nelson Tze Woei; Wong, Shew Fung; See, Sze-Jia; Tan, Yuen-Fen; Rosli, Rozita; Cheong, Soon-Keng; Leong, Chee-Onn

    2016-09-06

    Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive tumor subtype with poor prognosis. The discovery of underlying mechanisms mediating tumor cell survival, and the development of novel agents to target these pathways, is a priority for patients with basal-like breast cancer. From a functional screen to identify key drivers of basal-like breast cancer cell growth, we identified fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) as a potential mediator of cell survival. We found that FGFR4 mediates cancer cell survival predominantly via activation of PI3K/AKT. Importantly, a subset of basal-like breast cancer cells also secrete fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a canonical ligand specific for FGFR4. siRNA-mediated silencing of FGF19 or neutralization of extracellular FGF19 by anti-FGF19 antibody (1A6) decreases AKT phosphorylation, suppresses cancer cell growth and enhances doxorubicin sensitivity only in the FGFR4+/FGF19+ breast cancer cells. Consistently, FGFR4/FGF19 co-expression was also observed in 82 out of 287 (28.6%) primary breast tumors, and their expression is strongly associated with AKT phosphorylation, Ki-67 staining, higher tumor stage and basal-like phenotype. In summary, our results demonstrated the presence of an FGFR4/FGF19 autocrine signaling that mediates the survival of a subset of basal-like breast cancer cells and suggest that inactivation of this autocrine loop may potentially serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for future treatment of breast cancers.

  1. Endothelial progenitor cells physiology and metabolic plasticity in brain angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Malinovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a considerable interest to the assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB development as a part of cerebral angiogenesis developmental program. Embryonic and adult angiogenesis in the brain is governed by the coordinated activity of endothelial progenitor cells, brain microvascular endothelial cells, and non-endothelial cells contributing to the establishment of the BBB (pericytes, astrocytes, neurons. Metabolic and functional plasticity of endothelial progenitor cells controls their timely recruitment, precise homing to the brain microvessels, and efficient support of brain angiogenesis. Deciphering endothelial progenitor cells physiology would provide novel engineering approaches to establish adequate microfluidically-supported BBB models and brain microphysiological systems for translational studies.

  2. Endothelial cell repopulation after stenting determines in-stent neointima formation: effects of bare-metal vs. drug-eluting stents and genetic endothelial cell modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Gillian; Van Kampen, Erik; Hale, Ashley B; McNeill, Eileen; Patel, Jyoti; Crabtree, Mark J; Ali, Ziad; Hoerr, Robert A; Alp, Nicholas J; Channon, Keith M

    2013-11-01

    Understanding endothelial cell repopulation post-stenting and how this modulates in-stent restenosis is critical to improving arterial healing post-stenting. We used a novel murine stent model to investigate endothelial cell repopulation post-stenting, comparing the response of drug-eluting stents with a primary genetic modification to improve endothelial cell function. Endothelial cell repopulation was assessed en face in stented arteries in ApoE(-/-) mice with endothelial-specific LacZ expression. Stent deployment resulted in near-complete denudation of endothelium, but was followed by endothelial cell repopulation, by cells originating from both bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells and from the adjacent vasculature. Paclitaxel-eluting stents reduced neointima formation (0.423 ± 0.065 vs. 0.240 ± 0.040 mm(2), P = 0.038), but decreased endothelial cell repopulation (238 ± 17 vs. 154 ± 22 nuclei/mm(2), P = 0.018), despite complete strut coverage. To test the effects of selectively improving endothelial cell function, we used transgenic mice with endothelial-specific overexpression of GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH-Tg) as a model of enhanced endothelial cell function and increased NO production. GCH-Tg ApoE(-/-) mice had less neointima formation compared with ApoE(-/-) littermates (0.52 ± 0.08 vs. 0.26 ± 0.09 mm(2), P = 0.039). In contrast to paclitaxel-eluting stents, reduced neointima formation in GCH-Tg mice was accompanied by increased endothelial cell coverage (156 ± 17 vs. 209 ± 23 nuclei/mm(2), P = 0.043). Drug-eluting stents reduce not only neointima formation but also endothelial cell repopulation, independent of strut coverage. In contrast, selective targeting of endothelial cell function is sufficient to improve endothelial cell repopulation and reduce neointima formation. Targeting endothelial cell function is a rational therapeutic strategy to improve vascular healing and decrease neointima formation after stenting.

  3. Synthesis of an endothelial cell mimicking surface containing thrombomodulin and endothelial protein C receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kador, Karl Erich

    Synthetic materials for use in blood contacting applications have been studied for many years with limited success. One of the main areas of need for these materials is the design of synthetic vascular grafts for use in the hundreds of thousands of patients who have coronary artery bypass grafting, many without suitable veins for autologous grafts. The design of these grafts is constrained by two common modes of failure, the formation of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and thrombosis. IH formation has been previously linked to a mismatching of the mechanical properties of the graft and has been overcome by creating grafts using materials whose compliance mimics that of the native artery. Several techniques and surface modification have been designed to limit thrombosis on the surface of synthetic materials. One which has shown the greatest promise is the immobilization of Thrombomodulin (TM), a protein found on the endothelial cell membrane lining native blood vessels involved in the activation of the anticoagulant Protein C (PC). While TM immobilization has been shown to arrest thrombin formation and limit fibrous formations in in-vitro and in-vivo experiments, it has shown to be transport limiting under arterial flow. On the endothelial cell surface, TM is co-localized with Endothelial Protein C Receptor (EPCR), which increases PC transport onto the cell surface and increases PC activation via TM between 20-100 fold. This dissertation will describe the chemical modification of medical grade polyurethane (PU), whose compliance has been shown to match that of native arteries. This modification will enable the immobilization of two proteins on an enzymatically relevant scale estimated at less than 10 nm. This dissertation will further describe the immobilization of the proteins TM and EPCR, and analyze the ability of a surface co-immobilized with these proteins to activate the anticoagulant PC. Finally, it will compare the ability of this co-immobilized surface to delay

  4. A fully automated cell segmentation and morphometric parameter system for quantifying corneal endothelial cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fahdawi, Shumoos; Qahwaji, Rami; Al-Waisy, Alaa S; Ipson, Stanley; Ferdousi, Maryam; Malik, Rayaz A; Brahma, Arun

    2018-07-01

    Corneal endothelial cell abnormalities may be associated with a number of corneal and systemic diseases. Damage to the endothelial cells can significantly affect corneal transparency by altering hydration of the corneal stroma, which can lead to irreversible endothelial cell pathology requiring corneal transplantation. To date, quantitative analysis of endothelial cell abnormalities has been manually performed by ophthalmologists using time consuming and highly subjective semi-automatic tools, which require an operator interaction. We developed and applied a fully-automated and real-time system, termed the Corneal Endothelium Analysis System (CEAS) for the segmentation and computation of endothelial cells in images of the human cornea obtained by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy. First, a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Band-pass filter is applied to reduce noise and enhance the image quality to make the cells more visible. Secondly, endothelial cell boundaries are detected using watershed transformations and Voronoi tessellations to accurately quantify the morphological parameters of the human corneal endothelial cells. The performance of the automated segmentation system was tested against manually traced ground-truth images based on a database consisting of 40 corneal confocal endothelial cell images in terms of segmentation accuracy and obtained clinical features. In addition, the robustness and efficiency of the proposed CEAS system were compared with manually obtained cell densities using a separate database of 40 images from controls (n = 11), obese subjects (n = 16) and patients with diabetes (n = 13). The Pearson correlation coefficient between automated and manual endothelial cell densities is 0.9 (p system, and the possibility of utilizing it in a real world clinical setting to enable rapid diagnosis and for patient follow-up, with an execution time of only 6 seconds per image. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transformation of human mesenchymal cells and skin fibroblasts into hematopoietic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Harris

    Full Text Available Patients with prolonged myelosuppression require frequent platelet and occasional granulocyte transfusions. Multi-donor transfusions induce alloimmunization, thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an autologous or HLA-matched allogeneic source of platelets and granulocytes is needed. To determine whether nonhematopoietic cells can be reprogrammed into hematopoietic cells, human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs and skin fibroblasts were incubated with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (Aza and the growth factors (GF granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and stem cell factor. This treatment transformed MSCs to round, non-adherent cells expressing T-, B-, myeloid-, or stem/progenitor-cell markers. The transformed cells engrafted as hematopoietic cells in bone marrow of immunodeficient mice. DNA methylation and mRNA array analysis suggested that Aza and GF treatment demethylated and activated HOXB genes. Indeed, transfection of MSCs or skin fibroblasts with HOXB4, HOXB5, and HOXB2 genes transformed them into hematopoietic cells. Further studies are needed to determine whether transformed MSCs or skin fibroblasts are suitable for therapy.

  6. Differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into dermal fibroblasts in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yanfu [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Chai, Jiake, E-mail: cjk304@126.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Sun, Tianjun; Li, Dongjie; Tao, Ran [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential seed cells for tissue-engineered skin. {yields} Tissue-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UCMSCs) can readily be isolated in vitro. {yields} We induce UCMSCs to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts via conditioned medium. {yields} Collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA level was higher in differentiated cells. {yields} UCMSCs-derived fibroblast-like cells strongly express fibroblast-specific protein. -- Abstract: Tissue-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) can be readily obtained, avoid ethical or moral constraints, and show excellent pluripotency and proliferation potential. UCMSCs are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In this study, we collected newborn umbilical cord tissue under sterile conditions and isolated UCMSCs through a tissue attachment method. UCMSC cell surface markers were examined using flow cytometry. On the third passage, UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts in conditioned induction media. The induction results were detected using immunofluorescence with a fibroblast-specific monoclonal antibody and real time PCR for type I and type III collagen. UCMSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and reached 90% confluency 14 to 18 days after primary culture. Cultured UCMSCs showed strong positive staining for CD73, CD29, CD44, CD105, and HLA-I, but not CD34, CD45, CD31, or HLA-DR. After differentiation, immunostaining for collagen type I, type III, fibroblast-specific protein, vimentin, and desmin were all strongly positive in induced cells, and staining was weak or negative in non-induced cells; total transcript production of collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA was higher in induced cells than in non-induced cells. These results demonstrate that UCMSCs can be induced to differentiate into fibroblasts with conditioned induction media and, in turn, could be used as seed cells for tissue

  7. Differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into dermal fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yanfu; Chai, Jiake; Sun, Tianjun; Li, Dongjie; Tao, Ran

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential seed cells for tissue-engineered skin. → Tissue-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UCMSCs) can readily be isolated in vitro. → We induce UCMSCs to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts via conditioned medium. → Collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA level was higher in differentiated cells. → UCMSCs-derived fibroblast-like cells strongly express fibroblast-specific protein. -- Abstract: Tissue-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) can be readily obtained, avoid ethical or moral constraints, and show excellent pluripotency and proliferation potential. UCMSCs are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In this study, we collected newborn umbilical cord tissue under sterile conditions and isolated UCMSCs through a tissue attachment method. UCMSC cell surface markers were examined using flow cytometry. On the third passage, UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts in conditioned induction media. The induction results were detected using immunofluorescence with a fibroblast-specific monoclonal antibody and real time PCR for type I and type III collagen. UCMSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and reached 90% confluency 14 to 18 days after primary culture. Cultured UCMSCs showed strong positive staining for CD73, CD29, CD44, CD105, and HLA-I, but not CD34, CD45, CD31, or HLA-DR. After differentiation, immunostaining for collagen type I, type III, fibroblast-specific protein, vimentin, and desmin were all strongly positive in induced cells, and staining was weak or negative in non-induced cells; total transcript production of collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA was higher in induced cells than in non-induced cells. These results demonstrate that UCMSCs can be induced to differentiate into fibroblasts with conditioned induction media and, in turn, could be used as seed cells for tissue-engineered dermis.

  8. A microarray analysis of two distinct lymphatic endothelial cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schweighofer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have recently identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs to form two morphologically different populations, exhibiting significantly different surface protein expression levels of podoplanin, a major surface marker for this cell type. In vitro shockwave treatment (IVSWT of LECs resulted in enrichment of the podoplaninhigh cell population and was accompanied by markedly increased cell proliferation, as well as 2D and 3D migration. Gene expression profiles of these distinct populations were established using Affymetrix microarray analyses. Here we provide additional details about our dataset (NCBI GEO accession number GSE62510 and describe how we analyzed the data to identify differently expressed genes in these two LEC populations.

  9. Lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cell (EC) is stimulated by phorbol esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskard, D.; Cavender, D.; Ziff, M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of phorbol esters on T cell adhesion to EC has been studied. The phorbol esters 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and 4-beta-phorbol-12-13-dibutyrate, but not the biologically inert 4-0-methyl-phorbol-12-13-didecanoate strongly increased the binding of 51 Cr-labeled T cells to human umbilical vein EC monolayers in microtiter wells. Increase in binding was observed at 0.3 ng/ml with maximal enhancement at 50 ng/ml. Both unstimulated and phorbol ester activated T cells displayed a substantially greater binding affinity for EC than for fibroblasts or plastic. Binding enhancement occurred within one minute, with maximal increase after 15 min. Preincubation studies showed that binding enhancement was entirely attributable to an effect on T cells, with no action on EC. Additive binding enhancement was seen when phorbol esters and reagents that increase adhesion by actions on EC (LPS, IL-1 and IFN-γ) were used together. Increase in adhesion of activated T lymphocytes to EC may explain the greater emigration of activated T cells than small resting T cells into inflammatory foci in vivo. The rapid onset of the phorbol effect suggests that this may be an important mechanism for immediate localization of circulating T cells in the cellular immune response, activated, perhaps, at the endothelial blood-tissue interface

  10. Response of cells on surface-induced nanopatterns: fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Hwei Ling; Kuan, Yujun; Kukula, Hildegard; Tamada, Kaoru; Knoll, Wolfgang; Moeller, Martin; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2007-05-01

    Ultrathin films of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) were used to form surface-induced nanopattern (SINPAT) on mica. Surface interaction controlled microphase separation led to the formation of chemically heterogeneous surface nanopatterns on dry ultrathin films. Two distinct nanopatterned surfaces, namely, wormlike and dotlike patterns, were used to investigate the influence of topography in the nanometer range on cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Atomic force microscopy was used to confirm that SINPAT was stable under cell culture conditions. Fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells were cultured on the nanopatterned surfaces. Phase contrast and confocal laser microscopy showed that fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells preferred the densely spaced wormlike patterns. Atomic force microscopy showed that the cells remodelled the extracellular matrix differently as they migrate over the two distinctly different nanopatterns.

  11. Acetylbritannilactone Modulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling and Regulates Angiogenesis in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effects of 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL, a compound extracted from Inula britannica L., on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling and angiogenesis in endothelial cells (ECs. We showed that ABL promotes VEGF-induced cell proliferation, growth, migration, and tube formation in cultured human ECs. Furthermore, the modulatory effect of ABL on VEGF-induced Akt, MAPK p42/44, and p38 phosphorylation, as well as on upstream VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, were associated with VEGF-dependent Matrigel angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, animals treated with ABL (26 mg/kg/day recovered blood flow significantly earlier than control animals, suggesting that ABL affects ischemia-mediated angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that ABL strongly reduced the levels of VEGFR-2 on the cell surface, enhanced VEGFR-2 endocytosis, which consistent with inhibited VE-cadherin, a negative regulator of VEGF signaling associated with VEGFR-2 complex formation, but did not alter VE-cadherin or VEGFR-2 expression in ECs. Our results suggest that ABL may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for various cardiovascular diseases, including chronic ischemia, by regulating VEGF signaling and modulating angiogenesis.

  12. Stem cell-derived vascular endothelial cells and their potential application in regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although a 'vascular stem cell' population has not been identified or generated, vascular endothelial and mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) can be derived from currently known pluripotent stem cell sources, including human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. We rev...

  13. The Glycoprofile Patterns of Endothelial Cells in Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Barkhordari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED FOR DUPLICATE PUBLICATION] Background: The pathological classification of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis has been a matter of debate and controversy for histopathologists. Objective: To identify and specify the glycotypes of capillary endothelial cells in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP compared to those found in normal tissue. Methods: Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 16 cases of UIP were studied by lectin histochemistry with a panel of 27 biotinylated lectins and an avidin-peroxidase revealing system. Results: High expression of several classes of glycan was seen de novo in capillary endothelial cells from patients with UIP including small complex and bi/tri-antennary bisected complex N-linked sequences bolund by Concanavalin A and erythro-phytohemagglutinin, respectively, GalNAca1 residues bound by Helix pomatia and Maclura pomifera agglutinins, and L-fucosylated derivatives of type II glycan chains recognized by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I. Glycans bound by agglutinins from Lycopersicon esculentum (β1,4GlcNAc and Wisteria floribunda (GalNAc as well as GlcNAc oligomers bound by Phytolacca americana and succinylated Wheat Germ agglutinin were also seen in the capillary endothelial cells of UIP. In contrast, L-fucosylated derivatives of type I glycan chains were absent in cells from cases of UIP when Anguilla anguilla agglutinin was applied, unlike the situation in normal tissue. Conclusion: These results may indicate existence of two distinct populations of endothelial cell in UIP with markedly different patterns of glycosylation, reflecting a pattern of differentiation and angiogenesis, which is not detectable morphologically.

  14. Endothelial progenitor cell subsets and preeclampsia: Findings and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Attar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling is an essential component of gestation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an important role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. The results of studies measuring the number of EPCs in normal pregnancies and in preeclampsia have been highly controversial or even contradictory because of some variations in technical issues and different methodologies enumerating three distinct subsets of EPCs: circulating angiogenic cells (CAC, colony forming unit endothelial cells (CFU-ECs, and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs. In general, most studies have shown an increase in the number of CACs in the maternal circulation with a progression in the gestational age in normal pregnancies, while functional capacities measured by CFU-ECs and ECFCs remain intact. In the case of preeclampsia, mobilization of CACs and ECFCs occurs in the peripheral blood of pregnant women, but the functional capacities shown by culture of the derived colony-forming assays (CFU-EC and ECFC assays are altered. Furthermore, the number of all EPC subsets will be reduced in umbilical cord blood in the case of preeclampsia. As EPCs play an important role in the homeostasis of vascular networks, the difference in their frequency and functionality in normal pregnancies and those with preeclampsia can be expected. In this review, there was an attempt to provide a justification for these controversies.

  15. Endothelial cell chimerism associated with graft rejection after human lung transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ratajczak , Philippe; Murata , Hideyuki; Meignin , Véronique; Groussard , Odile; Fournier , Michel; Socié , Gérard; Mal , Hervé; Janin , Anne

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Endotheliitis is a major sign of graft rejection. Recipient-derived endothelial cells found in two series of liver and kidney transplants were related to graft rejection. Here, we assessed the presence and the number of chimeric endothelial cells in lung transplants, and their relation with graft rejection. In six males grafted with female lungs out of 193 lung transplantations, endothelial chimerism was studied by combined XY-fluorescent in situ hybridization with CD3...

  16. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchigami, Takao; Kibe, Toshiro; Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio; Nishizawa, Yoshiaki; Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi; Ueda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Kiyono, Tohru; Kishida, Michiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  17. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Takao [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kibe, Toshiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Nishizawa, Yoshiaki [Kagoshima University Faculty of Medicine, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ueda, Masahiro [Natural Science Centre for Research and Education, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Koorimoto, Kagoshima 890-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Norifumi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kiyono, Tohru [Department of Virology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuouku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Kishida, Michiko, E-mail: kmichiko@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  18. Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells and Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Differentially Facilitate Leukocyte Recruitment and Utilize Chemokines for T Cell Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Man

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells that functionally express blood brain barrier (BBB properties are useful surrogates for studying leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions at the BBB. In this study, we compared two different endothelial cellular models: transfected human brain microvascular endothelial cells (THBMECs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. With each grow under optimal conditions, confluent THBMEC cultures showed continuous occludin and ZO-1 immunoreactivity, while HUVEC cultures exhibited punctate ZO-1 expression at sites of cell-cell contact only. Confluent THBMEC cultures on 24-well collagen-coated transwell inserts had significantly higher transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER and lower solute permeability than HUVECs. Confluent THBMECs were more restrictive for mononuclear cell migration than HUVECs. Only THBMECs utilized abluminal CCL5 to facilitate T-lymphocyte migration in vitro although both THBMECs and HUVECs employed CCL3 to facilitate T cell migration. These data establish baseline conditions for using THBMECs to develop in vitro BBB models for studying leukocyte-endothelial interactions during neuroinflammation.

  19. Endothelial Progenitor Cells as Shuttle of Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzana, Anna; Margheri, Francesca; Chillà, Anastasia; Biagioni, Alessio; Margheri, Giancarlo; Calorini, Lido; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Cell therapies are treatments in which stem or progenitor cells are stimulated to differentiate into specialized cells able to home to and repair damaged tissues. After their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) stimulated worldwide interest as possible vehicles to perform autologous cell therapy of tumors. Taking into account the tumor-homing properties of EPCs, two different approaches to control cancer progression have been pursued by combining cell-based therapy with gene therapy or with nanomedicine. The first approach is based on the possibility of engineering EPCs to express different transgenes, and the second is based on the capacity of EPCs to take up nanomaterials. Here we review the most important progress covering the following issues: the characterization of bona fide endothelial progenitor cells, their role in tumor vascularization and metastasis, and preclinical data about their use in cell-based tumor therapy, considering antiangiogenic, suicide, immune-stimulating, and oncolytic virus gene therapy. The mixed approach of EPC cell therapy and nanomedicine is discussed in terms of plasmonic-dependent thermoablation and molecular imaging.

  20. Direct conversion of injury-site myeloid cells to fibroblast-like cells of granulation tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mithun; Sen, Chandan K; Singh, Kanhaiya; Das, Amitava; Ghatak, Subhadip; Rhea, Brian; Blackstone, Britani; Powell, Heather M; Khanna, Savita; Roy, Sashwati

    2018-03-05

    Inflammation, following injury, induces cellular plasticity as an inherent component of physiological tissue repair. The dominant fate of wound macrophages is unclear and debated. Here we show that two-thirds of all granulation tissue fibroblasts, otherwise known to be of mesenchymal origin, are derived from myeloid cells which are likely to be wound macrophages. Conversion of myeloid to fibroblast-like cells is impaired in diabetic wounds. In cross-talk between keratinocytes and myeloid cells, miR-21 packaged in extracellular vesicles (EV) is required for cell conversion. EV from wound fluid of healing chronic wound patients is rich in miR-21 and causes cell conversion more effectively compared to that by fluid from non-healing patients. Impaired conversion in diabetic wound tissue is rescued by targeted nanoparticle-based delivery of miR-21 to macrophages. This work introduces a paradigm wherein myeloid cells are recognized as a major source of fibroblast-like cells in the granulation tissue.

  1. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in Phramongkutklao Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumon Sopapornamorn

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Narumon Sopapornamorn1, Manapon Lekskul1, Suthee Panichkul21Department of Ophthalmology, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Bangkok, ThailandObjective: To describe the corneal endothelial density and morphology in patients of Phramongkutklao Hospital and the relationship between endothelial cell parameters and other factors.Methods: Four hundred and four eyes of 202 volunteers were included. Noncontact specular microscopy was performed after taking a history and testing the visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurement, Schirmer’s test and routine eye examination by slit lamp microscope. The studied parameters included mean endothelial cell density (MCD, coefficient of variation (CV, and percentage of hexagonality.Results: The mean age of volunteers was 45.73 years; the range being 20 to 80 years old. Their MCD (SD, mean percentage of CV (SD and mean (SD percentage of hexagonality were 2623.49(325 cell/mm2, 39.43(8.23% and 51.50(10.99%, respectively. Statistically, MCD decreased significantly with age (p < 0.01. There was a significant difference in the percentage of CV between genders. There was no statistical significance between parameters and other factors.Conclusion: The normative data of the corneal endothelium of Thai eyes indicated that, statistically, MCD decreased significantly with age. Previous studies have reported no difference in MCD, percentage of CV, and percentage of hexagonality between gender. Nevertheless, significantly different percentages of CV between genders were presented in this study.Keywords: Corneal endothelial cell, parameters, age, gender, smoking, Thailand

  2. The fundamental role of endothelial cells in hantavirus pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi eHepojoki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus, a genus of rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, is a group of emerging zoonotic pathogens. Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in man, often with severe consequences. Vascular leakage is evident in severe hantavirus infections, and increased permeability contributes to the pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hantavirus interactions with endothelial cells, and their effects on the increased vascular permeability.

  3. Adenosine formation in contracting primary rat skeletal muscle cells and endothelial cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study examined the capacity for adenosine formation, uptake and metabolism in contracting primary rat muscle cells and in microvascular endothelial cells in culture. 2. Strong and moderate electrical simulation of skeletal muscle cells led to a significantly greater increase....... 3. Addition of microvascular endothelial cells to the cultured skeletal muscle cells enhanced the contraction-induced accumulation of extracellular adenosine (P Skeletal muscle cells were...... in the extracellular adenosine concentration (421 +/- 91 and 235 +/- 30 nmol (g protein)-1, respectively; P muscle cells (161 +/- 20 nmol (g protein)-1). The ATP concentration was lower (18%; P contracted, but not in the moderately contracted muscle cells...

  4. Angiocrine functions of organ-specific endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Shahin; Butler, Jason M; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Preface Endothelial cells lining blood vessel capillaries are not just passive conduits for delivering blood. Tissue-specific endothelium establish specialized vascular niches that deploy specific sets of growth factors, known as angiocrine factors, which actively participate in inducing, specifying, patterning, and guiding organ regeneration and maintaining homeostasis and metabolism. Angiocrine factors upregulated in response to injury orchestrates self-renewal and differentiation of tissue-specific repopulating resident stem and progenitor cells into functional organs. Uncovering the precise mechanisms whereby physiological-levels of angiocrine factors are spatially and temporally produced, and distributed by organotypic endothelium to repopulating cells, will lay the foundation for driving organ repair without scarring. PMID:26791722

  5. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement

    OpenAIRE

    Yongliang Yang; Nima Jamilpour; Baoyin Yao; Zachary S. Dean; Reza Riahi; Pak Kin Wong

    2016-01-01

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via pe...

  6. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valgardur Sigurdsson

    Full Text Available Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M derived from D492, show reduced expression of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad to N-Cadherin (N-Cad and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high/CD24(low ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal-like breast cancer contains cells with an EMT phenotype, most prominently close to vascular rich areas of these tumors. We conclude that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT and may play a role in progression of basal-like breast cancer.

  7. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla; Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Ringnér, Markus; Villadsen, Rene; Borg, Ake; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Petersen, Ole William; Magnusson, Magnus K; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M) derived from D492, show reduced expression of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad) to N-Cadherin (N-Cad) and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high)/CD24(low) ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal-like breast cancer contains cells with an EMT phenotype, most prominently close to vascular rich areas of these tumors. We conclude that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT and may play a role in progression of basal-like breast cancer.

  8. Identification of SSEA-1 expressing enhanced reprogramming (SEER) cells in porcine embryonic fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dong; Secher, Jan Ole Bertelsen; Juhl, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a subpopulation of cells within cultured human dermal fibroblasts, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, are preferentially reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. However, controversy exists over whether these cells...... are the only cells capable of being reprogrammed from a heterogeneous population of fibroblasts. Similarly, there is little research to suggest such cells may exist in embryonic tissues or other species. To address if such a cell population exists in pigs, we investigated porcine embryonic fibroblast...... populations (pEFs) and identified heterogeneous expression of several key cell surface markers. Strikingly, we discovered a small population of stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 positive cells (SSEA-1+) in Danish Landrace and Göttingen minipig pEFs, which were absent in the Yucatan pEFs. Furthermore...

  9. [Influence AquaLase at corneal endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirásková, N; Rozsíval, P; Ludvíková, M; Burova, M; Nekolová, J

    2009-07-01

    To assess the effect of the cleaning of the posterior capsule using pulses of balanced salt solution (BSS) on the corneal endothelial cells. This pilot study involves 43 patients with bilateral cataracts having lens removal using torsional phacoemulsification (Ozil, Infiniti, Alcon) and bimanul irrigation/aspiration (I/A). Posterior capsule of the right eye of each patient was cleaned using pulses of BSS (AquaLase, Infiniti, Alcon). Surgery was performed by one of 2 surgeons (NJ, PR), both eyes of each patient was operated on by the same surgeon. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), endotelial cell count and pachymetry were evaluated pre- and postoperatively as well as occurence af peri- and postoperative complications. Preoperative mean pachymetry (P) was 566 +/- 45 microm in the right eye (RE) and 562 +/- 42 microm in the left eye (LE), mean endotelial cell count (ECC) 2541 +/- 317 cells/mm2 (RE) and 2567 +/- 311 cells/mm2 (LE). Three months after surgery P was 557 +/- 43 microm (RE) and 558 +/- 45 microm (LE) and ECC 2368 +/- 416 cells/mm2 (RE) and 2396 +/- 417 cells/mm2 (LE). There was no statistical difference in postoperative changes of both corneal parameters between right and left eyes. Best corrected visual acuity improved in all eyes and no peri-or postoperative complications occured. Cleaning of the posterior capsule using AquaLase is safe for corneal endothelial cells.

  10. Modulation of clonogenicity, growth, and radiosensitivity of three human epidermoid tumor cell lines by a fibroblastic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gery, Bernard; Little, John B.; Coppey, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model vitro system to examine the influence of fibroblasts on the growth and survival of human tumor cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The cell system consists of three epidermoid carcinoma cell lines derived from head and neck tumors having differing growth potentials and intrinsic radiosensitivities, as well as a low passage skin fibroblast strain from a normal human donor. The tumor cells were seeded for five days prior to exposure to radiation: (a) in the presence of different numbers of fibroblasts, (b) in conditioned medium from stationary fibroblast cultures, and (c) on an extracted fibroblastic matrix. Results: When grown with fibroblasts, all three tumor cell lines showed increased clonogenicity and increased radioresistance. The radioprotective effect was maximal at a density of approximately 10 5 fibroblasts/100 mm Petri dish, and was greatest in the intrinsically radiosensitive tumor cell line. On the other hand, the effects of incubation with conditioned medium or on a fibroblastic matrix varied among the tumor cell lines. Thus, the protective effect afforded by coculture with fibroblasts must involve several cellular factors related to the fibroblast itself. Conclusions: These observations emphasize the importance of cultural conditions on the apparent radiosensitivity of human tumor cell lines, and suggest that the fibroblastic connective tissue enveloping the malignant cells should be considered when the aim is to establish a radiopredictive assay from surgical tumors fragments

  11. CTC-Endothelial Cell Interactions during Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    equipped with a Zeiss AxioCam MRm camera . A syringe pump (KDS 230, IITC Life Science, Woodland Hills, CA) was used to control the shear stress of the...HUVECs in 2 ml growth medium at 180 x g for 5 min. Measure the cell concentration using a neubauer hemocytometer and prepare 107 HUVEC cells/100 µl...selectin (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). Coated microtubes were mounted on an inverted microscope equipped with a Zeiss AxioCam MRm camera . A syringe pump

  12. In vitro analysis of human periodontal microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Mizuki; Sato, Soh

    2014-08-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) participate in key aspects of vascular biology, such as maintenance of capillary permeability, initiation of coagulation, and regulation of inflammation. According to previous reports, ECs have revealed highly specific characteristics depending on the organs and tissues. However, some reports have described the characteristics of the capillaries formed by human periodontal ECs. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the functional characteristics of the periodontal microvascular ECs in vitro. Human periodontal ligament-endothelial cells (HPDL-ECs) and human gingiva-endothelial cells (HG-ECs) were isolated by immunoprecipitation with magnetic beads conjugated to a monoclonal anti-CD31 antibody. The isolated HPDL-ECs and HG-ECs were characterized to definitively demonstrate that these cell cultures represented pure ECs. Human umbilical-vein ECs and human dermal microvascular ECs were used for comparison. These cells were compared according to the proliferation potential, the formation of capillary-like tubes, the transendothelial electric resistance (TEER), and the expression of tight junction proteins. HPDL-ECs and HG-ECs with characteristic cobblestone monolayer morphology were obtained, as determined by light microscopy at confluence. Furthermore, the HPDL-ECs and HG-ECs expressed the EC markers platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (also known as CD31), von Willebrand factor, and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1, and the cells stained strongly positive for CD31 and CD309. In addition, the HPDL-ECs and HG-ECs were observed to form capillary-like tubes, and they demonstrated uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Functional analyses of the HPDL-ECs and HG-ECs showed that, compared to the control cells, tube formation persisted for only a brief period of time, and TEER was substantially reduced at confluence. Furthermore, the cells exhibited delocalization of zonula occludens-1 and occludin at cell-cell contact sites

  13. Efficient Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Corneal Endothelial Cells by Directed Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L McCabe

    Full Text Available To generate human embryonic stem cell derived corneal endothelial cells (hESC-CECs for transplantation in patients with corneal endothelial dystrophies.Feeder-free hESC-CECs were generated by a directed differentiation protocol. hESC-CECs were characterized by morphology, expression of corneal endothelial markers, and microarray analysis of gene expression.hESC-CECs were nearly identical morphologically to primary human corneal endothelial cells, expressed Zona Occludens 1 (ZO-1 and Na+/K+ATPaseα1 (ATPA1 on the apical surface in monolayer culture, and produced the key proteins of Descemet's membrane, Collagen VIIIα1 and VIIIα2 (COL8A1 and 8A2. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed expression of all corneal endothelial pump transcripts. hESC-CECs were 96% similar to primary human adult CECs by microarray analysis.hESC-CECs are morphologically similar, express corneal endothelial cell markers and express a nearly identical complement of genes compared to human adult corneal endothelial cells. hESC-CECs may be a suitable alternative to donor-derived corneal endothelium.

  14. ITE inhibits growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ling-Pin; Li, Yan; Zou, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Chi; Lei, Wei; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Shi-An

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a deadly disorder is associated with excessive growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial (HPAECs) and smooth muscle (HPASMCs) cells. Current therapies primarily aim at promoting vasodilation, which only ameliorates clinical symptoms without a cure. 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) is an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, and mediates many cellular function including cell growth. However, the roles of ITE in human lung endothelial cells remain elusive. Herein, we tested a hypothesis that ITE inhibits growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells via AhR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize AhR expression in human lung tissues. The crystal violet method and MTT assay were used to determine ITE's effects on growth of HPAECs. The AhR activation in HPAECs was confirmed using Western blotting and RT-qPCR. The role of AhR in ITE-affected proliferation of HPAECs was assessed using siRNA knockdown method followed by the crystal violet method. Immunohistochemistry revealed that AhR was present in human lung tissues, primarily in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of pulmonary veins and arteries, as well as in bronchial and alveolar sac epithelia. We also found that ITE dose- and time-dependently inhibited proliferation of HPAECs with a maximum inhibition of 83% at 20 µM after 6 days of treatment. ITE rapidly decreased AhR protein levels, while it increased mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP), family 1, member A1 (CYP1A1) and B1 (CYP1B1), indicating activation of the AhR/CYP1A1 and AhR/CYP1B1 pathways in HPAECs. The AhR siRNA significantly suppressed AhR protein expression, whereas it did not significantly alter ITE-inhibited growth of HPAECs. ITE suppresses growth of HPAECs independent of AhR, suggesting that ITE may play an important role in preventing excessive growth of lung endothelial cells.

  15. Effects of external radiation in a co-culture model of endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubner, Frank; Leyh, Michaela; Ohmann, Elisabeth; Pohl, Fabian; Prantl, Lukas; Gassner, Holger G

    2013-01-01

    The inflammatory response clinically observed after radiation has been described to correlate with elevated expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules by endothelial cells. Therapeutic compensation for this microvascular compromise could be an important approach in the treatment of irradiated wounds. Clinical reports describe the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to enhance wound healing, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) and human adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) were cultured in a co-culture setting and irradiated with sequential doses of 2 to 12 Gy. Cell count was determined 48 h after radiation using a semi-automated cell counting system. Levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined in the supernatants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Irradiated HDMEC and ASC as well as non-irradiated co-cultures, HDMEC or ASC respectively were used as controls. Cell count was significantly reduced in irradiated co-cultures of HDMEC and ASC compared to non-irradiated controls. Levels of IL-6, FGF, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the supernatants of the co-cultures were significantly less affected by external radiation in comparison to HDMEC. The increased expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules by HDMEC after external radiation is mitigated in the co-culture setting with ASC. These in vitro changes seem to support the clinical observation that ASC may have a stabilizing effect when injected into irradiated wounds

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Endothelial Cell Loss in Preloaded Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolle, Meraf A; DeMill, David L; Johnson, Lauren; Lentz, Stephen I; Woodward, Maria A; Mian, Shahzad I

    2017-11-01

    Availability of preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (pDMEK) tissue may increase acceptance of DMEK in surgical management of endothelial disease. The goal of this study was to determine the safety of pDMEK grafts for 24 hours before surgery by analyzing endothelial cell loss (ECL) using 2 image analysis software programs. A total of 18 cadaveric corneas were prepared for DMEK using a standardized technique and loaded in a modified Jones tube injector. Nine of the corneas were injected into Calcein AM vital dye after 1 minute (controls), and the remaining 9 corneas were left preloaded for 24 hours before injection into vital dye for staining. The stained corneas were imaged using an inverted confocal microscope. ECL was then analyzed and quantified by 2 different graders using 2 image analysis software programs. The control DMEK tissue resulted in 22.0% ± 4.0% ECL compared with pDMEK tissue, which resulted in 19.2% ± 7.2% ECL (P = 0.31). Interobserver agreement was 0.93 for MetaMorph and 0.92 for Fiji. The average time required to process images with MetaMorph was 2 ± 1 minutes and with Fiji was 20 ± 10 minutes. Intraobserver agreement was 0.97 for MetaMorph and 0.93 for Fiji. Preloading DMEK tissue is safe and may provide an alternative technique for tissue distribution and surgery for DMEK. The use of MetaMorph software for quantifying ECL is a novel and accurate imaging method with increased efficiency and reproducibility compared with the previously validated Fiji.

  17. Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Björn; Bauwens, Andreas; Vollmer, Angelika; Ketelhut, Steffi; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Müthing, Johannes; Karch, Helge; von Bally, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) enables quantitative multifocus phase contrast imaging for nondestructive technical inspection and live cell analysis. Time-lapse investigations on human brain microvascular endothelial cells demonstrate the use of DHM for label-free dynamic quantitative monitoring of cell division of mother cells into daughter cells. Cytokinetic DHM analysis provides future applications in toxicology and cancer research.

  18. Ferromagnetic Bare Metal Stent for Endothelial Cell Capture and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthamaraj, Susheil; Tefft, Brandon J; Hlinomaz, Ota; Sandhu, Gurpreet S; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan

    2015-09-18

    Rapid endothelialization of cardiovascular stents is needed to reduce stent thrombosis and to avoid anti-platelet therapy which can reduce bleeding risk. The feasibility of using magnetic forces to capture and retain endothelial outgrowth cells (EOC) labeled with super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) has been shown previously. But this technique requires the development of a mechanically functional stent from a magnetic and biocompatible material followed by in-vitro and in-vivo testing to prove rapid endothelialization. We developed a weakly ferromagnetic stent from 2205 duplex stainless steel using computer aided design (CAD) and its design was further refined using finite element analysis (FEA). The final design of the stent exhibited a principal strain below the fracture limit of the material during mechanical crimping and expansion. One hundred stents were manufactured and a subset of them was used for mechanical testing, retained magnetic field measurements, in-vitro cell capture studies, and in-vivo implantation studies. Ten stents were tested for deployment to verify if they sustained crimping and expansion cycle without failure. Another 10 stents were magnetized using a strong neodymium magnet and their retained magnetic field was measured. The stents showed that the retained magnetism was sufficient to capture SPION-labeled EOC in our in-vitro studies. SPION-labeled EOC capture and retention was verified in large animal models by implanting 1 magnetized stent and 1 non-magnetized control stent in each of 4 pigs. The stented arteries were explanted after 7 days and analyzed histologically. The weakly magnetic stents developed in this study were capable of attracting and retaining SPION-labeled endothelial cells which can promote rapid healing.

  19. PAI1 mediates fibroblast-mast cell interactions in skin fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincha, Neha; Hajam, Edries Yousaf; Badarinath, Krithika; Batta, Surya Prakash Rao; Masudi, Tafheem; Dey, Rakesh; Andreasen, Peter; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Samuel, Rekha; George, Renu; Danda, Debashish; Jacob, Paul Mazhuvanchary; Jamora, Colin

    2018-05-01

    Fibrosis is a prevalent pathological condition arising from the chronic activation of fibroblasts. This activation results from the extensive intercellular crosstalk mediated by both soluble factors and direct cell-cell connections. Prominent among these are the interactions of fibroblasts with immune cells, in which the fibroblast-mast cell connection, although acknowledged, is relatively unexplored. We have used a Tg mouse model of skin fibrosis, based on expression of the transcription factor Snail in the epidermis, to probe the mechanisms regulating mast cell activity and the contribution of these cells to this pathology. We have discovered that Snail-expressing keratinocytes secrete plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI1), which functions as a chemotactic factor to increase mast cell infiltration into the skin. Moreover, we have determined that PAI1 upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM1) expression on dermal fibroblasts, rendering them competent to bind to mast cells. This heterotypic cell-cell adhesion, also observed in the skin fibrotic disorder scleroderma, culminates in the reciprocal activation of both mast cells and fibroblasts, leading to the cascade of events that promote fibrogenesis. Thus, we have identified roles for PAI1 in the multifactorial program of fibrogenesis that expand its functional repertoire beyond its canonical role in plasmin-dependent processes.

  20. Fate of cerium dioxide nanoparticles in endothelial cells: exocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Strobel@med.uni-jena.de [Jena University Hospital – Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Experimental Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Oehring, Hartmut [Jena University Hospital – Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Anatomy II (Germany); Herrmann, Rudolf [University of Augsburg, Department of Physics (Germany); Förster, Martin [Jena University Hospital – Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Allergy/Immunology (Germany); Reller, Armin [University of Augsburg, Department of Physics (Germany); Hilger, Ingrid, E-mail: ingrid.hilger@med.uni-jena.de [Jena University Hospital – Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Experimental Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Although cytotoxicity and endocytosis of nanoparticles have been the subject of numerous studies, investigations regarding exocytosis as an important mechanism to reduce intracellular nanoparticle accumulation are rather rare and there is a distinct lack of knowledge. The current study investigated the behavior of human microvascular endothelial cells to exocytose cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (18.8 nm) by utilization of specific inhibitors [brefeldin A; nocodazole; methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβcD)] and different analytical methods (flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Overall, it was found that endothelial cells were able to release CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles via exocytosis after the migration of nanoparticle containing endosomes toward the plasma membrane. The exocytosis process occurred mainly by fusion of vesicular membranes with plasma membrane resulting in the discharge of vesicular content to extracellular environment. Nevertheless, it seems to be likely that nanoparticles present in the cytosol could leave the cells in a direct manner. MβcD treatment led to the strongest inhibition of the nanoparticle exocytosis indicating a significant role of the plasma membrane cholesterol content in the exocytosis process. Brefeldin A (inhibitor of Golgi-to-cell-surface-transport) caused a higher inhibitory effect on exocytosis than nocodazole (inhibitor of microtubules). Thus, the transfer from distal Golgi compartments to the cell surface influenced the exocytosis process of the CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles more than the microtubule-associated transport. In conclusion, endothelial cells, which came in contact with nanoparticles, e.g., after intravenously applied nano-based drugs, can regulate their intracellular nanoparticle amount, which is necessary to avoid adverse nanoparticle effects on cells.

  1. Matrin 3 as a key regulator of endothelial cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przygodzka, Patrycja; Boncela, Joanna; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S.

    2011-01-01

    Matrin 3 is an integral component of nuclear matrix architecture that has been implicated in interacting with other nuclear proteins and thus modulating the activity of proximal promoters. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of this protein to proliferation of endothelial cells. To selectively modulate matrin 3 expression, we used siRNA oligonucleotides and transfection of cells with a pEGFP-N1-Mtr3. Our data indicate that downregulation of matrin 3 is responsible for reduced proliferation and leads to necrosis of endothelial cells. This conclusion is supported by observations that reducing matrin 3 expression results in (a) producing signs of necrosis detected by PI staining, LDH release, and scatter parameters in flow cytometry, (b) affecting cell cycle progression. It does not cause (c) membrane asymmetry of cells as indicated by lack of Annexin V binding as well as (d) activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of PARP. We conclude that matrin 3 plays a significant role in controlling cell growth and proliferation, probably via formation of complexes with nuclear proteins that modulate pro- and antiapoptotic signaling pathways. Thus, degradation of matrin 3 may be a switching event that induces a shift from apoptotic to necrotic death of cells.

  2. Influence of Levamisole and Other Angiogenesis Inhibitors on Angiogenesis and Endothelial Cell Morphology in Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis, Tina; Engel, Anne-Marie; Bendiksen, Christine D.; Larsen, Line S.; Houen, Gunnar, E-mail: gh@ssi.dk [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Immunology and Genetics, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-06-24

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels is required for many physiological processes and for growth of solid tumors. Initiated by hypoxia, angiogenesis involves binding of angiogenic factors to endothelial cell (EC) receptors and activation of cellular signaling, differentiation, migration, proliferation, interconnection and canalization of ECs, remodeling of the extracellular matrix and stabilization of newly formed vessels. Experimentally, these processes can be studied by several in vitro and in vivo assays focusing on different steps in the process. In vitro, ECs form networks of capillary-like tubes when propagated for three days in coculture with fibroblasts. The tube formation is dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and omission of VEGF from the culture medium results in the formation of clusters of undifferentiated ECs. Addition of angiogenesis inhibitors to the coculture system disrupts endothelial network formation and influences EC morphology in two distinct ways. Treatment with antibodies to VEGF, soluble VEGF receptor, the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5614, protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor (PTPI) IV or levamisole results in the formation of EC clusters of variable size. This cluster morphology is a result of inhibited EC differentiation and levamisole can be inferred to influence and block VEGF signaling. Treatment with platelet factor 4, thrombospondin, rapamycin, suramin, TNP-470, salubrinal, PTPI I, PTPI II, clodronate, NSC87877 or non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) results in the formation of short cords of ECs, which suggests that these inhibitors have an influence on later steps in the angiogenic process, such as EC proliferation and migration. A humanized antibody to VEGF is one of a few angiogenesis inhibitors used clinically for treatment of cancer. Levamisole is approved for clinical treatment of cancer and is interesting with respect to anti-angiogenic activity

  3. Tissue engineering of bladder using vascular endothelial growth factor gene-modified endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai-Song; Xie, Hua; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Geng, Hong-Quan; Zhou, Jun-Mei; Pan, Jun; Chen, Fang

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene-modified endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) seeded onto bladder acellular matrix grafts (BAMGs), to enhance the blood supply in tissue-engineered bladders in a porcine model. Autologous porcine peripheral EPCs were isolated, cultured, expanded, characterized, and modified with the VEGF gene using an adenovirus vector. The expression of VEGF was examined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). VEGF gene modified EPCs were seeded onto BAMG and cultured for 3 days before implantation into pigs for bladder tissue engineering. A partial bladder cystectomy was performed in 12 pigs. The experimental group (6 pigs) received VEGF gene-modified EPC-seeded BAMG. The control group (6 pigs) received BAMG without seeded EPCs. The resulting tissue-engineered bladders were subject to a general and histological analysis. Microvessel density (MVD) was assessed using immunohistochemistry. The ex vivo transfection efficiency of EPCs was greater than 60%-70% when concentrated adenovirus was used. The genetically modified cells expressed both VEGF and green fluorescent protein (GFP). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Masson's trichrome staining of cross sections of the cultured cells seeded to BAMG showed cell attachment and proliferation on the surface of the BAMG. Histological examination revealed bladder regeneration in a time-dependent fashion. Significant increases in MVD were observed in the experimental group, in comparison with the control group. VEGF-modified EPCs significantly enhanced neovascularization, compared with BAMG alone. These results indicate that EPCs, combined with VEGF gene therapy, may be a suitable approach for increasing blood supply in the tissue engineering of bladders. Thus, a useful strategy to achieve a tissue-engineered bladder is indicated.

  4. Effects of activated fibroblasts on phenotype modulation, EGFR signalling and cell cycle regulation in OSCC cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.berndt@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Büttner, Robert, E-mail: Robert-Buettner@gmx.net [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07740 Jena (Germany); Gühne, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie_guehne@gmx.net [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Gleinig, Anna, E-mail: annagleinig@yahoo.com [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Richter, Petra, E-mail: P.Richter@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Chen, Yuan, E-mail: Yuan.Chen@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Franz, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Franz@med.uni-jena.de [Clinic of Internal Medicine I, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Liebmann, Claus, E-mail: Claus.Liebmann@uni-jena.de [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07740 Jena (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Crosstalk between carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells is suggested to mediate phenotype transition of cancer cells as a prerequisite for tumour progression, to predict patients’ outcome, and to influence the efficacy of EGFR inhibitor therapies. Here we investigate the influence of activated fibroblasts as a model for CAFs on phenotype and EGFR signalling in OSCC cells in vitro. For this, immortalised hTERT-BJ1 fibroblasts were activated with TGFβ1 and PDGFAB to generate a myofibroblast or proliferative phenotype, respectively. Conditioned media (FCM{sub TGF}, FCM{sub PDGF}) were used to stimulate PE/CA-PJ15 OSCC cells. Results were compared to the effect of conditioned media of non-stimulated fibroblasts (FCM{sub B}). FCM{sub TGF} stimulation leads to an up-regulation of vimentin in the OSCC cells and an enhancement of invasive behaviour, indicating EMT-like effects. Similarly, FCM{sub TGF}≫FCM{sub PDGF} induced up-regulation of EGFR, but not of ErbB2/ErbB3. In addition, we detected an increase in basal activities of ERK, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 (FCM{sub TGF}>FCM{sub PDGF}) accompanied by protein interaction of vimentin with pERK. These effects are correlated with an increased proliferation. In summary, our results suggest that the activated myofibroblast phenotype provides soluble factors which are able to induce EMT-like phenomena and to increase EGFR signalling as well as cell proliferation in OSCC cells. Our results indicate a possible influence of activated myofibroblasts on EGFR-inhibitor therapy. Therefore, CAFs may serve as promising novel targets for combined therapy strategies. - Highlights: • A cell culture model for cancer associated fibroblasts is described. • The mutual interaction with OSCC cells leads to up-regulation of EGFR in tumour cells. • mCAF induces EGFR downstream signalling with increased proliferation in OSCC. • Erk activation is associated with protein interaction with vimentin

  5. Effects of activated fibroblasts on phenotype modulation, EGFR signalling and cell cycle regulation in OSCC cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, Alexander; Büttner, Robert; Gühne, Stefanie; Gleinig, Anna; Richter, Petra; Chen, Yuan; Franz, Marcus; Liebmann, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Crosstalk between carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells is suggested to mediate phenotype transition of cancer cells as a prerequisite for tumour progression, to predict patients’ outcome, and to influence the efficacy of EGFR inhibitor therapies. Here we investigate the influence of activated fibroblasts as a model for CAFs on phenotype and EGFR signalling in OSCC cells in vitro. For this, immortalised hTERT-BJ1 fibroblasts were activated with TGFβ1 and PDGFAB to generate a myofibroblast or proliferative phenotype, respectively. Conditioned media (FCM TGF , FCM PDGF ) were used to stimulate PE/CA-PJ15 OSCC cells. Results were compared to the effect of conditioned media of non-stimulated fibroblasts (FCM B ). FCM TGF stimulation leads to an up-regulation of vimentin in the OSCC cells and an enhancement of invasive behaviour, indicating EMT-like effects. Similarly, FCM TGF ≫FCM PDGF induced up-regulation of EGFR, but not of ErbB2/ErbB3. In addition, we detected an increase in basal activities of ERK, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 (FCM TGF >FCM PDGF ) accompanied by protein interaction of vimentin with pERK. These effects are correlated with an increased proliferation. In summary, our results suggest that the activated myofibroblast phenotype provides soluble factors which are able to induce EMT-like phenomena and to increase EGFR signalling as well as cell proliferation in OSCC cells. Our results indicate a possible influence of activated myofibroblasts on EGFR-inhibitor therapy. Therefore, CAFs may serve as promising novel targets for combined therapy strategies. - Highlights: • A cell culture model for cancer associated fibroblasts is described. • The mutual interaction with OSCC cells leads to up-regulation of EGFR in tumour cells. • mCAF induces EGFR downstream signalling with increased proliferation in OSCC. • Erk activation is associated with protein interaction with vimentin as sign of EMT. • Results qualify

  6. Exercise training improves in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Kristina; Horváth, Tibor; Mueller, Maja; Markowski, Andrea; Siegmund, Tina; Jacob, Christian; Drexler, Helmut; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote repair of endothelial damage and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs, and their nitric oxide and superoxide production as characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to an 8 weeks exercise training or a control group. Superoxide production and nitric oxide (NO) availability of early EPCs were characterized by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy analysis. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs was examined by transplantation into nude mice with defined carotid endothelial injury. Endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation was analysed using high-resolution ultrasound. Importantly, exercise training resulted in a substantially improved in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs (24.0 vs 12.7%; p exercise training, but not in the control group. Moreover, exercise training reduced superoxide production of EPCs, which was not observed in the control group. The present study suggests for the first time that moderate exercise training increases nitric oxide production of early endothelial progenitor cells and reduces their superoxide production. Importantly, this is associated with a marked beneficial effect on the in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  7. Fibroblast and T cells conditioned media induce maturation dendritic cell and promote T helper immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Asadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs induce pathogen-specific T cell responses. We comprehensively studied the effects of addition of maturation stimulus, fibroblasts (fibroblast conditioned medium, PHA activated T cells (T cell conditioned medium, and mixture of fibroblast & PHA activated T cells (FCM-TCCM conditioned media on maturation of DCs. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. Maturation factors included MCM and TNF-α as control group. FCM and TCCM, or FCM-TCCM supernatant were considered as the treatment group. Tumor antigens were added at day five. Matured DCs were harvested at day seven. Phenotypic and functional analyses were carried out using anti (CD14, CD80, CD86, CD83 and HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and cytokine production were also evaluated. At the end of culturing period, significantly fully matured DCs with large amount cytoplasm and copious dendritic projections were found in the presence of MCM, TNF-α with or without FCM, TCCM, FCM as well as TCCM. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that expression of CD14 decreased in particular in treated DCs, at the 5th day and expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR was higher when FCM, TCCM, FCM plus TCCM were added to maturation factor. This study demonstrated that DCs matured with these methods had optimum function in comparison with either factor alone.

  8. Antioxidant Effects of Sheep Whey Protein on Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthalia Kerasioti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS may cause endothelial dysfunction and consequently vascular disease. In the present study, the possible protective effects of sheep whey protein (SWP from tert-butyl hydroperoxide- (tBHP- induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells (EA.hy926 were assessed using oxidative stress biomarkers. These oxidative stress biomarkers were glutathione (GSH and ROS levels determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, protein carbonyls (CARB, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG were determined spectrophotometrically. The results showed that SWP at 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, and 6.24 mg of protein mL−1 increased GSH up to 141%, while it decreased GSSG to 46.7%, ROS to 58.5%, TBARS to 52.5%, and CARB to 49.0%. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that SWP protected endothelial cells from oxidative stress. Thus, SWP may be used for developing food supplements or biofunctional foods to attenuate vascular disturbances associated with oxidative stress.

  9. Effects of endothelial cells on human mesenchymal stem cell activity in a three-dimensional in vitro model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saleh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of data suggest that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs reside in a perivascular niche. To more closely mimic this in vivo microenvironment and for better understanding of its complexity, and the factors that regulate the MSC activity, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were co-cultured with human bone marrow MSCs – using a novel three-dimensional (3D spheroid co-culture system. Using confocal microscopy of fluorescently labelled cells, we observed HUVECs and MSCs to self-assemble and form organised structures with segregated cell-type partitioning. Under osteogenic conditions, the rate and extent of differentiation in MSC/HUVEC spheroids was significantly elevated compared to 3D co-cultures of MSCs and human dermal fibroblast controls as shown by alkaline phosphatase staining. Conversely, HUVECs inhibited adipogenic differentiation and the proliferation of MSCs in 3D co-cultures indicating that HUVECs suppressed MSC cycling and selectively promoted osteogenic differentiation in 3D. We have also shown that HUVECs enhanced activation of endogenous Wnt signalling and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signalling as shown by increased levels of active nuclear β-catenin and pSmad 1/5/8 immunopositivity respectively. These data suggest strongly that endothelial cells regulate the MSC activity in simulated in vivo conditions, by maintaining quiescence and facilitating niche exit via osteogenic differentiation following appropriate cues. Our findings also underline the importance of 3D heterotypic cell-cell interactions in the regulation of MSC behaviour, suggesting that multicellular cocktails and/or 3D-based delivery strategies may be beneficial for bone repair.

  10. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells in Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcamo-Orive, Ivan; Huang, Ngan F; Quertermous, Thomas; Knowles, Joshua W

    2017-11-01

    Insulin resistance leads to a number of metabolic and cellular abnormalities including endothelial dysfunction that increase the risk of vascular disease. Although it has been particularly challenging to study the genetic determinants that predispose to abnormal function of the endothelium in insulin-resistant states, the possibility of deriving endothelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells generated from individuals with detailed clinical phenotyping, including accurate measurements of insulin resistance accompanied by multilevel omic data (eg, genetic and genomic characterization), has opened new avenues to study this relationship. Unfortunately, several technical barriers have hampered these efforts. In the present review, we summarize the current status of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells for modeling endothelial dysfunction associated with insulin resistance and discuss the challenges to overcoming these limitations. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Enhanced adhesion of early endothelial progenitor cells to radiation-induced senescence-like vascular endothelial cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sermsathanasawadi, N.; Inoue, Yoshinori; Iwai, Takehisa; Ishii, Hideto; Yoshida, Masayuki; Igarashi, Kaori; Miura, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on tumor neovascularization are still unclear. We previously reported that vascular endothelial cells (ECs) expressing the IR-induced senescence-like (IRSL) phenotype exhibit a significant decrease in angiogenic activity in vitro. In this study, we examined the effects of the IRSL phenotype on adhesion to early endothelial progenitor cells (early EPCs). Adhesion of human peripheral blood-derived early EPCs to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) expressing the IRSL phenotype was evaluated by an adhesion assay under static conditions. It was revealed that the IRSL HUVECs supported significantly more adhesion of early EPCs than normal HUVECs. Expressions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin were up-regulated in IRSL HUVECs. Pre-treatment of IRSL HUVECs with adhesion-blocking monoclonal antibodies against E-selectin and VCAM-1 significantly reduced early EPC adhesion to IRSL HUVECs, suggesting a potential role for the E-selectin and VCAM-1 in the adhesion between IRSL ECs and early EPCs. Therefore, the IRSL phenotype expressed in ECs may enhance neovascularization via increased homing of early EPCs. Our findings are first to implicate the complex effects of this phenotype on tumor neovascularization following irradiation. (author)

  12. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Esra; Arici, Ceyhun; Arslan, Osman Sevki; Dikkaya, Funda; Sultan, Pinar; Kadioglu, Pinar; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2014-12-01

    Acromegaly has various impacts on many organs. The ophthalmologic effects of acromegaly have not yet been investigated in detail. The aim of the current study was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in corneal endothelial cells and central corneal thickness (CCT) of the patients with acromegaly. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 128 eyes of 64 patients with acromegaly (female/male=40/24) and 208 eyes of 104 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers (female/male=69/35) were included. Endothelial cell density (ECD), cellular area (CA), coefficient of variation (CV) in cell size, percentage of hexagonal cells, and CCT were measured in patients with acromegaly and in healthy volunteers using the noncontact specular microscopy (SP-3000P: Topcon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). ECD and CA were lower in cases with acromegaly than in controls (ECD in acromegaly: 2615.65 cell/mm(2) and in controls: 2700.35 cell/mm(2); p=0.002. CA in acromegaly: 382.30μm(2) and in controls: 400.30μm(2); p=0.02). In the entire group with acromegaly, the time elapsed since diagnosis was positively correlated with CA and was negatively correlated with ECD (r=+0.39, p=0.001 and r=-0.42, p=0.001). The endothelial layer of the cornea may be under risk of impairment with prolonged disease duration in acromegaly. Consistency of the corneal endothelium should be also sought during long-term follow-up of the cases with acromegaly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. VEGF signaling inside vascular endothelial cells and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Anne; Simons, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) has long been recognized as the key regulator of vascular development and function in health and disease. VEGF is a secreted polypeptide that binds to transmembrane tyrosine kinase VEGF receptors on the plasma membrane, inducing their dimerization, activation and assembly of a membrane-proximal signaling complex. Recent studies have revealed that many key events of VEGFR signaling occur inside the endothelial cell and are regulated by endosomal receptor trafficking. Plasma membrane VEGFR interacting molecules, including vascular guidance receptors Neuropilins and Ephrins also regulate VEGFR endocytosis and trafficking. VEGF signaling is increasingly recognized for its roles outside of the vascular system, notably during neural development, and blood vessels regulate epithelial branching morphogenesis. We review here recent advances in our understanding of VEGF signaling and its biological roles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes of junctions of endothelial cells in coronary sclerosis: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zi Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the major cause of cardiovascular diseases, has been a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States and it has been on the rise globally. Endothelial cell–cell junctions are critical for vascular integrity and maintenance of vascular function. Endothelial cell junctions dysfunction is the onset step of future coronary events and coronary artery disease. Keywords: Coronary atherosclerosis, Junctions, Endothelial cells

  15. Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H.; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Mouse fibroblasts cultured on 7-μm-long vertical nanowires are reported on page 4006 by C. N. Prinz and co-workers. Culturing cells on this kind of substrate interferes greatly with cell function, causing the cells to develop into widely different morphologies. The cells' division is impaired...

  16. Selective enrichment and biochemical characterization of seven human skin fibroblasts cell types in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodemann, H.P.; Bayreuther, K.; Francz, P.I.; Dittmann, K.; Albiez, M.

    1989-01-01

    The mitotic and postmitotic populations of the human skin fibroblast cell line HH-8 are heterogeneous when studied in vitro. There are reproducible changes in the frequencies of the mitotic fibroblasts (MF), MF I, MF II, MF III, and the postmitotic fibroblasts (PMF), PMF IV, PMF V, PMF VI, and PMF VII. For biochemical characterization, methods for selective enrichment of homogeneous populations of these seven fibroblast cell types have been established. Clonal populations with 95% purity for the mitotic fibroblasts MF I, MF II, and MF III can be raised in uniform clone types of fibroblasts (CTF) CTF I, CTF II, and CTF III. Pure clonal subpopulations of MF I type cells are present in mass populations in the range of 1-20 cumulative population doublings (CPD). Populations of mitotic fibroblasts represent nearly homogeneous populations of MF II (75-85% purity) in the range of 28-34 CPD and MF III (73-86% purity) in the range of 48-53 CPD. These populations can be easily expanded to up to 10(7)-10(8) cells. The spontaneous transition of MF III to PMF VI takes 140-180 days. In order to shorten this period and increase the proportion of distinct postmitotic types, mitotic fibroblast mass populations (CPD 30-32, MF II: 75-85% purity) have been induced by uv-irradiation to differentiate to nearly homogeneous populations of PMF IV, PMF V, PMF VI, and PMF VII within 4 to 36 days of culture. Using this method, 10(7) cells of one differentiation stage can be obtained. Spontaneously arising and experimentally selected or induced homogeneous clonal and mass populations of MF I, MF II, MF III, PMF IV, PMF V, PMF VI, and PMF VII express an identical differentiation-dependent and cell-type-specific [35S]methionine-labeled polypeptide pattern

  17. Preconditioning with endoplasmic reticulum stress ameliorates endothelial cell inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Antony; Paton, Adrienne W; El-Quadi, Monaliza; Paton, James C; Fazal, Fabeha

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress, caused by disturbance in ER homeostasis, has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as ischemic injury, neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic diseases and more recently in inflammatory conditions. Our present study aims at understanding the role of ER stress in endothelial cell (EC) inflammation, a critical event in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). We found that preconditioning human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) to ER stress either by depleting ER chaperone and signaling regulator BiP using siRNA, or specifically cleaving (inactivating) BiP using subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), alleviates EC inflammation. The two approaches adopted to abrogate BiP function induced ATF4 protein expression and the phosphorylation of eIF2α, both markers of ER stress, which in turn resulted in blunting the activation of NF-κB, and restoring endothelial barrier integrity. Pretreatment of HPAEC with BiP siRNA inhibited thrombin-induced IκBα degradation and its resulting downstream signaling pathway involving NF-κB nuclear translocation, DNA binding, phosphorylation at serine536, transcriptional activation and subsequent expression of adhesion molecules. However, TNFα-mediated NF-κB signaling was unaffected upon BiP knockdown. In an alternative approach, SubAB-mediated inactivation of NF-κB was independent of IκBα degradation. Mechanistic analysis revealed that pretreatment of EC with SubAB interfered with the binding of the liberated NF-κB to the DNA, thereby resulting in reduced expression of adhesion molecules, cytokines and chemokines. In addition, both knockdown and inactivation of BiP stimulated actin cytoskeletal reorganization resulting in restoration of endothelial permeability. Together our studies indicate that BiP plays a central role in EC inflammation and injury via its action on NF-κB activation and regulation of vascular permeability.

  18. Fibroblast Growth Factor-9 Activates c-Kit Progenitor Cells and Enhances Angiogenesis in the Infarcted Diabetic Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinender Singla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF-9 would enhance angiogenesis via activating c-kit positive stem cells in the infarcted nondiabetic and diabetic heart. In brief, animals were divided into three groups: Sham, MI, and MI+FGF-9. Two weeks following MI or sham surgery, our data suggest that treatment with FGF-9 significantly diminished vascular apoptosis compared to the MI group in both C57BL/6 and db/db mice (p<0.05. Additionally, the number of c-kit+ve/SM α-actin+ve cells and c-kit+ve/CD31+ve cells were greatly enhanced in the MI+FGF-9 groups relative to the MI suggesting FGF-9 enhances c-Kit cell activation and their differentiation into vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, respectively (p<0.05. Histology shows that the total number of vessels were quantified for all groups and our data suggest that the FGF-9 treated groups had significantly more vessels than their MI counterparts (p<0.05. Finally, echocardiographic data suggests a significant improvement in left ventricular output, as indicated by fractional shortening and ejection fraction in both nondiabetic and diabetic animals treated with FGF-9 (p<0.05. Overall, our data suggests FGF-9 has the potential to attenuate vascular cell apoptosis, activate c-Kit progenitor cells, and enhance angiogenesis and neovascularization in C57BL/6 and db/db mice leading to improved cardiac function.

  19. Direct induction of chondrogenic cells from human dermal fibroblast culture by defined factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetatsu Outani

    Full Text Available The repair of large cartilage defects with hyaline cartilage continues to be a challenging clinical issue. We recently reported that the forced expression of two reprogramming factors (c-Myc and Klf4 and one chondrogenic factor (SOX9 can induce chondrogenic cells from mouse dermal fibroblast culture without going through a pluripotent state. We here generated induced chondrogenic (iChon cells from human dermal fibroblast (HDF culture with the same factors. We developed a chondrocyte-specific COL11A2 promoter/enhancer lentiviral reporter vector to select iChon cells. The human iChon cells expressed marker genes for chondrocytes but not fibroblasts, and were derived from non-chondrogenic COL11A2-negative cells. The human iChon cells formed cartilage but not tumors in nude mice. This approach could lead to the preparation of cartilage directly from skin in human, without going through pluripotent stem cells.

  20. Multipotent embryonic isl1+ progenitor cells lead to cardiac, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Alessandra; Caron, Leslie; Nakano, Atsushi; Lam, Jason T; Bernshausen, Alexandra; Chen, Yinhong; Qyang, Yibing; Bu, Lei; Sasaki, Mika; Martin-Puig, Silvia; Sun, Yunfu; Evans, Sylvia M; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Chien, Kenneth R

    2006-12-15

    Cardiogenesis requires the generation of endothelial, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells, thought to arise from distinct embryonic precursors. We use genetic fate-mapping studies to document that isl1(+) precursors from the second heart field can generate each of these diverse cardiovascular cell types in vivo. Utilizing embryonic stem (ES) cells, we clonally amplified a cellular hierarchy of isl1(+) cardiovascular progenitors, which resemble the developmental precursors in the embryonic heart. The transcriptional signature of isl1(+)/Nkx2.5(+)/flk1(+) defines a multipotent cardiovascular progenitor, which can give rise to cells of all three lineages. These studies document a developmental paradigm for cardiogenesis, where muscle and endothelial lineage diversification arises from a single cell-level decision of a multipotent isl1(+) cardiovascular progenitor cell (MICP). The discovery of ES cell-derived MICPs suggests a strategy for cardiovascular tissue regeneration via their isolation, renewal, and directed differentiation into specific mature cardiac, pacemaker, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell types.

  1. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell

  2. Aortic calcified particles modulate valvular endothelial and interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engeland, Nicole C A; Bertazzo, Sergio; Sarathchandra, Padmini; McCormack, Ann; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Yacoub, Magdi H; Chester, Adrian H; Latif, Najma

    Normal and calcified human valve cusps, coronary arteries, and aortae harbor spherical calcium phosphate microparticles of identical composition and crystallinity, and their role remains unknown. The objective was to examine the direct effects of isolated calcified particles on human valvular cells. Calcified particles were isolated from healthy and diseased aortae, characterized, quantitated, and applied to valvular endothelial cells (VECs) and interstitial cells (VICs). Cell differentiation, viability, and proliferation were analyzed. Particles were heterogeneous, differing in size and shape, and were crystallized as calcium phosphate. Diseased donors had significantly more calcified particles compared to healthy donors (Pinnocent bystanders but induce a phenotypical and pathological change of VECs and VICs characteristic of activated and pathological cells. Therapy tailored to reduce these calcified particles should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endothelial cell motility, coordination and pattern formation during vasculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirok, Andras

    2013-01-01

    How vascular networks assemble is a fundamental problem of developmental biology that also has medical importance. To explain the organizational principles behind vascular patterning, we must understand how can tissue level structures be controlled through cell behavior patterns like motility and adhesion that, in turn, are determined by biochemical signal transduction processes? We discuss the various ideas that have been proposed as mechanisms for vascular network assembly: cell motility guided by extracellular matrix alignment (contact guidance), chemotaxis guided by paracrine and autocrine morphogens, and multicellular sprouting guided by cell-cell contacts. All of these processes yield emergent patterns, thus endothelial cells can form an interconnected structure autonomously, without guidance from an external pre-pattern. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Quantification of epithelial cells in coculture with fibroblasts by fluorescence image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtolica, Ana; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Lockett, Stephen; Campisi, Judith

    2002-10-01

    To demonstrate that senescent fibroblasts stimulate the proliferation and neoplastic transformation of premalignant epithelial cells (Krtolica et al.: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:12072-12077, 2001), we developed methods to quantify the proliferation of epithelial cells cocultured with fibroblasts. We stained epithelial-fibroblast cocultures with the fluorescent DNA-intercalating dye 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), or expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the epithelial cells, and then cultured them with fibroblasts. The cocultures were photographed under an inverted microscope with appropriate filters, and the fluorescent images were captured with a digital camera. We modified an image analysis program to selectively recognize the smaller, more intensely fluorescent epithelial cell nuclei in DAPI-stained cultures and used the program to quantify areas with DAPI fluorescence generated by epithelial nuclei or GFP fluorescence generated by epithelial cells in each field. Analysis of the image areas with DAPI and GFP fluorescences produced nearly identical quantification of epithelial cells in coculture with fibroblasts. We confirmed these results by manual counting. In addition, GFP labeling permitted kinetic studies of the same coculture over multiple time points. The image analysis-based quantification method we describe here is an easy and reliable way to monitor cells in coculture and should be useful for a variety of cell biological studies. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Maslinic acid inhibits proliferation of renal cell carcinoma cell lines and suppresses angiogenesis of endothelial cells

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    Parth Thakor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the introduction of many novel therapeutics in clinical practice, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC remains a treatment-re-sistant cancer. As red and processed meat are considered risk factors for RCC, and a vegetable-rich diet is thought to reduce this risk, research into plant-based therapeutics may provide valuable complementary or alternative therapeutics for the management of RCC. Herein, we present the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of maslinic acid, which occurs naturally in edible plants, particularly in olive fruits, and also in a variety of medicinal plants. Human RCC cell lines (ACHN, Caki-1, and SN12K1, endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cell line [HUVEC], and primary cultures of kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC were treated with maslinic acid. Maslinic acid was relatively less toxic to PTEC when compared with RCC under similar experimental conditions. In RCC cell lines, maslinic acid induced a significant reduction in proliferation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and colony formation. In HUVEC, maslinic acid induced a significant reduction in capillary tube formation in vitro and vascular endothelial growth factor. This study provides a rationale for incorporating a maslinic acid–rich diet either to reduce the risk of developing kidney cancer or as an adjunct to existing antiangiogenic therapy to improve efficacy.

  6. Endogenous Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) Maintains Endothelial Cell Homeostasis by Regulating VEGF Receptor-2 Transcription*

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Guangqi; Cao, Ying; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Dutta, Shamit; Wang, Enfeng; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is one of the most important factors controlling angiogenesis. Although the functions of exogenous VEGF-A have been widely studied, the roles of endogenous VEGF-A remain unclear. Here we focused on the mechanistic functions of endogenous VEGF-A in endothelial cells. We found that it is complexed with VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and maintains a basal expression level for VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling activation. Endogenous VEGF-A also controls expression of key endothelial specific genes including VEGFR-2, Tie-2, and vascular endothelial cadherin. Of importance, endogenous VEGF-A differs from exogenous VEGF-A by regulating VEGFR-2 transcription through mediation of FoxC2 binding to the FOX:ETS motif, and the complex formed by endogenous VEGF-A with VEGFR-2 is localized within the EEA1 (early endosome antigen 1) endosomal compartment. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of endogenous VEGF-A in endothelial cells by regulating key vascular proteins and maintaining the endothelial homeostasis. PMID:22167188

  7. Endothelial cell subpopulations in vitro: cell volume, cell cycle, and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, D.B.; Drab, E.A.; Bauer, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (EC) are important clinical targets of radiation and other forms of free radical/oxidant stresses. In this study, we found that the extent of endothelial damage may be determined by the different cytotoxic responses of EC subpopulations. The following characteristics of EC subpopulations were examined: (1) cell volume; (2) cell cycle position; and (3) cytotoxic indexes for both acute cell survival and proliferative capacity after irradiation (137Cs, gamma, 0-10 Gy). EC cultured from bovine aortas were separated by centrifugal elutriation into subpopulations of different cell volumes. Through flow cytometry, we found that cell volume was related to the cell cycle phase distribution. The smallest EC were distributed in G1 phase and the larger cells were distributed in either early S, middle S, or late S + G2M phases. Cell cycle phase at the time of irradiation was not associated with acute cell loss. However, distribution in the cell cycle did relate to cell survival based on proliferative capacity (P less than 0.01). The order of increasing radioresistance was cells in G1 (D0 = 110 cGy), early S (135 cGy), middle S (145 cGy), and late S + G2M phases (180 cGy). These findings (1) suggest an age-related response to radiation in a nonmalignant differentiated cell type and (2) demonstrate EC subpopulations in culture

  8. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Prevents the Oxidative Stress Induced Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamin Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT has been shown to take part in the generation and progression of diverse diseases, involving a series of changes leading to a loss of their endothelial characteristics and an acquirement of properties typical of mesenchymal cells. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS is a new therapeutic option that has been successfully used in fracture healing. However, whether LIPUS can inhibit oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell damages through inhibiting EndMT remained unknown. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of LIPUS against oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell damages and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: EndMT was induced by H2O2 (100 µm for seven days. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs were exposed to H2O2 with or without LIPUS treatment for seven days. The expression of EndMT markers (CD31, VE-cadherin, FSP1 and α-SMA were analyzed. The levels of total and phosphorylated PI3K and AKT proteins were detected by Western Blot analysis. Cell chemotaxis was determined by wound healing and transwell assay. Results: LIPUS relieved EndMT by decreasing ROS accumulation and increasing activation of the PI3K signaling cascade. LIPUS alleviated the migration of EndMT-derived mesenchymal-like cells through reducing extracellular matrix (ECM deposition that is associated with matrix metallopeptidase (MMP proteolytic activity and collagen production. Conclusion: LIPUS produces cytoprotective effects against oxidative injuries to endothelial cells through suppressing the oxidative stress-induced EndMT, activating the PI3K/AKT pathway under oxidative stress, and limiting cell migration and excessive ECM deposition.

  9. Interactions between endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and titanium implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Thomas; Schnell, Anne; Walter, Christian; Kämmerer, Peer W; Pabst, Andreas; Lehmann, Karl M; Ziebart, Johanna; Klein, Marc O; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important role in peri-implant angiogenesis during early bone formation. Therefore, interactions between endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and titanium dental implant surfaces are of crucial interest. The aim of our in vitro study was to investigate the reactions of EPCs in contact with different commercially available implant surfaces. EPCs from buffy coats were isolated by Ficoll density gradient separation. After cell differentiation, EPC were cultured for a period of 7 days on different titanium surfaces. The test surfaces varied in roughness and hydrophilicity: acid-etched (A), sand-blasted-blasted and acid-etched (SLA), hydrophilic A (modA), and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA). Plastic and fibronectin-coated plastic surfaces served as controls. Cell numbers and morphology were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressions of iNOS and eNOS were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell numbers were higher in the control groups compared to the cells of titanium surfaces. Initially, hydrophilic titanium surfaces (modA and modSLA) showed lower cell numbers than hydrophobic surfaces (A and SLA). After 7 days smoother surfaces (A and modA) showed increased cell numbers compared to rougher surfaces (SLA and modSLA). Cell morphology of A, modA, and control surfaces was characterized by a multitude of pseudopodia and planar cell soma architecture. SLA and modSLA promoted small and plump cell soma with little quantity of pseudopodia. The lowest VEGF level was measured on A, the highest on modSLA. The highest eNOS and iNOS expressions were found on modA surfaces. The results of this study demonstrate that biological behaviors of EPCs can be influenced by different surfaces. The modSLA surface promotes an undifferentiated phenotype of EPCs that has the ability to secrete growth factors in great quantities. In

  10. Modulation of VEGF-induced migration and network formation by lymphatic endothelial cells: Roles of platelets and podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Stacey A; Navarro-Núñez, Leyre; Watson, Steve P; Nash, Gerard B

    2017-07-20

    Lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) express the transmembrane receptor podoplanin whose only known endogenous ligand CLEC-2 is found on platelets. Both podoplanin and CLEC-2 are required for normal lymphangiogenesis as mice lacking either protein develop a blood-lymphatic mixing phenotype. We investigated the roles of podoplanin and its interaction with platelets in migration and tube formation by LEC. Addition of platelets or antibody-mediated crosslinking of podoplanin inhibited LEC migration induced by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF-A or VEGF-C), but did not modify basal migration or the response to basic fibroblast growth factor or epidermal growth factor. In addition, platelets and podoplanin crosslinking disrupted networks of LEC formed in co-culture with fibroblasts. Depletion of podoplanin in LEC using siRNA negated the pro-migratory effect of VEGF-A and VEGF-C. Inhibition of RhoA or Rho-kinase reduced LEC migration induced by VEGF-C, but had no further effect after crosslinking of podoplanin, suggesting that podoplanin is required for signaling downstream of VEGF-receptors but upstream of RhoA. Together, these data reveal for the first time that podoplanin is an intrinsic specific regulator of VEGF-mediated migration and network formation in LEC and identify crosslinking of podoplanin by platelets or antibodies as mechanisms to modulate this pathway.

  11. Functional and gene expression analysis of hTERT overexpressed endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Takano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Haruna Takano1, Satoshi Murasawa1,2, Takayuki Asahara1,2,31Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Japan; 2RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650-0047, Japan; 3Tokai University of School of Medicine, Tokai, JapanAbstract: Telomerase dysfunction contributes to cellular senescence. Recent advances indicate the importance of senescence in maintaining vascular cell function in vitro. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT overexpression is thought to lead to resistance to apoptosis and oxidative stress. However, the mechanism in endothelial lineage cells is unclear. We tried to generate an immortal endothelial cell line from human umbilical vein endothelial cells using a no-virus system and examine the functional mechanisms of hTERT overexpressed endothelial cell senescence in vitro. High levels of hTERT genes and endothelial cell-specific markers were expressed during long-term culture. Also, angiogenic responses were observed in hTERT overexpressed endothelial cell. These cells showed a delay in senescence and appeared more resistant to stressed conditions. PI3K/Akt-related gene levels were enhanced in hTERT overexpressed endothelial cells. An up-regulated PI3K/Akt pathway caused by hTERT overexpression might contribute to anti-apoptosis and survival effects in endothelial lineage cells.Keywords: endothelial, telomerase, senescence, oxidative stress, anti-apoptosis, PI3K/Akt pathway

  12. Fibrosis of Two: Epithelial Cell-Fibroblast Interactions in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Norihiko; Tager, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the progressive and ultimately fatal accumulation of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix in the lung that distorts its architecture and compromises its function. IPF is now thought to result from wound-healing processes that, although initiated to protect the host from injurious environmental stimuli, lead to pathological fibrosis due to these processes becoming aberrant or over-exuberant. Although the environmental stimuli that trigger IPF remain to be identified, recent evidence suggests that they initially injure the alveolar epithelium. Repetitive cycles of epithelial injury and resultant alveolar epithelial cell death provoke the migration, proliferation, activation and myofibroblast differentiation of fibroblasts, causing the accumulation of these cells and the extracellular matrix that they synthesize. In turn, these activated fibroblasts induce further alveolar epithelial cell injury and death, thereby creating a vicious cycle of pro-fibrotic epithelial cell-fibroblast interactions. Though other cell types certainly make important contributions, we focus here on the “pas de deux” (steps of two), or perhaps more appropriate to IPF pathogenesis, the “folie à deux” (madness of two) of epithelial cells and fibroblasts that drives the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. We describe the signaling molecules that mediate the interactions of these cell types in their “fibrosis of two”, including transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, sonic hedgehog, prostaglandin E2, angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species. PMID:23499992

  13. A novel minimally-invasive method to sample human endothelial cells for molecular profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Waldo

    Full Text Available The endothelium is a key mediator of vascular homeostasis and cardiovascular health. Molecular research on the human endothelium may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease. Prior methodology used to isolate human endothelial cells has suffered from poor yields and contamination with other cell types. We thus sought to develop a minimally invasive technique to obtain endothelial cells derived from human subjects with higher yields and purity.Nine healthy volunteers underwent endothelial cell harvesting from antecubital veins using guidewires. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS was subsequently used to purify endothelial cells from contaminating cells using endothelial surface markers (CD34/CD105/CD146 with the concomitant absence of leukocyte and platelet specific markers (CD11b/CD45. Endothelial lineage in the purified cell population was confirmed by expression of endothelial specific genes and microRNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR.A median of 4,212 (IQR: 2161-6583 endothelial cells were isolated from each subject. Quantitative PCR demonstrated higher expression of von Willebrand Factor (vWF, P<0.001, nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3, P<0.001 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, P<0.003 in the endothelial population compared to similarly isolated leukocytes. Similarly, the level of endothelial specific microRNA-126 was higher in the purified endothelial cells (P<0.001.This state-of-the-art technique isolates human endothelial cells for molecular analysis in higher purity and greater numbers than previously possible. This approach will expedite research on the molecular mechanisms of human cardiovascular disease, elucidating its pathophysiology and potential therapeutic targets.

  14. Identification of colonic fibroblast secretomes reveals secretory factors regulating colon cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sun-Xia; Xu, Xiao-En; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Cui, Shu-Jian; Xu, Lei-Lei; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Qian; Qiao, Jie; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Feng

    2014-10-14

    Stromal microenvironment influences tumor cell proliferation and migration. Fibroblasts represent the most abundant stromal constituents. Here, we established two pairs of normal fibroblast (NF) and cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cultures from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and the normal counterparts. The NFs and CAFs were stained positive for typical fibroblast markers and inhibited colon cancer (CC) cell proliferation in in vitro cocultures and in xenograft mouse models. The fibroblast conditioned media were analyzed using LC-MS and 227 proteins were identified at a false discovery rate of 1.3%, including 131 putative secretory and 20 plasma membrane proteins. These proteins were enriched for functional categories of extracellular matrix, adhesion, cell motion, inflammatory response, redox homeostasis and peptidase inhibitor. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, transgelin, follistatin-related protein 1 (FSTL1) and decorin was abundant in the fibroblast secretome as confirmed by Western blot. Silencing of FSTL1 and transgelin in colonic fibroblast cell line CCD-18Co induced an accelerated proliferation of CC cells in cocultures. Exogenous FSTL1 attenuates CC cell proliferation in a negative fashion. FSTL1 was upregulated in CC patient plasma and cancerous tissues but had no implication in prognosis. Our results provided novel insights into the molecular signatures and modulatory role of CC associated fibroblasts. In this study, a label-free LC-MS was performed to analyze the secretomes of two paired primary fibroblasts, which were isolated from fresh surgical specimen of colorectal adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal colonic tissues and exhibited negative modulatory activity for colon cancer cell growth in in vitro cocultures and in vivo xenograph mouse models. Follistatin-related protein 1 was further revealed to be one of the stroma-derived factors of potential suppression role for colon cancer cell proliferation. Our results provide novel

  15. In vitro generation of long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells by fibroblast growth factor-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, G; Weersing, E; Dontje, B; van Os, R; Bystrykh, LV; Vellenga, E; Miller, G

    The role of fibroblast growth factors and their receptors (FGFRs) in the regulation of normal hematopoietic stem cells is unknown. Here we show that, in mouse bone marrow, long-term repopulating stem cells are found exclusively in the FGFR(+) cell fraction. During differentiation toward committed

  16. Exogenous endothelial cells as accelerators of hematopoietic reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizer J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the successes of recombinant hematopoietic-stimulatory factors at accelerating bone marrow reconstitution and shortening the neutropenic period post-transplantation, significant challenges remain such as cost, inability to reconstitute thrombocytic lineages, and lack of efficacy in conditions such as aplastic anemia. A possible means of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution would be administration of cells capable of secreting hematopoietic growth factors. Advantages of this approach would include: a ability to regulate secretion of cytokines based on biological need; b long term, localized production of growth factors, alleviating need for systemic administration of factors that possess unintended adverse effects; and c potential to actively repair the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Here we overview the field of hematopoietic growth factors, discuss previous experiences with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in accelerating hematopoiesis, and conclude by putting forth the rationale of utilizing exogenous endothelial cells as a novel cellular therapy for acceleration of hematopoietic recovery.

  17. Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Functional Endothelial Cells in Scalable Suspension Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Olmer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Endothelial cells (ECs are involved in a variety of cellular responses. As multifunctional components of vascular structures, endothelial (progenitor cells have been utilized in cellular therapies and are required as an important cellular component of engineered tissue constructs and in vitro disease models. Although primary ECs from different sources are readily isolated and expanded, cell quantity and quality in terms of functionality and karyotype stability is limited. ECs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs represent an alternative and potentially superior cell source, but traditional culture approaches and 2D differentiation protocols hardly allow for production of large cell numbers. Aiming at the production of ECs, we have developed a robust approach for efficient endothelial differentiation of hiPSCs in scalable suspension culture. The established protocol results in relevant numbers of ECs for regenerative approaches and industrial applications that show in vitro proliferation capacity and a high degree of chromosomal stability. : In this article, U. Martin and colleagues show the generation of hiPSC endothelial cells in scalable cultures in up to 100 mL culture volume. The generated ECs show in vitro proliferation capacity and a high degree of chromosomal stability after in vitro expansion. The established protocol allows to generate hiPSC-derived ECs in relevant numbers for regenerative approaches. Keywords: hiPSC differentiation, endothelial cells, scalable culture

  18. Cell-free assay measuring repair DNA synthesis in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarrocchi, G.; Linn, S.

    1978-01-01

    Osmotic disruption of confluent cultured human fibroblasts that have been irradiated or exposed to chemical carcinogens allows the specific measurement of repair DNA synthesis using dTTP as a precursor. Fibroblasts similarly prepared from various xeroderma pigmentosum cell lines show the deficiencies of uv-induced DNA synthesis predicted from in vivo studies, while giving normal responses to methylmethanesulfonate. A pyrimidine-dimer-specific enzyme, T4 endonuclease V, stimulated the rate of uv-induced repair synthesis with normal and xeroderma pigmentosum cell lines. This system should prove useful for identifying agents that induce DNA repair, and cells that respond abnormally to such induction. It should also be applicable to an in vitro complementation assay with repair-defective cells and proteins obtained from repair-proficient cells. Finally, by using actively growing fibroblasts and thymidine in the system, DNA replication can be measured and studied in vitro

  19. Effects of blood products on inflammatory response in endothelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Urner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusing blood products may induce inflammatory reactions within the vascular compartment potentially leading to a systemic inflammatory response. Experiments were designed to assess the inflammatory potential of different blood products in an endothelial cell-based in vitro model and to compare baseline levels of potentially activating substances in transfusion products. METHODS: The inflammatory response from pre-activated (endotoxin-stimulated and non-activated endothelial cells as well as neutrophil endothelial transmigration in response to packed red blood cells (PRBC, platelet concentrates (PC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP was determined. Baseline inflammatory mediator and lipid concentrations in blood products were evaluated. RESULTS: Following incubation with all blood products, an increased inflammatory mediator release from endothelial cells was observed. Platelet concentrates, and to a lesser extent also FFP, caused the most pronounced response, which was accentuated in already pre-stimulated endothelial cells. Inflammatory response of endothelial cells as well as blood product-induced migration of neutrophils through the endothelium was in good agreement with the lipid content of the according blood product. CONCLUSION: Within the group of different blood transfusion products both PC and FFP have a high inflammatory potential with regard to activation of endothelial cells. Inflammation upon blood product exposure is strongly accentuated when endothelial cells are pre-injured. High lipid contents in the respective blood products goes along with an accentuated inflammatory reaction from endothelial cells.

  20. Effects of vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery on the corneal endothelial cells in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery on the corneal endothelial cells in diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: A retrospective study was designed. 160 patients(160 eyeswith diabetic retinopathy from Jan 2015 to Feb 2017 were divided into two groups according to cataract. 74 patients(74 eyeswere operated on vitrectomy, and 86 patients(86 eyeson vitrectomy combined with phacoemulsification cataract surgery and capsular bag implantation of foldable intraocular lens. To record the change of corneal endothelial cells density, average cellular area, coefficient of variation and percentage of hexagonal endothelial cell before and after treatment with Topcon corneal specular microscope. RESULTS: Before and after surgery, the results of corneal endothelial cells density, average cellular area, coefficient of variation and percentage of hexagonal endothelial cell in simple vitrectomy group were no significant difference(P>0.05; After treatment corneal endothelial cells density and percentage of hexagonal endothelial cell were changed with statistical difference as the same as average cellular area and coefficient of variation(PPCONCLUSION: It has certain influence on the corned endothelial cells when using vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery in diabetic retinopathy. For patients with indications, it should be paid attention to protecting the corneal endothelial cells.

  1. Soluble CD54 induces human endothelial cells ex vivo expansion useful for cardiovascular regeneration and tissue engineering application

    KAUST Repository

    Malara, N.M.

    2015-03-01

    Aim: Consistent expansion of primary human endothelial cells in vitro is critical in the development of engineered tissue. A variety of complex culture media and techniques developed from different basal media have been reported with alternate success. Incongruous results are further confounded by donor-to-donor variability and cellular source of derivation. Our results demonstrate how to overcome these limitations using soluble CD54 (sCD54) as additive to conventional culture medium. Methods and results: Isolated primary fragment of different vessel types was expanded in Ham\\'s F12 DMEM, enriched with growth factors, Fetal Calf Serum and conditioned medium of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) collected at different passages. Cytokine content of culture media was analyzed in order to identify the soluble factors correlating with better proliferation profile. sCD54 was found to induce the in vitro expansion of human endothelial cells (HECs) independently from the vessels source and even in the absence of HUVEC-conditioned medium. The HECs cultivated in the presence of sCD54 (50 ng/ml), resulted positive for the expression of CD146 and negative for CD45, and lower fibroblast contamination. Cells were capable to proliferate with an S phase of 25%, to produce vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, (10 ng/ml) and to give origin to vessel-like tubule in vitro. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that sCD54 is an essential factor for the in-vitro expansion of HECs without donor and vessel-source variability. Resulting primary cultures can be useful, for tissue engineering in regenerative medicine (e.g. artificial micro tissue generation, coating artificial heart valve etc.) and bio-nanotechnology applications. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Brassinosteroids inhibit in vitro angiogenesis in human endothelial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rárová, L.; Zahler, S.; Liebl, J.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Sedlák, David; Bartůněk, Petr; Kohout, Ladislav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 13 (2012), s. 1502-1509 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Angiogenesis * Human umbilical vein endothelial cells * Migration Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.803, year: 2012

  3. Endothelial cell senescence with aging in healthy humans: prevention by habitual exercise and relation to vascular endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Hill, Sierra D; McNamara, Molly N; Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Pierce, Gary L; Seals, Douglas R; Donato, Anthony J

    2017-11-01

    Cellular senescence is emerging as a key mechanism of age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction, but evidence in healthy humans is lacking. Moreover, the influence of lifestyle factors such as habitual exercise on endothelial cell (EC) senescence is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EC senescence increases with sedentary, but not physically active, aging and is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. Protein expression (quantitative immunofluorescence) of p53, a transcription factor related to increased cellular senescence, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 were 116%, 119%, and 128% greater (all P age-related differences were not present (all P > 0.05) in venous ECs from older exercising adults (57 ± 1 yr, n = 13). Furthermore, venous EC protein levels of p53 ( r  = -0.49, P = 0.003), p21 ( r  = -0.38, P = 0.03), and p16 ( r  = -0.58, P = 0.002) were inversely associated with vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation). Similarly, protein expression of p53 and p21 was 26% and 23% higher (both P healthy older sedentary (63 ± 1 yr, n = 18) versus young sedentary (25 ± 1 yr, n = 9) adults; age-related changes in arterial EC p53 and p21 expression were not observed ( P > 0.05) in older habitually exercising adults (59 ± 1 yr, n = 14). These data indicate that EC senescence is associated with sedentary aging and is linked to endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, these data suggest that prevention of EC senescence may be one mechanism by which aerobic exercise protects against endothelial dysfunction with age. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study provides novel evidence in humans of increased endothelial cell senescence with sedentary aging, which is associated with impaired vascular endothelial function. Furthermore, our data suggest an absence of age-related increases in endothelial cell senescence in older exercising adults, which is linked with preserved vascular endothelial function

  4. Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Oriana Aragona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify, evaluate, and synthesize evidence on the predictive power of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in cardiovascular disease, through a systematic review of quantitative studies. Data Sources. MEDLINE was searched using keywords related to “endothelial progenitor cells” and “endothelium” and, for the different categories, respectively, “smoking”; “blood pressure”; “diabetes mellitus” or “insulin resistance”; “dyslipidemia”; “aging” or “elderly”; “angina pectoris” or “myocardial infarction”; “stroke” or “cerebrovascular disease”; “homocysteine”; “C-reactive protein”; “vitamin D”. Study Selection. Database hits were evaluated against explicit inclusion criteria. From 927 database hits, 43 quantitative studies were included. Data Syntheses. EPC count has been suggested for cardiovascular risk estimation in the clinical practice, since it is currently accepted that EPCs can work as proangiogenic support cells, maintaining their importance as regenerative/reparative potential, and also as prognostic markers. Conclusions. EPCs showed an important role in identifying cardiovascular risk conditions, and to suggest their evaluation as predictor of outcomes appears to be reasonable in different defined clinical settings. Due to their capability of proliferation, circulation, and the development of functional progeny, great interest has been directed to therapeutic use of progenitor cells in atherosclerotic diseases. This trial is registered with registration number: Prospero CRD42015023717.

  5. Endothelial Cells Control Pancreatic Cell Fate at Defined Stages through EGFL7 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-I Kao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although endothelial cells have been shown to affect mouse pancreatic development, their precise function in human development remains unclear. Using a coculture system containing human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived progenitors and endothelial cells, we found that endothelial cells play a stage-dependent role in pancreatic development, in which they maintain pancreatic progenitor (PP self-renewal and impair further differentiation into hormone-expressing cells. The mechanistic studies suggest that the endothelial cells act through the secretion of EGFL7. Consistently, endothelial overexpression of EGFL7 in vivo using a transgenic mouse model resulted in an increase of PP proliferation rate and a decrease of differentiation toward endocrine cells. These studies not only identified the role of EGFL7 as the molecular handle involved in the crosstalk between endothelium and pancreatic epithelium, but also provide a paradigm for using hESC stepwise differentiation to dissect the stage-dependent roles of signals controlling organogenesis.

  6. Functional activities of receptors for tumor necrosis factor-alpha on human vascular endothelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paleolog, E.M.; Delasalle, S.A.; Buurman, W.A.; Feldmann, M.

    1994-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plays a critical role in the control of endothelial cell function and hence in regulating traffic of circulating cells into tissues in vivo. Stimulation of endothelial cells in vitro by TNF-alpha increases the surface expression of leukocyte adhesion

  7. Endothelial cell capture of heparin-binding growth factors under flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Circulation is an important delivery method for both natural and synthetic molecules, but microenvironment interactions, regulated by endothelial cells and critical to the molecule's fate, are difficult to interpret using traditional approaches. In this work, we analyzed and predicted growth factor capture under flow using computer modeling and a three-dimensional experimental approach that includes pertinent circulation characteristics such as pulsatile flow, competing binding interactions, and limited bioavailability. An understanding of the controlling features of this process was desired. The experimental module consisted of a bioreactor with synthetic endothelial-lined hollow fibers under flow. The physical design of the system was incorporated into the model parameters. The heparin-binding growth factor fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 was used for both the experiments and simulations. Our computational model was composed of three parts: (1 media flow equations, (2 mass transport equations and (3 cell surface reaction equations. The model is based on the flow and reactions within a single hollow fiber and was scaled linearly by the total number of fibers for comparison with experimental results. Our model predicted, and experiments confirmed, that removal of heparan sulfate (HS from the system would result in a dramatic loss of binding by heparin-binding proteins, but not by proteins that do not bind heparin. The model further predicted a significant loss of bound protein at flow rates only slightly higher than average capillary flow rates, corroborated experimentally, suggesting that the probability of capture in a single pass at high flow rates is extremely low. Several other key parameters were investigated with the coupling between receptors and proteoglycans shown to have a critical impact on successful capture. The combined system offers opportunities to examine circulation capture in a straightforward quantitative manner that

  8. Circulating endothelial cells: a potential parameter of organ damage in sickle cell anemia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbos, Michiel H.; Landburg, Precious P.; Nur, Erfan; Teerlink, Tom; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Rijneveld, Anita W.; Biemond, Bart J.; Sleijfer, Stefan; Gratama, Jan W.; Duits, Ashley J.; Schnog, John-John B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective laboratory tools are needed to monitor developing organ damage in sickle cell disease (SCD). Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are indicative of vascular injury. We determined whether elevated CEC can be detected in asymptomatic SCD with the CellSearch system and whether the CEC count

  9. Sun Ginseng Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Senescence Associated Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Wooseok; Chung, Jin-Young; Bhan, Jaejun; Lim, Jiyeon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are a population of cells that circulate in the blood stream. They play a role in angiogenesis and, therefore, can be prognostic markers of vascular repair. Ginsenoside Rg3 prevents endothelial cell apoptosis through the inhibition of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. It also affects estrogen activity, which reduces EPC senescence. Sun ginseng (SG), which is heat-processed ginseng, has a high content of ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of SG on senescence-associated apoptosis in EPCs. In order to isolate EPCs, mononuclear cells of human blood buffy coats were cultured and characterized by their uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) and their binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (ulex-lectin). Flow cytometry with annexin-V staining was performed in order to assess early and late apoptosis. Senescence was determined by β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining. Staining with 4′-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole verified that most adherent cells (93±2.7%) were acLDL-positive and ulex-lectin-positive. The percentage of β-gal-positive EPCs was decreased from 93.8±2.0% to 62.5±3.6% by SG treatment. A fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that 4.9% of EPCs were late apoptotic in controls. Sun ginseng decreased the apoptotic cell population by 39% in the late stage of apoptosis from control baseline levels. In conclusion, these results show antisenescent and antiapoptotic effects of SG in human-derived EPCs, indicating that SG can enhance EPC-mediated repair mechanisms. PMID:23717107

  10. [Expression profiles and bioinformatic analysis of miRNA in human dental pulp cells during endothelial differentiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qimei; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Jinming; Ling, Junqi

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the differential expression profile and bioinformatic analysis of microRNA (miRNA) in human dental pulp cells (DPC) during endothelial differentiation. DPC were cultured in endothelial induction medium (50 µg/L vascular endothelial growth factor, 10 µg/L basic fibroblast growth factor and 2% fetal calf serum) for 7 days. Meanwhile non-induced DPC were used as control.Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied to detect vascular endothelial marker genes [CD31, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin)] and in vitro tube formation on matrigel was used to analyze the angiogenic ability of differentiated cells. And then miRNA expression profiles of DPC were examined using miRNA microarray and then the differentially expressed miRNA were validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, bioinformatic analysis was employed to predict the target genes of miRNA and to analyze the possible biological functions and signaling pathways that were involved in DPC after induction. The relative mRNA level of CD31, vWF and VE-cadherin in the control group were (3.48 ± 0.22) ×10(-4), (3.13 ± 0.31) ×10(-4) and (39.60 ± 2.36) ×10(-4), and (19.57 ± 2.20) ×10(-4), (48.13 ± 0.54) ×10(-4) and (228.00 ± 8.89) ×10(-4) in the induced group. The expressions of CD31, vWF and VE-cadherin were increased significantly in endothelial induced DPC compared to the control group (P functions, such as the regulation of transcription, cell motion, blood vessel morphogenesis, angiogenesis and cytoskeletal protein, and signaling pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the Wnt signaling pathway. The differential miRNA expression identified in this study may be involved in governing DPC endothelial differentiation, thus contributing to the future research on regulatory mechanisms in dental pulp angiogenesis.

  11. The targeting expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene in endothelial cells regulated by HRE.ppET-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangrong; Zhang, Shangshang; Yang, Yujia; Wang, Xia; Zhong, Le; Yu, Xiaohe

    2008-11-01

    The success of gene therapy depends largely on the efficacy of gene delivery vector systems that can deliver genes to target organs or cells selectively and efficiently with minimal toxicity. Here, we show that by using the HRE.ppET-1 regulatory element, we were able to restrict expression of the transgene of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to endothelial cells exclusively in hypoxic conditions. Eukaryotic expression vectors such as pEGFP-HRE.ppET-1, pcDNA3.1-VEGF+Pa, pcDNA3.1-ppET-1+ EGF+Pa, and pcDNA3.1-HRE.ppET-1+VEGF+Pa were constructed by using a series of nuclear molecule handling methods like PCR, enzyme digestion. The recombinant vectors were transfected into HUVEC cells and HL7702 cells by the lipofectin method. GFP expression was observed with a fluorescence microscope to validate the specificity of expression in endothelial cells under the regulation of HRE.ppET-1 element. Cobalt chloride (final concentration 100 mumol/L) was added to the medium to mimic hypoxia in vitro. After transfection of vectors, the expression of VEGF mRNA was detected by RT-PCR, and the expression of VEGF was detected by Western blotting and ELISA methods under normoxia and hypoxia, respectively. The cell proliferation rate was detected by the MTT test. The expression of GFP revealed that the exterior gene was transcripted effectively in endothelial cells regulated by the HRE.ppET-1 element, while the expression of GFP was very weak in nonendothelial cells. The results of RT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA showed that VEGF gene expression in the pcDNA3.1-HRE.ppET-1+VEGF+Pa group and in the pcDNA3.1-ppET-1+VEGF+Pa group was higher in hypoxia than it was in normoxia (PHRE.ppET-1 element was expressed specifically in endothelial cells, and can increase the expression of VEGF in hypoxia and stimulate proliferation of endothelial cells. Taking advantage of these facts could greatly improve the efficiency of gene therapy. The vector would be valuable for various gene transfer

  12. Non-Viral Generation of Neural Precursor-like Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maucksch C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to mature neurons by the introduction of defined neural genes. This technology has potential use in the areas of neurological disease modeling and drug development. However, use of induced neurons for large-scale drug screening and cell-based replacement strategies is limited due to their inability to expand once reprogrammed. We propose it would be more desirable to induce expandable neural precursor cells directly from human fibroblasts. To date several pluripotent and neural transcription factors have been shown to be capable of converting mouse fibroblasts to neural stem/precursor-like cells when delivered by viral vectors. Here we extend these findings and demonstrate that transient ectopic insertion of the transcription factors SOX2 and PAX6 to adult human fibroblasts through use of non-viral plasmid transfection or protein transduction allows the generation of induced neural precursor (iNP colonies expressing a range of neural stem and pro-neural genes. Upon differentiation, iNP cells give rise to neurons exhibiting typical neuronal morphologies and expressing multiple neuronal markers including tyrosine hydroxylase and GAD65/67. Importantly, iNP-derived neurons demonstrate electrophysiological properties of functionally mature neurons with the capacity to generate action potentials. In addition, iNP cells are capable of differentiating into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-expressing astrocytes. This study represents a novel virus-free approach for direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to a neural precursor fate.

  13. [Circulating endothelial progenitor cell levels in treated hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroun-Eid, C; Ortega-Hernández, A; Abad, M; García-Donaire, J A; Barbero, A; Reinares, L; Martell-Claros, N; Gómez-Garre, D

    2015-01-01

    Most optimally treated hypertensive patients still have an around 50% increased risk of any cardiovascular event, suggesting the possible existence of unidentified risk factors. In the last years there has been evidence of the essential role of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity and function, increasing the interest in their involvement in cardiovascular disease. In this study, the circulating levels of EPCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are investigated in treated hypertensive patients with adequate control of blood pressure (BP). Blood samples were collected from treated hypertensive patients with controlled BP. Plasma levels of EPCs CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ were quantified by flow cytometry. Plasma concentration of VEGF was determined by ELISA. A group of healthy subjects without cardiovascular risk factors was included as controls. A total of 108 hypertensive patients were included (61±12 years, 47.2% men) of which 82.4% showed BP<140/90 mmHg, 91.7% and 81.5% controlled diabetes (HbA1c <7%) and cLDL (<130 or 100 mg/dL), respectively, and 85.2% were non-smokers. Around 45% of them were obese. Although patients had cardiovascular parameters within normal ranges, they showed significantly lower levels of CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ compared with healthy control group, although plasma VEGF concentration was higher in patients than in controls. Despite an optimal treatment, hypertensive patients show a decreased number of circulating EPCs that could be, at least in part, responsible for their residual cardiovascular risk, suggesting that these cells could be a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of laser surface modifying of polyethylene terephthalate on fibroblast cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, H.; Dadsetan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Attempts have been made to evaluate the changes in physical and chemical properties of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface due to laser irradiation. These changes have been investigated from viewpoints of microstructuring and its effect on fibroblast cell behavior. The surfaces of PET were irradiated using CO 2 and KrF excimer pulsed laser. The changes were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements. The data from ATR-FTIR spectra showed that the crystallinity in the surface region decreased due to the CO 2 and excimer laser irradiation. SEM observations showed that specific microstructures were created on the PET surface due to laser irradiation. In order to study biocompatibility and cell behavior, we utilized standard in vitro L929-fibroblast cell culture system. Fibroblast cell adhesion and spreading were significantly correlated to the morphology and wettability of the laser irradiated PET surface

  15. Cellular Dewetting: Opening of Macroapertures in Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Maddugoda, Madhavi P.; Stefani, Caroline; Janel, Sebastien; Lafont, Frank; Cuvelier, Damien; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2012-05-01

    Pathogenic bacteria can cross from blood vessels to host tissues by opening transendothelial cell macroapertures (TEMs). To induce TEM opening, bacteria intoxicate endothelial cells with proteins that disrupt the contractile cytoskeletal network. Cell membrane tension is no longer resisted by contractile fibers, leading to the opening of TEMs. Here we model the opening of TEMs as a new form of dewetting. While liquid dewetting is irreversible, we show that cellular dewetting is transient. Our model predicts the minimum radius for hole nucleation, the maximum TEM size, and the dynamics of TEM opening, in good agreement with experimental data. The physical model is then coupled with biological experimental data to reveal that the protein missing in metastasis (MIM) controls the line tension at the rim of the TEM and opposes its opening.

  16. Adenine nucleotide depletion from endothelial cells exposed to xanthine oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, T.K.; Raivio, K.O.

    1990-01-01

    Hypoxia causes breakdown of cellular nucleotides, accumulation of hypoxanthine (HX), and conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase (XO). Upon reoxygenation, the HX-XO reaction generates free radicals, one potential mechanism of tissue damage. Because endothelial cells contain XO and are exposed to circulating HX, they are a likely target for damage. We studied the effect of XO and/or HX at physiologically relevant concentrations on nucleotide metabolism of cultured endothelial cells from human umbilical veins. Cells were labeled with [14C]adenine and incubated for up to 6 h with HX, XO, or both, in the absence or presence of serum. Adenine nucleotides from cell extracts and nucleotide breakdown products (HX, xanthine, and urate) from the medium were separated and counted. HX alone had no effect. XO (80 mU/ml) alone caused a 70% (no serum) or 40% (with serum) fall in adenine nucleotides and an equivalent increase of xanthine and urate. The combination of HX and XO caused a 90% (no serum) or 70% (with serum) decrease in nucleotides, decrease in energy charge, and detachment of cells from the culture plate. Nucleotide depletion was not accounted for by proteolytic activity in the XO preparation. Albumin was only half as effective as serum in preventing nucleotide loss. Thus exogenous XO, in the presence of endogenous HX, triggers adenine nucleotide catabolism, but endogenous XO activity is too low to influence nucleotide levels even at high exogenous HX concentrations. Serum limits the catabolic effect of XO and thus protects cells from free radical damage

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Gorlin's Patients: a Matter of Fibroblasts-Led Protumoral Microenvironment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gache, Yannick; Brellier, Florence; Rouanet, Sophie; Al-Qaraghuli, Sahar; Goncalves-Maia, Maria; Burty-Valin, Elodie; Barnay, Stéphanie; Scarzello, Sabine; Ruat, Martial; Sevenet, Nicolas; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest tumor in human. About 70% sporadic BCCs bear somatic mutations in the PATCHED1 tumor suppressor gene which encodes the receptor for the Sonic Hedgehog morphogen (SHH). PATCHED1 germinal mutations are associated with the dominant Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), a major hallmark of which is a high susceptibility to BCCs. Although the vast majority of sporadic BCCs arises exclusively in sun exposed skin areas, 40 to 50% BCCs from NBCCS patients develop in non photo-exposed skin. Since overwhelming evidences indicate that microenvironment may both be modified by- and influence the- epithelial tumor, we hypothesized that NBCCS fibroblasts could contribute to BCCs in NBCCS patients, notably those developing in non photo-exposed skin areas. The functional impact of NBCCS fibroblasts was then assessed in organotypic skin cultures with control keratinocytes. Onset of epidermal differentiation was delayed in the presence of primary NBCCS fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, keratinocyte proliferation was severely reduced and showed high levels of nuclear P53 in both organotypic skin cultures and in fibroblast-led conditioning experiments. However, in spite of increased levels of senescence associated β-galactosidase activity in keratinocytes cultured in the presence of medium conditioned by NBCCS fibroblasts, we failed to observe activation of P16 and P21 and then of bona fide features of senescence. Constitutive extinction of P53 in WT keratinocytes resulted in an invasive phenotype in the presence of NBCCS fibroblasts. Finally, we found that expression of SHH was limited to fibroblasts but was dependent on the presence of keratinocytes. Inhibition of SHH binding resulted in improved epidermal morphogenesis. Altogether, these data suggest that the repertoire of diffusible factors (including SHH) expressed by primary NBCCS fibroblasts generate a stress affecting keratinocytes behavior and epidermal homeostasis. Our findings

  18. Tumor endothelial marker 5 expression in endothelial cells during capillary morphogenesis is induced by the small GTPase Rac and mediates contact inhibition of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallon, Mario, E-mail: m.vallon@arcor.de [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Rohde, Franziska; Janssen, Klaus-Peter [Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Essler, Markus [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2010-02-01

    Tumor endothelial marker (TEM) 5 is an adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor upregulated in endothelial cells during tumor and physiologic angiogenesis. So far, the mechanisms leading to upregulation of TEM5 and its function during angiogenesis have not been identified. Here, we report that TEM5 expression in endothelial cells is induced during capillary-like network formation on Matrigel, during capillary morphogenesis in a three-dimensional collagen I matrix, and upon confluence on a two-dimensional matrix. TEM5 expression was not induced by a variety of soluble angiogenic factors, including VEGF and bFGF, in subconfluent endothelial cells. TEM5 upregulation was blocked by toxin B from Clostridium difficile, an inhibitor of the small GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42. The Rho inhibitor C3 transferase from Clostridium botulinum did not affect TEM5 expression, whereas the Rac inhibitor NSC23766 suppressed TEM5 upregulation. An excess of the soluble TEM5 extracellular domain or an inhibitory monoclonal TEM5 antibody blocked contact inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation resulting in multilayered islands within the endothelial monolayer and increased vessel density during capillary formation. Based on our results we conclude that TEM5 expression during capillary morphogenesis is induced by the small GTPase Rac and mediates contact inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells.

  19. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E; Li, Juan; Moldt, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based do......We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon...

  20. Lymphatic endothelial cell line (CH3) from a recurrent retroperitoneal lymphangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, D; Hendrix, M; Witte, M; Witte, C; Nagle, R; Davis, J

    1987-09-01

    An endothelial cell line derived from a massive recurrent chyle-containing retroperitoneal lymphangioma was isolated in monolayer culture. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry confirmed a close resemblance to blood vascular endothelium with typical cobblestone morphology, positive immunofluorescence staining for endothelial marker Factor VIII-associated antigen and fibronectin, and prominent Weibel-Palade bodies. The endothelial cells also exhibited other ultrastructural features characteristic of lymphatic endothelium, including sparse microvillous surface projections, overlapping intercellular junctions, and abundant intermediate filaments. This endothelial cell line represents a new source of proliferating lymphatic endothelium for future study, including structural and functional comparison to blood vascular endothelium.

  1. Influence of hyperthermia on the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 from human skin fibroblasts and meningioma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Zang, K D; Issinger, O G

    1983-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts and meningioma cells, derived from primary cultures of the same patients have been used to study the influence of hyperthermia on (i) cell morphology and (ii) phosphorylation pattern of ribosomal and ribosome-associated proteins. Incubation of tumour cells and fibroblasts up to 7...

  2. Metabolic and physiologic studies of nonimmune lymphoid cells cytotoxic for fibroblastic cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhew, E.; Bennett, M.

    1974-01-01

    An in vitro reaction between mouse lymphoid cells and target fibroblastic cells in wells of microtest plates, which appears to simulate the in vivo rejection of hemopoietic allografts, has been analyzed for metabolic and physiologic requirements. Protein synthesis was required for only the first few hours of culture. Inhibition of RNA synthesis and alteration of cell surface charge with various agents were without obvious effects. Metabolic slowing at 4 0 C or deviation of the pH of the culture medium suppressed the reaction. Thymus cells, which are not cytotoxic in this system, significantly but not completely inhibited the cytotoxicity of lymph node cells. Antiserum directed against target cells specifically protected them from the cytotoxic lymphoid cells in the absence of complement. Precursors of cytotoxic lymphoid cells were radiosensitive, unlike the cytotoxic cells themselves. BALB/c anti-C57BL/6 spleen cell serum and 89 Sr both are able to prevent rejection of marrow allografts in vivo. Lymphoid cells incubated with this antiserum plus complement lost much of their cytotoxicity but were still effective at high ratios of aggressor to target cells. Lymphoid cells of mice treated with 89 Sr were effectively cytotoxic but lost practically all of their cytotoxicity after incubation with the antiserum plus complement. Thus, it appears that this reaction detects two different cytotoxic lymphoid cells, either of which can function in vitro. Both cell types may need to cooperate in vivo during marrow allograft rejections

  3. Breast fibroblasts modulate epithelial cell proliferation in three-dimensional in vitro co-culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadlonova, Andrea; Novak, Zdenek; Johnson, Martin R; Bowe, Damon B; Gault, Sandra R; Page, Grier P; Thottassery, Jaideep V; Welch, Danny R; Frost, Andra R

    2005-01-01

    Stromal fibroblasts associated with in situ and invasive breast carcinoma differ phenotypically from fibroblasts associated with normal breast epithelium, and these alterations in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) may promote breast carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A better understanding of the changes that occur in fibroblasts during carcinogenesis and their influence on epithelial cell growth and behavior could lead to novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. To this end, the effect of CAF and normal breast-associated fibroblasts (NAF) on the growth of epithelial cells representative of pre-neoplastic breast disease was assessed. NAF and CAF were grown with the nontumorigenic MCF10A epithelial cells and their more transformed, tumorigenic derivative, MCF10AT cells, in direct three-dimensional co-cultures on basement membrane material. The proliferation and apoptosis of MCF10A cells and MCF10AT cells were assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling and TUNEL assay, respectively. Additionally, NAF and CAF were compared for expression of insulin-like growth factor II as a potential mediator of their effects on epithelial cell growth, by ELISA and by quantitative, real-time PCR. In relatively low numbers, both NAF and CAF suppressed proliferation of MCF10A cells. However, only NAF and not CAF significantly inhibited proliferation of the more transformed MCF10AT cells. The degree of growth inhibition varied among NAF or CAF from different individuals. In greater numbers, NAF and CAF have less inhibitory effect on epithelial cell growth. The rate of epithelial cell apoptosis was not affected by NAF or CAF. Mean insulin-like growth factor II levels were not significantly different in NAF versus CAF and did not correlate with the fibroblast effect on epithelial cell proliferation. Both NAF and CAF have the ability to inhibit the growth of pre-cancerous breast epithelial cells. NAF have greater inhibitory capacity than CAF

  4. SNEV overexpression extends the life span of human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voglauer, Regina; Chang, Martina Wei-Fen; Dampier, Brigitta; Wieser, Matthias; Baumann, Kristin; Sterovsky, Thomas; Schreiber, Martin; Katinger, Hermann; Grillari, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    In a recent screening for genes downregulated in replicatively senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we have isolated the novel protein SNEV. Since then SNEV has proven as a multifaceted protein playing a role in pre-mRNA splicing, DNA repair, and the ubiquitin/proteosome system. Here, we report that SNEV mRNA decreases in various cell types during replicative senescence, and that it is increased in various immortalized cell lines, as well as in breast tumors, where SNEV transcript levels also correlate with the survival of breast cancer patients. Since these mRNA profiles suggested a role of SNEV in the regulation of cell proliferation, the effect of its overexpression was tested. Thereby, a significant extension of the cellular life span was observed, which was not caused by altered telomerase activity or telomere dynamics but rather by enhanced stress resistance. When SNEV overexpressing cells were treated with bleomycin or bleomycin combined with BSO, inducing DNA damage as well as reactive oxygen species, a significantly lower fraction of apoptotic cells was found in comparison to vector control cells. These data suggest that high levels of SNEV might extend the cellular life span by increasing the resistance to stress or by improving the DNA repair capacity of the cells

  5. BIGH3 protein and macrophages in retinal endothelial cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragon, Albert A; Betts-Obregon, Brandi S; Moritz, Robert J; Parvathaneni, Kalpana; Navarro, Mary M; Kim, Hong Seok; Lee, Chi Fung; LeBaron, Richard G; Asmis, Reto; Tsin, Andrew T

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease with a higher occurrence in minority populations. The molecular mechanism to initiate diabetes-associated retinal angiogenesis remains largely unknown. We propose an inflammatory pathway of diabetic retinopathy in which macrophages in the diabetic eye provide TGFβ to retinal endothelial cells (REC) in the retinal microvasculature. In response to TGFβ, REC synthesize and secrete a pro-apoptotic BIGH3 (TGFβ-Induced Gene Human Clone 3) protein, which acts in an autocrine loop to induce REC apoptosis. Rhesus monkey retinal endothelial cells (RhREC) were treated with dMCM (cell media of macrophages treated with high glucose and LDL) and assayed for apoptosis (TUNEL), BIGH3 mRNA (qPCR), and protein (Western blots) expressions. Cells were also treated with ΤGFβ1 and 2 for BIGH3 mRNA and protein expression. Inhibition assays were carried out using antibodies for TGFβ1 and for BIGH3 to block apoptosis and mRNA expression. BIGH3 in cultured RhREC cells were identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Distribution of BIGH3 and macrophages in the diabetic mouse retina was examined with IHC. RhRECs treated with dMCM or TGFβ showed a significant increase in apoptosis and BIGH3 protein expression. Recombinant BIGH3 added to RhREC culture medium led to a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis. Antibodies (Ab) directed against BIGH3 and TGFβ, as well as TGFβ receptor blocker resulted in a significant reduction in apoptosis induced by either dMCM, TGFβ or BIGH3. IHC showed that cultured RhREC constitutively expressed BIGH3. Macrophage and BIGH3 protein were co-localized to the inner retina of the diabetic mouse eye. Our results support a novel inflammatory pathway for diabetic retinopathy. This pathway is initiated by TGFβ released from macrophages, which promotes synthesis and release of BIGH3 protein by REC and REC apoptosis.

  6. Irradiated murine fibroblasts as feeder layer used in human cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Tiago L.; Klingbeil, Fatima G.; Yoshito, Daniele; Caproni, Priscila; Mathor, Monica B.; Herson, Marisa R.

    2007-01-01

    In 1975, Rheinwald and Green published an in vitro model for keratinocyte cell cultures in which the use of murine fibroblasts, as a feeder layer was introduced. These cells are modified fibroblasts, which presence render keratinocyte cells to remain proliferative for longer periods of time. This optimization of culture outputs has allowed for several clinical applications of confluent keratinocyte cultures as skin substitutes or wound dressings in situations such as post burn extensive skin loss, loss of oral mucosa, and other skin disorders. Nevertheless, proliferation of fibroblast in co-culture with keratinocytes must be controlled by anti-proliferative measures such as irradiation; at the same time, keratinocytes require specific nutrients in the culture medium, which may interfere with the fibroblast feeder layer viability. Therefore, the thorough understanding of the impact of different issues such as culture media composition, irradiation dose and pre-plating storage conditions of irradiated fibroblast to be used as feeder layer in these co-culture systems is important. In this work, changes as far as viability and proliferative rates of irradiated fibroblasts in culture were evaluated in relation to the type of culture medium used, dose of gamma radiation exposure, storage and timing of cell plating post irradiation. Results indicate that the type of culture medium used and time-lag between irradiation, refrigeration and plating of irradiated cells do not have significant impact in culture outcomes. However, the dose of gamma radiation administered to the cells may influence the final quality of these cells if to be used as a feeder layer. (author)

  7. Effect of vitamin D on endothelial progenitor cells function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Hammer

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are a population of bone marrow-derived cells, which have an important role in the process of endothelialization and vascular repair following injury. Impairment of EPCs, which occurs in patients with diabetes, was shown to be related to endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery disease (CAD and adverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has shown that calcitriol, the active hormone of vitamin D, has a favorable impact on the endothelium and cardiovascular system. There is limited data on the effect of vitamin D on EPCs function.To examine the in vitro effects of Calcitriol on EPCs from healthy subjects and patients with diabetes.Fifty-one patients with type 2 diabetes (60±11 years, 40% women, HbA1C: 9.1±0.8% and 23 healthy volunteers were recruited. EPCs were isolated and cultured with and without calcitriol. The capacity of the cells to form colony-forming units (CFUs, their viability (measured by MTT assay, KLF-10 levels and angiogenic markers were evaluated after 1 week of culture.In diabetic patients, EPC CFUs and cell viability were higher in EPCs exposed to calcitriol vs. EPCs not exposed to calcitriol [EPC CFUs: 1.25 (IQR 1.0-2.0 vs. 0.5 (IQR 0.5-1.9, p < 0.001; MTT:0.62 (IQR 0.44-0.93 vs. 0.52 (IQR 0.31-0.62, p = 0.001]. KLF-10 levels tended to be higher in EPCs exposed to vitamin D, with no differences in angiopoietic markers. In healthy subjects, calcitriol supplementation also resulted in higher cell viability [MTT: 0.23 (IQR 0.11-0.46 vs. 0.19 (0.09-0.39, p = 0.04], but without differences in CFU count or angiopoietic markers.In patients with diabetes mellitus, in vitro vitamin D supplementation improved EPCs capacity to form colonies and viability. Further studies regarding the mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its effect are required.

  8. Plastic compressed collagen as a novel carrier for expanded human corneal endothelial cells for transplantation.

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    Hannah J Levis

    Full Text Available Current treatments for reversible blindness caused by corneal endothelial cell failure involve replacing the failed endothelium with donor tissue using a one donor-one recipient strategy. Due to the increasing pressure of a worldwide donor cornea shortage there has been considerable interest in developing alternative strategies to treat endothelial disorders using expanded cell replacement therapy. Protocols have been developed which allow successful expansion of endothelial cells in vitro but this approach requires a supporting material that would allow easy transfer of cells to the recipient. We describe the first use of plastic compressed collagen as a highly effective, novel carrier for human corneal endothelial cells. A human corneal endothelial cell line and primary human corneal endothelial cells retained their characteristic cobblestone morphology and expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 and pump protein Na+/K+ ATPase α1 after culture on collagen constructs for up to 14 days. Additionally, ultrastructural analysis suggested a well-integrated endothelial layer with tightly opposed cells and apical microvilli. Plastic compressed collagen is a superior biomaterial in terms of its speed and ease of production and its ability to be manipulated in a clinically relevant manner without breakage. This method provides expanded endothelial cells with a substrate that could be suitable for transplantation allowing one donor cornea to potentially treat multiple patients.

  9. The Expression Profiles of Lysophospholipid Receptors (LPLRs in Different Endothelial Cells

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    Yu-Wei Lee

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA are two bioactive lysophospholipids (LPLs, stored primarily in platelets and released during platelet activation. Both LPLs are capable of regulating endothelial cell functions. The physiological functions of S1P and LPA are mediated by interacting with eight different G-protein coupled receptors: S1P1 through 5 and LPA1 through 3, which activate three different heterotrimeric GTP proteins-including Gi、Gq and G(12/13. The expression of LPL receptors in endothelial cells would affect the responses of S1P and LPA to these cells. There is no previous report discussing the expression profiles of LPL receptors in different endothelial cells from various species. In this study, we aim to investigate the expression profiles of S1P and LPA receptors in different endothelial cells isolated from human, rat, mouse and bovine origin. We used RT-PCR to determine LPLs receptors expression profiles in different endothelial cells. Our results indicated that endothelial cells from various species express different LPL receptors. Endothelial cells isolated from the same source of different species also had different LPLs receptors expression profiles. Therefore, different endothelial cells should respond to LPLs in different manners.

  10. Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells

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    Liu Lunxu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK gene were cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed with the KDR promoter and CDglyTK genes. A recombinant adenoviral plasmid AdKDR-CDglyTK was then constructed and transfected into 293 packaging cells to grow and harvest adenoviruses. KDR-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV304 and KDR-negative liver cancer cell line (HepG2 were infected with the recombinant adenoviruses at different multiplicity of infection (MOI. The infection rate was measured by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression. The infected cells were cultured in culture media containing different concentrations of prodrugs ganciclovir (GCV and/or 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC. The killing effects were measured using two different methods, i.e. annexin V-FITC staining and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Recombinant adenoviruses AdKDR-CDglyTK were successfully constructed and they infected ECV304 and HepG2 cells efficiently. The infection rate was dependent on MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. ECV304 cells infected with AdKDR-CDglyTK were highly sensitive to GCV and 5-FC. The cell survival rate was dependent on both the concentration of the prodrugs and the MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. In contrast, there were no killing effects in the HepG2 cells. The combination of two prodrugs was much more effective in killing ECV304 cells than GCV or 5-FC alone. The growth of transgenic ECV304 cells was suppressed in the presence of prodrugs. Conclusion AdKDR-CDglyTK/double prodrog system may be a useful

  11. Characterization of Endothelial Progenitor Cell Interactions with Human Tropoelastin.

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    Young Yu

    Full Text Available The deployment of endovascular implants such as stents in the treatment of cardiovascular disease damages the vascular endothelium, increasing the risk of thrombosis and promoting neointimal hyperplasia. The rapid restoration of a functional endothelium is known to reduce these complications. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are increasingly recognized as important contributors to device re-endothelialization. Extracellular matrix proteins prominent in the vessel wall may enhance EPC-directed re-endothelialization. We examined attachment, spreading and proliferation on recombinant human tropoelastin (rhTE and investigated the mechanism and site of interaction. EPCs attached and spread on rhTE in a dose dependent manner, reaching a maximal level of 56±3% and 54±3%, respectively. EPC proliferation on rhTE was comparable to vitronectin, fibronectin and collagen. EDTA, but not heparan sulfate or lactose, reduced EPC attachment by 81±3%, while full attachment was recovered after add-back of manganese, inferring a classical integrin-mediated interaction. Integrin αVβ3 blocking antibodies decreased EPC adhesion and spreading on rhTE by 39±3% and 56±10% respectively, demonstrating a large contribution from this specific integrin. Attachment of EPCs on N-terminal rhTE constructs N25 and N18 accounted for most of this interaction, accompanied by comparable spreading. In contrast, attachment and spreading on N10 was negligible. αVβ3 blocking antibodies reduced EPC spreading on both N25 and N18 by 45±4% and 42±14%, respectively. In conclusion, rhTE supports EPC binding via an integrin mechanism involving αVβ3. N25 and N18, but not N10 constructs of rhTE contribute to EPC binding. The regulation of EPC activity by rhTE may have implications for modulation of the vascular biocompatibility of endovascular implants.

  12. Integrin Targeting and Toxicological Assessment of Peptide-Conjugated Liposome Delivery Systems to Activated Endothelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Villadsen, Klaus; Østrem, Ragnhild Garborg

    2017-01-01

    constructed with the aim of targeting integrins (i.e. vitronectin and/or fibronectin receptors) on activated endothelial cells. The peptide-conjugated liposomes induced only cytotoxicity at the highest concentration in non-activated or activated endothelial cells, as well as in co-culture of endothelial cells...... and macrophages. There was unaltered secretion of cytokines following exposure of peptide-conjugated liposomes to endothelial cells, indicating that the materials were not inflammogenic. Liposomes with a peptide targeting the fibronectin receptor (integrin α5β1) were more effective in targeting of activated....... Therefore, this study demonstrates the feasibility of constructing a peptide-conjugated cationic liposome, which displays targeting to activated endothelial cells at concentrations that are not cytotoxic or inflammogenic to the cells....

  13. Viability and proliferation of endothelial cells upon exposure to GaN nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniste, Tudor; Tiginyanu, Ion; Horvath, Tibor; Raevschi, Simion; Cebotari, Serghei; Lux, Marco; Haverich, Axel; Hilfiker, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing and promising field of interest in medicine; however, nanoparticle-cell interactions are not yet fully understood. The goal of this work was to examine the interaction between endothelial cells and gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor nanoparticles. Cellular viability, adhesion, proliferation, and uptake of nanoparticles by endothelial cells were investigated. The effect of free GaN nanoparticles versus the effect of growing endothelial cells on GaN functionalized surfaces was examined. To functionalize surfaces with GaN, GaN nanoparticles were synthesized on a sacrificial layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The uptake of GaN nanoparticles by porcine endothelial cells was strongly dependent upon whether they were fixed to the substrate surface or free floating in the medium. The endothelial cells grown on surfaces functionalized with GaN nanoparticles demonstrated excellent adhesion and proliferation, suggesting good biocompatibility of the nanostructured GaN.

  14. Bevacizumab inhibits proliferation of choroidal endothelial cells by regulation of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusovici, Raluca; Patel, Chirag J; Chalam, Kakarla V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cell cycle changes in choroidal endothelial cells treated with varying doses of bevacizumab in the presence of a range of concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Bevacizumab, a drug widely used in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, neutralizes all isoforms of VEGF. However, the effect of intravitreal administration of bevacizumab on the choroidal endothelial cell cycle has not been established. Monkey choroidal endothelial (RF/6A) cells were treated with VEGF 50 ng/mL and escalating doses of bevacizumab 0.1-2 mg/mL for 72 hours. Cell cycle changes in response to bevacizumab were analyzed by flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining. Cell proliferation was measured using the WST-1 assay. Morphological changes were recorded by bright field cell microscopy. Bevacizumab inhibited proliferation of choroidal endothelial cells by stabilization of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Cell cycle analysis of VEGF-enriched choroidal endothelial cells revealed a predominant increase in the G2/M population (21.84%, P, 0.01) and a decrease in the G0/G1 phase population (55.08%, P, 0.01). Addition of escalating doses of bevacizumab stabilized VEGF-enriched cells in the G0/G1 phase (55.08%, 54.49%, 56.3%, and 64% [P, 0.01]) and arrested proliferation by inhibiting the G2/M phase (21.84%, 21.46%, 20.59%, 20.94%, and 16.1% [P, 0.01]). The increase in G0/G1 subpopulation in VEGF-enriched and bevacizumab-treated cells compared with VEGF-enriched cells alone was dose-dependent. Bevacizumab arrests proliferation of VEGF-enriched choroidal endothelial cells by stabilizing the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase and inhibiting the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent fashion.

  15. Stress-induced premature senescence of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Patschan, Susann; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) is characterized by cell cycle arrest and curtailed Hayflick limit. Studies support a central role for Rb protein in controlling this process via signaling from the p53 and p16 pathways. Cellular senescence is considered an essential contributor to the aging process and has been shown to be an important tumor suppression mechanism. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that SIPS may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic human diseases. Here, focusing on endothelial cells, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of SIPS and the pathways that trigger it, evaluate their correlation with the apoptotic response and examine their links to the development of chronic diseases, with the emphasis on vasculopathy. Emerging novel therapeutic interventions based on recent experimental findings are also reviewed.

  16. Defibrotide blunts the prothrombotic effect of thalidomide on endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echart, C L; Somaini, S; Distaso, M; Palumbo, A; Richardson, P G; Fareed, J; Iacobelli, M

    2012-01-01

    Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are at relatively high risk of developing thromboembolic events such deep venous thrombosis (DVT) where thalidomide therapy has been identified to increase this risk. Defibrotide (DF), a polydisperse oligonucleotide, showed previously to counteract the alterations in endothelial cells (ECs) induced by lipopolysaccharide. It prompts us to investigate the impact of thalidomide on ECs and whether DF modulates changes in fibrinolysis induced by thalidomide. In this in vitro study, MM by itself alters the profibrinolytic potential of ECs decreasing the tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and increasing the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels which is potentiated by thalidomide. Defibrotide was able to counteract these effects. Additionally, DF upregulated the t-PA and downregulated PAI-1 gene expression modulated by thalidomide. Defibrotide also protects ECs from thalidomide-mediated cell death without interfering with its antitumor effects. These findings support DF clinical use for the prevention of DVT induced by immunomodulatory drugs.

  17. Metabolic Responses in Endothelial Cells Following Exposure to Ketone Bodies

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    Erika Meroni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet based on the induction of the synthesis of ketone bodies (KB. Despite its widespread use, the systemic impact of KD is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of physiological levels of KB on HMEC-1 endothelial cells. To this aim, DNA oxidative damage and the activation of Nrf2, a known transcriptional factor involved in cell responses to oxidative stress, were assessed. The exposure of cells to KB exerted a moderate genotoxic effect, measured by a significant increase in DNA oxidative damage. However, cells pre-treated with KB for 48 h and subjected to a secondary oxidative insult (H2O2, significantly decreased DNA damage compared to control oxidized cells. This protection occurred by the activation of Nrf2 pathway. In KB-treated cells, we found increased levels of Nrf2 in nuclear extracts and higher gene expression of HO-1, a target gene of Nrf2, compared to control cells. These results suggest that KB, by inducing moderate oxidative stress, activate the transcription factor Nrf2, which induces the transcription of target genes involved in the cellular antioxidant defense system.

  18. Microtubules Growth Rate Alteration in Human Endothelial Cells

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    Irina B. Alieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand how microtubules contribute to the dynamic reorganization of the endothelial cell (EC cytoskeleton, we established an EC model expressing EB3-GFP, a protein that marks microtubule plus-ends. Using this model, we were able to measure microtubule growth rate at the centrosome region and near the cell periphery of a single human EC and in the EC monolayer. We demonstrate that the majority of microtubules in EC are dynamic, the growth rate of their plus-ends is highest in the internal cytoplasm, in the region of the centrosome. Growth rate of microtubule plus-ends decreases from the cell center toward the periphery. Our data suggest the existing mechanism(s of local regulation of microtubule plus-ends growth in EC. Microtubule growth rate in the internal cytoplasm of EC in the monolayer is lower than that of single EC suggesting the regulatory effect of cell-cell contacts. Centrosomal microtubule growth rate distribution in single EC indicated the presence of two subpopulations of microtubules with “normal” (similar to those in monolayer EC and “fast” (three times as much growth rates. Our results indicate functional interactions between cell-cell contacts and microtubules.

  19. Effects of TNF-alpha on Endothelial Cell Collective Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Desu; Wu, Di; Helim Aranda-Espinoza, Jose; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) is a small cell-signaling protein usually released by monocytes and macrophages during an inflammatory response. Previous work had shown the effects of TNF-alpha on single cell morphology, migration, and biomechanical properties. However, the effect on collective migrations remains unexplored. In this work, we have created scratches on monolayers of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with 25ng/mL TNF-alpha on glass substrates. The wound healing like processes were imaged with phase contrast microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the collective migration of cells treated with TNF-alpha indicates that these cells maintain their persistent motion and alignment better than untreated cells. In addition, the collective migration was characterized by measuring the amount of non-affine deformations of the wound healing monolayer. We found a lower mean non-affinity and narrower distribution of non-affinities upon TNF-alpha stimulation. These results suggest that TNF-alpha introduces a higher degree of organized cell collective migration.

  20. Cytoglobin inhibits migration through PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Selami; Doğan, Ayşegül; Apdik, Hüseyin; Tuysuz, Emre Can; Gulluoglu, Sukru; Bayrak, Omer Faruk; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2018-01-01

    Cell proliferation and migration are crucial in many physiological processes including development, cancer, tissue repair, and wound healing. Cell migration is regulated by several signaling molecules. Identification of genes related to cell migration is required to understand molecular mechanism of non-healing chronic wounds which is a major concern in clinics. In the current study, the role of cytoglobin (CYGB) gene in fıbroblast cell migration and proliferation was described. L929 mouse fibroblast cells were transduced with lentiviral particles for CYGB and GFP, and analyzed for cell proliferation and migration ability. Fibroblast cells overexpressing CYGB displayed decreased cell proliferation, colony formation capacity, and cell migration. Phosphorylation levels of mTOR and two downstream effectors S6 and 4E-BP1 which take part in PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling declined in CYGB-overexpressing cells. Microarray analysis indicated that CYGB overexpression leads to downregulation of cell proliferation, migration, and tumor growth associated genes in L929 cell line. This study demonstrated the role of CYGB in fibroblast cell motility and proliferation. CYGB could be a promising candidate for further studies as a potential target for diseases related to cell migration such as cancer and chronic wound treatment.

  1. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and

  2. Antitumor Cell-Complex Vaccines Employing Genetically Modified Tumor Cells and Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok and a low producer (p2F. Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01. When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05. Significant survival (40% was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells.

  3. Endothelial progenitor cells display clonal restriction in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, Marc; Özçelik, Tayfun; Bağişlar, Sevgi; Vakil, Varsha; Smith, Eric LP; Dai, Kezhi; Akyerli, Cemaliye B; Batuman, Olcay A

    2006-01-01

    In multiple myeloma (MM), increased neoangiogenesis contributes to tumor growth and disease progression. Increased levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to neoangiogenesis in MM, and, importantly, covary with disease activity and response to treatment. In order to understand the mechanisms responsible for increased EPC levels and neoangiogenic function in MM, we investigated whether these cells were clonal by determining X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) patterns in female patients by a human androgen receptor assay (HUMARA). In addition, EPCs and bone marrow cells were studied for the presence of clonotypic immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) gene rearrangement, which indicates clonality in B cells; thus, its presence in EPCs would indicate a close genetic link between tumor cells in MM and endothelial cells that provide tumor neovascularization. A total of twenty-three consecutive patients who had not received chemotherapy were studied. Screening in 18 patients found that 11 displayed allelic AR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and these patients were further studied for XCI patterns in EPCs and hair root cells by HUMARA. In 2 patients whose EPCs were clonal by HUMARA, and in an additional 5 new patients, EPCs were studied for IGH gene rearrangement using PCR with family-specific primers for IGH variable genes (V H ). In 11 patients, analysis of EPCs by HUMARA revealed significant skewing (≥ 77% expression of a single allele) in 64% (n = 7). In 4 of these patients, XCI skewing was extreme (≥ 90% expression of a single allele). In contrast, XCI in hair root cells was random. Furthermore, PCR amplification with V H primers resulted in amplification of the same product in EPCs and bone marrow cells in 71% (n = 5) of 7 patients, while no IGH rearrangement was found in EPCs from healthy controls. In addition, in patients with XCI skewing in EPCs, advanced age was associated with poorer clinical status, unlike patients whose EPCs had random XCI

  4. The influence of autologous tumor fibroblasts on the radiosensitivity of squamous cell carcinoma megacolonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummermehr, Johann; Malinen, Eirik; Freykowski, Sabine; Sund, Malte; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study the influence of tumor fibroblasts on radiosensitivity and stem cell fraction of tumor cells in squamous cell carcinoma megacolonies by determining colony cure and clonogen survival. Methods and Materials: Murine squamous cell carcinoma cells (AT478c) grown as flat but multilayered megacolonies were co-cultured with pre-irradiated tumor fibroblasts derived from the same carcinoma, and irradiated with 1, 2, 4, or 8 fractions. Recurrent clones and their growth pattern in situ were recorded. From megacolony cure data and clonogen survival data, the clonogen number and the parameters of cellular radiosensitivity were calculated. Results: The curability of the co-cultured megacolonies, as determined by TCD50 values, was significantly increased compared to the megacolonies without fibroblasts (p<0.01). Both the megacolony cure and clonogen survival data suggested a decrease of the clonogen fraction in the co-cultured megacolonies. Conclusion: The presence of tumor fibroblasts increases megacolony radiosensitivity. This is due to a decrease in the fraction of clonogens in the tumor megacolony, apparently caused by a downregulation of the stem cell fraction of the tumor cells

  5. Mucosal stromal fibroblasts markedly enhance HIV infection of CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Neidleman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding early events of HIV transmission within mucosal tissues is vital for developing effective prevention strategies. Here, we report that primary stromal fibroblasts isolated from endometrium, cervix, foreskin, male urethra, and intestines significantly increase HIV infection of CD4+ T cells-by up to 37-fold for R5-tropic HIV and 100-fold for X4-tropic HIV-without themselves becoming infected. Fibroblasts were more efficient than dendritic cells at trans-infection and mediate this response in the absence of the DC-SIGN and Siglec-1 receptors. In comparison, mucosal epithelial cells secrete antivirals and inhibit HIV infection. These data suggest that breaches in the epithelium allow external or luminal HIV to escape an antiviral environment to access the infection-favorable environment of the stromal fibroblasts, and suggest that resident fibroblasts have a central, but previously unrecognized, role in HIV acquisition at mucosal sites. Inhibiting fibroblast-mediated enhancement of HIV infection should be considered as a novel prevention strategy.

  6. Complement Activation Induces Neutrophil Adhesion and Neutrophil-Platelet Aggregate Formation on Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Riedl

    2017-01-01

    Discussion: Therefore, our findings of (i neutrophils adhering to complement-activated endothelial cells, (ii the formation of neutrophil-platelet aggregates on endothelial cells, and (iii the ability of aHUS serum to induce similar effects identify a possible role for neutrophils in aHUS manifestation.

  7. Corneal endothelial cell changes associated with cataract surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hugod, Mikkel; Storr-Paulsen, Allan; Norregaard, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in patients with and without diabetes after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation.......To investigate the corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in patients with and without diabetes after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation....

  8. Detection of bluetongue virus by using bovine endothelial cells and embryonated chicken eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wechsler, S J; Luedke, A J

    1991-01-01

    Two systems, inoculation of bovine endothelial cells and of embryonated chicken eggs, were compared for detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) in blood specimens from experimentally inoculated sheep. For all BTV serotypes tested, embryonated chicken eggs detected longer periods of viremia than did bovine endothelial cells, primarily by detecting BTV in samples containing lower virus concentrations.

  9. Effects of amelogenins on angiogenesis-associated processes of endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almqvist, S; Kleinman, H K; Werthén, M

    2011-01-01

    To study the effects of an amelogenin mixture on integrin-dependent adhesion, DNA synthesis and apoptosis of cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and angiogenesis in an organotypic assay.......To study the effects of an amelogenin mixture on integrin-dependent adhesion, DNA synthesis and apoptosis of cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and angiogenesis in an organotypic assay....

  10. Chronic congestive heart failure is associated with a phenotypic shift of intramyocardial endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijianowski, M. M.; van Laar, M.; Bras, J.; Becker, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    There is evidence that patients with chronic congestive heart failure have endothelial cell-related abnormalities of the peripheral circulation and the coronary microvasculature. For that reason, we have studied the phenotypic expression of endothelial cells in hearts of patients with congestive

  11. Shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis decreases the release of microparticles from endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Seok; Kim, Boa; Lee, Hojun; Thakkar, Sunny; Babbitt, Dianne M.; Eguchi, Satoru; Brown, Michael D.; Park, Joon-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses effects of aerobic exercise training on the release of microparticles from endothelial cells and corroborates these findings using an in vitro experimental exercise stimulant, laminar shear stress. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis mediates these effects against endothelial cell activation and injury.

  12. Cell-cell interactions mediate cytoskeleton organization and collective endothelial cell chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the role of cell-cell and cell-ligand interactions in cytoskeleton organization of endothelial cells (ECs) and their directional migration within a microfluidic device. The migration of ECs in response to a biochemical factor was studied. Mathematical analysis of the cell migration pathways and cellular cytoskeleton revealed that directional migration, migration persistence length, migration speed, and cytoskeletal stress fiber alignment can be mediated by the level of cell contacts as well as the presence or absence of a biochemical polarizing factor. It was shown that in the presence of a biochemical polarizing factor, higher cell density and more frequent cell contacts has a reinforcing effect on collective cell chemotaxis. In contrast, in the absence of a polarizing factor, high cell density can decrease or suppress the ability of the cells to migrate. Also, the correlation of actin stress fiber organization and alignment with directional migration of ECs was investigated. It was shown that in the presence of a biochemical polarizing factor, stress fibers within the cytoskeleton of ECs can be significantly aligned parallel to the gradient direction when the cells have higher level of contacts. The results also show that the organization and alignment of actin stress fibers is mediated by cell adhesion junctions during collective cell migration and introduce cell-cell interactions as a key factor during collective cell chemotaxis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Coniferyl aldehyde attenuates radiation enteropathy by inhibiting cell death and promoting endothelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ye-Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Son, Yeonghoon; Jang, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Sung-Ho; Ko, Young-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Hae-June

    2015-01-01

    Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced intestinal injury could be alleviated by coniferyl aldehyde (CA), an HSF1-inducing agent that increases cellular HSP70 expression. We systemically administered CA to mice with radiation enteropathy following abdominal irradiation (IR) to demonstrate the protective effects of CA against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury. CA clearly alleviated acute radiation-induced intestinal damage, as reflected by the histopathological data and it also attenuated sub-acute enteritis. CA prevented intestinal crypt cell death and protected the microvasculature in the lamina propria during the acute and sub-acute phases of damage. CA induced HSF1 and HSP70 expression in both intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Additionally, CA protected against not only the apoptotic cell death of both endothelial and epithelial cells but also the loss of endothelial cell function following IR, indicating that CA has beneficial effects on the intestine. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of CA and suggest its role as a therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced enteropathy due to its ability to promote rapid re-proliferation of the intestinal epithelium by the synergic effects of the inhibition of cell death and the promotion of endothelial cell function.

  14. Effects of Mechanical Stretch on Cell Proliferation and Matrix Formation of Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fibroblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and fibroblasts are two major seed cells for ligament tissue engineering. To understand the effects of mechanical stimulation on these cells and to develop effective approaches for cell therapy, it is necessary to investigate the biological effects of various mechanical loading conditions on cells. In this study, fibroblasts and MSCs were tested and compared under a novel Uniflex/Bioflex culture system that might mimic mechanical strain in ligament tissue. The cells were uniaxially or radially stretched with different strains (5%, 10%, and 15% at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Hz. The cell proliferation and collagen production were compared to find the optimal parameters. The results indicated that uniaxial stretch (15% at 0.5 Hz; 10% at 1.0 Hz showed positive effects on fibroblast. The uniaxial strains (5%, 10%, and 15% at 0.5 Hz and 10% strain at 1.0 Hz were favorable for MSCs. Radial strain did not have significant effect on fibroblast. On the contrary, the radial strains (5%, 10%, and 15% at 0.1 Hz had positive effects on MSCs. This study suggested that fibroblasts and MSCs had their own appropriate mechanical stimulatory parameters. These specific parameters potentially provide fundamental knowledge for future cell-based ligament regeneration.

  15. Effects of Nebivolol on Endothelial Gene Expression during Oxidative Stress in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

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    Ulisse Garbin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium plays a key role in the development of atherogenesis and its inflammatory and proliferative status influences the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of two beta blockers such as nebivolol and atenolol on gene expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs following an oxidant stimulus. HUVECs were incubated with nebivolol or atenolol (10 micromol/L for 24 hours and oxidative stress was induced by the addition of oxidized (ox-LDL. Ox-LDL upregulated adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, ICAM-2, ICAM-3, E-selectin, and P-selectin; proteins linked to inflammation (IL-6 and TNFalpha, thrombotic state (tissue factor, PAI-1 and uPA, hypertension such as endothelin-1 (ET-1, and vascular remodeling such as metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9 and protease inhibitor (TIMP-1. The exposure of HUVECs to nebivolol, but not to atenolol, reduced these genes upregulated by oxidative stress both in terms of protein and RNA expression. The known antioxidant properties of the third generation beta blocker nebivolol seem to account to the observed differences seen when compared to atenolol and support the specific potential protective role of this beta blocker on the expression of a number of genes involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.

  16. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Microvascular Complications: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cai-Guo; Zhang, Ning; Yuan, Sha-Sha; Ma, Yan; Yang, Long-Yan; Feng, Ying-Mei; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Despite being featured as metabolic disorder, diabetic patients are largely affected by hyperglycemia-induced vascular abnormality. Accumulated evidence has confirmed the beneficial effect of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in coronary heart disease. However, antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment is the main therapy for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, indicating the uncertain role of EPCs in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular disease. In this review, we first illustrate how hyperglycemia induces metabolic and epigenetic changes in EPCs, which exerts deleterious impact on their number and function. We then discuss how abnormal angiogenesis develops in eyes and kidneys under diabetes condition, focusing on "VEGF uncoupling with nitric oxide" and "competitive angiopoietin 1/angiopoietin 2" mechanisms that are shared in both organs. Next, we dissect the nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular complications. After we overview the current EPCs-related strategies, we point out new EPCs-associated options for future exploration. Ultimately, we hope that this review would uncover the mysterious nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular disease for therapeutics.

  17. Late Release of Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells after Chemotherapy Predicts Response and Survival in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine M. Roodhart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We and others have previously demonstrated that the acute release of progenitor cells in response to chemotherapy actually reduces the efficacy of the chemotherapy. Here, we take these data further and investigate the clinical relevance of circulating endothelial (progenitor cells (CE(PCs and modulatory cytokines in patients after chemotherapy with relation to progression-free and overall survival (PFS/OS. Patients treated with various chemotherapeutics were included. Blood sampling was performed at baseline, 4 hours, and 7 and 21 days after chemotherapy. The mononuclear cell fraction was analyzed for CE(PC by FACS analysis. Plasma was analyzed for cytokines by ELISA or Luminex technique. CE(PCs were correlated with response and PFS/OS using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. We measured CE(PCs and cytokines in 71 patients. Only patients treated with paclitaxel showed an immediate increase in endothelial progenitor cell 4 hours after start of treatment. These immediate changes did not correlate with response or survival. After 7 and 21 days of chemotherapy, a large and consistent increase in CE(PC was found (P < .01, independent of the type of chemotherapy. Changes in CE(PC levels at day 7 correlated with an increase in tumor volume after three cycles of chemotherapy and predicted PFS/OS, regardless of the tumor type or chemotherapy. These findings indicate that the late release of CE(PC is a common phenomenon after chemotherapeutic treatment. The correlation with a clinical response and survival provides further support for the biologic relevance of these cells in patients' prognosis and stresses their possible use as a therapeutic target.

  18. Catalase and superoxide dismutase conjugated with platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule antibody distinctly alleviate abnormal endothelial permeability caused by exogenous reactive oxygen species and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingyan; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2011-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion (O(2)()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) produced by activated leukocytes and endothelial cells in sites of inflammation or ischemia cause endothelial barrier dysfunction that may lead to tissue edema. Antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) conjugated with antibodies to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) specifically bind to endothelium, quench the corresponding ROS, and alleviate vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present work, we studied the effects of anti-PECAM/catalase and anti-PECAM/SOD conjugates on the abnormal permeability manifested by transendothelial electrical resistance decline, increased fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran influx, and redistribution of vascular endothelial-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers. Anti-PECAM/catalase protected HUVEC monolayers against H(2)O(2)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase exerted orders of magnitude lower endothelial uptake and no protective effect, similarly to IgG/catalase. Anti-PECAM/catalase, but not anti-PECAM/SOD, alleviated endothelial hyperpermeability caused by exposure to hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, implicating primarily H(2)O(2) in the disruption of the endothelial barrier in this model. Thrombin-induced endothelial permeability was not affected by treatment with anti-PECAM/AOEs or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or overexpression of AOEs, indicating that the endogenous ROS play no key role in thrombin-mediated endothelial barrier dysfunction. In contrast, anti-PECAM/SOD, but not anti-PECAM/catalase, inhibited a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced increase in endothelial permeability, identifying a key role of endogenous O(2)() in the VEGF-mediated regulation of endothelial barrier function. Therefore, AOEs targeted to endothelial cells provide versatile molecular tools for testing the roles of

  19. Cathepsin K in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: LAM Cell-Fibroblast Interactions Enhance Protease Activity by Extracellular Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Arundhati; Clements, Debbie; Fisher, Andrew J; Johnson, Simon R

    2017-08-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease in which LAM cells and fibroblasts form lung nodules and it is hypothesized that LAM nodule-derived proteases cause cyst formation and tissue damage. On protease gene expression profiling in whole lung tissue, cathepsin K gene expression was 40-fold overexpressed in LAM compared with control lung tissue (P ≤ 0.0001). Immunohistochemistry confirmed cathepsin K protein was expressed in LAM but not control lungs. Cathepsin K gene expression and protein and protease activity were detected in LAM-associated fibroblasts but not the LAM cell line 621-101. In lung nodules, cathepsin K immunoreactivity predominantly co-localized with LAM-associated fibroblasts. In vitro, fibroblast extracellular cathepsin K activity was minimal at pH 7.5 but significantly enhanced at pH 7 and 6. 621-101 cells reduced extracellular pH with acidification dependent on 621-101 mechanistic target of rapamycin activity and net hydrogen ion exporters, particularly sodium bicarbonate co-transporters and carbonic anhydrases, which were also expressed in LAM lung tissue. In LAM cell-fibroblast co-cultures, acidification paralleled cathepsin K activity, and both were reduced by sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (P ≤ 0.0001) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (P = 0.0021). Our findings suggest that cathepsin K activity is dependent on LAM cell-fibroblast interactions, and inhibitors of extracellular acidification may be potential therapies for LAM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A small population of liver endothelial cells undergoes endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to chronic liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Jordi; Pauta, Montse; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; Córdoba, Bernat; Bosch, Anna; Calvo, Maria; Rodrigo-Torres, Daniel; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Mira, Aurea; Jiménez, Wladimiro; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    Rising evidence points to endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) as a significant source of the mesenchymal cell population in fibrotic diseases. In this context, we hypothesized that liver endothelial cells undergo EndMT during fibrosis progression. Cirrhosis in mice was induced by CCl 4 A transgenic mouse expressing a red fluorescent protein reporter under the control of Tie2 promoter (Tie2-tdTomato) was used to trace the acquisition of EndMT. Sinusoidal vascular connectivity was evaluated by intravital microscopy and high-resolution three-dimensional confocal microscopy. A modest but significant fraction of liver endothelial cells from both cirrhotic patients and CCl 4 -treated Tie2-tdTomato mice acquired an EndMT phenotype characterized by the coexpression of CD31 and α-smooth muscle actin, compared with noncirrhotic livers. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) inhibited the acquisition of EndMT induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) treatment in cultured primary mouse liver endothelial cells from control mice. EndMT was also reduced significantly in vivo in cirrhotic Tie2-tdTomato mice treated intraperitoneally with BMP-7 compared with untreated mice (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.3%, respectively; P livers correlated with a significant decrease in liver fibrosis ( P livers in both animal models and patients. BMP-7 treatment decreases the occurrence of the EndMT phenotype and has a positive impact on the severity of disease by reducing fibrosis and sinusoidal vascular disorganization. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A subpopulation of liver endothelial cells from cirrhotic patients and mice with liver fibrosis undergoes endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Liver endothelial cells from healthy mice could transition into a mesenchymal phenotype in culture in response to TGF-β1 treatment. Fibrotic livers treated chronically with BMP-7 showed lower EndMT acquisition, reduced fibrosis, and improved vascular organization. Copyright © 2017 the American

  1. Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts promotes angiogenesis in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Wallace

    Full Text Available Tumor fibroblasts are active partners in tumor progression, but the genes and pathways that mediate this collaboration are ill-defined. Previous work demonstrates that Ets2 function in stromal cells significantly contributes to breast tumor progression. Conditional mouse models were used to study the function of Ets2 in both mammary stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Conditional inactivation of Ets2 in stromal fibroblasts in PyMT and ErbB2 driven tumors significantly reduced tumor growth, however deletion of Ets2 in epithelial cells in the PyMT model had no significant effect. Analysis of gene expression in fibroblasts revealed a tumor- and Ets2-dependent gene signature that was enriched in genes important for ECM remodeling, cell migration, and angiogenesis in both PyMT and ErbB2 driven-tumors. Consistent with these results, PyMT and ErbB2 tumors lacking Ets2 in fibroblasts had fewer functional blood vessels, and Ets2 in fibroblasts elicited changes in gene expression in tumor endothelial cells consistent with this phenotype. An in vivo angiogenesis assay revealed the ability of Ets2 in fibroblasts to promote blood vessel formation in the absence of tumor cells. Importantly, the Ets2-dependent gene expression signatures from both mouse models were able to distinguish human breast tumor stroma from normal stroma, and correlated with patient outcomes in two whole tumor breast cancer data sets. The data reveals a key function for Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts in signaling to endothelial cells to promote tumor angiogenesis. The results highlight the collaborative networks that orchestrate communication between stromal cells and tumor cells, and suggest that targeting tumor fibroblasts may be an effective strategy for developing novel anti-angiogenic therapies.

  2. Activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway enhances monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Kun; Nathan Grantham, R.; Trachte, Aaron L.; Mannion, John D.; Wilson, Colleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium has been reported to be one of the early processes in the development of atherosclerosis. In an attempt to develop strategies to prevent or delay atherosclerosis progression, we analyzed effects of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on monocyte adhesion to various human endothelial cells. Adhesion of fluorescein-labeled monocytes to various human endothelial cells was analyzed under a fluorescent microscope. Unlike sodium chloride, lithium chloride enhanced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that inhibitors for glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β or proteosome enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Results of semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway did not change expression levels of mRNA for adhesion molecules. In conclusion, the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion without changing expression levels of adhesion molecules

  3. Melanoma Cells Can Adopt the Phenotype of Stromal Fibroblasts and Macrophages by Spontaneous Cell Fusion in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemény, Lajos V; Kurgyis, Zsuzsanna; Buknicz, Tünde; Groma, Gergely; Jakab, Ádám; Zänker, Kurt; Dittmar, Thomas; Kemény, Lajos; Németh, István B

    2016-06-02

    After the removal of primary cutaneous melanoma some patients develop local recurrences, even after having histologically tumor-free re-excision. A potential explanation behind this phenomenon is that tumor cells switch their phenotype, making their recognition via standard histopathological assessments extremely difficult. Tumor-stromal cell fusion has been proposed as a potential mechanism for tumor cells to acquire mesenchymal traits; therefore, we hypothesized that melanoma cells could acquire fibroblast- and macrophage-like phenotypes via cell fusion. We show that melanoma cells spontaneously fuse with human dermal fibroblasts and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The hybrid cells' nuclei contain chromosomes from both parental cells and are indistinguishable from the parental fibroblasts or macrophages based on their morphology and immunophenotype, as they could lose the melanoma specific MART1 marker, but express the fibroblast marker smooth muscle actin or the macrophage marker CD68. Our results suggest that, by spontaneous cell fusion in vitro, tumor cells can adopt the morphology and immunophenotype of stromal cells while still carrying oncogenic, tumor-derived genetic information. Therefore, melanoma-stromal cell fusion might play a role in missing tumor cells by routine histopathological assessments.

  4. The significance of fibroblast growth factors 8, 17, and 18 and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 for malignant behaviour of hepatocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglhofer, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the most frequent type of primary liver cancer and is the fifth most common cancer type worldwide. Effective therapeutic options are still limited to early cancer stages, resulting in a high mortality. Etiological factors for this disease are well known and it is widely accepted that most of the HCCs develop on the base of a chronic inflammatory liver disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HCC are still incompletely understood. Aberrant fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-mediated signaling plays an important part in growth autonomy and tumor progression in a wide variety of cancer types. Thus far, the role of FGFs in HCC has only been studied in part. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the members of the FGF8-subfamily (FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18) and the FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4) to the malignant behaviour of hepatocarcinoma cell lines. In this study one or more FGF8-subfamily members were found to be upregulated in the tissue of the majority (20/34) of human HCC cases studied. Endogenous mRNA levels of FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18 in hepatocarcinoma cell lines were increased further when cells had been subjected to serum withdrawal or hypoxia. Furthermore, addition of recombinant FGF8, FGF17, or FGF18 suppressed the elevated apoptotic activity of starved cells and activated the MAPK pathway. These findings suggest that FGF8-family members may act as survival factors in liver tumors suffering from insufficient blood supply due to rapid growth. Accordingly, knock-down of endogenous FGF18 expression reduced the viability and the clone formation capacity of the cell lines. In addition, FGF8, FGF17, and/or FGF18 enhanced growth in tumor-associated myofibroblasts and induced DNA replication of hepatic endothelial cells. This points towards a role of FGF8-family members in the epithelial-mesenchymal interplay between the various cell types of HCC. FGFR4, which is expressed

  5. Tumor endothelial markers define novel subsets of cancer-specific circulating endothelial cells associated with antitumor efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Reza; Nilsson, Monique; Khajavi, Mehrdad; Du, Zhiqiang; Cascone, Tina; Wu, Hua Kang; Cortes, Andrea; Xu, Li; Zurita, Amado; Schier, Robert; Riedel, Bernhard; El-Zein, Randa; Heymach, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are derived from multiple sources including bone marrow (circulating endothelial progenitors [CEP]) and established vasculature (mature CEC). Although CEC have shown promise as a biomarker for cancer patients, their utility has been limited in part by the lack of specificity for tumor vasculature and the different non-malignant causes that can impact CEC. Tumor endothelial markers (TEM) are antigens enriched in tumor vs non-malignant endothelia. We hypothesized that TEMs may be detectable on CEC and that these circulating TEM+ endothelial cells (CTEC) may be a more specific marker for cancer and tumor response than standard CEC. We found that tumor-bearing mice had a relative increase in numbers of circulating CTEC, specifically with increased levels of TEM7 and TEM8 expression. Following treatment with various vascular targeting agents, we observed a decrease in CTEC that correlated with the reductions in tumor growth. We extended these findings to human clinical samples and observed that CTEC were present in esophageal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (N=40) and their levels decreased after surgical resection. These results demonstrate that CTEC are detectable in preclinical cancer models and cancer patients. Further, they suggest that CTEC offer a novel cancer-associated marker that may be useful as a blood-based surrogate for assessing the presence of tumor vasculature and antiangiogenic drug activity. PMID:24626092

  6. Potentially lethal damage repair in cell lines of radioresistant human tumours and normal skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchese, M.J.; Minarik, L.; Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation cell survival data were obtained in vitro for three cell lines isolated from human tumours traditionally considered to be radioresistant-two melanomas and one osteosarcoma-as well as from a diploid skin fibroblast cell line. One melanoma cell line was much more radioresistant than the other, while the osteosarcoma and fibroblast cell lines were more radiosensitive than either. For cells growing exponentially, little potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) could be demonstrated by comparing survival data for cells in which subculture was delayed by 6 h with those sub-cultured immediately after treatment. For the malignant cells in plateau phase, which in these cells might be better termed 'slowed growth phase', since an appreciable fraction of the cells are still cycling, a small amount of PLDR was observed, but not as much as reported by other investigators in the literature. The normal fibroblasts, which achieved a truer plateau phase in terms of noncycling cells, showed a significantly larger amount of PLDR than the tumour cells. (author)

  7. Neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions on endothelial monolayers grown on micropore filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R F; Price, T H; Schwartz, S M; Dale, D C

    1981-01-01

    We have developed a technique for growing endothelial monolayers on micropore filters. These monolayers demonstrate confluence by phase and electron microscopy and provide a functional barrier to passage of radiolabeled albumin. Neutrophils readily penetrate the monolayer in response to chemotaxin, whereas there is little movement in the absence of chemotaxin. This system offers unique advantages over available chemotaxis assays and may have wider applications in the study of endothelial function. Images PMID:7007441

  8. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-03-03

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters.

  9. Gene expression analysis of embryonic stem cells expressing VE-cadherin (CD144 during endothelial differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libermann Towia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial differentiation occurs during normal vascular development in the developing embryo. This process is recapitulated in the adult when endothelial progenitor cells are generated in the bone marrow and can contribute to vascular repair or angiogenesis at sites of vascular injury or ischemia. The molecular mechanisms of endothelial differentiation remain incompletely understood. Novel approaches are needed to identify the factors that regulate endothelial differentiation. Methods Mouse embryonic stem (ES cells were used to further define the molecular mechanisms of endothelial differentiation. By flow cytometry a population of VEGF-R2 positive cells was identified as early as 2.5 days after differentiation of ES cells, and a subset of VEGF-R2+ cells, that were CD41 positive at 3.5 days. A separate population of VEGF-R2+ stem cells expressing the endothelial-specific marker CD144 (VE-cadherin was also identified at this same time point. Channels lined by VE-cadherin positive cells developed within the embryoid bodies (EBs formed by differentiating ES cells. VE-cadherin and CD41 expressing cells differentiate in close proximity to each other within the EBs, supporting the concept of a common origin for cells of hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. Results Microarray analysis of >45,000 transcripts was performed on RNA obtained from cells expressing VEGF-R2+, CD41+, and CD144+ and VEGF-R2-, CD41-, and CD144-. All microarray experiments were performed in duplicate using RNA obtained from independent experiments, for each subset of cells. Expression profiling confirmed the role of several genes involved in hematopoiesis, and identified several putative genes involved in endothelial differentiation. Conclusion The isolation of CD144+ cells during ES cell differentiation from embryoid bodies provides an excellent model system and method for identifying genes that are expressed during endothelial differentiation and that

  10. Identification and functional analysis of endothelial tip cell-enriched genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Toro, Raquel; Prahst, Claudia; Mathivet, Thomas; Siegfried, Geraldine; Kaminker, Joshua S; Larrivee, Bruno; Breant, Christiane; Duarte, Antonio; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Penninger, Josef; Eichmann, Anne

    2010-11-11

    Sprouting of developing blood vessels is mediated by specialized motile endothelial cells localized at the tips of growing capillaries. Following behind the tip cells, endothelial stalk cells form the capillary lumen and proliferate. Expression of the Notch ligand Delta-like-4 (Dll4) in tip cells suppresses tip cell fate in neighboring stalk cells via Notch signaling. In DLL4(+/-) mouse mutants, most retinal endothelial cells display morphologic features of tip cells. We hypothesized that these mouse mutants could be used to isolate tip cells and so to determine their genetic repertoire. Using transcriptome analysis of retinal endothelial cells isolated from DLL4(+/-) and wild-type mice, we identified 3 clusters of tip cell-enriched genes, encoding extracellular matrix degrading enzymes, basement membrane components, and secreted molecules. Secreted molecules endothelial-specific molecule 1, angiopoietin 2, and apelin bind to cognate receptors on endothelial stalk cells. Knockout mice and zebrafish morpholino knockdown of apelin showed delayed angiogenesis and reduced proliferation of stalk cells expressing the apelin receptor APJ. Thus, tip cells may regulate angiogenesis via matrix remodeling, production of basement membrane, and release of secreted molecules, some of which regulate stalk cell behavior.

  11. p53/PUMA expression in human pulmonary fibroblasts mediates cell activation and migration in silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijun; Dai, Xiaoniu; Fang, Shencun; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yingming; Yao, Honghong; Zhang, Xilong; Chao, Jie

    2015-11-18

    Phagocytosis of SiO2 into the lung causes an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration, followed by fibrosis. Clinical evidence has indicated that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO2 produces rapid and sustained inflammation characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1, which, in turn, induces fibrosis. However, the details of events downstream of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 activity in pulmonary fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, to elucidate the role of p53 in fibrosis induced by silica, both the upstream molecular mechanisms and the functional effects on cell proliferation and migration were investigated. Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts led to the following results: 1) SiO2 treatment resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in p53 and PUMA protein levels; 2) the MAPK and PI3K pathways were involved in the SiO2-induced alteration of p53 and PUMA expression; and 3) RNA interference targeting p53 and PUMA prevented the SiO2-induced increases in fibroblast activation and migration. Our study elucidated a link between SiO2-induced p53/PUMA expression in fibroblasts and cell migration, thereby providing novel insight into the potential use of p53/PUMA in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis treatment.

  12. Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Reactive Stromal Fibroblasts as a Potential Antibody Target in Human Epithelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Old, Lloyd J.; Rettig, Wolfgang J.

    1990-09-01

    The F19 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M_r, 95,000) of human sarcomas and proliferating, cultured fibroblasts that is absent from resting fibroblasts in normal adult tissues. Normal and malignant epithelial cells are also F19^-. The present immunohistochemical study describes induction of F19 in the reactive mesenchyme of epithelial tumors. F19^+ fibroblasts were found in primary and metastatic carcinomas, including colorectal (18 of 18 cases studied), breast (14/14), ovarian (21/21), bladder (9/10), and lung carcinomas (13/13). In contrast, the stroma of benign colorectal adenomas, fibrocystic disease and fibroadenomas of breast, benign prostate hyperplasia, in situ bladder carcinomas, and benign ovarian tumors showed no or only moderate numbers of F19^+ fibroblasts. Analysis of dermal incision wounds revealed that F19 is strongly induced during scar formation. Comparison of F19 with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin, a putative marker of tumor mesenchyme, showed a cellular staining pattern for F19 vs. the extracellular matrix pattern for tenascin and widespread expression of tenascin in F19^- normal tissues and benign tumors. Our results suggest that the F19^+ phenotype correlates with specialized fibroblast functions in wound healing and malignant tumor growth. Because of its abundance in tumor mesenchyme, F19 may serve as a target for antibodies labeled with radioisotopes or toxic agents, or inflammatogenic antibodies, in carcinoma patients.

  13. An In Vitro Study of Differentiation of Hematopoietic Cells to Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ru Wang

    2011-01-01

    medium (ECCM. BM-EPCs were characterized in terms of phenotype, lineage potential, and their functional properties. Endothelial cell colonies derived from BM-EPC were cultured with ECCM for 3 months. Cultured EPC colony cells expressed endothelial cell markers and formed the capillary-like network in vitro. EPC colony cells expressed differential proliferative capacity; some of the colonies exhibited a high proliferative potential (HPP capacity up to 20 population doublings. More importantly, these HPP-EPCs expressed hematopoietic marker CD45, exhibited endocytic activities, and preserved some of the myeloid cell activity. In addition, the HPP-EPCs secrete various growth factors including VEGF and GM-CSF into the culture medium. The results demonstrate that these EPCs were primarily derived from hematopoietic origin of early precursor cells and maintained high proliferative potential capacity, a feature with a significant potential in the application of cell therapy in ischemic diseases.

  14. RhoA GTPase regulates radiation-induced alterations in endothelial cell adhesion and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, Matthieu; Gaugler, Marie-Hélène; Rodallec, Audrey; Bonnaud, Stéphanie; Paris, François; Corre, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We explore the role of RhoA in endothelial cell response to ionizing radiation. ► RhoA is rapidly activated by single high-dose of radiation. ► Radiation leads to RhoA/ROCK-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling. ► Radiation-induced apoptosis does not require the RhoA/ROCK pathway. ► Radiation-induced alteration of endothelial adhesion and migration requires RhoA/ROCK. -- Abstract: Endothelial cells of the microvasculature are major target of ionizing radiation, responsible of the radiation-induced vascular early dysfunctions. Molecular signaling pathways involved in endothelial responses to ionizing radiation, despite being increasingly investigated, still need precise characterization. Small GTPase RhoA and its effector ROCK are crucial signaling molecules involved in many endothelial cellular functions. Recent studies identified implication of RhoA/ROCK in radiation-induced increase in endothelial permeability but other endothelial functions altered by radiation might also require RhoA proteins. Human microvascular endothelial cells HMEC-1, either treated with Y-27632 (inhibitor of ROCK) or invalidated for RhoA by RNA interference were exposed to 15 Gy. We showed a rapid radiation-induced activation of RhoA, leading to a deep reorganisation of actin cytoskeleton with rapid formation of stress fibers. Endothelial early apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation was not affected by Y-27632 pre-treatment or RhoA depletion. Endothelial adhesion to fibronectin and formation of focal adhesions increased in response to radiation in a RhoA/ROCK-dependent manner. Consistent with its pro-adhesive role, ionizing radiation also decreased endothelial cells migration and RhoA was required for this inhibition. These results highlight the role of RhoA GTPase in ionizing radiation-induced deregulation of essential endothelial functions linked to actin cytoskeleton.

  15. Endothelial and circulating progenitor cells in hematological diseases and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Annalisa; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Volt, Fernanda; Kenzey, Chantal; Rafii, Hanadi; Rocha, Vanderson; Gluckman, Eliane

    2017-10-12

    Circulating endothelial cells (CECs), originated form endothelial progenitors (EPCs) are mature cells which are not associated with vessel walls, and that are detached from the endothelium. Normally, they are present in insignificant amounts in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals. On the other hand, elevated CECs and EPCs levels have been reported in the peripheral blood of patients with different types of cancers and some other diseases. Consequently, CECs and EPCs represent a potential biomarker in several clinical conditions involving endothelial turnover and remodeling, such as hematological diseases. These cells may be involved in disease progression and the neoplastic angiogenesis process. Moreover, CESs and EPCs are probably involved in endothelial damage that is a marker of several complications following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This review aims to provide an overview on the characterization of CECs and EPCs, describe isolation methods and to identify the potential role of these cells in hematological diseases and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Biochemical and microscopic evidence for the internalization and degradation of heparin-containing mast cell granules by bovine endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, F.M.; Friedman, M.M.; Metcalfe, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Incubation of [ 35 S]heparin-containing mast cell granules with cultured bovine endothelial cells was followed by the appearance of 35 S-granule-associated radioactivity within the endothelial cells and a decrease in radioactivity in the extracellular fluid. These changes occurred during the first 24 hours of incubation and suggested ingestion of the mast cell granules by the endothelial cells. Periodic electron microscopic examination of the monolayers confirmed this hypothesis by demonstrating apposition of the granules to the plasmalemma of endothelial cells, which was followed by the engulfment of the granules by cytoplasmic projections. Under light microscopic examination, mast cell granules within endothelial cells then appeared to undergo degradation. The degradation of [ 35 S]heparin in mast cell granules was demonstrated by a decrease in the amount of intracellular [ 35 S]heparin proteoglycan after 24 hours and the appearance of free [ 35 S]sulfate in the extracellular compartment. Intact endothelial cells were more efficient at degrading [ 35 S]heparin than were cell lysates or cell supernatants. These data provide evidence of the ability of endothelial cells to ingest mast cell granules and degrade native heparin that is presented as a part of the mast cell granule

  17. Bovine aortic endothelial cells are susceptible to Hantaan virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, U.; Muranyi, W.; Mueller, S.; Kehm, R.; Handermann, M.; Darai, G.; Zeier, M.

    2004-01-01

    Hantavirus serotype Hantaan (HTN) is one of the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, lethality up to 10%). The natural host of HTN is Apodemus agrarius. Recent studies have shown that domestic animals like cattle are sporadically seropositive for hantaviruses. In the present study, the susceptibility of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) expressing α V β 3 -integrin to a HTN infection was investigated. Viral nucleocapsid protein and genomic RNA segments were detected in infected BAEC by indirect immunofluorescence assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The results of this study strongly support our previous observation on Puumala virus (PUU) that has been propagated efficiently in BAEC. These findings open a new window to contemplate the ecology of hantavirus infection and transmission route from animal to man

  18. Effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on human gingival fibroblast, osteoblast and periodontal ligament cell behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Sculean, Anton; Chappuis, Vivianne; Buser, Daniel; Schaller, Benoit; Dőri, Ferenc; Miron, Richard J

    2017-06-02

    The use of platelet rich plasma (PRP, GLO) has been used as an adjunct to various regenerative dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to characterize the influence of PRP on human gingival fibroblasts, periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and osteoblast cell behavior in vitro. Human gingival fibroblasts, PDL cells and osteoblasts were cultured with conditioned media from PRP and investigated for cell migration, proliferation and collagen1 (COL1) immunostaining. Furthermore, gingival fibroblasts were tested for genes encoding TGF-β, PDGF and COL1a whereas PDL cells and osteoblasts were additionally tested for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining and mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers including Runx2, COL1a2, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN). It was first found that PRP significantly increased cell migration of all cells up to 4 fold. Furthermore, PRP increased cell proliferation at 3 and 5 days of gingival fibroblasts, and at 3 days for PDL cells, whereas no effect was observed on osteoblasts. Gingival fibroblasts cultured with PRP increased TGF-β, PDGF-B and COL1 mRNA levels at 7 days and further increased over 3-fold COL1 staining at 14 days. PDL cells cultured with PRP increased Runx2 mRNA levels but significantly down-regulated OCN mRNA levels at 3 days. No differences in COL1 staining or ALP staining were observed in PDL cells. Furthermore, PRP decreased mineralization of PDL cells at 14 days post seeding as assessed by alizarin red staining. In osteoblasts, PRP increased COL1 staining at 14 days, increased COL1 and ALP at 3 days, as well as increased ALP staining at 14 days. No significant differences were observed for alizarin red staining of osteoblasts following culture with PRP. The results demonstrate that PRP promoted gingival fibroblast migration, proliferation and mRNA expression of pro-wound healing molecules. While PRP induced PDL cells and osteoblast migration and proliferation, it tended to have

  19. Hypertonic saline impedes tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction by reducing adhesion molecule and laminin expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline infusion dampens inflammatory responses and suppresses neutrophil-endothelial interaction by reducing adhesion molecule expression. This study tested the hypothesis that hypertonic saline attenuates tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium through a similar mechanism. METHODS: Human colon cancer cells (LS174T) were transfected with green fluorescent protein and exposed to lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 under hypertonic and isotonic conditions for 1 and 4 hours. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were similarly exposed. Cellular apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules and laminin were measured by flow cytometry. Tumor cell adhesion to endothelium and laminin was assessed with fluorescence microscopy. Data are represented as mean +\\/- standard error of mean, and an ANOVA test was performed to gauge statistical significance, with P <.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Hypertonic exposure significantly reduced tumor cell adhesion despite the presence of the perioperative cell stressors (42 +\\/- 2.9 vs 172.5 +\\/- 12.4, P <.05), attenuated tumor cell beta-1 integrin (14.43 vs 23.84, P <.05), and endothelial cell laminin expression (22.78 +\\/- 2.2 vs 33.74 +\\/- 2.4, P <.05), but did not significantly alter cell viability. CONCLUSION: Hypertonic saline significantly attenuates tumor cell adhesion to endothelium by inhibiting adhesion molecule and laminin expression. This may halt the metastatic behavior of tumor cells shed at surgery.

  20. Endothelial cells and hematopoiesis: a light microscopic study of fetal, normal, and pathologic human bone marrow in plastic-embedded sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A; Glomski, C; Henderson, E S

    1992-07-01

    The origin and morphological identity of hematopoietic progenitor cells, as well as their precursor, the pleuripotential hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), has not been established. Our studies of 2 microns sectioned undecalcified plastic-embedded bone marrow (BM) from healthy human fetuses; normal adults; patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) in various stages (chronic, accelerated, acute blastic phase, and after autografting); and patients recovering from therapy-induced marrow hypoplasia suggest that proliferative hematopoietic zones exist near the endosteum (endosteal marrow) and the vascular endothelium (capillary and sinus-lining endothelium) and a maturational zone distal to these regions. In some of these areas, morphologically recognizable hematopoietic cells were seen and interpreted as emerging and maturing in a sequential progression, suggesting an origin from the endosteal or endothelial progenitors. In other loci, early hematopoietic cells were seen in close contact with the endosteal or vascular endothelial (VE) cells. This latter relationship suggested that these areas of cellular contact were important and represented sites of cell to cell interaction that may be associated with the liberation of growth factors by endosteal and endothelial cells and their action on hematopoietic progenitor cells. Following treatment-induced hypoplasia, the endosteal and VE cells were seen to modulate, transform, and migrate into the surrounding empty and edematous marrow space as fibroblasts. Later, as hemopoietic regeneration began, clusters of regenerating hematopoietic cells were seen adjacent to bone trabecule (BT) and near the vascular endothelium. We postulate that endosteal and VE cells are the equivalent of embryonal-stage, undifferentiated mesenchyme and, under the appropriate regulatory influence, are capable of modulation and transformation (differentiation) into stromal

  1. File list: InP.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: InP.CDV.05.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: NoD.CDV.20.AllAg.Brachiocephalic_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. Neutrophil-mediated protection of cultured human vascular endothelial cells from damage by growing Candida albicans hyphae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.E. Jr.; Rotrosen, D.; Fontaine, J.W.; Haudenschild, C.C.; Diamond, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Interactions were studied between human neutrophils and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells invaded by Candida albicans. In the absence of neutrophils, progressive Candida germination and hyphal growth extensively damaged endothelial cell monolayers over a period of 4 to 6 hours, as determined both by morphological changes and release of 51 Cr from radiolabeled endothelial cells. Monolayers were completely destroyed and replaced by hyphae after 18 hours of incubation. In contrast, when added 2 hours after the monolayers had been infected with Candida, neutrophils selectively migrated toward and attached to hyphae at points of hyphal penetration into individual endothelial cells (observed by time-lapse video-microscopy). Attached neutrophils spread over hyphal surfaces both within and beneath the endothelial cells; neutrophil recruitment to initial sites of leukocyte-Candida-endothelial cell interactions continued throughout the first 60 minutes of observation. Neutrophil spreading and stasis were observed only along Candida hyphae and at sites of Candida-endothelial cell interactions. These events resulted in 58.0% killing of Candida at 2 hours and subsequent clearance of Candida from endothelial cell monolayers, as determined by microcolony counts and morphological observation. On introduction of additional neutrophils to yield higher ratios of neutrophils to endothelial cells (10 neutrophils:1 endothelial cell), neutrophil migration toward hyphal elements continued. Despite retraction or displacement of occasional endothelial cells by invading Candida and neutrophils, most endothelial cells remained intact, viable, and motile as verified both by morphological observations and measurement of 51 Cr release from radiolabeled monolayers

  8. Establishment of the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines and their application in chemical risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkard, Michael, E-mail: Michael.burkard@eawag.ch [Griffith University, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Southern Ocean Persistent Organic Pollutants Program, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Whitworth, Deanne [The University of Queensland, School of Veterinary Science, Gatton, QLD (Australia); Schirmer, Kristin [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogechemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, Zürich (Switzerland); EPF Lausanne, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lausanne (Switzerland); Nash, Susan Bengtson [Griffith University, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Southern Ocean Persistent Organic Pollutants Program, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We established and characterised the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. • Cell lines have a stable karyotype with 2n = 44. • Exposure to p,p′-DDE resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. • p,p′-DDE sensitivity differed considerably from human fibroblasts. • Exposure to a whale blubber extract showed higher sensitivity than to p,p′-DDE alone. - Abstract: This paper reports the first successful derivation and characterization of humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. Primary fibroblasts were isolated from the dermal connective tissue of skin biopsies, cultured at 37 °C and 5% CO{sub 2} in the standard mammalian medium DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Of nine initial biopsies, two cell lines were established from two different animals and designated HuWa1 and HuWa2. The cells have a stable karyotype with 2n = 44, which has commonly been observed in other baleen whale species. Cells were verified as being fibroblasts based on their spindle-shaped morphology, adherence to plastic and positive immunoreaction to vimentin. Population doubling time was determined to be ∼41 h and cells were successfully cryopreserved and thawed. To date, HuWa1 cells have been propagated 30 times. Cells proliferate at the tested temperatures, 30, 33.5 and 37 °C, but show the highest rate of proliferation at 37 °C. Short-term exposure to para,para′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), a priority compound accumulating in southern hemisphere humpback whales, resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. The effective concentration which caused a 50% reduction in HuWa1 cell viability (EC{sub 50} value) was approximately six times greater than the EC{sub 50} value for the same chemical measured with human dermal fibroblasts. HuWa1 exposed to a natural, p,p′-DDE-containing, chemical mixture extracted from whale blubber showed distinctively higher sensitivity than to p,p′-DDE alone

  9. Establishment of the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines and their application in chemical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkard, Michael; Whitworth, Deanne; Schirmer, Kristin; Nash, Susan Bengtson

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We established and characterised the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. • Cell lines have a stable karyotype with 2n = 44. • Exposure to p,p′-DDE resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. • p,p′-DDE sensitivity differed considerably from human fibroblasts. • Exposure to a whale blubber extract showed higher sensitivity than to p,p′-DDE alone. - Abstract: This paper reports the first successful derivation and characterization of humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. Primary fibroblasts were isolated from the dermal connective tissue of skin biopsies, cultured at 37 °C and 5% CO_2 in the standard mammalian medium DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Of nine initial biopsies, two cell lines were established from two different animals and designated HuWa1 and HuWa2. The cells have a stable karyotype with 2n = 44, which has commonly been observed in other baleen whale species. Cells were verified as being fibroblasts based on their spindle-shaped morphology, adherence to plastic and positive immunoreaction to vimentin. Population doubling time was determined to be ∼41 h and cells were successfully cryopreserved and thawed. To date, HuWa1 cells have been propagated 30 times. Cells proliferate at the tested temperatures, 30, 33.5 and 37 °C, but show the highest rate of proliferation at 37 °C. Short-term exposure to para,para′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), a priority compound accumulating in southern hemisphere humpback whales, resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. The effective concentration which caused a 50% reduction in HuWa1 cell viability (EC_5_0 value) was approximately six times greater than the EC_5_0 value for the same chemical measured with human dermal fibroblasts. HuWa1 exposed to a natural, p,p′-DDE-containing, chemical mixture extracted from whale blubber showed distinctively higher sensitivity than to p,p′-DDE alone. Thus, we

  10. Inhibition of Breast Cancer Progression by Blocking Heterocellular Contact Between Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    tumor cells and fibroblasts in co-cultures.14 More recently, cell– polymer suspensions microinjected in collagen gels have been used to form 3D cell...Spaink, B. van de Water and E. H. J. Danen, Automated microinjection of cell- polymer suspensions in 3D ECM scaffolds for high-through- put quantitative...operation The microfluidic devices were fabricated using multilayered SU-8 molds and PDMS- based soft-lithography. In brief, three layers of SU8 -100

  11. Cell cycle progression in irradiated endothelial cells cultured from bovine aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, D.B.; Drab, E.A.; Ward, W.F.; Bauer, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    Logarithmically growing endothelial cells from bovine aortas were exposed to single doses of 0-10 Gy of 60Co gamma rays, and cell cycle phase distribution and progression were examined by flow cytometry and autoradiography. In some experiments, cells were synchronized in the cell cycle with hydroxyurea (1 mM). Cell number in sham-irradiated control cultures doubled in approximately 24 h. Estimated cycle stage times for control cells were 14.4 h for G1 phase, 7.2 h for S phase, and 2.4 h for G2 + M phase. Irradiated cells demonstrated a reduced distribution at the G1/S phase border at 4 h, and an increased distribution in G2 + M phase at 24 h postirradiation. Autoradiographs of irradiated cells after continuous [3H]thymidine labeling indicated a block in G1 phase or at the G1/S-phase border. The duration of the block was dose dependent (2-3 min/cGy). Progression of the endothelial cells through S phase after removal of the hydroxyurea block also was retarded by irradiation, as demonstrated by increased distribution in early S phase and decreased distribution in late S phase. These results indicate that progression of asynchronous cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells through the DNA synthetic cycle is susceptible to radiation inhibition at specific sites in the cycle, resulting in redistribution and partial synchronization of the population. Thus aortic endothelial cells, diploid cells from a normal tissue, resemble many immortal cell types that have been examined in this regard in vitro

  12. The Use of Endothelial Progenitor Cells for the Regeneration of Musculoskeletal and Neural Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Kamei, Naosuke; Atesok, Kivanc; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from bone marrow and blood can differentiate into endothelial cells and promote neovascularization. In addition, EPCs are a promising cell source for the repair of various types of vascularized tissues and have been used in animal experiments and clinical trials for tissue repair. In this review, we focused on the kinetics of endogenous EPCs during tissue repair and the application of EPCs or stem cell populations containing EPCs for tissue regenera...

  13. Modulation of cellular phosphoprotein profiles in transformation and redifferentiation of murine and embryonic fibroblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, Subhas; Brattain, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Cellular phosphoprotein profiles from normal mouse embryonic fibroblast AKR-2B cells were compared to those of their permanently, chemically transformed malignant counterparts AKR-MCA cells, and AKR-2B cells reversibly transformed by transforming growth factor (AKR-TGF). Similar 32 P-phosphorylation profiles were observed for both the AKR-TGF and AKR-MCA cells which were distinct from that of the normal AKR-2B cells. Dimethylformamide (DMF)-induced differentiation of the AKR-MCA cells resulted in restoration of the normal AKR-2B phosphorylation profile to the malignant AKR-MCA cells. (author)

  14. Coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Park, Sahng Wook; Kim, Hojeong; Park, Sang-Kyu; Yoon, Dojun

    2010-01-01

    Mouse or human fibroblasts are commonly used as feeder cells to prevent differentiation in stem or primary cell culture. In the present study, we addressed whether fibroblasts can affect the differentiation of adipocytes. We found that the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was strongly suppressed when the cells were cocultured with human fibroblast (BJ) cells. BrdU incorporation analysis indicated that mitotic clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis, was not affected by BJ cells. The 3T3-L1 cell expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and Krueppel-like factor 15, but not those of C/EBPβ or C/EBPδ, were decreased by coculture with BJ cells. When mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cocultured with BJ cells, their lipid contents were significantly reduced, with decreased fatty acid synthase expression and increased phosphorylated form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1. Our data indicate that coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the lipogenesis of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  15. Impact of diabetic serum on endothelial cells: An in-vitro-analysis of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzel, Daniela; Lehle, Karla; Haubner, Frank; Schmid, Christof; Birnbaum, Dietrich E.; Preuner, Juergen G.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic endothelial dysfunction was characterized by altered levels of adhesion molecules and cytokines. Aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of diabetic serum on cell-growth and proinflammatory markers in human saphenous vein endothelial cells (HSVEC) from diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Diabetic serum showed (1) complementary proliferative activity for non-diabetic and diabetic HSVEC, (2) unchanged surface expression of adhesion molecules, and (3) elevated levels of sICAM-1 in HSVEC of all donors. The concentration of sVCAM-1 was increased only in diabetic cells. The proinflammatory state of diabetic HSVEC characterized by increased levels of cytokines was compensated. We concluded that even under normoglycemic conditions the serum itself contains critical factors leading to abnormal regulation of inflammation in diabetics. We introduced an in vitro model of diabetes representing the endothelial situation at the beginning of diabetes (non-diabetic cells/diabetic serum) as well as the diabetic chronic state (diabetic cells/diabetic serum)

  16. Cell-contact-dependent activation of CD4+ T cells by adhesion molecules on synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masato; Hashimoto, Motomu; Matsuo, Takashi; Fujii, Takao; Furu, Moritoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Jun; Ito, Yoshinaga; Akizuki, Shuji; Nakashima, Ran; Imura, Yoshitaka; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Ohmura, Koichiro; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2017-05-01

    To determine how cell-cell contact with synovial fibroblasts (SF) influence on the proliferation and cytokine production of CD4 +  T cells. Naïve CD4 +  T cells were cultured with SF from rheumatoid arthritis patients, stimulated by anti-CD3/28 antibody, and CD4 +  T cell proliferation and IFN-γ/IL-17 production were analyzed. To study the role of adhesion molecules, cell contact was blocked by transwell plate or anti-intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) antibody. To study the direct role of adhesion molecules for CD4 +  T cells, CD161 +  or CD161 - naïve CD4 +  T cells were stimulated on plastic plates coated by recombinant ICAM-1 or VCAM-1, and the source of IFN-γ/IL-17 were analyzed. SF enhanced naïve CD4 +  T cell proliferation and IFN-γ/IL-17 production in cell-contact and in part ICAM-1-/VCAM-1-dependent manner. Plate-coated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 enhanced naïve CD4 +  T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, while VCAM-1 efficiently promoting IL-17 production. CD161 +  naïve T cells upregulating LFA-1 and VLA-4 were the major source of IFN-γ/IL-17 upon interaction with ICAM-1/VCAM-1. CD4 +  T cells rapidly expand and secrete IFN-γ/IL-17 upon cell-contact with SF via adhesion molecules. Interfering with ICAM-1-/VCAM-1 may be beneficial for inhibiting RA synovitis.

  17. Towards a Biohybrid Lung: Endothelial Cells Promote Oxygen Transfer through Gas Permeable Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Sarah; Finocchiaro, Nicole; Donay, Christine; Thiebes, Anja Lena; Hesselmann, Felix; Arens, Jutta; Djeljadini, Suzana; Wessling, Matthias; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Cornelissen, Christian Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    In patients with respiratory failure, extracorporeal lung support can ensure the vital gas exchange via gas permeable membranes but its application is restricted by limited long-term stability and hemocompatibility of the gas permeable membranes, which are in contact with the blood. Endothelial cells lining these membranes promise physiological hemocompatibility and should enable prolonged application. However, the endothelial cells increase the diffusion barrier of the blood-gas interface and thus affect gas transfer. In this study, we evaluated how the endothelial cells affect the gas exchange to optimize performance while maintaining an integral cell layer. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were seeded on gas permeable cell culture membranes and cultivated in a custom-made bioreactor. Oxygen transfer rates of blank and endothelialized membranes in endothelial culture medium were determined. Cell morphology was assessed by microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Both setups provided oxygenation of the test fluid featuring small standard deviations of the measurements. Throughout the measuring range, the endothelial cells seem to promote gas transfer to a certain extent exceeding the blank membranes gas transfer performance by up to 120%. Although the underlying principles hereof still need to be clarified, the results represent a significant step towards the development of a biohybrid lung.

  18. N-Isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidylmethacrylate as a Thermoresponsive Substrate for Corneal Endothelial Cell Sheet Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette K. Madathil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial keratoplasty is a recent shift in the surgical treatment of corneal endothelial dystrophies, where the dysfunctional endothelium is replaced whilst retaining the unaffected corneal layers. To overcome the limitation of donor corneal shortage, alternative use of tissue engineered constructs is being researched. Tissue constructs with intact extracellular matrix are generated using stimuli responsive polymers. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of using the thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidylmethacrylate polymer as a culture surface to harvest viable corneal endothelial cell sheets. Incubation below the lower critical solution temperature of the polymer allowed the detachment of the intact endothelial cell sheet. Phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy revealed the intact architecture, cobble stone morphology, and cell-to-cell contact in the retrieved cell sheet. Strong extracellular matrix deposition was also observed. The RT-PCR analysis confirmed functionally active endothelial cells in the cell sheet as evidenced by the positive expression of aquaporin 1, collagen IV, Na+-K+ ATPase, and FLK-1. Na+-K+ ATPase protein expression was also visualized by immunofluorescence staining. These results suggest that the in-house developed thermoresponsive culture dish is a suitable substrate for the generation of intact corneal endothelial cell sheet towards transplantation for endothelial keratoplasty.

  19. In vitro study for laser gene transfer in BHK-21 fibroblast cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, M.; Salem, D. S.; Salama, M. S.; Badr, Y.

    2009-02-01

    Modifications to our previously introduced system for laser microbeam cell surgery were carried out in the present work to match animal cells. These modifications included: 1- Using other laser system that used before, Excimer laser with 193 and 308 nm wavelengths. The used laser here, is He-Cd with low power and 441.5 nm wavelength in the visible region. 2- Instead of using pulsed laser, we used here CW He-Cd chopped by electrical chopper, which is synchronized with the mechanical motion of the mobile stage with step 40 microns, according to cell dimensions to avoid puncturing the same cell twice. The advantages of the modified here laser setup for gene transfer is: it is less damaging to the sensitive animal cell which has thin cell membrane. The present work aimed to: 1- Design a modified laser microbeam cell surgery, applicable to animal cells, such as fibroblast cells 2- To examine the efficiency of such system. 3- To assure gene transfer and its expression in the used cells. 4- To evaluate the ultra damages produced from using the laser beam as a modality for gene transfer. On the other wards, to introduce: safe, efficient and less damaging modality for gene transfer in animal cells. To achieve these goals, we applied the introduced here home-made laser setup with its synchronized parameters to introduce pBK-CMV phagemid, containing LacZ and neomycin resistance (neor )genes into BHK-21 fibroblast cell line. The results of the present work showed that: 1- Our modified laser microbeam cell surgery setup proved to be useful and efficient tool for gene transfer into fibroblast cells. 2- The presence and expression of LacZ gene was achieved using histochemical LacZ assay. 3- Selection of G418 antibiotic sensitivity assay confirmed the presence and expression towards stability of neor gene with time. 4- Presence of LacZ and neor genes in the genomic DNA of transfected fibroblast cells was indicated using PCR analysis. 5- Transmission electron microscopy indicated

  20. Biophysical Assessment of Single Cell Cytotoxicity: Diesel Exhaust Particle-Treated Human Aortic Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yangzhe; Yu, Tian; Gilbertson, Timothy A.; Zhou, Anhong; Xu, Hao; Nguyen, Kytai Truong

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a major source of traffic-related air pollution, has become a serious health concern due to its adverse influences on human health including cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. To elucidate the relationship between biophysical properties (cell topography, cytoskeleton organizations, and cell mechanics) and functions of endothelial cells exposed to DEPs, atomic force microscope (AFM) was applied to analyze the toxic effects of DEPs on a model ...

  1. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor with AZD4547 mitigates juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tran; New, Jacob; Jones, Joel W; Usman, Shireen; Yalamanchali, Sreeya; Tawfik, Ossama; Hoover, Larry; Bruegger, Dan E; Thomas, Sufi Mary

    2017-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a benign tumor that presents in adolescent males. Although surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment, recurrences complicate treatment. There is a need to develop less invasive approac