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Sample records for fibroblast cell proliferation

  1. Cell proliferation in vitro modulates fibroblast collagenase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, W.J.; Flood, L.

    1986-01-01

    Collagenase enzyme activity is regulated by numerous control mechanisms which prevent excessive release and activation of this protease. A primary mechanism for regulating enzyme extracellular activity may be linked to cell division, therefore they have examined the release of collagenase by fibroblasts in vitro in response to cellular proliferation. Studies were performed using fibroblasts derived from adult rat dermis maintained in DMEM containing 10% newborn calf serum, 25 mM tricine buffer, and antibiotics. Cells between subculture 10 and 19 were used with enzyme activity determined with a 14 C-labelled soluble Type I collagen substrate with and without trypsin activation. Fibroblasts, trypsinized and plated at low density secreted 8.5 fold more enzyme than those cells at confluence (975 vs. 115 dpm/μg DNA). This diminution occurred gradually as the cells went from logrithmic growth towards confluence. Confluent fibroblast monolayers were scraped in a grid arrangement, stimulating the remaining cells to divide, without exposure to trypsin. Within 24-48 hr postscraping enzyme levels had increased 260-400%, accompanied by enhanced incorporation of 3 H-thymidine and 3 H-uridine into cell macromolecules. The burst of enzyme release began to subside 12 hr later. These results support a close relationship between fibroblast proliferation and collagenase secretion

  2. Identification of colonic fibroblast secretomes reveals secretory factors regulating colon cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sun-Xia; Xu, Xiao-En; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Cui, Shu-Jian; Xu, Lei-Lei; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Qian; Qiao, Jie; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Feng

    2014-10-14

    Stromal microenvironment influences tumor cell proliferation and migration. Fibroblasts represent the most abundant stromal constituents. Here, we established two pairs of normal fibroblast (NF) and cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cultures from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and the normal counterparts. The NFs and CAFs were stained positive for typical fibroblast markers and inhibited colon cancer (CC) cell proliferation in in vitro cocultures and in xenograft mouse models. The fibroblast conditioned media were analyzed using LC-MS and 227 proteins were identified at a false discovery rate of 1.3%, including 131 putative secretory and 20 plasma membrane proteins. These proteins were enriched for functional categories of extracellular matrix, adhesion, cell motion, inflammatory response, redox homeostasis and peptidase inhibitor. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, transgelin, follistatin-related protein 1 (FSTL1) and decorin was abundant in the fibroblast secretome as confirmed by Western blot. Silencing of FSTL1 and transgelin in colonic fibroblast cell line CCD-18Co induced an accelerated proliferation of CC cells in cocultures. Exogenous FSTL1 attenuates CC cell proliferation in a negative fashion. FSTL1 was upregulated in CC patient plasma and cancerous tissues but had no implication in prognosis. Our results provided novel insights into the molecular signatures and modulatory role of CC associated fibroblasts. In this study, a label-free LC-MS was performed to analyze the secretomes of two paired primary fibroblasts, which were isolated from fresh surgical specimen of colorectal adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal colonic tissues and exhibited negative modulatory activity for colon cancer cell growth in in vitro cocultures and in vivo xenograph mouse models. Follistatin-related protein 1 was further revealed to be one of the stroma-derived factors of potential suppression role for colon cancer cell proliferation. Our results provide novel

  3. Breast fibroblasts modulate epithelial cell proliferation in three-dimensional in vitro co-culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadlonova, Andrea; Novak, Zdenek; Johnson, Martin R; Bowe, Damon B; Gault, Sandra R; Page, Grier P; Thottassery, Jaideep V; Welch, Danny R; Frost, Andra R

    2005-01-01

    Stromal fibroblasts associated with in situ and invasive breast carcinoma differ phenotypically from fibroblasts associated with normal breast epithelium, and these alterations in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) may promote breast carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A better understanding of the changes that occur in fibroblasts during carcinogenesis and their influence on epithelial cell growth and behavior could lead to novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. To this end, the effect of CAF and normal breast-associated fibroblasts (NAF) on the growth of epithelial cells representative of pre-neoplastic breast disease was assessed. NAF and CAF were grown with the nontumorigenic MCF10A epithelial cells and their more transformed, tumorigenic derivative, MCF10AT cells, in direct three-dimensional co-cultures on basement membrane material. The proliferation and apoptosis of MCF10A cells and MCF10AT cells were assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling and TUNEL assay, respectively. Additionally, NAF and CAF were compared for expression of insulin-like growth factor II as a potential mediator of their effects on epithelial cell growth, by ELISA and by quantitative, real-time PCR. In relatively low numbers, both NAF and CAF suppressed proliferation of MCF10A cells. However, only NAF and not CAF significantly inhibited proliferation of the more transformed MCF10AT cells. The degree of growth inhibition varied among NAF or CAF from different individuals. In greater numbers, NAF and CAF have less inhibitory effect on epithelial cell growth. The rate of epithelial cell apoptosis was not affected by NAF or CAF. Mean insulin-like growth factor II levels were not significantly different in NAF versus CAF and did not correlate with the fibroblast effect on epithelial cell proliferation. Both NAF and CAF have the ability to inhibit the growth of pre-cancerous breast epithelial cells. NAF have greater inhibitory capacity than CAF

  4. The depletion of nuclear glutathione impairs cell proliferation in 3t3 fibroblasts.

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    Jelena Markovic

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is considered essential for survival in mammalian cells and yeast but not in prokaryotic cells. The presence of a nuclear pool of glutathione has been demonstrated but its role in cellular proliferation and differentiation is still a matter of debate.We have studied proliferation of 3T3 fibroblasts for a period of 5 days. Cells were treated with two well known depleting agents, diethyl maleate (DEM and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, and the cellular and nuclear glutathione levels were assessed by analytical and confocal microscopic techniques, respectively. Both agents decreased total cellular glutathione although depletion by BSO was more sustained. However, the nuclear glutathione pool resisted depletion by BSO but not with DEM. Interestingly, cell proliferation was impaired by DEM, but not by BSO. Treating the cells simultaneously with DEM and with glutathione ethyl ester to restore intracellular GSH levels completely prevented the effects of DEM on cell proliferation.Our results demonstrate the importance of nuclear glutathione in the control of cell proliferation in 3T3 fibroblasts and suggest that a reduced nuclear environment is necessary for cells to progress in the cell cycle.

  5. Sprouty2 controls proliferation of palate mesenchymal cells via fibroblast growth factor signaling

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    Matsumura, Kaori [Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Oncology, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Taketomi, Takaharu, E-mail: taketomi@dent.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Oncology, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Keigo [Section of Orthodontics, Division of Oral Health, Growth and Development, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Arai, Shinsaku [Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Oncology, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sanui, Terukazu [Section of Periodontology, Division of Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yoshiga, Daigo [Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Oncology, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yoshimura, Akihiko [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Nakamura, Seiji [Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Oncology, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Sprouty2-deficient mice exhibit cleft palate as a result of failure of palatal shelf elevation. {yields} We examined palate cell proliferation in Sprouty2-deficient mice. {yields} Palate mesenchymal cell proliferation was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice. {yields} Sprouty2 plays roles in murine palatogenesis by regulating cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Cleft palate is one of the most common craniofacial deformities. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays a central role in reciprocal interactions between adjacent tissues during palatal development, and the FGF signaling pathway has been shown to be inhibited by members of the Sprouty protein family. In this study, we report the incidence of cleft palate, possibly caused by failure of palatal shelf elevation, in Sprouty2-deficient (KO) mice. Sprouty2-deficient palates fused completely in palatal organ culture. However, palate mesenchymal cell proliferation estimated by Ki-67 staining was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice compared with WT mice. Sprouty2-null palates expressed higher levels of FGF target genes, such as Msx1, Etv5, and Ptx1 than WT controls. Furthermore, proliferation and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation in response to FGF was enhanced in palate mesenchymal cells transfected with Sprouty2 small interfering RNA. These results suggest that Sprouty2 regulates palate mesenchymal cell proliferation via FGF signaling and is involved in palatal shelf elevation.

  6. Sprouty2 controls proliferation of palate mesenchymal cells via fibroblast growth factor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kaori; Taketomi, Takaharu; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Arai, Shinsaku; Sanui, Terukazu; Yoshiga, Daigo; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Nakamura, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sprouty2-deficient mice exhibit cleft palate as a result of failure of palatal shelf elevation. → We examined palate cell proliferation in Sprouty2-deficient mice. → Palate mesenchymal cell proliferation was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice. → Sprouty2 plays roles in murine palatogenesis by regulating cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Cleft palate is one of the most common craniofacial deformities. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays a central role in reciprocal interactions between adjacent tissues during palatal development, and the FGF signaling pathway has been shown to be inhibited by members of the Sprouty protein family. In this study, we report the incidence of cleft palate, possibly caused by failure of palatal shelf elevation, in Sprouty2-deficient (KO) mice. Sprouty2-deficient palates fused completely in palatal organ culture. However, palate mesenchymal cell proliferation estimated by Ki-67 staining was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice compared with WT mice. Sprouty2-null palates expressed higher levels of FGF target genes, such as Msx1, Etv5, and Ptx1 than WT controls. Furthermore, proliferation and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation in response to FGF was enhanced in palate mesenchymal cells transfected with Sprouty2 small interfering RNA. These results suggest that Sprouty2 regulates palate mesenchymal cell proliferation via FGF signaling and is involved in palatal shelf elevation.

  7. Increased p21ras activity in human fibroblasts transduced with survivin enhances cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temme, Achim; Diestelkoetter-Bachert, Petra; Schmitz, Marc; Morgenroth, Agnieszka; Weigle, Bernd; Rieger, Michael A.; Kiessling, Andrea; Rieber, E. Peter

    2005-01-01

    Survivin is critically involved in mitosis and when overexpressed enhances the activity of the Aurora B kinase, a serine-threonine kinase belonging to the family of oncogenic Aurora/IpI1p-related kinases. Both proteins interact with Ras GTPase-activating protein suggesting an impact on the Ras pathway. This study aimed at defining the role of survivin in proliferation and potential transformation of cells. When survivin was overexpressed in normal human lung fibroblasts, the characteristic track lanes of fibroblasts were disturbed and the rate of cell proliferation was increased. An enhanced level of p21 ras mRNA and protein expression and concomitant rise in levels of activated p21 ras were observed. Despite increased proliferation cell survival remained dependent on serum and cells were not able to form colonies in soft agar assays. These data suggest that overexpression of survivin increases cell growth but, despite the increase in active p21 ras , is not sufficient to transform primary cells. Yet, in addition to its anti-apoptotic function it might contribute to the accelerated growth of tumour cells by increasing p21 ras activity

  8. Asiaticoside induces cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts

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    Linda Yulianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Asiatiocoside, a saponin component isolated from Centella asiatica can improve wound healing by promoting the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF and synthesis of collagen. The skin-renewing cells and type I and III collagen synthesis decrease with aging, resulting in the reduction of skin elasticity and delayed wound healing. Usage of natural active compounds from plants in wound healing should be evaluated and compared to retinoic acid as an active agent that regulates wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the effect of asiaticoside and retinoic acid to induce greater cell proliferation and type I and III collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblast. Methods Laboratory experiments were conducted using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF isolated from human foreskin explants. Seven passages of HDF were treated with asiaticoside and retinoic acid at several doses and incubated for 24 and 48 hours. Cell viability in all groups was tested with the MTT assay to assess HDF proliferation. Type I and III collagen synthesis was examined using the respective ELISA kits. Analysis of variance was performed to compare the treatment groups. Results Asiaticoside had significantly stronger effects on HDF proliferation than retinoic acid (p<0.05. The type III collagen production was significantly greater induction with asiaticoside compared to retinoic acid (p<0.05. Conclusion Asiaticoside induces HDF proliferation and type I and III collagen synthesis in a time- and dose-dependent pattern. Asiaticoside has a similar effect as retinoic acid on type I and type III collagen synthesis.

  9. The gene expression program of prostate fibroblast senescence modulates neoplastic epithelial cell proliferation through paracrine mechanisms.

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    Bavik, Claes; Coleman, Ilsa; Dean, James P; Knudsen, Beatrice; Plymate, Steven; Nelson, Peter S

    2006-01-15

    The greatest risk factor for developing carcinoma of the prostate is advanced age. Potential molecular and physiologic contributors to the frequency of cancer occurrence in older individuals include the accumulation of somatic mutations through defects in genome maintenance, epigenetic gene silencing, oxidative stress, loss of immune surveillance, telomere dysfunction, chronic inflammation, and alterations in tissue microenvironment. In this context, the process of prostate carcinogenesis can be influenced through interactions between intrinsic cellular alterations and the extrinsic microenvironment and macroenvironment, both of which change substantially as a consequence of aging. In this study, we sought to characterize the molecular alterations that occur during the process of prostate fibroblast senescence to identify factors in the aged tissue microenvironment capable of promoting the proliferation and potentially the neoplastic progression of prostate epithelium. We evaluated three mechanisms leading to cell senescence: oxidative stress, DNA damage, and replicative exhaustion. We identified a consistent program of gene expression that includes a subset of paracrine factors capable of influencing adjacent prostate epithelial growth. Both direct coculture and conditioned medium from senescent prostate fibroblasts stimulated epithelial cell proliferation, 3-fold and 2-fold, respectively. The paracrine-acting proteins fibroblast growth factor 7, hepatocyte growth factor, and amphiregulin (AREG) were elevated in the extracellular environment of senescent prostate fibroblasts. Exogenous AREG alone stimulated prostate epithelial cell growth, and neutralizing antibodies and small interfering RNA targeting AREG attenuated, but did not completely abrogate the growth-promoting effects of senescent fibroblast conditioned medium. These results support the concept that aging-related changes in the prostate microenvironment may contribute to the progression of prostate

  10. Induction of growth and proliferation of fibroblast cells in magnetic field

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    Naghmeh Ezatti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue engineering is generally defined as developing and changing the laboratory growth of molecules and cells in tissues or organs to replace and repair the damaged part of body. This study was carried out to stimulate the growth of cultured fibroblast cells by a physical electromagnetic method. Methods: First, an air-core coil was prepared and the cell culture plate was placed comfortably into the mold, then the plate containing the culture medium and human fibroblast cell along with air-core coil were placed in an incubator and then connected to the power supply. Thus, the sample underwent electromagnetic field at different times, and cell proliferation was studied by MTTassay. Results: Microscopic images indicated that the cells undergoing electromagnetic field (0.35 amps had a significant growth compared to the cells in control group in a definit range of stimulation. Conclusion: In conclusion, electromagnetic stimulation in a definite range led to cell proliferation and could be used as a positive factor in tissue engineering.

  11. Identification of molecules derived from human fibroblast feeder cells that support the proliferation of human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anisimov, Sergey V.; Christophersen, Nicolaj S.; Correia, Ana S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of human embryonic stem cell lines depend on a feeder cell layer for continuous growth in vitro, so that they can remain in an undifferentiated state. Limited knowledge is available concerning the molecular mechanisms that underlie the capacity of feeder cells to support both...... the proliferation and pluripotency of these cells. Importantly, feeder cells generally lose their capacity to support human embryonic stem cell proliferation in vitro following long-term culture. In this study, we performed large-scale gene expression profiles of human foreskin fibroblasts during early...... foreskin fibroblasts to serve as feeder cells for human embryonic stem cell cultures. Among these, the C-KIT, leptin and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) genes were the most interesting candidates....

  12. Inhibition of proliferation and migration of stricture fibroblasts by epithelial cell-conditioned media

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    Nilima Nath

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: These results demonstrate the ability of ECCM to inhibit the proliferation and migration of stricture fibroblasts and present it as an effective adjunct in urethroplasty, which may influence stricture wound healing and inhibit the recurrence of stricture.

  13. Effects of Mechanical Stretch on Cell Proliferation and Matrix Formation of Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fibroblast

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    Liguo Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and fibroblasts are two major seed cells for ligament tissue engineering. To understand the effects of mechanical stimulation on these cells and to develop effective approaches for cell therapy, it is necessary to investigate the biological effects of various mechanical loading conditions on cells. In this study, fibroblasts and MSCs were tested and compared under a novel Uniflex/Bioflex culture system that might mimic mechanical strain in ligament tissue. The cells were uniaxially or radially stretched with different strains (5%, 10%, and 15% at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Hz. The cell proliferation and collagen production were compared to find the optimal parameters. The results indicated that uniaxial stretch (15% at 0.5 Hz; 10% at 1.0 Hz showed positive effects on fibroblast. The uniaxial strains (5%, 10%, and 15% at 0.5 Hz and 10% strain at 1.0 Hz were favorable for MSCs. Radial strain did not have significant effect on fibroblast. On the contrary, the radial strains (5%, 10%, and 15% at 0.1 Hz had positive effects on MSCs. This study suggested that fibroblasts and MSCs had their own appropriate mechanical stimulatory parameters. These specific parameters potentially provide fundamental knowledge for future cell-based ligament regeneration.

  14. Seminal plasma induces global transcriptomic changes associated with cell migration, proliferation and viability in endometrial epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Joseph C.; Johnson, Brittni A.; Erikson, David W.; Piltonen, Terhi T.; Barragan, Fatima; Chu, Simon; Kohgadai, Nargis; Irwin, Juan C.; Greene, Warner C.; Giudice, Linda C.; Roan, Nadia R.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How does seminal plasma (SP) affect the transcriptome of human primary endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF)? SUMMARY ANSWER Exposure of eEC and eSF to SP in vitro increases expression of genes and secreted proteins associated with cellular migration, proliferation, viability and inhibition of cell death. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Studies in both humans and animals suggest that SP can access and induce physiological changes in the upper female reproductiv...

  15. Effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor on the proliferation and radiation survival of human fibroblast cell lines in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Sook; Kang, Ki Mun; Na, Jae Boem; Chai, Gyu Young; Lee, Sang Wook

    2006-01-01

    To explore the effect of recombinant human EGF on the proliferation and survival of human fibroblast cell lines following irradiation. Fibroblast was originated human skin and primary cultured. The trypan blue stain assay and MTT assay were used to study the proliferative effects of EGF on human fibroblast cell lines in vitro. An incubation of fibroblasts with rhEGF for 24 hours immediately after irradiation was counted everyday. Cell cycle distributions were analyzed by FACS analysis. Number of fibroblast was significant more increased rhEGF (1.0 nM, 10 nM, 100 nM, 1,000 nM) treated cell than control after 8 Gy irradiation. Most effective dose of rhEGF was at 160 nM. These survival differences were maintained at 1 week later. Proportion of S phase was significantly increased on rhEGF treated cells. rhEGF cause increased fibroblast proliferation following irradiation. We expect that rhEGF was effective for radiation induced wound healing

  16. Proliferation-promoting effect of platelet-rich plasma on human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts.

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    Kakudo, Natsuko; Minakata, Tatsuya; Mitsui, Toshihito; Kushida, Satoshi; Notodihardjo, Frederik Zefanya; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2008-11-01

    This study evaluated changes in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 release from platelets by platelet-rich plasma activation, and the proliferation potential of activated platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma on human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. Platelet-rich plasma was prepared using a double-spin method, with the number of platelets counted in each preparation stage. Platelet-rich and platelet-poor plasma were activated with autologous thrombin and calcium chloride, and levels of platelet-released PDGF-AB and TGF-beta1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cells were cultured for 1, 4, or 7 days in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with 5% whole blood plasma, nonactivated platelet-rich plasma, nonactivated platelet-poor plasma, activated platelet-rich plasma, or activated platelet-poor plasma. In parallel, these cells were cultured for 1, 4, or 7 days in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with 1%, 5%, 10%, or 20% activated platelet-rich plasma. The cultured human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts were assayed for proliferation. Platelet-rich plasma contained approximately 7.9 times as many platelets as whole blood, and its activation was associated with the release of large amounts of PDGF-AB and TGF-beta1. Adding activated platelet-rich or platelet-poor plasma significantly promoted the proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. Adding 5% activated platelet-rich plasma to the medium maximally promoted cell proliferation, but activated platelet-rich plasma at 20% did not promote it. Platelet-rich plasma can enhance the proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. These results support clinical platelet-rich plasma application for cell-based, soft-tissue engineering and wound healing.

  17. Low-Dose Radiation Induces Cell Proliferation in Human Embryonic Lung Fibroblasts but not in Lung Cancer Cells

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    Xinyue Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormesis and adaptive responses are 2 important biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation (LDR. In normal tissue, LDR induces hormesis as evinced by increased cell proliferation; however, whether LDR also increases tumor cell proliferation needs to be investigated. In this study, cell proliferation was assayed by total cell numbers and the Cell Counting Kit 8 assay. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3′ -kinase(PI3K-Akt (PI3K/AKT phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Human embryonic lung fibroblast 2BS and lung cancer NCI-H446 cell lines were irradiated with LDR at different doses (20-100 mGy. In response to 20 to 75 mGy X-rays, cell proliferation was significantly increased in 2BS but not in NCI-H446 cells. In 2BS cells, LDR at 20 to 75 mGy also stimulated phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK pathway proteins including ERK, MEK, and Raf and of the PI3K/AKT pathway protein AKT. To test whether ERK1/2 and AKT pathway activation was involved in the stimulation of cell proliferation in 2BS cells, the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways were inhibited using their specific inhibitors, U0126 and LY294002. U0126 decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and LY294002 decreased the phosphorylation of AKT; each could significantly inhibit LDR-induced 2BS cell proliferation. However, LDR did not stimulate these kinases, and kinase inhibitors also did not affect cell proliferation in the NCI-H446 cells. These results suggest that LDR stimulates cell proliferation via the activation of both MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in 2BS but not in NCI-H446 cells. This finding implies the potential for applying LDR to protect normal tissues from radiotherapy without diminishing the efficacy of tumor therapy.

  18. Multivalent conjugates of basic fibroblast growth factor enhance in vitro proliferation and migration of endothelial cells.

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    Zbinden, Aline; Browne, Shane; Altiok, Eda I; Svedlund, Felicia L; Jackson, Wesley M; Healy, Kevin E

    2018-05-01

    Growth factors hold great promise for regenerative therapies. However, their clinical use has been halted by poor efficacy and rapid clearance from tissue, necessitating the delivery of extremely high doses to achieve clinical effectiveness which has raised safety concerns. Thus, strategies to either enhance growth factor activity at low doses or to increase their residence time within target tissues are necessary for clinical success. In this study, we generated multivalent conjugates (MVCs) of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a key growth factor involved in angiogenesis and wound healing, to hyaluronic acid (HyA) polymer chains. Multivalent bFGF conjugates (mvbFGF) were fabricated with minimal non-specific interaction observed between bFGF and the HyA chain. The hydrodynamic radii of mvbFGF ranged from ∼50 to ∼75 nm for conjugation ratios of bFGF to HyA chains at low (10 : 1) and high (30 : 1) feed ratios, respectively. The mvbFGF demonstrated enhanced bioactivity compared to unconjugated bFGF in assays of cell proliferation and migration, processes critical to angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. The 30 : 1 mvbFGF outperformed the 10 : 1 conjugate, which could be due to either FGF receptor clustering or interference with receptor mediated internalization and signal deactivation. This study simultaneously investigated the role of both protein to polymer ratio and multivalent conjugate size on their bioactivity, and determined that increasing the protein-to-polymer ratio and conjugate size resulted in greater cell bioactivity.

  19. Basic fibroblast growth factor enhances cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

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    Zhu, Huan; Qiao, Lixing; Sun, Yao; Yin, Liping; Huang, Li; Jiang, Li; Li, Jiaqing

    2018-04-23

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult is considered a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity and leads to neurological deficits in newborn infants. There has been a lack of promising neurotherapeutic interventions for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) for clinical application in infants. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between neurogenesis and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region in neonatal rats following HIBD. Cell proliferation was examined by detecting BrdU signals, and the role of bFGF in cell proliferation in the DG region following neonatal HIBD was investigated. Cell proliferation was induced by HIBD in the hippocampal DG of neonatal rats. Furthermore, bFGF gene expression was upregulated in the hippocampus in neonatal rats, particularly between 7 and 14 days after HIBD. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of exogenous bFGF enhanced cell proliferation in the hippocampal DG following neonatal HIBD. Taken together, these data indicate that cell proliferation in the DG could be induced by neonatal HIBD, and bFGF promotes proliferation following neonatal HIBD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Proliferating fibroblasts and HeLa cells co-cultured in vitro reciprocally influence growth patterns, protein expression, chromatin features and cell survival.

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    Delinasios, John G; Angeli, Flora; Koumakis, George; Kumar, Shant; Kang, Wen-Hui; Sica, Gigliola; Iacopino, Fortunata; Lama, Gina; Lamprecht, Sergio; Sigal-Batikoff, Ina; Tsangaris, George T; Farfarelos, Christos D; Farfarelos, Maria C; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Vassiliou, Stavros; Delinasios, George J

    2015-04-01

    to identify biological interactions between proliferating fibroblasts and HeLa cells in vitro. Fibroblasts were isolated from both normal and tumour human tissues. Coverslip co-cultures of HeLa and fibroblasts in various ratios with medium replacement every 48 h were studied using fixed cell staining with dyes such as Giemsa and silver staining, with immunochemistry for Ki-67 and E-cadherin, with dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme reaction, as well as live cell staining for non-specific esterases and lipids. Other techniques included carmine cell labeling, autoradiography and apoptosis assessment. Under conditions of feeding and cell: cell ratios allowing parallel growth of human fibroblasts and HeLa cells, co-cultured for up to 20 days, a series of phenomena occur consecutively: profound affinity between the two cell types and exchange of small molecules; encircling of the HeLa colonies by the fibroblasts and enhanced growth of both cell types at their contact areas; expression of carbonic anhydrase in both cell types and high expression of non-specific esterases and cytoplasmic argyrophilia in the surrounding fibroblasts; intense production and secretion of lipid droplets by the surrounding fibroblasts; development of a complex net of argyrophilic projections of the fibroblasts; E-cadherin expression in the HeLa cells; from the 10th day onwards, an increasing detachment of batches of HeLa cells at the peripheries of colonies and appearance of areas with many multi-nucleated and apoptotic HeLa cells, and small HeLa fragments; from the 17th day, appearance of fibroblasts blocked at the G2-M phase. Co-cultures at approximately 17-20 days display a cell-cell fight with foci of (a) sparse growth of both cell types, (b) overgrowth of the fibroblasts and (c) regrowth of HeLa in small colonies. These results indicate that during their interaction with HeLa cells in vitro, proliferating fibroblasts can be activated against HeLa. This type of activation is not observed

  1. Enhancing proliferation and optimizing the culture condition for human bone marrow stromal cells using hypoxia and fibroblast growth factor-2

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    Jung-Seok Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the cellular characteristics and behaviors of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs expanded in media in a hypoxic or normoxic condition and with or without fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 treatment. hBMSCs isolated from the vertebral body and expanded in these four groups were evaluated for cellular proliferation/migration, colony-forming units, cell-surface characterization, in vitro differentiation, in vivo transplantation, and gene expression. Culturing hBMSCs using a particular environmental factor (hypoxia and with the addition of FGF-2 increased the cellular proliferation rate while enhancing the regenerative potential, modulated the multipotency-related processes (enhanced chondrogenesis-related processes/osteogenesis, but reduced adipogenesis, and increased cellular migration and collagen formation. The gene expression levels in the experimental samples showed activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 pathway and glycolysis in the hypoxic condition, with this not being affected by the addition of FGF-2. The concurrent application of hypoxia and FGF-2 could provide a favorable condition for culturing hBMSCs to be used in clinical applications associated with bone tissue engineering, due to the enhancement of cellular proliferation and regenerative potential. Keywords: Bone marrow stromal cells, Hypoxia, Fibroblast growth factor, Tissue regeneration, Microenvironment interactions

  2. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Stimulates the Proliferation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yu-Liang; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Ge, Wei; Wang, Yong-Yong; Dyce, Paul W; Hou, Rong; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It has been widely known that the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered species in the world. An optimized platform for maintaining the proliferation of giant panda mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is very necessary for current giant panda protection strategies. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a member of the FGF family, is widely considered as a growth factor and differentiation inducer within the stem cell research field. However, the role of bFGF on promoting the proliferation of MSCs derived from giant panda bone marrow (BM) has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of bFGF on the proliferation of BM-MSCs derived from giant panda. MSCs were cultured for cell proliferation analysis at 24, 48 and 72 hrs following the addition of bFGF. With increasing concentrations of bFGF, cell numbers gradually increased. This was further demonstrated by performing 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine (BrdU) labeling and cell cycle testing. Furthermore, the percentage of MSCs that were OCT4 positive increased slightly following treatment with 5 ng/ml bFGF. Moreover, we demonstrated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway may play an important role in the proliferation of panda MSCs stimulated by bFGF. In conclusion, this study suggests that giant panda BM-MSCs have a high proliferative capacity with the addition of 5 ng/ml bFGF in vitro.

  3. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Stimulates the Proliferation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yu-Liang; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Ge, Wei; Wang, Yong-Yong; Dyce, Paul W.; Hou, Rong; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It has been widely known that the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered species in the world. An optimized platform for maintaining the proliferation of giant panda mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is very necessary for current giant panda protection strategies. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a member of the FGF family, is widely considered as a growth factor and differentiation inducer within the stem cell research field. However, the role of bFGF on promoting the proliferation of MSCs derived from giant panda bone marrow (BM) has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of bFGF on the proliferation of BM-MSCs derived from giant panda. MSCs were cultured for cell proliferation analysis at 24, 48 and 72 hrs following the addition of bFGF. With increasing concentrations of bFGF, cell numbers gradually increased. This was further demonstrated by performing 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine (BrdU) labeling and cell cycle testing. Furthermore, the percentage of MSCs that were OCT4 positive increased slightly following treatment with 5 ng/ml bFGF. Moreover, we demonstrated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway may play an important role in the proliferation of panda MSCs stimulated by bFGF. In conclusion, this study suggests that giant panda BM-MSCs have a high proliferative capacity with the addition of 5 ng/ml bFGF in vitro. PMID:26375397

  4. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Stimulates the Proliferation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Wang

    Full Text Available It has been widely known that the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca is one of the most endangered species in the world. An optimized platform for maintaining the proliferation of giant panda mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is very necessary for current giant panda protection strategies. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, a member of the FGF family, is widely considered as a growth factor and differentiation inducer within the stem cell research field. However, the role of bFGF on promoting the proliferation of MSCs derived from giant panda bone marrow (BM has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of bFGF on the proliferation of BM-MSCs derived from giant panda. MSCs were cultured for cell proliferation analysis at 24, 48 and 72 hrs following the addition of bFGF. With increasing concentrations of bFGF, cell numbers gradually increased. This was further demonstrated by performing 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT cell proliferation assay, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine (BrdU labeling and cell cycle testing. Furthermore, the percentage of MSCs that were OCT4 positive increased slightly following treatment with 5 ng/ml bFGF. Moreover, we demonstrated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway may play an important role in the proliferation of panda MSCs stimulated by bFGF. In conclusion, this study suggests that giant panda BM-MSCs have a high proliferative capacity with the addition of 5 ng/ml bFGF in vitro.

  5. Bone marrow-derived fibroblast growth factor-2 induces glial cell proliferation in the regenerating peripheral nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-Resende Victor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the essential biological roles of bone marrow-derived cells, secretion of many soluble factors is included and these small molecules can act upon specific receptors present in many tissues including the nervous system. Some of the released molecules can induce proliferation of Schwann cells (SC, satellite cells and lumbar spinal cord astrocytes during early steps of regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve transection. These are the major glial cell types that support neuronal survival and axonal growth following peripheral nerve injury. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 is the main mitogenic factor for SCs and is released in large amounts by bone marrow-derived cells, as well as by growing axons and endoneurial fibroblasts during development and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS. Results Here we show that bone marrow-derived cell treatment induce an increase in the expression of FGF-2 in the sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglia and the dorsolateral (DL region of the lumbar spinal cord (LSC in a model of sciatic nerve transection and connection into a hollow tube. SCs in culture in the presence of bone marrow derived conditioned media (CM resulted in increased proliferation and migration. This effect was reduced when FGF-2 was neutralized by pretreating BMMC or CM with a specific antibody. The increased expression of FGF-2 was validated by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in co-cultures of bone marrow derived cells with sciatic nerve explants and regenerating nerve tissue respectivelly. Conclusion We conclude that FGF-2 secreted by BMMC strongly increases early glial proliferation, which can potentially improve PNS regeneration.

  6. Seminal plasma induces global transcriptomic changes associated with cell migration, proliferation and viability in endometrial epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph C; Johnson, Brittni A; Erikson, David W; Piltonen, Terhi T; Barragan, Fatima; Chu, Simon; Kohgadai, Nargis; Irwin, Juan C; Greene, Warner C; Giudice, Linda C; Roan, Nadia R

    2014-06-01

    How does seminal plasma (SP) affect the transcriptome of human primary endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF)? Exposure of eEC and eSF to SP in vitro increases expression of genes and secreted proteins associated with cellular migration, proliferation, viability and inhibition of cell death. Studies in both humans and animals suggest that SP can access and induce physiological changes in the upper female reproductive tract (FRT), which may participate in promoting reproductive success. This is a cross sectional study involving control samples versus treatment. SP (pooled from twenty donors) was first tested for dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on eEC and eSF (n = 4). As exposure of eEC or eSF to 1% SP for 6 h proved to be non-toxic, a second set of eEC/eSF samples (n = 4) was treated under these conditions for transcriptome, protein and functional analysis. With a third set of samples (n = 3), we further compared the transcriptional response of the cells to SP versus fresh semen. eEC and eSF were isolated from endometrial biopsies from women of reproductive age undergoing benign gynecologic procedures and maintained in vitro. RNA was isolated and processed for microarray studies to analyze global transcriptomic changes. Secreted factors in conditioned media from SP-treated cells were analyzed by Luminex and for the ability to stimulate migration of CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T cells. Pathway identifications were determined using the Z-scoring system in Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (Z scores ≥|1.5|). SP induced transcriptomic changes (P reproductive success, female reproductive health and susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. The gene list provided by the transcriptome analysis reported here should prove a valuable resource for understanding the response of the upper FRT to SP exposure. This project was supported by NIH AI083050-04 (W.C.G./L.C.G.); NIH U54HD 055764 (L.C.G.); NIH 1F32HD074423-02 (J.C.C.); DOD W81XWH-11

  7. Mechanistic study of DNA damage and radioprotection of small molecule treatment in the irradiated proliferating and quiescent human lung fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jiawen; Baskar, Rajamanickam

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an invaluable diagnostic and treatment tool used in various clinical applications and also in cancer control. However, assessing normal tissue injury is of a great interest. Since radiation sensitivity varies with different phases of cell cycle, understanding how these cells differ in their sensitivity will help to prevent or reduce the radiation injury. We have used both proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblast cells and investigated key proteins involved in the cell cycle, DNA damage and death, further the radioprotective role of small molecule after low doses (d ≤1Gy) of radiation exposure. Among the cell cycle/death proteins investigated, p53 and phosphorylation of p53 (Ser-15) were induced in both the proliferating and quiescent phases of cells when studied at different time intervals. In the proliferating cells after irradiation along with p53, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21, p27 were induced. However, similarly in the quiescent cells along with the p53, p21 and p27 were also induced. The DNA damage assessed by phosphorylation of histone H2AX expression showed an increase even in the non-dividing quiescent cells after 1 Gy of radiation exposure. Whereas cell cycle proteins Cyclin A and E and cell death proteins Bax and cytochrome-c did not show any increase in the quiescent cells. In conclusion, human normal lung fibroblast cells that are not actively dividing are also showed similar radiation response as of proliferating cells. Furthermore, proliferating and quiescent cells treated with small molecules attenuate p53 and its downstream target protein p21 indicating radioprotection of the cells. The specific activation of p53, phosphorylation of p53 (Ser-15), p21 and phosphorylation of histone H2AX following radiation doses of d ≤ 1 Gy in the quiescent cells demonstrated in this study may give us a better understanding about the radiation response of non-dividing fibroblast cells, which is present in many

  8. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with fibroblast growth factor accelerate proliferation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells and bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Eri; Takita, Hiroko; Watari, Fumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Venturelli, Enrica; Bianco, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and the advantages of their use as scaffolds for bone augmentation were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The activity of FGF was assessed by measuring the effect on the proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (RBMSCs). The presence of FGF enhanced the proliferation of RBMSCs and the FGF covalently conjugated to the nanotubes (FGF–CNT) showed the same effect as FGF alone. In addition, FGF–CNT coated sponges were implanted between the parietal bone and the periosteum of rats and the formation of new bone was investigated. At day 14 after implantation, a larger amount of newly formed bone was clearly observed in most pores of FGF–CNT coated sponges. These findings indicated that MWCNTs accelerated new bone formation in response to FGF, as well as the integration of particles into new bone during its formation. Scaffolds coated with FGF–CNT could be considered as promising novel substituting materials for bone regeneration in future tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  9. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with fibroblast growth factor accelerate proliferation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells and bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Eri; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Venturelli, Enrica; Takita, Hiroko; Watari, Fumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2013-11-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and the advantages of their use as scaffolds for bone augmentation were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The activity of FGF was assessed by measuring the effect on the proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (RBMSCs). The presence of FGF enhanced the proliferation of RBMSCs and the FGF covalently conjugated to the nanotubes (FGF-CNT) showed the same effect as FGF alone. In addition, FGF-CNT coated sponges were implanted between the parietal bone and the periosteum of rats and the formation of new bone was investigated. At day 14 after implantation, a larger amount of newly formed bone was clearly observed in most pores of FGF-CNT coated sponges. These findings indicated that MWCNTs accelerated new bone formation in response to FGF, as well as the integration of particles into new bone during its formation. Scaffolds coated with FGF-CNT could be considered as promising novel substituting materials for bone regeneration in future tissue engineering applications.

  10. TGF-β1 activates the canonical NF-κB signaling to promote cell survival and proliferation in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhen-Yu [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China); Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, No.250 Changgang East Road, Guangzhou 510260, Guangdong Province (China); Zhong, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Meng-Yao; Zhong, Yu-Hua [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China); Zhang, Wei-Xi, E-mail: weixizhang@qq.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China)

    2016-03-18

    Activated fibroblasts continue to proliferate at injury sites, leading to progressive muscular fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). TGF-β1 is a dominant profibrotic mediator thought to play a critical role in muscle fibrosis; however, the implicated mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we showed that TGF-β1 increased the resistance to apoptosis and stimulated cell cycle progression in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts under serum deprivation conditions in vitro. TGF-β1 treatment activated the canonical NF-κB pathway; and we found that pharmacological inhibition of IKKβ with IMD-0354 and RelA gene knockdown with siRNA attenuated these effects of TGF-β1 on dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that TGF-β1 prevents apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts through the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. - Highlights: • TGF-β1 promotes survival and proliferation in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. • TGF-β1 activated the canonical NF-κB pathway in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. • Canonical NF-κB pathway mediates these effects of TGF-β1.

  11. TGF-β1 activates the canonical NF-κB signaling to promote cell survival and proliferation in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Zhen-Yu; Zhong, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Meng-Yao; Zhong, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Activated fibroblasts continue to proliferate at injury sites, leading to progressive muscular fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). TGF-β1 is a dominant profibrotic mediator thought to play a critical role in muscle fibrosis; however, the implicated mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we showed that TGF-β1 increased the resistance to apoptosis and stimulated cell cycle progression in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts under serum deprivation conditions in vitro. TGF-β1 treatment activated the canonical NF-κB pathway; and we found that pharmacological inhibition of IKKβ with IMD-0354 and RelA gene knockdown with siRNA attenuated these effects of TGF-β1 on dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that TGF-β1 prevents apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts through the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. - Highlights: • TGF-β1 promotes survival and proliferation in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. • TGF-β1 activated the canonical NF-κB pathway in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. • Canonical NF-κB pathway mediates these effects of TGF-β1.

  12. Excessive Cellular Proliferation Negatively Impacts Reprogramming Efficiency of Human Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj K; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Bhatt, Shweta; Kleinridders, Andre; Shirakawa, Jun; Takatani, Tomozumi; Hu, Jiang; De Jesus, Dario F; Windmueller, Rebecca; Wagers, Amy J; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2015-10-01

    The impact of somatic cell proliferation rate on induction of pluripotent stem cells remains controversial. Herein, we report that rapid proliferation of human somatic fibroblasts is detrimental to reprogramming efficiency when reprogrammed using a lentiviral vector expressing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC in insulin-rich defined medium. Human fibroblasts grown in this medium showed higher proliferation, enhanced expression of insulin signaling and cell cycle genes, and a switch from glycolytic to oxidative phosphorylation metabolism, but they displayed poor reprogramming efficiency compared with cells grown in normal medium. Thus, in contrast to previous studies, our work reveals an inverse correlation between the proliferation rate of somatic cells and reprogramming efficiency, and also suggests that upregulation of proteins in the growth factor signaling pathway limits the ability to induce pluripotency in human somatic fibroblasts. The efficiency with which human cells can be reprogrammed is of interest to stem cell biology. In this study, human fibroblasts cultured in media containing different concentrations of growth factors such as insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 exhibited variable abilities to proliferate, with consequences on pluripotency. This occurred in part because of changes in the expression of proteins involved in the growth factor signaling pathway, glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation. These findings have implications for efficient reprogramming of human cells. ©AlphaMed Press.

  13. Asiaticoside induces cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Yuliati

    2015-12-01

    Asiaticoside induces HDF proliferation and type I and III collagen synthesis in a time- and dose-dependent pattern. Asiaticoside has a similar effect as retinoic acid on type I and type III collagen synthesis.

  14. Comparison of the effect of activated or non-activated PRP in various concentrations on osteoblast and fibroblast cell line proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Surena; Yadegari, Zahra; Mohammad-Rahimi, Hossein

    2017-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors which positively affect cell proliferation, cell differentiation, chemotaxis and intracellular matrix synthesis. All these processes are involved in wound healing and tissue regeneration; thus, PRP as a source of growth factors can be used in periodontal regenerative therapies. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of various concentrations of activated and non-activated PRP on proliferation of osteoblasts and fibroblasts in vitro. PRP was obtained from three healthy volunteers. 75, 50, 25, and 10% concentrations of f PRP were prepared by dilution in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. In activated PRP groups, PRP concentrations were activated by adding calcium gluconate. Human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cell line and MG-63 (osteosarcoma) human osteoblast-like cell line were used in the study. The MTT proliferation assay was used to assess the effect of different types of PRP concentrates on proliferation of HGF and MG-63 cells, in 24, 48 and 72 h. After 24, 48, and 72 h, the proliferation rate of both cell lines was higher in the positive control group, except in 72 h in HGF cell lines, that 10% non-activated PRP group and 10 and 25% activated PRP groups has higher proliferation rate than the positive control group, which it was not significant. Proliferation rate in cells with 10% activated PRP was highest among samples containing PRP. The current study failed to show the significant effect of activated or non-activated PRP on proliferation of HGFs or MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. However, our results showed that activated PRP had a greater effect than non-activated PRP.

  15. Repression of TSC1/TSC2 mediated by MeCP2 regulates human embryo lung fibroblast cell differentiation and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Chen; Deng, Ziyu; Bian, Erbao; Huang, Cheng; Lei, Ting; Lv, Xiongwen; Liu, Liping; Li, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a severe inflammatory disease with limited effective treatments. It is known that the transdifferentiation of human embryo lung fibroblast (HELF) cells from pulmonary fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, contributes to the progression of pulmonary fibrogenesis. The tuberous sclerosis proteins TSC1 and TSC2 are two key signaling factors which can suppress cell growth and proliferation. However, the roles of TSC1 and TSC2 in lung fibroblast are unclear. Here, we developed a PF model with bleomycin (BLM) in mice and conducted several simulation experiments in HELF cells. Our study shows that the expression of TSC1 and TSC2 in fibrotic mice lung was reduced and stimulation of HELF cells with TGF-β1 resulted in a down-regulation of TSC1 and TSC2. In addition, overexpression of TSC1 or TSC2 decreased cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, we found that reduced expression of TSC1 and TSC2 caused by TGF-β1 is associated with the promoter methylation status of TSC1 and TSC2. MeCP2, controls an epigenetic pathway that promotes myofibroblast transdifferentiation and fibrosis. We found that expression of TSC1 and TSC2 can be repressed by MeCP2, which regulates HELF cell differentiation and proliferation as myofibroblasts and lead to PF ultimately. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells: stimulatory effects on proliferation and migration of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessuk, Talita; Puzzi, Maria Beatriz; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Alves, Paulo César Martins; de Paula, Erich Vinicius; Forte, Andresa; Izumizawa, Juliana Massae; Oliveira, Carolina Caliári; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2016-09-01

    The clinical use of tissue engineering associated with cell therapy is considered a new alternative therapy for the repair of chronic lesions with potential application in different medical areas, mostly in orthopedic and dermatological diseases. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a rich source of growth factors and cytokines important for wound healing. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have shown potential to accelerate the resolution of ulcers, to stimulate cell proliferation, and to benefit the quality of skin repair. This study aims to determine the effect of PRP and conditioned medium (CM) from ADSC on fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation in vitro. Migration and proliferation assays were performed to evaluate the growth of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the presence of PRP, CM, and CM + PRP. Significant proliferative stimulation was observed after 48 h of culture (p PRP, 100 % CM, and 25 % PRP + 25 % CM, if compared with control. Keratinocyte proliferation was stimulated after 48 h in cultures with 25, 50, and 100 % CM, and growth was compared with controls. The migration assay detected a significant migratory stimulus in fibroblasts cultured with 10 % PRP + 10 % CM after 48 h. These in vitro results suggest that PRP and ADSC have therapeutic potential for healing and re-epithelialization of chronic wounds in vivo.

  17. Biphasic effect of arsenite on cell proliferation and apoptosis is associated with the activation of JNK and ERK1/2 in human embryo lung fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoqing; Chen Rui; Yang Ping; Li Aiping; Zhou Jianwei; Liu Qizhan

    2007-01-01

    Biphasic dose-response relationship induced by environmental agents is often characterized with the effect of low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Some studies showed that arsenite may induce cell proliferation and apoptosis via biphasic dose-response relationship in human cells; however, mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the relationship between biphasic effect of arsenite on cell proliferation and apoptosis and activation of JNK and ERK1/2 in human embryo lung fibroblast (HELF) cells. Our results demonstrated that cell proliferation may be stimulated at lower concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 μM) arsenite but inhibited at higher concentrations (5 and 10 μM). When cell apoptosis was used as the endpoint, the concentration-response curves were changed to U-shapes. During stimulation phospho-JNK levels were significantly increased at 3, 6, and 12 h after 0.1 or 0.5 μM arsenite exposure. Phospho-ERK1/2 levels were increased with different concentrations (0.1-10 μM) of arsenite at 6, 12, and 24 h. Blocking of JNK pathway with 20 μM SP600125 or ERK1/2 by 100 μM PD98059 significantly inhibited biphasic effect of arsenite in cells. Data in the present study suggest that activation of JNK and ERK1/2 may be involved in biphasic effect of arsenite when measuring cell proliferation and apoptosis in HELF cells. JNK activation seems to play a more critical role than ERK1/2 activation in the biphasic process

  18. Hypotonic stress promotes ATP release, reactive oxygen species production and cell proliferation via TRPV4 activation in rheumatoid arthritis rat synovial fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Fen; Hui, Zhenhai; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jianyu; Chen, Ziyuan; Guo, Bu; Xing, Fulin; Zhang, Xinzheng; Pan, Leiting; Xu, Jingjun

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and systemic autoimmune-disease with complex and unclear etiology. Hypotonicity of synovial fluid is a typical characteristic of RA, which may play pivotal roles in RA pathogenesis. In this work, we studied the responses of RA synovial fibroblasts to hypotonic stress in vitro and further explored the underlying mechanisms. Data showed that hyposmotic solutions significantly triggered increases in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] c ) of synoviocytes. Subsequently, it caused rapid release of ATP, as well as remarkable production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, hypotonic stimulus promoted the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. These effects were almost abolished by calcium-free buffer and significantly inhibited by gadolinium (III) chloride (a mechanosensitive Ca 2+ channel blocker) and ruthenium red (a transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) blocker). 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, a specific agonist of TRPV4, also mimicked hypotonic shock-induced responses shown above. In contrast, voltage-gated channel inhibitors verapamil and nifedipine had little influences on these responses. Furthermore, RT-PCR and western blotting evidently detected TRPV4 expression at mRNA and protein level in isolated synoviocytes. Taken together, our results indicated that hypotonic stimulus resulted in ATP release, ROS production, and cell proliferation depending on Ca 2+ entry through activation of TRPV4 channel in synoviocytes. - Highlights: • Hypotonic stress evokes Ca 2+ entry in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. • Hypotonic stress induces rapid ATP release and ROS production in synoviocytes. • Hypotonic stimulation promotes the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. • TRPV4 controls hypotonic-induced responses in synoviocytes.

  19. Effect of polysaccharides of ganoderma lucidum (PGL) on cell cycle and proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblast exposed to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiuqing; Wu Shiling; Zhou Yinghui; Xu Lan

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of γ-irradiation on cell cycle and proliferation of fibroblasts and the radioprotective effect of PGL in term of cellular level. Methods: The cells in the control group and PGL (50 mg/L. 100 mg/L. 150 mg/L) groups were irradiated with 15 Gy γ-rays. The cell cycle and proliferation of NIH3T3 cells were determined by flow cytometry after irradiation within 12 h. Results: The percentage of G 0 -G 1 phase was 52.76% in the positive control group. Compared with the negative control group (90.9%), the proliferation of NIH3T3 was promoted significantly (P 0 -G 1 phases in the GPL (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L) groups were 66.17%, 71.73%, 76.10% respectively, the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells was inhibited by adding GPL. compared with the positive control group, in the 50 mg/L group P < 0.05, in the 100 mg/L and 150 mg/L groups P < 0.01. It was found that the apoptosis of NIH3T3 cells had little change after comparing non-irradiated group with the irradiated groups. Conclusion: Radiation with γ-rays at a dose of 15 Gy, can significantly stimulate proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, but no induced apoptosis can not be achieve within 12 h after irradiation. PGL can inhibit cell proliferation, so PGL has radioprotective activity on cell levels

  20. Proliferation of mouse fibroblast-like and osteoblast-like cells on pure titanium films manufactured by electron beam melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Mayu; Hayashi, Tatsuhide; Asakura, Masaki; Tomino, Masafumi; Mieki, Akimichi; Kawai, Tatsushi

    2016-10-01

    The physical characteristics and biological compatibility of surfaces produced by electron beam melting (EBM) are not well known. In particular, there are not many reports on biocompatibility qualities. In this study, pure Ti films were manufactured using EBM. While it is reported that moderately hydrophilic biomaterial surfaces display improved cell growth and biocompatibility, contact angle measurements on the EBM-produced pure Ti films showed slight hydrophobicity. Nonetheless, we found the cell count of both fibroblast-like cells (L929) and osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) increased on pure Ti films, especially the MC3T3-E1, which increased more than that of the control. In addition, the morphology of L929 and MC3T3-E1 was polygonal and spindle-shaped and the cytoskeleton was well developed in the pure Ti surface groups. Upon staining with Alizarin red S, a slight calcium deposition was observed and this level gradually rose to a remarkable level. These results indicate that pure Ti films manufactured by EBM have good biocompatibility and could be widely applied as biomedical materials in the near future. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. Fibroblast spheroids as a model to study sustained fibroblast quiescence and their crosstalk with tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmenperä, Pertteli, E-mail: pertteli.salmenpera@helsinki.fi [Department of Virology, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FIN-00014 (Finland); Karhemo, Piia-Riitta [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, and Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 (Finland); Räsänen, Kati [Department of Virology, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FIN-00014 (Finland); Laakkonen, Pirjo [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, and Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, FIN-00014 (Finland); Vaheri, Antti [Department of Virology, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FIN-00014 (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Stromal fibroblasts have an important role in regulating tumor progression. Normal and quiescent fibroblasts have been shown to restrict and control cancer cell growth, while cancer-associated, i. e. activated fibroblasts have been shown to enhance proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. In this study we describe generation of quiescent fibroblasts in multicellular spheroids and their effects on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) growth in soft-agarose and xenograft models. Quiescent phenotype of fibroblasts was determined by global down-regulation of expression of genes related to cell cycle and increased expression of p27. Interestingly, microarray analysis showed that fibroblast quiescence was associated with similar secretory phenotype as seen in senescence and they expressed senescence-associated-β-galactosidase. Quiescent fibroblasts spheroids also restricted the growth of RT3 SCC cells both in soft-agarose and xenograft models unlike proliferating fibroblasts. Restricted tumor growth was associated with marginally increased tumor cell senescence and cellular differentiation, showed with senescence-associated-β-galactosidase and cytokeratin 7 staining. Our results show that the fibroblasts spheroids can be used as a model to study cellular quiescence and their effects on cancer cell progression. - Highlights: • Fibroblasts acquire a sustained quiescence when grown as multicellular spheroids. • This quiescence is associated with drastic change in gene expression. • Fibroblasts spheroids secrete various inflammation-linked cytokines and chemokines. • Fibroblasts spheroids reduced growth of RT3 SCC cells in xenograft model.

  2. Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Chou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among many antioxidants that are used for the repairing of oxidative stress induced skin damages, we identified the enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE from Haematococcus pluvialis as a viable ingredient. EAE was extracted from the red microalgae through supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. To compare the effectiveness, EAE wastreated on human dermal fibroblasts with other components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and doxycycline. With sirius red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, we found that PMA decreased the collagen concentration and production while overall the addition of doxycycline and EAE increased the collagen concentration in a trial experiments. EAE increased collagen contents through inhibited MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA expression and induced TIMP1, the antagonists of MMPs protein, gene expression. As for when tested for various proteins through western blotting, it was seen that the addition of EAE increased the expression of certain proteins that promote cell proliferation. Testing those previous solutions using growth factor assay, it was noticeable that EAE had a positive impact on cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF than doxycycline, indicating that it was a better alternative treatment for collagen production. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agentsand food supplements.

  3. Effects of plant lectins on in vitro fibroblast proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sell

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been isolated from various sources and presented a wide spectrum of biological activities. The effects of four lectins, namely, Phaseolus vulgaris phytohemagglutinin, PHA, wheat germ agglutinin, WGA, Artocarpus integrifolia seed lectins, jacalin and artocarpin, on in vitro fibroblasts proliferation were investigated. The lectins did not influence the initial cell adhesion to the plate. PHA and WGA at 10-20 µg/mL concentrations significantly decreased fibroblasts proliferation. At these concentrations, they caused morphological alterations on cells and over 80 µg/mL, promoted cell death. Neither jacalin nor artocarpin significantly affected cell proliferation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das lectinas PHA, WGA, jacalina e artocarpina sobre a proliferação de fibroblastos in vitro. Para tanto, fibroblastos gengivais de voluntários saudáveis foram cultivados, por cinco dias, em DMEM suplementado com soro bovino fetal (10% v/v e na presença das lectinas nas concentrações finais de 0.1 a 300 µg/mL. A adesão, o crescimento e a morfologia celular foram acompanhados por microscopia de inversão e contraste de fase. O índice de proliferação foi avaliado pelo método calorimétrico usando MTT. As lectinas não alteraram a adesão inicial dos fibroblastos à placa de poliestireno. PHA e WGA, nas concentrações de 10 a 20 µg/mL, diminuíram significativamente a proliferação celular. Nestas concentrações a morfologia celular é alterada e acima de 80 µg/mL, houve100% de morte celular. As lectinas jacalina e artocarpina não influenciaram a proliferação celular.

  4. Factor Xa stimulates fibroblast procollagen production, proliferation, and calcium signaling via PAR1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P.; Archer, Fabienne; Leoni, Patricia; Derian, Claudia; Bolsover, Steven; Laurent, Geoffrey J.; Chambers, Rachel C.

    2005-01-01

    Fibroblast proliferation and procollagen production are central features of tissue repair and fibrosis. In addition to its role in blood clotting, the coagulation cascade proteinase thrombin can contribute to tissue repair by stimulating fibroblasts via proteolytic activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR 1 ). During hemostasis, the coagulation cascade proteinase factor X is converted into factor Xa. We have previously shown that factor Xa upregulates fibroblast proliferation via production of autocrine PDGF. In this study, we further examined the effects of factor Xa on fibroblast function and aimed to identify its signaling receptor. We showed that factor Xa stimulates procollagen promoter activity and protein production by human and mouse fibroblasts. This effect was independent of PDGF and thrombin production, but dependent on factor Xa proteolytic activity. We also showed that PAR 1 -deficient mouse fibroblasts did not upregulate procollagen production, mobilize cytosolic calcium, or proliferate in response to factor Xa. Desensitization techniques and PAR 1 -specific agonists and inhibitors were used to demonstrate that PAR 1 mediates factor Xa signaling in human fibroblasts. This is the first report that factor Xa stimulates extracellular matrix production. In contrast with endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts appear to be the only cell type in which the effects of factor Xa are mediated mainly via PAR 1 and not PAR 2 . These findings are critical for our understanding of tissue repair and fibrotic mechanisms, and for the design of novel approaches to inhibit the profibrotic effects of the coagulation cascade without compromising blood hemostasis

  5. Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) promotes lung fibroblast proliferation, survival and differentiation to myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaneen, Nadia A; Cao, Jian; Pulkoski-Gross, Ashleigh; Zucker, Stanley; Foda, Hussein D

    2016-02-17

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressively fatal disease. Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) is a glycosylated transmembrane protein that induces the expression of some matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in neighboring stromal cells through direct epithelial-stromal interactions. EMMPRIN is highly expressed in type II alveolar epithelial cells at the edges of the fibrotic areas in IPF lung sections. However, the exact role of EMMPRIN in IPF is unknown. To determine if EMMPRIN contributes to lung fibroblast proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and differentiation to myofibroblasts, normal Human lung fibroblasts (NHLF) transiently transfected with either EMMPRIN/GFP or GFP were treated with TGF- β1 from 0 to 10 ng/ml for 48 h and examined for cell proliferation (thymidine incorporation), apoptosis (FACS analysis and Cell Death Detection ELISA assay), cell migration (Modified Boyden chamber) and differentiation to myofibroblasts using Western blot for α-smooth actin of cell lysates. The effect of EMMPRIN inhibition on NHLF proliferation, apoptosis, migration and differentiation to myofibroblasts after TGF- β1 treatment was examined using EMMPRIN blocking antibody. We examined the mechanism by which EMMPRIN induces its effects on fibroblasts by studying the β-catenin/canonical Wnt signaling pathway using Wnt luciferase reporter assays and Western blot for total and phosphorylated β-catenin. Human lung fibroblasts overexpressing EMMPRIN had a significant increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to control fibroblasts. Furthermore, EMMPRIN promoted lung fibroblasts resistance to apoptosis. Lung fibroblasts overexpressing EMMPRIN showed a significantly increased expression of α- smooth muscle actin, a marker of differentiation to myofibroblasts compared to control cells. TGF-β1 increased the expression of EMMPRIN in lung fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Attenuation of EMMPRIN expression with the use of an

  6. Heterogeneity in Fibroblast Proliferation and Survival in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Michael Habiel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is the most common form of interstitial lung disease characterized by the persistence of activated myofibroblasts resulting in excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and profound tissue remodeling. Myofibroblasts have been shown to arise from interstitial fibroblasts, epithelial to mesenchymal transition of type II alveolar epithelial cells, and the differentiation of recruited fibrocytes. There are many mechanisms that are utilized by these cells for survival, proliferation and persistent activation including up-regulation of cytokines (i.e. Interlukin 6 (IL-6, cytokine receptors (i.e. Interlukin 6 Receptor 1 (IL-6R1, Glycoprotein 130 (gp130 and C-C Chemokine Receptor type 7 (CCR7 and innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs; i.e. Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9. In this review, we will discuss the role of the cytokines IL-6 and CCL21, their receptors and the pattern recognition receptor (PRR, TLR9, in fibroblast recruitment, activation, survival and differentiation into myofibroblasts in IPF.

  7. Synthesis and biological activity of M6-P and M6-P analogs on fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Caroline; Barragan-Montero, Véronique; Garric, Xavier; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Montero, Jean-Louis

    2005-09-01

    A new synthetic route to obtain the carboxylate analog of mannose 6-phosphate (M6-P) is presented. The effects of the M6-P, the carboxylate and two other analogs (the phosphonate and the alpha,beta ethylenic carboxylate) on the proliferation of human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts as well as on the proliferation of a murine fibroblast cell line, 3T3-J2 are tested. We observed that M6-P is a potent inhibitor of proliferation of both fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Among its analogs, the phosphonate showed a similar effect on human dermal fibroblasts but not on keratinocytes.

  8. Effect of storage media on the proliferation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, H.C.; Mueller, J.G.; Gross, J.; Horster, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of storage media, which are routinely used in replantation, upon the proliferative capacity of periodontal ligament fibroblasts, was compared with the effect of a tissue culture medium. The periodontal tissue was obtained from mandibular central incisors of White New Zealand rabbits. The experiments were performed in fibroblasts derived during second subculture. The storage media were physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol; the tissue culture medium was alpha-minimum essential medium without nucleosides. The incubation period was 1 hour. [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation and cell counts were taken to indicate changes in the proliferative capacity of the fibroblasts. The tissue culture experiments showed that the proliferative ability of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts was dependent upon the composition of the storage medium. Physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol were unable to maintain the metabolism of the fibroblasts. alpha-MEM medium, however, was capable of stimulating proliferation of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts

  9. Sphere-shaped nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/gelatin 3D porous scaffolds increase proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Jun; Tong, Xin; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tiancong; Lin, Zitong; Cao, Yazhou; Qin, Haiyan; Hu, Qingang; Zhang, Junfeng; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an important component of human bone and bone tissue engineering scaffolds. A plethora of bone tissue engineering scaffolds have been synthesized so far, including nano-HA/chitosan/gelatin (nHA/CG) scaffolds; and for seeding cells, stem cells, especially induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have been a promising cell source for bone tissue engineering recently. However, the influence of different HA nano-particle morphologies on the osteogenic differentiation of human iPSCs (hiPSCs) from human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the osteogenic differentiation of hiPSCs from hGFs seeded on nHA/CG scaffolds with 2 shapes (rod and sphere) of nHA particles. Firstly, hGFs isolated from discarded normal gingival tissues were reprogrammed into hiPSCs. Secondly, hiPSCs were seeded on rod-like nHA/CG (rod-nHA/CG) and sphere-shaped nHA/CG (sphere-nHA/CG) scaffolds respectively and then cell/scaffold complexes were cultured in vitro. Scanning electron microscope, hematoxyline and eosin (HE) staining, Masson’s staining, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques were used to examine hiPSC morphology, proliferation, and differentiation on rod-nHA/CG and sphere-nHA/CG scaffolds. Finally, hiPSCs composited with 2 kinds of nHA/CG were transplanted in vivo in a subcutaneous implantation model for 12 weeks; pure scaffolds were also transplanted as a blank control. HE, Masson’s, and immunohistochemistry staining were applied to detect new bone regeneration ability. The results showed that sphere-nHA/CG significantly increased hiPSCs from hGF proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. hiPSCs and sphere-nHA/CG composities generated large bone, whereas hiPSCs and rod-nHA/CG composities produced tiny bone in vivo. Moreover, pure scaffolds without cells almost produced no bone. In conclusion, our work provided a potential innovative bone tissue engineering approach using

  10. Sphere-shaped nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/gelatin 3D porous scaffolds increase proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jun; Tong, Xin; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tiancong; Lin, Zitong; Cao, Yazhou; Zhang, Junfeng; Dong, Lei; Qin, Haiyan; Hu, Qingang

    2015-07-08

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an important component of human bone and bone tissue engineering scaffolds. A plethora of bone tissue engineering scaffolds have been synthesized so far, including nano-HA/chitosan/gelatin (nHA/CG) scaffolds; and for seeding cells, stem cells, especially induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have been a promising cell source for bone tissue engineering recently. However, the influence of different HA nano-particle morphologies on the osteogenic differentiation of human iPSCs (hiPSCs) from human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the osteogenic differentiation of hiPSCs from hGFs seeded on nHA/CG scaffolds with 2 shapes (rod and sphere) of nHA particles. Firstly, hGFs isolated from discarded normal gingival tissues were reprogrammed into hiPSCs. Secondly, hiPSCs were seeded on rod-like nHA/CG (rod-nHA/CG) and sphere-shaped nHA/CG (sphere-nHA/CG) scaffolds respectively and then cell/scaffold complexes were cultured in vitro. Scanning electron microscope, hematoxyline and eosin (HE) staining, Masson's staining, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques were used to examine hiPSC morphology, proliferation, and differentiation on rod-nHA/CG and sphere-nHA/CG scaffolds. Finally, hiPSCs composited with 2 kinds of nHA/CG were transplanted in vivo in a subcutaneous implantation model for 12 weeks; pure scaffolds were also transplanted as a blank control. HE, Masson's, and immunohistochemistry staining were applied to detect new bone regeneration ability. The results showed that sphere-nHA/CG significantly increased hiPSCs from hGF proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. hiPSCs and sphere-nHA/CG composities generated large bone, whereas hiPSCs and rod-nHA/CG composities produced tiny bone in vivo. Moreover, pure scaffolds without cells almost produced no bone. In conclusion, our work provided a potential innovative bone tissue engineering approach using

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells induce dermal fibroblast responses to injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Andria N.; Willis, Elise; Chan, Vincent T.; Muffley, Lara A.; Isik, F. Frank; Gibran, Nicole S.; Hocking, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote repair when applied to cutaneous wounds, the mechanism for this response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of paracrine signaling from mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast responses to injury including proliferation, migration and expression of genes important in wound repair. Dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in inserts, which allowed for paracrine interactions without direct cell contact. In this co-culture model, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and gene expression. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts show increased proliferation and accelerated migration in a scratch assay. A chemotaxis assay also demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts migrate towards bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A PCR array was used to analyze the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast gene expression. In response to mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts up-regulate integrin alpha 7 expression and down-regulate expression of ICAM1, VCAM1 and MMP11. These observations suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may provide an important early signal for dermal fibroblast responses to cutaneous injury.

  12. Chromosome aberration induction in human diploid fibroblast and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    1986-01-01

    The relative sensitivity of cultured human fibroblasts and epithelial cells to radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations was investigated. Lung fibroblast and kidney epithelial cells from the same fetus were compared, as were skin fibroblasts and epithelial keratinocytes from the same foreskin sample. After exposure of proliferating fetal cells to 1.5 Gy X-rays there was a very similar aberration yield in the fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Observations of either little or no difference in chromosomal sensitivity between human fibroblasts and epithelial cells give added confidence that quantitative cytogenetic data obtained from cultured fibroblasts are relevant to the question of sensitivity of epithelial cells which are the predominant cell type in human cancers. (author)

  13. Effects of leukemia inhibitory factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on free radicals and endogenous stem cell proliferation in a mouse model of cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihui; Li, Yadan; Lin, Yufeng; Ye, Xue; Zang, Dawei

    2012-07-05

    The present study established a mouse model of cerebral infarction by middle cerebral artery occlusion, and monitored the effect of 25 μg/kg leukemia inhibitory factor and (or) basic fibroblast growth factor administration 2 hours after model establishment. Results showed that following administration, the number of endogenous neural stem cells in the infarct area significantly increased, malondialdehyde content in brain tissue homogenates significantly decreased, nitric oxide content, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity significantly elevated, and mouse motor function significantly improved as confirmed by the rotarod and bar grab tests. In particular, the effect of leukemia inhibitory factor in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor was the most significant. Results indicate that leukemia inhibitory factor and basic fibroblast growth factor can improve the microenvironment after cerebral infarction by altering free radical levels, improving the quantity of endogenous neural stem cells, and promoting neurological function of mice with cerebral infarction.

  14. Insulin-like growth factors act synergistically with basic fibroblast growth factor and nerve growth factor to promote chromaffin cell proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Gammeltoft, S

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) on DNA synthesis in cultured chromaffin cells from fetal, neonatal, and adult rats by using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) pulse labeling for 24 or 48 h...... implications for improving the survival of chromaffin cell implants in diseased human brain....

  15. MicroRNA transcriptome analysis identifies miR-365 as a novel negative regulator of cell proliferation in Zmpste24-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Xing-dong; Jung, Hwa Jin; Gombar, Saurabh; Park, Jung Yoon; Zhang, Chun-long; Zheng, Huiling; Ruan, Jie; Li, Jiang-bin; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive miRNA transcriptome of MEFs from Zmpste24 −/− and control mice. • Identification of miR-365 as a down-regulated miRNA in Zmpste24 −/− MEFs. • Characterization of miR-365 as a modulator of cellular growth in part by targeting Rasd1. - Abstract: Zmpste24 is a metalloproteinase responsible for the posttranslational processing and cleavage of prelamin A into mature laminA. Zmpste24 −/− mice display a range of progeroid phenotypes overlapping with mice expressing progerin, an altered version of lamin A associated with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Increasing evidence has demonstrated that miRNAs contribute to the regulation of normal aging process, but their roles in progeroid disorders remain poorly understood. Here we report the miRNA transcriptomes of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) established from wild type (WT) and Zmpste24 −/− progeroid mice using a massively parallel sequencing technology. With data from 19.5 × 10 6 reads from WT MEFs and 16.5 × 10 6 reads from Zmpste24 −/− MEFs, we discovered a total of 306 known miRNAs expressed in MEFs with a wide dynamic range of read counts ranging from 10 to over 1 million. A total of 8 miRNAs were found to be significantly down-regulated, with only 2 miRNAs upregulated, in Zmpste24 −/− MEFs as compared to WT MEFs. Functional studies revealed that miR-365, a significantly down-regulated miRNA in Zmpste24 −/− MEFs, modulates cellular growth phenotypes in MEFs. Overexpression of miR-365 in Zmpste24 −/− MEFs increased cellular proliferation and decreased the percentage of SA-β-gal-positive cells, while inhibition of miR-365 function led to an increase of SA-β-gal-positive cells in WT MEFs. Furthermore, we identified Rasd1, a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, as a functional target of miR-365. While expression of miR-365 suppressed Rasd1 3′ UTR luciferase-reporter activity, this effect was lost with mutations in the

  16. Mycophenolic acid suppresses human pterygium and normal tenon fibroblast proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Radgonde; Rabinowich, Liane; Maftsir, Genia; Puxeddu, Ilaria; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca; Solomon, Abraham

    2010-10-01

    To investigate whether mycophenolic acid (MPA) exerts antifibrotic effects on pterygium fibroblasts (PFB) with and without stimulation with fibrogenic cytokines, and to compare the efficacy of MPA with mitomycin (MMC) and dexamethasone (DXM) on PFB and tenon fibroblasts (TFB). TFB and PFB were obtained from tissue explants during strabismus or pterygium surgery. Proliferation of subconfluent fibroblasts ± basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (10 ng/ml) was assessed by using the (3H) thymidine-incorporation assay. Cell cultures were incubated with MPA, MMC or DXM. Apoptosis was evaluated by quantifying Annexin V and propidium iodide positive cells with flow cytometry. MPA showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of proliferation of PFB ± bFGF as well as TFB ± bFGF. The antiproliferative effect of MPA was comparable with that of MMC and DXM. Short exposure of PFB to MPA under profibrogenic conditions was significantly inhibitory. No apoptotic effect was found on TFB. MPA suppressed tenon and pterygium fibroblast proliferation in vitro under basal and profibrogenic conditions. It was comparable with MMC under long-term exposure, but MMC was more suppressive under short-term exposure. MPA may be safer than MMC due to a more specific mechanism of action and lack of cytotoxicity. Further investigation is warranted regarding MPA concentrations that will lead to a potent antiproliferative effect in vivo.

  17. MicroRNA transcriptome analysis identifies miR-365 as a novel negative regulator of cell proliferation in Zmpste24-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xing-dong [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical College, Xin Cheng Avenue 1#, Songshan Lake, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Institute of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524023 (China); Key Laboratory for Medical Molecular Diagnostics of Guangdong Province, Dongguan 523808 (China); Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Jung, Hwa Jin [Departments of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Gombar, Saurabh [Departments of Systems Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Park, Jung Yoon [Departments of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Zhang, Chun-long; Zheng, Huiling [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical College, Xin Cheng Avenue 1#, Songshan Lake, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Institute of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524023 (China); Key Laboratory for Medical Molecular Diagnostics of Guangdong Province, Dongguan 523808 (China); Ruan, Jie; Li, Jiang-bin [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical College, Xin Cheng Avenue 1#, Songshan Lake, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Institute of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524023 (China); Key Laboratory for Medical Molecular Diagnostics of Guangdong Province, Dongguan 523808 (China); Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Kaeberlein, Matt [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical College, Xin Cheng Avenue 1#, Songshan Lake, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • A comprehensive miRNA transcriptome of MEFs from Zmpste24{sup −/−} and control mice. • Identification of miR-365 as a down-regulated miRNA in Zmpste24{sup −/−} MEFs. • Characterization of miR-365 as a modulator of cellular growth in part by targeting Rasd1. - Abstract: Zmpste24 is a metalloproteinase responsible for the posttranslational processing and cleavage of prelamin A into mature laminA. Zmpste24{sup −/−} mice display a range of progeroid phenotypes overlapping with mice expressing progerin, an altered version of lamin A associated with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Increasing evidence has demonstrated that miRNAs contribute to the regulation of normal aging process, but their roles in progeroid disorders remain poorly understood. Here we report the miRNA transcriptomes of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) established from wild type (WT) and Zmpste24{sup −/−} progeroid mice using a massively parallel sequencing technology. With data from 19.5 × 10{sup 6} reads from WT MEFs and 16.5 × 10{sup 6} reads from Zmpste24{sup −/−} MEFs, we discovered a total of 306 known miRNAs expressed in MEFs with a wide dynamic range of read counts ranging from 10 to over 1 million. A total of 8 miRNAs were found to be significantly down-regulated, with only 2 miRNAs upregulated, in Zmpste24{sup −/−} MEFs as compared to WT MEFs. Functional studies revealed that miR-365, a significantly down-regulated miRNA in Zmpste24{sup −/−} MEFs, modulates cellular growth phenotypes in MEFs. Overexpression of miR-365 in Zmpste24{sup −/−} MEFs increased cellular proliferation and decreased the percentage of SA-β-gal-positive cells, while inhibition of miR-365 function led to an increase of SA-β-gal-positive cells in WT MEFs. Furthermore, we identified Rasd1, a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, as a functional target of miR-365. While expression of miR-365 suppressed Rasd1 3′ UTR luciferase-reporter activity

  18. Evaluation of fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation on alginate-gelatin crosslinked hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapi Sarker

    Full Text Available Due to the relatively poor cell-material interaction of alginate hydrogel, alginate-gelatin crosslinked (ADA-GEL hydrogel was synthesized through covalent crosslinking of alginate di-aldehyde (ADA with gelatin that supported cell attachment, spreading and proliferation. This study highlights the evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of synthesized ADA-GEL hydrogels of different compositions compared to alginate in the form of films. Moreover, in vitro cell-material interaction on ADA-GEL hydrogels of different compositions compared to alginate was investigated by using normal human dermal fibroblasts. Viability, attachment, spreading and proliferation of fibroblasts were significantly increased on ADA-GEL hydrogels compared to alginate. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility of ADA-GEL hydrogels was found to be increased with increasing gelatin content. These findings indicate that ADA-GEL hydrogel is a promising material for the biomedical applications in tissue-engineering and regeneration.

  19. Background Levels of Neomorphic 2-hydroxyglutarate Facilitate Proliferation of Primary Fibroblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Aleš; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Smolková, Katarína; Vítek, L.; Ježek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2017), s. 293-304 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP301/12/P381; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-04788S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 2-hydroxyglutarate * fibroblast proliferation * SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Oncology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  20. Pirfenidone inhibits the proliferation of fibroblasts from patients with active Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Sara-Irini; Wenzel Kragstrup, Tue; Dige, Anders; Kok Jensen, Simon; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Kelsen, Jens

    2016-11-01

    One-third of Crohn's disease (CD) patients develop intestinal strictures that require repeated surgical intervention. Current anti-inflammatory therapies have limited effect on stricture development, which necessitates the exploration of new pharmacological approaches. Pirfenidone (PFD), a novel anti-fibrotic agent, was recently approved in Europe for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We hypothesized that observations in IPF could be transferable to intestinal fibrosis and that PFD inhibits the proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover of gut-derived fibroblasts from CD patients. Fibroblasts were isolated from biopsies of inflamed (n = 8) and non-inflamed (n = 5) colonic mucosa. Expression of CD90 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression was determined by flow cytometry. The fibroblasts were cultured with PFD (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/ml). Proliferation was evaluated with CellTiter 96(®) AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay. Production of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and collagen were assessed using ELISA and calorimetric assays, respectively. The majority of the fibroblasts were αSMA-positive myofibroblasts. PFD inhibited fibroblast proliferation [0.94 (PFD 0.5 mg/ml); 0.76 (1.0 mg/ml); 0.58 (2.0 mg/ml)] and production of MMP-3 [0.85 (0.5 mg/ml); 0.74 (1.0 mg/ml); 0.63 (2.0 mg/ml)] dose-dependently (both p = 0.0001). The anti-proliferative effect of PFD was reversible (p = 0.0001), indicating that PFD does not act by an irreversible cytotoxic mechanism. PFD did not influence neither TIMP-1 nor collagen production. PFD inhibited the proliferation and the production of MMP-3 dose-dependently in gut-derived fibroblast from CD patients. Our observations support further studies on PFD in stricturing CD.

  1. The importance of the nuclear glutathione in the Cell Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    The present thesis offers an insight in the importance of nuclear GSH in cell proliferation. The research was performed in three different cellular models of diverse proliferating activity: immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts 3T3, mammary adenocarcinoma cell line MCF7 and primary embryonic neuralonal culture. The results presented here provide evidence that suggest that the relationship between GSH level and telomerase activity, previously described by our group for 3T3 fibroblasts is a ...

  2. Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafman, Laura L.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, continues to carry a dismal prognosis for children diagnosed with advanced stage or relapsed disease. This review focuses upon factors responsible for cell proliferation in neuroblastoma including transcription factors, kinases, and regulators of the cell cycle. Novel therapeutic strategies directed toward these targets in neuroblastoma are discussed. PMID:26771642

  3. Diffuse colonies of human skin fibroblasts in relation to cellular senescence and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorin, Vadim; Zorina, Alla; Smetanina, Nadezhda; Kopnin, Pavel; Ozerov, Ivan V; Leonov, Sergey; Isaev, Artur; Klokov, Dmitry; Osipov, Andreyan N

    2017-05-16

    Development of personalized skin treatment in medicine and skin care may benefit from simple and accurate evaluation of the fraction of senescent skin fibroblasts that lost their proliferative capacity. We examined whether enriched analysis of colonies formed by primary human skin fibroblasts, a simple and widely available cellular assay, could reveal correlations with the fraction of senescent cells in heterogenic cell population. We measured fractions of senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-βgal) positive cells in either mass cultures or colonies of various morphological types (dense, mixed and diffuse) formed by skin fibroblasts from 10 human donors. Although the donors were chosen to be within the same age group (33-54 years), the colony forming efficiency of their fibroblasts (ECO-f) and the percentage of dense, mixed and diffuse colonies varied greatly among the donors. We showed, for the first time, that the SA-βgal positive fraction was the largest in diffuse colonies, confirming that they originated from cells with the least proliferative capacity. The percentage of diffuse colonies was also found to correlate with the SA-βgal positive cells in mass culture. Using Ki67 as a cell proliferation marker, we further demonstrated a strong inverse correlation (r=-0.85, p=0.02) between the percentage of diffuse colonies and the fraction of Ki67+ cells. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation (r=-0.94, p=0.0001) between the percentage of diffuse colonies and ECO-f was found. Our data indicate that quantification of a fraction of diffuse colonies may provide a simple and useful method to evaluate the extent of cellular senescence in human skin fibroblasts.

  4. Cerium oxide nanoparticles stimulate proliferation of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Anton L., E-mail: antonpopovleonid@gmail.com [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Popova, Nelly R. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Selezneva, Irina I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Pushchino State Institute of Natural sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Akkizov, Azamat Y. [Kabardino-Balkarian State University, Nalchik (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Vladimir K. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    The increasing application of cell therapy technologies in the treatment of various diseases requires the development of new effective methods for culturing primary cells. The major limitation for the efficient use of autologous cell material is the low rate of cell proliferation. Successful cell therapy requires sufficient amounts of cell material over a short period of time with the preservation of their differentiation and proliferative potential. In this regard, the development of novel, highly efficient stimulators of proliferative activity in stem cells is a truly urgent task. In this paper we have demonstrated that citrate-stabilized cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) enhance the proliferative activity of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts in vitro. Cerium oxide nanoparticles stimulate cell proliferation in a wide range of concentrations (10{sup −3} M–10{sup −9} M) through reduction of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the lag phase of cell growth and by modulating the expression level of the major antioxidant enzymes. We found the optimal concentration of nanoceria, which provides the greatest acceleration of cell proliferation in vitro, while maintaining the levels of intracellular ROS and mRNA of antioxidant enzymes in the physiological range. Our results confirm that nanocrystalline ceria can be considered as a basis for effective and inexpensive supplements in cell culturing. - Highlights: • Citrate-stabilized cerium oxide nanoparticles are shown to stimulate proliferation of primary embryonic cells in vitro. • Some of mechanisms involved in stimulating of the proliferation by CeO{sub 2} have been uncovered. • The most effective (optimal) concentration of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles for stimulation of proliferation was determined.

  5. In Vitro Vitamin K 3 Effect on Conjunctival Fibroblast Migration and Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla, I.; Izaguirre, L. B.; Gonzalvo, F. J.; Piazuelo, E.; Garcia-Gonzalez, M. A.; Sanchez-Cano, A. I.; Sopeña, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the dose effect of vitamin K3 on wound healing mechanisms. Methods. Conjunctival fibroblasts were incubated for 24 hours. An artificial wound was made and the cells were incubated with fresh medium plus doses of vitamin K3 to be tested. Wound repair was monitored at 0, 18, 24, and 48 hours. Proliferation was measured in actively dividing cells by [3H]thymidine uptake. Six different groups were tested: group 1/no drugs added, group 2/ethanol 0.1%, group 3/vitamin K3 1 mg/L...

  6. Plasma rich in growth factors promotes dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and biosynthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Pino, A; Orive, G

    2016-11-02

    The use of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) has gained importance in many medical fields due to its regenerative potential. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of PRGF on primary skin fibroblasts assessing cell proliferation, migration and secretion of growth factors. The age of the patients from who PRGF was prepared was also studied to determine whether it influenced the outcomes. Human dermal fibroblasts were isolated from three healthy volunteers. Using PRGF-Endoret technology, PRGF was prepared from two groups of different ages (18-35 years and 50+ years). The effects of increasing concentration of PRGF (5%, 10% and 20%) on cell proliferation and migration was evaluated. Biosynthetic behaviour of cells was also analysed measuring vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor b1 (TGFb1) and pro-collagen type I secreted levels with or without PRGF treatment. Mean platelet enrichment reached 2.4X and 2X in 18-35 and 50+ groups respectively. A dose-dependent response was observed in proliferation assays achieving the highest levels with 20% PRGF. Migration was also promoted in cells but not in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and migration outcomes obtained with PRGF (from both groups) were significantly higher compared to non-stimulated groups (pPRGF, however, with the exception of VEGF, no statistical significances were observed between the different age groups. Results from this study concluded that PRGF is safe and effective in stimulating skin regeneration by enhancing proliferation, migration and expression of pivotal bioactive molecules involved in wound healing and haemostasis.

  7. In vitro vitamin K3 effect on conjunctival fibroblast migration and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, I; Izaguirre, L B; Gonzalvo, F J; Piazuelo, E; Garcia-Gonzalez, M A; Sanchez-Cano, A I; Sopeña, F

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the dose effect of vitamin K3 on wound healing mechanisms. Conjunctival fibroblasts were incubated for 24 hours. An artificial wound was made and the cells were incubated with fresh medium plus doses of vitamin K3 to be tested. Wound repair was monitored at 0, 18, 24, and 48 hours. Proliferation was measured in actively dividing cells by [(3)H]thymidine uptake. Six different groups were tested: group 1/no drugs added, group 2/ethanol 0.1%, group 3/vitamin K3 1 mg/L, group 4/vitamin K3 2 mg/L, group 5/vitamin K3 4 mg/L, and group 6/vitamin K3 6 mg/L. Each experiment was carried out in triplicate and 4 times. There were no differences among groups at the initial time. In vitro wound repair was slower in groups 4, 5, and 6. There were no differences between control and ethanol groups and between control and vitamin K3 1 mg/L groups. Fibroblast mitogenic activity was statistically decreased in all vitamin K groups; statistical differences were found among vitamin K3 1 mg/mL and higher doses too. In groups 5 and 6, cellular toxicity was presented. Vitamin K3 is able to inhibit fibroblast proliferation. Vitamin K3 2 mg/L or higher doses inhibit wound healing repair, exhibiting cellular toxicity at 4 and 6 mg/L.

  8. In Vitro Vitamin K3 Effect on Conjunctival Fibroblast Migration and Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the dose effect of vitamin K3 on wound healing mechanisms. Methods. Conjunctival fibroblasts were incubated for 24 hours. An artificial wound was made and the cells were incubated with fresh medium plus doses of vitamin K3 to be tested. Wound repair was monitored at 0, 18, 24, and 48 hours. Proliferation was measured in actively dividing cells by [3H]thymidine uptake. Six different groups were tested: group 1/no drugs added, group 2/ethanol 0.1%, group 3/vitamin K3 1 mg/L, group 4/vitamin K3 2 mg/L, group 5/vitamin K3 4 mg/L, and group 6/vitamin K3 6 mg/L. Each experiment was carried out in triplicate and 4 times. Results. There were no differences among groups at the initial time. In vitro wound repair was slower in groups 4, 5, and 6. There were no differences between control and ethanol groups and between control and vitamin K3 1 mg/L groups. Fibroblast mitogenic activity was statistically decreased in all vitamin K groups; statistical differences were found among vitamin K3 1 mg/mL and higher doses too. In groups 5 and 6, cellular toxicity was presented. Conclusions. Vitamin K3 is able to inhibit fibroblast proliferation. Vitamin K3 2 mg/L or higher doses inhibit wound healing repair, exhibiting cellular toxicity at 4 and 6 mg/L.

  9. Local fibroblast proliferation but not influx is responsible for synovial hyperplasia in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Fumitaka; Saito, Tetsuya [Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075 (Japan); Kawahata, Kimito [Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519 (Japan); Ueha, Satoshi; Matsushima, Kouji [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075 (Japan); Department of Molecular Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Inagaki, Yutaka [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075 (Japan); Center for Matrix Biology and Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and the Institute of Medical Sciences, Tokai University, 143 Shimo-kasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1193 (Japan); Miyasaka, Nobuyuki [Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519 (Japan); Kohsaka, Hitoshi, E-mail: kohsaka.rheu@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075 (Japan)

    2016-02-12

    Synovial fibroblasts play crucial roles in inflammation and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). How they accumulate in the RA joints remains unclear. This study was conducted to discern whether cellular influx from the outside of the joints and local proliferation are responsible for synovial fibroblast accumulation in an animal model of RA. We found that synovial fibroblasts were identified as GFP+ cells using collagen type I alpha 2 (Col1a2)-GFP transgenic reporter mice. Then, bone marrow transplantation and parabiosis techniques were utilized to study the cellular influx. Irradiated wild-type mice were transplanted with bone marrow from Col1a2-GFP mice. Col1a2-GFP and wild-type mice were conjoined for parabiosis. The transplanted mice and the parabionts were subjected to collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). We found no GFP+ cells in the hyperplastic synovial tissues from the transplanted mice with CAIA and from the wild-type parabionts with CAIA. Furthermore, normal and CAIA synovial tissues from Col1a2-GFP mice and from fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) transgenic mice, in which cells in S/G{sub 2}/M phases of the cell cycle express Azami-Green, were studied for Ki67, a cellular proliferation marker, and vimentin, a fibroblast marker, expression. The percentages of Ki67+/GFP+ and Azami-Green+/vimentin+ cells in the CAIA synovial tissues were higher than those in the untreated synovial tissues (34% vs. 0.40% and 19% vs. 0.26%, respectively). These findings indicate that local fibroblast proliferation but not cellular influx is responsible for the synovial hyperplasia in CAIA. Suppression of proliferation of the local synovial fibroblasts should be a promising treatment for RA. - Highlights: • We studied how synovial fibroblasts accumulate in joints in a murine model of RA. • Bone marrow-derived cells did not accumulate in arthritic joints. • Synovial fibroblasts did not accumulate in arthritic joints via

  10. Random mtDNA mutations modulate proliferation capacity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukat, Alexandra; Edgar, Daniel; Bratic, Ivana; Maiti, Priyanka; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Increased mtDNA mutations in MEFs lead to high level of spontaneous immortalization. → This process is independent of endogenous ROS production. → Aerobic glycolysis significantly contributes to spontaneous immortalization of MEFs. -- Abstract: An increase in mtDNA mutation load leads to a loss of critical cells in different tissues thereby contributing to the physiological process of organismal ageing. Additionally, the accumulation of senescent cells that display changes in metabolic function might act in an active way to further disrupt the normal tissue function. We believe that this could be the important link missing in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of premature ageing in the mtDNA mutator mice. We tested proliferation capacity of mtDNA mutator cells in vitro. When cultured in physiological levels of oxygen (3%) their proliferation capacity is somewhat lower than wild-type cells. Surprisingly, in conditions of increased oxidative stress (20% O 2 ) mtDNA mutator mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit continuous proliferation due to spontaneous immortalization, whereas the same conditions promote senescence in wild-type cells. We believe that an increase in aerobic glycolysis observed in mtDNA mutator mice is a major mechanism behind this process. We propose that glycolysis promotes proliferation and allows a fast turnover of metabolites, but also leads to energy crisis due to lower ATP production rate. This could lead to compromised replication and/or repair and therefore, in rare cases, might lead to mutations in tumor suppressor genes and spontaneous immortalization.

  11. The small Rho GTPase Rac1 controls normal human dermal fibroblasts proliferation with phosphorylation of the oncoprotein c-myc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, Ekaterina; Mitev, Vanio; Zhelev, Nikolai; Deroanne, Christophe F.; Poumay, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Proliferation of dermal fibroblasts is crucial for the maintenance of skin. The small Rho GTPase, Rac1, has been identified as a key transducer of proliferative signals in various cell types, but in normal human dermal fibroblasts its significance to cell growth control has not been studied. In this study, we applied the method of RNA interference to suppress endogenous Rac1 expression and examined the consequences on human skin fibroblasts. Rac1 knock-down resulted in inhibition of DNA synthesis. This effect was not mediated by inhibition of the central transducer of proliferative stimuli, ERK1/2 or by activation of the pro-apoptotic p38. Rather, as a consequence of the suppressed Rac1 expression we observed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of c-myc, revealing for the first time that in human fibroblasts Rac1 exerts control on proliferation through c-myc phosphorylation. Thus Rac1 activates proliferation of normal fibroblasts through stimulation of c-myc phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 activity

  12. Responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to nanostructured platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennisi, C P; Sevcencu, C; Yoshida, K [Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Foss, M; Larsen, A Nylandsted; Besenbacher, F [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Hansen, J Lundsgaard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Zachar, V, E-mail: cpennisi@hst.aau.d [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University (Denmark)

    2009-09-23

    The chronic performance of implantable neural prostheses is affected by the growth of encapsulation tissue onto the stimulation electrodes. Encapsulation is associated with activation of connective tissue cells at the electrode's metallic contacts, usually made of platinum. Since surface nanotopography can modulate the cellular responses to materials, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the 'in vitro' responses of connective tissue cells to platinum strictly by modulating its surface nanoroughness. Using molecular beam epitaxy combined with sputtering, we produced platinum nanostructured substrates consisting of irregularly distributed nanopyramids and investigated their effect on the proliferation, cytoskeletal organization and cellular morphology of primary fibroblasts and transformed glial cells. Cells were cultured on these substrates and their responses to surface roughness were studied. After one day in culture, the fibroblasts were more elongated and their cytoskeleton less mature when cultured on rough substrates. This effect increased as the roughness of the surface increased and was associated with reduced cell proliferation throughout the observation period (4 days). Morphological changes also occurred in glial cells, but they were triggered by a different roughness scale and did not affect cellular proliferation. In conclusion, surface nanotopography modulates the responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to platinum, which may be an important factor in optimizing the tissue response to implanted neural electrodes.

  13. Constituents from the roots of Taraxacum platycarpum and their effect on proliferation of human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Umehara, Kaoru; Miyase, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A MeOH extract from the roots of Taraxacum platycarpum has shown significant effects on the proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts. Chemical analysis of the extract resulted in the isolation of 26 compounds, including eight new triterpenes, one new sesquiterpene glycoside, and seventeen known compounds. The structure of each new compound was established using NMR spectroscopy. Some triterpenes had a significant effect on the proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts.

  14. GMP-grade platelet lysate enhances proliferation and migration of tenon fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Augusto; Scafetta, Gaia; Siciliano, Camilla; Carnevale, Roberto; Rosa, Paolo; Coccia, Andrea; Mangino, Giorgio; Bordin, Antonella; Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Pierelli, Luca; Lendaro, Eugenio; Ragona, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo; De Falco, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Tenon's fibroblasts (TFs), widely employed as in vitro model for many ophthalmological studies, are routinely cultured with FBS. Platelet Lysate (PL), a hemoderivate enriched with growth factors and cytokines has been largely tested in several clinical applications and as substitute of FBS in culture. Here, we investigate whether PL can exert biological effects on TF populations similarly to other cell types. Results show that PL significantly enhances cell proliferation and migration vs. FBS, without influencing cell size/granularity. Upregulation of EGF, VEGF, KDR, MMP2-9, FAK mRNA levels also occurs and phosphorylation of AKT but not of ERK1/2 is significantly enhanced. The inhibition of the PI3kinase/AKT pathway with the specific inhibitor wortmannin, decreases PL-induced cell migration but not proliferation. Condition supernatants containing PL show increased bioavailability of Nitric Oxide and reduced levels of 8-Iso-PGF2-alpha, correlating with cell proliferation and migration. Pro-angiogenic/inflammatory soluble factors (GRO, Angiogenin, EGF, I-309, PARC) are exclusively or greater expressed in media containing PL than FBS. GMP-grade PL preparations positively influence in vitro biological effects of TFs representing a suitable and safer alternative to FBS.

  15. Fibroblast growth factor-mediated proliferation of central nervous system precursors depends on endogenous production of insulin-like growth factor I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, J.; Murphy, M.; Carroll, S.M.; Harvey, R.P.; Bartlett, P.F.

    1991-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor stimulates proliferation and subsequent differentiation of precursor cells isolated from the neuroepithelium of embryonic day 10 mice in vitro. Here we show that fibroblast growth factor-induced proliferation is dependent on the presence of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and that IGF-I is endogenously produced by the neuroepithelial cells. Blocking of endogenous IGF-I activity with anti-IGF-I antibodies results in complete inhibition of fibroblast growth factor-mediated proliferation and in cell death. IGF-I alone acts as a survival agent. These observations correlate with the detection of transcripts for IGF-I and basic fibroblast growth factor in freshly isolated neuroepithelium and are consistent with an autocrine action of these factors in early brain development in vivo

  16. Fibroblast response to initial attachment and proliferation on titanium and zirconium surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Meza-Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades, dental implants have become one of the best options for comprehensive dental restoration; their placement is a multidisciplinary task that requires a solid understanding of biological, periodontal, surgical and prosthetic principles. Objective: The aim of this study was to quantify in vitro the adhesion and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF response on titanium (Ti and zirconia (Zr surfaces. Methodology: Samples of Ti and Zr were observed under atomic force microscopy (AFM. HGFs were inoculated in each sample to determine adhesion and cell proliferation. The reagent MTT was mixed with medium DMEM and inoculated in each plate; formazan was dissolved with dimethyl sulfoxide and analyzed at 540nm in a microplate spectrophotometer. The test was performed with three independent experiments. Data were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests (Lilliefors, Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney test comparisons. Results: Topography of the Zr plates showed greater roughness (Ra=0.39μm than Ti (Ra=0.049μm. Quantification of HGF adhesion was significantly higher (p<0.05 in Ti, while proliferation showed no statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusion: It is noteworthy that, even though Ti initially showed increased cell adhesion on the surface, after 24h Zr samples showed similar proliferation; this demonstrates that both surfaces have a comparable biological response.

  17. Neuropeptide substance P stimulates the formation of osteoclasts via synovial fibroblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matayoshi, Takaaki; Goto, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Eiji; Takano, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of neuropeptide substance P (Sp) on the formation of osteoclasts via synovial fibroblastic cells. Synovial fibroblastic cells derived from rat knee joint expressed the Sp receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK 1 -R). The addition of Sp stimulated the proliferation of synovial fibroblastic cells and this effect was inhibited by Sp or NK 1 -R antagonists. Increased expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (Rankle) in synovial fibroblastic cells after the addition of Sp was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining. Osteoprotegerin expression in synovial fibroblastic cells was decreased after incubation with SP. In co-cultures of synovial fibroblastic cells and rat peripheral blood monocytes, SP stimulated osteoclastogenesis. These results suggest that SP in the joint cavity may cause both hypertrophy of the synovium and induction of increased osteoclast formation through the increased expression of RANKL in the synovium

  18. [Regulation of airway stem cell proliferation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S X; Wu, Q; Sun, X; Li, X; Li, K; Xu, L; Li, Y; Zhang, Q Y; Zhang, Y C; Chen, H Y

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of fibroblasts on regulating airway stem cell proliferation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Lung cell suspension was prepared from β-actin-GFP mice. Airway stem cells were obtained by fluorescence activated cell sorting and co-cultured with lung fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were treated with TGF-β inhibitor SB43142. The expression of growth factors FGF1/2 and the effect of FGF1/2 on stem cell proliferation were observed. The cloning efficiency of airway stem cells, when co-cultured with normal lung fibroblast cells for 8 days, was (3.5±1.1)%, while the cloning efficiency was reduced to (0.04±0.04)% when co-cultured with lung fibroblasts from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. The difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant(P=0.002 5). TGF-β receptor inhibitor SB431542 increased lung fibroblast growth factors FGF1/2 expression.FGF1 mRNA expression was increased to the experimental group 0.005 5 from 0.000 2 in the control group.FGF2 mRNA expression of the amount raised to the experimental group 0.000 15 from 0.000 8 in the control group.FGF1/2 promoted the growth of airway stem cells. After FGF1/2 was co-cultured with normal lung fibroblast cells for 8 days, the cloning efficiency of airway stem cells was (0.3±0.1)%. During the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, fibroblast secreted FGF1/2 regulate airway stem cell proliferation.

  19. Fibroblast proliferation alters cardiac excitation conduction and contraction: a computational study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, He-qing; Xia, Ling; Shou, Guo-fa; Zang, Yun-liang; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of cardiac fibroblast proliferation on cardiac electric excitation conduction and mechanical contraction were investigated using a proposed integrated myocardial-fibroblastic electromechanical model. At the cellular level, models of the human ventricular myocyte and fibroblast were modified to incorporate a model of cardiac mechanical contraction and cooperativity mechanisms. Cellular electromechanical coupling was realized with a calcium buffer. At the tissue level, electrical excitation conduction was coupled to an elastic mechanics model in which the finite difference method (FDM) was used to solve electrical excitation equations, and the finite element method (FEM) was used to solve mechanics equations. The electromechanical properties of the proposed integrated model were investigated in one or two dimensions under normal and ischemic pathological conditions. Fibroblast proliferation slowed wave propagation, induced a conduction block, decreased strains in the fibroblast proliferous tissue, and increased dispersions in depolarization, repolarization, and action potential duration (APD). It also distorted the wave-front, leading to the initiation and maintenance of re-entry, and resulted in a sustained contraction in the proliferous areas. This study demonstrated the important role that fibroblast proliferation plays in modulating cardiac electromechanical behaviour and which should be considered in planning future heart-modeling studies. PMID:24599687

  20. Effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on proliferation and collagen synthesis of rat vascular adventitial fibroblasts induced by angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wendan; Yang, Dongxia; Sun, Xuhong; Liu, Wei; Wang, Liang; Li, Xiaoyan; Man, Xuejing; Fu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    1) examine the effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on the proliferation, collagen and cytokine synthesis of vascular adventitial fibroblasts as induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in vitro, and 2) to assess the effects of HSYA on morphological changes and collagen accumulation of vascular adventitia in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in vivo. In vitro experiment, vascular adventitial fibroblasts from SD rats were isolated, cultured, and divided into control groups, model groups and HSYA groups. Cell morphology of adventitial fibroblasts was assessed using laser confocal microscopy, while cell proliferation with the MTT assay, and collagen synthesis was determined using hydroxyproline chromatometry. Immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription PCR were used for detecting the expression of TGF-β1, MMP-1, α-SMA and NF-κB in adventitial fibroblasts. In vivo experiment, vascular adventitia proliferation and collagen synthesis were analyzed using hematoxylin-eosin and Sirius staining. Our results showed that: 1) in vitro experiment of SD rats, HSYA inhibited proliferative activity and collagen synthesis of adventitial fibroblasts as induced by Ang II, and the inhibitory effects of HSYA on the increased expression of MMP-1, TGF-β1, α-SMA and NF-κB p65 as induced by Ang II were assessed, and 2) in vivo experiment of SHR, histological analysis displayed fewer pathological changes of vascular adventitia in HSYA treatment groups as compared with no HSYA treatment groups, and MMP-1, TGF-β1, α-SMA and NF-κB p65 expression significantly reduced after HSYA treatment (P adventitia components. This study provides experimental evidence demonstrating that HSYA has the capacity to decrease vascular adventitia proliferation and hyperplasia during vascular remodeling.

  1. Connective tissue growth factor stimulates the proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts during paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhizhou; Sun, Zhaorui; Liu, Hongmei; Ren, Yi; Shao, Danbing; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Jinfeng; Wolfram, Joy; Wang, Feng; Nie, Shinan

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that paraquat (PQ) poisoning can cause severe lung injury during the early stages of exposure, finally leading to irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an essential growth factor that is involved in tissue repair and pulmonary fibrogenesis. In the present study, the role of CTGF was examined in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ poisoning. Histological examination revealed interstitial edema and extensive cellular thickening of interalveolar septa at the early stages of poisoning. At 2 weeks after PQ administration, lung tissue sections exhibited a marked thickening of the alveolar walls with an accumulation of interstitial cells with a fibroblastic appearance. Masson's trichrome staining revealed a patchy distribution of collagen deposition, indicating pulmonary fibrogenesis. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples demonstrated that CTGF expression was significantly upregulated in the PQ-treated group. Similarly, PQ treatment of MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells caused an increase in CTGF in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the addition of CTGF to MRC-5 cells triggered cellular proliferation and migration. In addition, CTGF induced the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, as was evident from increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen. These findings demonstrate that PQ causes increased CTGF expression, which triggers proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts. Therefore, CTGF may be important in PQ-induced pulmonary fibrogenesis, rendering this growth factor a potential pharmacological target for reducing lung injury.

  2. Improved fibronectin-immobilized fibrinogen microthreads for the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajangam T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thanavel Rajangam, Seong Soo A AnDepartment of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam, South KoreaAbstract: The aim of this study was to fabricate fibrinogen (Fbg microfibers with different structural characteristics for the development of 3-D tissue-engineering scaffolds. Fabricated Fbg microfibers were investigated for their biomolecule encapsulation, cell adhesion, and proliferations. Microfibers with three different concentrations of Fbg (5, 10, and 15 wt% were prepared by a gel solvent-extraction method using a silicone rubber tube. Fbg microfibers were covalently modified with fibronectin (FN by using water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide as the cross-linking agent. Fbg microfibers were characterized by their FN cross-linking properties, structural morphology, and in vitro degradation. Furthermore, FN/Fbg microfibers were evaluated for cell attachment and proliferation. The biocompatibility and cell proliferation of the microfibers were assessed by measuring adenosine triphosphate activity in C2C12 fibroblast cells. Cell attachment and proliferation on microfibers were further examined using fluorescence and scanning electron microscopic images. FN loading on the microfibers was confirmed by fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. Surface morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and showed highly aligned nanostructures for fibers made with 15 wt% Fbg, a more porous structure for fibers made with 10 wt% Fbg, and a less porous structure for those made with 5 wt% Fbg. Controlled biodegradation of the fiber was observed for 8 weeks by using an in vitro proteolytic degradation assay. Fbg microfibers with highly aligned nanostructures (15 wt% showed enhanced biomolecule encapsulation, as well as higher cell adhesion and proliferation than another two types of FN/Fbg fibers (5 and 10 wt% and unmodified Fbg fibers. The promising results obtained from the present study reveal that optimal structure

  3. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  4. Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetotherapy on proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasi, Francesca; Sanna, Samuele; Paolini, Alessandro; Alquati, Marco; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Corti, Maurizio Enrico; Liberto, Riccardo Di; Cialdai, Francesca; Monici, Monica; Nano, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) applied in magnetotherapy have frequency lower than 100 Hz and magnetic field intensity ranging from 0.1 to 20 mT. For many years, the use of magnetotherapy in clinics has been increasing because of its beneficial effects in many processes, e.g., skin diseases, inflammation and bone disorders. However, the understanding of the microscopic mechanisms governing such processes is still lacking and the results of the studies on the effects of ELF-EMFs are controversial because effects derive from different conditions and from intrinsic responsiveness of different cell types.In the present study, we studied the biological effects of 1.5 h exposure of human dermal fibroblasts to EMFs with frequencies of 5 and 50 Hz and intensity between 0.25 and 1.6 mT. Our data showed that the magnetic treatment did not produce changes in cell viability, but gave evidence of a sizeable decrease in proliferation at 24 h after treatment. In addition, immunofluorescence experiments displayed an increase in tubulin expression that could foreshadow changes in cell motility or morphology. The decrease in proliferation with unchanged viability and increase in tubulin expression could be consistent with the triggering of a transdifferentiation process after the exposure to ELF-EMFs.

  5. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchigami, Takao; Kibe, Toshiro; Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio; Nishizawa, Yoshiaki; Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi; Ueda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Kiyono, Tohru; Kishida, Michiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  6. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Takao [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kibe, Toshiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Nishizawa, Yoshiaki [Kagoshima University Faculty of Medicine, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ueda, Masahiro [Natural Science Centre for Research and Education, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Koorimoto, Kagoshima 890-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Norifumi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kiyono, Tohru [Department of Virology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuouku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Kishida, Michiko, E-mail: kmichiko@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  7. Cytoglobin inhibits migration through PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Selami; Doğan, Ayşegül; Apdik, Hüseyin; Tuysuz, Emre Can; Gulluoglu, Sukru; Bayrak, Omer Faruk; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2018-01-01

    Cell proliferation and migration are crucial in many physiological processes including development, cancer, tissue repair, and wound healing. Cell migration is regulated by several signaling molecules. Identification of genes related to cell migration is required to understand molecular mechanism of non-healing chronic wounds which is a major concern in clinics. In the current study, the role of cytoglobin (CYGB) gene in fıbroblast cell migration and proliferation was described. L929 mouse fibroblast cells were transduced with lentiviral particles for CYGB and GFP, and analyzed for cell proliferation and migration ability. Fibroblast cells overexpressing CYGB displayed decreased cell proliferation, colony formation capacity, and cell migration. Phosphorylation levels of mTOR and two downstream effectors S6 and 4E-BP1 which take part in PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling declined in CYGB-overexpressing cells. Microarray analysis indicated that CYGB overexpression leads to downregulation of cell proliferation, migration, and tumor growth associated genes in L929 cell line. This study demonstrated the role of CYGB in fibroblast cell motility and proliferation. CYGB could be a promising candidate for further studies as a potential target for diseases related to cell migration such as cancer and chronic wound treatment.

  8. Effects of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Proliferation and Viability of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Platelet preparations are commonly used to enhance bone and soft tissue regeneration. Considering the existing controversies on the efficacy of platelet products for tissue regeneration, more in vitro studies are required. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF on proliferation and viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs.Materials and Methods: Anitua's PRGF and Choukran's PRF were prepared according to the standard protocols. After culture periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation of HGFs was evaluated by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer’s multiple comparisons and P-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: PRGF treatment induced statistically significant (P<0.001 proliferation of HGF cells compared to the negative control (100% viability at 24, 48 and 72 hours in values of 123%±2.25%, 102%±2.8% and 101%±3.92%, respectively. The PRF membrane treatment of HGF cells had a statistically significant effect on cell proliferation (21%±1.73%, P<0.001 at 24 hours compared to the negative control. However, at 48 and 72 hours after treatment, PRF had a negative effect on HGF cell proliferation and caused 38% and 60% decrease in viability and proliferation compared to the negative control, respectively. The HGF cell proliferation was significantly higher in PRGF than in PRF group (P< 0.001.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that PRGF had a strong stimulatory effect on HGF cell viability and proliferation compared to PRF.

  9. Effect of microemulsions on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juyi; Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garti, Nissim

    Microemulsions are optically clear, thermostable and isotropic mixture consisting of water, oil and surfactants. Their advantages of ease preparation, spontaneous formation, long-term stability and enhanced solubility of bioactive materials make them great potentials as vehicles in food and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, comparative in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to select a best formulation of microemulsion with the least toxicity for human dermal fibroblasts. Three different kinds of oils and six different kinds of surfactants were used to form microemulsions by different ratios. The effect of oil type and surfactant type as well as their proportions on cell proliferation and viability were tested.

  10. Effects of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Proliferation and Viability of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Surena; Vaziri, Shahram; Torshabi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Platelet preparations are commonly used to enhance bone and soft tissue regeneration. Considering the existing controversies on the efficacy of platelet products for tissue regeneration, more in vitro studies are required. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on proliferation and viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Materials and Methods: Anitua’s PRGF and Choukran’s PRF were prepared according to the standard protocols. After culture periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation of HGFs was evaluated by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer’s multiple comparisons and P-valuesPRGF treatment induced statistically significant (PPRGF than in PRF group (PPRGF had a strong stimulatory effect on HGF cell viability and proliferation compared to PRF. PMID:26877740

  11. KL-6, a human MUC1 mucin, promotes proliferation and survival of lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshimo, Shinichiro; Yokoyama, Akihito; Hattori, Noboru; Ishikawa, Nobuhisa; Hirasawa, Yutaka; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2005-01-01

    The serum level of KL-6, a MUC1 mucin, is a clinically useful marker for various interstitial lung diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that KL-6 promotes chemotaxis of human fibroblasts. However, the pathophysiological role of KL-6 remains poorly understood. Here, we further investigate the functional aspects of KL-6 in proliferation and apoptosis of lung fibroblasts. KL-6 accelerated the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of all human lung fibroblasts examined. An anti-KL-6 monoclonal antibody counteracted both of these effects induced by KL-6 on human lung fibroblasts. The pro-fibroproliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of KL-6 are greater than and additive to those of the maximum effective concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β. These findings indicate that increased levels of KL-6 in the epithelial lining fluid may stimulate fibrotic processes in interstitial lung diseases and raise the possibility of applying an anti-KL-6 antibody to treat interstitial lung diseases

  12. Stimulated human fibroblast cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.P.; Gale, K.L.; Einspenner, M.; Greenstock, C.L.; Gentner, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for cloning cultured mammalian cells have supported the most universally-accepted method for measuring the induction of lethality by geno-toxicants such as ionizing radiation: the 'survival of colony-forming ability (CFA)' assay. Since most cultured human cell lines exhibit plating efficiency (i.e. the percentage of cells that are capable of reproductively surviving and dividing to form visible colonies) well below 100%, such assays are in essence 'survival of plating efficiency' assays, since they are referred to the plating (or cloning) efficiency of control (i.e. unirradiated) cells. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. MicroRNA-26a modulates transforming growth factor beta-1-induced proliferation in human fetal lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Lian; Shen, Yongchun; Wang, Tao; Chen, Lei; Xu, Dan; Wen, Fuqiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Endogenous miR-26a inhibits TGF-beta 1 induced proliferation of lung fibroblasts. • miR-26a induces G1 arrest through directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2. • TGF indispensable receptor, TGF-beta R I, is regulated by miR-26a. • miR-26a acts through inhibiting TGF-beta 2 feedback loop to reduce TGF-beta 1. • Collagen type I and connective tissue growth factor are suppressed by miR-26a. - Abstract: MicroRNA-26a is a newly discovered microRNA that has a strong anti-tumorigenic capacity and is capable of suppressing cell proliferation and activating tumor-specific apoptosis. However, whether miR-26a can inhibit the over-growth of lung fibroblasts remains unclear. The relationship between miR-26a and lung fibrosis was explored in the current study. We first investigated the effect of miR-26a on the proliferative activity of human lung fibroblasts with or without TGF-beta1 treatment. We found that the inhibition of endogenous miR-26a promoted proliferation and restoration of mature miR-26a inhibited the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts. We also examined that miR-26a can block the G1/S phase transition via directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2, degrading mRNA and decreasing protein expression of Cyclin D2. Furthermore, we showed that miR-26a mediated a TGF-beta 2-TGF-beta 1 feedback loop and inhibited TGF-beta R I activation. In addition, the overexpression of miR-26a also significantly suppressed the TGF-beta 1-interacting-CTGF–collagen fibrotic pathway. In summary, our studies indicated an essential role of miR-26a in the anti-fibrotic mechanism in TGF-beta1-induced proliferation in human lung fibroblasts, by directly targeting Cyclin D2, regulating TGF-beta R I as well as TGF-beta 2, and suggested the therapeutic potential of miR-26a in ameliorating lung fibrosis

  14. MicroRNA-26a modulates transforming growth factor beta-1-induced proliferation in human fetal lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoou [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Liu, Lian [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Shen, Yongchun; Wang, Tao; Chen, Lei; Xu, Dan [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Wen, Fuqiang, E-mail: wenfuqiang.scu@gmail.com [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Endogenous miR-26a inhibits TGF-beta 1 induced proliferation of lung fibroblasts. • miR-26a induces G1 arrest through directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2. • TGF indispensable receptor, TGF-beta R I, is regulated by miR-26a. • miR-26a acts through inhibiting TGF-beta 2 feedback loop to reduce TGF-beta 1. • Collagen type I and connective tissue growth factor are suppressed by miR-26a. - Abstract: MicroRNA-26a is a newly discovered microRNA that has a strong anti-tumorigenic capacity and is capable of suppressing cell proliferation and activating tumor-specific apoptosis. However, whether miR-26a can inhibit the over-growth of lung fibroblasts remains unclear. The relationship between miR-26a and lung fibrosis was explored in the current study. We first investigated the effect of miR-26a on the proliferative activity of human lung fibroblasts with or without TGF-beta1 treatment. We found that the inhibition of endogenous miR-26a promoted proliferation and restoration of mature miR-26a inhibited the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts. We also examined that miR-26a can block the G1/S phase transition via directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2, degrading mRNA and decreasing protein expression of Cyclin D2. Furthermore, we showed that miR-26a mediated a TGF-beta 2-TGF-beta 1 feedback loop and inhibited TGF-beta R I activation. In addition, the overexpression of miR-26a also significantly suppressed the TGF-beta 1-interacting-CTGF–collagen fibrotic pathway. In summary, our studies indicated an essential role of miR-26a in the anti-fibrotic mechanism in TGF-beta1-induced proliferation in human lung fibroblasts, by directly targeting Cyclin D2, regulating TGF-beta R I as well as TGF-beta 2, and suggested the therapeutic potential of miR-26a in ameliorating lung fibrosis.

  15. Aspirin suppresses cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen formation through downregulation of angiotensin type 1 receptor transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xianwei; Lu, Jingjun; Khaidakov, Magomed; Mitra, Sona; Ding, Zufeng; Raina, Sameer; Goyal, Tanu; Mehta, Jawahar L.

    2012-01-01

    Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid, ASA) is a common drug used for its analgesic and antipyretic effects. Recent studies show that ASA not only blocks cyclooxygenase, but also inhibits NADPH oxidase and resultant reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, a pathway that underlies pathogenesis of several ailments, including hypertension and tissue remodeling after injury. In these disease states, angiotensin II (Ang II) activates NADPH oxidase via its type 1 receptor (AT1R) and leads to fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis. In this study, we examined if ASA would inhibit NADPH oxidase activation, upregulation of AT1R transcription, and subsequent collagen generation in mouse cardiac fibroblasts challenged with Ang II. Mouse heart fibroblasts were isolated and treated with Ang II with or without ASA. As expected, Ang II induced AT1R expression, and stimulated cardiac fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis. The AT1R blocker losartan attenuated these effects of Ang II. Similarly to losartan, ASA, and its SA moiety suppressed Ang II-mediated AT1R transcription and fibroblast proliferation as well as expression of collagens and MMPs. ASA also suppressed the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (p22 phox , p47 phox , p67 phox , NOX2 and NOX4) and ROS generation. ASA did not affect total NF-κB p65, but inhibited its phosphorylation and activation. These observations suggest that ASA inhibits Ang II-induced NADPH oxidase expression, NF-κB activation and AT1R transcription in cardiac fibroblasts, and fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression. The critical role of NADPH oxidase activity in stimulation of AT1R transcription became apparent in experiments where ASA also inhibited AT1R transcription in cardiac fibroblasts challenged with H 2 O 2 . Since SA had similar effect as ASA on AT1R expression, we suggest that ASA's effect is mediated by its SA moiety. -- Highlights: ► Aspirin in therapeutic concentrations decreases mouse cardiac fibroblast growth and collagen

  16. Aspirin suppresses cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen formation through downregulation of angiotensin type 1 receptor transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianwei, E-mail: XWang2@UAMS.edu; Lu, Jingjun; Khaidakov, Magomed; Mitra, Sona; Ding, Zufeng; Raina, Sameer; Goyal, Tanu; Mehta, Jawahar L., E-mail: MehtaJL@UAMS.edu

    2012-03-15

    Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid, ASA) is a common drug used for its analgesic and antipyretic effects. Recent studies show that ASA not only blocks cyclooxygenase, but also inhibits NADPH oxidase and resultant reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, a pathway that underlies pathogenesis of several ailments, including hypertension and tissue remodeling after injury. In these disease states, angiotensin II (Ang II) activates NADPH oxidase via its type 1 receptor (AT1R) and leads to fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis. In this study, we examined if ASA would inhibit NADPH oxidase activation, upregulation of AT1R transcription, and subsequent collagen generation in mouse cardiac fibroblasts challenged with Ang II. Mouse heart fibroblasts were isolated and treated with Ang II with or without ASA. As expected, Ang II induced AT1R expression, and stimulated cardiac fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis. The AT1R blocker losartan attenuated these effects of Ang II. Similarly to losartan, ASA, and its SA moiety suppressed Ang II-mediated AT1R transcription and fibroblast proliferation as well as expression of collagens and MMPs. ASA also suppressed the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (p22{sup phox}, p47{sup phox}, p67{sup phox}, NOX2 and NOX4) and ROS generation. ASA did not affect total NF-κB p65, but inhibited its phosphorylation and activation. These observations suggest that ASA inhibits Ang II-induced NADPH oxidase expression, NF-κB activation and AT1R transcription in cardiac fibroblasts, and fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression. The critical role of NADPH oxidase activity in stimulation of AT1R transcription became apparent in experiments where ASA also inhibited AT1R transcription in cardiac fibroblasts challenged with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Since SA had similar effect as ASA on AT1R expression, we suggest that ASA's effect is mediated by its SA moiety. -- Highlights: ► Aspirin in therapeutic concentrations decreases mouse cardiac

  17. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Serum Has Higher Potential in Inducing Proliferation of Fibroblast than Fetal Bovine Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Sandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytokines and growth factors were reported to play an important role in stimulating fibroblast proliferation. In vitro culture, fibroblast is mostly culture in medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS.  Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB has been reported to have low immunogenic property and potential in wound healing, so therefore hUCB serum (hUCBS could be potential and were investigated in current study. Materials and Methods: Five hUCBs were collected from healthy volunteers with normal delivering procedure. hUCB was ex utero immediately collected from umbilical vein in vacutainers and processed. NIH3T3 cells were cultured in DMEM with 10% FBS or 5-20% hUCBS for 48 hours. Cells were then quantified using MTT assay. Protein concentration of FBS and hUCBS were quantified using Bradford assay. Results: NIH3T3 cells density grown in DMEM with 10% FBS was the lowest. NIH3T3 cells densities were increased along with the increment of hUCBS concentrations. MTT results showed that average number of NIH3T3 cells grown in DMEM with 10% FBS was 6,185±1,243. Meanwhile average numbers of NIH3T3 cells grown in DMEM with 5%, 10% and 20% hUCBS were 8,126±628, 9,685±313 and 12,200±304, respectively. Average numbers of NIH3T3 cells grown in DMEM with 5% hUCBS were significantly higher than the ones with 10% FBS (p=0.000. Bradford results showed that concentration of hUCBS was significantly higher than the one of FBS (p=0.000. Conclusion: hUCBS could induce higher proliferation rate of NIH3T3 cells than FBS. Hence hUCBS could be suggested as an alternate of FBS in inducing fibroblast. Keywords: NIH3T3, fibroblast, UCB, serum, FBS, proliferation

  18. Notoginsenoside Ft1 Promotes Fibroblast Proliferation via PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway and Benefits Wound Healing in Genetically Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Eryun; Gao, Bo; Yang, Li; Wu, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-02-01

    Wound healing requires the essential participation of fibroblasts, which is impaired in diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). Notoginsenoside Ft1 (Ft1), a saponin from Panax notoginseng, can enhance platelet aggregation by activating signaling network mediated through P2Y12 and induce proliferation, migration, and tube formation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. However, whether it can accelerate fibroblast proliferation and benefit wound healing, especially DFU, has not been elucidated. In the present study on human dermal fibroblast HDF-a, Ft1 increased cell proliferation and collagen production via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. On the excisional wound splinting model established on db/db diabetic mouse, topical application of Ft1 significantly shortened the wound closure time by 5.1 days in contrast with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) treatment (15.8 versus 20.9 days). Meanwhile, Ft1 increased the rate of re-epithelialization and the amount of granulation tissue at day 7 and day 14. The molecule also enhanced mRNA expressions of COL1A1, COL3A1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β3 and fibronectin, the genes that contributed to collagen expression, fibroblast proliferation, and consequent scar formation. Moreover, Ft1 facilitated the neovascularization accompanied with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor at either mRNA or protein levels and alleviated the inflammation of infiltrated monocytes indicated by reduced tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 mRNA expressions in the diabetic wounds. Altogether, these results indicated that Ft1 might accelerate diabetic wound healing by orchestrating multiple processes, including promoting fibroblast proliferation, enhancing angiogenesis, and attenuating inflammatory response, which provided a great potential application of it in clinics for patients with DFU. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and

  19. Efficient inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression by ERK2 siRNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fengfeng; Fan, Cunyi; Cheng, Tao; Jiang, Chaoyin; Zeng, Bingfang

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 and fibroblast growth factor-2 play very important roles in fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression. These processes lead to the formation of joint adhesions through the SMAD and MAPK pathways, in which ERK2 is supposed to be crucial. Based on these assumptions, lentivirus (LV)-mediated small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting ERK2 were used to suppress the proliferation and collagen expression of rat joint adhesion tissue fibroblasts (RJATFs). Among four siRNAs examined, siRNA1 caused an 84% reduction in ERK2 expression (p < 0.01) and was selected as the most efficient siRNA for use in this study. In subsequent experiments, significant downregulation of types I and III collagen were observed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. MTT assays and flow cytometry revealed marked inhibition of RJATF proliferation, but no apoptosis. In conclusion, LV-mediated ERK2 siRNAs may represent novel therapies or drug targets for preventing joint adhesion formation.

  20. Quantification of epithelial cells in coculture with fibroblasts by fluorescence image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtolica, Ana; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Lockett, Stephen; Campisi, Judith

    2002-10-01

    To demonstrate that senescent fibroblasts stimulate the proliferation and neoplastic transformation of premalignant epithelial cells (Krtolica et al.: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:12072-12077, 2001), we developed methods to quantify the proliferation of epithelial cells cocultured with fibroblasts. We stained epithelial-fibroblast cocultures with the fluorescent DNA-intercalating dye 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), or expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the epithelial cells, and then cultured them with fibroblasts. The cocultures were photographed under an inverted microscope with appropriate filters, and the fluorescent images were captured with a digital camera. We modified an image analysis program to selectively recognize the smaller, more intensely fluorescent epithelial cell nuclei in DAPI-stained cultures and used the program to quantify areas with DAPI fluorescence generated by epithelial nuclei or GFP fluorescence generated by epithelial cells in each field. Analysis of the image areas with DAPI and GFP fluorescences produced nearly identical quantification of epithelial cells in coculture with fibroblasts. We confirmed these results by manual counting. In addition, GFP labeling permitted kinetic studies of the same coculture over multiple time points. The image analysis-based quantification method we describe here is an easy and reliable way to monitor cells in coculture and should be useful for a variety of cell biological studies. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Inflammatory responses of stromal fibroblasts to inflammatory epithelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of bovine mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenyao; Li, Xuezhong; Xu, Tong; Ma, Mengru [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: zhangyong1956@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Gao, Ming-Qing, E-mail: gaomingqing@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi (China)

    2016-11-15

    Hypernomic secretion of epithelial cytokines has several effects on stromal cells. The contributions of inflammatory epithelial cells to stromal fibroblasts in bovine mammary glands with mastitis remain poorly understood. Here, we established an inflammatory epithelial cell model of bovine mastitis with gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) bacterial cell wall components. We characterized immune responses of mammary stromal fibroblasts induced by inflammatory epithelial cells. Our results showed that inflammatory epithelial cells affected stromal fibroblast characteristics by increasing inflammatory mediator expression, elevating extracellular matrix protein deposition, decreasing proliferation capacity, and enhancing migration ability. The changes in stromal fibroblast proliferation and migration abilities were mediated by signal molecules, such as WNT signal pathway components. LPS- and LTA-induced inflammatory epithelial cells triggered different immune responses in stromal fibroblasts. Thus, in mastitis, bovine mammary gland stromal fibroblasts were affected by inflammatory epithelial cells and displayed inflammation-specific changes, suggesting that fibroblasts play crucial roles in bovine mastitis. - Highlights: • Inflammatory BMEs affect the properties of BMFs during mastitis. • BMEs inhibited the proliferation and promoted the migration of BMFs. • BMEs enhanced secretion of inflammatory mediators and deposition of ECM in BMFs. • Changes of the properties of BMFs were mediated by specific signal molecules.

  2. Inflammatory responses of stromal fibroblasts to inflammatory epithelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of bovine mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenyao; Li, Xuezhong; Xu, Tong; Ma, Mengru; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Hypernomic secretion of epithelial cytokines has several effects on stromal cells. The contributions of inflammatory epithelial cells to stromal fibroblasts in bovine mammary glands with mastitis remain poorly understood. Here, we established an inflammatory epithelial cell model of bovine mastitis with gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) bacterial cell wall components. We characterized immune responses of mammary stromal fibroblasts induced by inflammatory epithelial cells. Our results showed that inflammatory epithelial cells affected stromal fibroblast characteristics by increasing inflammatory mediator expression, elevating extracellular matrix protein deposition, decreasing proliferation capacity, and enhancing migration ability. The changes in stromal fibroblast proliferation and migration abilities were mediated by signal molecules, such as WNT signal pathway components. LPS- and LTA-induced inflammatory epithelial cells triggered different immune responses in stromal fibroblasts. Thus, in mastitis, bovine mammary gland stromal fibroblasts were affected by inflammatory epithelial cells and displayed inflammation-specific changes, suggesting that fibroblasts play crucial roles in bovine mastitis. - Highlights: • Inflammatory BMEs affect the properties of BMFs during mastitis. • BMEs inhibited the proliferation and promoted the migration of BMFs. • BMEs enhanced secretion of inflammatory mediators and deposition of ECM in BMFs. • Changes of the properties of BMFs were mediated by specific signal molecules.

  3. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent regulation of miR-196a expression controls lung fibroblast apoptosis but not proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, Emelia; Zago, Michela; Sarill, Miles; Rico de Souza, Angela; Gomez, Alvin; Matthews, Jason; Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H.; Baglole, Carolyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Although activation of the AhR by xenobiotics such as dioxin inhibits the cell cycle and control apoptosis, paradoxically, AhR expression also promotes cell proliferation and survival independent of exogenous ligands. The microRNA (miRNA) miR-196a has also emerged as a regulator of proliferation and apoptosis but a relationship between the AhR and miR-196a is not known. Therefore, we hypothesized that AhR-dependent regulation of endogenous miR-196a expression would promote cell survival and proliferation. Utilizing lung fibroblasts from AhR deficient (AhR −/− ) and wild-type (AhR +/+ ) mice, we show that there is ligand-independent regulation of miRNA, including low miR-196a in AhR −/− cells. Validation by qRT-PCR revealed a significant decrease in basal expression of miR-196a in AhR −/− compared to AhR +/+ cells. Exposure to AhR agonists benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and FICZ as well as AhR antagonist CH-223191 decreased miR-196a expression in AhR +/+ fibroblasts concomitant with decreased AhR protein levels. There was increased proliferation only in AhR +/+ lung fibroblasts in response to serum, corresponding to a decrease in p27 KIP1 protein, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Increasing the cellular levels of miR-196a had no effect on proliferation or expression of p27 KIP1 in AhR −/− fibroblasts but attenuated cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis. This study provides the first evidence that AhR expression is essential for the physiological regulation of cellular miRNA levels- including miR-196a. Future experiments designed to elucidate the functional relationship between the AhR and miR-196a may delineate additional novel ligand-independent roles for the AhR. - Highlights: • The AhR controls proliferation and apoptosis in lung cells. • The AhR regulates the expression of the microRNA miR-196a independent of

  5. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent regulation of miR-196a expression controls lung fibroblast apoptosis but not proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Emelia [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Zago, Michela [Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sarill, Miles [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rico de Souza, Angela [Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gomez, Alvin; Matthews, Jason [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H. [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Baglole, Carolyn J., E-mail: Carolyn.baglole@McGill.ca [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Although activation of the AhR by xenobiotics such as dioxin inhibits the cell cycle and control apoptosis, paradoxically, AhR expression also promotes cell proliferation and survival independent of exogenous ligands. The microRNA (miRNA) miR-196a has also emerged as a regulator of proliferation and apoptosis but a relationship between the AhR and miR-196a is not known. Therefore, we hypothesized that AhR-dependent regulation of endogenous miR-196a expression would promote cell survival and proliferation. Utilizing lung fibroblasts from AhR deficient (AhR{sup −/−}) and wild-type (AhR{sup +/+}) mice, we show that there is ligand-independent regulation of miRNA, including low miR-196a in AhR{sup −/−} cells. Validation by qRT-PCR revealed a significant decrease in basal expression of miR-196a in AhR{sup −/−} compared to AhR{sup +/+} cells. Exposure to AhR agonists benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and FICZ as well as AhR antagonist CH-223191 decreased miR-196a expression in AhR{sup +/+} fibroblasts concomitant with decreased AhR protein levels. There was increased proliferation only in AhR{sup +/+} lung fibroblasts in response to serum, corresponding to a decrease in p27{sup KIP1} protein, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Increasing the cellular levels of miR-196a had no effect on proliferation or expression of p27{sup KIP1} in AhR{sup −/−} fibroblasts but attenuated cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis. This study provides the first evidence that AhR expression is essential for the physiological regulation of cellular miRNA levels- including miR-196a. Future experiments designed to elucidate the functional relationship between the AhR and miR-196a may delineate additional novel ligand-independent roles for the AhR. - Highlights: • The AhR controls proliferation and apoptosis in lung cells. • The AhR regulates the

  6. Differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into dermal fibroblasts in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yanfu [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Chai, Jiake, E-mail: cjk304@126.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Sun, Tianjun; Li, Dongjie; Tao, Ran [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential seed cells for tissue-engineered skin. {yields} Tissue-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UCMSCs) can readily be isolated in vitro. {yields} We induce UCMSCs to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts via conditioned medium. {yields} Collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA level was higher in differentiated cells. {yields} UCMSCs-derived fibroblast-like cells strongly express fibroblast-specific protein. -- Abstract: Tissue-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) can be readily obtained, avoid ethical or moral constraints, and show excellent pluripotency and proliferation potential. UCMSCs are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In this study, we collected newborn umbilical cord tissue under sterile conditions and isolated UCMSCs through a tissue attachment method. UCMSC cell surface markers were examined using flow cytometry. On the third passage, UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts in conditioned induction media. The induction results were detected using immunofluorescence with a fibroblast-specific monoclonal antibody and real time PCR for type I and type III collagen. UCMSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and reached 90% confluency 14 to 18 days after primary culture. Cultured UCMSCs showed strong positive staining for CD73, CD29, CD44, CD105, and HLA-I, but not CD34, CD45, CD31, or HLA-DR. After differentiation, immunostaining for collagen type I, type III, fibroblast-specific protein, vimentin, and desmin were all strongly positive in induced cells, and staining was weak or negative in non-induced cells; total transcript production of collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA was higher in induced cells than in non-induced cells. These results demonstrate that UCMSCs can be induced to differentiate into fibroblasts with conditioned induction media and, in turn, could be used as seed cells for tissue

  7. Differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into dermal fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yanfu; Chai, Jiake; Sun, Tianjun; Li, Dongjie; Tao, Ran

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential seed cells for tissue-engineered skin. → Tissue-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UCMSCs) can readily be isolated in vitro. → We induce UCMSCs to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts via conditioned medium. → Collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA level was higher in differentiated cells. → UCMSCs-derived fibroblast-like cells strongly express fibroblast-specific protein. -- Abstract: Tissue-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) can be readily obtained, avoid ethical or moral constraints, and show excellent pluripotency and proliferation potential. UCMSCs are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In this study, we collected newborn umbilical cord tissue under sterile conditions and isolated UCMSCs through a tissue attachment method. UCMSC cell surface markers were examined using flow cytometry. On the third passage, UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts in conditioned induction media. The induction results were detected using immunofluorescence with a fibroblast-specific monoclonal antibody and real time PCR for type I and type III collagen. UCMSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and reached 90% confluency 14 to 18 days after primary culture. Cultured UCMSCs showed strong positive staining for CD73, CD29, CD44, CD105, and HLA-I, but not CD34, CD45, CD31, or HLA-DR. After differentiation, immunostaining for collagen type I, type III, fibroblast-specific protein, vimentin, and desmin were all strongly positive in induced cells, and staining was weak or negative in non-induced cells; total transcript production of collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA was higher in induced cells than in non-induced cells. These results demonstrate that UCMSCs can be induced to differentiate into fibroblasts with conditioned induction media and, in turn, could be used as seed cells for tissue-engineered dermis.

  8. Response of cells on surface-induced nanopatterns: fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Hwei Ling; Kuan, Yujun; Kukula, Hildegard; Tamada, Kaoru; Knoll, Wolfgang; Moeller, Martin; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2007-05-01

    Ultrathin films of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) were used to form surface-induced nanopattern (SINPAT) on mica. Surface interaction controlled microphase separation led to the formation of chemically heterogeneous surface nanopatterns on dry ultrathin films. Two distinct nanopatterned surfaces, namely, wormlike and dotlike patterns, were used to investigate the influence of topography in the nanometer range on cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Atomic force microscopy was used to confirm that SINPAT was stable under cell culture conditions. Fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells were cultured on the nanopatterned surfaces. Phase contrast and confocal laser microscopy showed that fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells preferred the densely spaced wormlike patterns. Atomic force microscopy showed that the cells remodelled the extracellular matrix differently as they migrate over the two distinctly different nanopatterns.

  9. Inosine Released from Dying or Dead Cells Stimulates Cell Proliferation via Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMany antitumor therapies induce apoptotic cell death in order to cause tumor regression. Paradoxically, apoptotic cells are also known to promote wound healing, cell proliferation, and tumor cell repopulation in multicellular organisms. We aimed to characterize the nature of the regenerative signals concentrated in the micromilieu of dead and dying cells.MethodsCultures of viable melanoma B16F10 cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS in the presence of dead and dying cells, their supernatants (SNs, or purified agonists and antagonists were used to evaluate the stimulation of proliferation. Viable cell quantification was performed by either flow cytometry of harvested cells or by crystal violet staining of adherent cells. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of cell SNs were deployed to identify the nature of growth-promoting factors. Coimplantation of living cells in the presence of SNs collected from dead and dying cells and specific agonists was used to evaluate tumor growth in vivo.ResultsThe stimulation of proliferation of few surviving cells by bystander dead cells was confirmed for melanoma cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary FLS. We found that small soluble molecules present in the protein-free fraction of SNs of dead and dying cells were responsible for the promotion of proliferation. The nucleoside inosine released by dead and dying cells acting via adenosine receptors was identified as putative inducer of proliferation of surviving tumor cells after irradiation and heat treatment.ConclusionInosine released by dead and dying cells mediates tumor cell proliferation via purinergic receptors. Therapeutic strategies surmounting this pathway may help to reduce the rate of recurrence after radio- and chemotherapy.

  10. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Suchanski

    Full Text Available In our previous studies we showed that in breast cancer podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated positively with tumor size, grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and poor patients' outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess if podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts can affect malignancy-associated properties of breast cancer cells. Human fibroblastic cell lines (MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst overexpressing podoplanin and control fibroblasts were co-cultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells and the impact of podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts on migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells were studied in vitro. Migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells were not affected by the presence of podoplanin on the surface of fibroblasts. However, ectopic expression of podoplanin highly increases the migration of MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst fibroblasts. The present study also revealed for the first time, that podoplanin expression affects the formation of pseudo tubes by endothelial cells. When human HSkMEC cells were co-cultured with podoplanin-rich fibroblasts the endothelial cell capillary-like network was characterized by significantly lower numbers of nodes and meshes than in co-cultures of endothelial cells with podoplanin-negative fibroblasts. The question remains as to how our experimental data can be correlated with previous clinical data showing an association between the presence of podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, we propose that expression of podoplanin by fibroblasts facilitates their movement into the tumor stroma, which creates a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression by increasing the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which produce numerous factors affecting proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells. In accordance with this, the present study revealed for the first

  11. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanski, Jaroslaw; Tejchman, Anna; Zacharski, Maciej; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Nowinska, Katarzyna; Rys, Janusz; Dziegiel, Piotr; Kieda, Claudine; Ugorski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies we showed that in breast cancer podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated positively with tumor size, grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and poor patients' outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess if podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts can affect malignancy-associated properties of breast cancer cells. Human fibroblastic cell lines (MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst) overexpressing podoplanin and control fibroblasts were co-cultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells and the impact of podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts on migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells were studied in vitro. Migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells were not affected by the presence of podoplanin on the surface of fibroblasts. However, ectopic expression of podoplanin highly increases the migration of MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst fibroblasts. The present study also revealed for the first time, that podoplanin expression affects the formation of pseudo tubes by endothelial cells. When human HSkMEC cells were co-cultured with podoplanin-rich fibroblasts the endothelial cell capillary-like network was characterized by significantly lower numbers of nodes and meshes than in co-cultures of endothelial cells with podoplanin-negative fibroblasts. The question remains as to how our experimental data can be correlated with previous clinical data showing an association between the presence of podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, we propose that expression of podoplanin by fibroblasts facilitates their movement into the tumor stroma, which creates a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression by increasing the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which produce numerous factors affecting proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells. In accordance with this, the present study revealed for the first time, that such

  12. Neural control of colonic cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-03-15

    The mitotic rate in rat colonic crypts and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinomas was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. In sympathectomized animals cell proliferation was retarded in the crypts but not in the tumors, whereas in animals treated with Metaraminol, a drug which releases norepinephrine from nerve terminals, crypt cell but not tumor cell proliferation was accelerated. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors also inhibited crypt cell proliferation. However, stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors inhibited and blockade of beta-adrenoceptors accelerated tumor cell proliferation without influencing crypt cell proliferation. Injection of either serotonin or histamine stimulated tumor but not crypt cell proliferation and blockade or serotonin receptors or histamine H2-receptors inhibited tumor cell proliferation. It is postulated that cell proliferation in the colonic crypts, like that in the jejunal crypts, is under both endocrine and autonomic neural control whereas colonic tumor cell division is subject to endocrine regulation alone.

  13. Nanoparticles for cells proliferation enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, V.; Braniste, F.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Lisii, C.; Nacu, V.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of semiconductor nanoparticles as stimulator for avian mesenchyme stem cells proliferation enhancement is demonstrated. The effect is related to nanoparticles polarization due to external ultrasound field resulting in local electrical stimulation. Our preliminary results demonstrates that the number of cells have been increased by 23 % ±2%) in cell cultures under the action of external ultrasound stimulation. Morphological analysis and viability shows no differences between the control group and the group studied. These results suggest the possibility for tissue regeneration enhancement by remote stimulation of implanted semiconductor nanoparticles. (authors)

  14. EDA-containing fibronectin increases proliferation of embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Losino

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESC need a set of specific factors to be propagated. They can also grow in conditioned medium (CM derived from a bovine granulosa cell line BGC (BGC-CM, a medium that not only preserves their main features but also increases ESC´s proliferation rate. The mitogenic properties of this medium were previously reported, ascribing this effect to an alternative spliced generated fibronectin isoform that contains the extra domain A (FN EDA(+. Here, we investigated if the FN EDA(+ isoform increased proliferation of mouse and human ES cells. We analyzed cell proliferation using conditioned media produced by different mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF lines genetically engineered to express FN constitutively including or excluding the EDA domain (FN EDA(-, and in media supplemented with recombinant peptides containing or not the EDA. We found that the presence of EDA in the medium increased mouse and human ESC's proliferation rate. Here we showed for the first time that this FN isoform enhances ESC's proliferation. These findings suggest a possible conserved behavior for regulation of ES cells proliferation by this FN isoform and could contribute to improve their culturing conditions both for research and cell therapy.

  15. Effects of activated fibroblasts on phenotype modulation, EGFR signalling and cell cycle regulation in OSCC cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.berndt@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Büttner, Robert, E-mail: Robert-Buettner@gmx.net [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07740 Jena (Germany); Gühne, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie_guehne@gmx.net [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Gleinig, Anna, E-mail: annagleinig@yahoo.com [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Richter, Petra, E-mail: P.Richter@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Chen, Yuan, E-mail: Yuan.Chen@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Franz, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Franz@med.uni-jena.de [Clinic of Internal Medicine I, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Liebmann, Claus, E-mail: Claus.Liebmann@uni-jena.de [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07740 Jena (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Crosstalk between carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells is suggested to mediate phenotype transition of cancer cells as a prerequisite for tumour progression, to predict patients’ outcome, and to influence the efficacy of EGFR inhibitor therapies. Here we investigate the influence of activated fibroblasts as a model for CAFs on phenotype and EGFR signalling in OSCC cells in vitro. For this, immortalised hTERT-BJ1 fibroblasts were activated with TGFβ1 and PDGFAB to generate a myofibroblast or proliferative phenotype, respectively. Conditioned media (FCM{sub TGF}, FCM{sub PDGF}) were used to stimulate PE/CA-PJ15 OSCC cells. Results were compared to the effect of conditioned media of non-stimulated fibroblasts (FCM{sub B}). FCM{sub TGF} stimulation leads to an up-regulation of vimentin in the OSCC cells and an enhancement of invasive behaviour, indicating EMT-like effects. Similarly, FCM{sub TGF}≫FCM{sub PDGF} induced up-regulation of EGFR, but not of ErbB2/ErbB3. In addition, we detected an increase in basal activities of ERK, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 (FCM{sub TGF}>FCM{sub PDGF}) accompanied by protein interaction of vimentin with pERK. These effects are correlated with an increased proliferation. In summary, our results suggest that the activated myofibroblast phenotype provides soluble factors which are able to induce EMT-like phenomena and to increase EGFR signalling as well as cell proliferation in OSCC cells. Our results indicate a possible influence of activated myofibroblasts on EGFR-inhibitor therapy. Therefore, CAFs may serve as promising novel targets for combined therapy strategies. - Highlights: • A cell culture model for cancer associated fibroblasts is described. • The mutual interaction with OSCC cells leads to up-regulation of EGFR in tumour cells. • mCAF induces EGFR downstream signalling with increased proliferation in OSCC. • Erk activation is associated with protein interaction with vimentin

  16. Effects of activated fibroblasts on phenotype modulation, EGFR signalling and cell cycle regulation in OSCC cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, Alexander; Büttner, Robert; Gühne, Stefanie; Gleinig, Anna; Richter, Petra; Chen, Yuan; Franz, Marcus; Liebmann, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Crosstalk between carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells is suggested to mediate phenotype transition of cancer cells as a prerequisite for tumour progression, to predict patients’ outcome, and to influence the efficacy of EGFR inhibitor therapies. Here we investigate the influence of activated fibroblasts as a model for CAFs on phenotype and EGFR signalling in OSCC cells in vitro. For this, immortalised hTERT-BJ1 fibroblasts were activated with TGFβ1 and PDGFAB to generate a myofibroblast or proliferative phenotype, respectively. Conditioned media (FCM TGF , FCM PDGF ) were used to stimulate PE/CA-PJ15 OSCC cells. Results were compared to the effect of conditioned media of non-stimulated fibroblasts (FCM B ). FCM TGF stimulation leads to an up-regulation of vimentin in the OSCC cells and an enhancement of invasive behaviour, indicating EMT-like effects. Similarly, FCM TGF ≫FCM PDGF induced up-regulation of EGFR, but not of ErbB2/ErbB3. In addition, we detected an increase in basal activities of ERK, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 (FCM TGF >FCM PDGF ) accompanied by protein interaction of vimentin with pERK. These effects are correlated with an increased proliferation. In summary, our results suggest that the activated myofibroblast phenotype provides soluble factors which are able to induce EMT-like phenomena and to increase EGFR signalling as well as cell proliferation in OSCC cells. Our results indicate a possible influence of activated myofibroblasts on EGFR-inhibitor therapy. Therefore, CAFs may serve as promising novel targets for combined therapy strategies. - Highlights: • A cell culture model for cancer associated fibroblasts is described. • The mutual interaction with OSCC cells leads to up-regulation of EGFR in tumour cells. • mCAF induces EGFR downstream signalling with increased proliferation in OSCC. • Erk activation is associated with protein interaction with vimentin as sign of EMT. • Results qualify

  17. Inflammatory responses of stromal fibroblasts to inflammatory epithelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyao; Li, Xuezhong; Xu, Tong; Ma, Mengru; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing

    2016-11-15

    Hypernomic secretion of epithelial cytokines has several effects on stromal cells. The contributions of inflammatory epithelial cells to stromal fibroblasts in bovine mammary glands with mastitis remain poorly understood. Here, we established an inflammatory epithelial cell model of bovine mastitis with gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) bacterial cell wall components. We characterized immune responses of mammary stromal fibroblasts induced by inflammatory epithelial cells. Our results showed that inflammatory epithelial cells affected stromal fibroblast characteristics by increasing inflammatory mediator expression, elevating extracellular matrix protein deposition, decreasing proliferation capacity, and enhancing migration ability. The changes in stromal fibroblast proliferation and migration abilities were mediated by signal molecules, such as WNT signal pathway components. LPS- and LTA-induced inflammatory epithelial cells triggered different immune responses in stromal fibroblasts. Thus, in mastitis, bovine mammary gland stromal fibroblasts were affected by inflammatory epithelial cells and displayed inflammation-specific changes, suggesting that fibroblasts play crucial roles in bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A fibroblast-associated antigen: Characterization in fibroblasts and immunoreactivity in smooth muscle differentiated stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Celis, Julio E.; van Deurs, Bo

    1992-01-01

    major brands migrating at apparent Mr of 38,000, 45,000, and 80,000, in addition to many minor bands between Mr 45,000 and 97,000, including Mr 52,000. The Mr 45,000 and 38,000 were associated with the cell membrane and Mr 52,000 as well as Mr 38,000 were associated with the lysosomes. The 1B10......Fibroblasts with smooth muscle differentiation are frequently derived from human breast tissue. Immunofluorescence cytochemistry of a fibroblast-associated antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAb), 1B10, was analyzed with a view to discriminating smooth muscle differentiated fibroblasts...

  19. Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor (17-AAG) Induces Apoptosis and Decreases Cell Migration/Motility of Keloid Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, In Sik; Lee, Mi Hee; Rah, Dong Kyun; Lew, Dae Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul; Lee, Won Jai

    2015-07-01

    The regulation of apoptosis, proliferation, and migration of fibroblasts is altered in keloids. The 90-kDa heat shock protein (heat shock protein 90) is known to play a key role in such regulation. Therefore, the authors investigated whether the inhibition of heat shock protein 90 in keloid fibroblasts could induce apoptosis and attenuate keloid fibroblast proliferation and migration. The authors evaluated heat shock protein 90 expression in keloid tissues with immunohistochemistry. The authors used cell viability [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays and annexin V/propidium iodide staining for apoptosis, a wound healing model and cell tracking system to assess cell migration, and Akt Western blotting analysis in keloid fibroblasts after inhibition of heat shock protein 90 with 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG). The expression of heat shock protein 90 in keloid tissues was significantly increased compared with normal tissues. The 17-AAG-treated keloid fibroblasts showed significantly decreased proliferation, promotion of apoptosis, and decreased expression of Akt. Furthermore, a dose-dependent decrease in cell migration was noted after 17-AAG treatment of keloid fibroblasts. The 17-AAG-treated keloid fibroblasts had less directionality to the wound center and migrated a shorter distance. The authors confirmed that the inhibition of heat shock protein 90 in keloid fibroblasts could promote apoptosis and attenuate proliferation and migration of keloid fibroblasts. Therefore, the authors think that the inhibition of heat shock protein 90 is a key factor in the regulation of biological processes in keloids. With further preclinical study, the authors will be able to apply these results clinically for keloid treatment.

  20. Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H.; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    beam milling and scanning electron microscopy, highly curved but intact nuclear membranes are observed, showing no direct contact between the nanowires and the DNA. The nanowires possibly induce cellular stress and high respiration rates, which trigger the formation of ROS, which in turn results in DNA......Nanowires are commonly used as tools for interfacing living cells, acting as biomolecule-delivery vectors or electrodes. It is generally assumed that the small size of the nanowires ensures a minimal cellular perturbation, yet the effects of nanowires on cell migration and proliferation remain...... largely unknown. Fibroblast behaviour on vertical nanowire arrays is investigated, and it is shown that cell motility and proliferation rate are reduced on nanowires. Fibroblasts cultured on long nanowires exhibit failed cell division, DNA damage, increased ROS content and respiration. Using focused ion...

  1. Fibrosis of Two: Epithelial Cell-Fibroblast Interactions in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Norihiko; Tager, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the progressive and ultimately fatal accumulation of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix in the lung that distorts its architecture and compromises its function. IPF is now thought to result from wound-healing processes that, although initiated to protect the host from injurious environmental stimuli, lead to pathological fibrosis due to these processes becoming aberrant or over-exuberant. Although the environmental stimuli that trigger IPF remain to be identified, recent evidence suggests that they initially injure the alveolar epithelium. Repetitive cycles of epithelial injury and resultant alveolar epithelial cell death provoke the migration, proliferation, activation and myofibroblast differentiation of fibroblasts, causing the accumulation of these cells and the extracellular matrix that they synthesize. In turn, these activated fibroblasts induce further alveolar epithelial cell injury and death, thereby creating a vicious cycle of pro-fibrotic epithelial cell-fibroblast interactions. Though other cell types certainly make important contributions, we focus here on the “pas de deux” (steps of two), or perhaps more appropriate to IPF pathogenesis, the “folie à deux” (madness of two) of epithelial cells and fibroblasts that drives the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. We describe the signaling molecules that mediate the interactions of these cell types in their “fibrosis of two”, including transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, sonic hedgehog, prostaglandin E2, angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species. PMID:23499992

  2. Effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on human gingival fibroblast, osteoblast and periodontal ligament cell behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Sculean, Anton; Chappuis, Vivianne; Buser, Daniel; Schaller, Benoit; Dőri, Ferenc; Miron, Richard J

    2017-06-02

    The use of platelet rich plasma (PRP, GLO) has been used as an adjunct to various regenerative dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to characterize the influence of PRP on human gingival fibroblasts, periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and osteoblast cell behavior in vitro. Human gingival fibroblasts, PDL cells and osteoblasts were cultured with conditioned media from PRP and investigated for cell migration, proliferation and collagen1 (COL1) immunostaining. Furthermore, gingival fibroblasts were tested for genes encoding TGF-β, PDGF and COL1a whereas PDL cells and osteoblasts were additionally tested for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining and mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers including Runx2, COL1a2, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN). It was first found that PRP significantly increased cell migration of all cells up to 4 fold. Furthermore, PRP increased cell proliferation at 3 and 5 days of gingival fibroblasts, and at 3 days for PDL cells, whereas no effect was observed on osteoblasts. Gingival fibroblasts cultured with PRP increased TGF-β, PDGF-B and COL1 mRNA levels at 7 days and further increased over 3-fold COL1 staining at 14 days. PDL cells cultured with PRP increased Runx2 mRNA levels but significantly down-regulated OCN mRNA levels at 3 days. No differences in COL1 staining or ALP staining were observed in PDL cells. Furthermore, PRP decreased mineralization of PDL cells at 14 days post seeding as assessed by alizarin red staining. In osteoblasts, PRP increased COL1 staining at 14 days, increased COL1 and ALP at 3 days, as well as increased ALP staining at 14 days. No significant differences were observed for alizarin red staining of osteoblasts following culture with PRP. The results demonstrate that PRP promoted gingival fibroblast migration, proliferation and mRNA expression of pro-wound healing molecules. While PRP induced PDL cells and osteoblast migration and proliferation, it tended to have

  3. p53/PUMA expression in human pulmonary fibroblasts mediates cell activation and migration in silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijun; Dai, Xiaoniu; Fang, Shencun; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yingming; Yao, Honghong; Zhang, Xilong; Chao, Jie

    2015-11-18

    Phagocytosis of SiO2 into the lung causes an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration, followed by fibrosis. Clinical evidence has indicated that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO2 produces rapid and sustained inflammation characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1, which, in turn, induces fibrosis. However, the details of events downstream of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 activity in pulmonary fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, to elucidate the role of p53 in fibrosis induced by silica, both the upstream molecular mechanisms and the functional effects on cell proliferation and migration were investigated. Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts led to the following results: 1) SiO2 treatment resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in p53 and PUMA protein levels; 2) the MAPK and PI3K pathways were involved in the SiO2-induced alteration of p53 and PUMA expression; and 3) RNA interference targeting p53 and PUMA prevented the SiO2-induced increases in fibroblast activation and migration. Our study elucidated a link between SiO2-induced p53/PUMA expression in fibroblasts and cell migration, thereby providing novel insight into the potential use of p53/PUMA in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis treatment.

  4. Influence on proliferation and adhesion of human gingival fibroblasts from different titanium surface decontamination treatments: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Wang, Tong; Pu, Yinfei; Tang, Zhihui; Meng, Huanxin

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effects of different decontamination treatments on microstructure of titanium (Ti) surface as well as proliferation and adhesion of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Ti discs with machined (M) and sand blasted, acid etched (SAE) surfaces were treated with five different decontamination treatments: (1) stainless steel curette (SSC), ultrasonic system with (2) straight carbon fiber tip (UCF) or (3) metal tip (UM), (4) rotating Ti brush (RTB), and (5) Er:YAG laser (30 mJ/pulse at 30 Hz). Surface roughness was analyzed under optical interferometry. HGFs were cultured on each disc. Proliferation and adhesive strength were analyzed. qRT-PCR and ELISA were performed to detect the RNA and protein expression of FAK, ITGB1, COL1A1, and FN1 respectively from different Ti surfaces. Surface roughness increased on M surface. Proliferation, adhesive strength and gene expression were higher on M surface than SAE surface. Decontamination treatments affected surface parameters significantly (P < 0.001), making M surface less smooth while SAE surface became less rough. SSC, UCF, UM and RTB decreased proliferation on M surfaces significantly (P < 0.05). UCF, RTB and laser increased proliferation on SAE surface significantly (P < 0.05). UM decreased adhesive strength on M surface significantly and laser increased adhesive strength on SAE surface significantly (P < 0.05). Gene expression increased with time and was altered by decontamination treatments significantly (P < 0.001). Decontamination treatments influence surface roughness and cell behavior of HGFs. Laser might be an optimal decontamination treatment which has the least negative effect on M surface and the most positive effect on SAE surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) stimulates proliferation and migration of primary keratocytes and conjunctival fibroblasts and inhibits and reverts TGF-beta1-Induced myodifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Sanchez, Mikel; Merayo-Lloves, Jesus; De la Fuente, Maria; Muruzabal, Francisco; Orive, Gorka

    2011-08-01

    Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) technology is an autologous platelet-enriched plasma obtained from patient's own blood, which after activation with calcium chloride allows the release of a pool of biologically active proteins that influence and promote a range of biological processes including cell recruitment, and growth and differentiation. Because ocular surface wound healing is mediated by different growth factors, we decided to explore the potential of PRGF-Endoret technology in stimulating the biological processes related with fibroblast-induced tissue repair. Furthermore, the anti-fibrotic properties of this technology were also studied. Blood from healthy donors was collected, centrifuged and, whole plasma column (WP) and the plasma fraction with the highest platelet concentration (F3) were drawn off, avoiding the buffy coat. Primary human cells including keratocytes and conjunctival fibroblasts were used to perform the "in vitro" investigations. The potential of PRGF-Endoret in promoting wound healing was evaluated by means of a proliferation and migration assays. Fibroblast cells were induced to myofibroblast differentiation after the treatment with 2.5 ng/mL of TGF-β1. The capability of WP and F3 to prevent and inhibit TGF-β1-induced differentiation was evaluated. Results show that this autologous approach significantly enhances proliferation and migration of both keratocytes and conjunctival fibroblasts. In addition, plasma rich in growth factors prevents and inhibits TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation. No differences were found between WP and F3 plasma fractions. These results suggest that PRGF-Endoret could reduce scarring while stimulating wound healing in ocular surface. F3 or whole plasma column show similar biological effects in keratocytes and conjunctival fibroblast cells.

  6. Engineered electrospun poly(caprolactone)/polycaprolactone-g-hydroxyapatite nano-fibrous scaffold promotes human fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keivani, F. [Biology Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, P., E-mail: p.shokrolahi@ippi.ac.ir [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Science, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zandi, M. [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Science, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Irani, S. [Biology Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrolahi, F. [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Science, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, S.C. [Biology Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)/hydroxyapatite nano-composites are among the best candidates for tissue engineering. However, interactions between nHAp and PCL are difficult to control leading to inhomogeneous dispersion of the bio-ceramic particles. Grafting of polymer chains at high density/chain length while promotes the phase compatibility may result in reduced HAp exposed surface area and therefore, bioactivity is compromised. This issue is addressed here by grafting PCL chains onto HAp nano-particles through ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (PCL-g-HAp). FTIR and TGA analysis showed that PCL (6.9 wt%), was successfully grafted on the HAp. PCL/PCL-g-HAp nano-fibrous scaffold showed up to 10 and 33% enhancement in tensile strength and modulus, respectively, compared to those of PCL/HAp. The effects of HAp on the in vitro HAp formation were investigated for both the PCL/HAp and PCL/PCL-g-HAp scaffolds. Precipitation of HAp on the nano-composite scaffolds observed after 15 days incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF), as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Human fibroblasts were seeded on PCL, PCL/HAp and PCL/PCL-g-HAp scaffolds. According to MTT assay, the highest cell proliferation was recorded for PCL/PCL-g-HAp nano-composite, at all time intervals (1–21 days, P < 0.001). Fluorescent microscopy (of DAPI stained samples) and electron microscopy images showed that all nano-fibrous scaffolds (PCL, PCL/HAp, and PCL/PCL-g-HAp), were non-toxic against cells, while more cell adhesion, and the most uniform cell distribution observed on the PCL/PCL-g-HAp. Overall, grafting of relatively short chains of PCL on the surface of HAp nano-particles stimulates fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation on the PCL/PCL-g-HAp nano-composite. - Highlights: • PCL chains were grafted on HAp nano-particles at relatively low density, through ROP of ε-caprolactone (PCL-g-HAp) • PCL-g-HAp featured a relatively high

  7. Cell-contact-dependent activation of CD4+ T cells by adhesion molecules on synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masato; Hashimoto, Motomu; Matsuo, Takashi; Fujii, Takao; Furu, Moritoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Jun; Ito, Yoshinaga; Akizuki, Shuji; Nakashima, Ran; Imura, Yoshitaka; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Ohmura, Koichiro; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2017-05-01

    To determine how cell-cell contact with synovial fibroblasts (SF) influence on the proliferation and cytokine production of CD4 +  T cells. Naïve CD4 +  T cells were cultured with SF from rheumatoid arthritis patients, stimulated by anti-CD3/28 antibody, and CD4 +  T cell proliferation and IFN-γ/IL-17 production were analyzed. To study the role of adhesion molecules, cell contact was blocked by transwell plate or anti-intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) antibody. To study the direct role of adhesion molecules for CD4 +  T cells, CD161 +  or CD161 - naïve CD4 +  T cells were stimulated on plastic plates coated by recombinant ICAM-1 or VCAM-1, and the source of IFN-γ/IL-17 were analyzed. SF enhanced naïve CD4 +  T cell proliferation and IFN-γ/IL-17 production in cell-contact and in part ICAM-1-/VCAM-1-dependent manner. Plate-coated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 enhanced naïve CD4 +  T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, while VCAM-1 efficiently promoting IL-17 production. CD161 +  naïve T cells upregulating LFA-1 and VLA-4 were the major source of IFN-γ/IL-17 upon interaction with ICAM-1/VCAM-1. CD4 +  T cells rapidly expand and secrete IFN-γ/IL-17 upon cell-contact with SF via adhesion molecules. Interfering with ICAM-1-/VCAM-1 may be beneficial for inhibiting RA synovitis.

  8. Exogenous lactate interferes with cell-cycle control in BALB/3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutz, H. Peter; Little, John B.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that exogenous lactate may influence proliferation rates, radiation sensitivity, and postirradiation repair capacity of mammalian cells. In the present study, we addressed the question of potential underlying mechanisms and, therefore, examined effects of exogenous lactate on proliferation rates and cell-cycle distribution in immortal but nontumorigenic mammalian cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were grown at 37 deg. C in an incubator with 5% CO 2 and 95% air, in a culture medium supplemented or not with lactate at a 10 mM concentration. Daily, we changed the culture medium and counted cells per dish. On selected days, cell-cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts were used. Results: During the exponential phase of cell proliferation, mean population doubling time was significantly increased from 17.7 to 19.9 h, due to selective prolongation of G 2 /M. However, in density-inhibited cultures, exogenous lactate stimulated entry into S and proliferation to a significantly higher saturation density. Conclusions: These findings indicate that exogenous lactate interferes with mechanisms of cell-cycle control at two different points in the cell-cycle, depending on cell density and the resulting absence or presence of inhibition of cell proliferation. Interference with cell-cycle control may underlay the modification by exogenous lactate of radiosensitivity and postirradiation repair capacity in mammalian cells

  9. Quantitative morphological analysis of proliferating and nonproliferating subpopulations of IMR-90 fibroblasts during aging in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, T.B.; Heitman, T.O.; Buck, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Early-, mid- and late-passage cultures (population doubling levels 12, 35, and 51, respectively) of IMR-90 fibroblasts were exposed to 3 H-thymidine for 48 h prior to fixation in situ for morphometric analysis in order to determine quantitatively what ultrastructural changes accompany the loss of proliferative capacity during aging in vitro. Analysis of autoradiographs, both at the light and electron microscopic levels, with an image analyzer followed by ANOVA statistical scrutiny demonstrated that a significant increase in relative cell area, an indicator of cell size, was characteristic of cells unable to incorporate 3 H-TdR at both mid- and late-passage, but not at early-passage levels. Nuclear size also increased significantly with progressive passage level but was not related to proliferative capacity. No significant difference in the area fraction of nucleoli per unit area of nucleus or of mitochondria, Golgi, or lysosomes was seen in either subpopulation at any passage level. Dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum in early-passage cells were seen if cells were harvested with trypsin and fixed either before or after centrifugation, but were not seen in labeled or unlabeled cells from any passage level when cultures were fixed in situ. We conclude that a significant increase in cell size is the only significant morphological change associated with the loss of proliferative capacity of IRM-90 fibroblasts. Furthermore, our data indicate that there is no accumulation of secondary lysosomes in human diploid fibroblasts during aging in vitro; we therefore cannot support any hypothesis of aging or proliferative decline that is based mechanistically upon this phenomenon

  10. Growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells on wettability gradient surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruardy, TG; Moorlag, HE; Schakenraad, JM; VanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    The growth, spreading, and shape of human skin fibroblasts (PK 84) and human umbilical cord endothelial cells on dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane (DOGS) gradient surfaces were investigated in the presence of serum proteins. Gradient surfaces were prepared on glass using

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Gorlin's Patients: a Matter of Fibroblasts-Led Protumoral Microenvironment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gache, Yannick; Brellier, Florence; Rouanet, Sophie; Al-Qaraghuli, Sahar; Goncalves-Maia, Maria; Burty-Valin, Elodie; Barnay, Stéphanie; Scarzello, Sabine; Ruat, Martial; Sevenet, Nicolas; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest tumor in human. About 70% sporadic BCCs bear somatic mutations in the PATCHED1 tumor suppressor gene which encodes the receptor for the Sonic Hedgehog morphogen (SHH). PATCHED1 germinal mutations are associated with the dominant Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), a major hallmark of which is a high susceptibility to BCCs. Although the vast majority of sporadic BCCs arises exclusively in sun exposed skin areas, 40 to 50% BCCs from NBCCS patients develop in non photo-exposed skin. Since overwhelming evidences indicate that microenvironment may both be modified by- and influence the- epithelial tumor, we hypothesized that NBCCS fibroblasts could contribute to BCCs in NBCCS patients, notably those developing in non photo-exposed skin areas. The functional impact of NBCCS fibroblasts was then assessed in organotypic skin cultures with control keratinocytes. Onset of epidermal differentiation was delayed in the presence of primary NBCCS fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, keratinocyte proliferation was severely reduced and showed high levels of nuclear P53 in both organotypic skin cultures and in fibroblast-led conditioning experiments. However, in spite of increased levels of senescence associated β-galactosidase activity in keratinocytes cultured in the presence of medium conditioned by NBCCS fibroblasts, we failed to observe activation of P16 and P21 and then of bona fide features of senescence. Constitutive extinction of P53 in WT keratinocytes resulted in an invasive phenotype in the presence of NBCCS fibroblasts. Finally, we found that expression of SHH was limited to fibroblasts but was dependent on the presence of keratinocytes. Inhibition of SHH binding resulted in improved epidermal morphogenesis. Altogether, these data suggest that the repertoire of diffusible factors (including SHH) expressed by primary NBCCS fibroblasts generate a stress affecting keratinocytes behavior and epidermal homeostasis. Our findings

  12. Effect of 660 nm Light-Emitting Diode on the Wound Healing in Fibroblast-Like Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Sun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light in the red to near-infrared (NIR range (630–1000 nm, which is generated using low energy laser or light-emitting diode (LED arrays, was reported to have a range of beneficial biological effects in many injury models. NIR via a LED is a well-accepted therapeutic tool for the treatment of infected, ischemic, and hypoxic wounds as well as other soft tissue injuries in humans and animals. This study examined the effects of exposure to 660 nm red LED light at intensities of 2.5, 5.5, and 8.5 mW/cm2 for 5, 10, and 20 min on wound healing and proliferation in fibroblast-like cells, such as L929 mouse fibroblasts and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1. A photo illumination-cell culture system was designed to evaluate the cell proliferation and wound healing of fibroblast-like cells exposed to 600 nm LED light. The cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, and a scratched wound assay was performed to assess the rate of migrating cells and the healing effect. Exposure to the 660 nm red LED resulted in an increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to the control, indicating its potential use as a phototherapeutic agent.

  13. Investigating the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinases in the proliferation of Werner syndrome fibroblasts using diaminopyridine inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Terence

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fibroblasts derived from the progeroid Werner syndrome show reduced replicative lifespan and a "stressed" morphology, both alleviated using the MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580. However, interpretation of these data is problematical because although SB203580 has the stress-activated kinases p38 and JNK1/2 as its preferred targets, it does show relatively low overall kinase selectivity. Several lines of data support a role for both p38 and JNK1/2 activation in the control of cellular proliferation and also the pathology of diseases of ageing, including type II diabetes, diseases to which Werner Syndrome individuals are prone, thus making the use of JNK inhibitors attractive as possible therapeutics. We have thus tested the effects of the widely used JNK inhibitor SP600125 on the proliferation and morphology of WS cells. In addition we synthesised and tested two recently described aminopyridine based inhibitors. SP600125 treatment resulted in the cessation of proliferation of WS cells and resulted in a senescent-like cellular phenotype that does not appear to be related to the inhibition of JNK1/2. In contrast, use of the more selective aminopyridine CMPD 6o at concentrations that fully inhibit JNK1/2 had a positive effect on cellular proliferation of immortalised WS cells, but no effect on the replicative lifespan of primary WS fibroblasts. In addition, CMPD 6o corrected the stressed WS cellular morphology. The aminopyridine CMPD 6r, however, had little effect on WS cells. CMDP 6o was also found to be a weak inhibitor of MK2, which may partially explain its effects on WS cells, since MK2 is known to be involved in regulating cellular morphology via HSP27 phosphorylation, and is thought to play a role in cell cycle arrest. These data suggest that total JNK1/2 activity does not play a substantial role in the proliferation control in WS cells.

  14. Elastin hydrolysate derived from fish enhances proliferation of human skin fibroblasts and elastin synthesis in human skin fibroblasts and improves the skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, Eri; Nakaba, Misako; Yamada, Michio

    2016-03-30

    Recent studies have shown that certain peptides significantly improve skin conditions, such as skin elasticity and the moisture content of the skin of healthy woman. This study aimed to investigate the effects of elastin hydrolysate on human skin. Proliferation and elastin synthesis were evaluated in human skin fibroblasts exposed to elastin hydrolysate and proryl-glycine (Pro-Gly), which is present in human blood after elastin hydrolysate ingestion. We also performed an ingestion test with elastin hydrolysate in humans and evaluated skin condition. Elastin hydrolysate and Pro-Gly enhanced the proliferation of fibroblasts and elastin synthesis. Maximal proliferation response was observed at 25 ng mL(-1) Pro-Gly. Ingestion of elastin hydrolysate improved skin condition, such as elasticity, number of wrinkles, and blood flow. Elasticity improved by 4% in the elastin hydrolysate group compared with 2% in the placebo group. Therefore, elastin hydrolysate activates human skin fibroblasts and has beneficial effects on skin conditions. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Chemical Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Functional Schwann Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C. Thoma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct transdifferentiation of somatic cells is a promising approach to obtain patient-specific cells for numerous applications. However, conversion across germ-layer borders often requires ectopic gene expression with unpredictable side effects. Here, we present a gene-free approach that allows efficient conversion of human fibroblasts via a transient progenitor stage into Schwann cells, the major glial cell type of peripheral nerves. Using a multikinase inhibitor, we transdifferentiated fibroblasts into transient neural precursors that were subsequently further differentiated into Schwann cells. The resulting induced Schwann cells (iSCs expressed numerous Schwann cell-specific proteins and displayed neurosupportive and myelination capacity in vitro. Thus, we established a strategy to obtain mature Schwann cells from human postnatal fibroblasts under chemically defined conditions without the introduction of ectopic genes.

  16. Effects of nanostructurized silicon on proliferation of stem and cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osminkina, L A; Luckyanova, E N; Gongalsky, M B; Kudryavtsev, A A; Gaydarova, A Kh; Poltavtseva, R A; Kashkarov, P K; Timoshenko, V Yu; Sukhikh, G T

    2011-05-01

    In vitro experiments showed that stem and cancer cells retained their viability on the surface of porous silicon with 10-100 nm nanostructures, but their proliferation was inhibited. Silicon nanoparticles of 100 nm in size obtained by mechanical grinding of porous silicon films or crystal silicon plates in a concentration below 1 mg/ml in solution did not modify viability and proliferation of mouse fibroblast and human laryngeal cancer cells. Additional ultrasonic exposure of cancer cells in the presence of 1 mg/ml silicon nanoparticles added to nutrient medium led to complete destruction of cells or to the appearance of membrane defects blocking their proliferation and initiating their apoptotic death.

  17. Irradiated murine fibroblasts as feeder layer used in human cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Tiago L.; Klingbeil, Fatima G.; Yoshito, Daniele; Caproni, Priscila; Mathor, Monica B.; Herson, Marisa R.

    2007-01-01

    In 1975, Rheinwald and Green published an in vitro model for keratinocyte cell cultures in which the use of murine fibroblasts, as a feeder layer was introduced. These cells are modified fibroblasts, which presence render keratinocyte cells to remain proliferative for longer periods of time. This optimization of culture outputs has allowed for several clinical applications of confluent keratinocyte cultures as skin substitutes or wound dressings in situations such as post burn extensive skin loss, loss of oral mucosa, and other skin disorders. Nevertheless, proliferation of fibroblast in co-culture with keratinocytes must be controlled by anti-proliferative measures such as irradiation; at the same time, keratinocytes require specific nutrients in the culture medium, which may interfere with the fibroblast feeder layer viability. Therefore, the thorough understanding of the impact of different issues such as culture media composition, irradiation dose and pre-plating storage conditions of irradiated fibroblast to be used as feeder layer in these co-culture systems is important. In this work, changes as far as viability and proliferative rates of irradiated fibroblasts in culture were evaluated in relation to the type of culture medium used, dose of gamma radiation exposure, storage and timing of cell plating post irradiation. Results indicate that the type of culture medium used and time-lag between irradiation, refrigeration and plating of irradiated cells do not have significant impact in culture outcomes. However, the dose of gamma radiation administered to the cells may influence the final quality of these cells if to be used as a feeder layer. (author)

  18. The use of chitosan-dextran gel shows anti-inflammatory, antibiofilm, and antiproliferative properties in fibroblast cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, Sathish; Jones, Damien; Baker, Leonie; Hanton, Lyall; Robinson, Simon; Wormald, Peter J; Tan, Lorwai

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan-dextran gel has been used as an antihemostatic agent and antiadhesive agent after endoscopic sinus surgery. Because Staphylococcus aureus biofilms have been implicated in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis, this study aimed to further investigate the (i) anti-inflammatory, (ii) bacterial biofilm inhibition, (iii) antiproliferative effects, and (iv) wound-healing properties of chitosan and chitosan-dextran gel. Fibroblasts were isolated from human nasal tissue and were used to determine the effects of chitosan and chitosan-dextran gel on (i) cell proliferation, (ii) wound healing, (iii) inflammation in fibroblast cultures challenged with superantigens S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), and (iv) on S. aureus biofilms. Chitosan was highly effective at reducing IL-8 expression after TSST and SEB challenge. Chitosan was also effective at reducing IL-8 expression of nonchallenged fibroblasts showing its anti-inflammatory effects on fibroblasts in a diseased state. Chitosan-dextran gel showed strong antibiofilm properties at 50% (v/v) concentration in vitro. Dextran, on its own, showed antibiofilm properties at 1.25% (w/v) concentration. Chitosan, on its own, reduced proliferation of fibroblasts to 82% of control proliferation and chitosan-dextran gel reduced proliferation of the fibroblasts to 0.04% of control proliferation. Relative to the no treatment controls, chitosan-dextran gel significantly delayed the wound-healing rate over the first 48 hours of the experiment. Chitosan-dextran gel reduced fibroblast proliferation and wound-healing time, showing a possible mechanism of reducing adhesions in the postsurgical period. Chitosan reduced IL-8 levels, showing its anti-inflammatory properties. Chitosan-dextran gel and dextran treatment showed antibiofilm properties in our model.

  19. Advanced Research of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 
in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan PU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is severely threatening human health. In recent years, the treatment for lung adenocarcinoma has made a great progress, targeted therapy has been widely applied in clinic, and benefits amount of patients. However, in squamous cell lung cancer, the incidence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutant and ALK fusion gene are low,and targeted therapy like Tarceva and crizotinib, can hardly work. Since the fibroblast growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, FGF pathway is considered to be related to tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis, more and more researches proved the amplification of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR in squamous cell lung cancer. Experiments in vivo and in vitro found that blocking FGF pathway could reduce the proliferation of tumor cells and inhibit metastasis. The FGF pathway might be a new target for treatment of squamous cell lung cancer. This article reviews the effect of FGFR in tumorigenesis,as well as the prospect as a therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer.

  20. ZnO nanorod–templated well-aligned ZrO2 nanotube arrays for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhisong; Hu, Weihua; Ming Li, Chang; Zhu, Zhihong; Liu, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Cellular responses to porous tubular structures have recently been investigated in highly ordered ZrO 2 nanotube arrays fabricated with anodization. However, the potential applications of the nanotube arrays are hindered by instrument requirements and substrate limitations, as well as by the complicated processes needed for synthesis. In this work, ZrO 2 nanotube arrays were synthesized by in situ hydrolysis of zirconium propoxide with a zinc oxide nanorod array–based template. Fibroblast cells were able to grow on the nanotube array surface with produced elongated filopodia. Studies of the capability of cell growth and the expression of adhesion- and proliferation-related genes reveal that ZrO 2 nanotube arrays may provide a better environment for cell adhesion and growth than a flat titanium surface. These findings not only provide fundamental insight into cell response to nanostructures but also provide an opportunity to use a unique approach to fabricate ZrO 2 nanotube array structures for potential implant applications. (papers)

  1. Action of low-power laser irradiation on the proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Lopes, Luciana; Jaeger, Marcia M. M.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Rigau, Josepa

    1998-04-01

    The low level power laser has been used in dental treatments aiming to improve tissue healing. An in vitro study was performed to analyze the laser influence on gingival fibroblast. A human gingival fibroblast culture (LMF) was produced in DME medium with 10% bovine fetal serum (BFS) cells (LMF) were allocated in Petri plates and cultured in different SFB concentrations (0%, 5% e 10%). After 48 hours the plates were divided in 9 groups: 3 control: 3 irradiated by 635 nm laser; and 3 irradiated by 780 nm laser. The cultured cells received 4 applications, in 12 hours intervals, with energy dosage of 2 joules for each plate, by means of a punctual technique. The growth curves showed that the growth levels were lower in low BFS concentrations. The irradiation with laser accelerated the growth rate in all groups. Additionally, the number of cells developed in low BFS concentration (5%) and irradiated was similar to the number of control cells developed in ideal conditions (10% BFS). There was no statistically significant differences between the effects of the two types of laser studied.

  2. Coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Park, Sahng Wook; Kim, Hojeong; Park, Sang-Kyu; Yoon, Dojun

    2010-01-01

    Mouse or human fibroblasts are commonly used as feeder cells to prevent differentiation in stem or primary cell culture. In the present study, we addressed whether fibroblasts can affect the differentiation of adipocytes. We found that the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was strongly suppressed when the cells were cocultured with human fibroblast (BJ) cells. BrdU incorporation analysis indicated that mitotic clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis, was not affected by BJ cells. The 3T3-L1 cell expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and Krueppel-like factor 15, but not those of C/EBPβ or C/EBPδ, were decreased by coculture with BJ cells. When mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cocultured with BJ cells, their lipid contents were significantly reduced, with decreased fatty acid synthase expression and increased phosphorylated form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1. Our data indicate that coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the lipogenesis of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  3. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Proliferation and Differentiation of Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical stimulation of vibration on proliferation and differentiation of cells has been studied in vitro. To apply the vibration on the cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the culture plate of six wells. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by sinusoidally alternating voltage at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Five kinds of cells were used in the experiment: C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell, L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma cell, HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cell, and Neuro-2a (mouse neural crest-derived cell line. After the incubation for 24 hours, cells were exposed to the ultrasonic vibration intermittently for three days: for thirty minutes per day. At the end of the experiment, the number of cells was counted by colorimetric method with a microplate photometer. In the case of Neuro-2a, the total length of the neurite was calculated at the microscopic image. The experimental study shows following results. Cells are exfoliated by the strong vibration. Proliferation and differentiation of cells are accelerated with mild vibration. The optimum intensity of vibration depends on the kind of cells.

  4. Long Noncoding RNA PANDA Positively Regulates Proliferation of Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Yojiro; Goto, Taiki; Naemura, Madoka; Inoue, Yasutoshi; Okamoto, Haruna; Tahara, Keiichiro

    2017-01-01

    A long noncoding RNA, p21-associated ncRNA DNA damage-activated (PANDA), associates with nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha (NF-YA) and inhibits its binding to promoters of apoptosis-related genes, thereby repressing apoptosis in normal human fibroblasts. Here, we show that PANDA is involved in regulating proliferation in the U2OS human osteosarcoma cell line. U2OS cells were transfected with siRNAs against PANDA 72 h later and they were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR and cell-cycle analysis. PANDA was highly expressed in U2OS cells, and its expression was induced by DNA damage. Silencing PANDA caused arrest at the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that silencing PANDA increased mRNA levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p18, which caused G 1 phase arrest. These results suggest that PANDA promotes G 1 -S transition by repressing p18 transcription, and thus promotes U2OS cell proliferation. Copyright© 2017 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Reactive Stromal Fibroblasts as a Potential Antibody Target in Human Epithelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Old, Lloyd J.; Rettig, Wolfgang J.

    1990-09-01

    The F19 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M_r, 95,000) of human sarcomas and proliferating, cultured fibroblasts that is absent from resting fibroblasts in normal adult tissues. Normal and malignant epithelial cells are also F19^-. The present immunohistochemical study describes induction of F19 in the reactive mesenchyme of epithelial tumors. F19^+ fibroblasts were found in primary and metastatic carcinomas, including colorectal (18 of 18 cases studied), breast (14/14), ovarian (21/21), bladder (9/10), and lung carcinomas (13/13). In contrast, the stroma of benign colorectal adenomas, fibrocystic disease and fibroadenomas of breast, benign prostate hyperplasia, in situ bladder carcinomas, and benign ovarian tumors showed no or only moderate numbers of F19^+ fibroblasts. Analysis of dermal incision wounds revealed that F19 is strongly induced during scar formation. Comparison of F19 with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin, a putative marker of tumor mesenchyme, showed a cellular staining pattern for F19 vs. the extracellular matrix pattern for tenascin and widespread expression of tenascin in F19^- normal tissues and benign tumors. Our results suggest that the F19^+ phenotype correlates with specialized fibroblast functions in wound healing and malignant tumor growth. Because of its abundance in tumor mesenchyme, F19 may serve as a target for antibodies labeled with radioisotopes or toxic agents, or inflammatogenic antibodies, in carcinoma patients.

  6. IL1β-mediated Stromal COX-2 signaling mediates proliferation and invasiveness of colonic epithelial cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yingting; Zhu, Min; Lance, Peter

    2012-01-01

    COX-2 is a major inflammatory mediator implicated in colorectal inflammation and cancer. However, the exact origin and role of COX-2 on colorectal inflammation and carcinogenesis are still not well defined. Recently, we reported that COX-2 and iNOS signalings interact in colonic CCD18Co fibroblasts. In this article, we investigated whether activation of COX-2 signaling by IL1β in primary colonic fibroblasts obtained from normal and cancer patients play a critical role in regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of human colonic epithelial cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that COX-2 level was significantly higher in cancer associated fibroblasts than that in normal fibroblasts with or without stimulation of IL-1β, a powerful stimulator of COX-2. Using in vitro assays for estimating proliferative and invasive potential, we discovered that the proliferation and invasiveness of the epithelial cancer cells were much greater when the cells were co-cultured with cancer associated fibroblasts than with normal fibroblasts, with or without stimulation of IL1β. Further analysis indicated that the major COX-2 product, prostaglandin E 2 , directly enhanced proliferation and invasiveness of the epithelial cancer cells in the absence of fibroblasts. Moreover, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, blocked the proliferative and invasive effect of both normal and cancer associate fibroblasts on the epithelial cancer cells, with or without stimulation of IL-1β. Those results indicate that activation of COX-2 signaling in the fibroblasts plays a major role in promoting proliferation and invasiveness of the epithelial cancer cells. In this process, PKC is involved in the activation of COX-2 signaling induced by IL-1β in the fibroblasts.

  7. Establishment of the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines and their application in chemical risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkard, Michael, E-mail: Michael.burkard@eawag.ch [Griffith University, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Southern Ocean Persistent Organic Pollutants Program, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Whitworth, Deanne [The University of Queensland, School of Veterinary Science, Gatton, QLD (Australia); Schirmer, Kristin [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogechemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, Zürich (Switzerland); EPF Lausanne, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lausanne (Switzerland); Nash, Susan Bengtson [Griffith University, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Southern Ocean Persistent Organic Pollutants Program, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We established and characterised the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. • Cell lines have a stable karyotype with 2n = 44. • Exposure to p,p′-DDE resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. • p,p′-DDE sensitivity differed considerably from human fibroblasts. • Exposure to a whale blubber extract showed higher sensitivity than to p,p′-DDE alone. - Abstract: This paper reports the first successful derivation and characterization of humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. Primary fibroblasts were isolated from the dermal connective tissue of skin biopsies, cultured at 37 °C and 5% CO{sub 2} in the standard mammalian medium DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Of nine initial biopsies, two cell lines were established from two different animals and designated HuWa1 and HuWa2. The cells have a stable karyotype with 2n = 44, which has commonly been observed in other baleen whale species. Cells were verified as being fibroblasts based on their spindle-shaped morphology, adherence to plastic and positive immunoreaction to vimentin. Population doubling time was determined to be ∼41 h and cells were successfully cryopreserved and thawed. To date, HuWa1 cells have been propagated 30 times. Cells proliferate at the tested temperatures, 30, 33.5 and 37 °C, but show the highest rate of proliferation at 37 °C. Short-term exposure to para,para′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), a priority compound accumulating in southern hemisphere humpback whales, resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. The effective concentration which caused a 50% reduction in HuWa1 cell viability (EC{sub 50} value) was approximately six times greater than the EC{sub 50} value for the same chemical measured with human dermal fibroblasts. HuWa1 exposed to a natural, p,p′-DDE-containing, chemical mixture extracted from whale blubber showed distinctively higher sensitivity than to p,p′-DDE alone

  8. Establishment of the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines and their application in chemical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkard, Michael; Whitworth, Deanne; Schirmer, Kristin; Nash, Susan Bengtson

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We established and characterised the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. • Cell lines have a stable karyotype with 2n = 44. • Exposure to p,p′-DDE resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. • p,p′-DDE sensitivity differed considerably from human fibroblasts. • Exposure to a whale blubber extract showed higher sensitivity than to p,p′-DDE alone. - Abstract: This paper reports the first successful derivation and characterization of humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. Primary fibroblasts were isolated from the dermal connective tissue of skin biopsies, cultured at 37 °C and 5% CO_2 in the standard mammalian medium DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Of nine initial biopsies, two cell lines were established from two different animals and designated HuWa1 and HuWa2. The cells have a stable karyotype with 2n = 44, which has commonly been observed in other baleen whale species. Cells were verified as being fibroblasts based on their spindle-shaped morphology, adherence to plastic and positive immunoreaction to vimentin. Population doubling time was determined to be ∼41 h and cells were successfully cryopreserved and thawed. To date, HuWa1 cells have been propagated 30 times. Cells proliferate at the tested temperatures, 30, 33.5 and 37 °C, but show the highest rate of proliferation at 37 °C. Short-term exposure to para,para′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), a priority compound accumulating in southern hemisphere humpback whales, resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. The effective concentration which caused a 50% reduction in HuWa1 cell viability (EC_5_0 value) was approximately six times greater than the EC_5_0 value for the same chemical measured with human dermal fibroblasts. HuWa1 exposed to a natural, p,p′-DDE-containing, chemical mixture extracted from whale blubber showed distinctively higher sensitivity than to p,p′-DDE alone. Thus, we

  9. Adherence, proliferation and collagen turnover by human fibroblasts seeded into different types of collagen sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, E.; de Vries, H. J.; Ruuls, L.; Everts, V.; Wildevuur, C. H.; Westerhof, W.

    1995-01-01

    We describe an in vitro model that we have used to evaluate dermal substitutes and to obtain data on cell proliferation, the rate of degradation of the dermal equivalent, contractibility and de novo synthesis of collagen. We tested three classes of collagenous materials: (1) reconstituted

  10. ADHERENCE, PROLIFERATION AND COLLAGEN TURNOVER BY HUMAN FIBROBLASTS SEEDED INTO DIFFERENT TYPES OF COLLAGEN SPONGES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MIDDELKOOP, E; DEVRIES, HJC; RUULS, L; EVERTS, [No Value; WILDEVUUR, CHR; WESTERHOF, W

    We describe an in vitro model that we have used to evaluate dermal substitutes and to obtain data on cell proliferation, the rate of degradation of the dermal equivalent, contractibility and de novo synthesis of collagen. We tested three classes of collagenous materials: (1) reconstituted

  11. The effect of pH on cell viability, cell migration, cell proliferation, wound closure, and wound reepithelialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Carla R; Singh, Mansher; Targosinski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    primary keratinocyte and fibroblast function in vitro and on wound healing in vivo. In vitro, primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were cultured in different levels of pH (5.5-12.5) and the effect on cell viability, proliferation, and migration was studied. A rat full-thickness wound model was used...... to investigate the effect of pH (5.5-9.5) on wound healing in vivo. The effect of pH on inflammation was monitored by measuring IL-1 α concentrations from wounds and cell cultures exposed to different pH environments. Our results showed that both skin cell types tolerated wide range of pH very well. They further...... demonstrated that both acidic and alkaline environments decelerated cell migration in comparison to neutral environments and interestingly alkaline conditions significantly enhanced cell proliferation. Results from the in vivo experiments indicated that a prolonged, strongly acidic wound environment prevents...

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of Myostatin Gene in Stably Transfected Caprine Fibroblast Cells by Anti-Myostatin shRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Jain, Hemlata; Kumar, Dharmendra; Bedekar, Megha Kadam; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Sarkhel, Bikash Chandra

    2015-09-01

    Skeletal muscle is the major component of lean tissue that is used for consumption, and myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Downregulation of this gene therefore offers a strategy for developing superior animals with enhanced muscle growth. Knockdown of myostatin was achieved by RNA interference technology. The anti-myostatin shRNA were designed and stably transfected in caprine fibroblast cells. The reduced expression of target gene was achieved and measured in clonal fibroblast cells by real-time PCR. Two single-cell clones induced significant decrease of myostatin gene expression by 73.96 and 72.66 %, respectively (P < 0.05). To ensure the appropriate growth of transfected cell, seven media were tested. The best suited media was used for transfected fibroblast cell proliferation. The findings suggest that shRNA provides a novel potential tool for gene knockdown and these stably transfected cells can be used as the donor cells for animal cloning.

  13. FLAX OIL FROM TRANSGENIC LINUM USITATISSIMUM SELECTIVELY INHIBITS IN VITRO PROLIFERATION OF HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebarowski, Tomasz; Gebczak, Katarzyna; Wiatrak, Benita; Kulma, Anna; Pelc, Katarzyna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan; Gasiorowski, Kazimierz

    2017-03-01

    Emulsions made of oils from transgenic flaxseeds significantly decreased in vitro proliferation of six tested human cancer cell lines in 48-h cultures, as assessed with the standard sulforhodamine assay. However, the emulsions also increased proliferation rate of normal human dermal fibroblasts and, to a lower extend, of keratinocytes. Both inhibition of in vitro proliferation of human cancer cell lines and stimulation of proliferation of normal dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were especially strong with the emulsion type B and with emulsion type M. Oils from seeds of transgenic flax type B and M should be considered as valuable adjunct to standard cytostatic therapy of human cancers and also could be applied to improve the treatment of skin lesions in wound healing.

  14. Bioactive nanofibers for fibroblastic differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells for ligament/tendon tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sambit; Ang, Lay-Teng; Cho-Hong Goh, James; Toh, Siew-Lok

    2010-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells and precursor cells are ideal candidates for tendon and ligament tissue engineering; however, for the stem cell-based approach to succeed, these cells would be required to proliferate and differentiate into tendon/ligament fibroblasts on the tissue engineering scaffold. Among the various fiber-based scaffolds that have been used in tendon/ligament tissue engineering, hybrid fibrous scaffolds comprising both microfibers and nanofibers have been recently shown to be particularly promising. With the nanofibrous coating presenting a biomimetic surface, the scaffolds can also potentially mimic the natural extracellular matrix in function by acting as a depot for sustained release of growth factors. In this study, we demonstrate that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) could be successfully incorporated, randomly dispersed within blend-electrospun nanofibers and released in a bioactive form over 1 week. The released bioactive bFGF activated tyrosine phosphorylation signaling within seeded BMSCs. The bFGF-releasing nanofibrous scaffolds facilitated BMSC proliferation, upregulated gene expression of tendon/ligament-specific ECM proteins, increased production and deposition of collagen and tenascin-C, reduced multipotency of the BMSCs and induced tendon/ligament-like fibroblastic differentiation, indicating their potential in tendon/ligament tissue engineering applications. 2009 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell death induced by hydroxyapatite on L929 fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayat-Hussain, S H; Rajab, N F; Roslie, H; Hussin, A A; Ali, A M; Annuar, B O

    2004-05-01

    Biomaterials intended for end-use application as bone-graft substitutes have to undergo safety evaluation. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxic effects especially to determine the mode of death of two hydroxyapatite compounds (HA2, HA3) which were synthesized locally. The methods used for cytotoxicity was the standard MTT assay whereas AO/PI staining was performed to determine the mode of cell death in HA treated L929 fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that both HA2 and HA3 were not significantly cytotoxic as more than 75% cells after 72 hours treatment were viable. Furthermore, we found that the major mode of cell death in HA treated cells was apoptosis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that these hydroxyapatite compounds are not cytotoxic where the mode of death was primarily via apoptosis.

  16. Proliferation of Schwann cells induced by axolemmal and myelin membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinneen, M.

    1985-01-01

    Purified Schwann Cells were cultured from neonatal rat sciatic nerve using a modification of the method of Brockes. Schwann cells and contaminating fibroblasts were unambiguously identified using fluorescent antibodies of 2'3' cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and the thy 1.1 antigen respectively. The Schwann cells were quiescent unless challenged with mitogens. They proliferated rapidly in response to the soluble mitogen, cholera toxin, or to membrane fractions from rat CNS or PNS, prepared by the method of DeVries. Mitogenic activity was present in both axolemmal and myelin enriched fractions and promoted a 10-15 fold increase in the rate of 3 H-thymidine uptake. The axolemmal mitogen was sensitive to heat (80 0 C for 10 minutes), trypsin digestion (0.05% x 30 mins) or to treatment with endoglycosidase D, suggesting that it could be a glycoprotein. Fifty percent of the axolemmal mitogenic activity was solubilized in 1% octyl-glucoside. The solubilized material, however, was very unstable and further purification was not possible. The myelin associated mitogenic activity was markedly different. It was resistant to freeze thaw cycles, trypsin digestion of endoglycosidase treatment and the activity was actually enhanced by heating at 100 0 C for two hours. It is proposed that the axolemmal activity is responsible for Schwann cell proliferation during development and that the myelin associated activity promotes Schwann cell proliferation during Wallerian degeneration

  17. The effects of acoustic vibration on fibroblast cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Taybia; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; Burton, David R; Bezombes, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Cells are known to interact and respond to external mechanical cues and recent work has shown that application of mechanical stimulation, delivered via acoustic vibration, can be used to control complex cell behaviours. Fibroblast cells are known to respond to physical cues generated in the extracellular matrix and it is thought that such cues are important regulators of the wound healing process. Many conditions are associated with poor wound healing, so there is need for treatments/interventions, which can help accelerate the wound healing process. The primary aim of this research was to investigate the effects of mechanical stimulation upon the migratory and morphological properties of two different fibroblast cells namely; human lung fibroblast cells (LL24) and subcutaneous areolar/adipose mouse fibroblast cells (L929). Using a speaker-based system, the effects of mechanical stimulation (0-1600Hz for 5min) on the mean cell migration distance (μm) and actin organisation was investigated. The results show that 100Hz acoustic vibration enhanced cell migration for both cell lines whereas acoustic vibration above 100Hz was found to decrease cell migration in a frequency dependent manner. Mechanical stimulation was also found to promote changes to the morphology of both cell lines, particularly the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. Overall lamellipodia was the most prominent actin structure displayed by the lung cell (LL24), whereas filopodia was the most prominent actin feature displayed by the fibroblast derived from subcutaneous areolar/adipose tissue. Mechanical stimulation at all the frequencies used here was found not to affect cell viability. These results suggest that low-frequency acoustic vibration may be used as a tool to manipulate the mechanosensitivity of cells to promote cell migration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ETOH inhibits embryonic neural stem/precursor cell proliferation via PLD signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yuko; Hiroyama, Masami; Sanbe, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Junji; Murase, Shoko; Tanoue, Akito

    2008-01-01

    While a mother's excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy is known to have adverse effects on fetal neural development, little is known about the underlying mechanism of these effects. In order to investigate these mechanisms, we investigated the toxic effect of ethanol (ETOH) on neural stem/precursor cell (NSC) proliferation. In cultures of NSCs, phospholipase D (PLD) is activated following stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). Exposure of NSCs to ETOH suppresses cell proliferation, while it has no effect on cell death. Phosphatidic acid (PA), which is a signaling messenger produced by PLD, reverses ETOH inhibition of NSC proliferation. Blocking the PLD signal by 1-butanol suppresses the proliferation. ETOH-induced suppression of NSC proliferation and the protective effect of PA for ETOH-induced suppression are mediated through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. These results indicate that exposure to ETOH impairs NSC proliferation by altering the PLD signaling pathway

  19. Opposing roles of C/EBPbeta and AP-1 in the control of fibroblast proliferation and growth arrest-specific gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagliardi, Mark; Maynard, Scott; Miyake, Tetsuaki

    2003-01-01

    in the levels of AP-1 proteins. Therefore, C/EBPbeta is a negative regulator of AP-1 expression and activity in CEF. The expression of cyclin D1 and cell proliferation were stimulated by the dominant negative mutant of C/EBPbeta but not in the presence of TAM67, a dominant negative mutant of c-Jun and AP-1. CEF......Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) express several growth arrest-specific (GAS) gene products in G0. In contact-inhibited cells, the expression of the most abundant of these proteins, the p20K lipocalin, is activated at the transcriptional level by C/EBPbeta. In this report, we describe the role of C....../EBPbeta in CEF proliferation. We show that the expression of a dominant negative mutant of C/EBPbeta (designated Delta184-C/EBPbeta) completely inhibited p20K expression at confluence and stimulated the proliferation of CEF without inducing transformation. Mouse embryo fibroblasts nullizygous for C/EBPbeta had...

  20. In vitro proliferation of haemopoietic cells in the presence of adherent cell layers. II. Differential effect of adherent cell layers derived from various organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimann, J.; Burger, H.

    1979-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow-derived adherent cell populations promoted proliferation of haemopoietic cells in vitro in a liquid culture system for at least 4 weeks. Adherent cell layers derived from other haemopoietic organs (foetal liver, adult spleen) and fibroblasts from embryonic tissues did not maintain

  1. Cytotoxicity of four denture adhesives on human gingival fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Chung, Shin-Hye; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Ju, Sung-Won; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of four denture adhesives on human gingival fibroblast cells. Immortalized human gingival fibroblasts were cultured with one of four different denture adhesives, Polident, Protefix, Staydent or Denfix-A, which was placed in insert dishes (10% w/v concentration) for 48 h. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and flow cytometric apoptosis assay were used to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis rates. The fibroblasts were also examined under a scanning electron microscope. The MTT assay showed that all denture adhesives resulted in a significantly lower cell viability compared to the control cells propagated in normal culture medium (p 0.05). Staydent showed the highest apoptosis rate. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the cells of the Staydent group underwent cytoplasmic membrane shrinkage, with cell free areas containing residual fragments of the membrane of dead cells. The four denture adhesives evaluated in this study imparted cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblast cells. Staydent showed the highest toxicity.

  2. Inhibition of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 reduces cardiac fibroblast proliferation by suppressing GATA Binding Protein 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Ning-Ning; Liu, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Shuang-Wei; Zhang, Jing-Zhi; Li, Ai-Qun [Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Shi-Ming, E-mail: gzliushiming@126.com [Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-07-08

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and GATA Binding Protein 4 (GATA4) are important for the growth of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). When deregulated, LOX-1 and GATA4 can cause cardiac remodeling. In the present study, we found novel evidence that GATA4 was required for the LOX-1 regulation of CF proliferation. The inhibition of LOX-1 by RNA interference LOX-1 lentivirus resulted in the loss of PI3K/Akt activation and GATA4 protein expression. The overexpression of LOX-1 by lentivirus rescued CF proliferation, PI3K/Akt activation, and GATA4 protein expression. Moreover, GATA4 overexpression enhanced CF proliferation with LOX-1 inhibition. We also found that the inhibition of PI3K/Akt activation by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation and protein level of GATA4. In summary, GATA4 may play an important role in the LOX-1 and PI3K/Akt regulation of CF proliferation. -- Highlights: •GATA4 is regulated by LOX-1 signaling in CFs. •GATA4 is involved in LOX-1 regulating CF proliferation. •GATA4 is regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling in CFs.

  3. In vitro culture of skin fibroblast cells for potential cloning by nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Gupta, N.; Ahlawat, S.P.S.; Kumar, A.; Taneja, R.; Sharma, R.; Sunder, S.; Tantia, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Donor cell lines were developed from skin tissue for the conservation of the endangered Jaiselmeri camel breed of India. Average cell proliferation rates varied from 0.82 to 0.69 in different passages, and population doubling time from 29.3 h to 34.8 h. Around 15 population doublings were accomplished during this culturing. Cell viability was 97 to 99% in different passages. Growth curves of cells from the JC-5 cell line reached a plateau on day 7, while the slower-growing cultures of JC-3 showed elevation even on day 10, possibly due to donor age differences. Cell proliferation rates by both cell count and MTT absorbance showed similar patterns, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79. MTT assay, a colorimetric method, can handle large samples in somatic cell cultures. Diploid chromosomal counts in passages 1, 3 and 5 were normal (2N=74, XY) in 97% of the cells. Occasional metaphase plates showed polyploidy. The present baseline data on standard growth curve, linear relationship in colorimetric assay for estimation of cell proliferation rate, and normal ploidy and karyological levels in camel skin fibroblast cells in multiplication could be useful in developing competent donor somatic cell lines for conservation now and revival of this camel breed by cloning in the future. (author)

  4. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and cell killing in normal human fibroblasts and ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, T.; Saito, M.; Uno, T.; Ito, H.; Shigematsu, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: When cells are held in a non-dividing state (G0) after irradiation, an enhanced survival can be observed compared to that of immediate plating. A change of survival depending on post irradiation condition is known to be repair of potentially lethal damage (RPLD). The effects of confluent holding recovery (24-h incubation following irradiation) on chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts (AG1522) and ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts (GM02052C) were examined. A chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to study chromosome aberrations in G2 and M-phase. Results from cell survival showed that the capacity for potentially lethal damage repair was normal in AG1522 cells but very little in GM02052C cells. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in AG1522 cells decreased when cells were allowed to repair for 24-h. Especially complex type exchanges were found to decrease markedly at high doses (4Gy and 6Gy). However, the frequency of chromosome aberrations including complex type exchanges showed little decrease in GM02052C cells. Confluent holding can effectively reduce chromosome aberrations, especially complex type exchanges in normal cells

  5. 7-Piperazinethylchrysin inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In B16F10 and A375 cells, treatment with PEC caused the inhibition ... Conclusion: PEC inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, apparently by blocking the cell cycle at G0/G1 .... all statistical analyses. .... Financial support from the Department of.

  6. Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Candida albicans Increased Chitin Production and Modulated Human Fibroblast Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humidah Alanazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of respiratory and oral bacterial infections is well documented. Cigarette smoke can also contribute to yeast infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC on C. albicans transition, chitin content, and response to environmental stress and to examine the interaction between CSC-pretreated C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. Following exposure to CSC, C. albicans transition from blastospore to hyphal form increased. CSC-pretreated yeast cells became significantly (P<0.01 sensitive to oxidation but significantly (P<0.01 resistant to both osmotic and heat stress. CSC-pretreated C. albicans expressed high levels of chitin, with 2- to 8-fold recorded under hyphal conditions. CSC-pretreated C. albicans adhered better to the gingival fibroblasts, proliferated almost three times more and adapted into hyphae, while the gingival fibroblasts recorded a significantly (P<0.01 slow growth rate but a significantly higher level of IL-1β when in contact with CSC-pretreated C. albicans. CSC was thus able to modulate both C. albicans transition through the cell wall chitin content and the interaction between C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. These findings may be relevant to fungal infections in the oral cavity in smokers.

  7. Mesenchymal stromal cells reverse hypoxia-mediated suppression of α-smooth muscle actin expression in human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulknor, Renea A.; Olekson, Melissa A.; Nativ, Nir I.; Ghodbane, Mehdi; Gray, Andrea J.; Berthiaume, François

    2015-01-01

    During wound healing, fibroblasts deposit extracellular matrix that guides angiogenesis and supports the migration and proliferation of cells that eventually form the scar. They also promote wound closure via differentiation into α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing myofibroblasts, which cause wound contraction. Low oxygen tension typical of chronic nonhealing wounds inhibits fibroblast collagen production and differentiation. It has been suggested that hypoxic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete factors that promote wound healing in animal models; however, it is unclear whether these factors are equally effective on the target cells in a hypoxic wound environment. Here we investigated the impact of MSC-derived soluble factors on the function of fibroblasts cultured in hypoxic fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs). Hypoxia alone significantly decreased FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression. MSC-conditioned medium restored hypoxic FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression to levels similar to normoxic FPCLs. (SB431542), an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGF-β 1 )-mediated signaling, blocked most of the MSC effect on FPCL contraction, while exogenous TGF-β 1 at levels similar to that secreted by MSCs reproduced the MSC effect. These results suggest that TGF-β 1 is a major paracrine signal secreted by MSCs that can restore fibroblast functions relevant to the wound healing process and that are impaired in hypoxia. - Highlights: • Fibroblasts were cultured in collagen lattices (FPCLs) as model contracting wounds. • Hypoxia decreased FPCL contraction and fibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression. • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) restored function of hypoxic fibroblasts. • MSCs regulate fibroblast function mainly via secreted transforming growth factor-β 1

  8. Mesenchymal stromal cells reverse hypoxia-mediated suppression of α-smooth muscle actin expression in human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulknor, Renea A.; Olekson, Melissa A.; Nativ, Nir I.; Ghodbane, Mehdi; Gray, Andrea J.; Berthiaume, François, E-mail: fberthia@rci.rutgers.edu

    2015-02-27

    During wound healing, fibroblasts deposit extracellular matrix that guides angiogenesis and supports the migration and proliferation of cells that eventually form the scar. They also promote wound closure via differentiation into α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing myofibroblasts, which cause wound contraction. Low oxygen tension typical of chronic nonhealing wounds inhibits fibroblast collagen production and differentiation. It has been suggested that hypoxic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete factors that promote wound healing in animal models; however, it is unclear whether these factors are equally effective on the target cells in a hypoxic wound environment. Here we investigated the impact of MSC-derived soluble factors on the function of fibroblasts cultured in hypoxic fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCLs). Hypoxia alone significantly decreased FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression. MSC-conditioned medium restored hypoxic FPCL contraction and α-SMA expression to levels similar to normoxic FPCLs. (SB431542), an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β{sub 1} (TGF-β{sub 1})-mediated signaling, blocked most of the MSC effect on FPCL contraction, while exogenous TGF-β{sub 1} at levels similar to that secreted by MSCs reproduced the MSC effect. These results suggest that TGF-β{sub 1} is a major paracrine signal secreted by MSCs that can restore fibroblast functions relevant to the wound healing process and that are impaired in hypoxia. - Highlights: • Fibroblasts were cultured in collagen lattices (FPCLs) as model contracting wounds. • Hypoxia decreased FPCL contraction and fibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression. • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) restored function of hypoxic fibroblasts. • MSCs regulate fibroblast function mainly via secreted transforming growth factor-β{sub 1}.

  9. Effects of drinking desalinated seawater on cell viability and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarrão, Camila Longhi; Bachi, André Luis Lacerda; Mariano, Mario; Abel, Lucia Jamli

    2017-06-01

    Desalination of seawater is becoming an important means to address the increasing scarcity of freshwater resources in the world. Seawater has been used as drinking water in the health, food, and medical fields and various beneficial effects have been suggested, although not confirmed. Given the presence of 63 minerals and trace elements in drinking desalinated seawater (63 DSW), we evaluated their effects on the behavior of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that cell viability and proliferation in the presence of 63 DSW were significantly greater than in mineral water and in the presence of fetal bovine serum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 63 DSW showed no toxic effect on murine embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and murine melanoma (B16-F10) cells. In another assay, we also showed that pre-treatment of non-adherent THP-1 cells with 63 DSW reduces apoptosis incidence, suggesting a protective effect against cell death. We conclude that cell viability and proliferation were improved by the mineral components of 63 DSW and this effect can guide further studies on health effects associated with DSW consumption.

  10. The growth of human fibroblasts and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells on gamma-irradiated human amnion collagen substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Harrell, R; Lamb, D J; Dresden, M H; Spira, M

    1989-10-15

    Human fibroblasts and A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were cultured on gamma-irradiated human amnion collagen as well as on plastic dishes and non-irradiated collagen coated dishes. The morphology, attachment, growth and short-term cytotoxicity of these culture conditions have been determined. Both irradiated and non-irradiated amnion collagen enhanced the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts as compared to the plastic dishes. No differences in these properties were observed for A431 cells cultured on irradiated collagen when compared with culture on non-irradiated collagen substrates. Cytotoxicity assays showed that irradiated and non-irradiated collagens were not cytotoxic for either fibroblasts or A431 cells. The results demonstrated that amnion collagen irradiated at doses of 0.25-2.0 Mrads is optimal for cell growth.

  11. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN-depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E; Warram, Jason M; Knowles, Joseph A; Sweeny, Larissa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2011-08-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma-mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer, there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were cocultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into severe combined immunodeficient mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Coculture experiments showed fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN-silenced cells compared with control vector-transfected cells, whereas inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast coculture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast-mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed that EMMPRIN-silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared with control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast-independent tumor growth.

  12. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E.; Warram, Jason M.; Knowles, Joseph A.; Sweeny, Larrisa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were co-cultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into SCID mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Co-culture experiments demonstrated fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN silenced cells compared to control vector transfected cells, while inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast co-culture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed EMMPRIN silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared to control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast independent tumor growth. PMID:21665938

  13. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 regulates proliferation and Sertoli differentiation during male sex determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuna; Bingham, Nathan; Sekido, Ryohei; Parker, Keith L.; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Capel, Blanche

    2007-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis of Fgf9 in mice causes male-to-female sex reversal. Among the four FGF receptors, FGFR2 showed two highly specific patterns based on antibody staining, suggesting that it might be the receptor-mediating FGF9 signaling in the gonad. FGFR2 was detected at the plasma membrane in proliferating coelomic epithelial cells and in the nucleus in Sertoli progenitor cells. This expression pattern suggested that Fgfr2 might play more than one role in testis development. To test the hypothesis that Fgfr2 is required for male sex determination, we crossed mice carrying a floxed allele of Fgfr2 with two different Cre lines to induce a temporal or cell-specific deletion of this receptor. Results show that deletion of Fgfr2 in embryonic gonads phenocopies deletion of Fgf9 and leads to male-to-female sex reversal. Using these two Cre lines, we provide the first genetic evidence that Fgfr2 plays distinct roles in proliferation and Sertoli cell differentiation during testis development. PMID:17940049

  14. Cleaved CD147 shed from the surface of malignant melanoma cells activates MMP2 produced by fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Miho; Higashi, Yuko; Fukushige, Tomoko; Baba, Naoko; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Su, Juan; Zeng, Weiqi; Chen, Xiang; Kanekura, Takuro

    2014-12-01

    Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147)/basigin on the malignant tumor cell surface is critical for tumor proliferation, invasiveness, metastasis, and angiogenesis. CD147 expressed on malignant melanoma cells can induce tumor cell invasion by stimulating the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by surrounding fibroblasts. Membrane vesicles, microvesicles and exosomes have attracted attention, as vehicles of functional molecules and their association with CD147 has been reported. Cleaved CD147 fragments released from tumor cells were reported to interact with fibroblasts. We investigated the intercellular mechanisms by which CD147 stimulates fibroblasts to induce MMP2 activity. CD147 was knocked-down using short hairpin RNA (shRNA). The stimulatory effect of CD147 in cell culture supernatants, microvesicles, and exosomes on the enzymatic activity of MMP2 was examined by gelatin zymography. Supernatants from A375 control cells induced increased enzymatic activity of fibroblasts; such activity was significantly lower in CD147 knock-down cells. Cleaved CD147 plays a pivotal role in stimulating fibroblasts to induce MMP2 activity. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro cytotoxicity of chemical preservatives on human fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gonsales Spindola

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preservatives are widely used substances that are commonly added to various cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to prevent or inhibit microbial growth. In this study, we compared the in vitro cytotoxicity of different types of currently used preservatives, including methylparaben, imidazolidinyl urea (IMU, and sodium benzoate, using the human newborn fibroblast cell line CCD1072Sk. Of the tested preservatives, only IMU induced a reduction in cell viability, as shown using the MTT assay and propidium iodide staining (IMU>methylparaben>sodium benzoate. IMU was shown to promote homeostatic alterations potentially related to the initiation of programed cell death, such as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activation, in the treated cells. Methylparaben and sodium benzoate were shown to have a very low cytotoxic activity. Taken together, our results suggest that IMU induces programed cell death in human fibroblasts by a canonical intrinsic pathway via mitochondrial perturbation and subsequent release of proapoptotic factors.

  16. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a new marker to study human colonic cell proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kubben, F J; Peeters-Haesevoets, A; Engels, L G; Baeten, C G; Schutte, B; Arends, J W; Stockbrügger, R W; Blijham, G H

    1994-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry of the S phase related proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was studied as an alternative to ex-vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry for assessment of human colonic cell proliferation. From 16 subjects without colonic disease biopsy specimens were collected from five different sites along the colorectum and processed for BrdU and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The mean proliferation index of PCNA was significantly higher at 133% of the value obtained with B...

  17. Effect of macrophage and matrix metalloproteinase-9 on proliferation of pulmonary fibroblast and synthesis of collagen IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liangwen; Sun Li; Diao Ruiying; Li Yang; Zhang Yong; Yin Jiye

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore pathogenetic mechanism in initiation of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: Alveolar macrophages in Wistar rats irradiated by 60 Co γ-ray were collected by alveolar lavage; condition medium was prepared for stimulating human lung fibroblast (HLF) proliferation; HLF proliferation activity was determined by MTT method; collagen IV (Col IV) in HLF was determined by Western blot; the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was determined by zymography. Results: HLF proliferation activity was significantly increased after stimulation of condition medium, and the increase was most evident within 48-72 hs. Col IV synthesis in HLF was increased and reached a peak at 12 h after stimulation and then began to decrease. MMP-9 activity began to increase at 12 h and reached a peak at 48 h and then decreased after 72 h. Conclusions: Cobalt-60 gamma ray irradiation of 20 Gy can stimulate secretion of some cytokines in alveolar macrophage to promote pulmonary interstitial fibroblast proliferation and synthesis of Col IV . Col IV can stimulate MMP-9 increase; MMP-9 can degrade excess Col IV. Such changes are involved in remodeling process of early pulmonary injury. (authors)

  18. Dynamics of postirradiation intracellular cysteine and aspartic proteinases profiles in proliferating and nonproliferating mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbelik, M.; Osmak, M.; Suhar, A.; Turk, V.; Skrk, J.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamics of postirradiation intracellular cysteine and aspartic proteinases profiles were examined in proliferating and nonproliferating Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V 79). The results show that there are significant alterations in cysteine and aspartic intracellular proteinases activity already in the early postirradiation period, which are different in proliferating and nonproliferating cells. Irradiation of the cells examined to low doses and up to 15 Gy induced an increase in cysteine proteinases activity in the early postexposure period, while at higher irradiation doses applied, the activity of these proteinases was decreased. These observations suggest that intracellular proteinases are actively participating in process involving recovery from radiation injury or cell killing. (orig.) [de

  19. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates skin wound healing: An in vitro study of fibroblast and keratinocyte scratch assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, M.N.M.; Wright, K.T.; Fuller, H.R.; MacNeil, S.; Johnson, W.E.B.

    2010-01-01

    We have used in vitro scratch assays to examine the relative contribution of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the wound repair process and to test the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secreted factors on both skin cell types. Scratch assays were established using single cell and co-cultures of L929 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes, with wound closure monitored via time-lapse microscopy. Both in serum supplemented and serum free conditions, wound closure was faster in L929 fibroblast than HaCaT keratinocyte scratch assays, and in co-culture the L929 fibroblasts lead the way in closing the scratches. MSC-CM generated under serum free conditions significantly enhanced the wound closure rate of both skin cell types separately and in co-culture, whereas conditioned medium from L929 or HaCaT cultures had no significant effect. This enhancement of wound closure in the presence of MSC-CM was due to accelerated cell migration rather than increased cell proliferation. A number of wound healing mediators were identified in MSC-CM, including TGF-β1, the chemokines IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES, and collagen type I, fibronectin, SPARC and IGFBP-7. This study suggests that the trophic activity of MSC may play a role in skin wound closure by affecting both dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, along with a contribution to the formation of extracellular matrix.

  20. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Fukushima, Nobuyuki [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • LPA{sub 5} inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA{sub 5} suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA{sub 5} on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA{sub 1} in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA{sub 5} in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA{sub 5} acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA{sub 1}–LPA{sub 6}) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA{sub 1} inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA{sub 5} in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 5} on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA{sub 5} may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA{sub 1}.

  1. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • LPA 5 inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA 5 suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA 5 on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA 1 in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA 5 in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA 5 acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA 1 –LPA 6 ) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA 1 inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA 5 in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA 1 and LPA 5 on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA 5 may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA 1

  2. Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and peritoneal mast cells as targets of a growth activity secreted by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozaki, K.; Kuriu, A.; Hirota, S.; Onoue, H.; Ebi, Y.; Adachi, S.; Ma, J.Y.; Tarui, S.; Kitamura, Y.

    1991-01-01

    When fibroblast cell lines were cultured in contact with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (CMC), both NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cell lines supported the proliferation of CMC. In contrast, when contact between fibroblasts and CMC was prohibited by Biopore membranes or soft agar, only BALB/3T3 fibroblasts supported CMC proliferation, suggesting that BALB/3T3 but not NIH/3T3 cells secreted a significant amount of a mast cell growth activity. Moreover, the BALB/3T3-derived growth activity induced the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by CMC and the clonal growth of peritoneal mast cells in methylcellulose. The mast cell growth activity appeared to be different from interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), because mRNAs for these interleukins were not detectable in BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Although mast cells are genetically deficient in tissues of W/Wv mice, CMC did develop when bone marrow cells of W/Wv mice were cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium. Because BALB/3T3 fibroblast-conditioned medium (BALB-FCM) did not induce the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by W/Wv CMC, the growth activity in BALB-FCM appeared to be a ligand for the receptor encoded by the W (c-kit) locus. Because CMC and peritoneal mast cells are obtained as homogeneous suspensions rather easily, these cells may be potentially useful as targets for the fibroblast-derived mast cell growth activity

  3. Rat embryonic fibroblasts improve reprogramming of human keratinocytes into induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linta, Leonhard; Stockmann, Marianne; Kleinhans, Karin N; Böckers, Anja; Storch, Alexander; Zaehres, Holm; Lin, Qiong; Barbi, Gotthold; Böckers, Tobias M; Kleger, Alexander; Liebau, Stefan

    2012-04-10

    Patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells not only provide a promising tool for cellular disease models in general, but also open up the opportunity to establish cell-type-specific systems for personalized medicine. One of the crucial prerequisites for these strategies, however, is a fast and efficient reprogramming strategy from easy accessible somatic cell populations. Keratinocytes from plucked human hair had been introduced as a superior cell source for reprogramming purposes compared with the widely used skin fibroblasts. The starting cell population is, however, limited and thereby further optimization in terms of time, efficiency, and quality is inevitable. Here we show that rat embryonic fibroblasts (REFs) should replace mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder cells in the reprogramming process. REFs enable a significantly more efficient reprogramming procedure as shown by colony number and total amount of SSEA4-positive cells. We successfully produced keratinocyte-derived hiPS (k-hiPS) cells from various donors. The arising k-hiPS cells display the hallmarks of pluripotency such as expression of stem cell markers and differentiation into all 3 germ layers. The increased reprogramming efficiency using REFs as a feeder layer occurred independent of the proliferation rate in the parental keratinocytes and acts, at least in part, in a non-cell autonomous way by secreting factors known to facilitate pluripotency such as Tgfb1, Inhba and Grem1. Hence, we provide an easy to use and highly efficient reprogramming system that could be very useful for a broad application to generate human iPS cells. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  4. Protective role of microRNA-29a in denatured dermis and skin fibroblast cells after thermal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study has suggested that downregulated microRNA (miR-29a in denatured dermis might be involved in burn wound healing. However, the exact role of miR-29a in healing of burn injury still remains unclear. Here, we found that expression of miR-29a was notably upregulated in denatured dermis tissues and skin fibroblast cells after thermal injury, and thereafter gradually downregulated compared with control group. By contrast, the expression of collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A were first reduced and subsequently upregulated in denatured dermis tissues and skin fibroblast cells after thermal injury. We further identified COL1A2 as a novel target of miR-29a, which is involved in type I collagen synthesis, and showed that miR-29a negatively regulated the expression level of COL1A2 in skin fibroblast cells. In addition, VEGF-A, another target gene of miR-29a, was also negatively mediated by miR-29a in skin fibroblast cells. Inhibition of miR-29a expression significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of skin fibroblast cells after thermal injury, and knockdown of COL1A2 and VEGF-A reversed the effects of miR-29a on the proliferation and migration of skin fibroblast cells. Furthermore, we found that Notch2/Jagged2 signaling was involved in miR-29a response to burn wound healing. Our findings suggest that downregulated miR-29a in denatured dermis may help burn wound healing in the later phase, probably via upregulation of COL1A2 and VEGF-A expression, which can further enhance type I collagen synthesis and angiogenesis.

  5. Estimation of low-dose radiation-responsive proteins in the absence of genomic instability in normal human fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Ji-Hye; Yun, Jung Mi; Kim, Ji Young; Nam, Seon Young; Kim, Cha Soon

    2017-11-01

    Low-dose radiation has various biological effects such as adaptive responses, low-dose hypersensitivity, as well as beneficial effects. However, little is known about the particular proteins involved in these effects. Here, we sought to identify low-dose radiation-responsive phosphoproteins in normal fibroblast cells. We assessed genomic instability and proliferation of fibroblast cells after γ-irradiation by γ-H2AX foci and micronucleus formation analyses and BrdU incorporation assay, respectively. We screened fibroblast cells 8 h after low-dose (0.05 Gy) γ-irradiation using Phospho Explorer Antibody Microarray and validated two differentially expressed phosphoproteins using Western blotting. Cell proliferation proceeded normally in the absence of genomic instability after low-dose γ-irradiation. Phospho antibody microarray analysis and Western blotting revealed increased expression of two phosphoproteins, phospho-NFκB (Ser536) and phospho-P70S6K (Ser418), 8 h after low-dose radiation. Our findings suggest that low-dose radiation of normal fibroblast cells activates the expression of phospho-NFκB (Ser536) and phospho-P70S6K (Ser418) in the absence of genomic instability. Therefore, these proteins may be involved in DNA damage repair processes.

  6. Analysis of primary cilia in directional cell migration in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Veland, Iben; Schwab, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    summarize selected methods in analyzing ciliary function in directional cell migration, including immunofluorescence microscopy, scratch assay, and chemotaxis assay by micropipette addition of PDGFRα ligands to cultures of fibroblasts. These methods should be useful not only in studying cell migration....... In particular, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is compartmentalized to the primary cilium to activate signaling pathways that regulate reorganization of the cytoskeleton required for lamellipodium formation and directional migration in the presence of a specific ligand gradient. We...

  7. TWEAK induces liver progenitor cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Aniela; Ambrose, Christine; Parr, Michael; Lincecum, John M.; Wang, Monica Z.; Zheng, Timothy S.; Browning, Beth; Michaelson, Jennifer S.; Baestcher, Manfred; Wang, Bruce; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Burkly, Linda C.

    2005-01-01

    Progenitor (“oval”) cell expansion accompanies many forms of liver injury, including alcohol toxicity and submassive parenchymal necrosis as well as experimental injury models featuring blocked hepatocyte replication. Oval cells can potentially become either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells and may be critical to liver regeneration, particularly when hepatocyte replication is impaired. The regulation of oval cell proliferation is incompletely understood. Herein we present evidence that a TNF family member called TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) stimulates oval cell proliferation in mouse liver through its receptor Fn14. TWEAK has no effect on mature hepatocytes and thus appears to be selective for oval cells. Transgenic mice overexpressing TWEAK in hepatocytes exhibit periportal oval cell hyperplasia. A similar phenotype was obtained in adult wild-type mice, but not Fn14-null mice, by administering TWEAK-expressing adenovirus. Oval cell expansion induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) was significantly reduced in Fn14-null mice as well as in adult wild-type mice with a blocking anti-TWEAK mAb. Importantly, TWEAK stimulated the proliferation of an oval cell culture model. Finally, we show increased Fn14 expression in chronic hepatitis C and other human liver diseases relative to its expression in normal liver, which suggests a role for the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in human liver injury. We conclude that TWEAK has a selective mitogenic effect for liver oval cells that distinguishes it from other previously described growth factors. PMID:16110324

  8. Transient Gene and miRNA Expression Profile Changes of Confluent Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity or an altered gravity environment from the static 1 gravitational constant has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of the cells. Whether non-dividing cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted on the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days for investigations of gene and miRNA (microRNA) expression profile changes in these cells. A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework for tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing and other functions. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly even though they were confluent, as measured by the expression of the protein Ki-67 positive cells, and the cells in space grew slightly faster. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF(sub kappa)B (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and other growth related pathways involving HGF and VEGF in the flown cells. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-dividing, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples in respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeleton changes by immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for alpha-tubulin showed no difference between the flight and ground samples. Results of our study suggest that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells, microgravity in

  9. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection of Animal Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Krump, Nathan A; MacDonald, Margo; You, Jianxin

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the first polyomavirus to be associated with human cancer. Mechanistic studies attempting to fully elucidate MCPyV's oncogenic mechanisms have been hampered by the lack of animal models for MCPyV infection. In this study, we examined the ability of MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus (containing a green fluorescent protein [GFP] reporter construct), MCPyV recombinant virions, and several MCPyV chimeric viruses to infect dermal fibroblasts isolated from various model animals, including mouse ( Mus musculus ), rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ), rat ( Rattus norvegicus ), chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ), rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ), patas monkey ( Erythrocebus patas ), common woolly monkey ( Lagothrix lagotricha ), red-chested mustached tamarin ( Saguinus labiatus ), and tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri ). We found that MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus was able to enter the dermal fibroblasts of all species tested. Chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts were the only type that supported vigorous MCPyV gene expression and viral replication, and they did so to a level beyond that of human dermal fibroblasts. We further demonstrated that both human and chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts produce infectious MCPyV virions that can successfully infect new cells. In addition, rat dermal fibroblasts supported robust MCPyV large T antigen expression after infection with an MCPyV chimeric virus in which the entire enhancer region of the MCPyV early promoter has been replaced with the simian virus 40 (SV40) analog. Our results suggest that viral transcription and/or replication events represent the major hurdle for MCPyV cross-species transmission. The capacity of rat dermal fibroblasts to support MCPyV early gene expression suggests that the rat is a candidate model organism for studying viral oncogene function during Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) oncogenic progression. IMPORTANCE MCPyV plays an important role in the development of a highly aggressive form of skin cancer, Merkel

  10. The influence of glancing angle deposited nano-rough platinum surfaces on the adsorption of fibrinogen and the proliferation of primary human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Foss, M; Chevallier, J; Besenbacher, F; Pennisi, C P; Yoshida, K; Skeldal, S; Andreasen, P; Zachar, V

    2009-01-01

    We have used the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method as a simple and fast method to generate nano-rough surfaces for protein adsorption experiments and cell assays. The surface roughness and the detailed geometrical surface morphology of the thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the GLAD deposition angle approaches grazing incidence, sharp and whisker-like columnar protrusions are formed. Smaller and less sharp surface features appear for the thin films synthesized at higher deposition angles. By changing the GLAD deposition angle together with the total amount of mass deposited per area on the respective surfaces, the size of the surface features can be varied on the nanoscale. Using the GLAD topographies as model surfaces, we have investigated the influence of the nano-roughness on fibrinogen adsorption and on the proliferation of primary human fibroblasts. It is found that fibrinogen, an important blood protein, preferentially adheres on the whisker-like nano-rough substrates in comparison to a flat surface. Furthermore, the proliferation of the human fibroblasts is significantly reduced on the nano-rough substrates. These results demonstrate that the GLAD technique can be used to fabricate nano-rough surface morphologies that significantly influence both protein and cellular adhesion to surfaces and are therefore well suited for biological assays.

  11. Arsenic and urinary bladder cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, Michael I.; Simeonova, Petia P.

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a close association exists between the elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water and the incidence of certain cancers, including transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. We have employed in vitro and in vivo models to examine the effects of sodium arsenite on the urinary bladder epithelium. Mice exposed to 0.01% sodium arsenite in drinking water demonstrated hyperproliferation of the bladder uroepithelium within 4 weeks after initiating treatment. This occurred in the absence of amorphous precipitates and was accompanied by the accumulation of trivalent arsenite (iAs 3+ ), and to a lesser extent dimethylarsenic (DMA), arsenate (iAs 5+ ), and monomethylarsenic (MMA) in bladder tissue. In contrast to the bladder, urinary secretion was primarily in the form of DMA and MMA. Arsenic-induced cell proliferation in the bladder epithelium was correlated with activation of the MAP kinase pathway, leading to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase activity, AP-1 activation, and expression of AP-1-associated genes involved in cell proliferation. Activation of the MAP kinase pathway involved both epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-dependent and -independent events, the latter involving Src activation. Studies summarized in this review suggest that arsenic accumulates in urinary bladder epithelium causing activation of specific signaling pathways that lead to chronic increased cell proliferation. This may play a non-epigenetic role in carcinogenesis by increasing the proliferation of initiated cells or increasing the mutational rate

  12. Improved cellular response of ion modified poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) substrates for mouse fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Ananta Raj, E-mail: aa8381@gmail.com [Department of Sciences, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston MA 02115 (United States); Geranpayeh, Tanya [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Chu, Wei Kan [Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Otteson, Deborah C. [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Basic and Vision Sciences, College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In this report, the effects of argon (Ar) ion irradiation on poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) substrates on biocompatibility were studied. PLGA scaffold substrates were prepared by spin coating glass surfaces with PLGA dissolved in anhydrous chloroform. Previously, we showed that surface modifications of PLGA films using ion irradiation modulate the inherent hydrophobicity of PLGA surface. Here we show that with increasing ion dose (1 × 10{sup 12} to 1 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}), hydrophobicity and surface roughness decreased. Biocompatibility for NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was increased by argon irradiation of PLGA substrates. On unirradiated PLGA films, fibroblasts had a longer doubling time and cell densities were 52% lower than controls after 48 h in vitro. Argon irradiated PLGA substrates supported growth rates similar to control. Despite differences in cell cycle kinetics, there was no detectible cytotoxicity observed on any substrate. This demonstrates that argon ion irradiation can be used to tune the surface microstructure and generate substrates that are more compatible for the cell growth and proliferation. - Highlights: • Argon irradiation modifies surface chemistry and increases hydrophilicity of poly(lactic-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films. • Both native and irradiated PLGA films were not cytotoxic for mouse fibroblasts. • Fibroblast proliferation increased on PLGA substrates modified with higher doses of Argon irradiation. • Surface modification with Argon irradiation increases biocompatibility of PLGA films.

  13. Improved cellular response of ion modified poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) substrates for mouse fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Ananta Raj; Geranpayeh, Tanya; Chu, Wei Kan; Otteson, Deborah C.

    2016-01-01

    In this report, the effects of argon (Ar) ion irradiation on poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) substrates on biocompatibility were studied. PLGA scaffold substrates were prepared by spin coating glass surfaces with PLGA dissolved in anhydrous chloroform. Previously, we showed that surface modifications of PLGA films using ion irradiation modulate the inherent hydrophobicity of PLGA surface. Here we show that with increasing ion dose (1 × 10 12 to 1 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 ), hydrophobicity and surface roughness decreased. Biocompatibility for NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was increased by argon irradiation of PLGA substrates. On unirradiated PLGA films, fibroblasts had a longer doubling time and cell densities were 52% lower than controls after 48 h in vitro. Argon irradiated PLGA substrates supported growth rates similar to control. Despite differences in cell cycle kinetics, there was no detectible cytotoxicity observed on any substrate. This demonstrates that argon ion irradiation can be used to tune the surface microstructure and generate substrates that are more compatible for the cell growth and proliferation. - Highlights: • Argon irradiation modifies surface chemistry and increases hydrophilicity of poly(lactic-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films. • Both native and irradiated PLGA films were not cytotoxic for mouse fibroblasts. • Fibroblast proliferation increased on PLGA substrates modified with higher doses of Argon irradiation. • Surface modification with Argon irradiation increases biocompatibility of PLGA films.

  14. Comparison of fibroblast cell regeneration in three different concentrations of Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (WJMSCs-CM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untoro, E. G.; Asrianti, D.; Usman, M.; Meidyawati, R.; Margono, A.

    2017-08-01

    Wharton’s Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) have gained interest as an alternative source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. Although many studies have characterized Wharton’s Jelly biologically, the effects of different concentrations in a cultured medium have not yet been compared. Damaged fibroblasts, the primary components of irreversible dental pulpitis, irreversibly impair the ability to regenerate and lead to the disruption of extracellular matrix. This study was performed to evaluate the potency of three WJMSCs-CM concentrations in improving serum-starved fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were cultivated in five passages, and divided into four groups. The first group (the control group) consisted of fibroblast cells that had been treated using starvation methods. The other groups (the treatment groups) were treated with various concentration of WJMSCs-CM (50%, 25% and 12.5%). Proliferative ability was evaluated using a cell count method and analyzed with a one-way ANOVA. Cultivation of serum-starved fibroblasts produced significantly higher cell counts in 12.5% WJMSCs-CM compared to the 50% group. It can be concluded that 12.5% WJMSCs-CM is the most efficient concentration for fibroblast proliferation.

  15. Role of human pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in cell activation and migration in experimental silicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xueting [Department of Physiology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Fang, Shencun [Nine Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nanjing Chest Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029 (China); Liu, Haijun [Neurobiology Laboratory, New Drug Screening Centre, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Wang, Xingang; Dai, Xiaoniu; Yin, Qing; Yun, Tianwei [Department of Physiology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yingming [Nine Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nanjing Chest Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029 (China); Liao, Hong [Neurobiology Laboratory, New Drug Screening Centre, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Zhang, Wei [Department of Physiology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Yao, Honghong [Department of Pharmacology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Chao, Jie, E-mail: chaojie@seu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Background: Silicosis is a systemic disease caused by inhaling silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}). Phagocytosis of SiO{sub 2} in the lung initiates an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration and subsequent fibrosis. Clinical evidence indicates that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO{sub 2} produces rapid and sustained inflammation that is characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), which induces fibrosis. Pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 may play a critical role in fibroblast proliferation and migration. Methods and results: Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPF-a) demonstrated the following results: 1) SiO{sub 2} treatment resulted in the rapid and sustained induction of MCP-1 as well as the elevation of the CC chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) protein levels; 2) pretreatment of HPF-a with RS-102895, a specific CCR2 inhibitor, abolished the SiO{sub 2}-induced increase in cell activation and migration in both 2D and 3D culture systems; and 3) RNA interference targeting CCR2 prevented the SiO{sub 2}-induced increase in cell migration. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that the up-regulation of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 is involved in pulmonary fibroblast migration induced by SiO{sub 2}. CCR2 was also up-regulated in response to SiO{sub 2}, and this up-regulation facilitated the effect of MCP-1 on fibroblasts. Our study deciphered the link between fibroblast-derived MCP-1 and SiO{sub 2}-induced cell migration. This finding provides novel insight into the potential of MCP-1 in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis. - Highlights: • Role of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in experimental silicosis was studied. • SiO{sub 2} induced MCP-1 release from cultured human pulmonary fibroblast (HPF-a). • SiO{sub 2} directly activated HPF-a via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway. • SiO{sub 2} increased HPF-a migration in both 2D and 3D

  16. Role of human pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in cell activation and migration in experimental silicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueting; Fang, Shencun; Liu, Haijun; Wang, Xingang; Dai, Xiaoniu; Yin, Qing; Yun, Tianwei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yingming; Liao, Hong; Zhang, Wei; Yao, Honghong; Chao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Silicosis is a systemic disease caused by inhaling silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ). Phagocytosis of SiO 2 in the lung initiates an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration and subsequent fibrosis. Clinical evidence indicates that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO 2 produces rapid and sustained inflammation that is characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), which induces fibrosis. Pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 may play a critical role in fibroblast proliferation and migration. Methods and results: Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPF-a) demonstrated the following results: 1) SiO 2 treatment resulted in the rapid and sustained induction of MCP-1 as well as the elevation of the CC chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) protein levels; 2) pretreatment of HPF-a with RS-102895, a specific CCR2 inhibitor, abolished the SiO 2 -induced increase in cell activation and migration in both 2D and 3D culture systems; and 3) RNA interference targeting CCR2 prevented the SiO 2 -induced increase in cell migration. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that the up-regulation of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 is involved in pulmonary fibroblast migration induced by SiO 2 . CCR2 was also up-regulated in response to SiO 2 , and this up-regulation facilitated the effect of MCP-1 on fibroblasts. Our study deciphered the link between fibroblast-derived MCP-1 and SiO 2 -induced cell migration. This finding provides novel insight into the potential of MCP-1 in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis. - Highlights: • Role of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in experimental silicosis was studied. • SiO 2 induced MCP-1 release from cultured human pulmonary fibroblast (HPF-a). • SiO 2 directly activated HPF-a via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway. • SiO 2 increased HPF-a migration in both 2D and 3D model via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway. • RNA-i of MCP-1/CCR2

  17. Stromal COX-2 signaling activated by deoxycholic acid mediates proliferation and invasiveness of colorectal epithelial cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yingting, E-mail: yitizhu@yahoo.com [Arizona Cancer Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Tissue Tech Inc., Miami, FL 33173 (United States); Zhu, Min; Lance, Peter [Arizona Cancer Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human colonic cancer associated fibroblasts are major sources of COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fibroblasts interact with human colonic epithelial cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of COX-2 signaling in the fibroblasts affects behavior of the epithelia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein Kinase C controls the activation of COX-2 signaling. -- Abstract: COX-2 is a major regulator implicated in colonic cancer. However, how COX-2 signaling affects colonic carcinogenesis at cellular level is not clear. In this article, we investigated whether activation of COX-2 signaling by deoxycholic acid (DCA) in primary human normal and cancer associated fibroblasts play a significant role in regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of colonic epithelial cancer cells. Our results demonstrated while COX-2 signaling can be activated by DCA in both normal and cancer associated fibroblasts, the level of activation of COX-2 signaling is significantly greater in cancer associated fibroblasts than that in normal fibroblasts. In addition, we discovered that the proliferative and invasive potential of colonic epithelial cancer cells were much greater when the cells were co-cultured with cancer associated fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA than with normal fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA. Moreover, COX-2 siRNA attenuated the proliferative and invasive effect of both normal and cancer associate fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA on the colonic cancer cells. Further studies indicated that the activation of COX-2 signaling by DCA is through protein kinase C signaling. We speculate that activation of COX-2 signaling especially in cancer associated fibroblasts promotes progression of colonic cancer.

  18. Stromal COX-2 signaling activated by deoxycholic acid mediates proliferation and invasiveness of colorectal epithelial cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yingting; Zhu, Min; Lance, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human colonic cancer associated fibroblasts are major sources of COX-2 and PGE 2 . ► The fibroblasts interact with human colonic epithelial cancer cells. ► Activation of COX-2 signaling in the fibroblasts affects behavior of the epithelia. ► Protein Kinase C controls the activation of COX-2 signaling. -- Abstract: COX-2 is a major regulator implicated in colonic cancer. However, how COX-2 signaling affects colonic carcinogenesis at cellular level is not clear. In this article, we investigated whether activation of COX-2 signaling by deoxycholic acid (DCA) in primary human normal and cancer associated fibroblasts play a significant role in regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of colonic epithelial cancer cells. Our results demonstrated while COX-2 signaling can be activated by DCA in both normal and cancer associated fibroblasts, the level of activation of COX-2 signaling is significantly greater in cancer associated fibroblasts than that in normal fibroblasts. In addition, we discovered that the proliferative and invasive potential of colonic epithelial cancer cells were much greater when the cells were co-cultured with cancer associated fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA than with normal fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA. Moreover, COX-2 siRNA attenuated the proliferative and invasive effect of both normal and cancer associate fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA on the colonic cancer cells. Further studies indicated that the activation of COX-2 signaling by DCA is through protein kinase C signaling. We speculate that activation of COX-2 signaling especially in cancer associated fibroblasts promotes progression of colonic cancer.

  19. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from fibroblast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Okita, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Masato; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2007-01-01

    Clinical application of embryonic stem (ES) cells faces difficulties regarding use of embryos, as well as tissue rejection after implantation. One way to circumvent these issues is to generate pluripotent stem cells directly from somatic cells. Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state by the injection of a nucleus into an enucleated oocyte or by fusion with ES cells. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these processes. We have recently shown that the combination of four transcription factors can generate ES-like pluripotent stem cells directly from mouse fibroblast cultures. The cells, named induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, can be differentiated into three germ layers and committed to chimeric mice. Here we describe detailed methods and tips for the generation of iPS cells.

  20. SDF-1 in Mammary Fibroblasts of Bovine with Mastitis Induces EMT and Inflammatory Response of Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guiliang; Ma, Mengru; Yang, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblasts constitute the majority of the stromal cells within bovine mammary gland, yet the functional contributions of these cells to mastitis and fibrosis and the mechanism are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that inflammation-associated fibroblasts (INFs) extracted from bovine mammary glands with clinical mastitis had different expression pattern regarding to several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, chemokines and cytokines compared to normal fibroblasts (NFs) from dairy cows during lactation. The INFs induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inflammatory responses of mammary epithelial cells in a vitro co-culture model. These functional contributions of INFs to normal epithelial cells were mediated through their ability to secrete stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). SDF-1 was highly secreted/expressed by INFs, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -treated NFs, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) -treated NFs, as well as mastitic tissue compared to their counterparts. Exogenous SDF-1 promoted EMT on epithelial cells through activating NF-κB pathway, induced inflammation response and inhibited proliferation of epithelial cells. In addition, SDF-1 was able to induce mastitis and slight fibrosis of mouse mammary gland, which was attenuated by a specific inhibitor of the receptor of SDF-1. Our findings indicate that stromal fibroblasts within mammary glands with mastitis contribute to EMT and inflammatory responses of epithelial cells through the secretion of SDF-1, which could result in the inflammation spread and fibrosis within mammary gland.

  1. The use of abrasive polishing and laser processing for developing polyurethane surfaces for controlling fibroblast cell behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, Michael; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; French, Paul W; Burton, David R; Dixon, Simon; Sharp, Martin C

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that surfaces having micro and nano-scale features can be used to control cell behaviours including; cell proliferation, migration and adhesion. The aim of this work was to compare the use of laser processing and abrasive polishing to develop micro/nano-patterned polyurethane substrates for controlling fibroblast cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Laser processing in a directional manner resulted in polyurethane surfaces having a ploughed field effect with micron-scale features. In contrast, abrasive polishing in a directional and random manner resulted in polyurethane surfaces having sub-micron scale features orientated in a linear or random manner. Results show that when compared with flat (non-patterned) polymer, both the laser processed and abrasive polished surface having randomly organised features, promoted significantly greater cell adhesion, while also enhancing cell proliferation after 72 h. In contrast, the abrasive polished surface having linear features did not enhance cell adhesion or proliferation when compared to the flat surface. For cell migration, the cells growing on the laser processed and abrasively polished random surface showed decreased levels of migration when compared to the flat surface. This study shows that both abrasive polishing and laser processing can be used to produce surfaces having features on the nano-scale and micron-scale, respectively. Surfaces produced using both techniques can be used to promote fibroblast cell adhesion and proliferation. Thus both methods offer a viable alternative to using lithographic techniques for developing patterned surfaces. In particular, abrasive polishing is an attractive method due to it being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method that can be used to produce surfaces having features on a comparable scale to more expensive, multi-step methods. - Highlights: • Abrasive polishing can generate nano-scratches on stainless steel to cast polymer films for cell

  2. The use of abrasive polishing and laser processing for developing polyurethane surfaces for controlling fibroblast cell behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, Michael; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; French, Paul W; Burton, David R [General Engineering Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dixon, Simon [Biomer Technology LTD, 10 Seymour Court, Tudor Road, Manor Park, Runcorn, Cheshire, WA7 1SY (United Kingdom); Sharp, Martin C [General Engineering Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    Studies have shown that surfaces having micro and nano-scale features can be used to control cell behaviours including; cell proliferation, migration and adhesion. The aim of this work was to compare the use of laser processing and abrasive polishing to develop micro/nano-patterned polyurethane substrates for controlling fibroblast cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Laser processing in a directional manner resulted in polyurethane surfaces having a ploughed field effect with micron-scale features. In contrast, abrasive polishing in a directional and random manner resulted in polyurethane surfaces having sub-micron scale features orientated in a linear or random manner. Results show that when compared with flat (non-patterned) polymer, both the laser processed and abrasive polished surface having randomly organised features, promoted significantly greater cell adhesion, while also enhancing cell proliferation after 72 h. In contrast, the abrasive polished surface having linear features did not enhance cell adhesion or proliferation when compared to the flat surface. For cell migration, the cells growing on the laser processed and abrasively polished random surface showed decreased levels of migration when compared to the flat surface. This study shows that both abrasive polishing and laser processing can be used to produce surfaces having features on the nano-scale and micron-scale, respectively. Surfaces produced using both techniques can be used to promote fibroblast cell adhesion and proliferation. Thus both methods offer a viable alternative to using lithographic techniques for developing patterned surfaces. In particular, abrasive polishing is an attractive method due to it being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method that can be used to produce surfaces having features on a comparable scale to more expensive, multi-step methods. - Highlights: • Abrasive polishing can generate nano-scratches on stainless steel to cast polymer films for cell

  3. NSAIDs and Cell Proliferation in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Ettarh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is common worldwide and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in patients. Fortunately, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that continuous therapy with NSAIDs offers real promise of chemoprevention and adjunct therapy for colon cancer patients. Tumour growth is the result of complex regulation that determines the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. How NSAIDs affect this balance is important for understanding and improving treatment strategies and drug effectiveness. NSAIDs inhibit proliferation and impair the growth of colon cancer cell lines when tested in culture in vitro and many NSAIDs also prevent tumorigenesis and reduce tumour growth in animal models and in patients, but the relationship to inhibition of tumour cell proliferation is less convincing, principally due to gaps in the available data. High concentrations of NSAIDs are required in vitro to achieve cancer cell inhibition and growth retardation at varying time-points following treatment. However, the results from studies with colon cancer cell xenografts are promising and, together with better comparative data on anti-proliferative NSAID concentrations and doses (for in vitro and in vivo administration, could provide more information to improve our understanding of the relationships between these agents, dose and dosing regimen, and cellular environment.

  4. Regulation of Hepatic Stellate Cells and Fibrogenesis by Fibroblast Growth Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D. Schumacher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs are a family of growth factors critically involved in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, wound healing, and endocrine functions. In the liver, several FGFs are produced basally by hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. Upon insult to the liver, expression of FGFs in HSCs is greatly upregulated, stimulating hepatocyte regeneration and growth. Various FGF isoforms have also been shown to directly induce HSC proliferation and activation thereby enabling autocrine and paracrine regulation of HSC function. Regulation of HSCs by the endocrine FGFs, namely, FGF15/19 and FGF21, has also recently been identified. With the ability to modulate HSC proliferation and transdifferentiation, targeting FGF signaling pathways constitutes a promising new therapeutic strategy to treat hepatic fibrosis.

  5. In-vitro examination of the biocompatibility of fibroblast cell lines on alloplastic meshes and sterilized polyester mosquito mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiessner, R; Kleber, T; Ekwelle, N; Ludwig, K; Richter, D-U

    2017-06-01

    The use of alloplastic implants for tissue strengthening when treating hernias is an established therapy worldwide. Despite the high incidence of hernias in Africa and Asia, the implantation of costly mesh netting is not financially feasible. Because of that various investigative groups have examined the use of sterilized mosquito netting. The animal experiments as well as the clinical trials have both shown equivalent short- and long-term results. The goal of this paper is the comparison of biocompatibility of human fibroblasts on the established commercially available nets and on sterilized polyester mosquito mesh over a period of 12 weeks. Three commercially available plastic mesh types and a gas-sterilized mosquito polyethylenterephtalate (polyester) mesh were examined. Human fibroblasts from subcutaneous healthy tissue were used. Various tests for evaluating the growth behavior and the cell morphology of human fibroblasts were conducted. The semi-quantitative (light microscopy) and qualitative (scanning electron microscopy) analyses were performed after 1 week and then again after 12 weeks. The cell proliferation and cytotoxicity of the implants were investigated with the help of the 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-cell proliferation test and the LDH-cytotoxicity test. The number of live cells per ml was determined with the Bürker counting chamber. In addition, analyses were made of the cell metabolism (oxidative stress) by measuring the pH value, hydrogen peroxide, and glycolysis. After 12 weeks, a proliferation of fibroblasts on all mesh is documented. No mesh showed a complete apoptosis of the cells. This qualitative observation could be confirmed quantitatively in a biochemical assay by marking the proliferating cells with BrdU. The biochemical analysis brought the proof that the materials used, including the polyester of the mosquito mesh, are not cytotoxic for the fibroblasts. The vitality of the cells was between 94 and 98%. The glucose metabolism

  6. Effects of conditioned medium from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells on human fibroblast migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Jung; Bang, Sa-Ik

    2017-07-01

    Adipose stem cell-conditioned medium may promote human dermal fibroblast (HDF) proliferation and migration by activating paracrine peptides during the re-epithelization phase of wound healing. Human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is upregulated in the skin epithelium as part of the normal response to injury. The effects of conditioned medium (CM) from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells (ASCs) on cutaneous wound healing, including the mediation of fibroblast migration, remain to be elucidated, therefore the aim of the present study was to determine how ASCs would react to an LL-37-rich microenvironment and if CM from LL-37 treated ASCs may influence the migration of HDFs. The present study conducted migration assays with HDFs treated with CM from LL-37 treated ASCs. Expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), which controls the recruitment of HDFs, was analyzed at the mRNA and protein levels. To further characterize the stimulatory effects of LL-37 on ASCs, the expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), a CXC chemokine, was investigated. CM from LL-37-treated ASCs induced migration of HDFs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with a maximum difference in migration observed 24 h following stimulation with LL-37 at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. The HDF migration and the expression of CXCR4 in fibroblasts was markedly increased upon treatment with CM from LL-37-treated ASCs compared with CM from untreated ASCs. SDF-1α expression was markedly increased in CM from LL-37 treated ASCs. It was additionally observed that SDF-1α blockade significantly reduced HDF migration. These findings suggest the feasibility of CM from LL-37-treated ASCs as a potential therapeutic for human dermal fibroblast migration.

  7. Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 induces cancer-associated fibroblast features in prostate-derived stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryza, Thomas; Silva, Lakmali M; Bock, Nathalie; Fuhrman-Luck, Ruth A; Stephens, Carson R; Gao, Jin; Samaratunga, Hema; Lawrence, Mitchell G; Hooper, John D; Dong, Ying; Risbridger, Gail P; Clements, Judith A

    2017-10-01

    The reciprocal communication between cancer cells and their microenvironment is critical in cancer progression. Although involvement of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) in cancer progression is long established, the molecular mechanisms leading to differentiation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts are poorly understood. Here, we report that kallikrein-related peptidase-4 (KLK4) promotes CAF differentiation. KLK4 is highly expressed in prostate epithelial cells of premalignant (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) and malignant lesions compared to normal prostate epithelia, especially at the peristromal interface. KLK4 induced CAF-like features in the prostate-derived WPMY1 normal stromal cell line, including increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, ESR1 and SFRP1. KLK4 activated protease-activated receptor-1 in WPMY1 cells increasing expression of several factors (FGF1, TAGLN, LOX, IL8, VEGFA) involved in prostate cancer progression. In addition, KLK4 induced WPMY1 cell proliferation and secretome changes, which in turn stimulated HUVEC cell proliferation that could be blocked by a VEGFA antibody. Importantly, the genes dysregulated by KLK4 treatment of WPMY1 cells were also differentially expressed between patient-derived CAFs compared to matched nonmalignant fibroblasts and were further increased by KLK4 treatment. Taken together, we propose that epithelial-derived KLK4 promotes tumour progression by actively promoting CAF differentiation in the prostate stromal microenvironment. © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Modeling cell adhesion and proliferation: a cellular-automata based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, J; Garzón-Alvarado, D; Cerrolaza, M

    Cell adhesion is a process that involves the interaction between the cell membrane and another surface, either a cell or a substrate. Unlike experimental tests, computer models can simulate processes and study the result of experiments in a shorter time and lower costs. One of the tools used to simulate biological processes is the cellular automata, which is a dynamic system that is discrete both in space and time. This work describes a computer model based on cellular automata for the adhesion process and cell proliferation to predict the behavior of a cell population in suspension and adhered to a substrate. The values of the simulated system were obtained through experimental tests on fibroblast monolayer cultures. The results allow us to estimate the cells settling time in culture as well as the adhesion and proliferation time. The change in the cells morphology as the adhesion over the contact surface progress was also observed. The formation of the initial link between cell and the substrate of the adhesion was observed after 100 min where the cell on the substrate retains its spherical morphology during the simulation. The cellular automata model developed is, however, a simplified representation of the steps in the adhesion process and the subsequent proliferation. A combined framework of experimental and computational simulation based on cellular automata was proposed to represent the fibroblast adhesion on substrates and changes in a macro-scale observed in the cell during the adhesion process. The approach showed to be simple and efficient.

  9. Biochemical changes to fibroblast cells subjected to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamala; Benghuzzi, Hamed; Tucci, Michelle; Richards, Latoya; Harrison, George; Patel, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    High energy X-rays are capable of interacting with biological membranes to cause both functional and structural modifications. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects human fibroblast cells exposed multiple times to 10 Gy over time. Following exposures of 2, 3, or 4 times to 10 Gy/10min the cells were evaluated for cell number changes, membrane damage, and intracellular glutathione content after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Twenty-four hours following exposure the cell numbers were reduced and increased levels of cellular membrane damage was evident. This trend was observed for the duration of the study. Interestingly, there was not an exposure dependent increase in cell damage or cell loss with time. Intracellular antioxidant systems were activated as indicated by anincrease in total cellular glutathione content. Additional studies are needed to determine if the cellular reduction is caused by a direct effect of the X-rays targeting the DNA or an indirect effect of the X-ray targeting the cellular membrane, which then generates radicals that target cell cycle checkpoints or DNA damage. In conclusion, fibroblast cells can be used to determine early and late events of cellular function following exposure to harmful levels of radiation exposure and results of exposure can be seen within twenty four hours.

  10. Cell proliferation and ageing in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.; Franks, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Cell kinetic parameters in the descending colon of unirradiated mice, 3-30-months-old were compared with those in mice irradiated repeatedly from the age of 6 or 24 months. The latter animals were given 1250 rad local X-irradiation to the colon every 6 weeks. Dose-survival curves showed the colon crypts of 6 and 24-months-old mice were similarly radiosensitive. In unirradiated mice the number of crypts per colon section decreased significantly at 30 months, but no significant age-related changes were seen in crypt size or labelling index (LI). Cell proliferation returned to control levels within 6 weeks of each X-ray dose and remained at this level for 20 weeks after the final dose. Later, cell proliferation in the irradiated colon fell significantly below control. A total of 6 or 7 doses each of 1250 rad produced only 1 colon carcinoma amongst 50 mice kept until they died. (author)

  11. Colorectal cancer cell-derived exosomes containing miR-10b regulate fibroblast cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guangyao; Yao, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Yubin; Gu, Jianbin; Geng, Yunfeng; Xue, Fei; Zhang, Jingcheng

    2018-04-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) contribute to the proliferation of colorectal cancer(CRC) cells. However, the mechanism by which CAFs develop in the tumor microenvironment remains unknown. Exosomes may be involved in activating CAFs. Using a miRNA expression profiling array, we determined the miRNA expression profile of secretory exosomes in CRC cells and then identified potential miRNAs with significant differential expression compared to normal cells via enrichment analysis. Predicted targets of candidate miRNAs were then assessed via bioinformatics analysis. Realtime qPCR, western blot, and cell cycle analyses were performed to evaluate the role of candidate exosomal miRNAs. Luciferase reporter assays were applied to confirm whether candidate exosomal miRNAs control target pathway expression. A CRC xenograft mouse model was constructed to evaluate tumor growth in vivo. Exosomes from CRC cells contained significantly higher levels of miR-10b than did exosomes from normal colorectal epithelial cells. Moreover, exosomes containing miR-10b were transferred to fibroblasts. Bioinformatics analysis identified PIK3CA, as a potential target of miR-10b. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-10b directly inhibited PIK3CA expression. Co-culturing fibroblasts with exosomes containing miR-10b significantly suppressed PIK3CA expression and decreased PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activity. Finally, exosomes containing miR-10b reduced fibroblast proliferation but promoted expression of TGF-β and SM α-actin, suggesting that exosomal miR-10b may activate fibroblasts to become CAFs that express myofibroblast markers. These activated fibroblasts were able to promote CRC growth in vitro and in vivo. CRC-derived exosomes actively promote disease progression by modulating surrounding stromal cells, which subsequently acquire features of CAFs. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Adipose-derived stromal cells inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation inducing apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Kiyoshi [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Ii, Masaaki, E-mail: masaii@art.osaka-med.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Inamoto, Teruo; Komura, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Naokazu; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Asahi, Michio [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Azuma, Haruhito [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • AdSC transplantation exhibits inhibitory effect on tumor progressions of PCa cells. • AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway. • High expression of the TGF-β1 gene in AdSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Adipose-derived stromal cells (AdSCs) are known to exhibit extensive proliferation potential and can undergo multilineage differentiation, sharing similar characteristics to bone marrow-derived MSCs. However, as the effect of AdSCs on tumor growth has not been studied sufficiently, we assessed the degree to which AdSCs affect the proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cell. Human AdSCs exerted an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-nonresponsive (PC3) human PCa cells, while normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) did not, and in fact promoted PCa cell proliferation to a degree. Moreover, AdSCs induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells and PC3 cells, activating the caspase3/7 signaling pathway. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that AdSC-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC3 cells was related to the TGF-β signaling pathway. Consistent with our in vitro observations, local transplantation of AdSCs delayed the growth of tumors derived from both LNCaP- and PC3-xenografts in immunodeficient mice. This is the first preclinical study to have directly demonstrated that AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway, irrespective of androgen-responsiveness. Since autologous AdSCs can be easily isolated from adipose tissue without any ethical concerns, we suggest that therapy with these cells could be a novel approach for patients with PCa.

  13. Adipose-derived stromal cells inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation inducing apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Kiyoshi; Ii, Masaaki; Inamoto, Teruo; Komura, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Naokazu; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi; Asahi, Michio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • AdSC transplantation exhibits inhibitory effect on tumor progressions of PCa cells. • AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway. • High expression of the TGF-β1 gene in AdSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Adipose-derived stromal cells (AdSCs) are known to exhibit extensive proliferation potential and can undergo multilineage differentiation, sharing similar characteristics to bone marrow-derived MSCs. However, as the effect of AdSCs on tumor growth has not been studied sufficiently, we assessed the degree to which AdSCs affect the proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cell. Human AdSCs exerted an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-nonresponsive (PC3) human PCa cells, while normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) did not, and in fact promoted PCa cell proliferation to a degree. Moreover, AdSCs induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells and PC3 cells, activating the caspase3/7 signaling pathway. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that AdSC-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC3 cells was related to the TGF-β signaling pathway. Consistent with our in vitro observations, local transplantation of AdSCs delayed the growth of tumors derived from both LNCaP- and PC3-xenografts in immunodeficient mice. This is the first preclinical study to have directly demonstrated that AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway, irrespective of androgen-responsiveness. Since autologous AdSCs can be easily isolated from adipose tissue without any ethical concerns, we suggest that therapy with these cells could be a novel approach for patients with PCa

  14. Exosomes released by chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induce the transition of stromal cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggetti, Jerome; Haderk, Franziska; Seiffert, Martina; Janji, Bassam; Distler, Ute; Ammerlaan, Wim; Kim, Yeoun Jin; Adam, Julien; Lichter, Peter; Solary, Eric; Berchem, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes derived from solid tumor cells are involved in immune suppression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, but the role of leukemia-derived exosomes has been less investigated. The pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is stringently associated with a tumor-supportive microenvironment and a dysfunctional immune system. Here, we explore the role of CLL-derived exosomes in the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which malignant cells create this favorable surrounding. We show that CLL-derived exosomes are actively incorporated by endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo and in vivo and that the transfer of exosomal protein and microRNA induces an inflammatory phenotype in the target cells, which resembles the phenotype of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). As a result, stromal cells show enhanced proliferation, migration, and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, contributing to a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Exosome uptake by endothelial cells increased angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo, and coinjection of CLL-derived exosomes and CLL cells promoted tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we detected α-smooth actin–positive stromal cells in lymph nodes of CLL patients. These findings demonstrate that CLL-derived exosomes actively promote disease progression by modulating several functions of surrounding stromal cells that acquire features of cancer-associated fibroblasts. PMID:26100252

  15. Enhanced adherence of mouse fibroblast and vascular cells to plasma modified polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznickova, Alena, E-mail: alena.reznickova@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Novotna, Zdenka, E-mail: zdenka1.novotna@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kolska, Zdenka [Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyně University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Kasalkova, Nikola Slepickova [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rimpelova, Silvie [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svorcik, Vaclav [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-01

    Since the last decade, tissue engineering has shown a sensational promise in providing more viable alternatives to surgical procedures for harvested tissues, implants and prostheses. Biomedical polymers, such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), were activated by Ar plasma discharge. Degradation of polymer chains was examined by determination of the thickness of ablated layer. The amount of an ablated polymer layer was measured by gravimetry. Contact angle, measured by goniometry, was studied as a function of plasma exposure and post-exposure aging times. Chemical structure of modified polymers was characterized by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface chemistry and polarity of the samples were investigated by electrokinetic analysis. Changes in surface morphology were followed using atomic force microscopy. Cytocompatibility of plasma activated polyethylene foils was studied using two distinct model cell lines; VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) as a model for vascular graft testing and connective tissue cells L929 (mouse fibroblasts) approved for standardized material cytotoxicity testing. Specifically, the cell number, morphology, and metabolic activity of the adhered and proliferated cells on the polyethylene matrices were studied in vitro. It was found that the plasma treatment caused ablation of the polymers, resulting in dramatic changes in their surface morphology and roughness. ARXPS and electrokinetic measurements revealed oxidation of the polymer surface. It was found that plasma activation has a positive effect on the adhesion and proliferation of VSMCs and L929 cells. - Highlights: • Plasma activation of LDPE, HDPE and UHMWPE • Study of surface properties by several techniques: ARXPS, AFM, zeta-potential, and goniometry • Investigation of adhesion and spreading of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and mouse fibroblasts (L929)

  16. Umbilical cord fibroblasts: Could they be considered as mesenchymal stem cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeddou, Mustapha; Relic, Biserka; Malaise, Michel G

    2014-01-01

    In cell therapy protocols, many tissues were proposed as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolation. So far, bone marrow (BM) has been presented as the main source of MSC despite the invasive isolation procedure related to this source. During the last years, the umbilical cord (UC) matrix was cited in different studies as a reliable source from which long term ex vivo proliferating fibroblasts were isolated but with contradictory data about their immunophenotype, gene expression profile, and differentiation potential. Hence, an interesting question emerged: Are cells isolated from cord matrix (UC-MSC) different from other MSCs? In this review, we will summarize different studies that isolated and characterized UC-MSC. Considering BM-MSC as gold standard, we will discuss if UC-MSC fulfill different criteria that define MSC, and what remain to be done in this issue. PMID:25126385

  17. The fibroblast surface markers FAP, anti-fibroblast, and FSP are expressed by cells of epithelial origin and may be altered during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahounová, Zuzana; Kurfürstová, Daniela; Bouchal, Jan; Kharaishvili, Gvantsa; Navrátil, Jiří; Remšík, Ján; Šimečková, Šárka; Študent, Vladimír; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    2017-04-06

    The identification of fibroblasts and cancer-associated fibroblasts from human cancer tissue using surface markers is difficult, especially because the markers used currently are usually not expressed solely by fibroblasts, and the identification of fibroblast-specific surface molecules is still under investigation. It was aimed to compare three commercially available antibodies in the detection of different surface epitopes of fibroblasts (anti-fibroblast, fibroblast activation protein α, and fibroblast surface protein). The specificity of their expression, employing fibroblast cell lines and tumor-derived fibroblasts from breast and prostate tissues was investigated. Both the established fibroblast cell line HFF-1 and ex vivo primary fibroblasts isolated from breast and prostate cancer tissues expressed the tested surface markers to different degrees. Surprisingly, those markers were expressed also by permanent cell lines of epithelial origin, both benign and cancer-derived (breast-cell lines MCF 10A, HMLE and prostate-cell lines BPH-1, DU 145, and PC-3). The expression of fibroblast activation protein α increased on the surface of previously described models of epithelial cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to treatment with TGF-β1. To prove the co-expression of the fibroblast markers on cells of epithelial origin, we used freshly dissociated human prostate and breast cancer tissues. The results confirmed the co-expression of anti-fibroblast and fibroblast surface protein on CD31/CD45-negative/EpCAM-positive epithelial cells. In summary, our data support the findings that the tested fibroblast markers are not fibroblast specific and may be expressed also by cells of epithelial origin (e.g., cells undergoing EMT). Therefore, the expression of these markers should be interpreted with caution, and the combination of several epitopes for both positive (anti-fibroblast or fibroblast activation protein α) and negative (Ep

  18. In vitro biological evaluation of beta-TCP/HDPE--A novel orthopedic composite: a survey using human osteoblast and fibroblast bone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaeigohar, S Sh; Shokrgozar, M A; Khavandi, A; Sadi, A Yari

    2008-02-01

    Beta-tricalcium phosphate reinforced high density polyethylene (beta-TCP/HDPE) was prepared to simulate bone composition and to study its capacity to act as bone tissue. This material was produced by replacing the mineral component and collagen soft tissue of the bone with beta-TCP and HDPE, respectively. The biocompatibility of the composite samples with different volume fractions of TCP (20, 30 and 40 vol %) was examined in vitro using two osteoblast cell lines G-292 and Saos-2, and also a type of fibroblast cell isolated from bone tissue, namely human bone fibroblast (HBF) by proliferation, and cell adhesion assays. Cell-material interaction with the surface of the composite samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of beta-TCP/HDPE on the behavior of osteoblast and fibroblast cells was compared with those of composite and negative control samples; polyethylene (PE) and tissue culture polystyrene (TPS), respectively. In general, the results showed that the composite samples containing beta-TCP as reinforcement supported a higher rate of proliferation by various bone cells after 3, 7, and 14 days of incubation compared to the composite control sample. Furthermore, more osteoblast cells were attached to the surface of the composite samples when compared to the composite control samples after the above incubation periods (p HDPE composites are biocompatible, nontoxic, and act to stimulate proliferation and adhesion of the cells, whether osteoblast or fibroblast. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2008.

  19. Congestive heart failure effects on atrial fibroblast phenotype: differences between freshly-isolated and cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Dawson

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are important in the atrial fibrillation (AF substrate resulting from congestive heart failure (CHF. We previously noted changes in in vivo indices of fibroblast function in a CHF dog model, but could not detect changes in isolated cells. This study assessed CHF-induced changes in the phenotype of fibroblasts freshly isolated from control versus CHF dogs, and examined effects of cell culture on these differences.Left-atrial fibroblasts were isolated from control and CHF dogs (ventricular tachypacing 240 bpm × 2 weeks. Freshly-isolated fibroblasts were compared to fibroblasts in primary culture. Extracellular-matrix (ECM gene-expression was assessed by qPCR, protein by Western blot, fibroblast morphology with immunocytochemistry, and K(+-current with patch-clamp. Freshly-isolated CHF fibroblasts had increased expression-levels of collagen-1 (10-fold, collagen-3 (5-fold, and fibronectin-1 (3-fold vs. control, along with increased cell diameter (13.4 ± 0.4 µm vs control 8.4 ± 0.3 µm and cell spreading (shape factor 0.81 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.87 ± 0.02, consistent with an activated phenotype. Freshly-isolated control fibroblasts displayed robust tetraethylammonium (TEA-sensitive K(+-currents that were strongly downregulated in CHF. The TEA-sensitive K(+-current differences between control and CHF fibroblasts were attenuated after 2-day culture and eliminated after 7 days. Similarly, cell-culture eliminated the ECM protein-expression and shape differences between control and CHF fibroblasts.Freshly-isolated CHF and control atrial fibroblasts display distinct ECM-gene and morphological differences consistent with in vivo pathology. Culture for as little as 48 hours activates fibroblasts and obscures the effects of CHF. These results demonstrate potentially-important atrial-fibroblast phenotype changes in CHF and emphasize the need for caution in relating properties of cultured fibroblasts to in vivo systems.

  20. Viability test of fish scale collagen (Oshpronemus gouramy on baby hamster kidney fibroblasts-21 fibroblast cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiquita Prahasanti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to examine the toxicity of collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales (Oshpronemus gouramy by evaluating its viability against baby hamster kidney fibroblasts-21. Materials and Methods: Collagen was extracted from gouramy fish scales (O. gouramy with 6% acetic acid. Its results were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and freeze-dried technique. Its morphology then was analyzed with scanning electron microscope. Afterward, 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was conducted to compare cells with and without fish scale collagen treatment. Results: Collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales had no influence statistically on cultured fibroblast cells with a statistical significance (2-tailed value of 0.754 (p>00025. Conclusion: Collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales has high viability against BHK21 fibroblast cells.

  1. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Chae-Ok [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Deok-Jong [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Young, E-mail: choieun@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-04

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  2. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Han, Deok-Jong; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  3. 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnane glycosides from roots of Asclepias tuberosa and their effect on proliferation of human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Umehara, Kaoru; Miyase, Toshio; Noro, Tadataka

    2011-10-01

    A pregnane glycoside fraction from the roots of Asclepias tuberosa L. caused normal human skin fibroblasts to proliferate. This fraction contained 21 pregnane glycosides whose structures were established using NMR spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. The aglycones of most of these compounds were identified as 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnanes, such as tuberogenin or 5,6-didehydrotuberogenin, the same aglycones as constituents of the aerial parts of this plant. Some of these compounds also caused proliferation of skin fibroblasts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Fibroblasts and an L-929 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consensus about the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs has not been reached, even though extensive attention has been paid to this issue. This confusion may be due to physicochemical factors of Ag-NPs and the cell model used for biological safety evaluation. In the present study, human embryonic stem cell-derived fibroblasts (EBFs, which have been considered a closer representative of the in vivo response, were used as a novel cell model to assess the cytotoxicity of Ag-NPs (~20 nm and ~100 nm in comparison with L-929 fibroblast cell line. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, p53 expression, and cellular uptake were examined. Results showed that Ag-NPs presented higher cytotoxicity to EBF than to L-929. EBF demonstrated a stronger capacity to ingest Ag-NPs, a higher G2/M arrest, and more upgraduated p53 expression after exposed to Ag-NPs for 48 h when compared with L-929. It could be concluded that EBF exhibited a more sensitive response to Ag-NPs compared with L-929 cells, indicating that EBF may be a valid candidate for cytotoxicity screening assays of nanoparticles.

  5. CDK2 differentially controls normal cell senescence and cancer cell proliferation upon exposure to reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Chae Young; Lee, Seung-Min; Park, Sung Sup; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► H 2 O 2 differently adjusted senescence and proliferation in normal and cancer cells. ► H 2 O 2 exposure transiently decreased PCNA levels in normal cells. ► H 2 O 2 exposure transiently increased CDK2 activity in cancer cells. ► p21 Cip1 is likely dispensable when H 2 O 2 induces senescence in normal cells. ► Suggestively, CDK2 and PCNA play critical roles in H 2 O 2 -induced cell fate decision. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species modulate cell fate in a context-dependent manner. Sublethal doses of H 2 O 2 decreased the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in normal cells (including primary human dermal fibroblasts and IMR-90 cells) without affecting cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity, leading to cell cycle arrest and subsequent senescence. In contrast, exposure of cancer cells (such as HeLa and MCF7 cells) to H 2 O 2 increased CDK2 activity with no accompanying change in the PCNA level, leading to cell proliferation. A CDK2 inhibitor, CVT-313, prevented H 2 O 2 -induced cancer cell proliferation. These results support the notion that the cyclin/CDK2/p21 Cip1 /PCNA complex plays an important role as a regulator of cell fate decisions.

  6. Effects of biosurfactants on the viability and proliferation of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristina; Gudiña, Eduardo J; Lima, Cristovao F; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactants are molecules with surface activity produced by microorganisms that can be used in many biomedical applications. The anti-tumour potential of these molecules is being studied, although results are still scarce and few data are available regarding the mechanisms underlying such activity. In this work, the anti-tumour activity of a surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis 573 and a glycoprotein (BioEG) produced by Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei A20 was evaluated. Both biosurfactants were tested against two breast cancer cell lines, T47D and MDA-MB-231, and a non-tumour fibroblast cell line (MC-3 T3-E1), specifically regarding cell viability and proliferation. Surfactin was found to decrease viability of both breast cancer cell lines studied. A 24 h exposure to 0.05 g l(-1) surfactin led to inhibition of cell proliferation as shown by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Similarly, exposure of cells to 0.15 g l(-1) BioEG for 48 h decreased cancer cells' viability, without affecting normal fibroblasts. Moreover, BioEG induced the cell cycle arrest at G1 for both breast cancer cell lines. The biosurfactant BioEG was shown to be more active than surfactin against the studied breast cancer cells. The results gathered in this work are very promising regarding the biosurfactants potential for breast cancer treatment and encourage further work with the BioEG glycoprotein.

  7. Tissue engineering of ligaments: a comparison of bone marrow stromal cells, anterior cruciate ligament, and skin fibroblasts as cell source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eijk, F; Saris, D B F; Riesle, J; Willems, W J; Van Blitterswijk, C A; Verbout, A J; Dhert, W J A

    2004-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery still has important problems to overcome, such as "donor site morbidity" and the limited choice of grafts in revision surgery. Tissue engineering of ligaments may provide a solution for these problems. Little is known about the optimal cell source for tissue engineering of ligaments. The aim of this study is to determine the optimal cell source for tissue engineering of the anterior cruciate ligament. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), ACL, and skin fibroblasts were seeded onto a resorbable suture material [poly(L-lactide/glycolide) multifilaments] at five different seeding densities, and cultured for up to 12 days. All cell types tested attached to the suture material, proliferated, and synthesized extracellular matrix rich in collagen type I. On day 12 the scaffolds seeded with BMSCs showed the highest DNA content (p engineered ligament.

  8. Shape-dependent regulation of proliferation in normal and malignant human cells and its alteration by interferon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulesh, D.A.; Greene, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between cell morphology, proliferation, and contact inhibition was studied in normal and malignant human cells which varied in their sensitivity to contact inhibition. Their ability to proliferate was examined under conditions where the cells were constrained into different shapes by plating onto plastic surfaces coated with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) can precisely vary the shape of cells without toxicity. Cell proliferation was quantitated by cell counts and labeling indices were determined by autoradiography. The normal JHU-1 foreskin fibroblasts and IMR-90 lung fibroblasts exhibited contact-inhibited growth with a saturation density of 2.9 X 10(5) and 2.0 X 10(5) cells/cm2, respectively. These cells also exhibited stringent dependency on cell shape with a mitotic index of less than 3% at poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) concentrations at which the cells were rounded versus a labeling index of 75-90% when the cells were flat. The malignant bladder carcinoma line RT-4 exhibited partial contact-inhibited growth. Its dependency on cell shape was less stringent than that of normal cells with a mitotic index of 37-40% when rounded and 79% when flat. The malignant fibrosarcoma line, HT1080, was not contact inhibited and was entirely shape independent with a mitotic index of 70-90% regardless of cell shape. Treatment of HT1080 cells with low concentration of human fibroblast interferon (less than 40 units/ml) restored shape-dependent proliferation while having little effect on normal cells. Subantiproliferative doses of interferon were also shown to restore contact-inhibited proliferation control to malignant cells previously lacking it

  9. Lysophosphatidic acid signaling through its receptor initiates profibrotic epithelial cell fibroblast communication mediated by epithelial cell derived connective tissue growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Norihiko; Chun, Jerold; Duffield, Jeremy S; Lagares, David; Wada, Takashi; Luster, Andrew D; Tager, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    The expansion of the fibroblast pool is a critical step in organ fibrosis, but the mechanisms driving expansion remain to be fully clarified. We previously showed that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling through its receptor LPA 1 expressed on fibroblasts directly induces the recruitment of these cells. Here we tested whether LPA-LPA 1 signaling drives fibroblast proliferation and activation during the development of renal fibrosis. LPA 1 -deficient (LPA 1 -/- ) or -sufficient (LPA 1 +/+ ) mice were crossed to mice with green fluorescent protein expression (GFP) driven by the type I procollagen promoter (Col-GFP) to identify fibroblasts. Unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced increases in renal collagen were significantly, though not completely, attenuated in LPA 1 -/- Col-GFP mice, as were the accumulations of both fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Connective tissue growth factor was detected mainly in tubular epithelial cells, and its levels were suppressed in LPA 1 -/- Col-GFP mice. LPA-LPA 1 signaling directly induced connective tissue growth factor expression in primary proximal tubular epithelial cells, through a myocardin-related transcription factor-serum response factor pathway. Proximal tubular epithelial cell-derived connective tissue growth factor mediated renal fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation. Administration of an inhibitor of myocardin-related transcription factor/serum response factor suppressed obstruction-induced renal fibrosis. Thus, targeting LPA-LPA 1 signaling and/or myocardin-related transcription factor/serum response factor-induced transcription could be promising therapeutic strategies for renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparisons of phenotype and immunomodulatory capacity among rhesus bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells, and dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Clarkson, Christina; Graham, Melanie; Donahue, Robert; Hering, Bernhard J.; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Bansal-Pakala, Pratima; O'Brien, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Potent immunomodulatory effects have been reported for mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), and fibroblasts. However, side-by-side comparisons of these cells specifically regarding immunophenotype, gene expression, and suppression of proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte populations have not been reported. Methods We developed MAPC and MSC lines from rhesus macaque bone marrow and fibroblast cell lines from rhesus dermis and assessed phenotypes based upon differentiation potential, flow cytometric analysis of immunophenotype, and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression. Using allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation assays, we compared the in vitro immunomodulatory potency of each cell type. Results and Conclusions Extensive phenotypic similarities exist among each cell type, although immunosuppressive potencies are distinct. MAPCs are most potent, and fibroblasts are the least potent cell type. All three cell types demonstrated immunomodulatory capacity such that each may have potential therapeutic applications such as in organ transplantation, where reduced local immune response is desirable. PMID:24825538

  11. A novel role of EMMPRIN/CD147 in transformation of quiescent fibroblasts to cancer-associated fibroblasts by breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Lu, Yang; Qiu, Songbo; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Fan, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    We tested the novel hypothesis that EMMPRIN/CD147, a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed in breast cancer cells, has a previously unknown role in transforming fibroblasts to cancer-associated fibroblasts, and that cancer-associated fibroblasts in turn induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells. Co-culture of fibroblasts with breast cancer cells or treatment of fibroblasts with breast cancer cell conditioned culture medium or recombinant EMMPRIN/CD147 induced expression of α-SMA in the fibroblasts in an EMMPRIN/CD147-dependent manner and promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells and enhanced cell migration potential. These findings support a novel role of EMMPRIN/CD147 in regulating the interaction between cancer and stroma. PMID:23474495

  12. Fabrication and evaluation of electrohydrodynamic jet 3D printed polycaprolactone/chitosan cell carriers using human embryonic stem cell-derived fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Sriram, Gopu; Fawzy, Amr S; Fuh, Jerry Yh; Rosa, Vinicius; Cao, Tong; Wong, Yoke San

    2016-08-01

    Biological function of adherent cells depends on the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in three-dimensional space. To understand the behavior of cells in 3D environment and their interactions with neighboring cells and matrix requires 3D culture systems. Here, we present a novel 3D cell carrier scaffold that provides an environment for routine 3D cell growth in vitro We have developed thin, mechanically stable electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) 3D printed polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/Chitosan macroporous scaffolds with precise fiber orientation for basic 3D cell culture application. We have evaluated the application of this technology by growing human embryonic stem cell-derived fibroblasts within these 3D scaffolds. Assessment of cell viability and proliferation of cells seeded on polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/Chitosan 3D-scaffolds show that the human embryonic stem cell-derived fibroblasts could adhere and proliferate on the scaffolds over time. Further, using confocal microscopy we demonstrate the ability to use fluorescence-labelled cells that could be microscopically monitored in real-time. Hence, these 3D printed polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/Chitosan scaffolds could be used as a cell carrier for in vitro 3D cell culture-, bioreactor- and tissue engineering-related applications in the future. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The dependence of fibroblast radiosensitivity on cell pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, A.M.; Kublik, L.N.; Degtyareva, O.V.; Ehjdus, L.Kh.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the change of radiosensitivity of Chinese hamster fibroblasts, irradiated under aerobic and hypoxic conditions in the course of intracellular pH (pHsub(intr.)) change by means of a phosphate buffer has been studied. It has been found that pHsub(intr.) reduction considerably increases the radiosensitivity, the effect being more pronounced on hypoxic cells which is essential for radiotherapy of tumors. The survival rate of cell irradiated under hypoxia conditions does not depend on season while cell resistance in case of irradiation in open air in spring and autumn is different. The effect discovery in case of pHsub(intr.) reduction upon irradiation shows up the influence of the studied factor on repair processes

  14. Newly identified interfibrillar collagen crosslinking suppresses cell proliferation and remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Benedetto; Le Nihouannen, Damien; Hacking, S Adam; Tran, Simon; Li, Jingjing; Murshed, Monzur; Doillon, Charles J; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Zhang, Yu Ling; Nazhat, Showan N; Barralet, Jake E

    2015-06-01

    Copper is becoming recognised as a key cation in a variety of biological processes. Copper chelation has been studied as a potential anti-angiogenic strategy for arresting tumour growth. Conversely the delivery of copper ions and complexes in vivo can elicit a pro-angiogenic effect. Previously we unexpectedly found that copper-stimulated intraperitoneal angiogenesis was accompanied by collagen deposition. Here, in hard tissue, not only was healing accelerated by copper, but again enhanced deposition of collagen was detected at 2 weeks. Experiments with reconstituted collagen showed that addition of copper ions post-fibrillogenesis rendered plastically-compressed gels resistant to collagenases, enhanced their mechanical properties and increased the denaturation temperature of the protein. Unexpectedly, this apparently interfibrillar crosslinking was not affected by addition of glucose or ascorbic acid, which are required for crosslinking by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Fibroblasts cultured on copper-crosslinked gels did not proliferate, whereas those cultured with an equivalent quantity of copper on either tissue culture plastic or collagen showed no effect compared with controls. Although non-proliferative, fibroblasts grown on copper-cross-linked collagen could migrate, remained metabolically active for at least 14 days and displayed a 6-fold increase in Mmps 1 and 3 mRNA expression compared with copper-free controls. The ability of copper ions to crosslink collagen fibrils during densification and independently of AGEs or Fenton type reactions is previously unreported. The effect on MMP susceptibility of collagen and the dramatic change in cell behaviour on this crosslinked ECM may contribute to shedding some light on unexplained phenomena as the apparent benefit of copper complexation in fibrotic disorders or the enhanced collagen deposition in response to localised copper delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyamines and post-irradiation cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiek, O.; Wronowski, T.; Lerozak, K.; Kopec, M.

    1978-01-01

    The results of three sets of experiments will be presented. Firstly polyamines and DNA content was determined in bone marrow, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, liver and kidney of rabbits at the 1, 5, 10 and 20th day after exposure to 600 R of X-irradiation. Polyamine concentration in bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes was found to be markedly increased during the period of postirradiation recovery. Secondly, effect of 10 -5 M methyl glyoxalbis, guanylhydrazone (MGBG), an inhibitor of spermidine and spermine synthesis, on multiplication of X-irradiated cultures of murine lymphoblaste L5178Y-S was assessed. MGBG-induced inhibition of cell proliferation could be prevented by concurrent administration of 10 -4 M spermidine. Thirdly the influence of putrescine on bone marrow cellularity and 3 H-thymidine incorporation into bone marrow cells was investigated in X-irradiated mice. The results obtained indicate close relation of polyamines to cell proliferation processes after irradiation. (orig./AJ) [de

  16. Endostatin induces proliferation of oral carcinoma cells but its effect on invasion is modified by the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alahuhta, Ilkka [Research Group of Cancer and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Aikio, Mari [Biocenter Oulu and Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu (Finland); Oulu Center for Cell-Matrix Research, University of Oulu (Finland); Väyrynen, Otto; Nurmenniemi, Sini [Research Group of Cancer and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Suojanen, Juho [Department of Oral and Maxillo-facial Diseases, University of Helsinki, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Teppo, Susanna [Research Group of Cancer and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Heljasvaara, Ritva [Biocenter Oulu and Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu (Finland); Oulu Center for Cell-Matrix Research, University of Oulu (Finland); Salo, Tuula [Research Group of Cancer and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Department of Oral and Maxillo-facial Diseases, University of Helsinki, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Department of Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, Sao Paolo (Brazil); Nyberg, Pia, E-mail: pia.nyberg@oulu.fi [Research Group of Cancer and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland)

    2015-08-01

    The turnover of extracellular matrix liberates various cryptic molecules with novel biological activities. Endostatin is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor that is derived from the non-collagenous domain of collagen XVIII. Although there are a large number of studies on its anti-tumor effects, the molecular mechanisms are not yet completely understood, and the reasons why endostatin has not been successful in clinical trials are unclear. Research has mostly focused on its anti-angiogenic effect in tumors. Here, we aimed to elucidate how endostatin affects the behavior of aggressive tongue HSC-3 carcinoma cells that were transfected to overproduce endostatin. Endostatin inhibited the invasion of HSC-3 cells in a 3D collagen–fibroblast model. However, it had no effect on invasion in a human myoma organotypic model, which lacks vital fibroblasts. Recombinant endostatin was able to reduce the Transwell migration of normal fibroblasts, but had no effect on carcinoma associated fibroblasts. Surprisingly, endostatin increased the proliferation and decreased the apoptosis of cancer cells in organotypic models. Also subcutaneous tumors overproducing endostatin grew bigger, but showed less local invasion in nude mice xenografts. We conclude that endostatin affects directly to HSC-3 cells increasing their proliferation, but its net effect on cancer invasion seem to depend on the cellular composition and interactions of tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • Endostatin affects not only angiogenesis, but also carcinoma cells and fibroblasts. • Endostatin increased carcinoma cell proliferation, but decreased 3D invasion. • The invasion inhibitory effect was sensitive to the microenvironment composition. • Fibroblasts may be a factor regulating the fluctuating roles of endostatin.

  17. Effect of primarily cultured human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts on radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiaoqin; Ji Jiang; Chen Yongbing; Shan Fang; Lu Xueguan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when CAF is placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer cells. Methods: Human lung CAF was obtained from fresh human lung adenocarcinoma tissue specimens by primary culture and subculture and was then identified by immunofluorescence staining. The CAF was placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer A 549 and H 1299 cells, and the effects of CAF on the radiosensitivity of A 549 and H 1299 cells were evaluated by colony-forming assay. Results: The human lung CAF obtained by adherent culture could stably grow and proliferate, and it had specific expression of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and fibroblast activation protein,but without expression of cytokeratin-18. The plating efficiency (PE, %) of A 549 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.0 ± 3.9)% when cultured alone versus (32.3 ± 5.5)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=3.16, P<0.05), and the PE of H 1299 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.6 ± 3.1)% when cultured alone versus (35.2 ± 2.3)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=6.55, P<0.05). The cell survival rate at 2 Gy irradiation (SF 2 ) of A 549 cells was 0.727 ±0.061 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.089 when co-cultured with CAF (t=0.88, P>0.05), and the SF 2 of H 1299 cells was 0.692 ±0.065 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.037 when co-cultured with CAF (t=2.08, P>0.05). The protection enhancement ratios of human lung CAF for A 549 cells and H 1299 cells were 1.29 and 1.25, respectively. Conclusions: Human lung CAF reduces the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when placed in direct contact co-culture with them, and the radioprotective effect may be attributed to CAF promoting the proliferation of lung cancer cells. (authors)

  18. Oxidative stress induced pulmonary endothelial cell proliferation is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellular hyper-proliferation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are hallmarks of the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension. Indeed, pulmonary endothelial cells proliferation is susceptible to redox state modulation. Some studies suggest that superoxide stimulates endothelial cell proliferation while others have ...

  19. Low power laser effects in cancer cells and fibroblasts submitted the ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Camila Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is considered a public health problem worldwide. According to Brazil's the National Cancer Institute (INCA), 576,000 new cases of cancer were estimated for 2015 in Brazil, representing the second leading cause of death. Radiotherapy may be a treatment to several of types of cancer, frequently using ionizing radiation to eradicate or prevent the proliferation of tumor cells. This treatment, however, can lead to death of non-tumor cells around in irradiated tissue. Given this, adjuvant therapies that can minimize the side effects of ionizing radiation are of extremely importance. In this context, low power laser (LPL) may be an alternative to modulate the response of healthy cells to ionizing radiation. In this study, cells of human gingival fibroblasts (FMM1) and breast cancer (MDAMB- 231) were exposed to gamma radiation at doses of 2.5 and 10 Gy. After twenty-four hours, cell were irradiated with LPL ( λ= 660 nm, 40 mW and total area of 0.04 cm²) with energy densities of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 J/cm². The cell viability was measured during four days, using the trypan blue technique. The influence of LPL on the cell cycle and on expression of the nuclear antigen of cellular proliferation (PCNA) was evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression of β-Galactosidase was the chosen method to assess cell senescence. Considering our adopted parameters, and focusing on the non-tumor cells, we have observed an increase in: 1) cell viability; 2) cell population in phases S and G 2 /M cell cycle; 3) PCNA expression with decrease in senescence. No alterations were observed in the cell viability, with greater population in phases S and G 2 /M cell cycle, while the number of senescent cells and the expression of PCNA were decreased. Therefore, we have concluded that the LPL promoted effects on both cell lineages, with increased cell viability on FMM1 cells, whether cancer cells maintained a decreased proliferation. (author)

  20. Cell proliferation and ageing in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.

    1978-01-01

    The descending colon of 4 month and 2 year old mice was exposed to 1250 rad X-rays. This killed most of the epithelial cells. The surviving cells formed new crypts and surface epithelium in animals of both ages. Not all of the crypts were replaced. The irradiated area contained not more than 80% of the control number of crypts per section for at least 6 weeks after irradiation. In the young mice new crypts were much larger and the labelling index (LI) was much higher than in unirradiated animals during the first week after irradiation. In the old mice the overshoot in LI and crypt size began later and continued longer than in young animals. This may be because the control of cell proliferation was much less precise in old than in young mice. The irradiation was repeated, in attempt to age prematurely the epithelial cells by increasing the number of divisions they underwent. The overshoot in LI and cells per crypt was smaller after a second dose than after the first in both young and old mice. There was almost no overshoot after a third dose was given to young mice. Increasing the number of divisions undergone by the surviving epithelial cells did not change the timing of repopulation in young mice compared to that found in old mice. Little evidence was found for the presence of a limited proliferative lifespan in colon epithelial cells. (author)

  1. KIF7 Controls the Proliferation of Cells of the Respiratory Airway through Distinct Microtubule Dependent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry L Coles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell cycle must be tightly coordinated for proper control of embryonic development and for the long-term maintenance of organs such as the lung. There is emerging evidence that Kinesin family member 7 (Kif7 promotes Hedgehog (Hh signaling during embryonic development, and its misregulation contributes to diseases such as ciliopathies and cancer. Kif7 encodes a microtubule interacting protein that controls Hh signaling through regulation of microtubule dynamics within the primary cilium. However, whether Kif7 has a function in nonciliated cells remains largely unknown. The role Kif7 plays in basic cell biological processes like cell proliferation or cell cycle progression also remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that Kif7 is required for coordination of the cell cycle, and inactivation of this gene leads to increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Immunostaining and transmission electron microscopy experiments show that Kif7dda/dda mutant lungs are hyperproliferative and exhibit reduced alveolar epithelial cell differentiation. KIF7 depleted C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts and Kif7dda/dda mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts have increased growth rates at high cellular densities, suggesting that Kif7 may function as a general regulator of cellular proliferation. We ascertained that in G1, Kif7 and microtubule dynamics regulate the expression and activity of several components of the cell cycle machinery known to control entry into S phase. Our data suggest that Kif7 may function to regulate the maintenance of the respiratory airway architecture by controlling cellular density, cell proliferation, and cycle exit through its role as a microtubule associated protein.

  2. Celecoxib suppresses fibroblast growth factor-2 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Luo, Miaosha; Wang, Yan; Shang, Boxin; Dong, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been reported to suppress growth and induce apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells. Nevertheless, the precise biological mechanism of how celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, regulates the growth and invasion of pancreatic tumors is not completely understood. It has been shown that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and its receptor levels correlate with the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that the antitumor activity of celecoxib in PDAC may be exerted through modulation of FGF-2 function. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of celecoxib on the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of the PANC-1 cell line. Western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to examine the expression of FGF-2, FGFR-2, ERK1/2 and MMPs. In the present study, FGF-2 and FGFR-2 were expressed in PANC-1 cells and FGF-2 exerted a stimulatory effect on phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (p-ERK) expression. Celecoxib treatment suppressed FGF-2 and FGFR-2 expression and decreased MMP-2, MMP-9 and p-ERK expression in the PANC-1 cells. Furthermore, celecoxib treatment caused the resistance of PANC-1 cells to FGF-2 induced proliferation, migration and invasion ability, as well as the increase in their apoptotic rate. Our data provide evidence that targeting FGF-2 with celecoxib may be used as an effective treatment in PDAC.

  3. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rioboo, Carmen; O'Connor, Jose Enrique; Prado, Raquel; Herrero, Concepcion; Cid, Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  4. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioboo, Carmen [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); O' Connor, Jose Enrique [Laboratorio de Citomica, Unidad Mixta de Investigacion CIPF-UVEG, Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe, Avda. Autopista del Saler, 16, 46013 Valencia (Spain); Prado, Raquel; Herrero, Concepcion [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, Angeles, E-mail: cid@udc.es [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-09-14

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  5. Quantifying rates of cell migration and cell proliferation in co-culture barrier assays reveals how skin and melanoma cells interact during melanoma spreading and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, Parvathi; Penington, Catherine J; McGovern, Jacqui A; McElwain, D L Sean; Simpson, Matthew J

    2017-06-21

    Malignant spreading involves the migration of cancer cells amongst other native cell types. For example, in vivo melanoma invasion involves individual melanoma cells migrating through native skin, which is composed of several distinct subpopulations of cells. Here, we aim to quantify how interactions between melanoma and fibroblast cells affect the collective spreading of a heterogeneous population of these cells in vitro. We perform a suite of circular barrier assays that includes: (i) monoculture assays with fibroblast cells; (ii) monoculture assays with SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells; and (iii) a series of co-culture assays initiated with three different ratios of SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells and fibroblast cells. Using immunostaining, detailed cell density histograms are constructed to illustrate how the two subpopulations of cells are spatially arranged within the spreading heterogeneous population. Calibrating the solution of a continuum partial differential equation to the experimental results from the monoculture assays allows us to estimate the cell diffusivity and the cell proliferation rate for the melanoma and the fibroblast cells, separately. Using the parameter estimates from the monoculture assays, we then make a prediction of the spatial spreading in the co-culture assays. Results show that the parameter estimates obtained from the monoculture assays lead to a reasonably accurate prediction of the spatial arrangement of the two subpopulations in the co-culture assays. Overall, the spatial pattern of spreading of the melanoma cells and the fibroblast cells is very similar in monoculture and co-culture conditions. Therefore, we find no clear evidence of any interactions other than cell-to-cell contact and crowding effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Collagen matrix as a tool in studying fibroblastic cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Type I collagen is a fibrillar protein, a member of a large family of collagen proteins. It is present in most body tissues, usually in combination with other collagens and other components of extracellular matrix. Its synthesis is increased in various pathological situations, in healing wounds, in fibrotic tissues and in many tumors. After extraction from collagen-rich tissues it is widely used in studies of cell behavior, especially those of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Cells cultured in a classical way, on planar plastic dishes, lack the third dimension that is characteristic of body tissues. Collagen I forms gel at neutral pH and may become a basis of a 3D matrix that better mimics conditions in tissue than plastic dishes.

  7. Adiponectin Is Involved in Connective Tissue Growth Factor-Induced Proliferation, Migration and Overproduction of the Extracellular Matrix in Keloid Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Limin; Li, Jun; Liu, Han; Jian, Xiaoqing; Zou, Qianlei; Zhao, Qing; Le, Qu; Chen, Hongdou; Gao, Xinghua; He, Chundi

    2017-05-12

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, exerts pleiotropic biological effects on metabolism, inflammation, vascular homeostasis, apoptosis and immunity. Recently, adiponectin has been suggested to attenuate the progression of human dermal fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is induced in keloids and is thought to be participated in the formation of keloid fibrosis. However, the roles played by adiponectin in keloids remain unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of adiponectin on CTGF-induced cell proliferation, migration and the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and their associated intracellular signalling pathways in keloid fibroblasts (KFs). We also explored possible mechanisms of keloid pathogenesis. Primary fibroblast cultures were established from foreskin biopsies and skin biopsies from patients with keloids. The expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (adipoRs) was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, and immunohistochemical analysis. Next, KFs and normal dermal fibroblasts (NFs) were treated with CTGF in the presence or absence of adiponectin. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and the Transwell assay were used to examine cell proliferation and migration. The level of the collagen I, fibronectin (FN) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNAs and proteins were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. The effects of RNA interference (RNAi) targeting the adipoR genes were detected. Phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-protein kinase (PI3K-Akt) were examined by western blotting to further investigate the signalling pathways. Furthermore, inhibitors of signal transduction pathways were investigated. The expression levels of adiponectin and adipoRs were significantly decreased in keloids compared with those

  8. Epigenetic and phenotypic profile of fibroblasts derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J Hewitt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS cells offer a novel source of patient-specific cells for regenerative medicine. However, the biological potential of iPS-derived cells and their similarities to cells differentiated from human embryonic stem (hES cells remain unclear. We derived fibroblast-like cells from two hiPS cell lines and show that their phenotypic properties and patterns of DNA methylation were similar to that of mature fibroblasts and to fibroblasts derived from hES cells. iPS-derived fibroblasts (iPDK and their hES-derived counterparts (EDK showed similar cell morphology throughout differentiation, and patterns of gene expression and cell surface markers were characteristic of mature fibroblasts. Array-based methylation analysis was performed for EDK, iPDK and their parental hES and iPS cell lines, and hierarchical clustering revealed that EDK and iPDK had closely-related methylation profiles. DNA methylation analysis of promoter regions associated with extracellular matrix (ECM-production (COL1A1 by iPS- and hESC-derived fibroblasts and fibroblast lineage commitment (PDGFRβ, revealed promoter demethylation linked to their expression, and patterns of transcription and methylation of genes related to the functional properties of mature stromal cells were seen in both hiPS- and hES-derived fibroblasts. iPDK cells also showed functional properties analogous to those of hES-derived and mature fibroblasts, as seen by their capacity to direct the morphogenesis of engineered human skin equivalents. Characterization of the functional behavior of ES- and iPS-derived fibroblasts in engineered 3D tissues demonstrates the utility of this tissue platform to predict the capacity of iPS-derived cells before their therapeutic application.

  9. The Role of Titanium Surface Microtopography on Adhesion, Proliferation, Transformation, and Matrix Deposition of Corneal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengxin; Lei, Fengyang; Chodosh, James; Paschalis, Eleftherios I

    2016-04-01

    Titanium (Ti) is an excellent implantable biomaterial that can be further enhanced by surface topography optimization. Despite numerous data from orthopedics and dentistry, the effect of Ti surface topography on ocular cells is still poorly understood. In light of the recent adaptation of Ti in the Boston Keratoprosthesis artificial cornea, we attempted to perform an extended evaluation of the effect of Ti surface topography on corneal cell adhesion, proliferation, cytotoxicity, transformation, and matrix deposition. Different surface topographies were generated on medical grade Ti-6Al-4V-ELI (extra-low interstitial), with linearly increased roughness (polished to grit blasted). Biological response was evaluated in vitro using human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells, stromal fibroblasts (HCF), and endothelial cells (HCEnC). None of the Ti surface topographies caused cytotoxicity to any of the three corneal cell types. However, rough Ti surface inhibited HCLE and HCF cell adhesion and proliferation, while HCEnC proliferation was unaffected. Long-term experiments with HCF revealed that rough Ti surface with R(a) (the arithmetic average of the profile height from the mean line) ≥ 1.15 μm suppressed HCF focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation, changed fibroblast morphology, and caused less aligned and reduced deposition of collagen matrix as compared to smooth Ti (R(a) ≤ 0.08 μm). In the presence of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) stimulation, rough Ti inhibited alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and collagen deposition, leading to decreased myofibroblast transformation and disorganization of the collagen fibrils as compared to smooth Ti. This study suggests that Ti surface topography regulates corneal cell behavior in a tissue-dependent manner that varies across the corneal strata. Contrary to the accepted paradigm, smooth surface topography can enhance cell adhesion and proliferation and increase matrix deposition by corneal cells.

  10. Controlled cell morphology and liver-specific function of engineered primary hepatocytes by fibroblast layer cell densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Koike, Makiko; Kawahara, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Hideko; Murai, Tomomi; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Fujita, Fumihiko; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2018-03-05

    Engineered primary hepatocytes, including co-cultured hepatocyte sheets, are an attractive to basic scientific and clinical researchers because they maintain liver-specific functions, have reconstructed cell polarity, and have high transplantation efficiency. However, co-culture conditions regarding engineered primary hepatocytes were suboptimal in promoting these advantages. Here we report that the hepatocyte morphology and liver-specific function levels are controlled by the normal human diploid fibroblast (TIG-118 cell) layer cell density. Primary rat hepatocytes were plated onto TIG-118 cells, previously plated 3 days before at 1.04, 5.21, and 26.1×10 3  cells/cm 2 . Hepatocytes plated onto lower TIG-118 cell densities expanded better during the early culture period. The hepatocytes gathered as colonies and only exhibited small adhesion areas because of the pushing force from proliferating TIG-118 cells. The smaller areas of each hepatocyte result in the development of bile canaliculi. The highest density of TIG-118 cells downregulated albumin synthesis activity of hepatocytes. The hepatocytes may have undergone apoptosis associated with high TGF-β1 concentration and necrosis due to a lack of oxygen. These occurrences were supported by apoptotic chromatin condensation and high expression of both proteins HIF-1a and HIF-1b. Three types of engineered hepatocyte/fibroblast sheets comprising different TIG-118 cell densities were harvested after 4 days of hepatocyte culture and showed a complete cell sheet format without any holes. Hepatocyte morphology and liver-specific function levels are controlled by TIG-118 cell density, which helps to design better engineered hepatocytes for future applications such as in vitro cell-based assays and transplantable hepatocyte tissues. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A secreted factor represses cell proliferation in Dictyostelium

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Debra A.; Gomer, Richard H.

    2005-01-01

    Many cells appear to secrete factors called chalones that limit their proliferation, but in most cases the factors have not been identified. We found that growing Dictyostelium cells secrete a 60 kDa protein called AprA for autocrine proliferation repressor. AprA has similarity to putative bacterial proteins of unknown function. Compared with wild-type cells, aprA-null cells proliferate faster, while AprA overexpressing cells proliferate slower. Growing wild-type cells secrete a factor that i...

  12. Cell survival of human tumor cells compared with normal fibroblasts following 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Henning, C.B.; Reynolds, S.D.; Holmblad, G.L.; Trier, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Three tumor cell lines, two of which were shown to be HeLa cells, were irradiated with 60 Co gamma irradiation, together with two cell cultures of normal human diploid fibroblasts. Cell survival was studied in three different experiments over a dose range of 2 to 14 gray. All the tumor cell lines showed a very wide shoulder in the dose response curves in contrast to the extremely narrow shoulder of the normal fibroblasts. In addition, the D/sub o/ values for the tumor cell lines were somewhat greater. These two characteristics of the dose response curves resulted in up to 2 orders of magnitude less sensitivity for cell inactivation of HeLa cells when compared with normal cells at high doses (10 gray). Because of these large differences, the extrapolation of results from the irradiation of HeLa cells concerning the mechanisms of normal cell killing should be interpreted with great caution

  13. Fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulates adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Shimotsuma, Ayuko; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have demonstrated a capacity for differentiating into a variety of lineages, including bone, cartilage, or fat, depending on the inducing stimuli and specific growth and factors. It is acknowledged that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promotes chondrogenic and inhibits osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, but thorough investigations of its effects on adipogenic differentiation are lacking. In this study, we demonstrate at the cellular and molecular levels the effect of FGF-2 on adipogenic differentiation of ASCs, as induced by an adipogenic hormonal cocktail consisting of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), dexamethasone, insulin, and indomethacin. FGF-2 significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. Furthermore, in cultures receiving FGF-2 before adipogenic induction, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, was upregulated. The results of FGF-2 supplementation suggest the potential applications of FGF-2 and ASCs in adipose tissue regeneration

  14. Regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells by ccp1, a FGF2 downstream gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inman Gareth J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coiled-coil domain containing 115 (Ccdc115 or coiled coil protein-1 (ccp1 was previously identified as a downstream gene of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2 highly expressed in embryonic and adult brain. However, its function has not been characterised to date. Here we hypothesized that ccp1 may be a downstream effecter of FGF2, promoting cell proliferation and protecting from apoptosis. Methods Forced ccp1 expression in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF and neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell line, as well as down-regulation of ccp1 expression by siRNA in NIH3T3, was used to characterize the role of ccp1. Results Ccp1 over-expression increased cell proliferation, whereas down-regulation of ccp1 expression reduced it. Ccp1 was able to increase cell proliferation in the absence of serum. Furthermore, ccp1 reduced apoptosis upon withdrawal of serum in SK-N-SH. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or ERK Kinase (MEK inhibitor, U0126, only partially inhibited the ccp1-dependent BrdU incorporation, indicating that other signaling pathway may be involved in ccp1-induced cell proliferation. Induction of Sprouty (SPRY upon FGF2 treatment was accelerated in ccp1 over-expressing cells. Conclusions All together, the results showed that ccp1 regulates cell number by promoting proliferation and suppressing cell death. FGF2 was shown to enhance the effects of ccp1, however, it is likely that other mitogenic factors present in the serum can also enhance the effects. Whether these effects are mediated by FGF2 influencing the ccp1 function or by increasing the ccp1 expression level is still unclear. At least some of the proliferative regulation by ccp1 is mediated by MAPK, however other signaling pathways are likely to be involved.

  15. Membrane associated ion transport enzymes in normal and transformed fibroblasts and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1982-01-01

    In an effort to evaluate membrane changes associated with neoplastic transformation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells by radiation and chemicals, alterations in membrane-associated (Na + + K + )-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities were investigated. Cell cultures consisted of normal and radiation transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (HE) and mouse C3H 10T 1/2 fibroblasts, normal and chemically transformed adult rat liver epithelial cells (ARL), as well as hepatocarcinoma cells induced by the liver transformants. Transformed fibroblasts demonstrated a 1-2 fold increase in (Na + + K + )-ATPase activity over the normal, while the transformed liver epithelial cells and carcinoma cells showed a 60% and 40% decrease in activity compared to the normal values, respectively. The 5'-nucleotidase activity was 2 to 3 times higher in the transformed fibroblasts

  16. Opposite roles of MRF4 and MyoD in cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xun; Kim, Jong-Gun; Oh, Myung-Joo; Oh, Ho-Yeon; Sohn, Young-Woo; Pian, Xumin; Yin, Jin Long; Beck, Samuel; Lee, Namkyung; Son, Jeesoo; Kim, Hyunggee; Yan Changguo; Wang Jihui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Whang, Kwang Youn

    2007-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix myogenic regulatory factors play critical roles in skeletal myogenesis. Among the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), MRF4 shows a biphasic expression pattern during the formation of myotomes, although its function remains unclear. In this study, we used BEF (spontaneously immortalized bovine embryonic fibroblast that shows myogenic differentiation by overexpression of MyoD) and C2C12 cells to investigate the function of MRF4. Ectopic expressions of MRF4 did not stimulate myogenic differentiation in the BEF and C2C12 cells, but did show a marked increase of cell proliferation, upregulation of cyclin E, and downregulation of p21 WAF1 . Furthermore, MRF4 was found to induce degradation of the MyoD protein, which acts as a transcriptional activator for p21 WAF1 , and thus indicates that MRF4 accelerates cell proliferation by suppressing MyoD-dependent p21 WAF1 expression. However, forced expression of MyoD in the MRF4-overexpressing cells inhibited cell proliferation and partially induced myogenic differentiation, which suggests that MyoD is a potential negative intercessor of MRF4 in the regulation of the cell cycle. Taken together, these results indicate that MRF4 and MyoD play competitive roles in myogenesis by stimulating cell proliferation and differentiation, respectively

  17. DNA repair in a Fanconi's anemia fibroblast cell strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Little, J.B.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    DNA repair and colony survival were measured in fibroblasts from a patient with Fanconi's anemia, HG 261, and from normal human donors after exposure to these cells to the cross-linking agent mitomycin C, X-rays or ultraviolet light. Survival was similar in HG 261 and normal cells after X-ray or ultraviolet radiation, but was reduced in the Fanconi's anemia cells after treatment with mitomycin C. The level of DNA cross-linking, as measured by the method of alkaline elution, was the same in both cell strains after exposure to various doses of mitomycin C. With incubation after drug treatment, a gradual decrease in the amount of cross-linking was observed, the rate of this apparent repair of cross-link damage was the same in both normal and HG 261 cells. The rejoining of DNA single strand breaks after X-irradiation and the production of excision breaks after ultraviolet radiation were also normal in HG 261 cells as determined by alkaline elution. (Auth.)

  18. DNA repair in a Fanconi's anemia fibroblast cell strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornace, Jr, A J; Little, J B [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (USA); Weichselbaum, R R [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)

    1979-01-26

    DNA repair and colony survival were measured in fibroblasts from a patient with Fanconi's anemia, HG 261, and from normal human donors after exposure to these cells to the cross-linking agent mitomycin C, X-rays or ultraviolet light. Survival was similar in HG 261 and normal cells after X-ray or ultraviolet radiation, but was reduced in the Fanconi's anemia cells after treatment with mitomycin C. The level of DNA cross-linking, as measured by the method of alkaline elution, was the same in both cell strains after exposure to various doses of mitomycin C. With incubation after drug treatment, a gradual decrease in the amount of cross-linking was observed, the rate of this apparent repair of cross-link damage was the same in both normal and HG 261 cells. The rejoining of DNA single strand breaks after X-irradiation and the production of excision breaks after ultraviolet radiation were also normal in HG 261 cells as determined by alkaline elution.

  19. Attachment, Proliferation, and Morphological Properties of Human Dermal Fibroblasts on Ovine Tendon Collagen Scaffolds: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busra, Fauzi Mh; Lokanathan, Yogeswaran; Nadzir, Masrina Mohd; Saim, Aminuddin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy

    2017-03-01

    Collagen type I is widely used as a biomaterial for tissue-engineered substitutes. This study aimed to fabricate different three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I), and compare the attachment, proliferation and morphological features of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) on the scaffolds. This study was conducted between the years 2014 to 2016 at the Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre. OTC-I was extracted from ovine tendon, and fabricated into 3D scaffolds in the form of sponge, hydrogel and film. A polystyrene surface coated with OTC-I was used as the 2D culture condition. Genipin was used to crosslink the OTC-I. A non-coated polystyrene surface was used as a control. The mechanical strength of OTC-I scaffolds was evaluated. Attachment, proliferation and morphological features of HDF were assessed and compared between conditions. The mechanical strength of OTC-I sponge was significantly higher than that of the other scaffolds. OTC-I scaffolds and the coated surface significantly enhanced HDF attachment and proliferation compared to the control, but no differences were observed between the scaffolds and coated surface. In contrast, the morphological features of HDF including spreading, filopodia, lamellipodia and actin cytoskeletal formation differed between conditions. OTC-I can be moulded into various scaffolds that are biocompatible and thus could be suitable as scaffolds for developing tissue substitutes for clinical applications and in vitro tissue models. However, further study is required to determine the effect of morphological properties on the functional and molecular properties of HDF.

  20. Influence of surfaces modified with biomimetic extracellular matrices on adhesion and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells and osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rong; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2015-02-01

    Preparation of surfaces modified with biomimetic extracellular matrices (ECMs) is important for investigation of the interaction between ECMs and cells. In the present study, surfaces modified with ECMs from normal somatic cells, stem cells and tumor cells were prepared by cell culture method. The ECMs derived from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), dermal fibroblasts (FBs), osteoblasts (OBs) and MG63 osteosarcoma cells were deposited on the surfaces of cell-culture polystyrene plates (TCPS). The ECMs from different cell types had different compositions. The effects of the ECM-deposited surfaces on the adhesion, spreading and proliferation of MSCs and MG63 human osteosarcoma cells were dependent on the type of both ECMs and cells. The surfaces deposited with ECMs from MSCs, FBs and OBs promoted cell adhesion more strongly than surfaces deposited with ECMs from MG63 cells and TCPS. Compared to TCPS, the ECM-deposited surfaces promoted proliferation of MSCs while they inhibited the proliferation of MG63 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The fate of radiation induced giant-nucleated cells of human skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahwasi, A. A.; Jeynes, J. C.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.

    2017-11-01

    Radiation-induced giant-nucleated cells (GCs) have been observed to occur within survivors of irradiated cancerous and within healthy cells, both in vivo and in vitro. The expression of such morphological alterations is associated with genomic instability. This study was designed to investigate the fate of GCs induced in a normal human fibroblast cell line (AG1522) after exposure to 0.2, 1 or 2 Gy of X-ray or proton irradiation. The total of 79 individual AG1522 GCs present at 7, 14 or 21 days after each dose point were analysed from fluorescence microscopy images captured over approximately 120 h. The GCs were identified at the beginning of the observation period for each time point post-irradiation and the area of the cell nucleus was measured (μm2) using a cell-recognition MATLAB code. The results demonstrate that the majority of GCs had undergone a prolonged mitotic arrest, which might be an indication of the survival strategy. The live cell microscopy confirms that a giant-nucleated cell formed 14 days after exposure to 0.2 Gy of proton irradiation was divided into two asymmetrical normal-sized cells. These results suggest that a small fraction of GCs can proliferate and form progeny. Some of GCs had disappeared from the microscopy fields. The rate of their loss was decreased as the dose increased but there remains the potential for them to have progeny that could continue to proliferate, ultimately contributing to development of cancer risk. This important method to access delayed effects in normal tissues could act as a potential radioprotective assay for a dose-limiting parameter when applying radiotherapy. These results might have important implications in evaluating risk estimates for patients during radiation therapy treatment.

  2. Generation of hiPSTZ16 (ISMMSi003-A cell line from normal human foreskin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dejosez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human foreskin fibroblasts from a commercial source were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells to establish a clonal stem cell line, hiPSTZ16 (ISMMSi003-A. These cells show a normal karyotype and full differentiation potential in teratoma assays. The described cells provide a useful resource in combination with other iPS cell lines generated from normal human foreskin fibroblasts to study source- and reprogramming method-independent effects in downstream applications.

  3. Uterine epithelial cell proliferation and endometrial hyperplasia: evidence from a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Li, Shu; Li, Qinglei

    2014-08-01

    In the uterus, epithelial cell proliferation changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation results in implantation failure and/or cancer development. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is a fundamental regulator of diverse biological processes and is indispensable for multiple reproductive functions. However, the in vivo role of TGF-β signaling in uterine epithelial cells remains poorly defined. We have shown that in the uterus, conditional deletion of the Type 1 receptor for TGF-β (Tgfbr1) using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 (Amhr2) Cre leads to myometrial defects. Here, we describe enhanced epithelial cell proliferation by immunostaining of Ki67 in the uteri of these mice. The aberration culminated in endometrial hyperplasia in aged females. To exclude the potential influence of ovarian steroid hormones, the proliferative status of uterine epithelial cells was assessed following ovariectomy. Increased uterine epithelial cell proliferation was also revealed in ovariectomized Tgfbr1 Amhr2-Cre conditional knockout mice. We further demonstrated that transcript levels for fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) were markedly up-regulated in Tgfbr1 Amhr2-Cre conditional knockout uteri. Consistently, treatment of primary uterine stromal cells with TGF-β1 significantly reduced Fgf10 mRNA expression. Thus, our findings suggest a potential involvement of TGFBR1-mediated signaling in the regulation of uterine epithelial cell proliferation, and provide genetic evidence supporting the role of uterine epithelial cell proliferation in the pathogenesis of endometrial hyperplasia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Comparative of fibroblast and osteoblast cells adhesion on surface modified nanofibrous substrates based on polycaprolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Fereshteh; Irani, Shiva; Zandi, Mojgan; Soleimani, Masoud; Atyabi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    One of the determinant factors for successful bioengineering is to achieve appropriate nano-topography and three-dimensional substrate. In this research, polycaprolactone (PCL) nano-fibrous mat with different roughness modified with O 2 plasma was fabricated via electrospinning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of plasma modification along with surface nano-topography of mats on the quality of human fibroblast (HDFs) and osteoblast cells (OSTs)-substrate interaction. Surface properties were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle, Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy. We evaluated mechanical properties of fabricated mats by tensile test. The viability and proliferation of HDFs and OSTs on the substrates were followed by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Mineralization of the substrate was determined by alizarin red staining method and calcium content of OSTs was determined by calcium content kit. Cells morphology was studied by SEM analysis. The results revealed that the plasma-treated electrospun nano-fibrous substrate with higher roughness was an excellent designed substrate. A bioactive topography for stimulating proliferation of HDFs and OSTs is to accelerate the latter's differentiation time. Therefore, the PCL substrate with high density and major nano-topography were considered as a bio-functional and elegant bio-substrate for tissue regeneration applications.

  5. Metabolic cooperation between co-cultured lung cancer cells and lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourakis, Michael I; Kalamida, Dimitra; Mitrakas, Achilleas G; Liousia, Maria; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Sivridis, Efthimios; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    Cooperation of cancer cells with stromal cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), has been revealed as a mechanism sustaining cancer cell survival and growth. In the current study, we focus on the metabolic interactions of MRC5 lung fibroblasts with lung cancer cells (A549 and H1299) using co-culture experiments and studying changes of the metabolic protein expression profile and of their growth and migration abilities. Using western blotting, confocal microscopy and RT-PCR, we observed that in co-cultures MRC5 respond by upregulating pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1. In contrast, cancer cells increase the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT1), LDH5, PDH kinase and the levels of phosphorylated/inactivated pPDH. H1299 cells growing in the same culture medium with fibroblasts exhibit a 'metastasis-like' phenomenon by forming nests within the fibroblast area. LDH5 and pPDH were drastically upregulated in these nests. The growth rate of both MRC5 and cancer cells increased in co-cultures. Suppression of LDHA or PDK1 in cancer cells abrogates the stimulatory signal from cancer cells to fibroblasts. Incubation of MRC5 fibroblasts with lactate resulted in an increase of LDHB and of PDH expression. Silencing of PDH gene in fibroblasts, or silencing of PDK1 or LDHA gene in tumor cells, impedes cancer cell's migration ability. Overall, a metabolic cooperation between lung cancer cells and fibroblasts has been confirmed in the context of direct Warburg effect, thus the fibroblasts reinforce aerobic metabolism to support the intensified anaerobic glycolytic pathways exploited by cancer cells.

  6. Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mouse fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Yu; Zhu, Bang-Shang; Wang, Xue-Feng; Lu, Qing-Hua

    2008-09-01

    Nanotitanium dioxide (TiO2) is an important industrial material that is widely used as an additive in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food colorants. Although the small size of the TiO2 nanoparticle is useful in various applications, the biosafety of this material needs to be evaluated. In this study, mouse fibroblast (L929) cells were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of different concentrations (3-600 microg/mL) of homogeneous and weakly aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous solution. The L929 cells became round and even shrank as the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles increased. Moreover, TiO2 nanoparticle-treated cells had condensed fragmented chromatin or were directly necrosed, as observed by acridine orange (AO) staining. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that in cells cultured in a medium containing 300 microg/mL TiO2, the number of lysosomes increased, and some cytoplasmic organelles were damaged. In addition, there was a significant increase in oxidative stress at higher TiO2 nanoparticle concentrations (>60 microg/mL). As the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles increased in the culture medium, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased, while those of methyl tetrazolium cytotoxicity (MTT), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased. A possible mechanism for the cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles is also discussed.

  7. Different effects of 25-kDa amelogenin on the proliferation, attachment and migration of various periodontal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiting; Shu, Rong; Liu, Dali; Jiang, Shaoyun

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have assumed that amelogenin is responsible for the therapeutic effect of the enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in periodontal tissue healing and regeneration. However, it is difficult to confirm this hypothesis because both the EMD and the amelogenins are complex mixtures of multiple proteins. Further adding to the difficulties is the fact that periodontal tissue regeneration involves various types of cells and a sequence of associated cellular events including the attachment, migration and proliferation of various cells. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of a 25-kDa recombinant porcine amelogenin (rPAm) on primarily cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF), gingival fibroblasts (GF) and gingival epithelial cells (GEC). The cells were treated with 25-kDa recombinant porcine amelogenin at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. We found that rPAm significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of PDLF, but not their adhesion. Similarly, the proliferation and adhesion of GF were significantly enhanced by treatment with rPAm, while migration was greatly inhibited. Interestingly, this recombinant protein inhibited the growth rate, cell adhesion and migration of GEC. These data suggest that rPAm may play an essential role in periodontal regeneration through the activation of periodontal fibroblasts and inhibition of the cellular behaviors of gingival epithelial cells.

  8. Comparison between human cord blood serum and platelet-rich plasma supplementation for Human Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells and dermal fibroblasts culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi SS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a side-by-side comparison of the effects of Human cord blood serum (HcbS versus embryonic PRP on Human Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells(hWMSCand dermal fibroblasts proliferation. Human umbilical cord blood was collected to prepare activated serum (HCS and platelet-rich plasma (CPRP.Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells and dermal fibroblasts were cultured in complete medium with10% CPRP, 10%HCSor 10% fetal bovine serumand control (serum-free media.The efficiency of the protocols was evaluated in terms of the number of adherent cells and their expansion and Cell proliferation. We showed that proliferation of fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells in the presence of cord blood serum and platelet-rich plasma significantly more than the control group (p≤0/05. As an alternative to FBS, cord blood serum has been proved as an effective component in cell tissue culture applications and embraced a vast future in clinical applications of regenerative medicine. However, there is still a need to explore the potential of HCS and its safe applications in humanized cell therapy or tissue engineering.

  9. Amino acid sequence preferences to control cell-specific organization of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanie, Kei; Kato, Ryuji; Zhao, Yingzi; Narita, Yuji; Okochi, Mina; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    Effective surface modification with biocompatible molecules is known to be effective in reducing the life-threatening risks related to artificial cardiovascular implants. In recent strategies in regenerative medicine, the enhancement and support of natural repair systems at the site of injury by designed biocompatible molecules have succeeded in rapid and effective injury repair. Therefore, such a strategy could also be effective for rapid endothelialization of cardiovascular implants to lower the risk of thrombosis and stenosis. To achieve this enhancement of the natural repair system, a biomimetic molecule that mimics proper cellular organization at the implant location is required. In spite of the fact that many reported peptides have cell-attracting properties on material surfaces, there have been few peptides that could control cell-specific adhesion. For the advanced cardiovascular implants, peptides that can mimic the natural mechanism that controls cell-specific organization have been strongly anticipated. To obtain such peptides, we hypothesized the cellular bias toward certain varieties of amino acids and examined the cell preference (in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and protein attraction) of varieties and of repeat length on SPOT peptide arrays. To investigate the role of specific peptides in controlling the organization of various cardiovascular-related cells, we compared endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and fibroblasts (FBs). A clear, cell-specific preference was found for amino acids (longer than 5-mer) using three types of cells, and the combinational effect of the physicochemical properties of the residues was analyzed to interpret the mechanism. Copyright © 2011 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist inhibits collagen synthesis in human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts by targeting Smad3 via miR-145

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hua-Yu; Li, Chao; Zheng, Zhao; Zhou, Qin; Guan, Hao; Su, Lin-Lin; Han, Jun-Tao; Zhu, Xiong-Xiang; Wang, Shu-yue; Li, Jun, E-mail: lijunfmmu@163.com; Hu, Da-Hai, E-mail: hudahaifmmu@aliyun.com

    2015-03-27

    The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) functions to regulate cell differentiation and lipid metabolism. Recently, its agonist has been documented to regulate extracellular matrix production in human dermal fibroblasts. This study explored the underlying molecular mechanisms and gene interactions in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFBs) in vitro. HSFBs were cultured and treated with or without PPAR-γ agonist or antagonist for gene expression. Bioinformatical analysis predicted that miR-145 could target Smad3 expression. Luciferase assay was used to confirm such an interaction. The data showed that PPAR-γ agonist troglitazone suppressed expression of Smad3 and Col1 in HSFBs. PPAR-γ agonist induced miR-145 at the gene transcriptional level, which in turn inhibited Smad3 expression and Col1 level in HSFBs. Furthermore, ELISA data showed that Col1 level in HSFBs was controlled by a feedback regulation mechanism involved in PPAR-γ agonist and antagonist-regulated expression of miR-145 and Smad3 in HSFBs. These findings indicate that PPAR-γ-miR-145-Smad3 axis plays a role in regulation of collagen synthesis in HSFBs. - Highlights: • PPAR-γ agonist inhibits collagen synthesis in HSFBs. • Smad3 and type I collagen expression are decreased by PPAR-γ agonist. • miR-145 expression is increased by PPAR-γ agonist in HSFBs. • Increased miR-145 inhibits collagen synthesis by targeting Smad3. • miR-145 regulates collagen synthesis.

  11. A cytoskeleton-associated protein, TMAP/CKAP2, is involved in the proliferation of human foreskin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Sang-Min; Choi, Bongkun; Hong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Eunhee; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we reported the cloning of a cytoskeleton-associated protein, TMAP/CKAP2, which was up-regulated in primary human gastric cancers. Although TMAP/CKAP2 has been found to be expressed in most cancer cell lines examined, the function of CKAP2 is not known. In this study, we found that TMAP/CKAP2 was not expressed in G0/G1 arrested HFFs, but that it was expressed in actively dividing cells. After initiating the cell cycle, TMAP/CKAP2 levels remained low throughout most of the G1 phase, but gradually increased between late G1 and G2/M. Knockdown of TMAP/CKAP2 reduced pRB phosphorylation and increased p27 expression, and consequently reduced HFF proliferation, whereas constitutive TMAP/CKAP2 expression increased pRB phosphorylation and enhanced proliferation. Our results show that this novel cytoskeleton-associated protein is expressed cell cycle dependently and that it is involved in cell proliferation

  12. A cytoskeleton-associated protein, TMAP/CKAP2, is involved in the proliferation of human foreskin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang-Min; Choi, Bongkun; Hong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Eunhee; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2006-09-15

    Previously, we reported the cloning of a cytoskeleton-associated protein, TMAP/CKAP2, which was up-regulated in primary human gastric cancers. Although TMAP/CKAP2 has been found to be expressed in most cancer cell lines examined, the function of CKAP2 is not known. In this study, we found that TMAP/CKAP2 was not expressed in G0/G1 arrested HFFs, but that it was expressed in actively dividing cells. After initiating the cell cycle, TMAP/CKAP2 levels remained low throughout most of the G1 phase, but gradually increased between late G1 and G2/M. Knockdown of TMAP/CKAP2 reduced pRB phosphorylation and increased p27 expression, and consequently reduced HFF proliferation, whereas constitutive TMAP/CKAP2 expression increased pRB phosphorylation and enhanced proliferation. Our results show that this novel cytoskeleton-associated protein is expressed cell cycle dependently and that it is involved in cell proliferation.

  13. Platelet Lysate-Modified Porous Silicon Microparticles for Enhanced Cell Proliferation in Wound Healing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Flavia; Mori, Michela; Riva, Federica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Liu, Dongfei; Salonen, Jarno; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Hirvonen, Jouni; Caramella, Carla; Santos, Hélder A

    2016-01-13

    The new frontier in the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds is the use of micro- and nanoparticles to deliver drugs or growth factors into the wound. Here, we used platelet lysate (PL), a hemoderivative of platelets, consisting of a multifactorial cocktail of growth factors, to modify porous silicon (PSi) microparticles and assessed both in vitro and ex vivo the properties of the developed microsystem. PL-modified PSi was assessed for its potential to induce proliferation of fibroblasts. The wound closure-promoting properties of the microsystem were then assessed in an in vitro wound healing assay. Finally, the PL-modified PSi microparticles were evaluated in an ex vivo experiment over human skin. It was shown that PL-modified PSi microparticles were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell proliferation in different experimental settings. In addition, this microsystem promoted the closure of the gap between the fibroblast cells in the wound healing assay, in periods of time comparable with the positive control, and induced a proliferation and regeneration process onto the human skin in an ex vivo experiment. Overall, our results show that PL-modified PSi microparticles are suitable microsystems for further development toward applications in the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds.

  14. Cultivation and irradiation of human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with platelet lysate for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    For over 30 years, the use of culture medium, enriched with bovine serum, and murines fibroblasts, with the rate of proliferation controlled by irradiation or by share anticarcinogenic drugs, has been playing successfully its role in assisting in the development of keratinocytes in culture, for clinical purposes. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and animals viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, the present work aims to cultivate human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with human platelets lysate and determine the irradiation dose of these cells, for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture. For carrying out the proposed objective, platelets lysis has standardized, this lysate was used for human fibroblasts cultivation and the irradiation dose enough to inhibit its duplication was evaluated. Human keratinocytes were cultivated in these feeder layers, in culture medium enriched with the lysate. With these results we conclude that the 10% platelets lysate promoted a better adhesion and proliferation of human fibroblasts and in all dose levels tested (60 to 300 Gy), these had their mitotic activity inactivated by ionizing irradiation, being that the feeder layers obtained with doses from 70 to 150 Gy were those that provided the best development of keratinocytes in medium containing 2.5% of human platelet lysate. Therefore, it was possible to standardize both the cultivation of human fibroblasts as its inactivation for use as feeder layer in culture of keratinocytes, so as to eliminate xenobiotics components. (author)

  15. Spatial and Single-Cell Transcriptional Profiling Identifies Functionally Distinct Human Dermal Fibroblast Subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippeos, Christina; Telerman, Stephanie B; Oulès, Bénédicte; Pisco, Angela O; Shaw, Tanya J; Elgueta, Raul; Lombardi, Giovanna; Driskell, Ryan R; Soldin, Mark; Lynch, Magnus D; Watt, Fiona M

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mouse dermis is composed of functionally distinct fibroblast lineages. To explore the extent of fibroblast heterogeneity in human skin, we used a combination of comparative spatial transcriptional profiling of human and mouse dermis and single-cell transcriptional profiling of human dermal fibroblasts. We show that there are at least four distinct fibroblast populations in adult human skin, not all of which are spatially segregated. We define markers permitting their isolation and show that although marker expression is lost in culture, different fibroblast subpopulations retain distinct functionality in terms of Wnt signaling, responsiveness to IFN-γ, and ability to support human epidermal reconstitution when introduced into decellularized dermis. These findings suggest that ex vivo expansion or in vivo ablation of specific fibroblast subpopulations may have therapeutic applications in wound healing and diseases characterized by excessive fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell proliferation and migration are modulated by Cdk-1-phosphorylated endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Schwarz

    Full Text Available Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP II is a secreted protein with well-established anti-angiogenic activities. Intracellular EMAP II expression is increased during fetal development at epithelial/mesenchymal boundaries and in pathophysiologic fibroproliferative cells of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, and scar fibroblast tissue following myocardial ischemia. Precise function and regulation of intracellular EMAP II, however, has not been explored to date.Here we show that high intracellular EMAP II suppresses cellular proliferation by slowing progression through the G2M cell cycle transition in epithelium and fibroblast. Furthermore, EMAP II binds to and is phosphorylated by Cdk1, and exhibits nuclear/cytoplasmic partitioning, with only nuclear EMAP II being phosphorylated. We observed that extracellular secreted EMAP II induces endothelial cell apoptosis, where as excess intracellular EMAP II facilitates epithelial and fibroblast cells migration.Our findings suggest that EMAP II has specific intracellular effects, and that this intracellular function appears to antagonize its extracellular anti-angiogenic effects during fetal development and pulmonary disease progression.

  17. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  18. Dual effect of LPS on murine myeloid leukemia cells: Pro-proliferation and anti-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lingling [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Zhao, Yingmin [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Gu, Xin; Wang, Jijun; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Yanqing; Li, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaoqin; Wang, Xin [Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Gu, Jian [Department of Hematology, Yangzhou University School of Clinical Medicine, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Yu, Duonan, E-mail: duonan@yahoo.com [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Disease, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Institute of Comparative Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease and Zoonosis, Yangzhou 225001 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Modification of the bone marrow microenvironment is considered as a promising strategy to control leukemic cell proliferation, diseases progression and relapse after treatment. However, due to the diversity and complexity of the cellular and molecular compartments in the leukemic microenvironment, it is extremely difficult to dissect the role of each individual molecule or cell type in vivo. Here we established an in vitro system to dissect the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stromal cells and endothelial cells in the growth of mouse myeloid tumor cells and B-lymphoma cells. We found that either LPS or bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer in culture is required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. Surprisingly, the growth of myeloid leukemic cells on stromal cells is strongly inhibited when coupled with LPS in culture. This opposing effect of LPS, a complete switch from pro-proliferation to antitumor growth is due, at least in part, to the rapidly increased production of interleukin 12, Fas ligand and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 from stromal cells stimulated by LPS. These results demonstrate that LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor cell proliferation, thus changing the disease course of myeloid leukemias through its direct effect or modulation of the tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • LPS alone in culture is required for the proliferation of murine myeloid tumor cells. • Bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer is also required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. • However, the growth of myeloid tumor cells is inhibited when LPS and stromal cells are both available in culture. • Thus LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor growth through its direct effect or modulation of tumor microenvironment.

  19. Dual effect of LPS on murine myeloid leukemia cells: Pro-proliferation and anti-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lingling; Zhao, Yingmin; Gu, Xin; Wang, Jijun; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Yanqing; Li, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaoqin; Wang, Xin; Gu, Jian; Yu, Duonan

    2016-01-01

    Modification of the bone marrow microenvironment is considered as a promising strategy to control leukemic cell proliferation, diseases progression and relapse after treatment. However, due to the diversity and complexity of the cellular and molecular compartments in the leukemic microenvironment, it is extremely difficult to dissect the role of each individual molecule or cell type in vivo. Here we established an in vitro system to dissect the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stromal cells and endothelial cells in the growth of mouse myeloid tumor cells and B-lymphoma cells. We found that either LPS or bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer in culture is required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. Surprisingly, the growth of myeloid leukemic cells on stromal cells is strongly inhibited when coupled with LPS in culture. This opposing effect of LPS, a complete switch from pro-proliferation to antitumor growth is due, at least in part, to the rapidly increased production of interleukin 12, Fas ligand and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 from stromal cells stimulated by LPS. These results demonstrate that LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor cell proliferation, thus changing the disease course of myeloid leukemias through its direct effect or modulation of the tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • LPS alone in culture is required for the proliferation of murine myeloid tumor cells. • Bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer is also required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. • However, the growth of myeloid tumor cells is inhibited when LPS and stromal cells are both available in culture. • Thus LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor growth through its direct effect or modulation of tumor microenvironment.

  20. Sol-gel derived bioactive coating on zirconia: Effect on flexural strength and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahramian, Khalil; Leminen, Heidi; Meretoja, Ville; Linderbäck, Paula; Kangasniemi, Ilkka; Lassila, Lippo; Abdulmajeed, Aous; Närhi, Timo

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sol-gel derived bioactive coatings on the biaxial flexural strength and fibroblast proliferation of zirconia, aimed to be used as an implant abutment material. Yttrium stabilized zirconia disc-shaped specimens were cut, ground, sintered, and finally cleansed ultrasonically in each of acetone and ethanol for 5 minutes. Three experimental groups (n = 15) were fabricated, zirconia with sol-gel derived titania (TiO 2 ) coating, zirconia with sol-gel derived zirconia (ZrO 2 ) coating, and non-coated zirconia as a control. The surfaces of the specimens were analyzed through images taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a non-contact tapping mode atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to record the surface topography and roughness of the coated specimens. Biaxial flexural strength values were determined using the piston-on-three ball technique. Human gingival fibroblast proliferation on the surface of the specimens was evaluated using AlamarBlue assay™. Data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Additionally, the biaxial flexural strength data was also statistically analyzed with the Weibull distribution. The biaxial flexural strength of zirconia specimens was unaffected (p > 0.05). Weibull modulus of TiO 2 coated and ZrO 2 coated groups (5.7 and 5.4, respectively) were lower than the control (8.0). Specimens coated with ZrO 2 showed significantly lower fibroblast proliferation compared to other groups (p sol-gel derived coatings have no influence on the flexural strength of zirconia. ZrO 2 coated specimens showed significantly lower cell proliferation after 12 days than TiO 2 coated or non-coated control. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2401-2407, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. TGF-β2 inhibits AKT activation and FGF-2-induced corneal endothelial cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jiawei; Lu Zhenyu; Reinach, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The corneal endothelial cells form a boundary layer between anterior chamber and cornea. This single cell layer is important to maintain cornea transparency by eliciting net fluid transport into the anterior chamber. Injuries of the corneal endothelial layer in humans lead to corneal swelling and translucence. This hindrance is thought to be due to limited proliferative capacity of the endothelial layer. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) are both found in aqueous humor, and these two cytokines promote and inhibit cell growth, respectively. The intracellular signaling mechanisms by which TGF-β2 suppresses the mitogenic response to FGF-2, however, remain unclear. We have addressed this question by investigating potential crosstalk between FGF-2-induced and TGF-β2-regulated intracellular signaling events in cultured bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells. We found that TGF-β2 and FGF-2 oppositely affect BCE cell proliferation and TGF-β2 can override the stimulating effects of FGF-2 by increasing COX-2 expression in these cells. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of COX-2 significantly reduced FGF-2-induced cell proliferation whereas a COX-2 specific inhibitor NS398 reversed the effect of TGF-β2 on FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. The COX-2 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) blocks FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. Whereas FGF-2 stimulates cell proliferation by activating the AKT pathway, TGF-β2 and PGE-2 both inhibit this pathway. In accordance with the effect of PGE-2, cAMP also inhibits FGF-2-induced AKT activation. These findings suggest that the mitogenic response to FGF-2 in vivo in the corneal endothelial layer may be inhibited by TGF-β2-induced suppression of the PI3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway

  2. [The process of heme synthesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultured under fibroblast growth factor bFGF and hypoxic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshko, A G; Lobanok, E S; Mezhevikina, L M; Fesenko, E E; Volotkovskiĭ, I D

    2014-01-01

    It was demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor bFGF influences the process of heme synthesis, the proliferation activity and viability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in culture under hypoxic conditions. The addition of fibroblast growth factor bFGF (7 ng/ml) to the medium under above conditions led to the accumulation of aminolevulinic acid--an early porphyrin and heme precursor, an increase in CD 71 expression--a transferrin receptor, and also a decrease in porphyrin pigments and heme contents--a late precursor and end products of heme synthesis, respectively. It was found that cultivation of the cells under hypoxic conditions and bFGF is an optimum to maintain high viability and proliferation capacity of the mesenchymal stem cells.

  3. Kaempferol inhibits fibroblast collagen synthesis, proliferation and activation in hypertrophic scar via targeting TGF-β receptor type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Yuebing; Gao, Zhigang

    2016-10-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HPS) formation is a debilitating condition that results in pain, esthetic symptom and loss of tissue function. So far, no satisfactory therapeutic approach has been available for HPS treatment. In this study, we discovered that a natural small molecule, kaempferol, could significantly inhibit HPS formation in a mechanical load-induced mouse model. Our results also demonstrated that kaempferol remarkably attenuated collagen synthesis, proliferation and activation of fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis further revealed that kaempferol significantly down-regulated Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. At last, we found that such bioactivity of kaempferol which resulted from the inhibition of TGF-β1/Smads signaling was induced by the selective binding of kaempferol to TGF-β receptor type I (TGFβRI). These findings suggest that kaempferol could be developed into a promising agent for the treatment of HPS or other fibroproliferative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) autocrine enhance breast cancer cells survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Kai Hung; Tan, Boon Shing; Choo, Heng Lungh; Chung, Felicia Fei-Lei; Hii, Ling-Wei; Tan, Si Hoey; Khor, Nelson Tze Woei; Wong, Shew Fung; See, Sze-Jia; Tan, Yuen-Fen; Rosli, Rozita; Cheong, Soon-Keng; Leong, Chee-Onn

    2016-09-06

    Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive tumor subtype with poor prognosis. The discovery of underlying mechanisms mediating tumor cell survival, and the development of novel agents to target these pathways, is a priority for patients with basal-like breast cancer. From a functional screen to identify key drivers of basal-like breast cancer cell growth, we identified fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) as a potential mediator of cell survival. We found that FGFR4 mediates cancer cell survival predominantly via activation of PI3K/AKT. Importantly, a subset of basal-like breast cancer cells also secrete fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a canonical ligand specific for FGFR4. siRNA-mediated silencing of FGF19 or neutralization of extracellular FGF19 by anti-FGF19 antibody (1A6) decreases AKT phosphorylation, suppresses cancer cell growth and enhances doxorubicin sensitivity only in the FGFR4+/FGF19+ breast cancer cells. Consistently, FGFR4/FGF19 co-expression was also observed in 82 out of 287 (28.6%) primary breast tumors, and their expression is strongly associated with AKT phosphorylation, Ki-67 staining, higher tumor stage and basal-like phenotype. In summary, our results demonstrated the presence of an FGFR4/FGF19 autocrine signaling that mediates the survival of a subset of basal-like breast cancer cells and suggest that inactivation of this autocrine loop may potentially serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for future treatment of breast cancers.

  5. Tumorigenic hybrids between mesenchymal stem cells and gastric cancer cells enhanced cancer proliferation, migration and stemness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jianguo; Zhu, Yuan; Sun, Zixuan; Ji, Runbi; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Wenrong; Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yongmin; Yin, Lei; Xu, Huijuan; Zhang, Leilei; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate cell-cell fusion might contribute to cancer progression. Similarly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can also fuse with other cells spontaneously and capable of adopting the phenotype of other cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of MSCs participated cell fusion in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. We fused human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) with gastric cancer cells in vitro by polyethylene glycol (PEG), the hybrid cells were sorted by flow cytometer. The growth and migration of hybrids were assessed by cell counting, cell colony formation and transwell assays. The proteins and genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness were tested by western blot, immunocytochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. The expression of CD44 and CD133 was examined by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. The xenograft assay was used to evaluation the tumorigenesis of the hybrids. The obtained hybrids exhibited epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) change with down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of Vimentin, N-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibroblast activation protein (FAP). The hybrids also increased expression of stemness factors Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Lin28. The expression of CD44 and CD133 on hybrid cells was stronger than parental gastric cancer cells. Moreover, the migration and proliferation of heterotypic hybrids were enhanced. In addition, the heterotypic hybrids promoted the growth abilities of gastric xenograft tumor in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that cell fusion between hucMSCs and gastric cancer cells could contribute to tumorigenic hybrids with EMT and stem cell-like properties, which may provide a flexible tool for investigating the roles of MSCs in gastric cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1780-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  6. Rapid fabricating technique for multi-layered human hepatic cell sheets by forceful contraction of the fibroblast monolayer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sakai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet engineering is attracting attention from investigators in various fields, from basic research scientists to clinicians focused on regenerative medicine. However, hepatocytes have a limited proliferation potential in vitro, and it generally takes a several days to form a sheet morphology and multi-layered sheets. We herein report our rapid and efficient technique for generating multi-layered human hepatic cell (HepaRG® cell sheets using pre-cultured fibroblast monolayers derived from human skin (TIG-118 cells as a feeder layer on a temperature-responsive culture dish. Multi-layered TIG-118/HepaRG cell sheets with a thick morphology were harvested on day 4 of culturing HepaRG cells by forceful contraction of the TIG-118 cells, and the resulting sheet could be easily handled. In addition, the human albumin and alpha 1-antitrypsin synthesis activities of TIG-118/HepaRG cells were approximately 1.2 and 1.3 times higher than those of HepaRG cells, respectively. Therefore, this technique is considered to be a promising modality for rapidly fabricating multi-layered human hepatocyte sheets from cells with limited proliferation potential, and the engineered cell sheet could be used for cell transplantation with highly specific functions.

  7. Control of cell proliferation by a porous chitosan scaffold with multiple releasing capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shu-Jyun; Li, Ching-Wen; Weihs, Daphne; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a porous chitosan scaffold with long-acting drug release as an artificial dressing to promote skin wound healing. The dressing was fabricated by pre-freezing at different temperatures (−20 and −80 °C) for different periods of time, followed by freeze-drying to form porous chitosan scaffolds with different pore sizes. The chitosan scaffolds were then used to investigate the effect of the controlled release of fibroblast growth factor-basic (bFGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) on mouse fibroblast cells (L929) and bovine carotid endothelial cells (BEC). The biocompatibility of the prepared chitosan scaffold was confirmed with WST-1 proliferation and viability assay, which demonstrated that the material is suitable for cell growth. The results of this study show that the pore sizes of the porous scaffolds prepared by freeze-drying can change depending on the pre-freezing temperature and time via the formation of ice crystals. In this study, the scaffolds with the largest pore size were found to be 153 ± 32 μm and scaffolds with the smallest pores to be 34 ± 9 μm. Through cell culture analysis, it was found that the concentration that increased proliferation of L929 cells for bFGF was 0.005 to 0.1 ng/mL, and the concentration for TGFβ1 was 0.005 to 1 ng/mL. The cell culture of the chitosan scaffold and growth factors shows that 3.75 ng of bFGF in scaffolds with pore sizes of 153 ± 32 μm can promote L929 cell proliferation, while 400 pg of TGFβ1 in scaffolds with pore size of 34 ± 9 μm can enhance the proliferation of L929 cells, but also inhibit BEC proliferation. It is proposed that the prepared chitosan scaffolds can form a multi-drug (bFGF and TGFβ1) release dressing that has the ability to control wound healing via regulating the proliferation of different cell types. PMID:29230255

  8. EGF signalling pathway regulates colon cancer stem cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y; Dai, X; Li, X; Wang, H; Liu, J; Zhang, J; Du, Y; Xia, L

    2012-10-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) compose a subpopulation of cells within a tumour that can self-renew and proliferate. Growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) promote cancer stem cell proliferation in many solid tumours. This study assesses whether EGF, bFGF and IGF signalling pathways are essential for colon CSC proliferation and self-renewal. Colon CSCs were cultured in serum-free medium (SFM) with one of the following growth factors: EGF, bFGF or IGF. Characteristics of CSC gene expression were evaluated by real time PCR. Tumourigenicity of CSCs was determined using a xenograft model in vivo. Effects of EGF receptor inhibitors, Gefitinib and PD153035, on CSC proliferation, apoptosis and signalling were evaluated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and western blotting. Colon cancer cell HCT116 transformed to CSCs in SFM. Compared to other growth factors, EGF was essential to support proliferation of CSCs that expressed higher levels of progenitor genes (Musashi-1, LGR5) and lower levels of differential genes (CK20). CSCs promoted more rapid tumour growth than regular cancer cells in xenografts. EGFR inhibitors suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis of CSCs by inhibiting autophosphorylation of EGFR and downstream signalling proteins, such as Akt kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2). This study indicates that EGF signalling was essential for formation and maintenance of colon CSCs. Inhibition of the EGF signalling pathway may provide a useful strategy for treatment of colon cancer. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Transformation of human mesenchymal cells and skin fibroblasts into hematopoietic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Harris

    Full Text Available Patients with prolonged myelosuppression require frequent platelet and occasional granulocyte transfusions. Multi-donor transfusions induce alloimmunization, thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an autologous or HLA-matched allogeneic source of platelets and granulocytes is needed. To determine whether nonhematopoietic cells can be reprogrammed into hematopoietic cells, human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs and skin fibroblasts were incubated with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (Aza and the growth factors (GF granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and stem cell factor. This treatment transformed MSCs to round, non-adherent cells expressing T-, B-, myeloid-, or stem/progenitor-cell markers. The transformed cells engrafted as hematopoietic cells in bone marrow of immunodeficient mice. DNA methylation and mRNA array analysis suggested that Aza and GF treatment demethylated and activated HOXB genes. Indeed, transfection of MSCs or skin fibroblasts with HOXB4, HOXB5, and HOXB2 genes transformed them into hematopoietic cells. Further studies are needed to determine whether transformed MSCs or skin fibroblasts are suitable for therapy.

  10. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism reduces human myeloma cells proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Tirado-Vélez

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40-70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma.

  11. mTOR complex 2 phosphorylates IMP1 cotranslationally to promote IGF2 production and the proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Ning; Christiansen, Jan; Nielsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    uncover a new mechanism by which mTOR regulates organismal growth by promoting IGF2 production in the mouse embryo through mTORC2-catalyzed cotranslational IMP1/IMP3 phosphorylation. Inasmuch as TORC2 is activated by association with ribosomes, the present results indicate that mTORC2-catalyzed...... production, and diminished proliferation. The proliferation of the IMP1-null fibroblasts can be restored to wild-type levels by IGF2 in vitro or by re-expression of IMP1, which corrects the defects in IGF2 RNA splicing and translation. The ability of IMP1 to correct these defects is dependent on IMP1...

  12. The selective role of ECM components on cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation and communication in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2013-01-01

    Cell binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell and tissue functions. In this context, each tissue consists of a unique ECM composition, which may be responsible for tissue-specific cell responses. Due to the complexity of ECM-cell interactions—which depend on the interplay of inside-out and outside-in signaling cascades, cell and tissue specificity of ECM-guidance is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the role of different ECM components like laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I with respect to the essential cell behaviour patterns: attachment dynamics such as adhesion kinetic and force, formation of focal adhesion complexes, morphology, proliferation, and intercellular communication. A detailed in vitro comparison of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and chondrocytes reveals significant differences in their cell responses to the ECM: cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand priority ranking, which was independent of the cell type origin. Fibroblasts responded best to fibronectin, chondrocytes best to collagen I, the other cell types best to laminin. This knowledge is essential for optimization of tissue-biomaterial interfaces in all tissue engineering applications and gives insight into tissue-specific cell guidance. -- Highlights: • We analyse the impact of ECM components on cell behaviour in vitro. • We compare five different cell types, using the same culture conditions. • The ECM significantly guides all cell responses. • Cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand-priority ranking. • This gives insight in tissue formation and is essential for biomedical applications

  13. The selective role of ECM components on cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation and communication in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina, E-mail: s.schlie@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Ngezahayo, Anaclet, E-mail: ngezahayo@biophysik.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Biophysics, Leibniz University Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, Hannover 30419 (Germany); Chichkov, Boris N., E-mail: b.chichkov@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany)

    2013-06-10

    Cell binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell and tissue functions. In this context, each tissue consists of a unique ECM composition, which may be responsible for tissue-specific cell responses. Due to the complexity of ECM-cell interactions—which depend on the interplay of inside-out and outside-in signaling cascades, cell and tissue specificity of ECM-guidance is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the role of different ECM components like laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I with respect to the essential cell behaviour patterns: attachment dynamics such as adhesion kinetic and force, formation of focal adhesion complexes, morphology, proliferation, and intercellular communication. A detailed in vitro comparison of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and chondrocytes reveals significant differences in their cell responses to the ECM: cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand priority ranking, which was independent of the cell type origin. Fibroblasts responded best to fibronectin, chondrocytes best to collagen I, the other cell types best to laminin. This knowledge is essential for optimization of tissue-biomaterial interfaces in all tissue engineering applications and gives insight into tissue-specific cell guidance. -- Highlights: • We analyse the impact of ECM components on cell behaviour in vitro. • We compare five different cell types, using the same culture conditions. • The ECM significantly guides all cell responses. • Cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand-priority ranking. • This gives insight in tissue formation and is essential for biomedical applications.

  14. In vitro proliferation of adult human beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rutti

    Full Text Available A decrease in functional beta-cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 analogues induce proliferation of rodent beta-cells. However, the proliferative capacity of human beta-cells and its modulation by GLP-1 analogues remain to be fully investigated. We therefore sought to quantify adult human beta-cell proliferation in vitro and whether this is affected by the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide.Human islets from 7 adult cadaveric organ donors were dispersed into single cells. Beta-cells were purified by FACS. Non-sorted cells and the beta-cell enriched ("beta-cells" population were plated on extracellular matrix from rat (804G and human bladder carcinoma cells (HTB9 or bovine corneal endothelial ECM (BCEC. Cells were maintained in culture+/-liraglutide for 4 days in the presence of BrdU.Rare human beta-cell proliferation could be observed either in the purified beta-cell population (0.051±0.020%; 22 beta-cells proliferating out of 84'283 beta-cells counted or in the non-sorted cell population (0.055±0.011%; 104 proliferating beta-cells out of 232'826 beta-cells counted, independently of the matrix or the culture conditions. Liraglutide increased human beta-cell proliferation on BCEC in the non-sorted cell population (0.082±0.034% proliferating beta-cells vs. 0.017±0.008% in control, p<0.05.These results indicate that adult human beta-cell proliferation can occur in vitro but remains an extremely rare event with these donors and particular culture conditions. Liraglutide increases beta-cell proliferation only in the non-sorted cell population and only on BCEC. However, it cannot be excluded that human beta-cells may proliferate to a greater extent in situ in response to natural stimuli.

  15. Use of fluorescent redox indicators to evaluate cell proliferation and viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    The performance of two cell viability test kits based on the use of redox indicators yielding fluorescent products, the AlamarBlue assay and a resazurin-based in vitro toxicology assay kit from Sigma, was compared in the present study. Cultures of human neonatal foreskin fibroblasts were exposed...... for 168 h of continuous exposure, but showed equal levels of cytostatic effects in cultures with a low initial cell density after 72 h of exposure. Similar characteristics of the dye solutions were observed by high-performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and UV spectroscopy, and the major...... components were tentatively identified as resazurin and resorufin. The AlamarBlue assay has gained wide application as a cell viability indicator that allows continuous monitoring of cell proliferation or cytotoxicity in human and animal cells, bacteria, and fungi, but no studies with the deliberate use...

  16. A secreted factor represses cell proliferation in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Debra A; Gomer, Richard H

    2005-10-01

    Many cells appear to secrete factors called chalones that limit their proliferation, but in most cases the factors have not been identified. We found that growing Dictyostelium cells secrete a 60 kDa protein called AprA for autocrine proliferation repressor. AprA has similarity to putative bacterial proteins of unknown function. Compared with wild-type cells, aprA-null cells proliferate faster, while AprA overexpressing cells proliferate slower. Growing wild-type cells secrete a factor that inhibits the proliferation of wild-type and aprA- cells; this activity is not secreted by aprA- cells. AprA purified by immunoprecipitation also slows the proliferation of wild-type and aprA- cells. Compared with wild type, there is a higher percentage of multinucleate cells in the aprA- population, and when starved, aprA- cells form abnormal structures that contain fewer spores. AprA may thus decrease the number of multinucleate cells and increase spore production. Together, the data suggest that AprA functions as part of a Dictyostelium chalone.

  17. Human tumor cell proliferation evaluated using manganese-enhanced MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod D Braun

    Full Text Available Tumor cell proliferation can depend on calcium entry across the cell membrane. As a first step toward the development of a non-invasive test of the extent of tumor cell proliferation in vivo, we tested the hypothesis that tumor cell uptake of a calcium surrogate, Mn(2+ [measured with manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI], is linked to proliferation rate in vitro.Proliferation rates were determined in vitro in three different human tumor cell lines: C918 and OCM-1 human uveal melanomas and PC-3 prostate carcinoma. Cells growing at different average proliferation rates were exposed to 1 mM MnCl(2 for one hour and then thoroughly washed. MEMRI R(1 values (longitudinal relaxation rates, which have a positive linear relationship with Mn(2+ concentration, were then determined from cell pellets. Cell cycle distributions were determined using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. All three lines showed Mn(2+-induced increases in R(1 compared to cells not exposed to Mn(2+. C918 and PC-3 cells each showed a significant, positive correlation between MEMRI R(1 values and proliferation rate (p≤0.005, while OCM-1 cells showed no significant correlation. Preliminary, general modeling of these positive relationships suggested that pellet R(1 for the PC-3 cells, but not for the C918 cells, could be adequately described by simply accounting for changes in the distribution of the cell cycle-dependent subpopulations in the pellet.These data clearly demonstrate the tumor-cell dependent nature of the relationship between proliferation and calcium influx, and underscore the usefulness of MEMRI as a non-invasive method for investigating this link. MEMRI is applicable to study tumors in vivo, and the present results raise the possibility of evaluating proliferation parameters of some tumor types in vivo using MEMRI.

  18. Direct conversion of injury-site myeloid cells to fibroblast-like cells of granulation tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mithun; Sen, Chandan K; Singh, Kanhaiya; Das, Amitava; Ghatak, Subhadip; Rhea, Brian; Blackstone, Britani; Powell, Heather M; Khanna, Savita; Roy, Sashwati

    2018-03-05

    Inflammation, following injury, induces cellular plasticity as an inherent component of physiological tissue repair. The dominant fate of wound macrophages is unclear and debated. Here we show that two-thirds of all granulation tissue fibroblasts, otherwise known to be of mesenchymal origin, are derived from myeloid cells which are likely to be wound macrophages. Conversion of myeloid to fibroblast-like cells is impaired in diabetic wounds. In cross-talk between keratinocytes and myeloid cells, miR-21 packaged in extracellular vesicles (EV) is required for cell conversion. EV from wound fluid of healing chronic wound patients is rich in miR-21 and causes cell conversion more effectively compared to that by fluid from non-healing patients. Impaired conversion in diabetic wound tissue is rescued by targeted nanoparticle-based delivery of miR-21 to macrophages. This work introduces a paradigm wherein myeloid cells are recognized as a major source of fibroblast-like cells in the granulation tissue.

  19. Comparison of the phosphorylation events in membranes prepared from proliferating versus quiescent endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazlauskas, A.; DiColeto, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Little is known of the intracellular events which regulate the proliferation of endothelial cells (EC). Triton-solubilized membranes from proliferating (sparse) and quiescent (confluent) EC were incubated at pH 6.5 in the presence of divalent cations and [ 32 P]ATP. Membrane proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The overall kinase activity per mg protein was slightly greater in membranes prepared from proliferating versus quiescent cells. They found four proteins labeled in sparse cells to a dramatically greater extent having the following approximate molecular masses: 180, 100, 97 and 55 kilodalton (kd). The first two phosphoproteins were phosphorylated on serine residues exclusively; the 97 kd phosphoprotein contained 39% phosphoserine (p-ser) and 61% phosphothreonine (p-thr); and the 55 kd phosphoprotein contained 62% p-ser, 16% p-thr, and 22% phosphotyrosine (p-tyr). The kinases acting on all four phosphoproteins were independent of Ca 2+ , cAMP, cGMP, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The observed differences in phosphorylation events between sparse and confluent membranes occurred in membranes from two EC lines - pig aortic and bovine aortic - but were not apparent in membranes prepared from human foreskin fibroblasts or 3T3 cells. Sparse endothelial cells made quiescent by serum deprivation were found to resemble confluent cells in the kinase activity; therefore, the enhanced kinase activity in sparse membranes may be growth dependent

  20. Identification of SSEA-1 expressing enhanced reprogramming (SEER) cells in porcine embryonic fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dong; Secher, Jan Ole Bertelsen; Juhl, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a subpopulation of cells within cultured human dermal fibroblasts, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, are preferentially reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. However, controversy exists over whether these cells...... are the only cells capable of being reprogrammed from a heterogeneous population of fibroblasts. Similarly, there is little research to suggest such cells may exist in embryonic tissues or other species. To address if such a cell population exists in pigs, we investigated porcine embryonic fibroblast...... populations (pEFs) and identified heterogeneous expression of several key cell surface markers. Strikingly, we discovered a small population of stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 positive cells (SSEA-1+) in Danish Landrace and Göttingen minipig pEFs, which were absent in the Yucatan pEFs. Furthermore...

  1. Modulation of clonogenicity, growth, and radiosensitivity of three human epidermoid tumor cell lines by a fibroblastic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gery, Bernard; Little, John B.; Coppey, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model vitro system to examine the influence of fibroblasts on the growth and survival of human tumor cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The cell system consists of three epidermoid carcinoma cell lines derived from head and neck tumors having differing growth potentials and intrinsic radiosensitivities, as well as a low passage skin fibroblast strain from a normal human donor. The tumor cells were seeded for five days prior to exposure to radiation: (a) in the presence of different numbers of fibroblasts, (b) in conditioned medium from stationary fibroblast cultures, and (c) on an extracted fibroblastic matrix. Results: When grown with fibroblasts, all three tumor cell lines showed increased clonogenicity and increased radioresistance. The radioprotective effect was maximal at a density of approximately 10 5 fibroblasts/100 mm Petri dish, and was greatest in the intrinsically radiosensitive tumor cell line. On the other hand, the effects of incubation with conditioned medium or on a fibroblastic matrix varied among the tumor cell lines. Thus, the protective effect afforded by coculture with fibroblasts must involve several cellular factors related to the fibroblast itself. Conclusions: These observations emphasize the importance of cultural conditions on the apparent radiosensitivity of human tumor cell lines, and suggest that the fibroblastic connective tissue enveloping the malignant cells should be considered when the aim is to establish a radiopredictive assay from surgical tumors fragments

  2. Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Fusion Proteins and Their Uses in Human Stem Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth; Pruksananonda, Kamthorn; Parnpai, Rangsun; Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the cost of cytokines and growth factors in stem cell research, a simple method for the production of soluble and biological active human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF) fusion protein in Escherichia coli was established. Under optimal conditions, approximately 60-80 mg of >95% pure hbFGF fusion proteins (Trx-6xHis-hbFGF and 6xHis-hbFGF) were obtained from 1 liter of culture broth. The purified hbFGF proteins, both with and without the fusion tags, were biologically active, which was confirmed by their ability to stimulate proliferation of NIH3T3 cells. The fusion proteins also have the ability to support several culture passages of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells and induce pluripotent stem cells. This paper describes a low-cost and uncomplicated method for the production and purification of biologically active hbFGF fusion proteins. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. [Effects of rhynchophylla alkaloids on vascular adventitial fibroblast apoptosis and proliferation in the thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guo-Hua; Sun, Jing-Chang; Qi, Dong-Mei

    2012-09-01

    To study the effects of rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, and rhynchophylla alkaloids on the vascular adventitial fibroblasts (VAF) apoptosis and proliferation in thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and on the Bcl-2, Bax, c-Fos, c-Myc, laminin (LN), and fibronectin (FN). Forty 8-week old male SHR were randomly divided into five groups, i. e., the model group, the captopril group (17.5 mg/kg), the isorhynchophylline group (5.0 mg/kg), the rhynchophylline group (5.0 mg/kg), and the rhynchophylla alkaloids group (50.0 mg/kg), 8 in each group. In addition, eight 8-week old male Wistar rats were selected as the normal group. Equal volume of normal saline was given to rats in the normal group and the model group by gastrogavage. Rats in the rest groups were perfused with isovolumic medication solution (10 mL/kg), six days per week for eight successive weeks. The dosage of drugs was adjusted according to the change of body weight. The VAF apoptosis rate of the thoracic aorta was measured by Annexin V-FITC combined with PI dyeing and flow cytometry. The protein expressions of thoracic aortic Bcl-2, Bax, c-Myc, c-Fos, FN, and LN were detected by immunohistochemical assay. The adventitial transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA expression in the thoracic aorta was detected by in situ hybridization method. Compared with the model group, the tail arterial systolic pressure decreased, the VAF apoptosis and the protein expression of Bax increased, Bcl-2, c-Fos, FN, LN, and TGF-beta1 mRNA all decreased in the thoracic aorta of SHR in each treatment group after 4-and 8-week of intervention. Rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, and rhynchophylla alkaloids could inhibit the protein expression of c-Myc with statistical difference (Prhynchophylla alkaloids group (P>0.05). There was statistical difference in increased VAF apoptosis and decreased protein expressions of Bcl-2, c-Myc, and LN (Prhynchophylla alkaloids group (P>0.05). Rhynchophylline

  4. Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Is Required for Cell Proliferation and Inflammatory Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synoviocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan; Su, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Fang; Chu, Jing-Xue; Wang, Yun-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) invasive proliferation, and joint destruction. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor that induces immune activation. In this study, we examined whether cGAS plays a role in RA FLS. In this study, cGAS was overexpressed in RA-FLS compared with OA FLS. TNFα stimulation induced cGAS expression in RA FLS. Overexpression of cGAS promoted the proliferation and knockdow...

  5. PAI1 mediates fibroblast-mast cell interactions in skin fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincha, Neha; Hajam, Edries Yousaf; Badarinath, Krithika; Batta, Surya Prakash Rao; Masudi, Tafheem; Dey, Rakesh; Andreasen, Peter; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Samuel, Rekha; George, Renu; Danda, Debashish; Jacob, Paul Mazhuvanchary; Jamora, Colin

    2018-05-01

    Fibrosis is a prevalent pathological condition arising from the chronic activation of fibroblasts. This activation results from the extensive intercellular crosstalk mediated by both soluble factors and direct cell-cell connections. Prominent among these are the interactions of fibroblasts with immune cells, in which the fibroblast-mast cell connection, although acknowledged, is relatively unexplored. We have used a Tg mouse model of skin fibrosis, based on expression of the transcription factor Snail in the epidermis, to probe the mechanisms regulating mast cell activity and the contribution of these cells to this pathology. We have discovered that Snail-expressing keratinocytes secrete plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI1), which functions as a chemotactic factor to increase mast cell infiltration into the skin. Moreover, we have determined that PAI1 upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM1) expression on dermal fibroblasts, rendering them competent to bind to mast cells. This heterotypic cell-cell adhesion, also observed in the skin fibrotic disorder scleroderma, culminates in the reciprocal activation of both mast cells and fibroblasts, leading to the cascade of events that promote fibrogenesis. Thus, we have identified roles for PAI1 in the multifactorial program of fibrogenesis that expand its functional repertoire beyond its canonical role in plasmin-dependent processes.

  6. FGF8 activates proliferation and migration in mouse post-natal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cruz-Martinez

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8 is a key molecular signal that is necessary for early embryonic development of the central nervous system, quickly disappearing past this point. It is known to be one of the primary morphogenetic signals required for cell fate and survival processes in structures such as the cerebellum, telencephalic and isthmic organizers, while its absence causes severe abnormalities in the nervous system and the embryo usually dies in early stages of development. In this work, we have observed a new possible therapeutic role for this factor in demyelinating disorders, such as leukodystrophy or multiple sclerosis. In vitro, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were cultured with differentiating medium and in the presence of FGF8. Differentiation and proliferation studies were performed by immunocytochemistry and PCR. Also, migration studies were performed in matrigel cultures, where oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were placed at a certain distance of a FGF8-soaked heparin bead. The results showed that both migration and proliferation was induced by FGF8. Furthermore, a similar effect was observed in an in vivo demyelinating mouse model, where oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were observed migrating towards the FGF8-soaked heparin beads where they were grafted. In conclusion, the results shown here demonstrate that FGF8 is a novel factor to induce oligodendrocyte progenitor cell activation, migration and proliferation in vitro, which can be extrapolated in vivo in demyelinated animal models.

  7. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Regulates Persistent ERK Osciliations in Premaligant but not Malignant JB6 Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Thomas J.; Shankaran, Harish; Wiley, H. S.; Opresko, Lee K.; Chrisler, William B.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.

    2010-05-02

    basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF2) plays an important role in epidermal wound healing in vivo and is associated with a persistent increased in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in vitro. Here we have examined whether bFGF induces the closure of an experimental scratch wound in JB6 mouse epidermal cells and have explored the regulation of the ERK pathway by bFGF in the context of kinase oscillations. bFGF stimulation is associated with increases in cellular phospho-ERK and phospho-c-Jun levels. In addition, bFGF increases cell proliferation and a change in cell morphology (stellate appearance) in a dose-dependent fashion (0.1 – 100 ng/ml). bFGF treatment also promoted the closure of an experimental scratch wound in vitro. JB6 cells were stably transfected with an ERK1-GFP chimera to follow temporal ERK subcellular distribution patterns. We observe a persistent upregulation of the ERK pathway, as evidenced by a significant increase in nuclear ERK1-GFP levels at time points up to 24 hr after bFGF treatment. Interestingly, at the single cell level, ERK is observed to oscillate between nuclear and cytosolic compartments in response to bFGF treatment. Because this oscillatory behavior is asynchronous in the cell population, it is only clearly resolved at the single cell level. Collectively, data presented here are consistent with an important role for bFGF in wound healing and suggest a more complex regulation of the ERK pathway by bFGF than has previously been appreciated.

  8. Amelogenin is phagocytized and induces changes in integrin configuration, gene expression and proliferation of cultured normal human dermal fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almqvist, Sofia; Werthén, Maria; Johansson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblasts are central in wound healing by expressing important mediators and producing and remodelling extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This study aimed at elucidating possible mechanisms of action of the ECM protein amelogenin on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Amelogenin at 100...

  9. The effect of small-molecule inhibition of MAPKAPK2 on cell ageing phenotypes of fibroblasts from human Werner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Terence

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fibroblasts derived from the progeroid Werner syndrome (WS show reduced replicative lifespan and a “stressed” morphology, both phenotypes being alleviated by using the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580. Because p38 is a major hub for the control of stress-signalling pathways we were interested in examining the possible role for downstream kinases in order to refine our understanding of the role of p38 signalling in regulation of WS cell growth. To this end we treated WS and normal fibroblasts with MK2 inhibitors to determine whether MK2 inhibition would affect either the growth or morphology of WS cells. The first inhibitor, 7,8-dihydroxy-2,4-diamino-3-cyanobenzopyranopyridine (inhibitor 2, resulted in inhibition of WS cell growth and had no effect on morphology, effects that occurred below the level needed to inhibit MK2 and thus suggestive of inhibitor toxicity. The second inhibitor, 2-(2-quinolin-3-ylpyridin-4-yl-1,5,6,7-tetrahydro-4H-pyrrolo-[3,2-c]pyridin-4-one (CMPD16, resulted in a significant extension of WS fibroblast replicative capacity compared to normal cells. In addition, CMPD16 reverted the WS cellular morphology to that seen in normal dermal fibroblasts. These data suggest that MK2 activity plays a substantial role in proliferation control in WS cells. CMPD16 was not as effective in cellular lifespan extension as SB203580, however, suggesting that, although MK2 is a downstream kinase involved in cell cycle arrest, other p38 targets may play a role. Alternatively, as CMPD16 is toxic to cell growth at levels just above those that extend lifespan, it is possible that the therapeutic window is too small. However, as CMPD16 does show significant effects in WS fibroblasts, this acts as proof-of-principle for the efforts to design and synthesise improved MK2 inhibitors. As MK2 is involved in inflammatory processes and inflammation plays a major role in WS phenotypes, these data suggest MK2 as a potential therapeutic target

  10. Fibroblast and T cells conditioned media induce maturation dendritic cell and promote T helper immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Asadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs induce pathogen-specific T cell responses. We comprehensively studied the effects of addition of maturation stimulus, fibroblasts (fibroblast conditioned medium, PHA activated T cells (T cell conditioned medium, and mixture of fibroblast & PHA activated T cells (FCM-TCCM conditioned media on maturation of DCs. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. Maturation factors included MCM and TNF-α as control group. FCM and TCCM, or FCM-TCCM supernatant were considered as the treatment group. Tumor antigens were added at day five. Matured DCs were harvested at day seven. Phenotypic and functional analyses were carried out using anti (CD14, CD80, CD86, CD83 and HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and cytokine production were also evaluated. At the end of culturing period, significantly fully matured DCs with large amount cytoplasm and copious dendritic projections were found in the presence of MCM, TNF-α with or without FCM, TCCM, FCM as well as TCCM. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that expression of CD14 decreased in particular in treated DCs, at the 5th day and expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR was higher when FCM, TCCM, FCM plus TCCM were added to maturation factor. This study demonstrated that DCs matured with these methods had optimum function in comparison with either factor alone.

  11. Cell proliferation on PVA/sodium alginate and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) electrospun fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Yang, Jhe Hao; Tsou, Shu Chun; Ding, Chian Hua; Hsu, Chih Chin; Yang, Kai Chiang; Yang, Chun Chen; Chen, Ko Shao; Chen, Szi Wen; Wang, Jong Shyan

    2016-09-01

    To overcome the obstacles of easy dissolution of PVA nanofibers without crosslinking treatment and the poor electrospinnability of the PVA cross-linked nanofibers via electrospinning process, the PVA based electrospun hydrogel nanofibers are prepared with post-crosslinking method. To expect the electrospun hydrogel fibers might be a promising scaffold for cell culture and tissue engineering applications, the evaluation of cell proliferation on the post-crosslinking electrospun fibers is conducted in this study. At beginning, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), PVA/sodium alginate (PVASA) and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PVAPGA) electrospun fibers were prepared by electrospinning method. The electrospun PVA, PVASA and PVAPGA nanofibers were treated with post-cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde (Glu) as crosslinking agent. These electrospun fibers were characterized with thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and their morphologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To support the evaluation and explanation of cell growth on the fiber, the study of 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell growth on the surface of pure PVA, SA, and PGA thin films is conducted. The proliferation of 3T3 on the electrospun fiber surface of PVA, PVASA, and PVAPGA was evaluated by seeding 3T3 fibroblast cells on these crosslinked electrospun fibers. The cell viability on electrospun fibers was conducted with water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1). The morphology of the cells on the fibers was also observed with SEM. The results of WST-1 assay revealed that 3T3 cells cultured on different electrospun fibers had similar viability, and the cell viability increased with time for all electrospun fibers. From the morphology of the cells on electrospun fibers, it is found that 3T3 cells attached on all electrospun fiber after 1day seeded. Cell-cell communication was noticed on day 3 for all electrospun fibers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) productions were found and

  12. Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H.; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Mouse fibroblasts cultured on 7-μm-long vertical nanowires are reported on page 4006 by C. N. Prinz and co-workers. Culturing cells on this kind of substrate interferes greatly with cell function, causing the cells to develop into widely different morphologies. The cells' division is impaired...

  13. Selective enrichment and biochemical characterization of seven human skin fibroblasts cell types in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodemann, H.P.; Bayreuther, K.; Francz, P.I.; Dittmann, K.; Albiez, M.

    1989-01-01

    The mitotic and postmitotic populations of the human skin fibroblast cell line HH-8 are heterogeneous when studied in vitro. There are reproducible changes in the frequencies of the mitotic fibroblasts (MF), MF I, MF II, MF III, and the postmitotic fibroblasts (PMF), PMF IV, PMF V, PMF VI, and PMF VII. For biochemical characterization, methods for selective enrichment of homogeneous populations of these seven fibroblast cell types have been established. Clonal populations with 95% purity for the mitotic fibroblasts MF I, MF II, and MF III can be raised in uniform clone types of fibroblasts (CTF) CTF I, CTF II, and CTF III. Pure clonal subpopulations of MF I type cells are present in mass populations in the range of 1-20 cumulative population doublings (CPD). Populations of mitotic fibroblasts represent nearly homogeneous populations of MF II (75-85% purity) in the range of 28-34 CPD and MF III (73-86% purity) in the range of 48-53 CPD. These populations can be easily expanded to up to 10(7)-10(8) cells. The spontaneous transition of MF III to PMF VI takes 140-180 days. In order to shorten this period and increase the proportion of distinct postmitotic types, mitotic fibroblast mass populations (CPD 30-32, MF II: 75-85% purity) have been induced by uv-irradiation to differentiate to nearly homogeneous populations of PMF IV, PMF V, PMF VI, and PMF VII within 4 to 36 days of culture. Using this method, 10(7) cells of one differentiation stage can be obtained. Spontaneously arising and experimentally selected or induced homogeneous clonal and mass populations of MF I, MF II, MF III, PMF IV, PMF V, PMF VI, and PMF VII express an identical differentiation-dependent and cell-type-specific [35S]methionine-labeled polypeptide pattern

  14. Direct induction of chondrogenic cells from human dermal fibroblast culture by defined factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetatsu Outani

    Full Text Available The repair of large cartilage defects with hyaline cartilage continues to be a challenging clinical issue. We recently reported that the forced expression of two reprogramming factors (c-Myc and Klf4 and one chondrogenic factor (SOX9 can induce chondrogenic cells from mouse dermal fibroblast culture without going through a pluripotent state. We here generated induced chondrogenic (iChon cells from human dermal fibroblast (HDF culture with the same factors. We developed a chondrocyte-specific COL11A2 promoter/enhancer lentiviral reporter vector to select iChon cells. The human iChon cells expressed marker genes for chondrocytes but not fibroblasts, and were derived from non-chondrogenic COL11A2-negative cells. The human iChon cells formed cartilage but not tumors in nude mice. This approach could lead to the preparation of cartilage directly from skin in human, without going through pluripotent stem cells.

  15. Tumor cell proliferation kinetics and tumor growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    1989-01-01

    The present knowledge on the growth rate and the proliferation kinetics of human tumor is based on the measurement of the tumor doubling times (DT) in several hundred patients and on the determination of the proportion of proliferating cells with radioactive thymidine or by flow cytometry in large numbers of patients. The results show that the DT of human tumor varies widely, from less than one week to over one year with a median value of approximately 2 months. The DTs are significantly correlated with the histological type. They depend upon (1) the duration of the cell cycle whose mean duration is 2 days with small variations from tumor to tumor, (2) the proportion of proliferating cells and consequently the cell birth rate which varies widely among tumors and which is significantly correlated to the DT, (3) the cell loss factors which also vary widely and which are the greatest when proliferation is most intensive. These studies have several clinical implications: (a) they have further increased our understanding of the natural history of human tumor, (b) they have therapeutic implications since tumor responsiveness and curability by radiation and drugs are strongly influenced by the cell kinetic parameters of the tumor, (c) the proportion of proliferating cells is of great prognostic value in several types of human cancers. The investigation of the molecular defects, which are correlated with the perturbation of control of cell proliferation, should lead to significant fundamental and therapeutic advances. (orig.).

  16. Cellular Response to Bleomycin-Induced DNA Damage in Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Outside the protection of the geomagnetic field, astronauts and other living organisms are constantly exposed to space radiation that consists of energetic protons and other heavier charged particles. Whether spaceflight factors, microgravity in particular, have effects on cellular responses to DNA damage induced by exposure to radiation or cytotoxic chemicals is still unknown, as is their impact on the radiation risks for astronauts and on the mutation rate in microorganisms. Although possible synergistic effects of space radiation and other spaceflight factors have been investigated since the early days of the human space program, the published results were mostly conflicting and inconsistent. To investigate effects of spaceflight on cellular responses to DNA damages, human fibroblast cells flown to the International Space Station (ISS) were treated with bleomycin for three hours in the true microgravity environment, which induced DNA damages including double-strand breaks (DSB) similar to the ionizing radiation. Damages in the DNA were measured by the phosphorylation of a histone protein H2AX (g-H2AX), which showed slightly more foci in the cells on ISS than in the ground control. The expression of genes involved in DNA damage response was also analyzed using the PCR array. Although a number of the genes, including CDKN1A and PCNA, were significantly altered in the cells after bleomycin treatment, no significant difference in the expression profile of DNA damage response genes was found between the flight and ground samples. At the time of the bleomycin treatment, the cells on the ISS were found to be proliferating faster than the ground control as measured by the percentage of cells containing positive Ki-67 signals. Our results suggested that the difference in g-H2AX focus counts between flight and ground was due to the faster growth rate of the cells in space, but spaceflight did not affect initial transcriptional responses of the DNA damage response genes to

  17. [The effect of bFGF and sucralfate on cell proliferation during continuous tissue expansion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ya-lan; Guo, Shu-zhong; Lu, Kai-hua

    2003-05-01

    To investigate the effect of local application of bFGF combined with sucralfate on the cell proliferation during continuous tissue expansion (CTE). Nine white pigs were selected to undergo the continuous tissue expansion in this study and treated with bFGF and sucralfate, respectively as the following groups: group 1 with both bFGF and sucralfate, group 2 only with bFGF, group 3 with only sucralfate, and group 4 with saline as control. Fifteen samples were taken in each pig for immunohistochemistry analysis 1-14 days and 6 weeks after the operation. In the group with both bFGF and sucralfate, the epidermic basal cells proliferated significantly after the operation and reached top level in 3 days, which was statistical higher than the control group, but the multiplication of basal cell was the lowest 14 days after the operation, still more than the control group. In dermal layer, proliferation of fibroblasts, vessel endothelial cells, hair follicles epidermic cells and sweat gland epicytes was also significant higher in the group with both bFGF and sucralfate than that the control group and reached top level 7 day after the operation, but the proliferation of cells decreased obviously 14 days after the operation, still higher than the control group. The mitotic activity of cells returned to the basal level in 42 days. There were no significant differences among the group 2, group 3 and group 4. Local application of both bFGF and sucralfate could be more effect to induce cells multiplication during early skin expansion to facilitate the growth of neoformed skin soft tissue.

  18. Cell proliferation on PVA/sodium alginate and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) electrospun fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Yang, Jhe Hao; Tsou, Shu Chun; Ding, Chian Hua; Hsu, Chih Chin; Yang, Kai Chiang; Yang, Chun Chen; Chen, Ko Shao; Chen, Szi Wen; Wang, Jong Shyan

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the obstacles of easy dissolution of PVA nanofibers without crosslinking treatment and the poor electrospinnability of the PVA cross-linked nanofibers via electrospinning process, the PVA based electrospun hydrogel nanofibers are prepared with post-crosslinking method. To expect the electrospun hydrogel fibers might be a promising scaffold for cell culture and tissue engineering applications, the evaluation of cell proliferation on the post-crosslinking electrospun fibers is conducted in this study. At beginning, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), PVA/sodium alginate (PVASA) and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PVAPGA) electrospun fibers were prepared by electrospinning method. The electrospun PVA, PVASA and PVAPGA nanofibers were treated with post-cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde (Glu) as crosslinking agent. These electrospun fibers were characterized with thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and their morphologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To support the evaluation and explanation of cell growth on the fiber, the study of 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell growth on the surface of pure PVA, SA, and PGA thin films is conducted. The proliferation of 3T3 on the electrospun fiber surface of PVA, PVASA, and PVAPGA was evaluated by seeding 3T3 fibroblast cells on these crosslinked electrospun fibers. The cell viability on electrospun fibers was conducted with water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1). The morphology of the cells on the fibers was also observed with SEM. The results of WST-1 assay revealed that 3T3 cells cultured on different electrospun fibers had similar viability, and the cell viability increased with time for all electrospun fibers. From the morphology of the cells on electrospun fibers, it is found that 3T3 cells attached on all electrospun fiber after 1 day seeded. Cell–cell communication was noticed on day 3 for all electrospun fibers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) productions were found and

  19. Cell proliferation on PVA/sodium alginate and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) electrospun fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jen Ming, E-mail: jmyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Jhe Hao [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsou, Shu Chun; Ding, Chian Hua [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsu, Chih Chin [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Keelung, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Kai Chiang [School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Chun Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ming-Chi University of Science and Technology, New Taipei City, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Ko Shao [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Szi Wen [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jong Shyan [Department of Physical Therapy and the Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-09-01

    To overcome the obstacles of easy dissolution of PVA nanofibers without crosslinking treatment and the poor electrospinnability of the PVA cross-linked nanofibers via electrospinning process, the PVA based electrospun hydrogel nanofibers are prepared with post-crosslinking method. To expect the electrospun hydrogel fibers might be a promising scaffold for cell culture and tissue engineering applications, the evaluation of cell proliferation on the post-crosslinking electrospun fibers is conducted in this study. At beginning, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), PVA/sodium alginate (PVASA) and PVA/poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PVAPGA) electrospun fibers were prepared by electrospinning method. The electrospun PVA, PVASA and PVAPGA nanofibers were treated with post-cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde (Glu) as crosslinking agent. These electrospun fibers were characterized with thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and their morphologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To support the evaluation and explanation of cell growth on the fiber, the study of 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell growth on the surface of pure PVA, SA, and PGA thin films is conducted. The proliferation of 3T3 on the electrospun fiber surface of PVA, PVASA, and PVAPGA was evaluated by seeding 3T3 fibroblast cells on these crosslinked electrospun fibers. The cell viability on electrospun fibers was conducted with water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1). The morphology of the cells on the fibers was also observed with SEM. The results of WST-1 assay revealed that 3T3 cells cultured on different electrospun fibers had similar viability, and the cell viability increased with time for all electrospun fibers. From the morphology of the cells on electrospun fibers, it is found that 3T3 cells attached on all electrospun fiber after 1 day seeded. Cell–cell communication was noticed on day 3 for all electrospun fibers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) productions were found and

  20. Cell proliferation of Paramecium tetraurelia on a slow rotating clinostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Satoe; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Baba, Shoji A.

    Paramecium is known to proliferate faster under microgravity conditions, and slower under hypergravity. Experiments using axenic culture medium have demonstrated that hypergravity affected directly on the proliferation of Paramecium itself. In order to assess the mechanisms underlying the physiological effects of gravity on cell proliferation, Paramecium tetraurelia was grown under clinorotation (2.5 rpm) and the time course of the proliferation was investigated in detail on the basis of the logistic analysis. On the basis of the mechanical properties of Paramecium, this slow rate of the rotation appears to be enough to simulate microgravity in terms of the randomization of the cell orientation with respect to gravity. P. tetraurelia was cultivated in a closed chamber in which cells were confined without air bubbles, reducing the shear forces and turbulences under clinorotation. The chamber is made of quartz and silicone rubber film; the former is for the optically-flat walls for the measurement of cell density by means of a non-invasive laser optical-slice method, and the latter for gas exchange. Because of the small dimension for culture space, Paramecium does not accumulate at the top of the chamber in spite of its known negative gravitactic behavior. We measured the cell density at regular time intervals without breaking the configuration of the chamber, and analyzed the proliferation parameters by fitting the data to a logistic equation. As a result, P. tetraurelia showed reduced proliferation under slow clinorotation. The saturation of the cell density as well as the maximum proliferation rate decreased, although we found no significant changes on the half maximal time for proliferation. We also found that the mean swimming velocity decreased under slow clinorotation. These results were not consistent with those under microgravity and fast rotating clinostat. This may suggest that randomization of the cell orientation performed by slow rotating clinostat has

  1. Preliminary viability studies of fibroblastic cells cultured on microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamonds produced by chemical vapour deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Implant materials used in orthopedics surgery have demonstrated some disadvantages, such as metallic corrosion processes, generation of wear particles, inflammation reactions and bone reabsorption in the implant region. The diamond produced through hot-filament chemical vapour deposition method is a new potential biomedical material due to its chemical inertness, extreme hardness and low coefficient of friction. In the present study we analysis two samples: the microcrystalline diamond and the nanocrystalline diamond. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface properties of the diamond samples by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cell viability and morphology were assessed using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, cytochemical assay and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results revealed that the two samples did not interfere in the cell viability, however the proliferation of fibroblasts cells observed was comparatively higher with the nanocrystalline diamond.

  2. Cell proliferation of Paramecium tetraurelia under simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, S.; Mogami, Y.; Baba, S. A.

    Paramecium is known to proliferate faster under microgravity in space and slower under hypergravity Experiments using axenic culture medium have demonstrated that the hypergravity affected directly on the proliferation of Paramecium itself Kato et al 2003 In order to assess the mechanisms underlying the physiological effects of gravity on cell proliferation Paramecium tetraurelia was grown under simulated microgravity performed by clinorotation and the time course of the proliferation was investigated in detail on the basis of the logistic analysis P tetraurelia was cultivated in a closed chamber in which cells were confined without air babbles reducing the shear stresses and turbulence under the rotation The chamber is made of quartz and silicone rubber film the former is for the optically-flat walls for the measurement of cell density by means of a non-invasive laser optical-slice method and the latter for gas exchange Because the closed chamber has an inner dimension of 3 times 3 times 60 mm Paramecium does not accumulate at the top of the chamber despite its negative gravitactic behavior We measured the cell density at regular time intervals without breaking the configuration of the chamber and analyzed the proliferation parameters by fitting the data to a logistic equation Clinorotation had the effects of reducing the proliferation of P tetraurelia It reduced both the saturation cell density and the maximum proliferation rate although it had little effect on the

  3. Mast cell tryptase stimulates myoblast proliferation; a mechanism relying on protease-activated receptor-2 and cyclooxygenase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côté Claude H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells contribute to tissue repair in fibrous tissues by stimulating proliferation of fibroblasts through the release of tryptase which activates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2. The possibility that a tryptase/PAR-2 signaling pathway exists in skeletal muscle cell has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tryptase can stimulate myoblast proliferation and determine the downstream cascade. Methods Proliferation of L6 rat skeletal myoblasts stimulated with PAR-2 agonists (tryptase, trypsin and SLIGKV was assessed. The specificity of the tryptase effect was evaluated with a specific inhibitor, APC-366. Western blot analyses were used to evaluate the expression and functionality of PAR-2 receptor and to assess the expression of COX-2. COX-2 activity was evaluated with a commercial activity assay kit and by measurement of PGF2α production. Proliferation assays were also performed in presence of different prostaglandins (PGs. Results Tryptase increased L6 myoblast proliferation by 35% above control group and this effect was completely inhibited by APC-366. We confirmed the expression of PAR-2 receptor in vivo in skeletal muscle cells and in satellite cells and in vitro in L6 cells, where PAR-2 was found to be functional. Trypsin and SLIGKV increased L6 cells proliferation by 76% and 26% above control, respectively. COX-2 activity was increased following stimulation with PAR-2 agonist but its expression remained unchanged. Inhibition of COX-2 activity by NS-398 abolished the stimulation of cell proliferation induced by tryptase and trypsin. Finally, 15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15Δ-PGJ2, a product of COX-2-derived prostaglandin D2, stimulated myoblast proliferation, but not PGE2 and PGF2α. Conclusions Taken together, our data show that tryptase can stimulate myoblast proliferation and this effect is part of a signaling cascade dependent on PAR-2 activation and on the downstream

  4. Endothelial cell proliferation in swine experimental aneurysm after coil embolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Mitome-Mishima

    Full Text Available After coil embolization, recanalization in cerebral aneurysms adversely influences long-term prognosis. Proliferation of endothelial cells on the coil surface may reduce the incidence of recanalization and further improve outcomes after coil embolization. We aimed to map the expression of proliferating tissue over the aneurysmal orifice and define the temporal profile of tissue growth in a swine experimental aneurysm model. We compared the outcomes after spontaneous thrombosis with those of coil embolization using histological and morphological techniques. In aneurysms that we not coiled, spontaneous thrombosis was observed, and weak, easily detachable proliferating tissue was evident in the aneurysmal neck. In contrast, in the coil embolization group, histological analysis showed endothelial-like cells lining the aneurysmal opening. Moreover, immunohistochemical and morphological analysis suggested that these cells were immature endothelial cells. Our results indicated the existence of endothelial cell proliferation 1 week after coil embolization and showed immature endothelial cells in septal tissue between the systemic circulation and the aneurysm. These findings suggest that endothelial cells are lead to and proliferate in the former aneurysmal orifice. This is the first examination to evaluate the temporal change of proliferating tissue in a swine experimental aneurysm model.

  5. Stimulation of the proliferation of hemopoietic stem cells in irradiated bone marrow cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, K.J.; Izumi, H.; Seto, A.

    1981-01-01

    Long-term hemopoiesis was established in bone marrow cell culture in vitro. This culture was shown to support the recovery proliferation of hemopoietic stem cells completely in vitro after irradiation. Hemopoietic stem cells were stimulated into proliferation in culture when normal bone marrow cells were overlayed on top of the irradiated adherent cell colonies. These results indicate that proliferation and differentiation of hemopoietic stem cells in vitro are also supported by stromahemopoietic cell interactions

  6. Differential migration and proliferation of geometrical ensembles of cell clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Girish; Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos C.; Ho, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Differential cell migration and growth drives the organization of specific tissue forms and plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor invasion. Localized gradients of soluble factors and extracellular matrix have been shown to modulate cell migration and proliferation. Here we show that in addition to these factors, initial tissue geometry can feedback to generate differential proliferation, cell polarity, and migration patterns. We apply layer by layer polyelectrolyte assembly to confine multicellular organization and subsequently release cells to demonstrate the spatial patterns of cell migration and growth. The cell shapes, spreading areas, and cell-cell contacts are influenced strongly by the confining geometry. Cells within geometric ensembles are morphologically polarized. Symmetry breaking was observed for cells on the circular pattern and cells migrate toward the corners and in the direction parallel to the longest dimension of the geometric shapes. This migration pattern is disrupted when actomyosin based tension was inhibited. Cells near the edge or corner of geometric shapes proliferate while cells within do not. Regions of higher rate of cell migration corresponded to regions of concentrated growth. These findings demonstrate that multicellular organization can result in spatial patterns of migration and proliferation.

  7. Impact of matrix stiffness on fibroblast function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Mohri, Hichem; Wu, Yang; Mohanty, Swetaparna; Ghosh, Gargi, E-mail: gargi@umich.edu

    2017-05-01

    Chronic non-healing wounds, caused by impaired production of growth factors and reduced vascularization, represent a significant burden to patients, health care professionals, and health care system. While several wound dressing biomaterials have been developed, the impact of the mechanical properties of the dressings on the residing cells and consequently on the healing of the wounds is largely overlooked. The primary focus of this study is to explore whether manipulation of the substrate mechanics can regulate the function of fibroblasts, particularly in the context of their angiogenic activity. A photocrosslinkable hydrogel platform with orthogonal control over gel modulus and cell adhesive sites was developed to explore the quantitative relationship between ECM compliance and fibroblast function. Increase in matrix stiffness resulted in enhanced fibroblast proliferation and stress fiber formation. However, the angiogenic activity of fibroblasts was found to be optimum when the cells were seeded on compliant matrices. Thus, the observations suggest that the stiffness of the wound dressing material may play an important role in the progression of wound healing. - Highlights: • Proliferation and stress fiber formation of fibroblasts increase with increasing matrix mechanics. • Cell area correlates with the growth of fibroblasts. • Angiogenic activity of fibroblasts optimum when cells seeded on compliant gels.

  8. CXCL10 can inhibit endothelial cell proliferation independently of CXCR3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele S V Campanella

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CXCL10 (or Interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa, IP-10 is an interferon-inducible chemokine with potent chemotactic activity on activated effector T cells and other leukocytes expressing its high affinity G protein-coupled receptor CXCR3. CXCL10 is also active on other cell types, including endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The mechanisms through which CXCL10 mediates its effects on non-leukocytes is not fully understood. In this study, we focus on the anti-proliferative effect of CXCL10 on endothelial cells, and demonstrate that CXCL10 can inhibit endothelial cell proliferation in vitro independently of CXCR3. Four main findings support this conclusion. First, primary mouse endothelial cells isolated from CXCR3-deficient mice were inhibited by CXCL10 as efficiently as wildtype endothelial cells. We also note that the proposed alternative splice form CXCR3-B, which is thought to mediate CXCL10's angiostatic activity, does not exist in mice based on published mouse CXCR3 genomic sequences as an in-frame stop codon would terminate the proposed CXCR3-B splice variant in mice. Second, we demonstrate that human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human lung microvascular endothelial cells that were inhibited by CXL10 did not express CXCR3 by FACS analysis. Third, two different neutralizing CXCR3 antibodies did not inhibit the anti-proliferative effect of CXCL10. Finally, fourth, utilizing a panel of CXCL10 mutants, we show that the ability to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation correlates with CXCL10's glycosaminoglycan binding affinity and not with its CXCR3 binding and signaling. Thus, using a very defined system, we show that CXCL10 can inhibit endothelial cell proliferation through a CXCR3-independent mechanism.

  9. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi; Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun; Koh, Eui Kwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields

  10. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi, E-mail: shong21@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr [School of Biosystem and Biomedical Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun, E-mail: shong21@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr [Department of Bio-convergence Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Eui Kwan [Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  11. Nicotine as a mitogenic stimulus for pancreatic acinar cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimal Chowdhury; Kodetthoor B Udupa

    2006-01-01

    Cell proliferation is an important process in life for growth of normal and cancer cells. The signal transduction pathways activated during this process are strictly regulated. This editorial focuses on the role of nicotine,a mitogen, in the induction of signaling pathways resulting in proliferation of pancreatic tumor cells and compares these events with those in normal acinar cells isolated from the rat pancreas. The data shows striking similarities between these two cellular systems.In addition, the editorial reviews very recent literature of the contribution of MAPK signaling in cell lines associated with human diseases. A prospective cellular model of nicotine induced activation of MAPK cascade is presented.

  12. Scaffold architecture and fibrin gels promote meniscal cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawelec, K. M., E-mail: pawelec.km@gmail.com, E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E. [Cambridge Centre for Medical Materials, Materials Science and Metallurgy Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Wardale, R. J., E-mail: pawelec.km@gmail.com, E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk [Division of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Stability of the knee relies on the meniscus, a complex connective tissue with poor healing ability. Current meniscal tissue engineering is inadequate, as the signals for increasing meniscal cell proliferation have not been established. In this study, collagen scaffold structure, isotropic or aligned, and fibrin gel addition were tested. Metabolic activity was promoted by fibrin addition. Cellular proliferation, however, was significantly increased by both aligned architectures and fibrin addition. None of the constructs impaired collagen type I production or triggered adverse inflammatory responses. It was demonstrated that both fibrin gel addition and optimized scaffold architecture effectively promote meniscal cell proliferation.

  13. Undersulfation of proteoglycans and proteins alter C6 glioma cells proliferation, adhesion and extracellular matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes de Aguiar, Claudia B N; Garcez, Ricardo Castilho; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio; Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves

    2002-11-01

    Proteoglycans are considered to be important molecule in cell-microenvironment interactions. They are overexpressed in neoplastic cells modifying their growth and migration in hosts. In this work we verified that undersulfation of proteoglycans and other sulfated molecules, induced by sodium chlorate treatment, inhibited C6 glioma cells proliferation in a dose-dependent way. This effect was restored by the addition of exogenous heparin. We could not detect significant cell mortality in our culture condition. The treatment also impaired in a dose-dependent manner, C6 cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin). In addition, sodium chlorate treatment altered C6 glioma cell morphology, from the fibroblast-like to a more rounded one. This effect was accompanied by increased synthesis of fibronectin and alterations in its extracellular network organization. However, we could not observe modifications on laminin organization and synthesis. The results suggest an important connection between sulfation degree with important tumor functions, such as proliferation and adhesion. We suggest that proteoglycans may modulate the glioma microenvironment network during tumor cell progression and invasion.

  14. In vitro generation of long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells by fibroblast growth factor-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, G; Weersing, E; Dontje, B; van Os, R; Bystrykh, LV; Vellenga, E; Miller, G

    The role of fibroblast growth factors and their receptors (FGFRs) in the regulation of normal hematopoietic stem cells is unknown. Here we show that, in mouse bone marrow, long-term repopulating stem cells are found exclusively in the FGFR(+) cell fraction. During differentiation toward committed

  15. Pancreatic Fibroblasts Stimulate the Motility of Pancreatic Cancer Cells through IGF1/IGF1R Signaling under Hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Hirakawa

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is characterized by its hypovascularity, with an extremely poor prognosis because of its highly invasive nature. PDAC proliferates with abundant stromal cells, suggesting that its invasive activity might be controlled by intercellular interactions between cancer cells and fibroblasts. Using four PDAC cell lines and two pancreas cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1 and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R was evaluated by RT-PCR, FACScan, western blot, or ELISA. Correlation between IGF1R and the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9 was examined by immunohistochemical staining of 120 pancreatic specimens. The effects of CAFs, IGF1, and IGF1R inhibitors on the motility of cancer cells were examined by wound-healing assay or invasion assay under normoxia (20% O2 and hypoxia (1% O2. IGF1R expression was significantly higher in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells than in Panc-1 cells. Hypoxia increased the expression level of IGF1R in RWP-1, MiaPaCa-2, and OCUP-AT cells. CA9 expression was correlated with IGF1R expression in pancreatic specimens. CAFs produced IGF1 under hypoxia, but PDAC cells did not. A conditioned medium from CAFs, which expressed αSMA, stimulated the migration and invasion ability of MiaPaCa-2, RWP-1, and OCUP-AT cells. The motility of all PDAC cells was greater under hypoxia than under normoxia. The motility-stimulating ability of CAFs was decreased by IGF1R inhibitors. These findings might suggest that pancreas CAFs stimulate the invasion activity of PDAC cells through paracrine IGF1/IGF1R signaling, especially under hypoxia. Therefore the targeting of IGF1R signaling might represent a promising therapeutic approach in IGF1R-dependent PDAC.

  16. Coilin phosphomutants disrupt Cajal body formation, reduce cell proliferation and produce a distinct coilin degradation product.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunamys I Carrero

    Full Text Available Coilin is a nuclear phosphoprotein that accumulates in Cajal bodies (CBs. CBs participate in ribonucleoprotein and telomerase biogenesis, and are often found in cells with high transcriptional demands such as neuronal and cancer cells, but can also be observed less frequently in other cell types such as fibroblasts. Many proteins enriched within the CB are phosphorylated, but it is not clear what role this modification has on the activity of these proteins in the CB. Coilin is considered to be the CB marker protein and is essential for proper CB formation and composition in mammalian cells. In order to characterize the role of coilin phosphorylation on CB formation, we evaluated various coilin phosphomutants using transient expression. Additionally, we generated inducible coilin phosphomutant cell lines that, when used in combination with endogenous coilin knockdown, allow for the expression of the phosphomutants at physiological levels. Transient expression of all coilin phosphomutants except the phosphonull mutant (OFF significantly reduces proliferation. Interestingly, a stable cell line induced to express the coilin S489D phosphomutant displays nucleolar accumulation of the mutant and generates a N-terminal degradation product; neither of which is observed upon transient expression. A N-terminal degradation product and nucleolar localization are also observed in a stable cell line induced to express a coilin phosphonull mutant (OFF. The nucleolar localization of the S489D and OFF coilin mutants observed in the stable cell lines is decreased when endogenous coilin is reduced. Furthermore, all the phosphomutant cells lines show a significant reduction in CB formation when compared to wild-type after endogenous coilin knockdown. Cell proliferation studies on these lines reveal that only wild-type coilin and the OFF mutant are sufficient to rescue the reduction in proliferation associated with endogenous coilin depletion. These results emphasize

  17. Neonatal pancreatic pericytes support β-cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alona Epshtein

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: This study introduces pancreatic pericytes as regulators of neonatal β-cell proliferation. In addition to advancing current understanding of the physiological β-cell replication process, these findings could facilitate the development of protocols aimed at expending these cells as a potential cure for diabetes.

  18. Control mechanisms of cell proliferation in intestinal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.C. Rijke (Rudy)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractIn the adult organism some organs and tissues still contain proliferating and differentiating cells, whereas other organs only consist of non-dividing specialized cells. On the basis of their proliferative activity cell populations may be classified into three categories (135, 138,208).

  19. Pathology of experimental Ebola virus infection in African green monkeys. Involvement of fibroblastic reticular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K J; Anderson, A O; Geisbert, T W; Steele, K E; Geisbert, J B; Vogel, P; Connolly, B M; Huggins, J W; Jahrling, P B; Jaax, N K

    1997-08-01

    Ebola virus has been responsible for explosive lethal outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in both humans and nonhuman primates. Previous studies showed a predilection of Ebola virus for cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system and endothelial cells. To examine the distribution of lesions and Ebola virus antigen in the tissues of six adult male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) that died 6 to 7 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of Ebola-Zaire (Mayinga) virus. Tissues were examined histologically, immunohistochemically, and ultrastructurally. A major novel finding of this study was that fibroblastic reticular cells were immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally identified as targets of Ebola virus infection. The role of Ebola virus-infected fibroblastic reticular cells in the pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever warrants further investigation. This is especially important because of recent observations indicating that fibroblastic reticular cells, along with the reticular fibers they produce, maximize the efficiency of the immune response.

  20. Cell-free assay measuring repair DNA synthesis in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarrocchi, G.; Linn, S.

    1978-01-01

    Osmotic disruption of confluent cultured human fibroblasts that have been irradiated or exposed to chemical carcinogens allows the specific measurement of repair DNA synthesis using dTTP as a precursor. Fibroblasts similarly prepared from various xeroderma pigmentosum cell lines show the deficiencies of uv-induced DNA synthesis predicted from in vivo studies, while giving normal responses to methylmethanesulfonate. A pyrimidine-dimer-specific enzyme, T4 endonuclease V, stimulated the rate of uv-induced repair synthesis with normal and xeroderma pigmentosum cell lines. This system should prove useful for identifying agents that induce DNA repair, and cells that respond abnormally to such induction. It should also be applicable to an in vitro complementation assay with repair-defective cells and proteins obtained from repair-proficient cells. Finally, by using actively growing fibroblasts and thymidine in the system, DNA replication can be measured and studied in vitro

  1. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients

  2. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang, E-mail: wenfang64@hotmail.com; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: syzi960@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  3. Increasing mouse embryonic fibroblast cells adhesion on superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotube films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, A.O., E-mail: loboao@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NanoBio), Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraiba UniVap, Avenida Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, SP (Brazil) and Laboratory of Biomedical Vibrational Spectroscopy (LEVB), Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraiba UniVap, Avenida Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, SP (Brazil); Marciano, F.R. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NanoBio), Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraiba UniVap, Avenida Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, SP (Brazil); Laboratory of Biomedical Vibrational Spectroscopy LEVB, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UniVap), Avenida Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.C. [Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais (LAS), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Avenida dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12.245-970, SP (Brazil); Machado, M.M. [Centro Multidisciplinar para Investigacao Biologica na Area da Ciencia em Animais de Laboratorio (CEMIB), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua 05 de Junho s/no, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , 13083-877, Campinas (Brazil); Corat, E.J. [Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais (LAS), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Avenida dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12.245-970, SP (Brazil); Corat, M.A.F. [Centro Multidisciplinar para Investigacao Biologica na Area da Ciencia em Animais de Laboratorio (CEMIB), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua 05 de Junho s/no, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , 13083-877, Campinas (Brazil)

    2011-10-10

    We have analyzed the adhesion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) genetically modified by green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene cultured on vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) after 6 days. The VACNTs films grown on Ti were obtained by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process using Fe catalyst and submitted to an oxygen plasma treatment, for 2 min, at 400 V and 80 mTorr, to convert them to superhydrophilic. Cellular adhesion and morphology were analyzed by scanning electron, fluorescence microscopy, and thermodynamics analysis. Characterizations of superhydrophilic VACNTs films were evaluated by contact angle and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Differences of crowd adhered cells, as well as their spreading on superhydrophilic VACNTs scaffolds, were evaluated using focal adhesion analysis. This study was the first to demonstrate, in real time, that the wettability of VACNTs scaffolds might have enhanced and differential adherence patterns to the MEF-GFP on VACNTs substrates. Highlights: {yields} A simple oxygen plasma treatment was used to obtain superhydrophilic CNT films. {yields} Superhydrophilic CNTs films were successfully produced by incorporation of carboxylic groups. {yields} Cellular adhesion on superhydrophilic VACNT films was analyzed in real time. {yields} Wettability of CNT films directly affects the cellular migration, proliferation and adhesion.

  4. A novel multistep method for chondroitin sulphate immobilization and its interaction with fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaltin, Kadir; Lehocký, Marián, E-mail: lehocky@post.cz; Kuceková, Zdenka; Humpolíček, Petr; Sáha, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric biomaterials are widely used in medical applications owing to their low cost, processability and sufficient toughness. Surface modification by creating a thin film of bioactive agents is promising technique to enhance cellular interactions, regulate the protein adsorption and/or avoid bacterial infections. Polyethylene is one of the most used polymeric biomaterial but its hydrophobic nature impedes its further chemical modifications. Plasma treatment is unique method to increase its hydrophilicity by incorporating hydrophilic oxidative functional groups and tailoring the surface by physical etching. Furthermore, grafting of polymer brushes of amine group containing monomers onto the functionalized surface lead to strongly immobilized bioactive agents at the final step. Chondroitin sulphate is natural polysaccharide mainly found in connective cartilage tissue which used as a bioactive agent to immobilize onto polyethylene surface by multistep method in this study. - Highlights: • Attachment of chondroitin sulfate to polyethylene. • A robust way to modify surfaces using multistep approach. • The modified surfaces showed improved proliferation of mouse primary fibroblast cells.

  5. Tamarind Seed Xyloglucans Promote Proliferation and Migration of Human Skin Cells through Internalization via Stimulation of Proproliferative Signal Transduction Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Nie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xyloglucans (XGs of Tamarindus indica L. Fabaceae are used as drug vehicles or as ingredients of cosmetics. Two xyloglucans were extracted from T. indica seed with cold water (TSw and copper complex precipitation (TSc. Both were analyzed in regard to composition and influence on cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, MAPK phosphorylation, and gene expression of human skin keratinocytes (NHEK and HaCaT and fibroblasts (NHDF in vitro. TSw and TSc differed in molecular weight, rhamnose content, and ratios of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose. Both XGs improved keratinocytes and fibroblast proliferation, promoted the cell cycle, and stimulated migration and intracellular enzyme activity of NHDF after endosomal uptake. Only TSw significantly enhanced HaCaT migration and extracellular enzyme activity of NHDF and HaCaT. TSw and TSc predominantly enhanced the phosphorylation of molecules that referred to Erk signaling in NHEK. In NHDF parts of the integrin signaling and SAPK/JNK pathway were affected. Independent of cell type TSw marginally regulated the expression of genes, which referred to membrane proteins, cytoskeleton, cytokine signaling, and ECM as well as to processes of metabolism and transcription. Results show that T. indica xyloglucans promote skin regeneration by a direct influence on cell proliferation and migration.

  6. α-Ketoglutarate Promotes Pancreatic Progenitor-Like Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A major source of β cell generation is pancreatic progenitor-like cell differentiation. Multiple studies have confirmed that stem cell metabolism plays important roles in self-renewal and proliferation. In the absence of glucose, glutamine provides the energy for cell division and growth. Furthermore, α-ketoglutarate (αKG, a precursor for glutamine synthesis, is sufficient for enabling glutamine-independent cell proliferation. We have demonstrated that αKG contributes to the large-scale proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells that can provide an ample amount of clinically relevant β cells. We compared the mRNA expression of a subset of genes, the abundance of ATP, reactive oxide species, mitochondrial number, and the colony-forming frequency between mouse pancreatic CD133+ and CD133− cells. We employed Real-Time PCR, immunostaining and passage assays to investigate self-renewal and proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells in a 3D culture system in the presence and absence of αKG. The energy metabolism of CD133+ cells was more prone to oxidative phosphorylation. However, in the 3D culture system, when αKG was supplemented to the culture medium, the proliferation of the pancreatic progenitor-like cells was significantly elevated. We confirmed that the presence of αKG correlated with the up-regulation of Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet. αKG can promote the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells via the up-regulation of Tet.

  7. α-Ketoglutarate Promotes Pancreatic Progenitor-Like Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing; Ma, Dongshen; Xing, Yun; Tang, Shanshan; Alahdal, Murad; Guo, Jiamin; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Yanfeng; Shen, Yumeng; Wu, Qiong; Lu, Zhou; Jin, Liang

    2018-03-22

    A major source of β cell generation is pancreatic progenitor-like cell differentiation. Multiple studies have confirmed that stem cell metabolism plays important roles in self-renewal and proliferation. In the absence of glucose, glutamine provides the energy for cell division and growth. Furthermore, α-ketoglutarate (αKG), a precursor for glutamine synthesis, is sufficient for enabling glutamine-independent cell proliferation. We have demonstrated that αKG contributes to the large-scale proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells that can provide an ample amount of clinically relevant β cells. We compared the mRNA expression of a subset of genes, the abundance of ATP, reactive oxide species, mitochondrial number, and the colony-forming frequency between mouse pancreatic CD133⁺ and CD133 - cells. We employed Real-Time PCR, immunostaining and passage assays to investigate self-renewal and proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells in a 3D culture system in the presence and absence of αKG. The energy metabolism of CD133⁺ cells was more prone to oxidative phosphorylation. However, in the 3D culture system, when αKG was supplemented to the culture medium, the proliferation of the pancreatic progenitor-like cells was significantly elevated. We confirmed that the presence of αKG correlated with the up-regulation of Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet). αKG can promote the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells via the up-regulation of Tet.

  8. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Barradas

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase, that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions.

  9. 7-Piperazinethylchrysin inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PEC) on melanoma cell lines. Methods: Cell viability was analyzed by trypan blue exclusion assays and the cell cycle by flow cytometry using ModFit LT software. Specifically, cells were stained with propidium iodide (0.5 mg/mL) supplemented ...

  10. Cell cycles and proliferation patterns in Haematococcus pluvialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on Haematococcus pluvialis have been focused on cell growth and astaxanthin accumulation; far less attention has been paid to cell cycles and proliferation patterns. The purpose of this study was to clarify cell cycles and proliferation patterns in H. pluvialis microscopically using a camera and video recorder system. The complicated life history of H. pluvialis can be divided into two stages: the motile stage and the non-motile stage. All the cells can be classified into forms as follows: motile cell, nonmotile cell, zoospore and aplanospore. The main cell proliferation, both in the motile phase and non-motile phase in H. pluvialis, is by asexual reproduction. Under normal growth conditions, a motile cell usually produces two, sometimes four, and exceptionally eight zoospores. Under unfavorable conditions, the motile cell loses its flagella and transforms into a non-motile cell, and the non-motile cell usually produces 2, 4 or 8 aplanospores, and occasionally 20-32 aplanospores, which further develop into non-motile cells. Under suitable conditions, the non-motile cell is also able to release zoospores. The larger non-motile cells produce more than 16 zoospores, and the smaller ones produce 4 or 8 zoospores. Vegetative reproduction is by direct cell division in the motile phase and by occasional cell budding in the non-motile phase. There is, as yet, no convincing direct evidence for sexual reproduction.

  11. Administration of PDE4 Inhibitors Suppressed the Pannus-Like Inflammation by Inhibition of Cytokine Production by Macrophages and Synovial Fibroblast Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Kobayashi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marked proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in joints leads to pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Various kinds of cytokines are produced in the pannus. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 inhibitors in a new animal model for the evaluation of pannus formation and cytokine production in the pannus. Mice sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA were challenged by subcutaneous implantation of a membrane filter soaked in mBSA solution in the back of the mice. Drugs were orally administered for 10 days. The granuloma formed around the filter was collected on day 11. It was chopped into pieces and cultured in vitro for 24 hr. The cytokines were measured in the supernatants. The type of cytokines produced in the granuloma was quite similar to those produced in pannus in RA. Both PDE4 inhibitors, KF66490 and SB207499, suppressed the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12, and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity, a marker enzyme for neutrophils and hydroxyproline content. Compared to leflunomide, PDE4 inhibitors more strongly suppressed IL-12 production and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity. PDE4 inhibitors also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α and IL-12 production from thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages and the proliferation of rat synovial fibroblasts. These results indicate this model makes it easy to evaluate the effect of drugs on various cytokine productions in a granuloma without any purification step and may be a relevant model for evaluating novel antirheumatic drugs on pannus formation in RA. PDE4 inhibitors could have therapeutic effects on pannus formation in RA by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation.

  12. Administration of PDE4 inhibitors suppressed the pannus-like inflammation by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuya; Suda, Toshio; Manabe, Haruhiko; Miki, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    A marked proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in joints leads to pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Various kinds of cytokines are produced in the pannus. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors in a new animal model for the evaluation of pannus formation and cytokine production in the pannus. Mice sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) were challenged by subcutaneous implantation of a membrane filter soaked in mBSA solution in the back of the mice. Drugs were orally administered for 10 days. The granuloma formed around the filter was collected on day 11. It was chopped into pieces and cultured in vitro for 24 hr. The cytokines were measured in the supernatants. The type of cytokines produced in the granuloma was quite similar to those produced in pannus in RA. Both PDE4 inhibitors, KF66490 and SB207499, suppressed the production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-12, and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity, a marker enzyme for neutrophils and hydroxyproline content. Compared to leflunomide, PDE4 inhibitors more strongly suppressed IL-12 production and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity. PDE4 inhibitors also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha and IL-12 production from thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages and the proliferation of rat synovial fibroblasts. These results indicate this model makes it easy to evaluate the effect of drugs on various cytokine productions in a granuloma without any purification step and may be a relevant model for evaluating novel antirheumatic drugs on pannus formation in RA. PDE4 inhibitors could have therapeutic effects on pannus formation in RA by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation.

  13. Curcumin and Viscum album Extract Decrease Proliferation and Cell Viability of Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Cells: An In Vitro Analysis of Eight Cell Lines Using Real-Time Monitoring and Colorimetric Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, K; Behr, B; Daigeler, A; Hirsch, T; Jacobsen, F; Renner, M; Harati, A; Wallner, C; Lehnhardt, M; Becerikli, M

    2017-01-01

    The cytostatic effects of the polyphenol curcumin and Viscum album extract (VAE) were assessed in soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) cells. Eight human STS cell lines were used: fibrosarcoma (HT1080), liposarcoma (SW872, T778, MLS-402), synovial sarcoma (SW982, SYO1, 1273), and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (U2197). Primary human fibroblasts served as control cells. Cell proliferation, viability, and cell index (CI) were analyzed by BrdU assay, MTT assay, and real-time cell analysis (RTCA). As indicated by BrdU and MTT, curcumin significantly decreased the cell proliferation of five cell lines (HT1080, SW872, SYO1, 1273, and U2197) and the viability of two cell lines (SW872 and SW982). VAE led to significant decreases of proliferation in eight cell lines (HT1080, SW872, T778, MLS-402, SW982, SYO1, 1293, and U2197) and reduced viability in seven STS lines (HT1080, SW872, T778, MLS-402, SW982, SYO1, and 1273). As indicated by RTCA for 160 h, curcumin decreased the CI of all synovial sarcoma cell lines as well as T778 and HT1080. VAE diminished the CI in most of the synovial sarcoma (SW982, SYO1) and liposarcoma (SW872, T778) cell lines as well as HT1080. Primary fibroblasts were not affected adversely by the two compounds in RTCA. Curcumin and VAE can inhibit the proliferation and viability of STS cells.

  14. Extracorporal Shock Waves Activate Migration, Proliferation and Inflammatory Pathways in Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes, and Improve Wound Healing in an Open-Label, Single-Arm Study in Patients with Therapy-Refractory Chronic Leg Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschermann, Ilknur; Noor, Seema; Venturelli, Sascha; Sinnberg, Tobias; Mnich, Christian D; Busch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Chronic leg ulcers (CLUs) are globally a major cause of morbidity and mortality with increasing prevalence. Their treatment is highly challenging, and many conservative, surgical or advanced therapies have been suggested, but with little overall efficacy. Since the 1980s extracorporal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has gained interest as treatment for specific indications. Here, we report that patients with CLU showed wound healing after ESWT and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We performed cell proliferation and migration assays, FACS- and Western blot analyses, RT-PCR, and Affymetrix gene expression analyses on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and a tube formation assay on human microvascular endothelial cells to assess the impact of shock waves in vitro. In vivo, chronic therapy-refractory leg ulcers were treated with ESWT, and wound healing was assessed. Upon ESWT, we observed morphological changes and increased cell migration of keratinocytes. Cell-cycle regulatory genes were upregulated, and proliferation induced in fibroblasts. This was accompanied by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from keratinocytes, which are known to drive wound healing, and a pro-angiogenic activity of endothelial cells. These observations were transferred "from bench to bedside", and 60 consecutive patients with 75 CLUs with different pathophysiologies (e.g. venous, mixed arterial-venous, arterial) were treated with ESWT. In this setting, 41% of ESWT-treated CLUs showed complete healing, 16% significant improvement, 35% improvement, and 8% of the ulcers did not respond to ESWT. The induction of healing was independent of patient age, duration or size of the ulcer, and the underlying pathophysiology. The efficacy of ESWT needs to be confirmed in controlled trials to implement ESWT as an adjunct to standard therapy or as a stand-alone treatment. Our results suggest that EWST may advance the treatment of chronic, therapy-refractory ulcers. © 2017 The Author

  15. Extracorporal Shock Waves Activate Migration, Proliferation and Inflammatory Pathways in Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes, and Improve Wound Healing in an Open-Label, Single-Arm Study in Patients with Therapy-Refractory Chronic Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Aschermann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic leg ulcers (CLUs are globally a major cause of morbidity and mortality with increasing prevalence. Their treatment is highly challenging, and many conservative, surgical or advanced therapies have been suggested, but with little overall efficacy. Since the 1980s extracorporal shock wave therapy (ESWT has gained interest as treatment for specific indications. Here, we report that patients with CLU showed wound healing after ESWT and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: We performed cell proliferation and migration assays, FACS- and Western blot analyses, RT-PCR, and Affymetrix gene expression analyses on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and a tube formation assay on human microvascular endothelial cells to assess the impact of shock waves in vitro. In vivo, chronic therapy-refractory leg ulcers were treated with ESWT, and wound healing was assessed. Results: Upon ESWT, we observed morphological changes and increased cell migration of keratinocytes. Cell-cycle regulatory genes were upregulated, and proliferation induced in fibroblasts. This was accompanied by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from keratinocytes, which are known to drive wound healing, and a pro-angiogenic activity of endothelial cells. These observations were transferred “from bench to bedside”, and 60 consecutive patients with 75 CLUs with different pathophysiologies (e.g. venous, mixed arterial-venous, arterial were treated with ESWT. In this setting, 41% of ESWT-treated CLUs showed complete healing, 16% significant improvement, 35% improvement, and 8% of the ulcers did not respond to ESWT. The induction of healing was independent of patient age, duration or size of the ulcer, and the underlying pathophysiology. Conclusions: The efficacy of ESWT needs to be confirmed in controlled trials to implement ESWT as an adjunct to standard therapy or as a stand-alone treatment. Our results suggest that EWST may advance the

  16. SOX15 regulates proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xiaohui; Xu, Yun; Jiang, Xiping; Guo, Caixia; Jiang, Jingting

    2017-10-31

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of Sry-like high mobility group box 15 ( SOX15 ) on proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer (EC) cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to determine the expression of SOX15 in EC tissues and adjacent tissues. We used cell transfection method to construct the HEC-1-A and Ishikawa cell lines with stable overexpression and low expression SOX15 Reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot were performed to examine expression of SOX15 mRNA and SOX15 protein, respectively. By conducting a series of cell proliferation assay and migration assay, we analyzed the influence of SOX15 overexpression or low expression on EC cell proliferation and migration. The expression of SOX15 mRNA and protein in EC tissues was significantly lower than that in adjacent tissues. After lentivirus-transfecting SOX15 , the expression level of SOX15 mRNA and protein was significantly increased in cells of SOX15 group, and decreased in sh- SOX15 group. Overexpression of SOX15 could suppress cell proliferation, while down-regulation of SOX15 increased cell proliferation. Flow cytometry results indicated that overexpression of SOX15 induced the ratio of cell-cycle arrest in G 1 stage. In addition, Transwell migration assay results showed that SOX15 overexpression significantly inhibited cell migration, and also down-regulation of SOX15 promoted the migration. As a whole, SOX15 could regulate the proliferation and migration of EC cells and up- regulation of SOX15 could be valuable for EC treatment. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. The geometry of proliferating dicot cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, R W

    2001-02-01

    The distributions of cell size and cell cycle duration were studied in two-dimensional expanding plant tissues. Plastic imprints of the leaf epidermis of three dicot plants, jade (Crassula argentae), impatiens (Impatiens wallerana), and the common begonia (Begonia semperflorens) were made and cell outlines analysed. The average, standard deviation and coefficient of variance (CV = 100 x standard deviation/average) of cell size were determined with the CV of mother cells less than the CV for daughter cells and both are less than that for all cells. An equation was devised as a simple description of the probability distribution of sizes for all cells of a tissue. Cell cycle durations as measured in arbitrary time units were determined by reconstructing the initial and final sizes of cells and they collectively give the expected asymmetric bell-shaped probability distribution. Given the features of unequal cell division (an average of 11.6% difference in size of daughter cells) and the size variation of dividing cells, it appears that the range of cell size is more critically regulated than the size of a cell at any particular time.

  18. Non-Viral Generation of Neural Precursor-like Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maucksch C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to mature neurons by the introduction of defined neural genes. This technology has potential use in the areas of neurological disease modeling and drug development. However, use of induced neurons for large-scale drug screening and cell-based replacement strategies is limited due to their inability to expand once reprogrammed. We propose it would be more desirable to induce expandable neural precursor cells directly from human fibroblasts. To date several pluripotent and neural transcription factors have been shown to be capable of converting mouse fibroblasts to neural stem/precursor-like cells when delivered by viral vectors. Here we extend these findings and demonstrate that transient ectopic insertion of the transcription factors SOX2 and PAX6 to adult human fibroblasts through use of non-viral plasmid transfection or protein transduction allows the generation of induced neural precursor (iNP colonies expressing a range of neural stem and pro-neural genes. Upon differentiation, iNP cells give rise to neurons exhibiting typical neuronal morphologies and expressing multiple neuronal markers including tyrosine hydroxylase and GAD65/67. Importantly, iNP-derived neurons demonstrate electrophysiological properties of functionally mature neurons with the capacity to generate action potentials. In addition, iNP cells are capable of differentiating into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-expressing astrocytes. This study represents a novel virus-free approach for direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to a neural precursor fate.

  19. Influence of laser surface modifying of polyethylene terephthalate on fibroblast cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, H.; Dadsetan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Attempts have been made to evaluate the changes in physical and chemical properties of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface due to laser irradiation. These changes have been investigated from viewpoints of microstructuring and its effect on fibroblast cell behavior. The surfaces of PET were irradiated using CO 2 and KrF excimer pulsed laser. The changes were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements. The data from ATR-FTIR spectra showed that the crystallinity in the surface region decreased due to the CO 2 and excimer laser irradiation. SEM observations showed that specific microstructures were created on the PET surface due to laser irradiation. In order to study biocompatibility and cell behavior, we utilized standard in vitro L929-fibroblast cell culture system. Fibroblast cell adhesion and spreading were significantly correlated to the morphology and wettability of the laser irradiated PET surface

  20. Proliferation of murine midbrain neural stem cells depends upon an endogenous sonic hedgehog (Shh) source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Constanza; Cornejo, Víctor Hugo; Lois, Pablo; Ellis, Tammy; Solis, Natalia P; Wainwright, Brandon J; Palma, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway is responsible for critical patterning events early in development and for regulating the delicate balance between proliferation and differentiation in the developing and adult vertebrate brain. Currently, our knowledge of the potential role of Shh in regulating neural stem cells (NSC) is largely derived from analyses of the mammalian forebrain, but for dorsal midbrain development it is mostly unknown. For a detailed understanding of the role of Shh pathway for midbrain development in vivo, we took advantage of mouse embryos with cell autonomously activated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in a conditional Patched 1 (Ptc1) mutant mouse model. This animal model shows an extensive embryonic tectal hypertrophy as a result of Hh pathway activation. In order to reveal the cellular and molecular origin of this in vivo phenotype, we established a novel culture system to evaluate neurospheres (nsps) viability, proliferation and differentiation. By recreating the three-dimensional (3-D) microenvironment we highlight the pivotal role of endogenous Shh in maintaining the stem cell potential of tectal radial glial cells (RGC) and progenitors by modulating their Ptc1 expression. We demonstrate that during late embryogenesis Shh enhances proliferation of NSC, whereas blockage of endogenous Shh signaling using cyclopamine, a potent Hh pathway inhibitor, produces the opposite effect. We propose that canonical Shh signaling plays a central role in the control of NSC behavior in the developing dorsal midbrain by acting as a niche factor by partially mediating the response of NSC to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. We conclude that endogenous Shh signaling is a critical mechanism regulating the proliferation of stem cell lineages in the embryonic dorsal tissue.

  1. ADAM-17 regulates endothelial cell morphology, proliferation, and in vitro angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeoz, Pal; Goeoz, Monika; Baldys, Aleksander; Hoffman, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Modulation of angiogenesis is a promising approach for treating a wide variety of human diseases including ischemic heart disease and cancer. In this study, we show that ADAM-17 is an important regulator of several key steps during angiogenesis. Knocking down ADAM-17 expression using lentivirus-delivered siRNA in HUVECs inhibited cell proliferation and the ability of cells to form close contact in two-dimensional cultures. Similarly, ADAM-17 depletion inhibited the ability of HUVECs to form capillary-like networks on top of three-dimensional Matrigel as well as in co-culture with fibroblasts within a three-dimensional scaffold. In mechanistic studies, both baseline and VEGF-induced MMP-2 activation and Matrigel invasion were inhibited by ADAM-17 depletion. Based on our findings we propose that ADAM-17 is part of a novel pro-angiogenic pathway leading to MMP-2 activation and vessel formation.

  2. Fibrosis in connective tissue disease: the role of the myofibroblast and fibroblast-epithelial cell interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Thomas; Abraham, David; Lafyatis, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Fibrosis, characterized by excessive extracellular matrix accumulation, is a common feature of many connective tissue diseases, notably scleroderma (systemic sclerosis). Experimental studies suggest that a complex network of intercellular interactions involving endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells, using an array of molecular mediators, drives the pathogenic events that lead to fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β and endothelin-1, which are part of a cytokine hierarchy with connective tissue growth factor, are key mediators of fibrogenesis and are primarily responsible for the differentiation of fibroblasts toward a myofibroblast phenotype. The tight skin mouse (Tsk-1) model of cutaneous fibrosis suggests that numerous other genes may also be important. PMID:17767742

  3. Periostin differentially induces proliferation, contraction and apoptosis of primary Dupuytren's disease and adjacent palmar fascia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vi, Linda; Feng, Lucy; Zhu, Rebecca D.; Wu, Yan; Satish, Latha; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease, (DD), is a fibroproliferative condition of the palmar fascia in the hand, typically resulting in permanent contracture of one or more fingers. This fibromatosis is similar to scarring and other fibroses in displaying excess collagen secretion and contractile myofibroblast differentiation. In this report we expand on previous data demonstrating that POSTN mRNA, which encodes the extra-cellular matrix protein periostin, is up-regulated in Dupuytren's disease cord tissue relative to phenotypically normal palmar fascia. We demonstrate that the protein product of POSTN, periostin, is abundant in Dupuytren's disease cord tissue while little or no periostin immunoreactivity is evident in patient-matched control tissues. The relevance of periostin up-regulation in DD was assessed in primary cultures of cells derived from diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia from the same patients. These cells were grown in type-1 collagen-enriched culture conditions with or without periostin addition to more closely replicate the in vivo environment. Periostin was found to differentially regulate the apoptosis, proliferation, α smooth muscle actin expression and stressed Fibroblast Populated Collagen Lattice contraction of these cell types. We hypothesize that periostin, secreted by disease cord myofibroblasts into the extra-cellular matrix, promotes the transition of resident fibroblasts in the palmar fascia toward a myofibroblast phenotype, thereby promoting disease progression.

  4. Effects of "second-hand" smoke on structure and function of fibroblasts, cells that are critical for tissue repair and remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Madhav

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that "second-hand" cigarette smoke leads to abnormal tissue repair and remodelling but the cellular mechanisms involved in these adverse effects are not well understood. Fibroblasts play a major role in repair and remodelling. They orchestrate these processes by proliferating, migrating, and secreting proteins such as, cytokines, growth factors and extracellular matrix molecules. Therefore, we focus our studies on the effects of "second-hand" cigarette smoke on the structure and function of these cells. Results We used sidestream whole (SSW smoke, a major component of "second-hand" smoke, primary embryonic fibroblasts, cells that behave very much like wound fibroblasts, and a variety of cellular and molecular approaches. We show that doses of smoke similar to those found in tissues cause cytoskeletal changes in the fibroblasts that may lead to a decrease in cell migration. In addition, we also show that these levels of cigarette smoke stimulate an increase in cell survival that is reflected in an increase and/or activation of stress/survival proteins such as cIL-8, grp78, PKB/Akt, p53, and p21. We further show that SSW affects the endomembrane system and that this effect is also accomplished by nicotine alone. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that: (i SSW may delay wound repair because of the inability of the fibroblasts to migrate into the wounded area, leading to an accumulation of these cells at the edge of the wound, thus preventing the formation of the healing tissue; (ii the increase in cell survival coupled to the decrease in cell migration can lead to a build-up of connective tissue, thereby causing fibrosis and excess scarring.

  5. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E; Li, Juan; Moldt, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based do......We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon...

  6. Enhancement of hybridoma formation, clonability and cell proliferation in a nanoparticle-doped aqueous environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnieli Ohad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isolation and production of human monoclonal antibodies is becoming an increasingly important pursuit as biopharmaceutical companies migrate their drug pipelines away from small organic molecules. As such, optimization of monoclonal antibody technologies is important, as this is becoming the new rate-limiting step for discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals. The major limitations of this system are the efficiency of isolating hybridoma clones, the process of stabilizing these clones and optimization of hybridoma cell secretion, especially for large-scale production. Many previous studies have demonstrated how perturbations in the aqueous environment can impact upon cell biology. In particular, radio frequency (RF irradiation of solutions can have dramatic effects on behavior of solutions, cells and in particular membrane proteins, although this effect decays following removal of the RF. Recently, it was shown that nanoparticle doping of RF irradiated water (NPD water produced a stabilized aqueous medium that maintained the characteristic properties of RF irradiated water for extended periods of time. Therefore, the ordering effect in water of the RF irradiation can now be studied in systems that required prolonged periods for analysis, such as eukaryotic cell culture. Since the formation of hybridoma cells involves the formation of a new membrane, a process that is affected by the surrounding aqueous environment, we tested these nanoparticle doped aqueous media formulations on hybridoma cell production. Results In this study, we tested the entire process of isolation and production of human monoclonal antibodies in NPD water as a means for further enhancing human monoclonal antibody isolation and production. Our results indicate an overall enhancement of hybridoma yield, viability, clonability and secretion. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that immortal cells proliferate faster whereas primary human fibroblasts

  7. Influence of hyperthermia on the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 from human skin fibroblasts and meningioma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Zang, K D; Issinger, O G

    1983-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts and meningioma cells, derived from primary cultures of the same patients have been used to study the influence of hyperthermia on (i) cell morphology and (ii) phosphorylation pattern of ribosomal and ribosome-associated proteins. Incubation of tumour cells and fibroblasts up to 7...

  8. Metabolic and physiologic studies of nonimmune lymphoid cells cytotoxic for fibroblastic cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhew, E.; Bennett, M.

    1974-01-01

    An in vitro reaction between mouse lymphoid cells and target fibroblastic cells in wells of microtest plates, which appears to simulate the in vivo rejection of hemopoietic allografts, has been analyzed for metabolic and physiologic requirements. Protein synthesis was required for only the first few hours of culture. Inhibition of RNA synthesis and alteration of cell surface charge with various agents were without obvious effects. Metabolic slowing at 4 0 C or deviation of the pH of the culture medium suppressed the reaction. Thymus cells, which are not cytotoxic in this system, significantly but not completely inhibited the cytotoxicity of lymph node cells. Antiserum directed against target cells specifically protected them from the cytotoxic lymphoid cells in the absence of complement. Precursors of cytotoxic lymphoid cells were radiosensitive, unlike the cytotoxic cells themselves. BALB/c anti-C57BL/6 spleen cell serum and 89 Sr both are able to prevent rejection of marrow allografts in vivo. Lymphoid cells incubated with this antiserum plus complement lost much of their cytotoxicity but were still effective at high ratios of aggressor to target cells. Lymphoid cells of mice treated with 89 Sr were effectively cytotoxic but lost practically all of their cytotoxicity after incubation with the antiserum plus complement. Thus, it appears that this reaction detects two different cytotoxic lymphoid cells, either of which can function in vitro. Both cell types may need to cooperate in vivo during marrow allograft rejections

  9. Dictyostelium cells bind a secreted autocrine factor that represses cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Jonathan M; Bakthavatsalam, Deenadayalan; Phillips, Jonathan E; Gomer, Richard H

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Dictyostelium cells secrete the proteins AprA and CfaD. Cells lacking either AprA or CfaD proliferate faster than wild type, while AprA or CfaD overexpressor cells proliferate slowly, indicating that AprA and CfaD are autocrine factors that repress proliferation. CfaD interacts with AprA and requires the presence of AprA to slow proliferation. To determine if CfaD is necessary for the ability of AprA to slow proliferation, whether AprA binds to cells, and if so whether the...

  10. Fibroblast-matrix interplay: Nintedanib and pirfenidone modulate the effect of IPF fibroblast-conditioned matrix on normal fibroblast phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein Shochet, Gali; Wollin, Lutz; Shitrit, David

    2018-03-12

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with poor prognosis. Activated fibroblasts are the key effector cells in fibrosis, producing excessive amounts of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Whether the ECM conditioned by IPF fibroblasts determines the phenotype of naïve fibroblasts is difficult to explore. IPF-derived primary fibroblasts were cultured on Matrigel and then cleared using ammonium hydroxide, creating an IPF-conditioned matrix (CM). Normal fibroblast CM served as control. Normal fibroblasts were cultured on both types of CM, and cell count, cell distribution and markers of myofibroblast differentiation; transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling; and ECM expression were assessed. The effects of the anti-fibrotic drugs nintedanib and pirfenidone at physiologically relevant concentrations were also explored. Normal fibroblasts cultured on IPF-CM arranged in large aggregates as a result of increased proliferation and migration. Moreover, increased levels of pSmad3, pSTAT3 (phospho signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and Collagen1a were found, suggesting a differentiation towards a myofibroblast-like phenotype. SB505124 (10 μmol/L) partially reversed these alterations, suggesting a TGFβ contribution. Furthermore, nintedanib at 100 nmol/L and, to a lesser extent, pirfenidone at 100 μmol/L prevented the IPF-CM-induced fibroblast phenotype alterations, suggesting an attenuation of the ECM-fibroblast interplay. IPF fibroblasts alter the ECM, thus creating a CM that further propagates an IPF-like phenotype in normal fibroblasts. This assay demonstrated differences in drug activities for approved IPF drugs at clinically relevant concentrations. Thus, the matrix-fibroblast phenotype interplay might be a relevant assay to explore drug candidates for IPF treatment. © 2018 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. Monovalent ions control proliferation of Ehrlich Lettre ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Preisler, Sarah; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2010-01-01

    of Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. We measured the intracellular concentration of each ion in G(0), G(1), and S phases of the cell cycle following synchronization by serum starvation and release. We show that intracellular concentrations and content of Na+ and Cl(-) were reduced in the G(0)-G(1) phase...... effect. Western blots showed reduced chloride intracellular channel CLIC1 and chloride channel ClC-2 expression in the plasma membrane in S compared with G(1). Our results suggest that Na+ regulates ELA cell proliferation by regulating intracellular pH while Cl(-) may regulate proliferation by fine...

  12. Cell proliferation and radiosensitivity of cow lymphocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modave, C.; Fabry, L.; Leonard, A.

    1982-01-01

    The harlequin-staining technique has been used to study, after PHA-stimulation, the cell proliferation of cow lymphocytes in culture and to assess the radiosensitivity in first mitosis cells. At the 48 h fixation time, only 34% of the cells are in first mitosis whereas 55% are already in second and 11% in third mitosis. The exposure of cow lymphocytes to 200 rad X-rays result in the production of 16% dicentric chromosomes in first mitosis cells [fr

  13. Chloroquinone Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To demonstrate the role of chloroquinone (CQ) in inducing apoptosis in HONE-1 and HNE-1, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines. Methods: Water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST)-1 assay was used for the determination of cell proliferation while an inverted microscope was employed for the analysis of ...

  14. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Nacev

    Full Text Available Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA, an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50 dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  15. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, Benjamin A; Liu, Jun O

    2011-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50) dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  16. Polybrene inhibits human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation during lentiviral transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lin

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can be engineered to express specific genes, either for their use in cell-based therapies or to track them in vivo over long periods of time. To obtain long-term expression of these genes, a lentivirus- or retrovirus-mediated cell transduction is often used. However, given that the efficiency with these viruses is typically low in primary cells, additives such as polybrene are always used for efficient viral transduction. Unfortunately, as presented here, exposure to polybrene alone at commonly used concentratons (1-8 µg/mL negatively impacts hMSC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner as measured by CyQUANT, EdU incorporation, and cell cycle analysis. This inhibition of proliferation was observable in culture even 3 weeks after exposure. Culturing the cells in the presence of FGF-2, a potent mitogen, did not abrogate this negative effect of polybrene. In fact, the normally sharp increase in hMSC proliferation that occurs during the first days of exposure to FGF-2 was absent at 4 µg/mL or higher concentrations of polybrene. Similarly, the effect of stimulating cell proliferation under simulated hypoxic conditions was also decreased when cells were exposed to polybrene, though overall proliferation rates were higher. The negative influence of polybrene was, however, reduced when the cells were exposed to polybrene for a shorter period of time (6 hr vs 24 hr. Thus, careful evaluation should be done when using polybrene to aid in lentiviral transduction of human MSCs or other primary cells, especially when cell number is critical.

  17. Controling stem cell proliferation - CKIs at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, SWM; van Lohuizen, M

    2006-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors or CKIs are well recognized as intrinsic regulators of the cell cycle. Here, we discuss recent data implicating their activity in restraining adult stem cell self-renewal, and the role that proteins regulating CKI expression play in this process.

  18. Software for precise tracking of cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Noda, Hisayori; Sugiyama, Mayu; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Fukami, Kiyoko; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed software for analyzing cultured cells that divide as well as migrate. ► The active contour model (Snakes) was used as the core algorithm. ► The time backward analysis was also used for efficient detection of cell division. ► With user-interactive correction functions, the software enables precise tracking. ► The software was successfully applied to cells with fluorescently-labeled nuclei. -- Abstract: We have developed a multi-target cell tracking program TADOR, which we applied to a series of fluorescence images. TADOR is based on an active contour model that is modified in order to be free of the problem of locally optimal solutions, and thus is resistant to signal fluctuation and morphological changes. Due to adoption of backward tracing and addition of user-interactive correction functions, TADOR is used in an off-line and semi-automated mode, but enables precise tracking of cell division. By applying TADOR to the analysis of cultured cells whose nuclei had been fluorescently labeled, we tracked cell division and cell-cycle progression on coverslips over an extended period of time.

  19. Emodin downregulates cell proliferation markers during DMBA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cell-cycle disruption is the major characteristic features of neoplastic transformation and the status of cell-cycle regulators can thus be utilized to assess the prognostic significance in patients with cancer. The PCNA, cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and survivin expression in the buccal mucosa was utilized to evaluate ...

  20. Antitumor Cell-Complex Vaccines Employing Genetically Modified Tumor Cells and Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the immune response mediated by vaccination with cell complexes composed of irradiated B16 tumor cells and mouse fibroblasts genetically modified to produce GM-CSF. The animals were vaccinated with free B16 cells or cell complexes. We employed two gene plasmid constructions: one high producer (pMok and a low producer (p2F. Tumor transplant was performed by injection of B16 tumor cells. Plasma levels of total IgG and its subtypes were measured by ELISA. Tumor volumes were measured and survival curves were obtained. The study resulted in a cell complex vaccine able to stimulate the immune system to produce specific anti-tumor membrane proteins (TMP IgG. In the groups vaccinated with cells transfected with the low producer plasmid, IgG production was higher when we used free B16 cell rather than cell complexes. Nonspecific autoimmune response caused by cell complex was not greater than that induced by the tumor cells alone. Groups vaccinated with B16 transfected with low producer plasmid reached a tumor growth delay of 92% (p ≤ 0.01. When vaccinated with cell complex, the best group was that transfected with high producer plasmid, reaching a tumor growth inhibition of 56% (p ≤ 0.05. Significant survival (40% was only observed in the groups vaccinated with free transfected B16 cells.

  1. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...... increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH...... and activation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 and the transcription factors STAT1 and 3. The activation of the insulin gene however also requires the distal part of the receptor and activation of calcium uptake and STAT5. In order to identify putative autocrine growth factors or targets for growth factors we have...

  2. AhR-dependent secretion of PDGF-BB by human classically activated macrophages exposed to DEP extracts stimulates lung fibroblast proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaguin, Marie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes Cedex (France); Lecureur, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.lecureur@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2015-06-15

    Lung diseases are aggravated by exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) found in air pollution. Macrophages are thought to play a crucial role in lung immune response to these pollutants, even if the mechanisms involved remain incompletely characterized. In the present study, we demonstrated that classically and alternative human macrophages (MΦ) exhibited increased secretion of PDGF-B in response to DEP extract (DEPe). This occurred via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activation because DEPe-induced PDGF-B overexpression was abrogated after AhR expression knock-down by RNA interference, in both M1 and M2 polarizing MΦ. In addition, TCDD and benzo(a)pyrene, two potent AhR ligands, also significantly increased mRNA expression of PDGF-B in M1 MΦ, whereas some weak ligands of AhR did not. We next evaluated the impact of conditioned media (CM) from MΦ culture exposed to DEPe or of recombinant PDGF-B onto lung fibroblast proliferation. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG-1295, prevents phosphorylations of PDGF-Rβ, AKT and ERK1/2 and the proliferation of MRC-5 fibroblasts induced by recombinant PDGF-B and by CM from M1 polarizing MΦ, strongly suggesting that the PDGF-BB secreted by DEPe-exposed MΦ is sufficient to activate the PDGF-Rβ pathway of human lung fibroblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that human MΦ, whatever their polarization status, secrete PDGF-B in response to DEPe and that PDGF-B is a target gene of AhR. Therefore, induction of PDGF-B by DEP may participate in the deleterious effects towards human health triggered by such environmental urban contaminants. - Highlights: • PDGF-B expression and secretion are increased by DEPe exposure in human M1 and M2 MΦ. • DEPe-induced PDGF-B expression is aryl-hydrocarbon-dependent. • DEPe-exposed M1 MΦ secrete sufficient PDGF-B to increase lung fibroblast proliferation.

  3. The influence of autologous tumor fibroblasts on the radiosensitivity of squamous cell carcinoma megacolonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummermehr, Johann; Malinen, Eirik; Freykowski, Sabine; Sund, Malte; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study the influence of tumor fibroblasts on radiosensitivity and stem cell fraction of tumor cells in squamous cell carcinoma megacolonies by determining colony cure and clonogen survival. Methods and Materials: Murine squamous cell carcinoma cells (AT478c) grown as flat but multilayered megacolonies were co-cultured with pre-irradiated tumor fibroblasts derived from the same carcinoma, and irradiated with 1, 2, 4, or 8 fractions. Recurrent clones and their growth pattern in situ were recorded. From megacolony cure data and clonogen survival data, the clonogen number and the parameters of cellular radiosensitivity were calculated. Results: The curability of the co-cultured megacolonies, as determined by TCD50 values, was significantly increased compared to the megacolonies without fibroblasts (p<0.01). Both the megacolony cure and clonogen survival data suggested a decrease of the clonogen fraction in the co-cultured megacolonies. Conclusion: The presence of tumor fibroblasts increases megacolony radiosensitivity. This is due to a decrease in the fraction of clonogens in the tumor megacolony, apparently caused by a downregulation of the stem cell fraction of the tumor cells

  4. Mucosal stromal fibroblasts markedly enhance HIV infection of CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Neidleman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding early events of HIV transmission within mucosal tissues is vital for developing effective prevention strategies. Here, we report that primary stromal fibroblasts isolated from endometrium, cervix, foreskin, male urethra, and intestines significantly increase HIV infection of CD4+ T cells-by up to 37-fold for R5-tropic HIV and 100-fold for X4-tropic HIV-without themselves becoming infected. Fibroblasts were more efficient than dendritic cells at trans-infection and mediate this response in the absence of the DC-SIGN and Siglec-1 receptors. In comparison, mucosal epithelial cells secrete antivirals and inhibit HIV infection. These data suggest that breaches in the epithelium allow external or luminal HIV to escape an antiviral environment to access the infection-favorable environment of the stromal fibroblasts, and suggest that resident fibroblasts have a central, but previously unrecognized, role in HIV acquisition at mucosal sites. Inhibiting fibroblast-mediated enhancement of HIV infection should be considered as a novel prevention strategy.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of laser radiation on fibroblast proliferation in repair of skin wounds of rats with iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Isabele C. V.; Oliveira-Sampaio, Susana C. P.; Monteiro, Juliana S. de C.; Ferreira, Maria de Fátima L.; Cangussu, Maria T.; N. dos Santos, Jean; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) on fibroblast proliferation on wound repair of rats with Iron deficiency anemia since there is no reports on literature about this subject. Iron deficiency anemia was induced on 36 newborn rats then an excisional wound was created on the dorsum of the animals which were divided into four groups: (I) - non-anemic, (II) - Anemic, (III) - non-anemic + LLLT, (IV) Anemic+ LLLT. The animals in each group were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 days. Laser irradiation was performed on each group (λ660nm,40Mw,CW) by contact mode with a dose of 2,5J/ cm2 in four points on the area of the wound and total of 10J/cm2 per session. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Paired t-test. The results showed LLLT was able to stimulate fibroblastic proliferation in rats with iron deficiency anemia at the 21st day while at control group (III) no statistically significant differences was found.

  6. Reciprocal control of cell proliferation and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Donatis Alina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In adult tissue the quiescent state of a single cell is maintained by the steady state conditions of its own microenvironment for what concern both cell-cell as well as cell-ECM interaction and soluble factors concentration. Physiological or pathological conditions can alter this quiescent state through an imbalance of both soluble and insoluble factors that can trigger a cellular phenotypic response. The kind of cellular response depends by many factors but one of the most important is the concentration of soluble cytokines sensed by the target cell. In addition, due to the intrinsic plasticity of many cellular types, every single cell is able, in response to the same stimulus, to rapidly switch phenotype supporting minimal changes of microenviromental cytokines concentration. Wound healing is a typical condition in which epithelial, endothelial as well as mesenchymal cells are firstly subjected to activation of their motility in order to repopulate the damaged region and then they show a strong proliferative response in order to successfully complete the wound repair process. This schema constitute the leitmotif of many other physiological or pathological conditions such as development vasculogenesis/angiogenesis as well as cancer outgrowth and metastasis. Our review focuses on the molecular mechanisms that control the starting and, eventually, the switching of cellular phenotypic outcome in response to changes in the symmetry of the extracellular environment.

  7. Tracking and Finding Slow-Proliferating/Quiescent Cancer Stem Cells with Fluorescent Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lee, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Ruey-Jen; Huang, Chih-Wei; Liao, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yit-Tsong; Fang, Jim-Min; Lee, Te-Chang; Yu, Alice L; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2015-09-09

    Quiescent cancer stem cells (CSCs) have long been considered to be a source of tumor initiation. However, identification and isolation of these cells have been hampered by the fact that commonly used fluorescent markers are not sufficiently stable, both chemically and photophysically, to allow tracking over an extended period of time. Here, it is shown that fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are well suited for this application. Genotoxicity tests of FNDs with comet and micronucleus assays for human fibroblasts and breast cancer cells indicate that the nanoparticles neither cause DNA damage nor impair cell growth. Using AS-B145-1R breast cancer cells as the model cell line for CSC, it is found that the FND labeling outperforms 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) in regards to its long-term tracking capability (>20 d). Moreover, through a quantification of their stem cell activity by measuring mammosphere-forming efficiencies (MFEs) and self-renewal rates, the FND-positive cells are identified to have an MFE twice as high as that of the FND-negative cells isolated from the same dissociated mammospheres. Thus, the nanoparticle-based labeling technique provides an effective new tool for tracking and finding slow-proliferating/quiescent CSCs in cancer research. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cathepsin K in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: LAM Cell-Fibroblast Interactions Enhance Protease Activity by Extracellular Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Arundhati; Clements, Debbie; Fisher, Andrew J; Johnson, Simon R

    2017-08-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease in which LAM cells and fibroblasts form lung nodules and it is hypothesized that LAM nodule-derived proteases cause cyst formation and tissue damage. On protease gene expression profiling in whole lung tissue, cathepsin K gene expression was 40-fold overexpressed in LAM compared with control lung tissue (P ≤ 0.0001). Immunohistochemistry confirmed cathepsin K protein was expressed in LAM but not control lungs. Cathepsin K gene expression and protein and protease activity were detected in LAM-associated fibroblasts but not the LAM cell line 621-101. In lung nodules, cathepsin K immunoreactivity predominantly co-localized with LAM-associated fibroblasts. In vitro, fibroblast extracellular cathepsin K activity was minimal at pH 7.5 but significantly enhanced at pH 7 and 6. 621-101 cells reduced extracellular pH with acidification dependent on 621-101 mechanistic target of rapamycin activity and net hydrogen ion exporters, particularly sodium bicarbonate co-transporters and carbonic anhydrases, which were also expressed in LAM lung tissue. In LAM cell-fibroblast co-cultures, acidification paralleled cathepsin K activity, and both were reduced by sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (P ≤ 0.0001) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (P = 0.0021). Our findings suggest that cathepsin K activity is dependent on LAM cell-fibroblast interactions, and inhibitors of extracellular acidification may be potential therapies for LAM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Melanoma Cells Can Adopt the Phenotype of Stromal Fibroblasts and Macrophages by Spontaneous Cell Fusion in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemény, Lajos V; Kurgyis, Zsuzsanna; Buknicz, Tünde; Groma, Gergely; Jakab, Ádám; Zänker, Kurt; Dittmar, Thomas; Kemény, Lajos; Németh, István B

    2016-06-02

    After the removal of primary cutaneous melanoma some patients develop local recurrences, even after having histologically tumor-free re-excision. A potential explanation behind this phenomenon is that tumor cells switch their phenotype, making their recognition via standard histopathological assessments extremely difficult. Tumor-stromal cell fusion has been proposed as a potential mechanism for tumor cells to acquire mesenchymal traits; therefore, we hypothesized that melanoma cells could acquire fibroblast- and macrophage-like phenotypes via cell fusion. We show that melanoma cells spontaneously fuse with human dermal fibroblasts and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The hybrid cells' nuclei contain chromosomes from both parental cells and are indistinguishable from the parental fibroblasts or macrophages based on their morphology and immunophenotype, as they could lose the melanoma specific MART1 marker, but express the fibroblast marker smooth muscle actin or the macrophage marker CD68. Our results suggest that, by spontaneous cell fusion in vitro, tumor cells can adopt the morphology and immunophenotype of stromal cells while still carrying oncogenic, tumor-derived genetic information. Therefore, melanoma-stromal cell fusion might play a role in missing tumor cells by routine histopathological assessments.

  10. Automated measurement of cell motility and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goff Julie

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time-lapse microscopic imaging provides a powerful approach for following changes in cell phenotype over time. Visible responses of whole cells can yield insight into functional changes that underlie physiological processes in health and disease. For example, features of cell motility accompany molecular changes that are central to the immune response, to carcinogenesis and metastasis, to wound healing and tissue regeneration, and to the myriad developmental processes that generate an organism. Previously reported image processing methods for motility analysis required custom viewing devices and manual interactions that may introduce bias, that slow throughput, and that constrain the scope of experiments in terms of the number of treatment variables, time period of observation, replication and statistical options. Here we describe a fully automated system in which images are acquired 24/7 from 384 well plates and are automatically processed to yield high-content motility and morphological data. Results We have applied this technology to study the effects of different extracellular matrix compounds on human osteoblast-like cell lines to explore functional changes that may underlie processes involved in bone formation and maintenance. We show dose-response and kinetic data for induction of increased motility by laminin and collagen type I without significant effects on growth rate. Differential motility response was evident within 4 hours of plating cells; long-term responses differed depending upon cell type and surface coating. Average velocities were increased approximately 0.1 um/min by ten-fold increases in laminin coating concentration in some cases. Comparison with manual tracking demonstrated the accuracy of the automated method and highlighted the comparative imprecision of human tracking for analysis of cell motility data. Quality statistics are reported that associate with stage noise, interference by non-cell

  11. Development of bioengineering system for stem cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. S.; Shah, R.; Shah, C.

    2016-08-01

    From last decades, intensive research in the field of stem cells proliferation had been promoted due to the unique property of stem cells to self-renew themselves into multiples and has potential to replicate into an organ or tissues and so it's highly demanding though challenging. Bioreactor, a mechanical device, works as a womb for stem cell proliferation by providing nutritious environment for the proper growth of stem cells. Various factors affecting stem cells growth are the bioreactor mechanism, feeding of continuous nutrients, healthy environment, etc., but it always remains a challenge for controlling biological parameters. The present paper unveils the design of mechanical device commonly known as bioreactor in tissues engineering and biotech field, use for proliferation of stem cells and imparts the proper growing condition for stem cells. This high functional bioreactor provides automation mixing of cell culture and stem cells. This design operates in conjunction with mechanism of reciprocating motion. Compare to commercial bioreactors, this proposed design is more convenient, easy to operate and less maintenance is required as bioreactor culture bag is made of polyethylene which is single use purpose. Development of this bioengineering system will be beneficial for better growth and expansion of stem cell

  12. Potentially lethal damage repair in cell lines of radioresistant human tumours and normal skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchese, M.J.; Minarik, L.; Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation cell survival data were obtained in vitro for three cell lines isolated from human tumours traditionally considered to be radioresistant-two melanomas and one osteosarcoma-as well as from a diploid skin fibroblast cell line. One melanoma cell line was much more radioresistant than the other, while the osteosarcoma and fibroblast cell lines were more radiosensitive than either. For cells growing exponentially, little potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) could be demonstrated by comparing survival data for cells in which subculture was delayed by 6 h with those sub-cultured immediately after treatment. For the malignant cells in plateau phase, which in these cells might be better termed 'slowed growth phase', since an appreciable fraction of the cells are still cycling, a small amount of PLDR was observed, but not as much as reported by other investigators in the literature. The normal fibroblasts, which achieved a truer plateau phase in terms of noncycling cells, showed a significantly larger amount of PLDR than the tumour cells. (author)

  13. Role of Dicer1 in thyroid cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha, Ricardo Cortez Cardoso; Sepe, Romina; De Martino, Marco; Esposito, Francesco; Pellecchia, Simona; Raia, Maddalena; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; De Vita, Gabriella; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro; Fusco, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    DICER1 plays a central role in the biogenesis of microRNAs and it is important for normal development. Altered microRNA expression and DICER1 dysregulation have been described in several types of tumors, including thyroid carcinomas. Recently, our group identified a new somatic mutation (c.5438A>G; E1813G) within DICER1 gene of an unknown function. Herein, we show that DICER1 is overexpressed, at mRNA level, in a significant-relative number of papillary (70%) and anaplastic (42%) thyroid carcinoma samples, whereas is drastically downregulated in all the analyzed human thyroid carcinoma cell lines (TPC-1, BCPAP, FRO and 8505c) in comparison with normal thyroid tissue samples. Conversely, DICER1 is downregulated, at protein level, in PTC in comparison with normal thyroid tissues. Our data also reveals that DICER1 overexpression positively regulates thyroid cell proliferation, whereas its silencing impairs thyroid cell differentiation. The expression of DICER1 gene mutation (c.5438A>G; E1813G) negatively affects the microRNA machinery and cell proliferation as well as upregulates DICER1 protein levels of thyroid cells but has no impact on thyroid differentiation. In conclusion, DICER1 protein is downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinomas and affects thyroid proliferation and differentiation, while DICER1 gene mutation (c.5438A>G; E1813G) compromises the DICER1 wild-type-mediated microRNA processing and cell proliferation.

  14. Novel use for polyvinylpyrrolidone as a macromolecular crowder for enhanced extracellular matrix deposition and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rafi; Lim, Natalie Sheng Jie; Chee, Stella Min Ling; Png, Si Ning; Wohland, Thorsten; Raghunath, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Macromolecular crowding (MMC) is a biophysical effect that governs biochemical processes inside and outside of cells. Since standard cell culture media lack this effect, the physiological performance of differentiated and progenitor cells, including extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, is impaired in vitro. To bring back physiological crowdedness to in vitro systems, we have previously introduced carbohydrate-based macromolecules to culture media and have achieved marked improvements with mixed MMC in terms of ECM deposition and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We show here that although this system is successful, it is limited, due to viscosity, to only 33% of the fractional volume occupancy (FVO) of full serum, which we calculated to have an FVO of approximately 54% v/v. We show here that full-serum FVO can be achieved using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) 360 kDa. Under these conditions, ECM deposition in human fibroblasts and MSCs is on par, if not stronger than, with original MMC protocols using carbohydrates, but with a viscosity that is not significantly changed. In addition, we have found that the proliferation rate for bone marrow-derived MSCs and fibroblasts increases slightly in the presence of PVP360, similar to that observed with carbohydrate-based crowders. A palette of MMC compounds is now emerging that enables us to tune the crowdedness of culture media seamlessly from interstitial fluid (9% FVO), in which the majority of tissue cells might be based, to serum environments mimicking intravascular conditions. Despite identical FVO's, individual crowder size effects play a role and different cell types appear to have preferences in terms of FVO and the crowder that this is achieved with. However, in the quest of crowders that we have predicted to have a smoother regulatory approval path, PVP is a highly interesting compound, as it has been widely used in the medical and food industries and shows a novel promising use in cell culture and

  15. Alpha8 Integrin (Itga8 Signalling Attenuates Chronic Renal Interstitial Fibrosis by Reducing Fibroblast Activation, Not by Interfering with Regulation of Cell Turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Marek

    Full Text Available The α8 integrin (Itga8 chain contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in renal glomerular cells. In unilateral ureteral obstruction Itga8 is de novo expressed in the tubulointerstitium and a deficiency of Itga8 results in more severe renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. We hypothesized that the increased tubulointerstitial damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction observed in mice deficient for Itga8 is associated with altered tubulointerstitial cell turnover and apoptotic mechanisms resulting from the lack of Itga8 in cells of the tubulointerstitium. Induction of unilateral ureteral obstruction was achieved by ligation of the right ureter in mice lacking Itga8. Unilateral ureteral obstruction increased proliferation and apoptosis rates of tubuloepithelial and interstitial cells, however, no differences were observed in the tubulointerstitium of mice lacking Itga8 and wild type controls regarding fibroblast or proliferating cell numbers as well as markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. In contrast, unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice lacking Itga8 led to more pronounced tubulointerstitial cell activation i.e. to the appearance of more phospho-SMAD2/3-positive cells and more α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in the tubulointerstitium. Furthermore, a more severe macrophage and T-cell infiltration was observed in these animals compared to controls. Thus, Itga8 seems to attenuate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction not via regulation of cell turnover, but via regulation of TGF-β signalling, fibroblast activation and/or immune cell infiltration.

  16. Transient processes in cell proliferation kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, Andrej Yu

    1989-01-01

    A mathematician who has taken the romantic decision to devote himself to biology will doubtlessly look upon cell kinetics as the most simple and natural field of application for his knowledge and skills. Indeed, the thesaurus he is to master is not so complicated as, say, in molecular biology, the structural elements of the system, i. e. ceils, have been segregated by Nature itself, simple considerations of balance may be used for deducing basic equations, and numerous analogies in other areas of science also superficial add to one"s confidence. Generally speaking, this number of impression is correct, as evidenced by the very great theoretical studies on population kinetics, unmatched in other branches of mathematical biology. This, however, does not mean that mathematical theory of cell systems has traversed in its development a pathway free of difficulties or errors. The seeming ease of formalizing the phenomena of cell kinetics not infrequently led to the appearance of mathematical models lacking in adequ...

  17. Study on the correlation of MLCK and FAP expression with uterine fibroid cell proliferation and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lin1

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK and fibroblast activation protein (FAP expression with uterine fibroid cell proliferation and invasion. Methods: Uterine fibroids samples and normal uterine muscle samples next to fibroids that were surgically removed in Wuhan Red Cross Hospital between May 2014 and January 2017 were chosen, fluorescence quantitative PCR kits were used to deterct MLCK and FAP mRNA expression, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to determine proliferation and invasion gene protein expression. Results: MLCK and FAP mRNA expression in uterine fibroids samples were significantly higher than those in normal uterine muscle samples, and Survivin, Livin, Bcl-2, Snail, N-cadherin and MMP2 protein expression were significantly higher than those in normal uterine muscle samples; Survivin, Livin, Bcl-2, Snail, N-cadherin and MMP2 protein expression in uterine fibroids samples with high MLCK and FAP expression were significantly higher than those in uterine fibroids samples with low MLCK and FAP expression. Conclusion: Highly expressed MLCK and FAP in uterine fibroids can promote the proliferation and invasion of uterine fibroids.

  18. Mechano-Signal Transduction in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces Prosaposin Secretion to Drive the Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Seiichiro; Inman, David R; Li, Wan-Ju; Ponik, Suzanne M; Keely, Patricia J

    2017-11-15

    In response to chemical stimuli from cancer cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can differentiate into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and promote tumor progression. How mechanical stimuli such as stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) contribute to MSC phenotype in cancer remains poorly understood. Here, we show that ECM stiffness leads to mechano-signal transduction in MSC, which promotes mammary tumor growth in part through secretion of the signaling protein prosaposin. On a stiff matrix, MSC cultured with conditioned media from mammary cancer cells expressed increased levels of α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of CAF, compared with MSC cultured on a soft matrix. By contrast, MSC cultured on a stiff matrix secreted prosaposin that promoted proliferation and survival of mammary carcinoma cells but inhibited metastasis. Our findings suggest that in addition to chemical stimuli, increased stiffness of the ECM in the tumor microenvironment induces differentiation of MSC to CAF, triggering enhanced proliferation and survival of mammary cancer cells. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6179-89. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Gremlin-1 induces BMP-independent tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoo Kim

    Full Text Available Gremlin-1, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP antagonist, is overexpressed in various cancerous tissues but its role in carcinogenesis has not been established. Here, we report that gremlin-1 binds various cancer cell lines and this interaction is inhibited by our newly developed gremlin-1 antibody, GRE1. Gremlin-1 binding to cancer cells was unaffected by the presence of BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7. In addition, the binding was independent of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2 expression on the cell surface. Addition of gremlin-1 to A549 cells induced a fibroblast-like morphology and decreased E-cadherin expression. In a scratch wound healing assay, A549 cells incubated with gremlin-1 or transfected with gremlin-1 showed increased migration, which was inhibited in the presence of the GRE1 antibody. Gremlin-1 transfected A549 cells also exhibited increased invasiveness as well as an increased growth rate. These effects were also inhibited by the addition of the GRE1 antibody. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that gremlin-1 directly interacts with cancer cells in a BMP- and VEGFR2-independent manner and can induce cell migration, invasion, and proliferation.

  20. Cell kinetics of irradiated experimental tumors: cell transition from the non-proliferating to the proliferating pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potmesil, M.; Goldfeder, A.

    1980-01-01

    In murine mammary carcinomas, parenchymal tumor cells with dense nucleoli traverse the cell cycle and divide, thus constituting the proliferating pool. Cells with trabeculate or ring-shaped nucleoli either proceed slowly through G 1 phase or are arrested in it. The role of these non-proliferating, G 1 phase-confined cells in tumor regeneration was studied in vivo after a subcurative dose of X-irradiation in two transplantable tumor lines. Tumor-bearing mice were continuously injected with methyl[ 3 H]thymidine before and after irradiation. Finally, the labeling was discontinued, mice injected with vincristine sulfate and cells arrested in metaphase were accumulated over 10-hrs. Two clearly delineated groups of vincristine-arrested mitoses emerged in autoradiograms prepared from tumor tissue at the time of starting tumor regrowth: one group with the silver-grain counts corresponding to the background level, the other with heavily labeled mitoses. As the only source of unlabeled mitoses was unlabeled G 1 phase-confined cells persisting in the tumor, this indicated cell transition from the non-proliferating to the proliferating pool, which took place in the initial phase of the tumor regrowth. Unlabeled progenitors have apparently remained in G 1 phase for at least 5-12 days after irradiation. (author)

  1. Glutathione, cell proliferation and differentiation | Ashtiani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All organisms require an equivalent source for living. Reduced glutathione is the most abundant thiol containing protein in mammalian cells and organs. Glutathione was discovered by Hopkins in 1924 who published his findings in JBC. It is a three peptide containing glutamic acid, cystein and glycin and is found in reduced ...

  2. FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation in human granulosa cell tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Qiu, Xin; Fang, Lanlan; Leung, Peter C.K., E-mail: peter.leung@ubc.ca

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Activin A stimulates cell proliferation in KGN human granulosa cell tumor-derived cell line. •Cyclin D2 mediates activin A-induced KGN cell proliferation. •FOXL2 induces follistatin expression in KGN cells. •FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated KGN cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Human granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, and their etiology remains largely unknown. Recently, the FOXL2 402C > G (C134W) mutation was found to be specifically expressed in human adult-type GCTs; however, its function in the development of human GCTs is not fully understood. Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, which has been shown to stimulate normal granulosa cell