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Sample records for fibrinolytic activity fa

  1. Effects of carbon dioxide level (PCO2) on the fibrinolytic activity (FA) of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langleben, D.; Moroz, L.A.; Danes, D.

    1990-01-01

    Recovery from pulmonary thromboembolism depends on the rapidity and completeness of clot lysis. This involves endogenous fibrinolytic mechanisms, particularly the balance between plasminogen activators and inhibitors produced by endothelial cells. Hypocapnia is common in pulmonary embolism, however it is not known if endothelial fibrinolytic function is affected by PCO 2 . The authors therefore measured the FA in medium (MCDB-131, 0.5% albumin) conditioned for 20 hours in-vitro by exposure to confluent cultures of bovine proximal PAEC. During conditioning, cells were exposed to 5% CO 2 in air (PCO 2 - 36-40mm Hg, CONTROL), or various PCO 2 levels (30-55 mmHg, in air). FA of conditioned medium was determined by 125 I-fibrin solid phase assay, with addition of plasminogen (10 ug/ml). With PCO 2 levels ≤ 35 mmHg, FA in the conditioned medium was 5 to 18% higher than CONTROL FA. When PCO 2 was ≥ 45 mmHg, FA decreased 5 to 60% as compared to CONTROL FA. There was a significant negative linear relationship between PCO 2 and FA. Thus, PCO 2 level can affect PAEC mediated plasminogen activation. This finding may be relevant to in-vivo clearance of clots from pulmonary arteries

  2. Activity assessment of microbial fibrinolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Essam

    2013-08-01

    Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin inside blood vessels results in thrombosis, leading to myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. In general, there are four therapy options: surgical operation, intake of antiplatelets, anticoagulants, or fibrinolytic enzymes. Microbial fibrinolytic enzymes have attracted much more attention than typical thrombolytic agents because of the expensive prices and the side effects of the latter. The fibrinolytic enzymes were successively discovered from different microorganisms, the most important among which is the genus Bacillus. Microbial fibrinolytic enzymes, especially those from food-grade microorganisms, have the potential to be developed as functional food additives and drugs to prevent or cure thrombosis and other related diseases. There are several assay methods for these enzymes; this may due to the insolubility of substrate, fibrin. Existing assay methods can be divided into three major groups. The first group consists of assay of fibrinolytic activity with natural proteins as substrates, e.g., fibrin plate methods. The second and third groups of assays are suitable for kinetic studies and are based on the determination of hydrolysis of synthetic peptide esters. This review will deal primarily with the microorganisms that have been reported in literature to produce fibrinolytic enzymes and the first review discussing the methods used to assay the fibrinolytic activity.

  3. Improvement of Fibrinolytic Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 by Integration of a Fibrinolytic Gene into the Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seon-Ju; Park, Ji Yeong; Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Kang Wook; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Gyoung Min; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2015-11-01

    Fibrinolytic enzyme genes (aprE2, aprE176, and aprE179) were introduced into the Bacillus subtilis 168 chromosome without any antibiotic resistance gene. An integration vector, pDG1662, was used to deliver the genes into the amyE site of B. subtilis 168. Integrants, SJ3-5nc, SJ176nc, and SJ179nc, were obtained after two successive homologous recombinations. The integration of each fibrinolytic gene into the middle of the amyE site was confirmed by phenotypes (Amy(-), Spec(S)) and colony PCR results for these strains. The fibrinolytic activities of the integrants were higher than that of B. subtilis 168 by at least 3.2-fold when grown in LB broth. Cheonggukjang was prepared by inoculating each of B. subtilis 168, SJ3-5nc, SJ176nc, and SJ179nc, and the fibrinolytic activity of cheonggukjang was 4.6 ± 0.7, 10.8 ± 0.9, 7.0 ± 0.6, and 8.0 ± 0.2 (U/g of cheonggukjang), respectively at 72 h. These results showed that construction of B. subtilis strains with enhanced fibrinolytic activities is possible by integration of a strong fibrinolytic gene via a marker-free manner.

  4. Effects of Breast Cancer and Mastectomy on Fibrinolytic Activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is good to know if this is also the case in Africans with breast cancer. Africans are known to possess enhanced fibrinolysis. This study was designed to assess the effect of breast cancer on fibrinolytic activity and the effect of mastectomy on fibrinolysis in African women. Sixty histo-patholically proven breast cancer patients ...

  5. Effect of supine exercise on platelet aggregation and fibrinolytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dag, B; Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Bak, A M

    1994-01-01

    In 12 healthy young men, strenuous cycling exercise in the supine position, caused platelet aggregability to decrease and the ADP threshold to rise from 7.0 microM resting, to 9.5 exercising (P ... from 178 to 68 min, PAI-1 fell from 8.91 to 5.16 IU ml-1, and t-PA rose from 0.56 to 3.95 IU ml-1, all three values were significant to P exercise, it did not increase platelet activity as expected, but caused a modest increase...... of fibrinolytic activity. These results suggest that supine exercise will not affect the haemostatic system adversely....

  6. FIBRINOLYTIC-ACTIVITY IN THE ABDOMINAL-CAVITY OF RATS WITH FECAL PERITONITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; de Graaf, JS; Sluiter, WJ; van der Meer, J; Bom, VJJ; Bleichrodt, RP

    Generalized peritonitis causes a reduction in abdominal fibrinolytic activity, resulting in persistence of intraabdominal fibrin with subsequent adhesion and abscess formation. The activities of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were measured in the

  7. FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An Area Forecast (FA) is a forecast of Visual Flight Rules (VFR) clouds and weather conditions over an area as large as the size of several states.

  8. PROTEOLYTIC AND FIBRINOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF HALOPHILIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM TWO INDONESIAN FERMENTED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep A. Prihanto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of fermented foods as sources of fibrinolytic enzymes is increased in the last decades. Terasi and Jambal roti is Indonesian traditional fermented fish products, which were famous in Java Island. Both are important products in Indonesian dishes, especially in Java. Investigation on halophilic lactic acid bacteria using MRS and M-17 agar obtained seventy four isolated strains. Their proteolytic and fibrinolytic activities were determined using skim milk agar and plasminogen-free fibrin plate. Twenty five isolates showed protease activities, while only four of them secreted fibrinolitic enzyme. The highest proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity was shown by TB1 strain, which is identified as Bacillus coagulans. The 16s rDNA is still in investigating to confirm the TB1 strain identity.

  9. The fibrinolytic mechanism of defibrotide: effect of defibrotide on plasmin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echart, Cinara L; Graziadio, Barbara; Somaini, Simona; Ferro, Laura I; Richardson, Paul G; Fareed, Jawed; Iacobelli, Massimo

    2009-12-01

    Fibrinolytic activity has been shown to be reduced in many vascular diseases, including hepatic veno-occlusive disease after stem cell transplantation, a microangiopathy characterized by sinusoidal endothelial cell injury. Defibrotide is a polydisperse oligonucleotide with antithrombotic, profibrinolytic, anti-ischemic, and antiadhesive properties. Numerous clinical studies have shown promising activity of defibrotide in the treatment and prevention of veno-occlusive disease, with minimal toxicity. In corollary laboratory studies, defibrotide has been shown to decrease plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, increase tissue plasminogen activator levels, and increase overall plasma fibrinolytic activity in patients. Plasmin, a potent and nonspecific serine protease, plays a pivotal role in fibrinolysis by virtue of its ability to effectively degrade fibrin clots. In this study, defibrotide increases the activity of plasmin in hydrolyzing its substrate in a dose-dependent and length-dependent manner. Similar concentration-dependent effects of defibrotide were observed when plasmin was generated by tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase activation of plasminogen. In contrast, defibrotide had no direct effect on the activation of plasminogen to plasmin. Defibrotide was also able to enhance the activity of plasmin in degrading fibrin clot formed from fibrinogen, plasminogen, and thrombin. This effect was also concentration-dependent and directly correlated with the enzymatic activity of plasmin. This study therefore demonstrates that defibrotide is capable of enhancing the activity of plasmin and so contributes to its fibrinolytic activity. Taken together, these results support the effect of defibrotide in restoring the fibrinolytic vascular phenotype, in microangiopathic conditions such as veno-occlusive disease.

  10. Enhancement of the fibrinolytic activity in plasma by oral administration of nattokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, H; Hamada, H; Nakanishi, K; Hiratani, H

    1990-01-01

    The existence of a potent fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase, NK) in the traditional fermented food called 'natto', was reported by us previously. It was confirmed that oral administration of NK (or natto) produced a mild and frequent enhancement of the fibrinolytic activity in the plasma, as indicated by the fibrinolytic parameters, and the production of tissue plasminogen activator. NK capsules were also administered orally to dogs with experimentally induced thrombosis, and lysis of the thrombi was observed by angiography. The results obtained suggest that NK represents a possible drug for use not only in the treatment of embolism but also in the prevention of the disease, since NK has a proven safety and can be massproduced.

  11. Fibrinolytic activity is associated with presence of cystic media degeneration in aneurysms of the ascending aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Borges , Luciano F; Gomez , Delphine; Quintana , Mercedes; Leclercq , Anne; Touat , Ziad; Jondeau , Guillaume; Meilhac , Olivier; Jandrot-Perrus , Martine; Gutierrez , Paulo Sampaio; Freymuller , Edna; Vranckx , Roger; Michel , Jean-Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims Thoracic Ascending Aortic Aneurysms (TAA) are characterized by elastic fibre breakdown and cystic medial degeneration within the aortic media, associated with progressive SMC rarefaction. The TGF-?/Smad2 signaling pathway is involved in this process. Since pericellular fibrinolytic system activation is able to degrade adhesive proteins, activate MMPs, induce SMC disappearance and increase the bio-availability of TGF-?, we explored the plasminergic system in TAA. ...

  12. Human Protein C produces anticoagulation and increased fibrinolytic activity in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdick, M.D.; Schaub, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of activated human Protein C (PCa) infusion on the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems of the Nembutal anesthetized cat was assessed. Human Protein C was activated by incubation with thrombin or by passage over a column of thrombin immobilized on CNBr Sepharose 4B. Cats were given bolus i.v. injections of either vehicle or PCa in a dose range of 3-16 μg/mL of calculated whole body volume. Citrated blood samples (9:1) were taken from a femoral vein prior to and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. after PCa. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) euglobulin clot lysis (ECLT) and I-125 fibrin release (FR) was measured. Vehicle treated cats had no change in any parameter. PCa produced a dose and time dependent prolongation of APTT while TT was unchanged. Anticoagulation was evident immediately after PCa infusion and began to normalize within 20 min. Fibrinolytic activity measured by ECLT and FR was also stimulated by PCa but was not evident until 40-60 minutes after PCa injection. The results show that human PCa induces anticoagulation effects in the cat similar to other species. However, stimulation of fibrinolysis requires a longer period of time before expression. This delay of fibrinolytic stimulation should be considered when assessing the effects of human Protein C in other species

  13. Directed evolution improves the fibrinolytic activity of nattokinase from Bacillus natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongjun, Cai; Wei, Bao; Shujun, Jiang; Meizhi, Weng; Yan, Jia; Yan, Yin; Zhongliang, Zheng; Goulin, Zou

    2011-12-01

    Nattokinase (subtilisin NAT, NK) is a relatively effective microbial fibrinolytic enzyme that has been identified and characterized from Bacillus natto. In the current report, DNA family shuffling was used to improve the fibrinolytic activity of nattokinase. Three homologous genes from B. natto AS 1.107, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CICC 20164 and Bacillus licheniformis CICC 10092 were shuffled to generate a mutant library. A plate-based method was used to screen the mutant libraries for improved activity. After three rounds of DNA shuffling, one desirable mutant with 16 amino acid substitutions was obtained. The mutant enzyme was purified and characterized. The kinetic measurements showed that the catalytic efficiency of the mutant NK was approximately 2.3 times higher than that of the wild-type nattokinase. In addition, the molecular modeling analysis suggested that the mutations affect the enzymatic function by changing the surface conformation of the substrate-binding pocket. The current study shows that the evolution of nattokinase with improved fibrinolytic activity by DNA family shuffling is feasible and provides useful references to facilitate the application of nattokinase in thrombolytic therapy. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fibrinolytic and procoagulant activities of Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T K

    2015-06-01

    Pla of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis and PgtE of the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica are surface-exposed, transmembrane β-barrel proteases of the omptin family that exhibit a complex array of interactions with the hemostatic systems in vitro, and both proteases are established virulence factors. Pla favors fibrinolysis by direct activation of plasminogen, inactivation of the serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and α2-antiplasmin, inactivation of the thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and activation of single-chain urokinase. PgtE is structurally very similar but exhibits partially different functions and differ in expression control. PgtE proteolysis targets control aspects of fibrinolysis, and mimicry of matrix metalloproteinases enhances cell migration that should favor the intracellular spread of the bacterium. Enzymatic activity of both proteases is strongly influenced by the environment-induced variations in lipopolysaccharide that binds to the β-barrel. Both proteases cleave the tissue factor pathway inhibitor and thus also express procoagulant activity. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  15. Fibrinolytic Activity and Dose-Dependent Effect of Incubating Human Blood Clots in Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: In Vitro Assays

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    Abuzar Elnager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has been reported to possess time-dependent fibrinolytic activity by in vitro assay. This study is aimed at investigating fibrinolytic dose-dependent activity of CAPE using in vitro assays. Methods. Standardized human whole blood (WB clots were incubated in either blank controls or different concentrations of CAPE (3.75, 7.50, 15.00, 22.50, and 30.00 mM. After 3 hours, D-dimer (DD levels and WB clot weights were measured for each concentration. Thromboelastography (TEG parameters were recorded following CAPE incubation, and fibrin morphology was examined under a confocal microscope. Results. Overall, mean DD (μg/mL levels were significantly different across samples incubated with different CAPE concentrations, and the median pre- and postincubation WB clot weights (grams were significantly decreased for each CAPE concentration. Fibrin removal was observed microscopically and indicated dose-dependent effects. Based on the TEG test, the Ly30 fibrinolytic parameter was significantly different between samples incubated with two different CAPE concentrations (15.0 and 22.50 mM. The 50% effective dose (ED50 of CAPE (based on DD was 1.99 mg/mL. Conclusions. This study suggests that CAPE possesses fibrinolytic activity following in vitro incubation and that it has dose-dependent activities. Therefore, further investigation into CAPE as a potential alternative thrombolytic agent should be conducted.

  16. Analysis of Proteolytic and Fibrinolytic Activity of the Blood Plasma in Patients with Bronchial Asthma Combined with Obesity

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    Fediv A.I. Fediv A.I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study — to conduct the analysis of the performance of proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity of the blood plasma in patients with bronchial asthma (BA combined with obesity. Materials and methods. The study included 40 patients divided into groups. The basic group consisted of 20 patients with BA associated with obesity (ІI group, two comparison groups — of 10 patients with BA and normal body weight (I group and 10 patients with obesity and without pathology of the bronchopulmonary system (ІІІ group. Control group included 10 apparently healthy persons. In patients with BA, there were investigated the indexes of proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity of the blood plasma. Results. Analysis of the obtained data in patients with BA showed an increase of activity of plasma coagulation factors: total fibrinolytic activity increased in comparison to the control group, and in patients with BA it was 1.46 ± 0.13 Е440/ml/h, while in apparently healthy persons — 1.23 ± 0.16 Е440/ml/h (р < 0.05. In addition, an increase was marked and in the group of patients with the isolated obesity (by 38.5 % as compared to the group of apparently healthy persons, that can be explained by the growth of activity of inflammatory process due to the immune changes related to biological activity of fatty tissue as an additional source of proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusions. In combination of bronchial asthma and obesity, there is an activation of fibrinolytic and proteolytic systems of the blood that leads to microcirculatory and hemostatic disorders, enhancement of inflammatory process. In obesity as the state of systemic inflammatory response, the activation of fibrinolytic and proteolytic blood systems is more significant, than in bronchial asthma.

  17. Clinical Importance of Angiogenic Cytokines, Fibrinolytic Activity and Effusion Size in Parapneumonic Effusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chi-Li; Hsiao, Shih-Hsin; Hsiao, George; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Chen, Wei-Lin; Chang, Shi-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship among angiogenic cytokines, fibrinolytic activity and effusion size in parapneumonic effusion (PPE) and their clinical importance. Methods From January 2008 through December 2010, 26 uncomplicated (UPPE) and 38 complicated (CPPE) PPE were studied. Based on chest ultrasonography, there were non-loculated in 30, uni-loculated in 12, and multi-loculated effusions in 22 patients. The effusion size radiological scores, and effusion vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) were measured on admission. Treatment outcome and pleural fibrosis, defined as radiological residual pleural thickening (RPT), were assessed at 6-month follow-up. Results The effusion size and effusion VEGF, IL-8 and PAI-1/tPA ratio were significantly higher in CPPE than in UPPE, and significantly higher in multi-loculated PPE than in non-locualted and uni-loculated PPE, respectively. VEGF (cutoff value 1975 pg/ml) and IL-8 (cutoff value 1937 pg/ml) seemed best to discriminate between UPPE and CPPE. VEGF, IL-8 and effusion size correlated positively with PAI-1/tPA ratio in both UPPE and CPPE. Moreover, the level of VEGF, but not IL-8, correlated positively with effusion size in all patients (r = 0.79, peffusion were prone to have medical treatment failure (n = 10; VEGF, odds ratio 1.01, p = 0.02; effusion size, odds ratio 1.26, p = 0.01). Additionally, ten patients with RPT had larger effusion size and higher levels of VEGF and PAI-1/tPA ratio than did those without. Conclusions In PPE, VEGF and IL-8 levels are valuable to identify CPPE, and higher VEGF level or larger effusion is associated with decreased fibrinolytic activity, development of pleural loculation and fibrosis, and higher risk of medical treatment failure. PMID:23308155

  18. Blood Fibrinolytic Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated with Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 in the blood serum of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in combination with hypothyroidism. We have observed 62 patients with type 2 DM, 32 of them had primary hypothyroidism. Control group consisted of 20 persons without carbohydrate metabolism disorders and thyroid pathology. In patients with type 2 DM, we have detected violations in the fibrinolytic system as an increase of PAI-1, whose level depends on the body mass index, waist circumference, level of glycated haemoglobin, indexes of insulin resistance, blood lipid spectrum, as well as on the presence of microalbuminuria. The presence of hypothyroidism has an additional negative impact on the parameters of carbohydrate, lipid metabolism and PAI-1 level in patients with type 2 DM.

  19. Static magnetic field effects on proteases with fibrinolytic activity produced by Mucor subtilissimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Wendell; Nascimento, Thiago; Brandão-Costa, Romero; Fernandes, Thiago; Porto, Ana

    2017-02-01

    The influence of a static magnetic field (SMF) on crude enzyme extracts with proteolytic activity is described and discussed. Proteolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze peptide bonds, and fibrinolytic enzymes, which dissolve fibrin clots, have industrial relevance, and applicability dependent on improvements of productivity and activity. We investigated whether a moderate SMF affects proteolysis in different in vitro tests: general proteolysis of azocasein substrate, and static and dynamic fibrinolytic processes (to compare fibrin gel configuration under exposure). Crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state fermentation of Mucor subtilissimus UCP (Universidade Católica de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil) 1262, were used to carry out assays under slightly heterogeneous fields: a varied vertical SMF (for tests in Eppendorf tubes, from 0.100 to 0.170 T) and a varied horizontal SMF (for tests in Petri dishes, from 0.01 to 0.122 T), generated by two permanent magnets (NdFeB alloy). Results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in static fibrinolysis assays after 24 h of exposure. The mean diameter of halos of fibrin degradation in the treated group increased by 21% compared to the control group; and the pixel number count of fibrin consumption (in a computational analysis of the area of each halo) enhanced by 30% with exposure. However, in dynamic fibrinolysis assays, no effects of SMF were observed. These results suggest a response of fibrin monomers to the SMF as a possible cause of the observed effects. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:109-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Abnormalities in the cellular phase of blood fibrinolytic activity in systemic lupus erythematosus and in venous thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, L.A.; MacLean, L.D.; Langleben, D.

    1986-01-01

    Fibrinolytic activities of whole blood and plasma were determined by 125 I-fibrin radiometric assay in 16 normal subjects, and in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 14 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 23 with venous thromboembolic disease, and 20 patients awaiting elective surgery. Mean whole blood and plasma activities for patients with PSS, and for those awaiting elective surgery, were similar to normal values, as was the mean plasma activity in patients with SLE. However, mean whole blood activity in SLE was significantly decreased compared with normals (p less than 0.05), with mean plasma activity accounting for 44% of mean whole blood activity (compared with 17% in normal subjects), representing a 67% decrease in mean calculated cellular phase activity in SLE, when compared with normals. Since the numbers of cells (neutrophils, monocytes) possibly involved in cellular activity were not decreased, the findings suggest a functional defect in fibrinolytic activity of one or more blood cell types in SLE. An additional finding was the participation of the cellular phase as well as the well-known plasma phase of blood in the fibrinolytic response to thromboembolism

  1. Clinical importance of angiogenic cytokines, fibrinolytic activity and effusion size in parapneumonic effusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Li Chung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship among angiogenic cytokines, fibrinolytic activity and effusion size in parapneumonic effusion (PPE and their clinical importance. METHODS: From January 2008 through December 2010, 26 uncomplicated (UPPE and 38 complicated (CPPE PPE were studied. Based on chest ultrasonography, there were non-loculated in 30, uni-loculated in 12, and multi-loculated effusions in 22 patients. The effusion size radiological scores, and effusion vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, interleukin (IL-8, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 and tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA were measured on admission. Treatment outcome and pleural fibrosis, defined as radiological residual pleural thickening (RPT, were assessed at 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: The effusion size and effusion VEGF, IL-8 and PAI-1/tPA ratio were significantly higher in CPPE than in UPPE, and significantly higher in multi-loculated PPE than in non-locualted and uni-loculated PPE, respectively. VEGF (cutoff value 1975 pg/ml and IL-8 (cutoff value 1937 pg/ml seemed best to discriminate between UPPE and CPPE. VEGF, IL-8 and effusion size correlated positively with PAI-1/tPA ratio in both UPPE and CPPE. Moreover, the level of VEGF, but not IL-8, correlated positively with effusion size in all patients (r = 0.79, p<0.001 and in UPPE (r = 0.64, p<0.001 and CPPE (r = 0.71, p<0.001 groups. The patients with higher VEGF or greater effusion were prone to have medical treatment failure (n = 10; VEGF, odds ratio 1.01, p = 0.02; effusion size, odds ratio 1.26, p = 0.01. Additionally, ten patients with RPT had larger effusion size and higher levels of VEGF and PAI-1/tPA ratio than did those without. CONCLUSIONS: In PPE, VEGF and IL-8 levels are valuable to identify CPPE, and higher VEGF level or larger effusion is associated with decreased fibrinolytic activity, development of pleural loculation and fibrosis, and higher risk of medical treatment failure.

  2. Purification and characterization of a serine protease (CPM-2) with fibrinolytic activity from the dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mi Young; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Ryu, Kang Sun; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2005-07-01

    Catharsius protease-2 (CPM-2) was isolated from the body of dung beetles, Catharsius molossus, using a three step purification process (ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-60, and affinity chromatography on DEAE Affi-Gel blue). The purified CPM-2, having a molecular weight of 24 kDa, was assessed homogeneously by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of CPM-2 was composed of X Val Gln Asp Phe Val Glu Glu Ile Leu. CPM-2 was inactivated by Cu2+ and Zn2+ and strongly inhibited by typical serine proteinase inhibitors such as TLCK, soybean trypsin inhibitor, aprotinin, benzamidine, and alpha1-antitrypsin. However, EDTA, EGTA, cysteine, beta-mercaptoethanol, E64, and elastatinal had little effect on enzyme activity. In addition, antiplasmin and antithrombin III were not sensitive to CPM-2. Based on the results of a fibrinolytic activity test, CPM-2 readily cleaved Aalpha- and Bbeta-chains of fibrinogen and fibrin, and gamma-chain of fibrinogen more slowly. The nonspecific action of the enzyme resulted in extensive hydrolysis, releasing a variety of fibrinopeptides of fibrinogen and fibrin. Polyclonal antibodies of CPM-2 were reactive to the native form of antigen. The ELISA was applied to detect quantities, in nanograms, of the antigen in CPM-2 protein.

  3. Secapin, a bee venom peptide, exhibits anti-fibrinolytic, anti-elastolytic, and anti-microbial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Choi, Yong Soo; Jin, Byung Rae

    2016-10-01

    Bee venom contains a variety of peptide constituents that have various biological, toxicological, and pharmacological actions. However, the biological actions of secapin, a venom peptide in bee venom, remain largely unknown. Here, we provide the evidence that Asiatic honeybee (Apis cerana) secapin (AcSecapin-1) exhibits anti-fibrinolytic, anti-elastolytic, and anti-microbial activities. The recombinant mature AcSecapin-1 peptide was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells. AcSecapin-1 functions as a serine protease inhibitor-like peptide that has inhibitory effects against plasmin, elastases, microbial serine proteases, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Consistent with these functions, AcSecapin-1 inhibited the plasmin-mediated degradation of fibrin to fibrin degradation products, thus indicating the role of AcSecapin-1 as an anti-fibrinolytic agent. AcSecapin-1 also inhibited both human neutrophil and porcine pancreatic elastases. Furthermore, AcSecapin-1 bound to bacterial and fungal surfaces and exhibited anti-microbial activity against fungi and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the bee venom peptide secapin has multifunctional roles as an anti-fibrinolytic agent during fibrinolysis and an anti-microbial agent in the innate immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of decreased fibrinolytic activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism on the risk of venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic, Biljana A; Djeric, Mirjana J; Tomic, Branko V; Djordjevic, Valentina J; Bajkin, Branislav V; Mitic, Gorana P

    2018-01-01

    : Objective of our study is to determine whether decreased fibrinolytic activity or plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 4G/5G polymorphism influence the risk of venous thrombosis.Our case-control study included 100 patients with venous thrombosis, and 100 random controls. When patients were compared with random controls, unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Decreased fibrinolytic activity yielded a 2.7-fold increase in risk for venous thrombosis than physiological fibrinolytic activity (OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.22-5.98), when comparing patients with random controls. Adjustment for several putative confounders did not change the estimate (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.26-7.22). Analysis of venous thrombotic risk influenced by PAI-1 genotype, showed no influence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in comparison with 5G/5G genotype (OR 0.57 95% CI; 0.27-1.20).Decreased fibrinolytic activity increased, whereas PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism did not influence venous thrombosis risk in this study.

  5. Highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Yoshiko; Usuki, Hirokazu; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Hatanaka, Tadashi

    2011-01-05

    We introduce a highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces omiyaensis (SOT), which belongs to the trypsin family. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT was examined using in vitro assays and was compared with those of known fibrinolytic enzymes such as plasmin, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase, and nattokinase. Compared to other enzymes, SOT showed remarkably higher hydrolytic activity toward mimic peptides of fibrin and plasminogen. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT is about 18-fold higher than that of plasmin, and is comparable to that of t-PA by fibrin plate assays. Furthermore, SOT had some plasminogen activator-like activity. Results show that SOT and nattokinase have very different fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic modes, engendering significant synergetic effects of SOT and nattokinase on fibrinolysis. These results suggest that SOT presents important possibilities for application in the therapy of thrombosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Atorvastatin intensive therapy on the serum inflammatory factors, platelet activity and fibrinolytic activity in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of Atorvastatin intensive therapy on the serum inflammatory factors, platelet activity and fibrinolytic activity in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Methods: A total of 92 patients with ACS were randomly divided into observation group (47 cases and control group (45 cases. The control group was given Atorvastatin (10mg/d based on the conventional therapy, while the observation group was given Atorvastatin at an intensive dose (40 mg/d based on the conventional therapy. Half a month later, the changes of IL-6, IL-8, hs-CRP, TNF-α, TXB2, GMP-140, PAI-1 and t-PA were observed and compared between the two groups. Results: After treatment, the inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-8, hs-CRP and TNF-α and the indicators of platelet activity (TXB2, GMP-140 and PAI-1 were obviously decreased, while the indicator of fibrinolytic activity (t-PA was apparently increased in the two groups. Besides, the amplitudes of change referring to these indicators in the observation group were bigger than those in the control group after treatment, and the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: The intensive therapy with the administration of Atorvastatin at a dose of 40 mg/d was better than the conventional therapy (Atorvastatin: 10 mg/d in aspects of reducing inflammatory factors, inhibiting platelet activity and correcting the high coagulation state of fibrinolytic system.

  7. Characterization of Fibrinolytic Proteases from Gloydius blomhoffii siniticus Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Ho Choi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was undertaken to identify fibrinolytic proteases from Gloydius blomhoffii siniticus venom and to characterize a major fibrinolytic protease purified from the venom. Methods: The venom was subjected to chromatography using columns of Q-Sepharose and Sephadex G-75. The molecular weights of fibrinolytic proteases showing fibrinolytic zone in fibrin plate assay were determined in SDS-PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis The effects of inhibitors and metal ions on fibrinolytic protease and the proteolysis patterns of fibrinogen, gelatin, and bovine serum albumin were investigated. Results : 1 The fibrinolytic fractions of the three peaks isolated from Gloydius blomhoffii siniticus venom contained two polypeptides of 46 and 59 kDa and three polypeptides of 32, 18, and 15 kDa and a major polypeptide of 54 kDa, respectively. 2 The fibrinolytic activity of the purified protease of 54 kDA was inhibited by metal chelators, such as EDTA, EGTA, and 1,10-phenanthroline, and disulfhydryl-reducing compounds, such as dithiothreitol and cysteine. 3 Calcium chloride promoted the fibrinolytic activity of the protease, but mercuric chloride and cobalt(II chloride inhibited it. 4 The fibrinolytic protease cleaved preferentially A-chain and slowly B-chain of fibrinogen. It also hydrolyzed gelatin but not bovine serum albumin. Conclusions: The Gloydius blomhoffii siniticus venom contained more than three fibrinolytic proteases. The major fibrinolytic protease was a metalloprotease which hydrolyzed both fibrinogen and gelatin, but not bovine serum albumin.

  8. Anti-fibrinolytic and anti-microbial activities of a serine protease inhibitor from honeybee (Apis cerana) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Choi, Yong Soo; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Jia, Jingming; Jin, Byung Rae

    2017-10-01

    Bee venom contains a variety of peptide constituents, including low-molecular-weight protease inhibitors. While the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6 containing a trypsin inhibitor-like cysteine-rich domain was identified from honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom, no anti-fibrinolytic or anti-microbial roles for this inhibitor have been elucidated. In this study, we identified an Asiatic honeybee (A. cerana) venom serine protease inhibitor (AcVSPI) that was shown to act as a microbial serine protease inhibitor and plasmin inhibitor. AcVSPI was found to consist of a trypsin inhibitor-like domain that displays ten cysteine residues. Interestingly, the AcVSPI peptide sequence exhibited high similarity to the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6, which suggests that AcVSPI is an allergen Api m 6-like peptide. Recombinant AcVSPI was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells, and it demonstrated inhibitory activity against trypsin, but not chymotrypsin. Additionally, AcVSPI has inhibitory effects against plasmin and microbial serine proteases; however, it does not have any detectable inhibitory effects on thrombin or elastase. Consistent with these inhibitory effects, AcVSPI inhibited the plasmin-mediated degradation of fibrin to fibrin degradation products. AcVSPI also bound to bacterial and fungal surfaces and exhibited anti-microbial activity against fungi as well as gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. These findings demonstrate the anti-fibrinolytic and anti-microbial roles of AcVSPI as a serine protease inhibitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene expression of fibrinolytic factors urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in rabbit temporo-mandibular joint cartilage with disc displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jing; Gu, Zhi-yuan; Wu, Li-qun; Zhang, Yin-kai; Hu, Ji-an

    2005-06-20

    The urokinase plasminogen activator system is believed to play an important role in degradation of the extracellular matrix associated with cartilage and bone destruction; however its precise roles in temporomandibular disorders have not yet been clarified. The aims of this study were to investigate the gene expression of fibrinolytic factors urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the articular cartilage of rabbit temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with disc displacement (DD) and to probe the relationship between fibrinolytic activity and cartilage remodeling. Disc displacement of right joints was performed in 36 of 78 rabbits under investigation. The animals were sacrificed at 4 days and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, respectively. The right joints of these animals were harvested and processed for the examination of mRNA expression of uPA and PAI-1 in articular cartilage using in situ hybridization techniques. The expression of uPA and PAI-1 was co-expressed weakly in the chondrocytes from transitive zone to hypertrophic zone and mineralized zone, while no hybridizing signals were shown in proliferative zone and superficial zone in control rabbits. The most striking was the up-regulation of uPA and PAI-1 mRNA in 4-day rabbits postoperatively at the onset of cartilage degeneration. The strongest hybridizing signals for uPA and PAI-1 were seen in 2-week rabbits postoperatively. After 2 weeks, the expression of uPA and PAI-1 began to decrease and reached nearly normal level at 12 weeks. The expression of the uPA/PAI-1 system coincides with the pathological changes in condylar cartilage after DD. The uPA/PAI-1 system may be one of the essential mediators in articular cartilage remodeling.

  10. Studies on screening, isolation and purification of a fibrinolytic protease from an isolate (VK12) of Ganoderma lucidum and evaluation of its antithrombotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Sekar; Palani, Perumal; Nishanthi, Ramasami; Kaviyarasan, Venkatesan

    2011-01-01

    Antithrombotic activity of a protease purified from a medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, has been evaluated platelet aggregation in vitro and pulmonary thrombosis in vivo. The purified protease exhibited concentration dependent inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation induced by ADP (adenosine diphosphate), with an IC(50) value of 2.4 mg/mL. The purified protease protected mice against thrombotic death or paralysis induced by collagen and epinephrine in a dose dependent manner when administered orally. It produced a significant inhibition of thrombotic death or paralysis at 60 µg/kg body weight, while aspirin produced a significant inhibition of thrombosis at 10-20 mg/kg body weight. The purified protease also has showed fibrinolytic activity and alters coagulation parameters such as activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT) in rat platelet. These results suggested that the antithrombotic activity of Ganoderma lucidum protease might be due to antiplatelet activity rather than anticoagulation activity.

  11. Optimization of alkaline protease production and its fibrinolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of alkaline protease production and its fibrinolytic activity from the ... nitrogen sources and sodium chloride concentration for protease production by the ... exploited to assist in protein degradation in various industrial processes.

  12. The Antithrombotic and Fibrinolytic Effect of Natto in Hypercholesterolemia Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kum-Ju; Kang, Jung Il; Kim, Tae-Seok; Yeo, Ik-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic and fibrinolytic activity of natto was evaluated on platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo. Natto showed inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation induced by adenosine 5′diphosphate (ADP) and collagen. Orally administered natto also showed fibrinolytic activity in hypercholesterolemia rats. Normal levels of natto, when administered for four weeks, shortened euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) and prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PATT) significantly compared to non-treat...

  13. The effect of chemical anti-inhibitors on fibrinolytic enzymes and inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, J; Kluft, C

    1997-01-01

    proteases. We studied the influence of chemical anti-inhibitors (chloramine T, flufenamate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and methylamine) on fibrinolytic serine proteases and fibrinolytic enzyme inhibitors using the physiological substrate fibrin as plasmin substrate. Low concentrations of chloramine T (0.01 mmol......%) and plasminogen activators (apparent recovery > 200%). Sodium lauryl sulfate eliminates the major fibrinolytic enzyme inhibitors, but increases the activity of plasmin (apparent recovery > 200%) and plasminogen activator, urokinase type (apparent recovery 130%). Methylamine affects only plasmin inhibition. We...

  14. Flight Test of the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, David

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of flight tests performed on the F/A active aeroelastic wing airplane is shown. The topics include: 1) F/A-18 AAW Airplane; 2) F/A-18 AAW Control Surfaces; 3) Flight Test Background; 4) Roll Control Effectiveness Regions; 5) AAW Design Test Points; 6) AAW Phase I Test Maneuvers; 7) OBES Pitch Doublets; 8) OBES Roll Doublets; 9) AAW Aileron Flexibility; 10) Phase I - Lessons Learned; 11) Control Law Development and Verification & Validation Testing; 12) AAW Phase II RFCS Envelopes; 13) AAW 1-g Phase II Flight Test; 14) Region I - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 15) Region I - Subsonic 1-g 360 Roll; 16) Region II - Supersonic 1-g Rolls; 17) Region II - Supersonic 1-g 360 Roll; 18) Region III - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 19) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (open-loop); 20) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (closed-loop); 21) AAW Phase II Elevated-g Flight Test; 22) Region I - Subsonic 4-g RPO; and 23) Phase II - Lessons Learned

  15. Fibrin(ogen) is internalized and degraded by activated human monocytoid cells via Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18): a nonplasmin fibrinolytic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, D I; Ezratty, A M; Francis, S A; Rennke, H; Loscalzo, J

    1993-10-15

    Fibrin(ogen) (FGN) is important for hemostasis and wound healing and is cleared from sites of injury primarily by the plasminogen activator system. However, there is emerging evidence in plasminogen activator-deficient transgenic mice that nonplasmin pathways may be important in fibrin(ogen)olysis, as well. Given the proximity of FGN and monocytes within the occlusive thrombus at sites of vascular injury, we considered the possibility that monocytes may play an ancillary role in the degradation and clearance of fibrin. We found that monocytes possess an alternative fibrinolytic pathway that uses the integrin Mac-1, which directly binds and internalizes FGN, resulting in its lysosomal degradation. At 4 degrees C, FGN binds to U937 monocytoid cells in a specific and saturable manner with a kd of 1.8 mumol/L. Binding requires adenosine diphosphate stimulation and is calcium-dependent. At 37 degrees C, FGN and fibrin monomer (FM) are internalized and degraded at rates of 0.37 +/- 0.13 and 0.55 +/- 0.03 microgram/10(6) cells/h by U937 cells, 1.38 +/- 0.02 and 1.20 +/- 0.30 microgram/10(6) cells/h by THP-1 cells, and 2.10 +/- 0.20 and 2.52 +/- 0.18 micrograms/10(6) cells/h by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. The serine protease inhibitors, PPACK and aprotinin, and the specific elastase inhibitor, AAPVCK, do not significantly inhibit degradation. However, degradation is inhibited by chloroquine, suggesting that a lysosomal pathway is involved. Factor X, a competitive ligand with FGN for the Mac-1 receptor, also blocks degradation, as does a monoclonal antibody to the alpha-subunit of Mac-1. Autoradiography of radioiodinated, internalized FGN shows that FGN proteolysis by the pathway produces a unique degradation pattern distinct from that observed with plasmin. In a fibrin clot lysis assay, Mac-1-mediated fibrinolysis contributed significantly to total fibrinolysis. In summary, FGN is internalized and degraded by activated human monocytoid cells via

  16. Wing Torsional Stiffness Tests of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokos, William A.; Olney, Candida D.; Crawford, Natalie D.; Stauf, Rick; Reichenbach, Eric Y.

    2002-01-01

    The left wing of the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) F/A-18 airplane has been ground-load-tested to quantify its torsional stiffness. The test has been performed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in November 1996, and again in April 2001 after a wing skin modification was performed. The primary objectives of these tests were to characterize the wing behavior before the first flight, and provide a before-and-after measurement of the torsional stiffness. Two streamwise load couples have been applied. The wing skin modification is shown to have more torsional flexibility than the original configuration has. Additionally, structural hysteresis is shown to be reduced by the skin modification. Data comparisons show good repeatability between the tests.

  17. Purification of an Intracellular Fibrinolytic Protease from Ganoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: The fibrinolytic enzyme isolated from Ganoderma lucidum was purified to near homogeneity and it appeared as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE. Metal ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ inhibited the activity of the enzyme while Zn2+ ions enhanced the activity. Complete inactivation occurred when the enzyme was ...

  18. Design performances and chemistry program supporting the FA3 /UKEPRTM activity management: experience and modeling balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigeras, Arancha; Clinard, Marie-Helene; Chahma, Farah; Jolivet, Patrick; Bremnes, Oystein; Bachet, Martin

    2012-09-01

    EPR TM reactor accounts with an evolutionary design that provides the appropriate features to ensure the safety implementation of different chemistry and radiochemistry options. ALARP considerations have been taken into account by EDF-AREVA for making decisions relating to the activity management in the primary circuit of Flamanville 3-EPR TM and UK-EPR TM reactors. The water chemistry and radiochemistry concept implemented in FA3-EPR TM and UK-EPR TM reactors is the result of an exhaustive selection process based on the balance between the theoretical developments, the laboratory tests and the NPP experience concerning the diverse areas associated with: - The source term identification and characterization: The understanding of the origin and behavior of fission products/actinides, corrosion products and activation products constitutes the essential support for the selection of suitable parameters and criteria to monitor the system integrity, the tramp-uranium and radiation build-up and the discharges to the environment. - The source term quantification: The balance between the baseline data from PWR forerunner reactors and the assessments performed by modeling constitutes the major demonstration of the source term accuracy. This approach ensures that activity risks are understood and can be managed with the EPR TM design options. - The EPR TM design options evaluation: The sensitivity analysis results show the influence of the fuel management, the material choice and the chemistry conditioning on several domains such as the activity coolant and the fuel/ex-core crud management. EDF-AREVA demonstrates by means of this process that the design, sizing and chemistry conditioning of EPR TM reactor primary circuit are adapted to guarantee the correct activity management. The methodology developed, based on qualitative and quantitative assessments, intends to propose to the Nuclear Industry several alternatives for evaluating and/or improving the compliance with

  19. Global fibrinolytic activity, PAI-1 level, and 4G/5G polymorphism in Thai children with arterial ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesirinilkul, Rungrote; Sasanakul, Werasak; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Kadegasem, Praguywan; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Wongwerawattanakoon, Pakawan; Sirachainan, Nongnuch

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) and increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were reported to be risk factors of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) by some studies; however, these findings were not supported by other studies. The objective of this study was to determine the association of ECLT, PAI-1 level, and polymorphisms of 4G and 5G of PAI-1 gene to the development of AIS in Thai children. This study included patients aged 1-18 years old. Diagnosis of AIS was confirmed by imaging study. The control group was age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Demographic data were recorded, and blood was tested for ECLT, PAI-1 level, lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and 4G and 5G polymorphisms of PAI-1 gene. There were 70 subjects participating in this study, consisting of 30 patients and 40 controls. Demographic data, lipid profiles, and FBS were similar between the 2 groups. Furthermore, ECLT and PAI-1 level did not differ between patient and control groups; however, both showed significant correlation (r = .352, P = .006). The 4G/5G polymorphism was the most common genotype in both patient and control groups (69.0% vs. 80.0%). However, 4G and 5G polymorphisms of PAI-1 gene did not correlate with PAI-1 level in this study (P = .797). The PAI-1 level and 4G/5G polymorphism may not be a risk factor of AIS in this population. It was also found that the 4G/5G polymorphism was the most common PAI-1 genotype in this study. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PRODUCTION OF FIBRINOLYTIC ENZYME (NATTOKINASE) FROM BACILLUS SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Padma Singh, Rekha Negi*, Vani Sharma, Alka Rani, Pallavi and Richa Prasad

    2018-01-01

    During present study Nattokinase which is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme was produced by Bacillus sp. To screen and extract nattokinase enzyme from Bacillus sp. were isolated from soil of different agricultural field by serial dilution method. Out of 10 isolate, one strain i.e. B3 produced nattokinase on screening medium. B3 was identified by biochemical characterization. The caseinolytic activity of Nattokinase was 0.526 U/ml and the selected isolate Bacillus sp. could produce active nattokinas...

  1. Production, optimization and characterization of fibrinolytic enzyme by Bacillus subtilis RJAS19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D J Mukesh; Rakshitha, R; Vidhya, M Annu; Jennifer, P Sharon; Prasad, Sandip; Kumar, M Ravi; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed at the production, purification and characterization of fibrinolytic nattokinase enzyme from the bacteria isolated from natto food. For the purpose, a fibrinolytic bacterium was isolated and identified as Bacillus subtilis based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strain was employed for the production and optimization of fibrinolytic enzyme. The strain showed better enzyme production during 72nd h of incubation time with 50 degrees C at the pH 9. The lactose and peptone were found to be increasing the enzyme production rate. The enzyme produced was purified and also characterized with the help of SDS-PAGE analysis. The activity and stability profile of the purified enzyme was tested against different temperature and pH. The observations suggesting that the potential of fibrinolytic enzyme produced by Bacillus subtilis RJAS 19 for its applications in preventive medicines.

  2. Intrapleural agents for pleural infection: fibrinolytics and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Najib M

    2012-07-01

    Pleural infection is a common, increasing clinical problem with a high morbidity and mortality. Medical management of pleural infection often fails, requiring invasive thoracic surgery to drain infected pleural collections, and for many years intrapleural agents have been assessed to reduce the need for surgical drainage and improve clinical outcomes. Randomized trials assessing intrapleural fibrinolytic agents have given conflicting results, and recent evidence provides important information on the role of intrapleural agents in the treatment of pleural infection, and the possible biology associated with infection progression in these patients. Pleural infection is increasing in both the adult and paediatric populations. The combined previous evidence assessing intrapleural fibrinolytics alone in pleural infection suggests lack of efficacy for clinically important outcomes. The Multi-Centre Intrapleural Sepsis Trial 2 (MIST2) study provides the first evidence of a novel treatment combination [intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) combined with intrapleural deoxyribonuclease (DNase)], which significantly improves the chest radiograph compared with either agent alone or placebo, and has potentially important benefits to important clinical outcomes (need for surgery and hospital stay). The precise mechanism of action of combination fibrinolytic and DNase in pleural infection is speculative. Fibrinolytic therapy alone has not been proven to be of use in the treatment of pleural infection. The MIST2 study provides clear-cut evidence demonstrating improved chest radiographs, and highly suggestive secondary outcomes suggesting improved clinically important outcomes, using a combination of intrapleural tPA and DNase. This novel treatment combination may represent an important step in our understanding and treatment of pleural infection; however, larger clinical studies specifically addressing important clinical outcomes and further laboratory research describing

  3. A novel fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese Natto; a typical and popular soybean food in the Japanese diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, H; Hamada, H; Tsushima, H; Mihara, H; Muraki, H

    1987-10-15

    A strong fibrinolytic activity was demonstrated in the vegetable cheese Natto, which is a typical soybean food eaten in Japan. The average activity was calculated at about 40 CU (plasmin units)/g wet weight. This novel fibrinolytic enzyme, named nattokinase, was easily extracted with saline. The mol. wt and pI were about 20,000 and 8.6, respectively. Nattokinase not only digested fibrin but also the plasmin substrate H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-pNA (S-2251), which was more sensitive to the enzyme than other substrates tried. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate and 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl-o,o-dimethylphosphate strongly inhibited this fibrinolytic enzyme.

  4. Active façade component integrated into the building: from the study to the innovative prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Levra Levron

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of a research that has been conducted within the project: “Energyskin: active building façades”. The project has been financed by the Piedmont Region and ESF (European Social Fund, among different industrial and academic partners with the aim to develop, monitor and optimize an adaptive dynamic innovative envelope component, that integrates the heat pump and the solar thermal system technology, by using the envelope as source/well for collecting heat. The research starts with the idea to integrate academic expertise with industrial realities, in order to start together the process that leads to the innovation and overcome the barriers of individual specializations. Those competences, under current practice, characterize both the functional specific models of companies on the one hand and the academic areas of expertise on the other hand.

  5. On fibrinolytic phenomenon in the cancerous tissue of cervical carcinoma with special reference to irradiation changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuyoshi

    1978-01-01

    In a study undertaken to investigate alterations of fibrinolytic enzymes in cancerous tissue of the cervix under radiotherapy, specimens were taken from malignant tissues of cervical cancer patients during irradiation therapy with Linac x-ray at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rads and were subsequently assayed for fibrinolytic enzyme activities using the fibrin plate method. No plasmin activity was demonstrable in the normal mucosa of the uterine cervix. Cancerous tissue of the uterine cervix also showed no demonstrable plasmin activity. The malignant tissue, as compared to the normal mucosa of the cervix, was found to have a lower activator activity, a higher proactivator activity and lower activities of both antiplasmin inhibitors. During radiotherapy for cervical cancer, plasmin activity was demonstrable in the cancerous tissue and in patients with malignant neoplasm, demonstrating that plasmin activity increased as the radiation dose was increased. A relationship seemed to exist between morphological changes and alterations in the fibrinolytic system of cancerous tissue of the cervix. From these findings it seems that the altered fibrinolytic enzyme system in cancerous tissue may have a close relationship with the growth and development of malignancy and may also have an important role in the occurrence of metastasis. There were some cases, in which an abnormal increase in activator activity occurred during irradiation therapy, leading to the death of the patients. This fact points to the possibility that activator activity might provide a useful index for evaluating the prognosis of cervical cancer. (author)

  6. The Inflammatory Actions of Coagulant and Fibrinolytic Proteases in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schuliga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aside from their role in hemostasis, coagulant and fibrinolytic proteases are important mediators of inflammation in diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. The blood circulating zymogens of these proteases enter damaged tissue as a consequence of vascular leak or rupture to become activated and contribute to extravascular coagulation or fibrinolysis. The coagulants, factor Xa (FXa, factor VIIa (FVIIa, tissue factor, and thrombin, also evoke cell-mediated actions on structural cells (e.g., fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells or inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages via the proteolytic activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs. Plasmin, the principle enzymatic mediator of fibrinolysis, also forms toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4 activating fibrin degradation products (FDPs and can release latent-matrix bound growth factors such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Furthermore, the proteases that convert plasminogen into plasmin (e.g., urokinase plasminogen activator evoke plasmin-independent proinflammatory actions involving coreceptor activation. Selectively targeting the receptor-mediated actions of hemostatic proteases is a strategy that may be used to treat inflammatory disease without the bleeding complications of conventional anticoagulant therapies. The mechanisms by which proteases of the coagulant and fibrinolytic systems contribute to extravascular inflammation in disease will be considered in this review.

  7. Novel Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Device-Related Infections Using Fibrinolytic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, S; O'Gara, J P; O'Neill, E

    2018-02-01

    Staphylococcal infections involving biofilms represent a significant challenge in the treatment of patients with device-related infections. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms have been shown to be SaeRS regulated and dependent on the coagulase-catalyzed conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin on surfaces coated with human plasma. Here we investigated the treatment of staphylococcal biofilm device-related infections by digesting the fibrin biofilm matrix with and without existing antimicrobials. The fibrinolytic agents plasmin, streptokinase, and nattokinase, and TrypLE, a recombinant trypsin-like protease, were used to digest and treat S. aureus biofilms grown in vitro using in vivo -like static biofilm assays with and without antimicrobials. Cytotoxicity, the potential to induce a cytokine response in whole human blood, and the risk of induction of tolerance to fibrinolytic agents were investigated. A rat model of intravascular catheter infection was established to investigate the efficacy of selected fibrinolytic agents in vivo Under biomimetic conditions, the fibrinolytic agents effectively dispersed established S. aureus biofilms and, in combination with common antistaphylococcal antimicrobials, effectively killed bacterial cells being released from the biofilm. These fibrinolytic agents were not cytotoxic and did not affect the host immune response. The rat model of infection successfully demonstrated the activity of the selected fibrinolytic agents alone and in combination with antimicrobials on established biofilms in vivo TrypLE and nattokinase most successfully removed adherent cells from plasma-coated surfaces and significantly improved the efficacy of existing antimicrobials against S. aureus biofilms in vitro and in vivo These biofilm dispersal agents represent a viable future treatment option for S. aureus device-related infections. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Purification and Characterization of Fibrinolytic Proteases from Mushroom Volvariela volvaceae Extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Praira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purification and Characterization of Fibrinolytic Proteases from Mushroom Volvariela volvaceae Extract. Ediblestraw mushroom (V. volvaceae has been known used for improvement of blood circulation due to its fibrinolyticcontent. The objective of the study is to purify and characterize fibrinolytic protease from straw mushroom extract.Purification were performed through several steps, i.e. precipitation using ammonium sulphate 75%, dialyzed membran(cut-off 10 kDa, and ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE Sepharose. The active fraction of DEAE-Sepharosecontains two purified protein bands with molecular weight of 12.9 and 15.8 kDa. The active fraction has specificactivity of 0.383 U/mg with 2.7 fold higher purification compared to its crude extract. Both crude and purified enzymeshad optimum activity at temperature of 50 ºC and pH 7 in 10 minutes of incubation. Fibrin zymographic profiledemonstrated that the enzyme hydrolyzed fibrin, as well as casein, indicating their potent fibrinolytic activity. Theenzyme was strongly inhibited by phenilmethylsulphonyl fluoride and N-p-tosil-L-lysinchloromethyl keton. Thissuggested that it was a serine protease. In summary, these results showed that crude and purified protease of strawmushroom (V. volvaceae has fibrinolytic activities that can be applied for alternative thrombolytic therapy.

  9. Purification and characterization of a fibrinolytic enzyme from tempeh bongkrek as an alternative of thrombolytic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmita, I. R. A.; Sutrisno, A.; Zubaidah, E.; Wardani, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Tempeh is one of Indonesia’s traditional foods that contain fibrinolytic enzymes. Tempeh bongkrek shows very strong activity among various tempeh. The fibrinolytic enzymes of bongkrek tempeh are obtained by steps of purification i.e, ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The fibrinolytic enzymes has been successfully purified with a yield of 4.37%, specific activity of 3,361 U / mg and purification fold of 44.02. SDS PAGE analysis showed that the enzyme was purified in to single band with estimated molecular mass of 75.82 kDa. The purified enzyme has optimum pH of 7 and optimum temperature of 50°C and pH stability between pH 4 - 7 with temperature stability from 30°-50°C. The fibrinolytic activity is increased with addition of CaCl2 but inhibited with CuSO4, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).

  10. Positive impact of hormone replacement therapy on the fibrinolytic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J S; Kristensen, S R; Gram, J

    2003-01-01

    be of importance. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prolonged effect of HRT on the fibrinolytic system and to determine whether two common polymorphisms in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) genes modulate this effect. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n...... = 248) were randomized to HRT (n = 122) or no substitution (n = 126) 5 years prior to investigation. RESULTS: Significantly higher values of t-PA activity and lower values of PAI-1 activity and PAI-1 antigen were found in the HRT group compared with the control group. This effect was independent...... of smoking and without influence from the two common polymorphisms PAI-1 -675(4G/5G) and t-PA intron8ins311. Furthermore, no difference between opposed estrogen (with norethisterone acetate as the gestagen component) and unopposed estrogen therapy was found. Both an intention-to-treat and a per...

  11. High-pressure tolerance of earthworm fibrinolytic and digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Shin-Ichi; Tokuyama, Haruka; Sato, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Toshinori; Shida, Yosuke; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2018-02-01

    Earthworms contain several digestive and therapeutic enzymes that are beneficial to our health and useful for biomass utilization. Specifically, earthworms contain potent fibrinolytic enzymes called lumbrokinases, which are highly stable even at room temperature and remain active in dried earthworm powder. However, the high-temperature sterilization method leads to the inactivation of enzymes. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high-pressure treatment (HPT) (from 0.1 MPa to 500 MPa at 25°C and 50°C) on the enzymatic activity of lumbrokinase (LK), α-amylase (AMY), endoglucanase (EG), β-glucosidase (BGL), and lipase (LP) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Waki strain, and its sterilization ability in producing dietary supplement. LK showed thermo- and high-pressure tolerance. In addition, HPT may have resulted in pressure-induced stabilization and activation of LK. Although AMY activity was maintained up to 400 MPa at 25°C, the apparent activity decreased slightly at 50°C with HPT. EG showed almost the same pattern as AMY. However, it is possible that the effects of temperature and pressure compensated each other under 100 MPa at 50°C. BGL was shown to be a pressure- and temperature-sensitive enzyme, and LP showed a thermo- and high-pressure tolerance. The slight decrease in apparent activity occurred under 200 MPa at both temperatures. Furthermore, the low-temperature and pressure treatment completely sterilized the samples. These results provide a basis for the development of a novel earthworm dietary supplement with fibrinolytic and digestive activity and of high-pressure-tolerant enzymes to be used for biomass pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fibrinolytic response to tumor necrosis factor in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Büller, H. R.; van Deventer, S. J.; de Boer, J. P.; Hack, C. E.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) may be involved in the disturbance of the procoagulant-fibrinolytic balance in septicemia, leading to microvascular thrombosis. To assess the dynamics of the fibrinolytic response to TNF in humans, we performed a crossover saline-controlled study in six healthy men,

  13. Influence of PAI-1 gene promoter-675 (4G/5G) polymorphism on fibrinolytic activity after cardiac surgery employing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolina, Agnese; Strike, Eva; Jaunalksne, Inta; Serova, Jelena; Romanova, Tatjana; Zake, Liene Nikitina; Sabelnikovs, Olegs; Vanags, Indulis

    2012-01-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) gene promoter contains 675 (4G/5G) polymorphism. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of the PAI-1 promoter-675 (4G/5G) polymorphism on the concentrations of PAI-1 and tissue plasminogen activator/PAI-1 (t-PA/PAI-1) complex and bleeding volume after on-pump cardiac surgery. A total of 90 patients were included in the study at Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital. Seven patients were excluded due to surgical bleeding. Eighty-three patients were classified according to the PAI-1 genotype: 21 patients had the 4G/4G genotype; 42, the 4G/5G genotype; and 20, the 5G/5G genotype. The following fibrinolysis parameters were recorded: the PAI-1 level preoperatively, D-dimer level at 0, 6, and 24 hours after surgery, and t-PA/PAI-1 complex level 24 hours postoperatively. A postoperative bleeding volume was registered in mL 24 hours after surgery. The patients with the 5G/5G genotype had significantly lower preoperative PAI-1 levels (17 [SD, 10.8] vs. 24 ng/mL [SD, 9.6], P=0.04), higher D-dimer levels at 6 hours (371 [SD, 226] vs. 232 ng/mL [SD, 185], P=0.03) and 24 hours (326 [SD, 207] vs. 209 ng/mL [SD, 160], P=0.04), and greater postoperative blood loss (568 [SD, 192] vs. 432 mL [168], P=0.02) compared with the 4G/4G carriers. There were no significant differences in the levels of the t-PA/PAI-1 complex comparing different genotype groups. The carriers of the 5G/5G genotype showed the lower preoperative PAI-1 levels, greater chest tube blood loss, and higher D-dimer levels indicating that the 5G/5G carriers may have enhanced fibrinolysis.

  14. Haemorrheologic and fibrinolytic activities in pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packed cell volumes (PCV), relative whole blood viscosity (RWBV), relative plasma viscosity (RPV), plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC), euglobulin lysis time (ELT), total proteins and albumin were estimated. The differences in the values of PCV, RWBV, RPV, PFC, total proteins, albumin and globulin with gestational age ...

  15. Purification and Characterisation of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Rhizopus micro sporus var. tuberosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular fibrinolytic enzyme from Rhizopus microsporus var. tuberosus was purified and characterised. The microorganism was isolated in a distillery from daqu, a fermentative agent used in the production of Chinese liquor and vinegar at diff erent temperatures. The fibrinolytic enzyme was partially purifi ed by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, DEAE Sepharose® Fast Flow ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the fi brinolytic enzyme was estimated to be 24.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme showed optimal activity at pH=7.0 and 37 °C by fibrin plate method. It showed stronger resistance to the inhibition by trypsin and was stable at 37 °C retaining 96.1 % residual activity aft er 4 h of incubation. The fibrinolytic activity of the enzyme was enhanced by Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+. Conversely, Zn2+ and Cu2+ partly inhibited enzymatic activity. Using fibrin plate method, we found that the enzyme not only degrades fibrin directly, but also activates plasminogen into plasmin to degrade fibrin. The results indicate that the pure enzyme has a potential in dissolving blood clot, and the possibility for application in the treatment of thrombosis.

  16. ming-fa hsieh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. MING-FA HSIEH. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 40 Issue 6 October 2017 pp 1179-1187. Preparation, characterization of chitosan/bamboo charcoal/poly(methacrylate) composite beads · DOROTHY CAMINOS-PERUELO WEI-CHIEH WANG ...

  17. The peritoneal fibrinolytic response to conventional and laparoscopic colonic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brokelman, Walter; Holmdahl, Lena; Falk, Peter; Klinkenbijl, Jean; Reijnen, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is considered to induce less peritoneal trauma than conventional surgery. The peritoneal plasmin system is important in the processes of peritoneal healing and adhesion formation. The present study assessed the peritoneal fibrinolytic response to laparoscopic and conventional

  18. A role for the fibrinolytic system in postsurgical adhesion formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, Bart W. J.; Emeis, Jef J.; Kooistra, Teake; Trimbos, J. Baptist; Moore, Norma R.; Zwinderman, Koos H.; Trimbos-Kemper, Trudy C. M.

    2005-01-01

    To look for evidence of a fibrinolytic insufficiency as a cause of adhesion formation. Retrospective and prospective study. University medical center. Retrospective study: 50 patients undergoing laparoscopy, divided into patients with and without endometriosis. Prospective study: 18 patients

  19. Purification, biochemical, and structural characterization of a novel fibrinolytic enzyme from Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Thiago Pajeú; Sales, Amanda Emmanuelle; Porto, Tatiana Souza; Costa, Romero Marcos Pedrosa Brandão; Breydo, Leonid; Uversky, Vladimir N; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Converti, Attilio

    2017-08-01

    Fibrinolytic proteases are enzymes that degrade fibrin. They provide a promising alternative to existing drugs for thrombolytic therapy. A protease isolated from the filamentous fungus Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262 was purified in three steps by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange, and molecular exclusion chromatographies, and characterized biochemically and structurally. The purified protease exhibited a molecular mass of 20 kDa, an apparent isoelectric point of 4.94 and a secondary structure composed mainly of α-helices. Selectivity for N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide as substrate suggests that this enzyme is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease, whose activity was enhanced by the addition of Cu 2+ , Mg 2+ , and Fe 2+ . The enzyme showed a fibrinolytic activity of 22.53 U/mL at 40 °C and its contact with polyethylene glycol did not lead to any significant alteration of its secondary structure. This protein represents an important example of a novel fibrinolytic enzyme with potential use in the treatment of thromboembolic disorders such as strokes, pulmonary emboli, and deep vein thrombosis.

  20. Role of altered coagulation-fibrinolytic system in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Tapan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Kotwani, Anita

    2017-05-01

    The implications of altered coagulation-fibrinolytic system in the pathophysiology of several vascular disorders, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, have been well researched upon and established. However, its role in the progression of diabetic retinopathy has not been explored much. Since a decade, it is known that hyperglycemia is associated with a hypercoagulated state and the various impairments it causes are well acknowledged as independent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. But recent studies suggest that the hypercoagulative state and diminished fibrinolytic responses might also alter retinal homeostasis and induce several deleterious molecular changes in retinal cells which aggravate the already existing hyperglycemia-induced pathological conditions and thereby lead to the progression of diabetic retinopathy. The major mediators of coagulation-fibrinolytic system whose concentration or activity get altered during hyperglycemia include fibrinogen, antithrombin-III (AT-III), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Inhibiting the pathways by which these altered mediators get involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy can serve as potential targets for the development of an adjuvant novel alternative therapy for diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of façade impregnation on feasibility of capillary active thermal internal insulation for a historic dormitory – A hygrothermal simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finken, Gholam Reza; Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2016-01-01

    Internal insulation of external walls is known to create moisture performance challenges due to increased moisture levels and condensation risk on the cold side of the insulation. Capillary active/hydrophilic insulations have been introduced to solve these moisture problems, since they are able...... to transport liquid moisture to the inner surface and enable it to dry. Experience with this insulation type is rare in Denmark. In hygrothermal 1D computer simulations, several more or less capillary active insulation systems (AAC, calcium silicate, IQ-Therm) in various thicknesses (30–150 mm) have been....... A moisture safe construction was only achieved when exterior façade impregnation shielding against driving rain was added. The best system showed acceptable relative humidity values both behind the insulation and on the interior surface, a significant increase in minimum temperature on the interior surface...

  2. Beneficial effect of a moderately energy-restricted diet on fibrinolytic factors in non-obese men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis-te Wierik, E.J.M.; Meijer, P.; Kluft, C.; Berg, H. van den

    1995-01-01

    Impaired fibrinolytic activity has been reported in the elderly and is thought to play a role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of death in most Western countries. Since restriction of energy intake has been demonstrated to act beneficially on the aging process in

  3. Thrombolytic effects of Douchi Fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, thrombosis is one of the most widely occurring diseases in modern life. Drugs with thrombolytic functions are the most effective methods in the treatment of thrombosis. Among them, Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme (DFE is a promising agent. DFE was isolated from Douchi, a typical and popular soybean-fermented food in China, and it can dissolve fibrin directly and efficiently. A strain, Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 produced DFE with high fibrinolytic activity has been isolated in our lab previously. Results In the study, thrombolytic effect of DFE from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 was studied in vitro and in vivo systematically. The results showed that DFE played a significant role in thrombolysis and anticoagulation in vitro. And the thrombolytic effects correlated with DFE in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, the acute toxicity assay showed that DFE had no obvious acute toxicity to mice. Test of carrageenan-induced thrombosis in mice indicated that the DFE significantly prevented tail thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis model test indicated that Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme DFE had thrombolytic effect on carotid thrombosis of rabbits in vivo. Other results in vivo indicated that DFE could increase bleeding and clotting time obviously. Conclusions The DFE isolated from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 has obvious thrombolytic effects in vitro and in vivo. This function demonstrates that this enzyme can be a useful tool for preventing and treating clinical thrombus.

  4. Plan Exportador FA. INTI.

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Arias, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    El desarrollo del presente trabajo de grado, constituye un trabajo en equipo entre la Secretaria de Desarrollo Económico de la Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá D.C., el CIDEM de la Universidad del Rosario y Maloka. La metodología aplicada del CIDEM a la empresa FA. INTI. se ha aplicado a mas de 1000 PYMES colombianas y ha sido coordinada por Francisco Herrera Arias y dirigida por la Dr. Luz Sofía Méndez y un equipo profesional de consultores. El plan exportador cuenta con información general de la em...

  5. Dose dependency of outcomes of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy in new rabbit empyema models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florova, Galina; Azghani, Ali O.; Buchanan, Ann; Boren, Jake; Allen, Timothy; Rahman, Najib M.; Koenig, Kathleen; Chamiso, Mignote; Karandashova, Sophia; Henry, James; Idell, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of empyema (EMP) is increasing worldwide; EMP generally occurs with pleural loculation and impaired drainage is often treated with intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy (IPFT) or surgery. A number of IPFT options are used clinically with empiric dosing and variable outcomes in adults. To evaluate mechanisms governing intrapleural fibrinolysis and disease outcomes, models of Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus pneumoniae were generated in rabbits and the animals were treated with either human tissue (tPA) plasminogen activator or prourokinase (scuPA). Rabbit EMP was characterized by the development of pleural adhesions detectable by chest ultrasonography and fibrinous coating of the pleura. Similar to human EMP, rabbits with EMP accumulated sizable, 20- to 40-ml fibrinopurulent pleural effusions associated with extensive intrapleural organization, significantly increased pleural thickness, suppression of fibrinolytic and plasminogen-activating activities, and accumulation of high levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, plasminogen, and extracellular DNA. IPFT with tPA (0.145 mg/kg) or scuPA (0.5 mg/kg) was ineffective in rabbit EMP (n = 9 and 3 for P. multocida and S. pneumoniae, respectively); 2 mg/kg tPA or scuPA IPFT (n = 5) effectively cleared S. pneumoniae-induced EMP collections in 24 h with no bleeding observed. Although intrapleural fibrinolytic activity for up to 40 min after IPFT was similar for effective and ineffective doses of fibrinolysin, it was lower for tPA than for scuPA treatments. These results demonstrate similarities between rabbit and human EMP, the importance of pleural fluid PAI-1 activity, and levels of plasminogen in the regulation of intrapleural fibrinolysis and illustrate the dose dependency of IPFT outcomes in EMP. PMID:27343192

  6. Design performances and chemistry program supporting the FA3/UK-EPR (TM) Activity Management: Experience and Modelling Balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigeras, A.; Bachet, M.; Bremmes, O.; Berger, M.; Clinard, M.H.; Jolivet, P.; Chahma, F.

    2012-01-01

    Several methodologies have been applied to evaluate the source term in the primary circuit and to define the appropriate chemistry conditioning for the EPR reactor. These methodologies are based on nuclear power plant (NPP) feedback experience, laboratory data and modelling considerations. It is concluded that the activity risks are understood and can be managed with EPR design options. A strategy for the chemical conditioning of the primary coolant has been defined through the specifications for 3 parameters: pH, Zn and H 2 whose target and limit values are based on NPP feedback, international experimental data from laboratory tests, theoretical studies and numerical simulations. The material inventory selected for the primary components will allow low dose rates and low crud formation despite the high power level of the EPR reactor

  7. Time to fibrinolytics for acute myocardial infarction: Reasons for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cornerstone of STEMI management is early re vascularisation, either by primary percutaneous coronary intervention or fibrinolytic therapy, in conjunction with other adjunctive pharmaceutical agents.[1] The most important determinant of outcome, irrespective of which form of revascularisation is selected, is the time from ...

  8. Time to fibrinolytics for acute myocardial infarction: Reasons for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median time delays from onset of symptoms to call for help, between calling for help and arriving at hospital, and from hospital arrival to fibrinolytic agent administration, were 35 minutes (5 - 1 185), 55 minutes (12.5 - 670) and 62.5 minutes (16.5 - 282), respectively. Numerous delays were identified at all stages, with ...

  9. Time to fibrinolytics for acute myocardial infarction: Reasons for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reperfusion strategy for STEMI is primary percutaneous coronary intervention ... of any reperfusion strategy, including fibrinolytic therapy, to patients presenting with ... Data in respect of demographics, timing ... being non-cardiac in nature. ..... Recognition of the seriousness and extent of this disease ... Infarction Audit Group.

  10. The effect of hyperthyroidism on procoagulant, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijver, Danka J. F.; van Zaane, Bregje; Romualdi, Erica; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Squizzato, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Several coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters appear to be affected by thyroid hormone excess; however, the net effect on the haemostatic system remains unclear. We aimed to update our previous review and systematically summarise and meta-analyse the data by assessing the effects of thyrotoxicosis

  11. EFFECT OF RECOMBINANT TISSUE-PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR ON INTRAABDOMINAL ABSCESS FORMATION IN RATS WITH GENERALIZED PERITONITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; de Graaf, JS; Kooi, K; Sluiter, WJ; Bom, VJJ; van der Meer, J; Bleichrodt, RP

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During generalized peritonitis, intraabdominal fibrin deposition is stimulated whereas fibrinolytic activity is reduced, which predisposes intra-abdominal abscess formation. We investigated the effects of increasing the intra-abdominal fibrinolytic activity on abscess formation by

  12. Gene expression profiling reveals activation of the FA/BRCA pathway in advanced squamous cervical cancer with intrinsic resistance and therapy failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balacescu, Ovidiu; Balacescu, Loredana; Tudoran, Oana; Todor, Nicolae; Rus, Meda; Buiga, Rares; Susman, Sergiu; Fetica, Bogdan; Pop, Laura; Maja, Laura; Visan, Simona; Ordeanu, Claudia; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Nagy, Viorica

    2014-04-08

    Advanced squamous cervical cancer, one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in women, still remains a major problem in oncology due to treatment failure and distant metastasis. Antitumor therapy failure is due to both intrinsic and acquired resistance; intrinsic resistance is often decisive for treatment response. In this study, we investigated the specific pathways and molecules responsible for baseline therapy failure in locally advanced squamous cervical cancer. Twenty-one patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled in this study. Primary biopsies harvested prior to therapy were analyzed for whole human gene expression (Agilent) based on the patient's 6 months clinical response. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to investigate the altered molecular function and canonical pathways between the responding and non-responding patients. The microarray results were validated by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An additional set of 24 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical cancer samples was used for independent validation of the proteins of interest. A 2859-gene signature was identified to distinguish between responder and non-responder patients. 'DNA Replication, Recombination and Repair' represented one of the most important mechanisms activated in non-responsive cervical tumors, and the 'Role of BRCA1 in DNA Damage Response' was predicted to be the most significantly altered canonical pathway involved in intrinsic resistance (p = 1.86E-04, ratio = 0.262). Immunohistological staining confirmed increased expression of BRCA1, BRIP1, FANCD2 and RAD51 in non-responsive compared with responsive advanced squamous cervical cancer, both in the initial set of 21 cervical cancer samples and the second set of 24 samples. Our findings suggest that FA/BRCA pathway plays an important role in treatment failure in advanced cervical cancer. The assessment of FANCD2, RAD51, BRCA1 and BRIP1 nuclear proteins could provide important information about the

  13. Gene expression profiling reveals activation of the FA/BRCA pathway in advanced squamous cervical cancer with intrinsic resistance and therapy failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balacescu, Ovidiu; Maja, Laura; Visan, Simona; Ordeanu, Claudia; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Nagy, Viorica; Balacescu, Loredana; Tudoran, Oana; Todor, Nicolae; Rus, Meda; Buiga, Rares; Susman, Sergiu; Fetica, Bogdan; Pop, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Advanced squamous cervical cancer, one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in women, still remains a major problem in oncology due to treatment failure and distant metastasis. Antitumor therapy failure is due to both intrinsic and acquired resistance; intrinsic resistance is often decisive for treatment response. In this study, we investigated the specific pathways and molecules responsible for baseline therapy failure in locally advanced squamous cervical cancer. Twenty-one patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled in this study. Primary biopsies harvested prior to therapy were analyzed for whole human gene expression (Agilent) based on the patient’s 6 months clinical response. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to investigate the altered molecular function and canonical pathways between the responding and non-responding patients. The microarray results were validated by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An additional set of 24 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical cancer samples was used for independent validation of the proteins of interest. A 2859-gene signature was identified to distinguish between responder and non-responder patients. ‘DNA Replication, Recombination and Repair’ represented one of the most important mechanisms activated in non-responsive cervical tumors, and the ‘Role of BRCA1 in DNA Damage Response’ was predicted to be the most significantly altered canonical pathway involved in intrinsic resistance (p = 1.86E-04, ratio = 0.262). Immunohistological staining confirmed increased expression of BRCA1, BRIP1, FANCD2 and RAD51 in non-responsive compared with responsive advanced squamous cervical cancer, both in the initial set of 21 cervical cancer samples and the second set of 24 samples. Our findings suggest that FA/BRCA pathway plays an important role in treatment failure in advanced cervical cancer. The assessment of FANCD2, RAD51, BRCA1 and BRIP1 nuclear proteins could provide important information

  14. Purification and Antithrombotic Potential of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Shiitake Culinary- Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes GNA01 (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Kyung-Je; Kim, Seung

    2018-01-01

    We purified Lentinus edodes GNA01 fibrinolytic enzyme (LEFE) and identified it as a novel metalloprotease. LEFE was purified to homogeneity through a 2-step procedure, with an 8.28-fold increase in specific activity and 5.3% recovery. The molecular mass of LEFE was approximately 38 kDa, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its optimal pH, optimal temperature, pH stability, and thermal stability were 5, 30°C, 6-7, and 40°C, respectively. LEFE was inhibited by zinc and magnesium ions, and by EDTA and EGTA, indicating that LEFE is a metalloprotease. The protease exhibited fibrinolytic activity and a degradative effect on clot formation and blood clots. The protease prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and coagulation time as induced by platelet aggregators (collagen and epinephrine). Taken together, our results indicate that L. edodes GNA01 produces a metalloprotease/fibrinolytic enzyme and that this enzyme might be applied as a new thrombolytic and antithrombotic agent for thrombosis-related cardiovascular disorders.

  15. Prismatic louver active façades for natural illumination and thermal energy gain in high-rise and commercial buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, A.; Volkmann, C.; Madamopoulos, N.

    2013-06-01

    High-rise and commercial buildings in urban centers present a great challenge in terms of their energy consumption. Due to maximization of rentable square footage, the preferred urban façade system over the past 50 years has been the "curtain wall", only a few inches thick and comprised of modular steel or aluminum framing and predominant glass infills. The perceived Achilles heel of these modern glass façade systems is their thermal inefficiency: They are inadequate thermal barriers and exhibit excessive solar gain. The excessive solar gain has a negative impact on lighting and cooling loads of the entire building. This negative impact will be further exacerbated with rising energy costs. However, rather than view the glass façade's uncontrolled solar gain merely as a weakness contributing to higher energy consumption, the condition could indeed be considered as related to an energy solution. These glass façades can be retrofitted to operate as a provider of daylight and energy for the rest of the building, taking advantage of the overexposure to the sun. With today's technology, the sun's abundant renewable energy can be the driving force for the energy transition of these building envelopes. Illumination, thermal energy, and electricity production can be directly supplied from the sun, and when correctly and efficiently managed, they can lead to a significantly less energy-intensive building stock. We propose a multi-purpose, prismatic, louver-based façade to perform both daylight and thermal energy harvesting with a goal of offering a better daylight environment for the occupants, and reduce the energy consumption and carbon footprint of the building. While decentralized air-conditioning units are commonly accepted as façade "plug-ins", such decentralization could be utilized with more benefits by passively managing the interior space conditions, without using any extra power. Just as living organisms respond and adapt to the environmental changes in

  16. Purification and characterization of a fibrinolytic enzyme produced from Bacillus sp. strain CK 11-4 screened from Chungkook-Jang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W; Choi, K; Kim, Y; Park, H; Choi, J; Lee, Y; Oh, H; Kwon, I; Lee, S

    1996-01-01

    Bacillus sp. strain CK 11-4, which produces a strongly fibrinolytic enzyme, was screened from Chungkook-Jang, a traditional Korean fermented-soybean sauce. The fibrinolytic enzyme (CK) was purified from supernatant of Bacillus sp. strain CK 11-4 culture broth and showed thermophilic, hydrophilic, and strong fibrinolytic activity. The optimum temperature and pH were 70 degrees C and 10.5, respectively, and the molecular weight was 28,200 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The first 14 amino acids of the N-terminal sequence of CK are Ala-Gin-Thr-Val-Pro-Tyr-Gly-Ile-Pro-Leu-Ile-Lys-Ala-Asp. This sequence is identical to that of subtilisin Carlsberg and different from that of nattokinase, but CK showed a level of fibrinolytic activity that was about eight times higher than that of subtilisin Carlsberg. The amidolytic activity of CK increased about twofold at the initial state of the reaction when CK enzyme was added to a mixture of plasminogen and substrate (H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-pNA). A similar result was also obtained from fibrin plate analysis. PMID:8779587

  17. Differential responsiveness of obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/Fa) Zucker rats to cytokine-induced anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Salamán, C R; Vasselli, J R; Sonti, G

    1997-01-01

    Pathophysiological and pharmacological concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) induce anorexia in normal rats. Obesity in humans and rodents is associated with increased TNF-alpha messenger RNA and protein levels in various cell types. This suggests that obese individuals may have differential regulation of cytokine production and dissimilar responsiveness to cytokines. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinfusion of TNF-alpha (50, 100, and 500 ng/rat), IL-1 beta (1.0, 4.0, and 8.0 ng), and TNF-alpha (100 ng) plus IL-1 beta (1.0 ng) on obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/Fa) Zucker rats. The results show that: TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, and the concomitant administration of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta decreased the short-term (4 hours), nighttime (12 hours), and total daily food intakes in obese and lean rats; IL-1 beta was more potent relative to TNF-alpha; obese rats showed greater responsiveness to IL-1 beta: 8.0 ng IL-1 beta, for example, decreased the 12-hour food intake by 52% in obese and 22% in lean rats. On the other hand, obese and lean rats did not exhibit a significantly different responsiveness to the anorexia induced by 50, 100, or 500 ng TNF-alpha at the 4-hour period; and the concomitant ICV administration of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta induced anorexia with additive (4-hour period) or synergistic (12-hour and 24-hour periods) effects in obese rats. The effect of TNF-alpha plus IL-1 beta in lean rats was greater than additive for the 12-hour and 24-hour periods. The difference in suppression of total daily food intake by TNF-alpha plus IL-1 beta in obese (-43%) versus lean (-23%) rats was significantly different (p < 0.01). The results show that obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/Fa) Zucker rats have differential responsiveness to the ICV microinfusion of two different classes of cytokines.

  18. Discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood during experimental endotoxemia in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse R Ostrowski

    Full Text Available Sepsis induces early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis followed by late fibrinolytic shutdown and progressive endothelial damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the functional hemostatic response in whole blood and plasma during experimental human endotoxemia by the platelet function analyzer, Multiplate and by standard and modified thrombelastography (TEG.Prospective physiologic study of nine healthy male volunteers undergoing endotoxemia by means of a 4-hour infusion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 ng/kg/hour, with blood sampled at baseline and at 4 h and 6 h. Physiological and standard biochemical data and coagulation tests, TEG (whole blood: TEG, heparinase-TEG, Functional Fibrinogen; plasma: TEG±tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA and Multiplate (TRAPtest, ADPtest, ASPItest, COLtest were recorded. Mixed models with Tukey post hoc tests and correlations were applied.Endotoxemia induced acute SIRS with increased HR, temperature, WBC, CRP and procalcitonin and decreased blood pressure. It also induced a hemostatic response with platelet consumption and reduced APTT while INR increased (all p<0.05. Platelet aggregation decreased (all tests, p<0.05, whereas TEG whole blood clot firmness increased (G, p = 0.05. Furthermore, during endotoxemia (4 h, whole blood fibrinolysis increased (clot lysis time (CLT, p<0.001 and Functional Fibrinogen clot strength decreased (p = 0.049. After endotoxemia (6 h, whole blood fibrinolysis was reduced (CLT, p<0.05. In contrast to findings in whole blood, the plasma fibrin clot became progressively more resistant towards tPA-induced fibrinolysis at both 4 h and 6 h (p<0.001.Endotoxemia induced a hemostatic response with reduced primary but enhanced secondary hemostasis, enhanced early fibrinolysis and fibrinogen consumption followed by downregulation of fibrinolysis, with a discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood. The finding that blood cells are

  19. FA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    have been extracted annually from the sea and inland waters since 1989 (F ... and the relationships with the environment are examined .... India. 0008–15°N. –. 1948–1988. 00448. 070. 006.4. Peru. 000 5 –18°N. –. 1958 – ..... process (e.g. water column stability, convergence) .... In Climate Change and Fish Popula- tions.

  20. A technical alpha-active aerosol express measurement system for volumetric activity monitoring.; Metodika ehkspressnogo opredeleniya ob`emnoj aktivnosti tekhnogennykh al`fa-aktivnykh aehrozolej.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badovskij, V P; Dubar, L V; Tokarevskij, V V; Shevchenko, S V; Shcherbina, V G [Myizhgaluzevij Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr ` ` Ukrittya ` ` , Natsyional` na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Chornobil` (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    A possibility of a volumetric aerosol activity determination at the level of MPCa for {sup 239} Pu with a measurement time less than 60 minutes is discussed. For achieving maximum reduction of the natural background the virtual impactor and alpha-spectroscopy are proposed to be employed. Results of investigation of the virtual impactor parameters at the << Shelter >> and at the laboratory are described.

  1. Application Of FA Sensor 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seon Ho

    1993-03-01

    This book introduces FA sensor from basic to making system, which includes light sensor like photo diode and photo transistor, photo electricity sensor, CCD type image sensor, MOS type image sensor, color sensor, cds cell, and optical fiber scope. It also deals with direct election position sensor such as proximity switch, differential motion, linear scale of photo electricity type, and magnet scale, rotary sensor with summary of rotary encoder, rotary encoder types and applications, flow sensor, and sensing technology.

  2. Production, purification and characterization of fibrinolytic enzyme from Serratia sp. KG-2-1 using optimized media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Kapila; Bajaj, Bijender Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2017-07-01

    Intravascular thrombosis is one of the major causes of variety of cardiovascular disorders leading to high mortality worldwide. Fibrinolytic enzymes from microbial sources possess ability to dissolve these clots and help to circumvent these problems in more efficient and safer way. In the present study, fibrinolytic protease with higher fibrinolytic activity than plasmin was obtained from Serratia sp. KG-2-1 isolated from garbage dump soil. Response surface methodology was used to study the interactive effect of concentration of maltose, yeast extract + peptone (1:1), incubation time, and pH on enzyme production and biomass. Maximum enzyme production was achieved at 33 °C after 24 h at neutral pH in media containing 1.5% Maltose, 4.0% yeast extract + peptone and other trace elements resulting in 1.82 folds increased production. The enzyme was purified from crude extract using ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-Sephadex chromatography resulting in 12.9 fold purification with 14.9% yield. The purified enzyme belongs to metalloprotease class and had optimal activity in conditions similar to physiological environment with temperature optima of 40 °C and pH optima of 8. The enzyme was found to be stable in various solvents and its activity was enhanced in presence of Na + , K + , Ba 2+ , Cu 2+ , Mn 2+ , Hg 2+ but inhibited by Ca 2+ and Fe 3+ . Hence, the obtained enzyme may be used as potential therapeutic agent in combating various thrombolytic disorders.

  3. Evidence for an enduring ischaemic penumbra following central retinal artery occlusion, with implications for fibrinolytic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David; Beatty, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    The rationale behind hyperacute fibrinolytic therapy for cerebral and retinal arterial occlusion is to rescue ischaemic cells from irreversible damage through timely restitution of tissue perfusion. In cerebral stroke, an anoxic tissue compartment (the "infarct core") is surrounded by a hypoxic compartment (the "ischaemic penumbra"). The latter comprises electrically-silent neurons that undergo delayed apoptotic cell death within 1-6 h unless salvaged by arterial recanalisation. Establishment of an equivalent hypoxic compartment within the inner retina following central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) isn't widely acknowledged. During experimental CRAO, electroretinography reveals 3 oxygenation-based tissue compartments (anoxic, hypoxic and normoxic) that contribute 32%, 27% and 41% respectively to the pre-occlusion b-wave amplitude. Thus, once the anoxia survival time (≈2 h) expires, the contribution from the infarcted posterior retina is irreversibly extinguished, but electrical activity continues in the normoxic periphery. Inbetween these compartments, an annular hypoxic zone (the "penumbra obscura") endures in a structurally-intact but functionally-impaired state until retinal reperfusion allows rapid recovery from electrical silence. Clinically, residual circulation of sufficient volume flow rate generates the heterogeneous fundus picture of "partial" CRAO. Persistent retinal venous hypoxaemia signifies maximal extraction of oxygen by an enduring "polar penumbra" that permeates or largely replaces the infarct core. On retinal reperfusion some days later, the retinal venous oxygen saturation reverts to normal and vision improves. Thus, penumbral inner retina, marginally oxygenated by the choroid or by residual circulation, isn't at risk of delayed apoptotic infarction (unlike hypoxic cerebral cortex). Emergency fibrinolytic intervention is inappropriate, therefore, once the duration of CRAO exceeds 2 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The experimental investigation of fibrinolytic system under the influence of flocalin in conditions of acute hypoxic kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Gozhenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the experiments on rats subjected to acute hypoxic histochemical nephropathy, caused by sodium nitrite and 2,4-dinitrophenol, fibrinolytic activities of blood plasma, urine, renal cortex, medulla, and papilla after treatment with flocalin – the activator of KATP channels, were studied­. It was shown that in the conditions of acute kidney hypoxic injury flocalin administration resulted in the increase and essential restoration of fibrinolysis in blood plasma diminished under hypoxia, which was due to the growth of non-enzymatic fibrinolysis, whereas in urine and renal medulla the appreciable increase of enzymatic fibrinolytic activity took place. Moreover, the treatment of hypoxic nephropathy animals by flocalin resulted in the marked restoration of kidney ion regulatory and protein excretory functions that proves the positive influence of KATP channels activation on the one of the biochemical mechanisms of acute kidney injury as well as the protective effect of flocalin in relation to tubular cells of nephron. The obtained results testify to the beneficial effects of KATP channels activation in the conditions of acute hypoxic kidneys injury.

  5. Purification and characterization of a strong fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese natto, a popular soybean fermented food in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, M; Nomura, K; Hong, K; Ito, Y; Asada, A; Nishimuro, S

    1993-12-30

    A strong fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) was purified from the vegetable cheese natto. Nattokinase was extracted from natto with saline and isolated by sequential use of hydrophobic chromatography on Butyl-Toyopearl, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Toyopearl, and gel-filtration on Sephadex G-50. The isolated protein gave a single sharp band on SDS-PAGE either before or after reduction. The sequence, as determined by automated Edman degradation of the uncleaved molecule and its enzymatically derived peptide, consisted of a total 275 amino acid residues (M.W = 27,728) and exhibited a high homology with the subtilisins. The purified nattokinase digested not only fibrin but also several synthetic substrates. Among the synthetic substrates, the most sensitive substrate was Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA for subtilisin. PMSF inhibited both the fibrinolytic activity and the amidolytic activity. The results indicate that nattokinase is a subtilisin-like serine protease.

  6. Intra week reliability of Fibrinolytic and metabolic parameters and stability of their covariance structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H.; Vrijkotte, T.; Meijer, P.; Kluft, C.; Geus, E. de

    1999-01-01

    Interactions between lipoproteins and fibrinolytic parameters inducing cardiovascular disease are gradually being disclosed. The multivariate analyses often used in studies investigating this relationship implicitly assume 1) that the reliability of the parameters in a cluster is comparably high,

  7. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ying eYeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, and a peroxidase (POD27 gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS-, independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR, FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS-/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries.

  8. Anti-fibrinolytic use for minimising perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David A; Carless, Paul A; Moxey, Annette J; O’Connell, Dianne; Stokes, Barrie J; Fergusson, Dean A; Ker, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Background Concerns regarding the safety of transfused blood have led to the development of a range of interventions to minimise blood loss during major surgery. Anti-fibrinolytic drugs are widely used, particularly in cardiac surgery, and previous reviews have found them to be effective in reducing blood loss, the need for transfusion, and the need for re-operation due to continued or recurrent bleeding. In the last few years questions have been raised regarding the comparative performance of the drugs. The safety of the most popular agent, aprotinin, has been challenged, and it was withdrawn from world markets in May 2008 because of concerns that it increased the risk of cardiovascular complications and death. Objectives To assess the comparative effects of the anti-fibrinolytic drugs aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA), and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) on blood loss during surgery, the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and adverse events, particularly vascular occlusion, renal dysfunction, and death. Search methods We searched: the Cochrane Injuries Group’s Specialised Register (July 2010), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) 1950 to July 2010, EMBASE (Ovid SP) 1980 to July 2010. References in identified trials and review articles were checked and trial authors were contacted to identify any additional studies. The searches were last updated in July 2010. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of anti-fibrinolytic drugs in adults scheduled for non-urgent surgery. Eligible trials compared anti-fibrinolytic drugs with placebo (or no treatment), or with each other. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. This version of the review includes a sensitivity analysis excluding trials authored by Prof. Joachim Boldt. Main results This review summarises data from 252 RCTs that recruited over 25,000 participants. Data from

  9. Haemorrheologic and fibrinolytic activities in diabetics resident in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... INTRODUCTION. Diabetes .... Ugwu (1987) Ingram's and Hills (1976) and Nelson (1944) were .... McGraw Hill, pp. ... International committee communications. Reference methods for one stage prothrombin time test on human.

  10. The effect of hyperthyroidism on procoagulant, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuijver, Danka J F; van Zaane, Bregje; Romualdi, Erica; Brandjes, Dees P M; Gerdes, Victor E A; Squizzato, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    Several coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters appear to be affected by thyroid hormone excess; however, the net effect on the haemostatic system remains unclear. We aimed to update our previous review and systematically summarise and meta-analyse the data by assessing the effects of thyrotoxicosis on the coagulation and fibrinolytic system in vivo . Data sources included MEDLINE (2006-2012), EMBASE (2006-2012), and reference lists. The sources were combined with our previous search containing studies from 1980-2006. Eligible studies were all observational or experimental studies. Two investigators independently extracted data and rated study quality. Weighted mean proportion and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and pooled using a fixed and a random-effects model. A total of 29 articles consisting of 51 studies were included, as in several articles more than one study was described. We included four intervention (before and after treatment in hyperthyroid patients), five cross-sectional (hyperthyroid subjects and euthyroid controls), and four experimental (before and after use of thyroid hormone in euthyroid subjects) medium/high quality studies for meta-analysis. We found that thyrotoxicosis shifts the haemostatic balance towards a hypercoagulable and hypofibrinolytic state with a rise in factors VIII and IX, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. This was observed in endogenous and exogenous thyrotoxicosis, and in subclinical as well as overt hyperthyroidism. We conclude that both subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism induce a prothrombotic state, which is therefore likely to be a risk factor for venous thrombosis.

  11. Effects of nattokinase, a pro-fibrinolytic enzyme, on red blood cell aggregation and whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Eszter; Alexy, Tamas; Holsworth, Ralph E; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2006-01-01

    The vegetable cheese-like food, natto, is extremely popular in Japan with a history extending back over 1000 years. A fibrinolytic enzyme, termed nattokinase, can be extracted from natto; the enzyme is a subtilisin-like serine protease composed of 275 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 27.7 kDa. In vitro and in vivo studies have consistently demonstrated the potent pro-fibrinolytic effect of the enzyme. However, no studies to date have evaluated the effects of nattokinase on various hemorheological parameters and thus we have begun to assess the effects of the enzyme on RBC aggregation and blood viscosity. Blood samples were incubated with nattokinase (final activities of 0, 15.6, 31.3, 62.5 and 125 units/ml) for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C. RBC aggregation was measured using a Myrenne MA-1 aggregometer and blood viscosity assessed over 1-1000 s(-1) with a computer controlled scanning capillary rheometer (Rheolog). Our in vitro results showed a significant, dose-dependent decrease of RBC aggregation and low-shear viscosity, with these beneficial effects evident at concentrations similar to those achieved in previous in vivo animal trials. Our preliminary data thus indicate positive in vitro hemorheological effects of nattokinase, and suggest its potential value as a therapeutic agent and the need for additional studies and clinical trials.

  12. Fanconi anemia (FA) binding protein FAAP20 stabilizes FA complementation group A (FANCA) and participates in interstrand cross-link repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Justin Wai Chung; Wang, Yucai; Fong, Ka Wing; Huen, Michael Shing Yan; Li, Lei; Chen, Junjie

    2012-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway participates in interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair and the maintenance of genomic stability. The FA core complex consists of eight FA proteins and two Fanconi anemia-associated proteins (FAAP24 and FAAP100). The FA core complex has ubiquitin ligase activity responsible for monoubiquitination of the FANCI-FANCD2 (ID) complex, which in turn initiates a cascade of biochemical events that allow processing and removal of cross-linked DNA and thereby promotes cell survival following DNA damage. Here, we report the identification of a unique component of the FA core complex, namely, FAAP20, which contains a RAD18-like ubiquitin-binding zinc-finger domain. Our data suggest that FAAP20 promotes the functional integrity of the FA core complex via its direct interaction with the FA gene product, FANCA. Indeed, somatic knockout cells devoid of FAAP20 displayed the hallmarks of FA cells, including hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, chromosome aberrations, and reduced FANCD2 monoubiquitination. Taking these data together, our study indicates that FAAP20 is an important player involved in the FA pathway. PMID:22396592

  13. Fanconi anemia (FA) binding protein FAAP20 stabilizes FA complementation group A (FANCA) and participates in interstrand cross-link repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Justin Wai Chung; Wang, Yucai; Fong, Ka Wing; Huen, Michael Shing Yan; Li, Lei; Chen, Junjie

    2012-03-20

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway participates in interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair and the maintenance of genomic stability. The FA core complex consists of eight FA proteins and two Fanconi anemia-associated proteins (FAAP24 and FAAP100). The FA core complex has ubiquitin ligase activity responsible for monoubiquitination of the FANCI-FANCD2 (ID) complex, which in turn initiates a cascade of biochemical events that allow processing and removal of cross-linked DNA and thereby promotes cell survival following DNA damage. Here, we report the identification of a unique component of the FA core complex, namely, FAAP20, which contains a RAD18-like ubiquitin-binding zinc-finger domain. Our data suggest that FAAP20 promotes the functional integrity of the FA core complex via its direct interaction with the FA gene product, FANCA. Indeed, somatic knockout cells devoid of FAAP20 displayed the hallmarks of FA cells, including hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, chromosome aberrations, and reduced FANCD2 monoubiquitination. Taking these data together, our study indicates that FAAP20 is an important player involved in the FA pathway.

  14. Direct Fibrinolytic Snake Venom Metalloproteinases Affecting Hemostasis: Structural, Biochemical Features and Therapeutic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Eladio F; Flores-Ortiz, Renzo J; Alvarenga, Valeria G; Eble, Johannes A

    2017-12-05

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are predominant in viperid venoms, which provoke hemorrhage and affect hemostasis and thrombosis. P-I class enzymes consist only of a single metalloproteinase domain. Despite sharing high sequence homology, only some of them induce hemorrhage. They have direct fibrin(ogen)olytic activity. Their main biological substrate is fibrin(ogen), whose Aα-chain is degraded rapidly and independently of activation of plasminogen. It is important to understand their biochemical and physiological mechanisms, as well as their applications, to study the etiology of some human diseases and to identify sites of potential intervention. As compared to all current antiplatelet therapies to treat cardiovascular events, the SVMPs have outstanding biochemical attributes: (a) they are insensitive to plasma serine proteinase inhibitors; (b) they have the potential to avoid bleeding risk; (c) mechanistically, they are inactivated/cleared by α2-macroglobulin that limits their range of action in circulation; and (d) few of them also impair platelet aggregation that represent an important target for therapeutic intervention. This review will briefly highlight the structure-function relationships of these few direct-acting fibrinolytic agents, including, barnettlysin-I, isolated from Bothrops barnetti venom, that could be considered as potential agent to treat major thrombotic disorders. Some of their pharmacological advantages are compared with plasmin.

  15. Direct Fibrinolytic Snake Venom Metalloproteinases Affecting Hemostasis: Structural, Biochemical Features and Therapeutic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eladio F. Sanchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs are predominant in viperid venoms, which provoke hemorrhage and affect hemostasis and thrombosis. P-I class enzymes consist only of a single metalloproteinase domain. Despite sharing high sequence homology, only some of them induce hemorrhage. They have direct fibrin(ogenolytic activity. Their main biological substrate is fibrin(ogen, whose Aα-chain is degraded rapidly and independently of activation of plasminogen. It is important to understand their biochemical and physiological mechanisms, as well as their applications, to study the etiology of some human diseases and to identify sites of potential intervention. As compared to all current antiplatelet therapies to treat cardiovascular events, the SVMPs have outstanding biochemical attributes: (a they are insensitive to plasma serine proteinase inhibitors; (b they have the potential to avoid bleeding risk; (c mechanistically, they are inactivated/cleared by α2-macroglobulin that limits their range of action in circulation; and (d few of them also impair platelet aggregation that represent an important target for therapeutic intervention. This review will briefly highlight the structure–function relationships of these few direct-acting fibrinolytic agents, including, barnettlysin-I, isolated from Bothrops barnetti venom, that could be considered as potential agent to treat major thrombotic disorders. Some of their pharmacological advantages are compared with plasmin.

  16. Thrombin regulates components of the fibrinolytic system in human mesangial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villamediana, L.M.; Rondeau, E.; He, C.J.; Medcalf, R.L.; Peraldi, M.N.; Lacave, R.; Delarue, F.; Sraer, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Besides its procoagulant activity, thrombin has been shown to stimulate cell proliferation and to regulate the fibrinolytic pathway. We report here the effect of purified human alpha thrombin on the synthesis of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) by cultured human mesangial cells. Thrombin (0 to 2.5 U/ml) increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner the production of t-PA and PAI-1 (2- to 3-fold increase of secreted t-PA and PAI-1 release during a 24 hour incubation). This effect was associated with a twofold increase in DNA synthesis measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Zymographic analysis and reverse fibrin autography showed that thrombin also increased the level of the 110 Kd t-PA-PAI-1 complex, whereas PAI-1 was present as a free 50 Kd form in the culture medium conditioned by unstimulated and thrombin-stimulated cells. Free t-PA was never observed. Both membrane binding and catalytic activity of thrombin were required since the effects of 1 U/ml thrombin were inhibited by addition 2 U/ml hirudin, which inhibits the membrane binding and catalytic activity of thrombin, and since DFP-inactivated thrombin, which has the ability to bind but which has no enzymatic activity, did not induce t-PA or PAI-1. Gamma thrombin, which does not bind to thrombin receptor, did not increase t-PA and PAI-1 releases. The effects of thrombin were probably mediated by protein kinase C activation since H7, an inhibitor of protein kinases, inhibited significantly thrombin effects on t-PA and PAI-1 production, and since addition of an activator of protein kinase A, 8-bromocyclic AMP (100 microM), induced a significant inhibition of the thrombin effect. The effects of thrombin were also suppressed by 1.25 micrograms/ml alpha amanitin, suggesting a requirement of de novo RNA synthesis

  17. Regulation of palmitoyl-CoA chain elongation by clofibric acid in the liver of Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Tomoaki; Kudo, Naomi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2005-05-01

    The regulation of palmitoyl-CoA chain elongation (PCE) by clofibric acid [2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid] was investigated in comparison with stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the liver of obese Zucker fa/fa rats. The proportion of oleic acid in the hepatic lipids of Zucker obese rats is 2.7 times higher than that of lean littermates. The activities of PCE and SCD in the liver of Zucker obese rats were markedly higher than in lean rats, and the hepatic uptake of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) was also higher in Zucker obese rats compared with lean rats. The increased activities of SCD and PCE in Zucker obese rats were due to the enhanced expression of mRNA of both SCD1 and rat FA elongase 2 (rELO2), but not SCD2 or rELO1. The proportion of oleic acid in the liver was significantly increased by the administration of clofibric acid to Zucker obese rats, and the hepatic PCE activity and rELO2 mRNA expression, but not the SCD activity or SCD1 mRNA expression, were increased in response to clofibric acid treatment. By contrast, the activities of both PCE and SCD and the mRNA expression of SCD1 and rELO2 in the liver were increased by the treatment of Zucker lean rats with clofibric acid. Multiple regression analysis, which was performed to determine the relationships involving PCE activity, SCD activity, and the proportion of oleic acid, revealed that the three parameters were significantly correlated and that the standardized partial regression coefficient of PCE was higher than that of SCD. These results indicate that oleic acid is synthesized by the concerted action of PCE and SCD and that PCE plays a crucial role in the formation of oleic acid when Zucker fa/fa rats are given clofibric acid.

  18. Purification of a fibrinolytic protease from Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262 by aqueous two-phase systems (PEG/sulfate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Thiago Pajeú; Sales, Amanda Emmanuelle; Porto, Camila Souza; Brandão, Romero Marcos Pedrosa; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Teixeira, José Antônio Couto; Porto, Tatiana Souza; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Converti, Attilio

    2016-07-01

    A fibrinolytic protease from M. subtilissimus UCP 1262 was recovered and partially purified by polyethylene glycol (PEG)/sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). The simultaneous influence of PEG molar mass, PEG concentration and sulfate concentration on the enzyme recovery was first investigated using a 2(3) full factorial design, and the Response Surface Methodology used to identify the optimum conditions for enzyme extraction by ATPS. Once the best PEG molar mass for the process had been selected (6000g/mol), a two-factor central composite rotary design was applied to better evaluate the effects of the other two independent variables. The fibrinolytic enzyme was shown to preferentially partition to the bottom phase with a partition coefficient (K) ranging from 0.2 to 0.7. The best results in terms of enzyme purification were obtained with the system formed by 30.0% (w/w) PEG 6000g/mol and 13.2% (w/w) sodium sulfate, which ensured a purification factor of 10.0, K of 0.2 and activity yield of 102.0%. SDS-PAGE and fibrin zymography showed that the purified protease has a molecular mass of 97kDa and an apparent isoelectric point of 5.4. When submitted to assays with different substrates and inhibitors, it showed selectivity for succinyl-l-ala-ala-pro-l-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide and was almost completely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, behaving as a chymotrypsin-like protease. At the optimum temperature of 37°C, the enzyme residual activity was 94 and 68% of the initial one after 120 and 150min of incubation, respectively. This study demonstrated that M. subtilissimus protease has potent fibrinolytic activity compared with similar enzymes produced by solid-state fermentation, therefore it may be used as an agent for the prevention and therapy of thrombosis. Furthermore, it appears to have the advantages of low cost production and simple purification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diabetes-associated microbiota in fa/fa rats is modified by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Tulika; Seyfried, Florian; Docherty, Neil G

    2017-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and duodenal jejunal bypass (DJB), two different forms of bariatric surgery, are associated with improved glucose tolerance, but it is not clear whether the gut microbiota contributes to this effect. Here we used fa/fa rats as a model of impaired glucose tolerance...... to investigate whether (i) the microbiota varies between fa/fa and nondiabetic fa/+ rats; (ii) the microbiota of fa/fa rats is affected by RYGB and/or DJB; and (iii) surgically induced microbiota alterations contribute to glucose metabolism. We observed a profound expansion of Firmicutes (specifically......, Lactobacillus animalis and Lactobacillus reuteri) in the small intestine of diabetic fa/fa compared with nondiabetic fa/+ rats. RYGB-, but not DJB-, treated fa/fa rats exhibited greater microbiota diversity in the ileum and lower L. animalis and L. reuteri abundance compared with sham-operated fa/fa rats in all...

  20. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...

  1. A novel fibrinolytic metalloproteinase, barnettlysin-I from Bothrops barnetti (Barnett´s pitviper) snake venom with anti-platelet properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Eladio Flores; Richardson, Michael; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Yarleque, Armando; Niland, Stephan; Lima, Augusto Martins; Estevao-Costa, Maria Inácia; Eble, Johannes Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Viperid snake venoms contain active components that interfere with hemostasis. We report a new P-I class snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), barnettlysin-I (Bar-I), isolated from the venom of Bothrops barnetti and evaluated its fibrinolytic and antithrombotic potential. Bar-I was purified using a combination of molecular exclusion and cation-exchange chromatographies. We describe some biochemical features of Bar-I associated with its effects on hemostasis and platelet function. Bar-I is a 23.386 kDa single-chain polypeptide with pI of 6.7. Its sequence (202 residues) shows high homology to other members of the SVMPs. The enzymatic activity on dimethylcasein (DMC) is inhibited by metalloproteinase inhibitors e.g. EDTA, and by α2-macroglobulin. Bar-I degrades fibrin and fibrinogen dose- and time-dependently by cleaving their α-chains. Furthermore, it hydrolyses plasma fibronectin but not laminin nor collagen type I. In vitro Bar-I dissolves fibrin clots made either from purified fibrinogen or from whole blood. In contrast to many other P-I SVMPs, Bar-I is devoid of hemorrhagic activity. Also, Bar-I dose- and time-dependently inhibits aggregation of washed human platelets induced by vWF plus ristocetin and collagen (IC50=1.3 and 3.2 μM, respectively), presumably Bar-I cleaves both vWF and GPIb. Thus, it effectively inhibits vWF-induced platelet aggregation. Moreover, this proteinase cleaves the collagen-binding α2-A domain (160 kDa) of α2β1-integrin. This explains why it additionally inhibits collagen-induced platelet activation. A non-hemorrhagic but fibrinolytic metalloproteinase dissolves fibrin clots in vitro and impairs platelet function. This study provides new opportunities for drug development of a fibrinolytic agent with antithrombotic effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Door-to-needle time for administration of fibrinolytics in acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the current door-to-needle time for the administration of fibrinolytics for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in emergency centres (ECs) at three hospitals in Cape Town, and to compare it with the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) recommendation of 30 minutes ...

  3. Fibrinolytic protease production by new Streptomyces sp. DPUA 1576 from Amazon lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana M.M. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results show that the optimization of the culture medium can enhance protease production, thus becoming a good process for further research. In addition, Streptomyces sp. DPUA 1576, isolated from Amazon lichens, might be a potential strain for fibrinolytic protease production.

  4. Impact of fibrinolytics on the outcome of empyema in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. One hundred and forty-two children with empyema, median age 17 months (interquartile range 8 - 43), were admitted during the study period. Excluding children who did not have a chest tube inserted and those in whom fibrinolysis was contraindicated, there were 99 patients, 52 of whom received fibrinolytics.

  5. Fibrinolytic dysfunction in insulin-resistant women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, S; Winzer, C; Tura, A; Quehenberger, P; Bieglmaier, C; Wagner, O F; Huber, K; Waldhäusl, W; Pacini, G; Kautzky-Willer, A

    2006-05-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes (p-GDM) are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) later in life, and therefore at increased risk for future cardiovascular disease. Three months after delivery we investigated the plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in 74 women with p-GDM and 20 healthy females with normal glucose tolerance during and after pregnancy, as well as the relation of fibrinolytic parameters to insulin resistance and glycaemic control. All women underwent an oral (OGTT) as well as an intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Mathematical model analysis disclosed that 50% (n=37 each) of the p-GDM subjects had normal (NIS) or impaired (IIS) insulin sensitivity. Parameters of interest were determined using commercially available test systems. Women with p-GDM and IIS had significantly increased body fat mass (BFM) (Pwomen with p-GDM and NIS and controls, whereas the waist to hip ratio (WHR) was similar in both p-GDM groups but was higher compared with the controls (Pwomen with p-GDM and IIS compared with women with p-GDM and NIS and the controls (Pwomen with IIS had higher PAI-1 levels than lean women with IIS (Pwomen with IIS (Pwomen with IIS independently of their glucose tolerance status (Pwomen with IIS and depends on plasma proinsulin and abdominal obesity. An increase of the PAI-1/SI ratio further characterizes obese insulin-resistant p-GDM women who may be at risk for diabetes and angiopathy.

  6. Effect of urokinase thrombolysis on the cardiac function, coagulation, and fibrinolytic system in patients with AMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bin Kuang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of urokinase thrombolysis on the cardiac function, coagulation, and fibrinolytic system in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods: A total of 39 patients with AMI who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2016 to November, 2016 were included in the study and served as the observation group. The peripheral venous blood before and after thrombolysis was collected. The plasma NTproBNP level, related coagulation factors, and fibrinolysis indicators were detected. The cardiac function before treatment was evaluated. A total of 30 healthy individuals who came for physical examinations were served as the control group for contrastive analysis. Results: The plasma NT-proBNP, Fg, and D-D levels before thrombolysis in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while PT, APTT, and TT in the observation group were significantly shortened. The plasma NT-proBNP and D-D levels 2-48 h after thrombolysis in the observation group were significantly elevated first and reduced later and reached the peak 4 h after treatment, while PT, APTT, and TT were significantly extended first and shortened later. The plasma Fg level was significantly reduced first and elevated later and reached the minimum 4 h after treatment. During the treatment process, in the observation group, 2 had mucocutaneous hemorrhage, 3 had nasal hemorrhage, and 1 had gingival bleeding, but no gastrointestinal bleeding or cerebral hemorrhage occurred. Conclusions: The thrombolytic therapy can effectively reduce the coagulation activity in patients with AMI, strengthen the fibrinolysis activity, and improve the cardiac function.

  7. FANCI Regulates Recruitment of the FA Core Complex at Sites of DNA Damage Independently of FANCD2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Castella

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fanconi anemia (FA-BRCA pathway mediates repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks. The FA core complex, a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase, participates in the detection of DNA lesions and monoubiquitinates two downstream FA proteins, FANCD2 and FANCI (or the ID complex. However, the regulation of the FA core complex itself is poorly understood. Here we show that the FA core complex proteins are recruited to sites of DNA damage and form nuclear foci in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. ATR kinase activity, an intact FA core complex and FANCM-FAAP24 were crucial for this recruitment. Surprisingly, FANCI, but not its partner FANCD2, was needed for efficient FA core complex foci formation. Monoubiquitination or ATR-dependent phosphorylation of FANCI were not required for the FA core complex recruitment, but FANCI deubiquitination by USP1 was. Additionally, BRCA1 was required for efficient FA core complex foci formation. These findings indicate that FANCI functions upstream of FA core complex recruitment independently of FANCD2, and alter the current view of the FA-BRCA pathway.

  8. Designing Urban Media Façades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Media façades comprise a category of urban computing concerned with the integration of displays into the built environment, including buildings and street furniture. This paper identifies and discusses eight challenges faced when designing urban media façades. The challenges concern a broad range...... of issues: interfaces, physical integration, robustness, content, stakeholders, situation, social relations, and emerging use. The challenges reflect the fact that the urban setting as a domain for interaction design is characterized by a number of circumstances and socio-cultural practices that differ from...

  9. The carboxyl terminus of FANCE recruits FANCD2 to the Fanconi Anemia (FA) E3 ligase complex to promote the FA DNA repair pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, David; Cukras, Scott; Wang, Xiaozhe; Spence, Paige; Moreau, Lisa; D'Andrea, Alan D; Kee, Younghoon

    2014-03-07

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genome instability syndrome characterized by bone marrow failure and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. In response to DNA damage, the FA pathway is activated through the cooperation of 16 FA proteins. A central player in the pathway is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex or the FA core complex, which monoubiquitinates its substrates FANCD2 and FANCI. FANCE, a subunit of the FA core complex, plays an essential role by promoting the integrity of the complex and by directly recognizing FANCD2. To delineate its role in substrate ubiquitination from the core complex assembly, we analyzed a series of mutations within FANCE. We report that a phenylalanine located at the highly conserved extreme C terminus, referred to as Phe-522, is a critical residue for mediating the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI complex. Using the FANCE mutant that specifically disrupts the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction as a tool, we found that the interaction-deficient mutant conferred cellular sensitivity in reconstituted FANCE-deficient cells to a similar degree as FANCE null cells, suggesting the significance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in promoting cisplatin resistance. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of the FANCE C terminus fragment alone in FA normal cells disrupts DNA repair, consolidating the importance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in the DNA cross-link repair.

  10. The Carboxyl Terminus of FANCE Recruits FANCD2 to the Fanconi Anemia (FA) E3 Ligase Complex to Promote the FA DNA Repair Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, David; Cukras, Scott; Wang, Xiaozhe; Spence, Paige; Moreau, Lisa; D'Andrea, Alan D.; Kee, Younghoon

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genome instability syndrome characterized by bone marrow failure and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. In response to DNA damage, the FA pathway is activated through the cooperation of 16 FA proteins. A central player in the pathway is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex or the FA core complex, which monoubiquitinates its substrates FANCD2 and FANCI. FANCE, a subunit of the FA core complex, plays an essential role by promoting the integrity of the complex and by directly recognizing FANCD2. To delineate its role in substrate ubiquitination from the core complex assembly, we analyzed a series of mutations within FANCE. We report that a phenylalanine located at the highly conserved extreme C terminus, referred to as Phe-522, is a critical residue for mediating the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI complex. Using the FANCE mutant that specifically disrupts the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction as a tool, we found that the interaction-deficient mutant conferred cellular sensitivity in reconstituted FANCE-deficient cells to a similar degree as FANCE null cells, suggesting the significance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in promoting cisplatin resistance. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of the FANCE C terminus fragment alone in FA normal cells disrupts DNA repair, consolidating the importance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in the DNA cross-link repair. PMID:24451376

  11. Opuntia ficus indica (nopal) attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; López-Romero, Patricia; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Nopal, a cactus plant widely consumed in the Mexican diet, is considered a functional food because of its antioxidant activity and ability to improve biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nopal consumption on the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic oxidative stress and on the regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing 4% nopal for 7 wk. Rats fed the nopal-containing diet had ∼50% lower hepatic TG than the control group as well as a reduction in hepatomegaly and biomarkers of hepatocyte injury such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Attenuation of hepatic steatosis by nopal consumption was accompanied by a higher serum concentration of adiponectin and a greater abundance of mRNA for genes involved in lipid oxidation and lipid export and production of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and microsomal TG transfer proteins in liver. Hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were significantly lower in rats fed nopal compared with the control rats. Furthermore, rats fed the nopal diet had a lower postprandial serum insulin concentration and a greater liver phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT):AKT ratio in the postprandial state. This study suggests that nopal consumption attenuates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL synthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving liver insulin signaling in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

  12. Les faïences patronymiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Rosen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Les faïences patronymiques, collection Jeanne Lemerle - Donation Michel Dillange,J. Rosen (dir., D. Donadieu-Rigaut, J.-M. Roudier, S. Biton, A. Supiot,Le Mans, éd. de la Reinette, 2006, 158 p.A la suite d’une récente donation, le Musée de l’Abbaye Sainte-Croix des Sables-d’Olonne présente un exceptionnel ensemble de cent soixante-cinq faïences patronymiques nivernaises rassemblé dans les années 1930-1940, ensemble très complet produit des environs de 1730 aux années 1830, qui constitue un p...

  13. The effect of architectural façade design on energy savings in the student dormitory

    OpenAIRE

    Pejić Petar Č.; Petković Dušan Lj.; Krasić Sonja M.

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons for adequate use of natural light inside students' dormitories. Intensity of light required for student activities and temperature inside the rooms are the major factors for an occupant's comfortable work and life. Design of building façades has a significant impact both on the use of natural light and energy consumption. In this paper, a comparative analysis of student rooms with different orientations and different façade designs wa...

  14. The strawberry FaMYB1 transcription factor suppresses anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, A; De Vos, C H; Wein, M; Sun, Z; Greco, R; Kroon, A; Mol, J N; O'Connell, A P

    2001-11-01

    Fruit ripening is characterized by dramatic changes in gene expression, enzymatic activities and metabolism. Although the process of ripening has been studied extensively, we still lack valuable information on how the numerous metabolic pathways are regulated and co-ordinated. In this paper we describe the characterization of FaMYB1, a ripening regulated strawberry gene member of the MYB family of transcription factors. Flowers of transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing FaMYB1 showed a severe reduction in pigmentation. A reduction in the level of cyanidin 3-rutinoside (an anthocyanin) and of quercetin-glycosides (flavonols) was observed. Expression of late flavonoid biosynthesis genes and their enzyme activities were adversely affected by FaMYB1 overexpression. Two-hybrid assays in yeast showed that FaMYB1 could interact with other known anthocyanin regulators, but it does not act as a transcriptional activator. Interestingly, the C-terminus of FaMYB1 contains the motif pdLNL(D)/(E)Lxi(G)/S. This motif is contained in a region recently proposed to be involved in the repression of transcription by AtMYB4, an Arabidopsis MYB protein. Our results suggest that FaMYB1 may play a key role in regulating the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and flavonols in strawberry. It may act to repress transcription in order to balance the levels of anthocyanin pigments produced at the latter stages of strawberry fruit maturation, and/or to regulate metabolite levels in various branches of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

  15. The cathepsin B inhibitor z-FA-CMK induces cell death in leukemic T cells via oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liow, K Y; Chow, Sek C

    2018-01-01

    The cathepsin B inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethyl ketone (z-FA-CMK) was recently found to induce apoptosis at low concentrations in Jurkat T cells, while at higher concentrations, the cells die of necrosis. In the present study, we showed that z-FA-CMK readily depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH) with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The toxicity of z-FA-CMK in Jurkat T cells was completely abrogated by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), suggesting that the toxicity mediated by z-FA-CMK is due to oxidative stress. We found that L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) which depletes intracellular GSH through the inhibition of GSH biosynthesis in Jurkat T cells did not promote ROS increase or induce cell death. However, NAC was still able to block z-FA-CMK toxicity in Jurkat T cells in the presence of BSO, indicating that the protective effect of NAC does not involve GSH biosynthesis. This is further corroborated by the protective effect of the non-metabolically active D-cysteine on z-FA-CMK toxicity. Furthermore, in BSO-treated cells, z-FA-CMK-induced ROS increased which remains unchanged, suggesting that the depletion of GSH and increase in ROS generation mediated by z-FA-CMK may be two separate events. Collectively, our results demonstrated that z-FA-CMK toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress through the increase in ROS generation.

  16. A Conserved Metal Binding Motif in the Bacillus subtilis Competence Protein ComFA Enhances Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Scott S; Falbel, Tanya G; Hromada, Susan; Burton, Briana M

    2017-08-01

    Genetic competence is a process in which cells are able to take up DNA from their environment, resulting in horizontal gene transfer, a major mechanism for generating diversity in bacteria. Many bacteria carry homologs of the central DNA uptake machinery that has been well characterized in Bacillus subtilis It has been postulated that the B. subtilis competence helicase ComFA belongs to the DEAD box family of helicases/translocases. Here, we made a series of mutants to analyze conserved amino acid motifs in several regions of B. subtilis ComFA. First, we confirmed that ComFA activity requires amino acid residues conserved among the DEAD box helicases, and second, we show that a zinc finger-like motif consisting of four cysteines is required for efficient transformation. Each cysteine in the motif is important, and mutation of at least two of the cysteines dramatically reduces transformation efficiency. Further, combining multiple cysteine mutations with the helicase mutations shows an additive phenotype. Our results suggest that the helicase and metal binding functions are two distinct activities important for ComFA function during transformation. IMPORTANCE ComFA is a highly conserved protein that has a role in DNA uptake during natural competence, a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer observed in many bacteria. Investigation of the details of the DNA uptake mechanism is important for understanding the ways in which bacteria gain new traits from their environment, such as drug resistance. To dissect the role of ComFA in the DNA uptake machinery, we introduced point mutations into several motifs in the protein sequence. We demonstrate that several amino acid motifs conserved among ComFA proteins are important for efficient transformation. This report is the first to demonstrate the functional requirement of an amino-terminal cysteine motif in ComFA. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek [DECOM, Trnava (Slovakia)

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided.

  18. Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasko, Marek

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided

  19. Production of fibrinolytic protease from Streptomyces lusitanus isolated from marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    SudeshWarma, S.; Merlyn keziah, S.; Subathra Devi, C.

    2017-11-01

    This study aim was to isolate, screen, characterize and optimize marine Streptomyces for fibrinolytic enzyme production. The potent actinomycete isolate was subjected to optimization. The parameters for optimization included pH, temperature, carbon, nitrogen sources. The crude supernatant produced was purified using size exclusion gel filtration chromatography. The optimized parameters for maximum productivity were found to be pH 7, 37°C, maltose and peptone respectively. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was found to be 21kDa.

  20. Medium Optimization for the Production of Fibrinolytic Enzyme by Paenibacillus sp. IND8 Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of fibrinolytic enzyme by a newly isolated Paenibacillus sp. IND8 was optimized using wheat bran in solid state fermentation. A 25 full factorial design (first-order model was applied to elucidate the key factors as moisture, pH, sucrose, yeast extract, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate. Statistical analysis of the results has shown that moisture, sucrose, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate have the most significant effects on fibrinolytic enzymes production (P<0.05. Central composite design (CCD was used to determine the optimal concentrations of these three components and the experimental results were fitted with a second-order polynomial model at 95% level (P<0.05. Overall, 4.5-fold increase in fibrinolytic enzyme production was achieved in the optimized medium as compared with the unoptimized medium.

  1. [Cell-derived microparticles unveil their fibrinolytic and proteolytic function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeuvre, Loïc; Angles-Cano, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MP) are membrane microvesicles, 0.1-1 microm in size, shed by cells following activation or during apoptosis in a variety of pathological conditions. MPs released by blood cells or by vascular endothelial cells display molecular signatures that allow their identification and functional characterization. In addition, they provide tissue factor (TF) and a procoagulant phospholipid surface. Therefore, at present, the most strongly established applied research on MPs is their procoagulant activity as a determinant of thrombotic risk in various clinical conditions. Previous studies have indicated that MPs derived from malignant cells express matrix metalloproteinases, urokinase and its receptor (uPA/uPAR) that, in the presence of plasminogen, may act in concert to degrade extracellular matrix proteins. Recently, it was shown that MPs from TNFa-stimulated endothelial cells served as a surface for interaction with plasminogen and its conversion into plasmin by the uPA/uPAR system expressed at their surface. This capacity of MPs to promote plasmin generation confers them a new profibrinolytic and proteolytic function that may be of relevance in fibrinolysis, cell migration, angiogenesis, dissemination of malignant cells, cell detachment and apoptosis.

  2. Restoration of euglycemia after duodenal bypass surgery is reliant on central and peripheral inputs in Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian; Bae, Eun Ju; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Oliver, Jason; Marathe, Chaitra; Chen, Michael; Hsu, Jer-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Tian, Hui; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Saberi, Maziyar

    2013-04-01

    Gastrointestinal bypass surgeries that result in rerouting and subsequent exclusion of nutrients from the duodenum appear to rapidly alleviate hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia independent of weight loss. While the mechanism(s) responsible for normalization of glucose homeostasis remains to be fully elucidated, this rapid normalization coupled with the well-known effects of vagal inputs into glucose homeostasis suggests a neurohormonally mediated mechanism. Our results show that duodenal bypass surgery on obese, insulin-resistant Zucker fa/fa rats restored insulin sensitivity in both liver and peripheral tissues independent of body weight. Restoration of normoglycemia was attributable to an enhancement in key insulin-signaling molecules, including insulin receptor substrate-2, and substrate metabolism through a multifaceted mechanism involving activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and downregulation of key regulatory genes involved in both lipid and glucose metabolism. Importantly, while central nervous system-derived vagal nerves were not essential for restoration of insulin sensitivity, rapid normalization in hepatic gluconeogenic capacity and basal hepatic glucose production required intact vagal innervation. Lastly, duodenal bypass surgery selectively altered the tissue concentration of intestinally derived glucoregulatory hormone peptides in a segment-specific manner. The present data highlight and support the significance of vagal inputs and intestinal hormone peptides toward normalization of glucose and lipid homeostasis after duodenal bypass surgery.

  3. International Façades - CROFT. Climate Related Optimized Façade Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Bilow

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Looking at Central European building projects illustrates an awareness of sustainability and the need to save energy. This trend is based on the finiteness of natural resources, and is thus wise to follow. Developments in this region including passive house technologies, and energy plus solutions that create more energy than they use have become realisable. But it is not increasing technological knowledge alone that supported these developments; the Central European climate makes it possible to invent technological solutions that allow for maximum comfort while maintaining low energy consumption. Other regions have experienced a building boom over the past decades that has dramatically increased city sizes. A detailed examination of such building projects illustrates that most of them strive for the international standard with a high glazing ratio in the style of the Central European examples. But how can architecture be transferred to regions with entirely different climate conditions? The answer lies in the technological possibilities we have at our disposal today. The main research question of this thesis refers to utilising the local climate. Which methods are necessary to plan a building - and a façade as the interface between the inside and the outside, in particular - while working with, not against the climate? Sailing has been used as an analogy: only with the knowledge of winds and tides can we use them to efficiently move across bodies of water. Those who have not learned or understood this will have to use a motorboat and pay the price for petrol. Chapter 2 ‘Climate zones’ describes the different climate zones and their particularities, analysed with the help of eight different boomtowns. The mild Central European climate becomes particularly apparent when compared to tropic locations such as Singapore. Here, very high average temperatures and humidity levels require that we rethink and find new solutions. In chapter 3

  4. Alterations of local cerebral glucose utilization in lean and obese fa/fa rats after acute adrenalectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, P; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Jeanrenaud, B

    1994-08-29

    An animal model often used to investigate the aetiology of obesity is the genetically obese fa/fa rat. It has many abnormalities, including hyperphagia, hyper-insulinemia, insulin resistance, low cerebral glucose utilization and an overactive hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis with resulting hypercorticism. Due to the latter consideration, the aim of this work was to study the impact of acute adrenalectomy (ADX) on the local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) of lean and obese fa/fa rats. ADX resulted in discrete increases in LCGU of regions common to both lean and obese rats. These common regions were found to belong to be related to the limbic system. Within this system, the LCGU of the brain of obese rats was either normalized to lean sham operated values or increased by ADX to a similar degree in both groups on a percentage basis. It was concluded that the LCGU of both lean and obese animals appears to be negatively regulated, albeit to different extents, by glucocorticoids. Such negative regulation is particularly salient within the limbic system of the lean rat and even more so in the fa/fa rat. It is suggested that the long-term hypercorticism of obese fa/fa rats due to abnormal regulation of the HPA axis may result in a decreased LCGU in limbic and related regions of the brain of fa/fa rats and contribute to the expression of the obese phenotype.

  5. Purification and characterization of a fibrinolytic enzyme of Bacillus subtilis DC33, isolated from Chinese traditional Douchi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.T.; Ji, B.P.; Li, B.; Nout, M.J.R.; Li, P.L.; Ji, H.; Chen, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis DC33 producing a novel fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated from Ba-bao Douchi, a traditional soybean-fermented food in China. The strong fibrin-specific enzyme subtilisin FS33 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using the combination of various chromatographic steps. The

  6. Protein C activation during the initial phase of experimental acute pancreatitis in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, L H; Bladbjerg, E-M; Osman, M

    2000-01-01

    activity), anticoagulant proteins (protein C, antithrombin) and fibrinolytic factors (tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were performed for 5 h. RESULTS: ANP was confirmed by elevated serum amylase, development of ascites, and histological changes of the pancreas. A moderate...

  7. The role of FaBG3 in fruit ripening and B. cinerea fungal infection of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ji, Kai; Sun, Yufei; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hongqing; Leng, Ping

    2013-10-01

    In plants, β-glucosidases (BG) have been implicated in developmental and pathogen defense, and are thought to take part in abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis via hydrolysis of ABA glucose ester to release active ABA; however, there is no genetic evidence for the role of BG genes in ripening and biotic/abiotic stress in fruits. To clarify the role of BG genes in fruit, eight Fa/FvBG genes encoding β-glucosidase were isolated using information from the GenBank strawberry nucleotide database. Of the Fa/FvBG genes examined, expression of FaBG3 was the highest, showing peaks at the mature stage, coincident with the changes observed in ABA content. To verify the role of this gene, we suppressed the expression of FaBG3 via inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tobacco rattle virus carrying a FaBG3 fragment (RNAi). The expression of FaBG3 in FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit was markedly reduced, and the ABA content was lower than that of the control. FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit did not exhibit full ripening, and were firmer, had lower sugar content, and were pale compared with the control due to down-regulation of ripening-related genes. FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit with reduced ABA levels were much more resistant to Botrytis cinerea fungus but were more sensitive to dehydration stress than control fruit. These results indicate that FaBG3 may play key roles in fruit ripening, dehydration stress and B. cinerea fungal infection in strawberries via modulation of ABA homeostasis and transcriptional regulation of ripening-related genes. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The effect of architectural façade design on energy savings in the student dormitory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Petar Č.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons for adequate use of natural light inside students' dormitories. Intensity of light required for student activities and temperature inside the rooms are the major factors for an occupant's comfortable work and life. Design of building façades has a significant impact both on the use of natural light and energy consumption. In this paper, a comparative analysis of student rooms with different orientations and different façade designs was performed in order to investigate what type of refurbishment in the façade is necessary. The goal of the refurbishment was generation of optimal thermal and lighting comfort for students' work with maximal energy saving for a new student dormitory in Nis, Serbia. An analysis of annual energy consumption of the newly designed student dormitory and proposed replacements on the exterior façade was performed by using the software EnergyPlus. Based on the energy consumption analysis it could be concluded that significant energy savings would be possible by upgrading the shading devices across the width of the window. In other words, changing the façade of the dorm could generally improve students' comfort, while the energy costs would be reduced. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36037: Development of student dorms in Serbia at the beginning of the 21st century i br. TR 33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  9. Framework for benchmarking FA-based string recognizers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngassam, EK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available of suggested algorithms by domain-specific FA-implementers requires prior knowledge of the behaviour (performance-wise) of each algorithm in order to make an informed choice. The authors propose a based string recognizers such that FA-implementers could capture...

  10. Odenplan: a media façade design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen; Basballe, Ditte Amund

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an example of how to work with the challenges inherent in media façade design processes. We base the paper on our experiences from the creation of a series of design proposals for a media façade on the Odenplan subway station in Stockholm, Sweden. We approach the question...

  11. QUANDO LA LINGUA SI FA PENSIERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Finocchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Il Concorso letterario nazionale Lingua Madre, ideato nel 2005 da Daniela Finocchi, è un progetto permanente di Regione Piemonte e del Salone Internazionale del Libro di Torino diretto alle donne straniere (o di origine straniera con una sezione per le donne italiane. Nasce per creare relazione, scambio, confronto, per favorire la conoscenza reciproca e mettere in dialogo culture, identità, esperienze diverse. Tutto questo attraverso la scrittura in lingua italiana e tramite la fotografia. Una grande rete a disposizione delle donne, chiamate a raccontare e a raccontarsi in piena libertà e autonomia, a esprimersi al di fuori degli stereotipi, delle “norme” e delle “pre-iscrizioni” culturali e sociali, a giocare parti di sé tramite la parola. 
La lingua dà corpo a immaginari, desideri, mondi interiori e così si fa pensiero e diviene strumento indispensabile per conquistare il diritto a esistere e ad avere voce.   When language becomes thought The “Lingua Madre” national literary competition, founded in 2005 by Daniela Finocchi, is a permanent project of the Piedmont Region and the Turin International Book Fair aimed at foreign (born women, with a section for Italian women. It is aimed at developing relationships, exchanges, dialogues, promoting mutual knowledge and creating dialogue between different cultures, identities and experiences through writing in Italian and photography. A large network is available to women, so they can talk in full freedom and autonomy, express themselves outside stereotypes, “norms”, cultural and social prejudices and explore themselves through words. Language gives substance to ideas, desires, inner worlds, becoming thought, and is thus an indispensable tool to exist and have a voice.

  12. Obesity is accompanied by disturbances in peripheral glucocorticoid metabolism and changes in FA recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonyte, Kotryna; Rask, Eva; Näslund, Ingmar

    2009-01-01

    and activity of 11betaHSD1 as well as the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in adipose and liver and investigated putative associations between 11betaHSD1 and energy metabolism genes. A total of 33 obese...... acid (FA) recycling in adipose tissue (AT)....

  13. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan Future Prospects of FA-From FA to IMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-04

    of FA Investment (Large Companies) a) m d) m 5000fI~ljl|S 1 m± ¥-1$ 500~1000t| 300~500(f 1000~3000ft i) £ÜÜ 0i!§£3^ SWOT # H^fc3S j) k) 1...is a method conceived by Toyota Motors, now widely understood throughout the world. Such information as the production volume, time, method and...T. Suzuki Toyota Motor Corp. Y. Tatsue AIST, Mechanical Engineering Laboratory K. Togino Komatsu Ltd. H. Torii Nihon Keizai Shimbun Editorial

  14. Time to Detection with BacT/Alert FA Plus Compared to BacT/Alert FA Blood Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutman, A; Fisher Even-Tsur, S; Shapiro, G; Braun, T; Schwartz, D; Carmeli, Y

    2016-09-01

    Rapid identification of the causative pathogen in patients with bacteremia allows adjustment of antibiotic therapy and improves patient outcomes. We compared in vitro and real-life time to detection (TTD) of two blood culture media, BacT/Alert FA (FA) and BacT/Alert FA Plus (FA Plus), for the nine most common species of bacterial pathogens recovered from blood samples. Experimental data from simulated cultures was compared with microbiology records of TTD for both culture media with growth of the species of interest in clinical blood cultures. In the experimental conditions, median TTD was 3.8 hours (23.9 %) shorter using FA Plus media. The magnitude of reduction differed between species. Similarly, in real life data, FA Plus had shorter TTD than FA media; however, the difference between culture media was smaller, and median TTD was only 1 hour (8.5 %) less. We found shorter TTD with BacT/Alert FA Plus culture media, both experimentally and in real-life conditions and unrelated to antibiotic neutralization, highlighting the importance of appropriate blood culture media selection.

  15. Mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy FA in castor oil and two normal FA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil can be used in industry. The molecular species of triacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in castor oil have been identified. We report here the identification of twelve diacylglycerols (DAG) containing hydroxy FA in castor oil using positive ion electrospray ionization mass ...

  16. Delta-like 1/Fetal Antigen-1 (Dlk1/FA1) Is a Novel Regulator of Chondrogenic Cell Differentiation via Inhibition of the Akt Kinase-dependent Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Qanie, Diyako; Jafari, Abbas; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Jensen, Charlotte H.; Säämänen, Anna-Marja; Sanz, Maria Luisa Nueda; Laborda, Jorge; Abdallah, Basem M.; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    Delta-like 1 (Dlk1, also known as fetal antigen-1, FA1) is a member of Notch/Delta family that inhibits adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation; however, its role in chondrogenesis is still not clear. Thus, we overexpressed Dlk1/FA1 in mouse embryonic ATDC5 cells and tested its effects on chondrogenic differentiation. Dlk1/FA1 inhibited insulin-induced chondrogenic differentiation as evidenced by reduction of cartilage nodule formation and gene expression of aggrecan, collagen Type II and X. Similar effects were obtained either by using Dlk1/FA1-conditioned medium or by addition of a purified, secreted, form of Dlk1 (FA1) directly to the induction medium. The inhibitory effects of Dlk1/FA1 were dose-dependent and occurred irrespective of the chondrogenic differentiation stage: proliferation, differentiation, maturation, or hypertrophic conversion. Overexpression or addition of the Dlk1/FA1 protein to the medium strongly inhibited the activation of Akt, but not the ERK1/2, or p38 MAPK pathways, and the inhibition of Akt by Dlk1/FA1 was mediated through PI3K activation. Interestingly, inhibition of fibronectin expression by siRNA rescued the Dlk1/FA1-mediated inhibition of Akt, suggesting interaction of Dlk1/FA1 and fibronectin in chondrogenic cells. Our results identify Dlk1/FA1 as a novel regulator of chondrogenesis and suggest Dlk1/FA1 acts as an inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt pathways that leads to its inhibitory effects on chondrogenesis. PMID:21724852

  17. Neurons in the monoaminergic nuclei of the rat and human central nervous system express FA1/dlk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Meyer, M; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2001-01-01

    The gene DLK1 encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) superfamily, delta-like (dlk). When exposed in vivo to the action of an unknown protease, this type 1 membrane protein generates a soluble peptide referred to as Fetal antigen 1 (FA1). By acting in juxtacrine as well as paracrine....../autocrine manners, both forms have been shown to be active in the differentiation/proliferation process of various cell types. In adults, FA1/dlk has been demonstrated mainly within (neuro) endocrine tissues. In this study we investigated the presence of FA1/dlk in other parts of the developing and adult rat...... and human CNS. Using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization we found that in both species FA1/dlk was expressed in neurons of the Edinger-Westphal's nucleus as well as in substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area (VTA), locus coeruleus and in certain parts of the raphe nuclei....

  18. Investigating the acute and long-term effects of traumatic brain injury on the immune and fibrinolytic system

    OpenAIRE

    MARIA DAGLAS

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a serious condition that results in long-term disability in most patients. This thesis investigated the early and long-term effects of the immune and fibrinolytic response (blood clot breakdown), and the link between these two systems after brain injury in mice. A unique discovery was that the chronic immune response, over a period of 8 months, directly contributes to a worse outcome after brain injury. We also found gender-specific differences occurring at the early...

  19. The fibrinolytic system facilitates tumor cell migration across the blood-brain barrier in experimental melanoma brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perides, George; Zhuge, Yuzheng; Lin, Tina; Stins, Monique F; Bronson, Roderick T; Wu, Julian K

    2006-01-01

    Patients with metastatic tumors to the brain have a very poor prognosis. Increased metastatic potential has been associated with the fibrinolytic system. We investigated the role of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin in tumor cell migration across brain endothelial cells and growth of brain metastases in an experimental metastatic melanoma model. Metastatic tumors to the brain were established by direct injection into the striatum or by intracarotid injection of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in C57Bl mice. The role of plasminogen in the ability of human melanoma cells to cross a human blood-brain barrier model was studied on a transwell system. Wild type mice treated with the plasmin inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and plg -/- mice developed smaller tumors and survived longer than untreated wild type mice. Tumors metastasized to the brain of wild type mice treated with EACA and plg -/- less efficiently than in untreated wild type mice. No difference was observed in the tumor growth in any of the three groups of mice. Human melanoma cells were able to cross the human blood-brain barrier model in a plasmin dependent manner. Plasmin facilitates the development of tumor metastasis to the brain. Inhibition of the fibrinolytic system could be considered as means to prevent tumor metastasis to the brain

  20. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (peffect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Benchmarking of FA2D/PARCS Code Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grgic, D.; Jecmenica, R.; Pevec, D.

    2006-01-01

    FA2D/PARCS code package is used at Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing (FER), University of Zagreb, for static and dynamic reactor core analyses. It consists of two codes: FA2D and PARCS. FA2D is a multigroup two dimensional transport theory code for burn-up calculations based on collision probability method, developed at FER. It generates homogenised cross sections both of single pins and entire fuel assemblies. PARCS is an advanced nodal code developed at Purdue University for US NRC and it is based on neutron diffusion theory for three dimensional whole core static and dynamic calculations. It is modified at FER to enable internal 3D depletion calculation and usage of neutron cross section data in a format produced by FA2D and interface codes. The FA2D/PARCS code system has been validated on NPP Krsko operational data (Cycles 1 and 21). As we intend to use this code package for development of IRIS reactor loading patterns the first logical step was to validate the FA2D/PARCS code package on a set of IRIS benchmarks, starting from simple unit fuel cell, via fuel assembly, to full core benchmark. The IRIS 17x17 fuel with erbium burnable absorber was used in last full core benchmark. The results of modelling the IRIS full core benchmark using FA2D/PARCS code package have been compared with reference data showing the adequacy of FA2D/PARCS code package model for IRIS reactor core design.(author)

  2. Physical interaction between the strawberry allergen Fra a 1 and an associated partner FaAP: Interaction of Fra a 1 proteins and FaAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Langer, Andreas; Strasser, Ralf; Isono, Erika; Ranftl, Quirin L; Wunschel, Christian; Schwab, Wilfried

    2017-10-01

    The strawberry fruit allergens Fra a 1.01E, Fra a 1.02 and Fra a 1.03 belong to the group of pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) proteins and are homologs of the major birch pollen Bet v 1 and apple allergen Mal d 1. Bet v 1 related proteins are the most extensively studied allergens but their physiological function in planta remains elusive. Since Mal d 1-Associated Protein has been previously identified as interaction partner of Mal d 1 we studied the binding of the orthologous Fra a 1-Associated Protein (FaAP) to Fra a 1.01E/1.02/1.03. As the C-terminal sequence of FaAP showed strong auto-activation activity in yeast 2-hybrid analysis a novel time resolved DNA-switching system was successfully applied. Fra a 1.01E, Fra a 1.02, and Fra a 1.03 bind to FaAP with K D of 4.5 ± 1.1, 15 ± 3, and 11 ± 2 nM, respectively. Fra a 1.01E forms a dimer, whereas Fra a 1.02 and Fra a 1.03 bind as monomer. The results imply that PR-10 proteins might be integrated into a protein-interaction network and FaAP binding appears to be essential for the physiological function of the Fra a 1 proteins. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Platelet factor XIII increases the fibrinolytic resistance of platelet-rich clots by accelerating the crosslinking of alpha 2-antiplasmin to fibrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. L.; Matsueda, G. R.; Haber, E.

    1992-01-01

    Platelet clots resist fibrinolysis by plasminogen activators. We hypothesized that platelet factor XIII may enhance the fibrinolytic resistance of platelet-rich clots by catalyzing the crosslinking of alpha 2-antiplasmin (alpha 2AP) to fibrin. Analysis of plasma clot structure by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting revealed accelerated alpha 2AP-fibrin crosslinking in platelet-rich compared with platelet-depleted plasma clots. A similar study of clots formed with purified fibrinogen (depleted of factor XIII activity), isolated platelets, and specific factor XIII inhibitors indicated that this accelerated crosslinking was due to the catalytic activity of platelet factor XIII. Moreover, when washed platelets were aggregated by thrombin, there was evidence of platelet factor XIII-mediated crosslinking between platelet alpha 2AP and platelet fibrin(ogen). Specific inhibition (by a monoclonal antibody) of the alpha 2AP associated with washed platelet aggregates accelerated the fibrinolysis of the platelet aggregate. Thus in platelet-rich plasma clots, and in thrombin-induced platelet aggregates, platelet factor XIII actively formed alpha 2AP-fibrin crosslinks, which appeared to enhance the resistance of platelet-rich clots to fibrinolysis.

  4. Changes in Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Indices in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Undergoing Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET treatment always attain a low cumulative pregnancy rate disaccording with the satisfactory number of oocytes. Objective. We aim to evaluate the status of coagulation and fibrinolytic system in PCOS patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH process. Method. Of the 97 women, 30 patients with PCOS composed the study group; 67 women of child-bearing age with normal endocrine function composed the control group. All participants underwent GnRH agonist standard long protocol, and plasma HCY, FVIII, FX, and D-dimer levels as well as hormone parameters were measured at day of full downregulation, hCG priming, and embryos transfer. Results. On day of full downregulation, FX levels were significantly higher in PCOS group (P<0.01. On hCG priming day, FX and estrogen levels in PCOS group were higher than in the control group and FVIII levels were significantly lower on day of embryos transfer whereas FX and E2 levels were significantly higher in PCOS group. Conclusion. Hypercoagulable state during peri-implantation phase would probably lead to poor microcirculation of endometrium and be one of the most important disadvantages of successful implantation and subsequent clinical pregnancy.

  5. The biotechnological potential of fibrinolytic enzymes in the dissolution of endogenous blood thrombi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Essam

    2014-01-01

    Formation of endogenous thrombi in blood vessels is one of the leading causes of death in our modern life. According to data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2000, heart diseases are responsible for 29% of the total mortality rate in the world. For this, a tremendous amount of research has been done in the area of prevention and treatment of these diseases. The classical therapy of these thrombi relies upon the use of antiplatelets, anticoagulants, or even surgeries. Relatively recently, the fibrinolytic enzymes produced by microorganisms, snakes, earthworms, insects, plants, and other organisms are being successfully used in the treatment of blood clots, especially with regard to the direct dissolving action on fibrin in tandem with less cost and side effects in comparison with the first-generation thrombolytic agents, streptokinase and urokinase. Furthermore, recombinant DNA technology has succeeded in improving and decreasing the undesirable effects of the first generation of enzymes. Recombinant PAs or rt-PAs like alteplase, retelase, saruplase, tenecteplase, lanoteplase, and desmoteplase became available in the drug markets with advantages of less binding loci with PAI-1 to avoid degradation while providing faster and more complete reperfusion in a greater number of patients with less risk of bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage. This review is the first to cover all the natural and recombinant thrombolytic agents used in enzyme therapy. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Insulin like growth factor-1/insulin bypasses Pref-1/FA1-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Nøhr, Jane; Jensen, Charlotte Harken

    2003-01-01

    that forced expression of the soluble form, FA1, or full-length Pref-1 did not inhibit adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells when differentiation was induced by standard treatment with methylisobutylxanthine, dexamethasone, and high concentrations of insulin. However, forced expression of either form...... of Pref-1/FA1 in 3T3-L1 or 3T3-F442A cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation when insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was omitted from the differentiation mixture. We demonstrate that the level of the mature form of the IGF-1 receptor is reduced and that IGF-1-dependent activation of p42/p44...... mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is compromised in preadipocytes with forced expression of Pref-1. This is accompanied by suppression of clonal expansion and terminal differentiation. Accordingly, supplementation with insulin or IGF-1 rescued p42/p44 MAPK activation, clonal expansion...

  7. Role of p53–fibrinolytic system cross-talk in the regulation of quartz-induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, Yashodhar P.; Shetty, Shwetha K.; Marudamuthu, Amarnath S.; Fu, Jian; Pinson, Barbara M.; Levin, Jeffrey; Shetty, Sreerama

    2015-01-01

    Silica is the major component of airborne dust generated by wind, manufacturing and/or demolition. Chronic occupational inhalation of silica dust containing crystalline quartz is by far the predominant form of silicosis in humans. Silicosis is a progressive lung disease that typically arises after a very long latency and is a major occupational concern with no known effective treatment. The mechanism of silicosis is not clearly understood. However, silicosis is associated with increased cell death, expression of redox enzymes and pro-fibrotic cytokines and chemokines. Since alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) death and disruption of alveolar fibrinolysis is often associated with both acute and chronic lung injuries, we explored whether p53-mediated changes in the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system contributes to silica-induced lung injury. We further sought to determine whether caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (CSP), which inhibits p53 expression, mitigates lung injury associated with exposure to silica. Lung tissues and AECs isolated from wild-type (WT) mice exposed to silica exhibit increased apoptosis, p53 and PAI-1, and suppression of uPA expression. Treatment of WT mice with CSP inhibits PAI-1, restores uPA expression and prevents AEC apoptosis by suppressing p53, which is otherwise induced in mice exposed to silica. The process involves CSP-mediated inhibition of serine-15 phosphorylation of p53 by inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A-C (PP2A-C) interaction with silica-induced caveolin-1 in AECs. These observations suggest that changes in the p53–uPA fibrinolytic system cross-talk contribute to lung injury caused by inhalation of silica dust containing crystalline quartz and is protected by CSP by targeting this pathway. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to quartz dusts is a major cause of lung injury and silicosis. • The survival of patients with silicosis is bleak due to lack of effective treatments. • This study defines a new role of

  8. Suppression of Human T Cell Proliferation Mediated by the Cathepsin B Inhibitor, z-FA-FMK Is Due to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Rajah

    Full Text Available The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethyl ketone (z-FA-FMK readily inhibits anti-CD3-induced human T cell proliferation, whereas the analogue benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethyl ketone (z-FA-DMK had no effect. In contrast, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethyl ketone (z-FA-CMK was toxic. The inhibition of T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK requires not only the FMK moiety, but also the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal, suggesting some degree of specificity in z-FA-FMK-induced inhibition of primary T cell proliferation. We showed that z-FA-FMK treatment leads to a decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in activated T cells. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK was abolished by the presence of low molecular weight thiols such as GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC and L-cysteine, whereas D-cysteine which cannot be metabolised to GSH has no effect. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced up-regulation of CD25 and CD69 expression mediated by z-FA-FMK was also attenuated in the presence of exogenous GSH. Similar to cell proliferation, GSH, NAC and L-cysteine but not D-cysteine, completely restored the processing of caspase-8 and caspase-3 to their respective subunits in z-FA-FMK-treated activated T cells. Our collective results demonstrated that the inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK is due to oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH.

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Verrucarin A on Tunicamycin-Induced ER Stress in FaO Rat Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Bae

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is linked with development and maintenance of cancer, and serves as a therapeutic target for treatment of cancer. Verrucarin A, isolated from the broth of Fusarium sp. F060190, showed potential inhibitory activity on tunicamycin-induced ER stress in FaO rat liver cells. In addition, the compound decreased tunicamycin-induced GRP78 promoter activity in a dose dependent manner without inducing significant inhibition of luciferase activity and cell growth for 6 and 12 h. Moreover, the compound decreased the expression of GRP78, CHOP, XBP-1, and suppressed XBP-1, and reduced phosphorylation of IRE1α in FaO rat liver cells. This evidence suggests for the first time that verrucarin A inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress in FaO rat liver cells.

  10. La faïence de Nevers (1585-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Rosen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Depuis 1585, et sans solution de continuité jusqu’à nos jours, Nevers, aussi bien par son importance historique que par le nombre de ses manufactures – douze en 1755, plus de trente ateliers en tout –, a joué un rôle de tout premier plan dans la propagation et l’évolution de la faïence française, du xvie au xxe siècle, et peut être considéré comme le centre idéal pour une recherche sur le long terme. Si la faïence de Nevers a déjà été abordée de multiples façons dans divers colloques et exp...

  11. Procoagulant and fibrinolytic activity in cerebrospinal fluid from adults with bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisfelt, Martijn; Determann, Rogier M.; de Gans, Jan; van der Ende, Arie; Levi, Marcel; van de Beek, Diederik; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated levels of coagulation and fibrinolysis factors in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from adults with bacterial meningitis in relation to development of brain infarction. METHODS: CSF was collected from 92 adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis, who

  12. Local fibrinolytic therapy for patients with cerebral embolism and reversibility of cerebral ischemia in ultra-acute stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Takayuki

    1993-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine candidates for fibrinolytic therapy in cerebral embolism. Forty-three patients were examined by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 99m c-d, hexamethyl-propylene-amine oxime (HM-PAO) or N-isopropyl p[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) just before and after intra-arterial local fibrinolytic therapy. Regional cerebellar ratio (R/Ce) and asymmetry index (AI) were calculated just before the treatment (n=9). Quantitative analysis was performed after the treatment (n=all). SPECT images taken within 24 hours after the treatment fell into three patters: normal perfusion, hypoperfusion, and hyperperfusion. Patients showing normal perfusion pattern after complete recanalization developed no or smaller infarction on CT scans. However, patients showing either hypoperfusion or hyperperfusion developed large infarction. Regions with R/Ce ratio of 0.3 or smaller and/or AI of 1.5 or greater were irreversible, which was associated with cerebral infarction regardless of the duration of ischemia. On the other hand, regions with R/Ce of 0.5 or greater or AI of 1.2 or smaller were reversible with no association of infarction. Intra-arterial local fibrinolytic therapy seems to be helpful for patients with slight reduction of regional cerebral blood flow (i.e., R/Ce>0.5, AI 1.5). These findings indicate that SPECT is capable of determining reversibility of ischemic region, thereby contributing to better management of patients with acute cerebral embolism. (N.K.)

  13. Pengaruh pengolahan terhadap Pati Resisten Pisang Kepok (Musa paradisiaca fa. typica) dan Pisang Tanduk (Musa paradisiaca fa. corniculata)

    OpenAIRE

    Marsono, Yustinus

    2016-01-01

    A study on the effect processing on resistant starch (RS) content and chemical composition of kepok (Musa paradisiaca fa. typica) and tanduk banana (Musa paradisiaca fa. corniculata) has been conducted. Mature banana was steamed, steamed - cooled, steamed - frozen, dried and dried - fried and was analyzed for starch, RS, simple sugars and chemical composition. RS content was determined by enzymatic method. It was found that steaming chaned RS from 6.2 mg/g to 9.5 mg/g (53%) for kepok banana a...

  14. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: fa083

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    checkCIF/PLATON report. Structure factors have been supplied for datablock(s) fa083. THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC REFEREE. No syntax errors ...

  15. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: fa289

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC REFEREE. No syntax errors found. CIF dictionary Interpreting this report. Datablock: fa289. Bond precision:.

  16. The determination of the thermodynamic activity of antimony in alpha-iron; Determination de l'activite thermodynamique de l'antimoine dans le fer alpha; Opredelenie termodinamicheskoj aktivnosti sur'my v al'fa-zheleze; Determinacion de la actividad termodinamica del antimonio en el hierro alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomilin, I A

    1962-01-15

    In this paper a method is suggested for determining the thermodynamic activity of antimony dissolved in alpha-iron, based on the study of antimony distribution between the two phases: liquid lead and solid iron. By this method, it was found that solid solutions of antimony in alpha-iron can be distinguished by positive divergences from the ideal state. Over a fairly wide range of concentrations, solutions of antimony in iron obey Henry's law. Special experiments on the distribution of antimony between lead and liquid iron showed that in the liquid state also the iron-antimony system is marked by positive divergences from the ideal state when small concentrations of antimony are present. The heat required for the solution of antimony in alpha-iron, and the excess partial molar entropy, were calculated from the activity temperature. The results were used for accurately locating the line showing the solubility limit of antimony in alpha-iron. Since alloys of antimony with iron were obtained by diffusion saturation and not by cooling from the liquid state, there was no liquefaction. Thus the lattice constant of the alloys and its relation to the alloy concentration could be reliably determined. The solubility limit established from X-ray data agrees with that obtained with Sb{sup 124}. (author) [French] Le memoire propose, pour determiner l'activite thermodynamique de l'antimoine dissous dans le fer alpha, une methode fondee sur l'etude de la distribution de l'antimoine entre deux phases: plomb liquide et fer solide. La methode a permis d'etablir que les solutions solides de l'antimoine dans le fer alpha se distinguent par des divergences positives par rapport a l'etat parfait. Dans une gamme assez etendue de valeurs de la concentration, les solutions de l'antimoine dans le fer sont regies par la loi de Henry. Des experiences sur la repartition de l'antimoine entre le plomb et le fer liquide ont montre qu'a l'etat liquide, le systeme ferantimoine est caracterise par

  17. Disruption of the FA/BRCA pathway in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveling, K; Kalb, R; Florl, A R; Herterich, S; Friedl, R; Hoehn, H; Hader, C; Hartmann, F H; Nanda, I; Steinlein, C; Schmid, M; Tonnies, H; Hurst, C D; Knowles, M A; Hanenberg, H; Schulz, W A; Schindler, D

    2007-01-01

    Bladder carcinomas frequently show extensive deletions of chromosomes 9p and/or 9q, potentially including the loci of the Fanconi anemia (FA) genes FANCC and FANCG. FA is a rare recessive disease due to defects in anyone of 13 FANC genes manifesting with genetic instability and increased risk of neoplasia. FA cells are hypersensitive towards DNA crosslinking agents such as mitomycin C and cisplatin that are commonly employed in the chemotherapy of bladder cancers. These observations suggest the possibility of disruption of the FA/BRCA DNA repair pathway in bladder tumors. However, mutations in FANCC or FANCG could not be detected in any of 23 bladder carcinoma cell lines and ten surgical tumor specimens by LOH analysis or by FANCD2 immunoblotting assessing proficiency of the pathway. Only a single cell line, BFTC909, proved defective for FANCD2 monoubiquitination and was highly sensitive towards mitomycin C. This increased sensitivity was restored specifically by transfer of the FANCF gene. Sequencing of FANCF in BFTC909 failed to identify mutations, but methylation of cytosine residues in the FANCF promoter region was demonstrated by methylation-specific PCR, HpaII restriction and bisulfite DNA sequencing. Methylation-specific PCR uncovered only a single instance of FANCF promoter hypermethylation in surgical specimens of further 41 bladder carcinomas. These low proportions suggest that in contrast to other types of tumors silencing of FANCF is a rare event in bladder cancer and that an intact FA/BRCA pathway might be advantageous for tumor progression. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Evaluation of the door-to-needle time in patients undergoing fibrinolytic therapy after acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehangir, W.; Daood, M.S.; Khan, M.

    2009-01-01

    Early thrombolysis with fibrinolytic therapy has reduced mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with the major effect coming from early achievement of infarct-related artery potency. This study was carried out to determine the door-to-needle time in patients undergoing fibrinolytic therapy after acute myocardial infarction and to identify factors associated with a prolonged door-to-needle time. This was a cross sectional study in which patients who were thrombolysed for AMI with streptokinase at Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore, from December 12, 2008 to February 18, 2009 were included. All patients admitted with AMI, who were candidates for fibrinolysis, were included. The time of infarction and time of arrival in hospital was determined with ECG changes and asking from patient and/or relatives. The reasons for delay of arrival were asked from patient and accompanying attendants where possible. A door-to-needle time of <30 min could be achieved in 110 of our 201 patients (54.72%). Mean door-to-needle time was 55.13 (+-71.04) minutes. A door-to-needle time of less than 30 minutes in 54.72% is comparable to most contemporary studies however there is a need to look into factors associated with delay. (author)

  19. Effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel on platelet function in fibrinolytic-treated STEMI patients undergoing early PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Payam; Lavoie, Andrea; Lavi, Shahar; Crawford, Jennifer J; Harenberg, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Rodney H; Booker, Jeff; Kelly, Sheila; Cantor, Warren J; Mehta, Shamir R; Bagai, Akshay; Goodman, Shaun G; Cheema, Asim N

    2017-10-01

    Patients undergoing PCI early after fibrinolytic therapy are at high risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. We sought to assess the pharmacodynamic effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in the fibrinolytic-treated STEMI patients undergoing early PCI. Patients undergoing PCI within 24 hours of tenecteplase (TNK), aspirin, and clopidogrel for STEMI were randomized to receive additional clopidogrel 300 mg followed by 75 mg daily or ticagrelor 180 mg followed by 90 mg twice daily. The platelet reactivity units (PRU) were measured with the VerifyNow Assay before study drug administration (baseline) at 4 and 24 hours post-PCI. The primary end point was PRU ≤208 at 4 hours. A total of 140 patients (74 in ticagrelor and 66 in clopidogrel group) were enrolled. The mean PRU values at baseline were similar for the 2 groups (257.8±52.9 vs 259.5±56.7, P=.85, respectively). Post-PCI, patients on ticagrelor, compared to those on clopidogrel, had significantly lower PRU at 4 hours (78.7±88 vs 193.6±86.5, respectively, PPCI frequently had PRU >208. In this high-risk population, ticagrelor provides more prompt and potent platelet inhibition compared with clopidogrel (Funded by Astra Zeneca; NCT01930591, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01930591). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Data mining analysis of professor Li Fa-zhi AIDS herpes zoster medical record].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Ni; Li, Zhen; Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-Jun

    2013-08-01

    Analysis of professor Li Fa-zhi in the treatment of AIDS drug laws of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia, provide reference for the use of Chinese medicine treatment of AIDS, herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. By using the method of analyzing the complex network of Weishi county, Henan in 2007 October to 2011 July during an interview with professor Li Fa-zhi treatment of AIDS of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia patients, patients are input structured clinical information collection system, into the analysis of the data, carries on the research analysis theory of traditional Chinese medicine compatibility system algorithm and complex network analysis the use of complex networks. The use of multi-dimensional query analysis of AIDS drugs, the core of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia treated in this study are Scutellariae Radix, Glucyrrhizae Radix, Carthame Flos, Plantaginis Semen, Trichosamthis Fructus, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Gentianae Radix; core prescription for Longdan Xiegan decoction and Trichosanthes red liquorice decoction. Professor Li Fa-zhi treatment of AIDS, herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia by clearing heat and removing dampness and activating blood circulation to.

  1. Development and Characterization of a High Sensitivity Segmented Fast Neutron Spectrometer (FaNS-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, T J; Beise, E J; Breuer, H; Heimbach, C R; Ji, G; Nico, J S

    2016-01-01

    We present the development of a segmented fast neutron spectrometer (FaNS-2) based upon plastic scintillator and 3 He proportional counters. It was designed to measure both the flux and spectrum of fast neutrons in the energy range of few MeV to 1 GeV. FaNS-2 utilizes capture-gated spectroscopy to identify neutron events and reject backgrounds. Neutrons deposit energy in the plastic scintillator before capturing on a 3 He nucleus in the proportional counters. Segmentation improves neutron energy reconstruction while the large volume of scintillator increases sensitivity to low neutron fluxes. A main goal of its design is to study comparatively low neutron fluxes, such as cosmogenic neutrons at the Earth's surface, in an underground environment, or from low-activity neutron sources. In this paper, we present details of its design and construction as well as its characterization with a calibrated 252 Cf source and monoenergetic neutron fields of 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV. Detected monoenergetic neutron spectra are unfolded using a Singular Value Decomposition method, demonstrating a 5% energy resolution at 14 MeV. Finally, we discuss plans for measuring the surface and underground cosmogenic neutron spectra with FaNS-2.

  2. Metformin ameliorates diabetes but does not normalize the decreased GLUT 4 content in skeletal muscle of obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Kayser, L; Høyer, P E

    1993-01-01

    We studied the expression of the glucose transporter GLUT 4 in the soleus and red gastrocnemius muscles from obese, diabetic (fa/fa) Zucker rats compared to their lean littermates (Fa/-), with and without treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin. In the untreated groups of rats, the GLUT 4...... content in a crude membrane fraction of both the soleus and the red gastrocnemius muscles were significantly lower in the obese (fa/fa) rats (3.46 +/- 0.28 vs. 6.04 +/- 0.41, p ... the same rats were confirmed by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy, and the results were significantly correlated with the results obtained from quantitative immunoblotting (rho = 0.70, p fa/fa rats could contribute to the well-established insulin...

  3. Field-Evolved Mode 1 Resistance of the Fall Armyworm to Transgenic Cry1Fa-Expressing Corn Associated with Reduced Cry1Fa Toxin Binding and Midgut Alkaline Phosphatase Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, Siva R. K.; Gong, Liang; Hasler, James; Banerjee, Rahul; Sheets, Joel J.; Narva, Kenneth; Blanco, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal protein genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are expressed by transgenic Bt crops (Bt crops) for effective and environmentally safe pest control. The development of resistance to these insecticidal proteins is considered the most serious threat to the sustainability of Bt crops. Resistance in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) populations from Puerto Rico to transgenic corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein resulted, for the first time in the United States, in practical resistance, and Bt corn was withdrawn from the local market. In this study, we used a field-collected Cry1Fa corn-resistant strain (456) of S. frugiperda to identify the mechanism responsible for field-evolved resistance. Binding assays detected reduced Cry1Fa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Ca toxin binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the larvae of strain 456 compared to that from the larvae of a susceptible (Ben) strain. This binding phenotype is descriptive of the mode 1 type of resistance to Bt toxins. A comparison of the transcript levels for putative Cry1 toxin receptor genes identified a significant downregulation (>90%) of a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which translated to reduced ALP protein levels and a 75% reduction in ALP activity in BBMV from 456 compared to that of Ben larvae. We cloned and heterologously expressed this ALP from susceptible S. frugiperda larvae and demonstrated that it specifically binds with Cry1Fa toxin. This study provides a thorough mechanistic description of field-evolved resistance to a transgenic Bt crop and supports an association between resistance and reduced Cry1Fa toxin binding and levels of a putative Cry1Fa toxin receptor, ALP, in the midguts of S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:26637593

  4. Penerapan Perencanaan Pajak Penghasilan pada Fa Trico Paint Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanus Ariyanto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important parts of government income comes from taxes, especially income taxes. The different point of view arises between government and tax payer. While the government try to increase the tax income, the taxpayers always intend to minimize their tax burden by implementing tax management/plannning. This paper is a case study in FA Trico Paint Factory (FA TPF that try to reperforming company’s income tax return preparation with the main purpose to minimize company tax burden, while it is still comply with tax regulations in Indonesia. This approach could be an alternative for the company to restate it’s annual income tax return, to avoic fines and charges for not comply with the regulations, and minimize it’s income tax expense by approximately 10% per year. 

  5. Choosing the governing solutions for FA of AES-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, I.; Dragunov, Y.; Ryzhov, S.; Kobelev, S.; Vyalitsyn, V.; Troyanov, V.

    2008-01-01

    According to the program approved by the Government of Russia the AES-2006 design intended as a base one for the beginning of realization of the plans on development of the nuclear power engineering of Russia in the near future has been under way now. The most crucial components of the reactor plant are certainly the core and its basic component - FA. In the FA design such factors are concentrated that mainly define safety, profitability, adaptability to manufacture and operation of the fuel and NPP as a whole. As the nearest prototype for AES-2006 the TVS-2M design used at the Balakovo NPP is taken. The report shows on the basis of qualitative and quantitative evaluation that design of TVS-2 and its modifications TVS-2M are in the best compliance with the requirements of the project of the new RP AES-2006. This compliance is confirmed by the operational experience of the basic variant of the design

  6. A protein prioritization approach tailored for the FA/BRCA pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Haitjema

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a heterogeneous recessive disorder associated with a markedly elevated risk to develop cancer. To date sixteen FA genes have been identified, three of which predispose heterozygous mutation carriers to breast cancer. The FA proteins work together in a genome maintenance pathway, the so-called FA/BRCA pathway which is important during the S phase of the cell cycle. Since not all FA patients can be linked to (one of the sixteen known complementation groups, new FA genes remain to be identified. In addition the complex FA network remains to be further unravelled. One of the FA genes, FANCI, has been identified via a combination of bioinformatic techniques exploiting FA protein properties and genetic linkage. The aim of this study was to develop a prioritization approach for proteins of the entire human proteome that potentially interact with the FA/BRCA pathway or are novel candidate FA genes. To this end, we combined the original bioinformatics approach based on the properties of the first thirteen FA proteins identified with publicly available tools for protein-protein interactions, literature mining (Nermal and a protein function prediction tool (FuncNet. Importantly, the three newest FA proteins FANCO/RAD51C, FANCP/SLX4, and XRCC2 displayed scores in the range of the already known FA proteins. Likewise, a prime candidate FA gene based on next generation sequencing and having a very low score was subsequently disproven by functional studies for the FA phenotype. Furthermore, the approach strongly enriches for GO terms such as DNA repair, response to DNA damage stimulus, and cell cycle-regulated genes. Additionally, overlaying the top 150 with a haploinsufficiency probability score, renders the approach more tailored for identifying breast cancer related genes. This approach may be useful for prioritization of putative novel FA or breast cancer genes from next generation sequencing efforts.

  7. pH-sensitive Au–BSA–DOX–FA nanocomposites for combined CT imaging and targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang H

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available He Huang,1 Da-Peng Yang,2 Minghuan Liu,2 Xiangsheng Wang,1 Zhiyong Zhang,1 Guangdong Zhou,1 Wei Liu,1 Yilin Cao,1 Wen Jie Zhang,1 Xiansong Wang1 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, National Tissue Engineering Center of China, Shanghai, 2College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Quanzhou Normal University, Quanzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Albumin-based nanoparticles (NPs as a drug delivery system have attracted much attention owing to their nontoxicity, non-immunogenicity, great stability and ability to bind to many therapeutic drugs. Herein, bovine serum albumin (BSA was utilized as a template to prepare Au–BSA core/shell NPs. The outer layer BSA was subsequently conjugated with cis-aconityl doxorubicin (DOX and folic acid (FA to create Au–BSA–DOX–FA nanocomposites. A list of characterizations was undertaken to identify the successful conjugation of drug molecules and targeted agents. In vitro cytotoxicity using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay indicated that Au–BSA NPs did not display obvious cytotoxicity to MGC-803 and GES-1 cells in the concentration range of 0–100 µg/mL, which can therefore be used as a safe drug delivery carrier. Furthermore, compared with free DOX, Au–BSA–DOX–FA nanocomposites exhibited a pH-sensitive drug release ability and superior antitumor activity in a drug concentration-dependent manner. In vivo computed tomography (CT imaging experiments showed that Au–BSA–DOX–FA nanocomposites could be used as an efficient and durable CT contrast agent for targeted CT imaging of the folate receptor (FR overexpressed in cancer tissues. In vivo antitumor experiments demonstrated that Au–BSA–DOX–FA nanocomposites have selective antitumor activity effects on FR-overexpressing tumors and no adverse effects on normal tissues and

  8. Cytotoxicity of the dicarboximide fungicides, vinclozolin and iprodione, in rat hepatoma-derived Fa32 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    Dicarboximide fungicides are widely used to control various fungal species. Their primary action is not known, due to a lack of knowledge concerning the mechanism of action of the dicarboximide group. The cytotoxicities of vinclozolin and iprodione in rat hepatoma-derived Fa32 cells were investigated. Cytotoxicity was measured by neutral red uptake inhibition after treatment for 24 hours. Iprodione was more toxic than vinclozolin. Vinclozolin was less toxic in glutathione-depleted cells than in control cells. This was also true for iprodione at lower concentrations, but iprodione became more toxic at higher concentrations. Both the fungicides increased the endogenous glutathione content by 20% after 1 hour. After 24 hours, the glutathione content was doubled by vinclozolin, but was not affected by iprodione. No effect on glutathione S-transferase activity or reactive oxygen species formation could be observed. Cytochrome P450-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylase activities were moderately activated by iprodione and strongly activated by vinclozolin. A glutathione-related cytochrome P450-dependent metabolic attack of vinclozolin and iprodione could be responsible for their cytotoxicity in Fa32 cells. Further research is needed to fully elucidate these (or other) mechanisms.

  9. Leaching of biocides used in façade coatings under laboratory test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoknecht, Ute; Gruycheva, Jana; Mathies, Helena; Bergmann, Hannelore; Burkhardt, Michael

    2009-12-15

    The European Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC requires a risk assessment concerning possible effects of active ingredients on the environment. Biocides can be leached from treated materials exposed to outdoor use. These emissions have to be estimated and evaluated during the authorization procedure. Different immersion and irrigation tests were performed to investigate leaching of biocides from façade coatings. Several marketed formulations of textured coatings and paints spiked with a mixture of commonly used active ingredients (OIT, DCOIT, IPBC, carbendazim, isoproturon, diuron, terbutryn, and Irgarol 1051) were investigated. The emission process can be described by time-dependent functions that depend on the test conditions. The results of all test procedures confirm that leachability is related to water solubility and n-octanol-water partition coefficient of the active ingredients and that leaching of biocides from façade coatings is mainly a diffusion controlled process. Other factors like the composition of the product, availability and transport of water, concentration of active ingredients in the coatings, as well as UV-exposure of the coatings influence biocide emissions.

  10. CFD Analysis of a Maneuvering F/A-18E Super Hornet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    tools for aircraft, ships, and radio - frequency antenna design and analysis. The resulting program is called the Computational Research and Engineering...accurately predicting the forces and moments on the F/A-18E Super Hornet while performing several complicated maneuvers. Past F/A-18E computational studies... predicting the forces and moments on the F/A-18E Super Hornet while performing several complicated maneuvers. Past F/A-18E computational studies have

  11. Delta-like 1/fetal antigen 1(DLK1/FA1) inhibits BMP2 induced osteoblast differentiation through modulation of NFκB signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Weimin; Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    DLK1/FA1 (delta-like 1/fetal antigen-1) is a negative regulator of bone mass that acts to inhibit osteoblast differentiation and stimulate osteoclast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. Thus, we studied the effect of DLK1/FA1 on different...... osteogenic factors-induced osteoblast differentiation. We identified DLK1/FA1 as an inhibitor of BMP2-induced osteogenesis in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. Stable overexpression of DLK1/FA1 in C2C12 cells or the addition of its soluble form protein FA1 significantly inhibited BMP2-induced osteogenesis...... as assessed by reduced Alp activity and osteogenic gene expression including Alp, Col1a1, Runx2 and Bglap. In addition, DLK1/FA1 inhibited BMP signaling as demonstrated by reduced gene expression of BMP-responsive genes: Junb and Id1, reduced BMP2 induced luciferase activity in C2C12 BMP luciferase reporter...

  12. A protein prioritization approach tailored for the FA/BRCA pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haitjema, A.; Brandt, B.W.; Ameziane, N.; May, P.; Heringa, J.; de Winter, J.P.; Joenje, H.; Dorsman, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a heterogeneous recessive disorder associated with a markedly elevated risk to develop cancer. To date sixteen FA genes have been identified, three of which predispose heterozygous mutation carriers to breast cancer. The FA proteins work together in a genome maintenance

  13. A Protein Prioritization Approach Tailored for the FA/BRCA Pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haitjema, A.; Brandt, B.W.; Ameziane, N.; May, P.; Heringa, J.; de Winter, J.P.; Joenje, H.; Dorsman, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a heterogeneous recessive disorder associated with a markedly elevated risk to develop cancer. To date sixteen FA genes have been identified, three of which predispose heterozygous mutation carriers to breast cancer. The FA proteins work together in a genome maintenance

  14. Formal characterizations of FA-based string processors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngassam, EK

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngassam_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7434 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ngassam_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Formal Characterizations of FA...-based String Processors Ernest Ketcha Ngassam1,2,?, Bruce W. Watson3, and Derrick G. Kourie3 1SAP Meraka UTD, Pretoria, South Africa 2School of Computing University of South Africa Pretoria 0001 ernest.ngassam@sap.com 3Department of Computer Science...

  15. VVER-440 fuel cycles possibilities using modified FA design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolas, P.; Svarny, J.; Razym, V.; Dostal, M.; Jenik, J.; Krupar, P.

    2009-01-01

    A nearly equilibrium five-year cycle has been achieved at Dukovany NPP over the last years. This means that working fuel assemblies (WFA) with an average enrichment of 4.25 w% (control assemblies (CA) with an average enrichment of 3.82 w%) are normally loaded and reloaded for five years. Operation at uprated thermal power (105% of the original one, increase from 1375 MW t to 1444 MW t ) is being prepared by use of WFA with an average enrichment of 4.38 w% (CA with an average enrichment of 4.25 w%). With the aim of fuel cycle economy improvement, the fuel residence time in the core has to be prolonged up to six years with one cycle duration time up to 18 months and preserving loadings with very low leakage. In order to achieve this goal, at least neutron-physical characteristics of FA must be improved and such changes should be evaluated from other viewpoints. Some particular changes have already been analyzed earlier. Designs of new fuel assemblies with higher (and in the central part of a FA the highest possible, i.e. 4.95 w%) enrichment with preserving low pin power non-uniformity are described in the presented paper. An FA with an average enrichment of 4.66 w% (lower than originally evaluated) containing six fuel pins with 3.35 w% Gd 2 O 3 content was selected in the end. Fuel pins have bigger pellet diameter, bigger pin pitch and thinner FA shroud. A newly designed FA was evaluated from the viewpoint of physics (pin power non-uniformity, criticality of fuel at transport and storage and determination of basic quantities for spent fuel storage purposes by ORIGEN code), thermo-hydraulics (comparison of subchannel output temperatures and the departure from nucleate boiling ratio - DNBR) and mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to simulate an FA subject to the loads during its six- year lifetime whereas normal working conditions were taken into account. There are presented two models with different shroud thickness undergoing these analyses. Both

  16. Whole exome sequencing reveals concomitant mutations of multiple FA genes in individual Fanconi anemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lixian; Yuan, Weiping; Zeng, Huimin; Zhou, Quanquan; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Jianfeng; Li, Miaomiao; Wang, Xiaomin; Xu, Mingjiang; Yang, Fengchun; Yang, Yungui; Cheng, Tao; Zhu, Xiaofan

    2014-05-15

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited genetic syndrome with highly variable clinical manifestations. Fifteen genetic subtypes of FA have been identified. Traditional complementation tests for grouping studies have been used generally in FA patients and in stepwise methods to identify the FA type, which can result in incomplete genetic information from FA patients. We diagnosed five pediatric patients with FA based on clinical manifestations, and we performed exome sequencing of peripheral blood specimens from these patients and their family members. The related sequencing data were then analyzed by bioinformatics, and the FANC gene mutations identified by exome sequencing were confirmed by PCR re-sequencing. Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations of FANC genes were identified in all of the patients. The FA subtypes of the patients included FANCA, FANCM and FANCD2. Interestingly, four FA patients harbored multiple mutations in at least two FA genes, and some of these mutations have not been previously reported. These patients' clinical manifestations were vastly different from each other, as were their treatment responses to androstanazol and prednisone. This finding suggests that heterozygous mutation(s) in FA genes could also have diverse biological and/or pathophysiological effects on FA patients or FA gene carriers. Interestingly, we were not able to identify de novo mutations in the genes implicated in DNA repair pathways when the sequencing data of patients were compared with those of their parents. Our results indicate that Chinese FA patients and carriers might have higher and more complex mutation rates in FANC genes than have been conventionally recognized. Testing of the fifteen FANC genes in FA patients and their family members should be a regular clinical practice to determine the optimal care for the individual patient, to counsel the family and to obtain a better understanding of FA pathophysiology.

  17. Viewing time measures of sexual orientation in Samoan cisgender men who engage in sexual interactions with fa'afafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Lanna J; Dixson, Barnaby J; Little, Anthony C; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Androphilia refers to attraction to adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to attraction to adult females. The current study employed self-report and viewing time (response time latency) measures of sexual attraction to determine the sexual orientation of Samoan cisgender men (i.e., males whose gender presentation and identity is concordant with their biological sex) who engage in sexual interactions with transgender male androphiles (known locally as fa'afafine) compared to: (1) Samoan cisgender men who only engage in sexual interactions with women, and (2) fa'afafine. As expected, both measures indicated that cisgender men who only engaged in sexual interactions with women exhibited a gynephilic pattern of sexual attraction, whereas fa'afafine exhibited an androphilic one. In contrast, both measures indicated that cisgender men who engaged in sexual interactions with fa'afafine demonstrated a bisexual pattern of sexual attraction. Most of the cisgender men who exhibited bisexual viewing times did not engage in sexual activity with both men and women indicating that the manner in which bisexual patterns of sexual attraction manifest behaviorally vary from one culture to the next.

  18. Viewing time measures of sexual orientation in Samoan cisgender men who engage in sexual interactions with fa'afafine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanna J Petterson

    Full Text Available Androphilia refers to attraction to adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to attraction to adult females. The current study employed self-report and viewing time (response time latency measures of sexual attraction to determine the sexual orientation of Samoan cisgender men (i.e., males whose gender presentation and identity is concordant with their biological sex who engage in sexual interactions with transgender male androphiles (known locally as fa'afafine compared to: (1 Samoan cisgender men who only engage in sexual interactions with women, and (2 fa'afafine. As expected, both measures indicated that cisgender men who only engaged in sexual interactions with women exhibited a gynephilic pattern of sexual attraction, whereas fa'afafine exhibited an androphilic one. In contrast, both measures indicated that cisgender men who engaged in sexual interactions with fa'afafine demonstrated a bisexual pattern of sexual attraction. Most of the cisgender men who exhibited bisexual viewing times did not engage in sexual activity with both men and women indicating that the manner in which bisexual patterns of sexual attraction manifest behaviorally vary from one culture to the next.

  19. Solution Validation for a Double Façade Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Fonseca i Casas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Solution Validation involves comparing the data obtained from the system that are implemented following the model recommendations, as well as the model results. This paper presents a Solution Validation that has been performed with the aim of certifying that a set of computer-optimized designs, for a double façade, are consistent with reality. To validate the results obtained through simulation models, based on dynamic thermal calculation and using Computational Fluid Dynamic techniques, a comparison with the data obtained by monitoring a real implemented prototype has been carried out. The new validated model can be used to describe the system thermal behavior in different climatic zones without having to build a new prototype. The good performance of the proposed double façade solution is confirmed since the validation assures there is a considerable energy saving, preserving and even improving interior comfort. This work shows all the processes in the Solution Validation depicting some of the problems we faced and represents an example of this kind of validation that often is not considered in a simulation project.

  20. Accident Testing of High Temperature Reactor Fuel Elements with the KueFA Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, O.; Laurie, M.; Bottomley, P.D.W.; Ferreira-Teixeira, A.E.; Van Winckel, S.; Rondinella, V.V.; Allelein, H.J.

    2013-06-01

    The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is characterised by an advanced design with passive safety features. Fuel elements are constituted by a graphite matrix containing sub-mm-sized fuel particles with Tri-Isotropic (TRISO) coating, designed to provide high fission product retention. During a loss of coolant accident scenario in a HTR the maximum temperature is foreseen to be in the range of 1600-1650 deg. C, remaining well below the melting point of the fuel. The Cold Finger Apparatus (KueFA) is used to observe the combined effects of Depressurization and Loss of Forced Circulation (DLOFC) accident scenarios on HTR fuel. Originally designed at the Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), an adapted KueFA operates on irradiated fuel in hot cell at JRC-ITU. A fuel pebble is heated in He atmosphere for several hundred hours, mimicking accident temperatures up to 1800 deg. C and realistic temperature transients. Non-gaseous volatile fission products released from the fuel condense on a water cooled stainless steel plate dubbed 'Cold Finger'. Exchanging plates frequently during the experiment and analysing plate deposits by means of HPGe gamma spectroscopy allows a reconstruction of the fission product release as a function of time and temperature. In order to achieve a good quantification of the release, a careful calibration of the setup is mandatory. An especially tailored collimator was designed to perform plate scanning with high spatial resolution, thus yielding information about the fission product distribution on the condensation plates. The analysis of condensation plates from recent KueFA tests shows that fission product release quantification is possible at high and low activity levels. Chemical dissolution has been performed for some condensation plates in order to assess beta nuclides of interest such as 90 Sr and possibly 129 I using an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and to cross check the HPGe gamma spectroscopy measurements

  1. Comparison of Streptokinase Activity from Streptococcus mutans using Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anjum Zia*, Rana Faisal, Rao Zahid Abbas1, Gull-e-Faran, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Junaid Ali Khan3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptokinase is a novel bacterial fibrinolytic enzyme that binds and activates plasminogen and is produced by several species of Streptococci. Streptococcus mutans was selected for optimum production of streptokinase using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass in liquid state fermentation. Substrates were applied in different concentrations ranging from 0.1-0.8%. Maximum fibrinolytic activity was observed by 0.3% corn steep liquor, 0.5% molasses and rice polishing and 0.4% by sugarcane bagass. The fibrinolytic activity achieved by fibrin clot lysis method was 5.5, 5.08, 5.16 and 4.75 units using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass, respectively.

  2. Transparent Façade Panel Typologies Based on Recyclable Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Giles

    2012-11-01

    describes relevant applications and related current research activities, being carried out by the authors, under an EPA/NSF funded grant project, titled People, Prosperity and Planet, in relation to prototypical composite panel systems. Our current area of investigation relates totypologies that use thermoplastic polymers (as skin material and biocomposites (as a core material. Our evaluations have demonstrated viable applications and improved performance compared to conventional single and double glazing systems in buildings. The paper also discusses the fundamentals of the research investigations and predicts good energy efficiency, making the product a sustainable alternative when used in building applications. The paper highlights areas of ongoing research and applications for hybrid composite façade systems, which will make the approach a viable option for the building industry, in the future.

  3. Dietary fructans, but not cellulose, decrease triglyceride accumulation in the liver of obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubioul, Catherine; Rousseau, Nicolas; Demeure, Roger; Gallez, Bernard; Taper, Henryk; Declerck, Barbara; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2002-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of dietary supplementation with nondigestible carbohydrates, differing in fermentability by colonic bacteria, on hepatic steatosis in growing obese Zucker rats. Male Zucker fa/fa rats were divided into three groups: a control group that received the basal diet, a fructan group that received 10 g highly fermented Synergy 1/100 g diet and a cellulose group that received 10 g poorly fermented Vivapur Microcrystalline cellulose/100 g diet. Rats consuming fructan had a lower energy intake, a lower body weight and less triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver as assessed in vivo by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ex vivo by biochemical and histochemical analysis compared with the control and/or cellulose groups. The high fermentation of fructans compared with cellulose was reflected by greater cecal contents and by a twofold greater propionate concentration in the portal vein of rats fed fructan compared with those fed cellulose. By measuring the capacity of hepatocytes isolated from liver of Zucker rats to synthesize triglycerides or total lipids from different precursors, we showed that propionate, at the concentrations measured in the portal vein of rats treated with fructan, selectively decreased the incorporation of acetate into total lipids, a phenomenon that could contribute, along with the lower energy intake, to less triglyceride accumulation in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed dietary fructans.

  4. Efeitos da farinha de folhas de mandioca sobre a atividade das enzimas AST, ALT, FA e lipídios hepáticos de ratos Wistar Effects of cassava leaves flour on the AST, ALT, ALP enzymes activity and hepatic lipids of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Séfora de Melo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de mandioca possuem substâncias como ligninas e saponinas que podem apresentar efeito hipolipidêmico. Todavia, um estudo recente relatou aumento no peso do fígado de ratos alimentados com dietas contendo farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM - Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Cacao, tornando-se necessário um estudo mais aprofundado dos efeitos desta farinha sobre os parâmetros hepáticos. Para este estudo, um ensaio biológico com 32 ratos machos Wistar foi conduzido por um período de 7 semanas, sendo os tratamentos: dieta controle e dietas contendo 5, 10 e 15% de FFM. As dietas contendo FFM não apresentaram efeitos sobre as atividades das enzimas Aspartato Aminotransferase (AST e Fosfatase Alcalina (FA, mas aumentaram significativamente a atividade da enzima alanina aminotransferase (ALT. O estudo histopatológico revelou vacuolização do citoplasma dos hepatócitos para todos os grupos. No entanto, a freqüência de animais com vacuolização acentuada foi superior nos grupos que receberam dietas com FFM, apresentando também maiores teores de lipídios e colesterol total hepáticos e maior relação peso fígado/peso corporal. Estes resultados indicam que os antinutrientes presentes nas folhas de mandioca, como taninos, cianeto e saponinas, podem ser responsáveis pela redução da função hepática nos animais alimentados com FFM.Cassava leaves contain substances such as lignins and saponins that can present the hypolipidemic effect. However, a recent study has reported an increase in liver weight of rats fed diet containing cassava leaves flour (CLF - Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. Cacao. Thus, a further study of the effect of this flour on the hepatic parameters is necessary. For the development of this study, a biological assay with 32 male Wistar rats was conducted for a period of 7 weeks with the following treatments: control diet and diets containing 5, 10, and 15% of CLF. The diets containing CLF showed no effects on the

  5. Climate Based Façade Design for Business Buildings with Examples from Central London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Napier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a disconnection between commercial architecture and environmental thinking, where green features can be included as part of a strategy for gaining approvals and marketing projects, but those features are not reviewed after completion and occupation of the building and knowledge is not shared. High levels of air conditioning are still considered unavoidable. Elaborate double skin façades and complex motorized shading systems are adopted; often masking an underlying lack of basic environmental thinking. This article returns (in principle to the physics of comfort in buildings and the passive strategies which can help achieve this with a low energy and carbon footprint. Passive and active façade design strategies are outlined as the basis of a critical tool and a design methodology for new projects. A new architectural sensibility can arise based on modeling the inputs of sunlight, daylight and air temperature in time and space at the early stages of design. Early but sound strategies can be tested and refined using advanced environmental modeling techniques. Architecture and environmental thinking can proceed hand in hand through the design process.

  6. MANOVA, LDA, and FA criteria in clusters parameter estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Lipovetsky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA apply such well-known criteria as the Wilks’ lambda, Lawley–Hotelling trace, and Pillai’s trace test for checking quality of the solutions. The current paper suggests using these criteria for building objectives for finding clusters parameters because optimizing such objectives corresponds to the best distinguishing between the clusters. Relation to Joreskog’s classification for factor analysis (FA techniques is also considered. The problem can be reduced to the multinomial parameterization, and solution can be found in a nonlinear optimization procedure which yields the estimates for the cluster centers and sizes. This approach for clustering works with data compressed into covariance matrix so can be especially useful for big data.

  7. Status and prospects of the FaCT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoki, Yoshihiro; Kikuchi, Shin; Ichimiya, Masakazu

    2008-01-01

    'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT)' project has been conducted since 2006. In this project, design study and research and development (R and D) on innovative technologies for fast reactor (FR) cycle system are implemented in order to present the conceptual designs of commercial and demonstration facilities by 2015 and start operating demonstration fast reactor in 2025. The R and Ds has been stepped forward into the development stage to establish the realization of innovative technologies which bring excellent performance to fast reactor cycle system. The purpose of R and D by 2010 is to decide whether innovative technologies shall be adopted. So promoting R and D of FR, the project governance was organized. Furthermore, several possible R and D have been effectively carried out within the frameworks of international cooperation, such as Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), Generation IV International Forum (GIF), and International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). (author)

  8. Does Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) identify cells with regenerative, endocrine and neuroendocrine potentials?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Floridon; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Thorsen, Poul

    2000-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a circulating EGF multidomain glycoprotein. FA1 and its membrane-associated precursor is defined by the mRNAs referred to as delta-like (dlk), preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1) or zona glomerulosa-specific factor (ZOG). Using a polyclonal antibody recognising both forms......, the localisation of FA1/dlk was analysed in embryonic and fetal tissues between week 5 to 25 of gestation and related to germinal origin and development. FA1 was observed in endodermally derived hepatocytes, glandular cells of the pancreas anlage, and in respiratory epithelial cells. FA1 was also present...... in mesodermally derived cells of the renal proximal tubules, adrenal cortex, Leydig and Hilus cells of the testes and ovaries, fetal chondroblasts, and skeletal myotubes. Ectodermally derived neuro- and adenohypophysial cells, cells in the floor of the 3rd ventricle and plexus choroideus were also FA1 positive...

  9. Effect of façade systems on the performance of cooling ceilings: In situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Eder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an innovative façade system designed to increase the thermal comfort inside an office room and to enhance the cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. A series of measurements is conducted in an existing office building with different façade systems (i.e., a combination of glazing and shading. An innovative façade system is developed based on this intensive set of measurements. The new system enhances the thermal comfort and cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. The main usage of the new system is the refurbishment and improvement of existing façade systems.

  10. Changes in rat plasma fibrinolytic factors during long term follow up after whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek-Wojciechowska, G.; Dancewicz, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Rats were whole body irradiated with a dose of 7.0 Gy and then bled at different times after exposure, from 1 day to 12 months; in their plasma the activity of plasmin, the level of plasminogen, the activity of plasminogen activator as well as α 2 -antiplasmin and α 2 -macroglobulin were determined. In comparison to control values obtained in parallel determinations it was found that during the acute phase of radiation disease (up to 30 days after irradiation) the activity of plasmin and the level of plasminogen underwent fluctuation: at the beginning there was an increase, followed by a decrease at later time intervals. There was also a distinct decrease (over 50%) in the activity of plasminogen activator. During the 2 to 4 weeks after exposure the activity of inhibitors was somewhat decreased, especially that of α 2 -macroglobulin. At later periods the level of plasminogen and the activity of plasminogen activator returned to normal but that of plasmin underwent fluctuation again, reaching a significant decrease in activity 6 and 12 months after exposure. At these time points also some decrease in activity of inhibitors was observed, especially in that of α 2 -macroglobulin. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs. (author)

  11. Cellular characterization of cells from the Fanconi anemia complementation group, FA-D1/BRCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godthelp, Barbara C. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands); Buul, Paul P.W. van [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands); Jaspers, Nicolaas G.J. [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus University, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Elghalbzouri-Maghrani, Elhaam [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands); Duijn-Goedhart, Annemarie van [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands); Arwert, Fre [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, Free University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Joenje, Hans [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, Free University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands) and Department of Molecular Cell Genetics, Collegium Medicum, N.Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz (Poland)]. E-mail: M.Z.Zdzienicka@LUMC.nl

    2006-10-10

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited cancer-susceptibility disorder, characterized by genomic instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. The discovery of biallelic BRCA2 mutations in the FA-D1 complementation group allows for the first time to study the characteristics of primary BRCA2-deficient human cells. FANCD1/BRCA2-deficient fibroblasts appeared hypersensitive to mitomycin C (MMC), slightly sensitive to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), and like cells derived from other FA complementation groups, not sensitive to X-ray irradiation. However, unlike other FA cells, FA-D1 cells were slightly sensitive to UV irradiation. Despite the observed lack of X-ray sensitivity in cell survival, significant radioresistant DNA synthesis (RDS) was observed in the BRCA2-deficient fibroblasts but also in the FANCA-deficient fibroblasts, suggesting an impaired S-phase checkpoint. FA-D1/BRCA2 cells displayed greatly enhanced levels of spontaneous as well as MMC-induced chromosomal aberrations (Canada), similar to cells deficient in homologous recombination (HR) and non-D1 FA cells. In contrast to Brca2-deficient rodent cells, FA-D1/BRCA2 cells showed normal sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels, both spontaneous as well as after MMC treatment. Hence, these data indicate that human cells with biallelic BRCA2 mutations display typical features of both FA- and HR-deficient cells, which suggests that FANCD1/BRCA2 is part of the integrated FA/BRCA DNA damage response pathway but also controls other functions outside the FA pathway.

  12. Cellular characterization of cells from the Fanconi anemia complementation group, FA-D1/BRCA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godthelp, Barbara C.; Buul, Paul P.W. van; Jaspers, Nicolaas G.J.; Elghalbzouri-Maghrani, Elhaam; Duijn-Goedhart, Annemarie van; Arwert, Fre; Joenje, Hans; Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z.

    2006-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited cancer-susceptibility disorder, characterized by genomic instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. The discovery of biallelic BRCA2 mutations in the FA-D1 complementation group allows for the first time to study the characteristics of primary BRCA2-deficient human cells. FANCD1/BRCA2-deficient fibroblasts appeared hypersensitive to mitomycin C (MMC), slightly sensitive to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), and like cells derived from other FA complementation groups, not sensitive to X-ray irradiation. However, unlike other FA cells, FA-D1 cells were slightly sensitive to UV irradiation. Despite the observed lack of X-ray sensitivity in cell survival, significant radioresistant DNA synthesis (RDS) was observed in the BRCA2-deficient fibroblasts but also in the FANCA-deficient fibroblasts, suggesting an impaired S-phase checkpoint. FA-D1/BRCA2 cells displayed greatly enhanced levels of spontaneous as well as MMC-induced chromosomal aberrations (Canada), similar to cells deficient in homologous recombination (HR) and non-D1 FA cells. In contrast to Brca2-deficient rodent cells, FA-D1/BRCA2 cells showed normal sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels, both spontaneous as well as after MMC treatment. Hence, these data indicate that human cells with biallelic BRCA2 mutations display typical features of both FA- and HR-deficient cells, which suggests that FANCD1/BRCA2 is part of the integrated FA/BRCA DNA damage response pathway but also controls other functions outside the FA pathway

  13. Isolation and differentiation of chondrocytic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells using dlk1/FA1 as a novel surface marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Mahmood, Amer

    2009-01-01

    of dlk1/FA1 as a novel surface marker for chondroprogenitor cells during hESC differentiation. We found that, Dlk1/FA1 is expressed specifically in cells undergoing transition from proliferating to prehypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification of the mouse limb. In hESC cells, dlk1/FA1...... was not expressed by undifferentiated hESC, but expressed during in vitro embryoid bodies (hEBs) formation upon down-regulation of undifferentiated markers e.g. Oct 3/4. Similarly, dlk1/FA1 was expressed in chondrocytic cells during in vivo teratoma formation. Interestingly, treatment of hEBs with Activin B......, a member of TGF-ss family, markedly increased Dlk1 expression in association with up-regulation of the mesoderm-specific markers (e.g. FOXF1, KDR and VE-cadherin) and SOX9. dlk1/FA1(+) cells isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) were capable of differentiating into chondrocytic cells when...

  14. Diffusion tensor MRI tractography reveals increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in arcuate fasciculus following music-cued motor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Emma; Schaefer, Rebecca S; Bastin, Mark E; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2017-08-01

    Auditory cues are frequently used to support movement learning and rehabilitation, but the neural basis of this behavioural effect is not yet clear. We investigated the microstructural neuroplasticity effects of adding musical cues to a motor learning task. We hypothesised that music-cued, left-handed motor training would increase fractional anisotropy (FA) in the contralateral arcuate fasciculus, a fibre tract connecting auditory, pre-motor and motor regions. Thirty right-handed participants were assigned to a motor learning condition either with (Music Group) or without (Control Group) musical cues. Participants completed 20minutes of training three times per week over four weeks. Diffusion tensor MRI and probabilistic neighbourhood tractography identified FA, axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity before and after training. Results revealed that FA increased significantly in the right arcuate fasciculus of the Music group only, as hypothesised, with trends for AD to increase and RD to decrease, a pattern of results consistent with activity-dependent increases in myelination. No significant changes were found in the left ipsilateral arcuate fasciculus of either group. This is the first evidence that adding musical cues to movement learning can induce rapid microstructural change in white matter pathways in adults, with potential implications for therapeutic clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. FANCM-FAAP24 and FANCJ: FA proteins that metabolize DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Abdullah Mahmood; Singh, Thiyam Ramsing [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Meetei, Amom Ruhikanta, E-mail: Ruhikanta.Meetei@cchmc.org [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive or X-linked disorder characterized by aplastic anemia, cancer susceptibility and cellular sensitivity to DNA-crosslinking agents. Eight FA proteins (FANCA, -B, -C, -E, -F, -G, -L and -M) and three non-FA proteins (FAAP100, FAAP24 and HES1) form the FA nuclear core complex that is required for monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI dimer upon DNA damage. The other three FA proteins, FANCD1/BRCA2, FANCJ/BACH1/BRIP1 and FANCN/PALB2, act in parallel or downstream of the FANCD2-FANCI dimer. Despite the isolation and characterization of several FA proteins, the mechanism by which these proteins protect cells from DNA interstrand crosslinking agents has been unclear. This is because a majority of the FA proteins lack any recognizable functional domains that can provide insight into their function. The recently discovered FANCM (Hef) and FANCJ (BRIP1/BACH1) proteins contain helicase domains, providing potential insight into the role of FA proteins in DNA repair. FANCM with its partner, FAAP24, and FANCJ bind and metabolize a variety of DNA substrates. In this review, we focus on the discovery, structure, and function of the FANCM-FAAP24 and FANCJ proteins.

  16. FANCM-FAAP24 and FANCJ: FA proteins that metabolize DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Abdullah Mahmood; Singh, Thiyam Ramsing; Meetei, Amom Ruhikanta

    2009-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive or X-linked disorder characterized by aplastic anemia, cancer susceptibility and cellular sensitivity to DNA-crosslinking agents. Eight FA proteins (FANCA, -B, -C, -E, -F, -G, -L and -M) and three non-FA proteins (FAAP100, FAAP24 and HES1) form the FA nuclear core complex that is required for monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI dimer upon DNA damage. The other three FA proteins, FANCD1/BRCA2, FANCJ/BACH1/BRIP1 and FANCN/PALB2, act in parallel or downstream of the FANCD2-FANCI dimer. Despite the isolation and characterization of several FA proteins, the mechanism by which these proteins protect cells from DNA interstrand crosslinking agents has been unclear. This is because a majority of the FA proteins lack any recognizable functional domains that can provide insight into their function. The recently discovered FANCM (Hef) and FANCJ (BRIP1/BACH1) proteins contain helicase domains, providing potential insight into the role of FA proteins in DNA repair. FANCM with its partner, FAAP24, and FANCJ bind and metabolize a variety of DNA substrates. In this review, we focus on the discovery, structure, and function of the FANCM-FAAP24 and FANCJ proteins.

  17. 3D adaptable building skin : an invention for freedom in shape of façades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suma, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets out to develop a principle on which a façade element can be deformed in shape. By using a flexible structure with cables, small bars and inflatable tubes, which together form a woven pattern, a 3D freedom of deformability results. The shape of the façade element can be manipulated

  18. Estrogen inhibits Dlk1/FA1 production: A potential mechanism for estrogen effects on bone turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Srinivasan, Bhuma

    2011-01-01

    We have recently identified delta-like 1/fetal antigen 1 (Dlk1/FA1) as a novel regulator of bone mass that functions to mediate bone loss under estrogen deficiency in mice. In this report, we investigated the effects of estrogen (E) deficiency and E replacement on serum (s) levels of Dlk1/FA1 (s......-Dlk1FA1) and its correlation with bone turnover markers. s-Dlk1/FA1 and bone turnover markers (serum cross-linked C-telopeptide [s-CTX] and serum osteocalcin) were measured in two cohorts: a group of pre- and postmenopausal women (n = 100) and a group of postmenopausal women, where half had received...... estrogen-replacement therapy (ERT, n = 166). s-Dlk1/FA1 and s-CTX were elevated in postmenopausal E-deficient women compared with premenopausal E-replete women (both p ...

  19. Global emissions of the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-365mfc, HFC-245fa, HFC-227ea, and HFC-236fa based on atmospheric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M. K.; Miller, B. R.; Rigby, M. L.; Reimann, S.; Muhle, J.; Agage, Soge, Snu Members, Kopri Members

    2010-12-01

    We report on the atmospheric measurements and global emissions of the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-365mfc (CH3CH2CF2CF3, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane), HFC-245fa (CHF2CH2CF3, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane), HFC-227ea (CF3CHFCF3, 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane), and HFC-236fa (CF3CH2CF3, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane). These measurements are from in-situ observations at stations of AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) and SOGE (System for Observations of Halogenated Greenhouse Gases in Europe), and from the Korean station Gosan. We also report on flask sample measurements from the Antarctic stations King Sejong and Troll, and extend our records back to the 1970s using archived air samples of both hemispheres. All data are used in a global 12-box 2-dimensional atmospheric transport model to derive global abundances and emission estimates. All four HFCs have strongly increased in the atmosphere in recent years with growth rates at nearly 10 %, resulting in dry air mole fractions at the end of 2009 of 0.49 ppt for HFC-365mfc, 1.00 ppt for HFC-245fa, and 0.51 ppt for HFC-227ea. HFC-236fa, for which we report the first atmospheric measurements, is less abundant and has grown to 0.069 ppt at the end of 2009. Our model results show rapidly growing emissions of HFC-365mfc and HFC-245fa after 2002 but surprisingly these have now started to decline to globally 2.7 kt/yr (HFC-365mfc) and 6.1 kt/yr (HFC-245fa). On the other hand HFC-227ea and HFC-236fa show uninterrupted growth in their emissions of 2.5 kt/yr and 0.2 kt/yr at the end of 2009.

  20. Estrogen Inhibits Dlk1/FA1 Production: A Potential Mechanism for Estrogen Effects on Bone Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, B. M.; Bay-Jensen, A.; Srinivasan, B.; Tabassi, N. C.; Garnero, P.; Delaissé, J.; Khosla, S.; Kassem, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently identified Dlk1/FA1 (Delta-like 1/FA1) as a novel regulator of bone mass that functions to mediate bone loss, under estrogen deficiency, in mice. In this report, we investigated the effects of estrogen (E)-deficiency and E replacement on serum (s) levels of Dlk1/FA1 (s-Dlk1FA1) and its correlation with bone turnover markers. s-Dlk1/FA1 and bone turnover markers (s-CTx and s-osteocalcin), were measured in two cohorts: a group of pre- and postmenopausal women (n=100) and a group of postmenopausal women, where half had received estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) (n=166). s-Dlk1/FA1, and s-CTX were elevated in postmenopausal E-deficient compared to premenopausal E-replete women (both; P<0.001). s-Dlk1/FA1 was correlated with s-CTX (r=0.30, P<0.01). ERT, in postmenopausal women, decreased s-Dlk1/FA1, as well as s-CTX and s-osteoclacin (all; P<0.0001). Changes in s-Dlk1 were significantly correlated with those observed in s-CTx (r=0.18, P<0.05) and s-osteocalcin (r=0.28, P<0.001). In conclusion, s-Dlk1/FA1 is influenced by E-deficiency and is correlated with bone turnover. Increased levels of s-Dlk1/FA1 in post-menopausal women may be a mechanism mediating the effects estrogen deficiency on bone turnover. PMID:21681814

  1. Proteomics study of extracellular fibrinolytic proteases from Bacillus licheniformis RO3 and Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from Indonesian fermented food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Afifah, Diana; Rustanti, Ninik; Anjani, Gemala; Syah, Dahrul; Yanti; Suhartono, Maggy T.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the proteomics study which includes separation, identification and characterization of proteins. The experiment on Indonesian fermented food such as extracellular fibrinolytic protease from Bacillus licheniformis RO3 and Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from red oncom and tempeh gembus was conducted. The experimental works comprise the following steps: (1) a combination of one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis, (2) mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI-TOF-MS and (3) investigation using protein database. The result suggested that there were new two protein fractions of B. licheniformis RO3 and three protein fractions of B. pumilus 2.g. These result has not been previously reported.

  2. Metabolic and fibrinolytic response to changed insulin sensitivity in users of oral contraceptives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kresten R.; Christiansen, Erik; Madsbad, Sten

    1999-01-01

    systems, are relevant in the evaluation of the risk of developing vascular disorders or diabetes in OC users. We studied insulin sensitivity index (S(I)), glucose effectiveness (S(g)), and insulin response in young, healthy women by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests before and after...... randomization to 6 months of treatment with ethinyl estradiol in triphasic combination with norgestimate (n = 17) or gestodene (n = 20). Measurements of fasting triglycerides and antigen concentrations of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) were also...... included. Both compounds increased fasting plasma insulin and reduced S(i) but did not affect S(g). The relationships between S(i) and insulin response were unchanged. No consistent correlation between insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, t-PA, or PAI-1 were demonstrated before or during treatment. We...

  3. FaQR, required for the biosynthesis of the strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, encodes an enone oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio; Klein, Dorothée; Caballero, Jose Luis; Moyano, Enriqueta; Schwab, Wilfried; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2006-04-01

    The flavor of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit is dominated by an uncommon group of aroma compounds with a 2,5-dimethyl-3(H)-furanone structure. We report the characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF; Furaneol), the key flavor compound in strawberries. Protein extracts were partially purified, and the observed distribution of enzymatic activity correlated with the presence of a single polypeptide of approximately 37 kD. Sequence analysis of two peptide fragments showed total identity with the protein sequence of a strongly ripening-induced, auxin-dependent putative quinone oxidoreductase, Fragaria x ananassa quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The open reading frame of the FaQR cDNA consists of 969 bp encoding a 322-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kD. Laser capture microdissection followed by RNA extraction and amplification demonstrated the presence of FaQR mRNA in parenchyma tissue of the strawberry fruit. The FaQR protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the monomer catalyzed the formation of HDMF. After chemical synthesis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone was confirmed as a substrate of FaQR and the natural precursor of HDMF. This study demonstrates the function of the FaQR enzyme in the biosynthesis of HDMF as enone oxidoreductase and provides a foundation for the improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF.

  4. A Non-Ventilated Solar Façade Concept Based on Selective and Transparent Insulation Material Integration: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Čekon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new solar façade concept based on transparent insulation and a selective absorber is proposed, tested and compared with conventional insulation and a non-selective type of absorber, respectively. The presented study focuses on an experimental non-ventilated solar type of façade exposed to solar radiation both in the laboratory and in outdoor tests. Due to the high solar absorbance level of the façade, high- and low-emissivity contributions were primarily analysed. All of the implemented materials were contrasted from the thermal and optical point of view. An analysis was made of both thermodynamic and steady state procedures affecting the proposed solar façade concept. Experimental full scale tests on real building components were additionally involved during summer monitoring. An indicator of the temperature response generated by solar radiation exposure demonstrates the outdoor performance of the façade is closely related to overheating phenomena. From the thermal point of view, the proposed transparent insulation and selective absorber concept corresponds to the performance of conventional thermal insulation of identical material thickness; however, the non-selective prototype only provides 50% thermal performance. The results of the solar-based experiments show that with a small-scale experimental prototype, approximately no significant difference is measured when compared with a non-selective absorber type. The only difference was achieved at the maximum of 2.5 K, when the lower temperature was obtained in the solar selective concept. At the full-scale outdoor mode, the results indicate a maximum of 3.0 K difference, however the lower temperature achieves a non-selective approach. This solar façade can actively contribute to the thermal performance of building components during periods of heating.

  5. Desalination of Walls and Façades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, W.; Jáuregui Arreola, K.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    For large monumental objects like walls and façades, the common technique of applying poultices for desalination often are not effective. This practice is neither cost effective nor does it lead to the desired result of desalination. To manage the conservation and desalination of these kinds of objects, several sprinkling techniques are known and have been applied on historical objects. For example, in the wooden warship Vasa, which was excavated from the sea bottom in Stockholm/Sweden, a sprinkling method was applied in 1961 for conservation and desalination. A sprinkling method to desalinate porous mineral materials will be presented using three different case studies: the rock cut monument no. 825 in Petra/Jordan, the medieval monastary church of the former Franziscan convent in Zeitz/Germany and the baroque monastary church Santa Monica in Guadalajara/Mexico. Before to start with practical conservation, the material- and petropysical properties, focoussed on water transport properties, like porosity, pore size distribution, water uptake and drying rate were investigadet. Diagnostic investigations on the objects included the mapping of deterioration, moister content measurements and salt accumulation determined by borehole cuts samples at depth. In the sprinkling method water is sprayed onto the wall surface through nozzels arranged in a modular grid. Depending on the sprinkling duration, a small or a large amount of water seeps into the porous materials, whereby the depth penetration can be adjusted accordingly. The water not absorbed by the stone runs off the facade and can be collected in liter amounts and tested by electrical conductivity with respect to the dissolved substances. After the drying of the wall's surface and the accumulation of salt at the material's surface, the procedure is repeated. For each subsequent washing a lower content of salt should be brought to the surface. Step by step the salt concentration will eventually decrease to almost

  6. DNA, histones and neutrophil extracellular traps exert anti-fibrinolytic effects in a plasma environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjú, Imre; Longstaff, Colin; Szabó, László; Farkas, Ádám Zoltán; Varga-Szabó, Veronika Judit; Tanka-Salamon, Anna; Machovich, Raymund; Kolev, Krasimir

    2015-06-01

    In response to various inflammatory stimuli, neutrophils secrete neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), web-like meshworks of DNA, histones and granular components forming supplementary scaffolds in venous and arterial thrombi. Isolated DNA and histones are known to promote thrombus formation and render fibrin clots more resistant to mechanical forces and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced enzymatic digestion. The present study extends our earlier observations to a physiologically more relevant environment including plasma clots and NET-forming neutrophils. A range of techniques was employed including imaging (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy, and photoscanning of macroscopic lysis fronts), clot permeability measurements, turbidimetric lysis and enzyme inactivation assays. Addition of DNA and histones increased the median fibre diameter of plasma clots formed with 16 nM thrombin from 108 to 121 and 119 nm, respectively, and decreased their permeability constant from 6.4 to 3.1 and 3.7×10(-9) cm(2). Histones effectively protected thrombin from antithrombin-induced inactivation, while DNA inhibited plasminogen activation on the surface of plasma clots and their plasmin-induced resolution by 20 and 40 %, respectively. DNA and histones, as well as NETs secreted by phorbol-myristate-acetate-activated neutrophils, slowed down the tPA-driven lysis of plasma clots and the latter effect could be reversed by the addition of DNase (streptodornase). SEM images taken after complete digestion of fibrin in NET-containing plasma clots evidenced retained NET scaffold that was absent in DNase-treated clots. Our results show that DNA and histones alter the fibrin architecture in plasma clots, while NETs contribute to a decreased lytic susceptibility that can be overcome by DNase.

  7. Measurement of FA and VitB12 in serum by TRFIA and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jinhong; Wang Huimin

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between diseases and the quantity of folic acid(FA) and vitamine B 12 (VitB 12 ) in serum, the quantity of FA and VitB 12 in serum was measured by TR- FIA. The results showed that the levels of FA and VitB 12 in 68 controlled subjects were 20.13±5.72 nmol/L and 240.45±58.23 pmol/L respectively. The levels of FA and VitB 12 in 6 patients with megaloblastic anemia, 26 with medium-terminal gestation femineity, 7 with liver cirrhosis, 10 with gastric ulcerand 31 with cerebral infarction were significant lower than those in the control group. The level of FA in 24 with malignant hematopathy and 57 with malignant tumor was significantly lower but VitB 12 between the 31 patients with iron deficiency anemia and 12 with CAA and the control group. The amount of the FA in 9 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and 42 blood donors were lower than that in the control. The determination of FA and VitB 12 levels may be quite significant in the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of diseases. Laboratories should establish the reference values which fit the locals specifically. (authors)

  8. Mechanical Stability and Fibrinolytic Resistance of Clots Containing Fibrin, DNA, and Histones*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Colin; Varjú, Imre; Sótonyi, Péter; Szabó, László; Krumrey, Michael; Hoell, Armin; Bóta, Attila; Varga, Zoltán; Komorowicz, Erzsébet; Kolev, Krasimir

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps are networks of DNA and associated proteins produced by nucleosome release from activated neutrophils in response to infection stimuli and have recently been identified as key mediators between innate immunity, inflammation, and hemostasis. The interaction of DNA and histones with a number of hemostatic factors has been shown to promote clotting and is associated with increased thrombosis, but little is known about the effects of DNA and histones on the regulation of fibrin stability and fibrinolysis. Here we demonstrate that the addition of histone-DNA complexes to fibrin results in thicker fibers (increase in median diameter from 84 to 123 nm according to scanning electron microscopy data) accompanied by improved stability and rigidity (the critical shear stress causing loss of fibrin viscosity increases from 150 to 376 Pa whereas the storage modulus of the gel increases from 62 to 82 pascals according to oscillation rheometric data). The effects of DNA and histones alone are subtle and suggest that histones affect clot structure whereas DNA changes the way clots are lysed. The combination of histones + DNA significantly prolongs clot lysis. Isothermal titration and confocal microscopy studies suggest that histones and DNA bind large fibrin degradation products with 191 and 136 nm dissociation constants, respectively, interactions that inhibit clot lysis. Heparin, which is known to interfere with the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, appears to prolong lysis time at a concentration favoring ternary histone-DNA-heparin complex formation, and DNase effectively promotes clot lysis in combination with tissue plasminogen activator. PMID:23293023

  9. Disrupting Façades of Clarity in the Teaching and Learning of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Contreras-McGavin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine two methodological façades of clarity that commonly shroud critical qualitative educational inquiry. More specifically, we interrogate discussions of reflexivity and positionality and explore the ways in which methodology curricula and instructional practices perpetuate façades of clarity, or a false sense of coherence, ultimately undermining the transformative potential of critical educational research. We identify specific pedagogical opportunities, spaces, and strategies for dismantling these façades and offer ways to reconstruct methodological practices congruent with the emancipatory and empowering aims of critical scholarship.

  10. Effects of baked and raw salmon fillet on lipids and n-3 PUFAs in serum and tissues in Zucker fa/fa rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vikøren, Linn Anja Slåke; Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Bergseth, Marthe Tønder; Mjøs, Svein Are; Mola, Nazanin; Leh, Sabine Maria; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun Anita

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Knowledge of the health impact of consuming heat-treated versus raw fish fillet is limited. To investigate effects of baked or raw salmon fillet intake on lipids and n-3 PUFAs in serum and tissues, obese Zucker fa/fa rats were fed diets containing 25% of protein from baked or raw salmon fillet and 75% of protein from casein, or casein as the sole protein source (control group) for four weeks. Salmon diets had similar composition of amino and fatty acids. Growth and energy intake were...

  11. Efectos sobre el metabolismo lipoproteico y estrés oxidativo en ratas zucker fa/fa de cárnicos enriquecidos con glucomanano y espirulina

    OpenAIRE

    González Torres, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Esta memoria doctoral versa sobre los estudios que se realizaron para evaluar los efectos de reestructurados cárnicos (RP) enriquecidos con glucomanano y espirulina sobre crecimiento, tamaño y estructura de órganos, glucemia, insulinemia, resistencia a la insulina, metabolismo lipoproteico y estrés oxidativo en un modelo de síndrome metabólico como es la rata Zucker fa/fa. Para ello se diseñaron diferentes dietas hipersaturadas, añadidas o no con agente hipercolesterolemiante, conteniendo 15%...

  12. A community-based Falls Management Exercise Programme (FaME) improves balance, walking speed and reduced fear of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pui Yee; Chan, Wayne; Woo, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Although effective community falls prevention programmes for the older persons have been described, challenges remain in translating proven interventions into daily practice. To evaluate the efficacy, feasibility and acceptability of a falls prevention programme that can be integrated into daily activities in a group of community-dwelling older adults with risk of falling. A cohort study with intervention and comparison groups was designed to evaluate a 36-week group-based falls prevention exercise programme (FaME) in the community setting. Participants were aged 60 years or older, had fallen in the past 12 months, had fear of falling with avoidance of activities or had deficits in balance control. Primary outcome measures included assessment of balance control and mobility; secondary outcome measures included level of physical activity, assessment of fear of falling and health-related quality of life. There were 48 and 51 participants in the intervention and comparison groups, respectively. There were improvements in measurements of balance, walking speed and self-efficacy. The drop out rate was low (14.6% and 3.9% from the intervention and comparison groups, respectively). Overall compliance in the intervention group was 79%. Factors that motivated continued participation include the regular and long-term nature of the programme helping to reinforce their exercise habits, the simplicity of movements and friendliness of the group. The FaME programme improves balance, walking speed and reduces fear of falling. It could be widely promoted and integrated into regular health and social activities in community settings.

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A4FA-2ZLWD [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A4FA-2ZLWD 1A4F 2ZLW A D -VLSAADKTNVKGVFSKISGHAEEYGAETLERMFTAYPQ...R VQLSGEEKAAVLALWDKV--NEEEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFDSFGDLSNPGAVMGNPKVKAHGKKVLHSFGEGVHHLDNLKGTFAALSEL... 2ZLW D 2ZLWD LWDKV--

  14. Foetal antigen 2 (FA2) in the stromal reaction induced by breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H B; Teisner, B; Andersen, J A

    1992-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase technique was used to examine the distribution of foetal antigen 2 (FA2), a recently described basement membrane (BM)-associated antigen, in invasive breast carcinoma (n = 34), fibroadenoma (n = 5) and normal breast tissue (n = 5), and to compare its distribution...... with that of laminin and collagen type IV. In normal breast tissue, FA2 was detected in the intralobular stroma as a broad band around acini and ducts, but was not present in the interlobular stroma. In areas of carcinoma in situ, FA2 was present diffusely around and in close contact with the glandular elements......, the staining being more intense than that found around normal glandular structures. Two distinct patterns of FA2 distribution were found in adenocarcinomas of the breast. In the fibroblast reaction type, fibroblast staining dominated, whilst in the stromal reaction type, intense and extensive staining...

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1J3FA-1LHSA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1J3FA-1LHSA 1J3F 1LHS A A MVLSEGEWQLVLHVWAKVEADVAGHGQDILIRLFKSHPE...TLEKFDRFKHLKTEAEMKASEDLKKHGVTVLTGLGAILKKKGHHEAELKPLAQSHAT--KIPIKYLEFISEAIIHVLHSRHPGDFGADAQGAMNKALELFRKDIAAKY...line>ILE CA 332 LYS CA 290 1LHS A 1LHSA ESHATKHKIPVK HH

  16. Some Applications of Surface Barrier Solid-State Detectors for Alpha-Activity Detection and Measurement; Quelques Applications des Detecteurs a Semi-Conducteurs a Barriere de Surface pour Deceler et Mesurer l'Activite Alpha; Nekotorye vidy primeneniya detektorov tverdogo sostoyaniya s poverkhnostnym bar'erom dlya izmereniya i obnaruzheniya al'fa-aktivnosti; Aplicaciones de los Detectores de Semiconductores de Barrera Superficial a la Deteccion y Medicion de Emisores Alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, K. E.G. [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-10-15

    Solid-state detectors are finding increasing use in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority for biological sample measurements and health physics operational survey monitoring. The most usual method employed for the estimation of plutonium retained in the body by exposed personnel is to take samples of the urine and faeces. These samples are chemically processed to extract the plutonium, which is electro-deposited on to a small stainless steel disc to produce a thin ''source'' with negligible selfabsorption of the alpha-activity. At normal occupational levels of personnel exposure the amount of activity collected in this way is extremely small and accurate low-level measurement of the deposited samples is necessary. The solid-state detector shows an advantage over other forms of detector (e.g. scintillation counter or gas-flow proportional counter) in that a much lower background is possible and thus a lower level of activity can be determined. Two types of apparatus using solid-state detectors are in common use for this measurement. The simplest form of equipment incorporates a solid-state detector to measure the total alpha-activity of the sample. However, if other alpha-active isotopes are present, then to obtain a true estimation of the plutonium content, the solid-state detector can more usefully be employed as a spectrometer; by pulse amplitude analysis it is possible to differentiate the 5.14-MeV emission of plutonium from the alpha-emissions of other nuclides. Two equipments using a solid-state detector for energy analysis are in use. The simpler of these incorporates a 20-mm-diam. solid-state detector, the output of which is taken to a circuit incorporating two pulse amplitude discriminators operating two resettable mechanical registers, the discrimination levels being adjusted to encompass the peak due to alpha-particles from {sup 239}Pu. For very high resolution energy analysis (> 1%) the sample is measured in vacuum with a selected solid

  17. Molecular causes and consequences of genetic instability with respect to the FA/BRCA Caretaker Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Neveling, Kornelia

    2012-01-01

    In the context of this thesis, I investigated the molecular causes and functional consequences of genetic instability using a human inherited disease, Fanconi anemia. FA patients display a highly variable clinical phenotype, including congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure and a high cancer risk. The FA cellular phenotype is characterized by spontaneous and inducible chromosomal instability, and a typical S/G2 phase arrest after exposure to DNA-damaging agents. So far, 13 g...

  18. Status of JSFR development in phase I FaCT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoto, Kazumi; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Kotake, Shoji; Ito, Takaya

    2011-01-01

    The Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, the key technologies for Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) has been evaluated. (author)

  19. Diets containing salmon fillet delay development of high blood pressure and hyperfusion damage in kidneys in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikøren, Linn A; Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mwakimonga, Angela; Leh, Sabine; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2018-04-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular and chronic renal diseases, affecting more than 1 billion people. Fish intake is inversely correlated with the prevalence of hypertension in several, but not all, studies, and intake of fish oil and fish proteins has shown promising potential to delay development of high blood pressure in rats. The effects of baked and raw salmon fillet intake on blood pressure and renal function were investigated in obese Zucker fa/fa rats, which spontaneously develop hypertension with proteinuria and renal failure. Rats were fed diets containing baked or raw salmon fillet in an amount corresponding to 25% of total protein from salmon and 75% of protein from casein, or casein as the sole protein source (control group) for 4 weeks. Results show lower blood pressure and lower urine concentrations of albumin and cystatin C (relative to creatinine) in salmon diet groups when compared to control group. Morphological examinations revealed less prominent hyperfusion damage in podocytes from rats fed diets containing baked or raw salmon when compared to control rats. In conclusion, diets containing baked or raw salmon fillet delayed the development of hypertension and protected against podocyte damage in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fetal antigen 1 (FA1), a circulating member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Krogh, T N; Støving, René Klinkby

    1997-01-01

    We describe an ELISA technique for quantification of fetal antigen 1 (FA1), a glycoprotein belonging to the EGF-superfamily. The ELISA is based on immunospecifically purified polyclonal antibodies and has a dynamic range of 0.7-5.3 ng/ml, intra- and inter-assay C.V.s of less than 3.2% and an aver......We describe an ELISA technique for quantification of fetal antigen 1 (FA1), a glycoprotein belonging to the EGF-superfamily. The ELISA is based on immunospecifically purified polyclonal antibodies and has a dynamic range of 0.7-5.3 ng/ml, intra- and inter-assay C.V.s of less than 3.......2% and an average recovery of 105% in serum and 98% in urine. Comparison of FA1 in amniotic fluid, serum and urine revealed parallel titration curves, identical elution volumes following size chromatography, immunological identity and similar profiles when analysed by MALDI-MS. The reference interval for serum FA1...... was 12.3-46.6 ng/ml and the levels were 10 times higher in patients with renal failure. FA1 showed no diurnal variation, no variation during the menstrual cycle and was not influenced by the acute phase reaction. In humans (n = 10) the renal clearance of FA1 was 11 ml/min and an identical high renal...

  1. A BPMN-based process map for the design and construction of façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Voss

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Eleanor Voss, Glass and Façade Technology Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, UK. E-mail: ev236@cam.ac.uk Process mapping can lead to significant efficiency and quality improvements in construction engineering and is an ideal basis for developing IT support tools. The increasing complexity and multidisciplinary nature of façade design and construction suggest that a process map would be beneficial in this sector of the construction industry, but it has received limited attention to date. This paper presents a verified process map of the façade design and construction process. The map is the first of its kind to represent, in detail, the whole process relevant to all façade types, from commencement of the façade consultant's and contactor's participation, to the end of their involvement. The paper describes the process by which the mapping notation was selected, followed by the development and verification of the process map, including testing in two independent research projects. The BuildingSMART's BPMN notation is found to have superior system features and comprehensibility for this application and the resulting process map is easy to interpret and verify by industry experts. The trialling of the map in the two research projects indicate that the map is a useful tool for assessing process improvements in the façades sector.

  2. Architectural Kansei of ‘Wall’ in The Façade Design by Le Corbusier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendai, Shoichiro

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the modern architect Le Corbusier's architectural Kansei (sensibility) on wall in site environment through the analysis of his façade design, using Œuvres complètes (1910-1965, 8 vols., Les éditions d'architecture, Artemis, Zurich) and Le Corbusier Archives (1982-1984, 32 vols., Garland Publishing, Inc. and Fondation Le Corbusier, New York, London, Paris). At first, I arrange five façade types, according to the explanation by Le Corbusier ; ‘fenêtre en longueur (strip window)’, ‘pan de verre (glass wall)’, ‘brise-soleil (sun-breaker)’, ‘loggia’ and ‘claustra’. Through the analysis of the relationship between these types and the design process of each building, we find that Le Corbusier's façade design includes the affirmation and the negation of the ‘wall’ at the same time. In fact, the nature of façade modification during design process is divers: increase in transparency, decrease in transparency and spatialization of façade. That means, Le Corbusier studied the environmental condition by these façade types, and tried to realize the phenomenal openness. This trial bases on the function of architectural Kansei as correspondence between body and environment beyond the physical design.

  3. Energy performance of a ventilated façade by simulation with experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio-Fernández, Carolina; Vivancos, José-Luis; Ferrer-Gisbert, Pablo; Royo-Pastor, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    A model for a building with ventilated façade was created using the software tool TRNSYS, version 17, and airflow parameters were simulated using TRNFlow. The results obtained with the model are compared and validated with experimental data. The temperature distribution along the air cavity was analysed and a chimney effect was observed, which produced the highest temperature gradient on the first floor. The heat flux of the external wall was analysed, and greater temperatures were observed on the external layer and inside the cavity. The model allows to calculate the energy demand of the building façade proposing and evaluating passive strategies. The corresponding office building for computer laboratories located in Valencia (Spain), was monitored for a year. The thermal behaviour of the floating external sheet was analysed using an electronic panel designed for the reading and storage of data. A feasibility study of the recovery of hot air inside the façade into the building was performed. The results obtained showed a lower heating demand when hot air is introduced inside the building, increasing the efficiency of heat recovery equipment. - Highlights: •An existing office building was monitored for a year. •A model of a ventilated façade by TRNSYS simulation tool was validated. •Air flow parameters inside the ventilated façade were identified. •Recovery of the hot air inside the façade for input into the building was studied

  4. Atmospheric histories and global emissions of the anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons HFC-365mfc, HFC-245fa, HFC-227ea, and HFC-236fa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Martin K.; Miller, Benjamin R.; Rigby, Matthew; Reimann, Stefan; Mühle, Jens; Krummel, Paul B.; O'Doherty, Simon; Kim, Jooil; Rhee, Tae Siek; Weiss, Ray F.; Fraser, Paul J.; Simmonds, Peter G.; Salameh, Peter K.; Harth, Christina M.; Wang, Ray H. J.; Steele, L. Paul; Young, Dickon; Lunder, Chris R.; Hermansen, Ove; Ivy, Diane; Arnold, Tim; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Greally, Brian R.; Hill, Matthias; Leist, Michael; Wenger, Angelina; Prinn, Ronald G.

    2011-04-01

    We report on ground-based atmospheric measurements and emission estimates of the four anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-365mfc (CH3CF2CH2CF3, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane), HFC-245fa (CHF2CH2CF3, 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane), HFC-227ea (CF3CHFCF3, 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane), and HFC-236fa (CF3CH2CF3, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane). In situ measurements are from the global monitoring sites of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), the System for Observations of Halogenated Greenhouse Gases in Europe (SOGE), and Gosan (South Korea). We include the first halocarbon flask sample measurements from the Antarctic research stations King Sejong and Troll. We also present measurements of archived air samples from both hemispheres back to the 1970s. We use a two-dimensional atmospheric transport model to simulate global atmospheric abundances and to estimate global emissions. HFC-365mfc and HFC-245fa first appeared in the atmosphere only ˜1 decade ago; they have grown rapidly to globally averaged dry air mole fractions of 0.53 ppt (in parts per trillion, 10-12) and 1.1 ppt, respectively, by the end of 2010. In contrast, HFC-227ea first appeared in the global atmosphere in the 1980s and has since grown to ˜0.58 ppt. We report the first measurements of HFC-236fa in the atmosphere. This long-lived compound was present in the atmosphere at only 0.074 ppt in 2010. All four substances exhibit yearly growth rates of >8% yr-1 at the end of 2010. We find rapidly increasing emissions for the foam-blowing compounds HFC-365mfc and HFC-245fa starting in ˜2002. After peaking in 2006 (HFC-365mfc: 3.2 kt yr-1, HFC-245fa: 6.5 kt yr-1), emissions began to decline. Our results for these two compounds suggest that recent estimates from long-term projections (to the late 21st century) have strongly overestimated emissions for the early years of the projections (˜2005-2010). Global HFC-227ea and HFC-236fa emissions have grown to average values of 2.4 kt yr-1

  5. Δ(9)-THC modulation of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene expression: possible involvement of induced levels of PPARα in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuso; Ikeda, Eriko; Su, Shengzhong; Harada, Mari; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Nishimura, Hajime; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kakizoe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Aya; Tokuyasu, Miki; Himeno, Taichi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-12-04

    We recently reported that Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), a major cannabinoid component in Cannabis Sativa (marijuana), significantly stimulated the expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was previously implicated in this induction. However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. We performed a DNA microarray analysis of Δ(9)-THC-treated samples and showed the selective up-regulation of the PPARα isoform coupled with the induction of FA2H over the other isoforms (β and γ). Δ(9)-THC itself had no binding/activation potential to/on PPARα, and palmitic acid (PA), a PPARα ligand, exhibited no stimulatory effects on FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells; thus, we hypothesized that the levels of PPARα induced were involved in the Δ(9)-THC-mediated increase in FA2H. In support of this hypothesis, we herein demonstrated that; (i) Δ(9)-THC activated the basal transcriptional activity of PPARα in a concentration-dependent manner, (ii) the concomitant up-regulation of PPARα/FA2H was caused by Δ(9)-THC, (iii) PA could activate PPARα after the PPARα expression plasmid was introduced, and (iv) the Δ(9)-THC-induced up-regulation of FA2H was further stimulated by the co-treatment with L-663,536 (a known PPARα inducer). Taken together, these results support the concept that the induced levels of PPARα may be involved in the Δ(9)-THC up-regulation of FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Δ{sup 9}-THC modulation of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene expression: Possible involvement of induced levels of PPARα in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shuso [Department of Molecular Biology, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Laboratory of Xenobiotic Metabolism and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hiroshima International University (HIU), 5-1-1 Hiro-koshingai, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0112 (Japan); Ikeda, Eriko [Department of Molecular Biology, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Su, Shengzhong [Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, 101 Life Sciences Building, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Harada, Mari [Department of Molecular Biology, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Okazaki, Hiroyuki [Drug Innovation Research Center, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasushi; Nishimura, Hajime; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kakizoe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Aya; Tokuyasu, Miki; Himeno, Taichi [Department of Molecular Biology, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazuhito [Department of Hygienic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Ho-3 Kanagawa-machi, Kanazawa 920-1181 (Japan); Omiecinski, Curtis J. [Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, 101 Life Sciences Building, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Aramaki, Hironori [Department of Molecular Biology, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Drug Innovation Research Center, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We recently reported that Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ{sup 9}-THC), a major cannabinoid component in Cannabis Sativa (marijuana), significantly stimulated the expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was previously implicated in this induction. However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. We performed a DNA microarray analysis of Δ{sup 9}-THC-treated samples and showed the selective up-regulation of the PPARα isoform coupled with the induction of FA2H over the other isoforms (β and γ). Δ{sup 9}-THC itself had no binding/activation potential to/on PPARα, and palmitic acid (PA), a PPARα ligand, exhibited no stimulatory effects on FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells; thus, we hypothesized that the levels of PPARα induced were involved in the Δ{sup 9}-THC-mediated increase in FA2H. In support of this hypothesis, we herein demonstrated that; (i) Δ{sup 9}-THC activated the basal transcriptional activity of PPARα in a concentration-dependent manner, (ii) the concomitant up-regulation of PPARα/FA2H was caused by Δ{sup 9}-THC, (iii) PA could activate PPARα after the PPARα expression plasmid was introduced, and (iv) the Δ{sup 9}-THC-induced up-regulation of FA2H was further stimulated by the co-treatment with L-663,536 (a known PPARα inducer). Taken together, these results support the concept that the induced levels of PPARα may be involved in the Δ{sup 9}-THC up-regulation of FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells.

  7. Δ9-THC modulation of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene expression: Possible involvement of induced levels of PPARα in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shuso; Ikeda, Eriko; Su, Shengzhong; Harada, Mari; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Nishimura, Hajime; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kakizoe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Aya; Tokuyasu, Miki; Himeno, Taichi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), a major cannabinoid component in Cannabis Sativa (marijuana), significantly stimulated the expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was previously implicated in this induction. However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. We performed a DNA microarray analysis of Δ 9 -THC-treated samples and showed the selective up-regulation of the PPARα isoform coupled with the induction of FA2H over the other isoforms (β and γ). Δ 9 -THC itself had no binding/activation potential to/on PPARα, and palmitic acid (PA), a PPARα ligand, exhibited no stimulatory effects on FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells; thus, we hypothesized that the levels of PPARα induced were involved in the Δ 9 -THC-mediated increase in FA2H. In support of this hypothesis, we herein demonstrated that; (i) Δ 9 -THC activated the basal transcriptional activity of PPARα in a concentration-dependent manner, (ii) the concomitant up-regulation of PPARα/FA2H was caused by Δ 9 -THC, (iii) PA could activate PPARα after the PPARα expression plasmid was introduced, and (iv) the Δ 9 -THC-induced up-regulation of FA2H was further stimulated by the co-treatment with L-663,536 (a known PPARα inducer). Taken together, these results support the concept that the induced levels of PPARα may be involved in the Δ 9 -THC up-regulation of FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells

  8. Oxide fuel fabrication technology development of the FaCT project (1). Overall review of fuel technology development of the FaCT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tomoyuki; Namekawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2011-01-01

    The FaCT project is in progress in Japan for the commercialization of fast reactor cycle system. The development goal of the fuel in the FaCT project is a low-decontaminated TRU homo-recycling in a closed cycle and extension in average discharge burn-up to 150 GWd/t. Research and development on innovative technologies concerning the short process, remote maintenance and cooling system of automatic fuel production equipments, long life cladding material and control of oxygen potential have been conducted in phase I of the FaCT project. As the result of various test including 600 g batch MOX tests, it is concluded that the short process is available to fuel pellet fabrication of the FaCT project. Although cold mock-up tests on test model of some typical process equipments suggest possibilities of remote maintenance of automatic fuel fabrication equipment, it is concluded that it still needs further efforts to judge the operability of the completely remote fabrication for low-decontaminated TRU fuel. A cold mock-up test on fuel pin assembling equipment show that influence of decay heat of MA can be managed by cooling system. Irradiation tests in BOR-60 indicate that 9Cr-ODS possess the satisfactory in-reactor performance as the long life cladding material if homogeneity of alloy element is adequately controlled. Modification of cladding tube fabrication process to ensure homogeneity and further development of measures to control oxygen potential inside the fuel pin are necessary to reach the burn-up target of the FaCT project. (author)

  9. The cathepsin B inhibitor, z-FA-CMK is toxic and readily induced cell death in human T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liow, K.Y.; Chow, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethylketone (z-FA-CMK) was found to be toxic and readily induced cell death in the human T cell line, Jurkat, whereas two other analogs benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethylketone (z-FA-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethylketone (z-FA-DMK) were not toxic. The toxicity of z-FA-CMK requires not only the CMK group, but also the presence of alanine in the P1 position and the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal. Dose–response studies showed that lower concentrations of z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells whereas higher concentrations induced necrosis. In z-FA-CMK-induced apoptosis, both initiator caspases (-8 and -9) and effector caspases (-3, -6 and -7) were processed to their respective subunits in Jurkat T cells. However, only the pro-form of the initiator caspases were reduced in z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and no respective subunits were apparent. The caspase inihibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-valine-alanine-aspartic acid-(O-methyl)-fluoromehylketone (z-VAD-FMK) inhibits apoptosis and caspase processing in Jurkat T cells treated with low concentration of z-FA-CMK but has no effect on z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and the loss of initiator caspases. This suggests that the loss of initiator caspases in Jurkat T cells during z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis is not a caspase-dependent process. Taken together, we have demonstrated that z-FA-CMK is toxic to Jurkat T cells and induces apoptosis at low concentrations, while at higher concentrations the cells die of necrosis. - Highlights: • z-FA-CMK is toxic and induce cell death in the human T cells. • z-FA-CMK toxicity requires the CMK group, alanine and the benzyloxycarbonyl group. • z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis at low concentration and necrosis at high concentration

  10. The cathepsin B inhibitor, z-FA-CMK is toxic and readily induced cell death in human T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liow, K.Y.; Chow, S.C., E-mail: chow.sek.chuen@monash.edu

    2013-11-01

    The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethylketone (z-FA-CMK) was found to be toxic and readily induced cell death in the human T cell line, Jurkat, whereas two other analogs benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethylketone (z-FA-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethylketone (z-FA-DMK) were not toxic. The toxicity of z-FA-CMK requires not only the CMK group, but also the presence of alanine in the P1 position and the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal. Dose–response studies showed that lower concentrations of z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells whereas higher concentrations induced necrosis. In z-FA-CMK-induced apoptosis, both initiator caspases (-8 and -9) and effector caspases (-3, -6 and -7) were processed to their respective subunits in Jurkat T cells. However, only the pro-form of the initiator caspases were reduced in z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and no respective subunits were apparent. The caspase inihibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-valine-alanine-aspartic acid-(O-methyl)-fluoromehylketone (z-VAD-FMK) inhibits apoptosis and caspase processing in Jurkat T cells treated with low concentration of z-FA-CMK but has no effect on z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis and the loss of initiator caspases. This suggests that the loss of initiator caspases in Jurkat T cells during z-FA-CMK-induced necrosis is not a caspase-dependent process. Taken together, we have demonstrated that z-FA-CMK is toxic to Jurkat T cells and induces apoptosis at low concentrations, while at higher concentrations the cells die of necrosis. - Highlights: • z-FA-CMK is toxic and induce cell death in the human T cells. • z-FA-CMK toxicity requires the CMK group, alanine and the benzyloxycarbonyl group. • z-FA-CMK induced apoptosis at low concentration and necrosis at high concentration.

  11. New methods for testing fire resistance of wood façade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson August

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arson in schools has been a huge problem in Sweden over the last fifteen years. The average amount of school arsons between 2000 and 2014 was 285 cases each year which corresponds to 50% of the total amount of reported fires in school buildings. This is a well-known problem and a lot of research has been done in this area. Investigations has been done about fire and heat detection systems, different technical factors significance in fire scenarios and how to prevent adolescents from starting fires. Another part of the problem that partly been investigated is how the schools are constructed. Roughly 50% of the arsons are outside of the school building. In Sweden one and two storey buildings are allowed to be built with wooden façades in accordance with the building code, which is one of the reasons many schools are built with wooden façade systems. The most critical part in a wood façade system from a fire safety perspective is concluded to be the eaves because of how they usually are built to let air pass through. Even though a wood façade isn't as well resistant to fire compared to a concrete façade, three versions of new test methods for combustible façades have been developed to make it possible to make sure in advance that a construction is resistant enough. The new test methods are focused on specific details and parts of a façade system to provide a more informative and useful result compared to SP Fire 105. Observations and measurements of flame spread and temperature changes in the eave, over the window joints and in the air gap are made. With these parameters in consideration criteria's has been chosen for a critical temperature of 280 ∘C at a critical time of 20 minutes.

  12. Does low protein concentration of tissue-type plasminogen activator predict a low risk of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, J

    1995-01-01

    activity (p Reasonable separation could be obtained for t-PA with a cut-off point of 5...... interval 70%-94%). We observed a significantly negative association between concentration of t-PA and fibrinolytic activity (rs = -0.47; p WORDS)...

  13. Effect of batroxobin combine with ginkgo-damole injection on hemodynamics, coagulation function, fibrinolytic function and related factors in patients with sudden deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of combined use of Batroxobin and Ginkgo Leaf Extract and Dipyridamole Injection on hemodynamics, coagulation function, fibrinolytic function and related factors in patients with sudden deafness. Methods: A total of 94 patients with sudden deafness in our hospital were selected, and divided them into control group and observation group randomly, 47 cases in each group. All patients were given 10BU batroxobin injection intravenous drip after admission every other day; And the patients of observation group were given intravenous drip of 30ml ginkgo-damole injection, 1 time a day. The hemodynamics, coagulation function, fibrinolytic function and related factors were detected and compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, there was no statistical difference in hemodynamics, coagulation function, fibrinolytic function and related factors between the two groups; After treatment, the levels of WBV and PV in the control group was (5.21±0.58 mPa/s and (1.78±0.32 mPa/s, and the observation group was (4.13±0.47 mPa/s and (1.31±0.26 mPa/s, compared with the same group before treatment, there were statistical difference, and there was also statistical difference between the two groups; The levels of PT, APTT, TT and PF was (19.22±3.98 s, (43.57±9.88 s, (15.64±3.27 s and (58.22±10.58 μg/L, and the observation group was (23.97±4.82 s, (52.49±10.38 s, (20.59±4.15 s and (41.03±8.46 μg/L, compared with the same group before treatment, there were statistical difference, and there was also statistical difference between the two groups; The levels of Fib, D-dimer and FDP was (4.52±0.93 g/L, (6.53±1.88 mg/L and (8.17±2.34 μg/mL, and the observation group was (3.13±0.75 g/L, (9.75±2.14 mg/L, (13.52±2.58 μg/ mL, compared with the same group before treatment, there were statistical difference, and there was also statistical difference between the two groups; The serum

  14. Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Fa resistance in Brazilian populations of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Tavares, Clébson S; Rodrigues, João Victor C; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Alves, Analiza P; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2017-01-01

    The presence of fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins in insect populations may delay or even reverse the local selection of insect resistance to Bt transgenic crops, and deserves rigorous investigation. Here we assessed the fitness costs associated with Cry1Fa resistance in two strains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), derived from field collections in different Brazilian regions and further selected in the laboratory for high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa using leaves of TC1507 corn. Fitness components were compared using paired resistant and susceptible strains with similar genetic backgrounds and F 1 generations from reciprocal crosses, all of them reared on non-transgenic corn leaves. No apparent life history costs in the larval stage were observed in the Bt-resistant strains. Moreover, the resistance remained stable for seven generations in the absence of selection, with no decrease in the proportion of resistant individuals. Larval respiration rates were also similar between resistant and susceptible homozygotes, and heterozygotes displayed respiration rates and demographic performance equal or superior to those of susceptible homozygotes. In combination, these results indicate the lack of strong fitness costs associated with resistance to Cry1Fa in the fall armyworm strains studied. These findings suggest that Cry1Fa resistance in S. frugiperda populations is unlikely to be counterselected in Cry1Fa-free environments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Multi-angled Façade System for Office Building Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Lauring, Michael

    renovating office buildings. The architectural potential is presented with the help of AutoCAD software. The energy efficiency and indoor climate are investigated and evaluated by using correlational research and simulation research methods with the software IDA ICE. From a functional perspective, the multi......-angled façade increases the area of the office room and provides more space. There are many potential aesthetic benefits provided by multi-angled façades such as improved optical and visual quality from inside the office room and the possibility for daylight penetration and a view to outside from one part...... compared to a renovated flat façade varies between 4.9 and 6.5 kWh/(m2.year), depending on the orientation of the façade. The increase in the office room area, when renovated with a multi-angled façade, is by 19%, while the increase of the yearly primary energy consumption (not area weighted), is by 4...

  16. AppFA: A Novel Approach to Detect Malicious Android Applications on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofeng He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose AppFA, an Application Flow Analysis approach, to detect malicious Android applications (simply apps on the network. Unlike most of the existing work, AppFA does not need to install programs on mobile devices or modify mobile operating systems to extract detection features. Besides, it is able to handle encrypted network traffic. Specifically, we propose a constrained clustering algorithm to classify apps network traffic, and use Kernel Principal Component Analysis to build their network behavior profiles. After that, peer group analysis is explored to detect malicious apps by comparing apps’ network behavior profiles with the historical data and the profiles of their selected peer groups. These steps can be repeated every several minutes to meet the requirement of online detection. We have implemented AppFA and tested it with a public dataset. The experimental results show that AppFA can cluster apps network traffic efficiently and detect malicious Android apps with high accuracy and low false positive rate. We have also tested the performance of AppFA from the computational time standpoint.

  17. Application and properties of pure lime façades - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Bokan Bosiljkov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experiences obtained during application and testing of different pure lime façades that could be successfully used in restoration of historical buildings in Slovenia. The lime façade consists of a rendering layer (rough mortar, a finishing layer (fine mortar and a protective layer of lime wash. For the design of the mortars different industrially and traditionally produced limes were chosen, based on the results of preliminary studies of the authors and experiences of a small enterprise (SE involved in the study. The façade layers were applied to the most problematic northern wall of the historic chapel made from rubble masonry. The chapel belongs to the castle Crnelo, built at the end of the 17th century in the village Turnše, not far from Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. The façade layers were made by skilled workers of SE, with about one year time difference between application of rendering and finishing layers, and with a protective layer of coloured lime wash applied to one to three day old finishing layers. On the rendering layers, visual inspection, water absorption tests and determination of carbonation depth were carried out before subsequent finishing layers were applied. The same on-site tests were carried out also on finished façade layers. So far, parallel to the on-site tests, compressive and water absorption tests on prisms prepared from rough mortars were carried out in laboratory.

  18. Contraction-induced skeletal muscle FAT/CD36 trafficking and FA uptake is AMPK independent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, J.; Albers, P. H.; Rose, A. J.; Birk, J. B.; Schjerling, P.; Dzamko, N.; Steinberg, G. R.; Kiens, B.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating FA translocase CD36 (FAT/CD36) translocation and FA uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. In one model, wild-type (WT) and AMP-dependent protein kinase kinase dead (AMPK KD) mice were exercised or extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were contracted, ex vivo. In separate studies, FAT/CD36 translocation and FA uptake in response to muscle contractions were investigated in the perfused rat hindlimb. Exercise induced a similar increase in skeletal muscle cell surface membrane FAT/CD36 content in WT (+34%) and AMPK KD (+37%) mice. In contrast, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside only induced an increase in cell surface FAT/CD36 content in WT (+29%) mice. Furthermore, in the perfused rat hindlimb, muscle contraction induced a rapid (1 min, +15%) and sustained (10 min, +24%) FAT/CD36 relocation to cell surface membranes. The increase in cell surface FAT/CD36 protein content with muscle contractions was associated with increased FA uptake, both in EDL and SOL muscle from WT and AMPK KD mice and in the perfused rat hindlimb. This suggests that AMPK is not essential in regulation of FAT/CD36 translocation and FA uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. However, AMPK could be important in regulation of FAT/CD36 distribution in other physiological situations. PMID:21297178

  19. Chao Fa Movies: The Transnational Production of Hmong American History and Identity by Ian G. Baird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Baird

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Films made by and for particular social and ethnic peoples can reveal a great deal about identity issues. Here, I examine the cultural production, the content, and the socio-cultural and political significance of three Chao Fa-inspired Hmong films produced at Khek Noi, Thailand by Hmong American producers working with largely Hmong Thai actors. The first two, Chao Fa 1 and 2, were directed in 2009 by Kou Thao. The third, Vaj Tuam Thawj – The Legend of Chao Fa, was put together by Jimmy Vang, in 2010. Even though these Chao Fa films are fictional, they attempt to depict events and circumstances that are familiar to many first generation Hmong Americans, and they can muster strong emotions from people who see them as depicting factual history. In addition, just like many other American youth, many 1.5 generation Hmong are tied together by shared media experiences, including Hmong movies. Thus, the Chao Fa movies are important for producing and reproducing, reinforcing and dispersing ideas related to Hmong American identity and culture. They tell stories of the Hmong being oppressed by many different groups, and this history suggests why many Hmong—not only the Chao Fa—have long desired the type of independence and freedom from prejudice and discrimination that they imagine would come if the Hmong only had their own nation state.

  20. Evaluated experimental database on critical heat flux in WWER FA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonov, S.; Sergeev, V.; Volkov, S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the description of the evaluated experimental database on critical heat flux in WWER FA models of new designs. This database was developed on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the years of 2009-2012. In the course of its development, the database was reviewed in terms of completeness of the information about the experiments and its compliance with the requirements of Rostekhnadzor regulatory documents. The description of the experimental FA model characteristics and experimental conditions was specified. Besides, the experimental data were statistically processed with the aim to reject incorrect ones and the sets of experimental data on critical heat fluxes (CHF) were compared for different FA models. As a result, for the fi rst time, the evaluated database on CHF in FA models of new designs was developed, that was complemented with analysis functions, and its main purpose is to be used in the process of development, verification and upgrading of calculation techniques. The developed database incorporates the data of 4183 experimental conditions obtained in 53 WWER FA models of various designs. Keywords: WWER reactor, fuel assembly, CHF, evaluated experimental data, database, statistical analysis. (author)

  1. A BPMN-Based Process Map for the Design and Construction of Façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Voss

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Process mapping can lead to significant efficiency and quality improvements in construction engineering and is an ideal basis for developing IT support tools. The increasing complexity and multidisciplinary nature of façade design and construction suggest that a process map would be beneficial in this sector of the construction industry, but it has received limited attention to date. This paper presents a verified process map of the façade design and construction process.  The map is the first of its kind to represent, in detail, the whole process relevant to all façade types, from commencement of the façade consultant’s and contactor’s participation, to the end of their involvement. The paper describes the process by which the mapping notation was selected, followed by the development and verification of the process map, including testing in two independent research projects. The BuildingSMART’s BPMN notation is found to have superior system features and comprehensibility for this application and the resulting process map is easy to interpret and verify by industry experts. The trialling of the map in the two research projects indicate that the map is a useful tool for assessing process improvements in the façades sector.

  2. Le «segmentateur» fa-(’inna en arabe classique et moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Larcher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fa- is generally described as a connective particle and, when linked to ’inna, as the equivalent of the French car, the Italian giacché, the German denn or the English for. However, in Classical Arabic, the so-called “fa- of the apodosis”, often connected to ’inna, seems to function in a syntactically as well as in a semantically different way. In Modern Standard Arabic, fa-(’inna appears systematically not only after conditional clauses, but also after concessive, causal, final clauses and, more generally, after any expression having the value of a subordinate clause. Therefore, fa- is the mark of what the Swiss linguist Charles Bally (1865-1947 called “segmentation” (vs. coordination. This apparently double function of fa-(’inna is actually a single one: in both cases, it separates the topic from the comment. The difference is that in the first case the topic is a whole sentence, whereas in the second it is a segment (clause or phrase of the sentence itself.

  3. Microvascular obstruction after successful fibrinolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Comparison of reteplase vs reteplase+abciximab: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gherli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. About one third of patients with TIMI 3 after reperfusion have evidence of microvascular obstruction (MO which represents an independent predictor of myocardial wall rupture. This explains all efforts made to prevent MO. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has proved to be particularly useful in detecting MO. The aim of this study was to evaluate with MRI if different fibrinolytic regimens in acute myocardial infarction display different effects on left ventricle (LV volumes and ejection fraction (EF, as well as on myocardial infarct size (MIsz and MO. Methods. Twenty male patients, mean age 58 years, affected by acute myocardial infarction, ten anterior and ten inferior, were treated with: full dose reteplase in ten, and half dose reteplase plus full dose abciximab (R+Abcx in the other ten patients. In the fourth day after hospital admission, MRI STIR T2 images were used to quantify MIsz, while 2dflash cineloops were used after the injection of gadolinium, to quantify LV volumes, EF and to detect MO. Results. LV EF was higher in R+Abcx 51±10 than in reteplase 41±8. MIsz was similar in both treatment groups: however a close relationship was present between MIsz and EF in the reteplase group indicating that the greater the MIsz the lower the EF. In R+Abcx this relationship was no longer present, suggesting a protective effect of the drug on microcirculation. In fact extensive MO was present in 25% of all cases, 80% of which in the reteplase group while only 20% in R+Abcx. Conclusion. R+Abcx prevents MO: compared to traditional fibrinolytic therapy it allows better LV function and most likely improved long term survival.

  4. Diatom Stratigraphy of FA-1 Core, Qarun Lake, Records of Holocene Environmental and Climatic Change in Faiyum Oasis, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalat Abdelfattah A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates changes in the environmental and climatic conditions in the Faiyum Oasis during the Holocene based on diatom analyses of the sediment FA-1 core from the southern seashore of the Qarun Lake. The studied FA-1 core was 26 m long and covered the time span ca. 9.000 cal. yrs BP. Diatom taxa were abundant and moderately to well-preserved throughout the core sediments. Planktonic taxa were most abundant than the benthic and epiphytic forms, which were very rare and sparsely distributed. The most dominant planktonic genera were Aulacoseira and Stephanodiscus followed by frequently distribution of Cyclostephanos and Cyclotella species. The stratigraphic distribution patterns of the recorded diatoms through the Holocene sediments explained five ecological diatom groups. These groups represent distinctive environmental conditions, which were mainly related to climatic changes through the early and middle Holocene, in addition to anthropogenic activity during the late Holocene. Comparison of diatom assemblages in the studied sediment core suggests that considerable changes occurred in water level as well as salinity. There were several high stands of the freshwater lake level during humid, warmer-wet climatic phases marked by dominance of planktonic, oligohalobous and alkaliphilous diatoms alternated with lowering of the lake level and slight increases in salinity and alkalinity during warm arid conditions evident by prevalence of brackish water diatoms.

  5. Evaluation of Carbohydrate-Derived Fulvic Acid (CHD-FA) as a Topical Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial for Drug-Resistant Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically ; Approved Standard – Eighth Edition” was used to determine the CHD-FA MIC values at a pH range of 3.0 to...preventing absorption of active compound (See Figure 13.) Also the topical cream formulation has been approved for 24 vaginitis to help control...Institute (CLSI) protocol M07-A9 “Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically ; Approved Standard

  6. Cloning and expression analysis of FaPR-1 gene in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fan; Luo, Ya; Ge, Cong; Mo, Qin; Ling, Yajie; Luo, Shu; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    The FaPR-1 gene was cloned by RT-PCR from `Benihoppe' strawberry and its bioinformatics analysis was conducted. The results showed that the open reading frame was 483 bp encoding encoding l60 amino acids which protein molecular weight and theoretical isoelectricity were 17854.17 and 8.72 respectively. Subcellular localization prediction shows that this gene is located extracellularly. By comparing strawberry FaPR-l and other plant Pathogenesis-related protein, homology and phylogenetic tree construction showed that the homology with grapes, peach is relatively close. In the treatments of ABA, sucrose and the mixture of the two, the expression of FaPR-1 in strawberry fruit were significantly increased.

  7. [Data mining analysis of professor Li Fa-zhi AIDS itchy skin medical record].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Ni; Li, Zhen; Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-Jun

    2013-08-01

    Analysis of professor Li Fa-zhi in the treatment of AIDS drug laws of itchy skin, provide the corresponding drug reference basis for Chinese medicine treatment of AIDS, skin itching. By using the method of analyzing the complex network of Weishi county, Henan in 2007 October to 2011 July during an interview with professor Li Fa-zhi treatment of AIDS patients with skin pruritus, etiology and pathogenesis analysis, skin itching AIDS syndrome differentiation of old Chinese medicine treatment and medication rule. The use of multi-dimensional query analysis, core drug skin itching AIDS treatment in this study as a windbreak, cicada slough, bupleurum, Qufeng solution table drug, licorice detoxification efficacy of drugs, Radix Scutellariae, Kochia scoparia, clearing away heat and promoting diuresis medicine; core prescription for Jingfang San streak virus. Professor Li Fa-zhi treatment of AIDS in the skin itching Qufeng solution table dehumidification antipruritic treatment.

  8. Altered Rhythms. Urban façades in post-war Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Mària Serrano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban façades are the outward manifestation of the character of a city, and are composed of elements that respond to rhythmic sequences in consonance with the internal order of the rooms behind them. In post-war Milan, façades were used as a field of experimentation by a group of architects, some of whom were also artists and designers, who saw themselves and can be seen as ambassadors for the future modernity of a city devastated by war. This article explains how the urban façades of Milan, based as they were on the themes drawn from the Italian compositional tradition, offer a wide variety of elements, figures and rhythms, altering and transgressing the compositional canons through the use of mechanisms that in some cases are closer to painting or sculpture than to architecture.

  9. The influence of ventilated façade on sound insulation properties of envelope walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišarová Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented article deals with sound insulation properties of timber structures’ envelope walls. Particularly, the influence of heavy board ventilated façade on laboratory airborne sound insulation R and Rw in dB was studied. The installation method and gaps between façade boards can cause building defects originating in overrating the influence of ventilated cladding on envelope wall acoustic parameters. Real constructions were built for the experimental purposes and measurements, one with gaps between boards and one with simply eliminated gaps for mutual comparison. The results obtained were processed to make tables and graphs and to derive recommendations for the design of this type of constructions involving the general installation method of façade boards. Detailed results are depicted in conclusions.

  10. Flight Tests of a Ministick Controller in an F/A-18 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Patrick C.; Carter, John

    2003-01-01

    In March of 1999, five pilots performed flight tests to evaluate the handling qualities of an F/A-18 research airplane equipped with a small-displacement center stick (ministick) controller that had been developed for the JAS 39 Gripen airplane (a fighter/attack/ reconnaissance airplane used by the Swedish air force). For these tests, the ministick was installed in the aft cockpit (see figure) and production support flight control computers (PSFCCs) were used as interfaces between the controller hardware and the standard F/A-18 flight-control laws. The primary objective of the flight tests was to assess any changes in handling qualities of the F/A-18 airplane attributable to the mechanical characteristics of the ministick. The secondary objective was to demonstrate the capability of the PSFCCs to support flight-test experiments.

  11. Detecting blind building façades from highly overlapping wide angle aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burochin, Jean-Pascal; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Mallet, Clément; Brosset, Thomas; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    This paper deals with the identification of blind building façades, i.e. façades which have no openings, in wide angle aerial images with a decimeter pixel size, acquired by nadir looking cameras. This blindness characterization is in general crucial for real estate estimation and has, at least in France, a particular importance on the evaluation of legal permission of constructing on a parcel due to local urban planning schemes. We assume that we have at our disposal an aerial survey with a relatively high stereo overlap along-track and across-track and a 3D city model of LoD 1, that can have been generated with the input images. The 3D model is textured with the aerial imagery by taking into account the 3D occlusions and by selecting for each façade the best available resolution texture seeing the whole façade. We then parse all 3D façades textures by looking for evidence of openings (windows or doors). This evidence is characterized by a comprehensive set of basic radiometric and geometrical features. The blindness prognostic is then elaborated through an (SVM) supervised classification. Despite the relatively low resolution of the images, we reach a classification accuracy of around 85% on decimeter resolution imagery with 60 × 40 % stereo overlap. On the one hand, we show that the results are very sensitive to the texturing resampling process and to vegetation presence on façade textures. On the other hand, the most relevant features for our classification framework are related to texture uniformity and horizontal aspect and to the maximal contrast of the opening detections. We conclude that standard aerial imagery used to build 3D city models can also be exploited to some extent and at no additional cost for facade blindness characterisation.

  12. Antitoxin activity of Mimosa pudica root extracts against Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Meenatchisundaram

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of dried roots of Mimosa pudica was tested for inhibitory activity on lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms. The aqueous extract displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity. About 0.14 mg and 0.16 mg of M. pudica extracts were able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD50 of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms respectively. The present finding suggests that aqueous extract of M. pudica root possesses compounds, which inhibit the activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms.

  13. Antitoxin activity of Mimosa pudica root extracts against Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Meenatchisundaram, Selvin Priyagrace, Ramasamy Vijayaraghavan, Ambikapathi Velmurugan, Govindarajan Parameswari, Antonysamy Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of dried roots of Mimosa pudica was tested for inhibitory activity on lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms. The aqueous extract displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity. About 0.14 mg and 0.16 mg of M. pudica extracts were able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD50 of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms respectively. The present finding suggests that aqueous extract of M. pudica root possesses compounds, which inhibit the activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms.

  14. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing.

  15. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236FA IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the shell-side heat transfer performance of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236fa, which is considered to be a potential substitute for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 in Navy shipboard chillers, for both conventional finned [1024- and 1575-fpm (...

  16. The Arabic Hyperbolic Pattern "Fa??al" in Two Recent Translations of the Qur'an

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zawawy, Amr M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the problem of rendering the ?? ?? 'fa??al' hyperbolic pattern into English in two recent translations of the Qur'an. Due to the variety of Qur'an translations and the large amount of hyperbolic forms of Arabic verbs recorded in the Qur'an, only two translations of the Qur'an are consulted and analyzed: these two…

  17. Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Britton R; Renhui, Li; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan; Honegger, Rosmarie; Cox, Paul Alan

    2009-01-01

    Grown in arid regions of western China the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme--called fa cai in Mandarin and fat choy in Cantonese--is wild-harvested and used to make soup consumed during New Year's celebrations. High prices, up to $125 USD/kg, led to overharvesting in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. Degradation of arid ecosystems, desertification, and conflicts between Nostoc harvesters and Mongol herdsmen concerned the Chinese environmental authorities, leading to a government ban of Nostoc commerce. This ban stimulated increased marketing of a substitute made from starch. We analysed samples purchased throughout China as well as in Chinese markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some were counterfeits consisting of dyed starch noodles. A few samples from California contained Nostoc flagelliforme but were adulterated with starch noodles. Other samples, including those from the United Kingdom, consisted of pure Nostoc flagelliforme. A recent survey of markets in Cheng Du showed no real Nostoc flagelliforme to be marketed. Real and artificial fa cai differ in the presence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Given its status as a high-priced luxury food, the government ban on collection and marketing, and the replacement of real fa cai with starch substitutes consumed only on special occasions, it is anticipated that dietary exposure to BMAA from fa cai will be reduced in the future in China.

  18. ECCS analysis of B and W's 177-FA lowered-loop NSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.C.; Biller, J.R.; Dunn, B.M.

    1975-06-01

    The effectiveness for the ECCS for B and W's 177-FA Lowered-Loop NSS is shown to meet the five criteria of 10 CFR 50.46. A spectrum analysis is performed and the worst case is used to establish allowable linear heat rates as a function of elevation in the core. (U.S.)

  19. Adaptive Façade: Variant-Finding using Shape Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasowa, Riva; Utama Sjarifudin, Firza

    2017-12-01

    Modular façade construction has never been better since the birth of computer-aided manufacturing which bridges the modeling phase into the manufacturing phase for escalating the mass production. This comes to a result that the identity of a product or a building façade will commonly generate in the same way that the initial design was intended to. Rectifying the early model will then greatly impact the process later. The aim of this paper is to propose a way to solve these two challenges, without risking the manufacturing process, but more to explore the potential designs. Shape grammar is used to conceive more designs in the early stage, derived from the initial product - the modular adaptive façade system. The derivations are then tested through simulation to state the efficacy of the models. We find that the workflow somehow contributes to the better design and engineering process as well as the solution allows diversification in the façade expressions.

  20. Dynamic behavior of reactive aluminum nanoparticle-fluorinated acrylic (AlFA) polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Christopher A.; White, Brad; Spowart, Jonathan E.

    2011-06-01

    The dynamic behavior of aluminum nanoparticle-fluorinated acrylic (AlFA) composite materials has been explored under high strain rates. Cylindrical pellets of the AlFA composite materials were mounted onto copper sabots and impacted against a rigid anvil at velocities between 100 and 400 m/s utilizing a Taylor gas gun apparatus to achieve strain rates on the order of 104 /s. A framing camera was used to record the compaction and reaction events that occurred upon contact of the pellet with the anvil. Under both open air and vacuum environments the AlFA composites demonstrated high reactivity suggesting that the particles are primarily reacting with the fluorinated matrix. We hypothesize, based upon the compaction history of these materials, that reaction is initiated when the oxide shells on the aluminum nanoparticles are broken due an interparticle contact deformation process. We have investigated this hypothesis through altering the particle loading in the AlFA composites as well as impact velocities. This data and the corresponding trends will be presented in detail.

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B0FA-2FOCA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B0FA-2FOCA 1B0F 2FOC A A IVGGRRARPHAWPFMVSLQLA----GGHFCGATLIAPNF...>2FOC A 2FOCA SLQYRSGSSWAHTC ...tryChain> 2FOC A 2FOCA PLHCLVNGQY...ine> 2FOC A 2FOCA...in>A 2FOCA HCVDR--ELTFR GG

  2. The scope of inducing natural air supply via the façade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Engel, P.J.W.; Kurvers, S.R.

    2017-01-01

    An overview is given of recent developments in the use of a system of inducing natural air supply via the façade in the Netherlands. This is followed by a review of the results of measurements from climate chamber experiments of its inducing ventilation performance and detailed insights gained

  3. Methodology for Thermal Behaviour Assessment of Homogeneous Façades in Heritage Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is fundamental to study the thermal behaviour in all architectural constructions throughout their useful life, in order to detect early deterioration ensuring durability, in addition to achieving and maintaining the interior comfort with the minimum energy consumption possible. This research has developed a methodology to assess the thermal behaviour of façades in heritage buildings. This paper presents methodology validation and verification (V & V through a laboratory experiment. Guidelines and conclusions are extracted with the employment of three techniques in this experiment (thermal sensors, thermal imaging camera, and 3D thermal simulation in finite element software. A small portion of a homogeneous façade has been reproduced with indoor and outdoor thermal conditions. A closed chamber was constructed with wood panels and thermal insulation, leaving only one face exposed to the outside conditions, with a heat source inside the chamber that induces a temperature gradient in the wall. With this methodology, it is possible to better understand the thermal behaviour of the façade and to detect possible damage with the calibration and comparison of the results obtained by the experimental and theoretical techniques. This methodology can be extrapolated to the analysis of the thermal behaviour of façades in heritage buildings, usually made up of homogeneous material.

  4. F-15A Versus F/A-22 Initial Operational Capability. A Case for Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mott V, William H

    2005-01-01

    The F/A-22 Raptor is a new weapons system replacing- the F-15C Eagle. Its operational debut in 2005 comes at a time of constrained budgets, a changing global threat environment, and the ongoing global war on terrorism (GWOT...

  5. Red wine polyphenols prevent metabolic and cardiovascular alterations associated with obesity in Zucker fatty rats (Fa/Fa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelali Agouni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with increased risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies report an inverse association between dietary flavonoid consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. We studied the potential beneficial effects of dietary supplementation of red wine polyphenol extract, Provinols, on obesity-associated alterations with respect to metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular functions in Zucker fatty (ZF rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ZF rats or their lean littermates received normal diet or supplemented with Provinols for 8 weeks. Provinols improved glucose metabolism by reducing plasma glucose and fructosamine in ZF rats. Moreover, it reduced circulating triglycerides and total cholesterol as well as LDL-cholesterol in ZF rats. Echocardiography measurements demonstrated that Provinols improved cardiac performance as evidenced by an increase in left ventricular fractional shortening and cardiac output associated with decreased peripheral arterial resistances in ZF rats. Regarding vascular function, Provinols corrected endothelial dysfunction in aortas from ZF rats by improving endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine (Ach. Provinols enhanced NO bioavailability resulting from increased nitric oxide (NO production through enhanced endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS activity and reduced superoxide anion release via decreased expression of NADPH oxidase membrane sub-unit, Nox-1. In small mesenteric arteries, although Provinols did not affect the endothelium-dependent response to Ach; it enhanced the endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor component of the response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Use of red wine polyphenols may be a potential mechanism for prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic alterations associated with obesity.

  6. Design of farm winery façades for the optimisation of indoor natural lighting: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Torreggiani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the theme of daylighting performances of rural buildings, within a broader research context aimed at establishing design criteria for farm wineries. The objective is to benchmark the performances of different window systems in order to define design guidelines directed towards the optimisation of natural lighting to improve visual comfort and reduce energy consumption. A winegrowing and producing farm with standard features in the Emilia- Romagna region, Northern Italy, is considered as a case study. Particular attention was given to the part of the building designated for tasting activities. The study considered several opening solutions in the building envelope, and showed the effectiveness of those involving south façade glazing with appropriate screening systems. Further analyses will aim to investigate the performance of windows distributed on several fronts, including heat balance assessment.

  7. A case report and literature review of Fanconi Anemia (FA) diagnosed by genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Ponnumony John; Margaret, Priya; Rajendran, Ramya; Ramalingam, Revathy; Menezes, Godfred A; Shirley, Alph S; Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sung Sup; Seol, Dodam; Seo, Soo Hyun

    2015-05-08

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital malformations, hematological problems and predisposition to malignancies. The genes that have been found to be mutated in FA patients are called FANC. To date 16 distinct FANC genes have been reported. Among these, mutations in FANCA are the most frequent among FA patients worldwide which account for 60- 65%. In this study, a nine years old male child was brought to our hospital one year ago for opinion and advice. He was the third child born to consanguineous parents. The mutation analyses were performed for proband, parents, elder sibling and the relatives [maternal aunt and maternal aunt's son (cousin)]. Molecular genetic testing [targeted next-generation sequencing (MiSeq, Illumina method)] was performed by mutation analysis in 15 genes involved. Entire coding exons and their flanking regions of the genes were analysed. Sanger sequencing [(ABI 3730 analyzer by Applied Biosystems)] was performed using primers specific for 43 coding exons of the FANCA gene. A novel splice site mutation, c.3066 + 1G > T, (IVS31 + 1G > T), homozygote was detected by sequencing in the patient. The above sequence variant was identified in heterozygous state in his parents. Further, the above sequence variant was not identified in other family members (elder sibling, maternal aunt and cousin). It is concluded that genetic study should be done if possible in all the cases of suspected FA, including siblings, parents and close blood relatives. It will help us to plan appropriate treatment and also to select suitable donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and to plan for genetic counseling. In addition to the case report, the main focus of this manuscript was to review literature on role of FANCA gene in FA since large number of FANCA mutations and polymorphisms have been identified.

  8. Slicing Method for curved façade and window extraction from point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman Zolanvari, S. M.; Laefer, Debra F.

    2016-09-01

    Laser scanning technology is a fast and reliable method to survey structures. However, the automatic conversion of such data into solid models for computation remains a major challenge, especially where non-rectilinear features are present. Since, openings and the overall dimensions of the buildings are the most critical elements in computational models for structural analysis, this article introduces the Slicing Method as a new, computationally-efficient method for extracting overall façade and window boundary points for reconstructing a façade into a geometry compatible for computational modelling. After finding a principal plane, the technique slices a façade into limited portions, with each slice representing a unique, imaginary section passing through a building. This is done along a façade's principal axes to segregate window and door openings from structural portions of the load-bearing masonry walls. The method detects each opening area's boundaries, as well as the overall boundary of the façade, in part, by using a one-dimensional projection to accelerate processing. Slices were optimised as 14.3 slices per vertical metre of building and 25 slices per horizontal metre of building, irrespective of building configuration or complexity. The proposed procedure was validated by its application to three highly decorative, historic brick buildings. Accuracy in excess of 93% was achieved with no manual intervention on highly complex buildings and nearly 100% on simple ones. Furthermore, computational times were less than 3 sec for data sets up to 2.6 million points, while similar existing approaches required more than 16 hr for such datasets.

  9. Geophysical data collected from the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada (2008-016-FA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Jane F.; Foster, D.S.; Worley, C.R.; Irwin, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a geophysical and sampling survey of the riverbed of the Upper St. Clair River between Port Huron, Mich., and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. The objectives were to define the Quaternary geologic framework of the riverbed of the St. Clair River to evaluate the relationship between morphologic change of the riverbed and underlying stratigraphy. This report presents the geophysical and sample data collected from the St. Clair River, May 29-June 6, 2008, as part of the International Upper Great Lakes Study, a 5-year project funded by the International Joint Commission of the United States and Canada to examine whether physical changes in the St. Clair River are affecting water levels within upper Great Lakes, to assess regulation plans for outflows from Lake Superior, and to examine the potential effect of climate change on the Great Lakes water levels (http://www.iugls.org). This document makes available the data that were used in a separate report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1137, which detailed the interpretations of the Quaternary geologic framework of the region. This report includes a description of the high-resolution acoustic and sediment-sampling systems that were used to map the morphology, surficial sediment distribution, and underlying geology of the Upper St. Clair River during USGS field activity 2008-016-FA (http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/cgi-bin/datasource/public_ds_info.pl?fa=2008-016-FA). Video and photographs of the riverbed were also collected and are included in this data release. Future analyses will be focused on substrate erosion and its effects on river-channel morphology and geometry. Ultimately, the International Upper Great Lakes Study will attempt to determine where physical changes in the St. Clair River affect water flow and, subsequently, water levels in the Upper Great

  10. Metabolic engineering of E. coli top 10 for production of vanillin through FA catabolic pathway and bioprocess optimization using RSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debkumar; Gupta, Gaganjot; Kaur, Baljinder

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic engineering and construction of recombinant Escherichia coli strains carrying feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase genes for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin offers an alternative way to produce vanillin. Isolation and designing of fcs and ech genes was carried out using computer assisted protocol and the designed vanillin biosynthetic gene cassette was cloned in pCCIBAC expression vector for introduction in E. coli top 10. Recombinant strain was implemented for the statistical optimization of process parameters influencing F A to vanillin biotransformation. CCD matrix constituted of process variables like FA concentration, time, temperature and biomass with intracellular, extracellular and total vanillin productions as responses. Production was scaled up and 68 mg/L of vanillin was recovered from 10 mg/L of FA using cell extracts from 1 mg biomass within 30 min. Kinetic activity of enzymes were characterized. From LCMS-ESI analysis a metabolic pathway of FA degradation and vanillin production was predicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive motifs affect serum and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions, serum lipids, postprandial glucose regulation and growth in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mjøs, Svein A; Pampanin, Daniela M; Slizyte, Rasa; Carvajal, Ana; Remman, Tore; Høgøy, Ingmar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-10-01

    The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks. The fatty acid compositions were similar in the experimental diets, and none of them contained any long-chain n-3 PUFA. Ratios of lysine:arginine and methionine:glycine were lower in HER and SAL diets when compared with CAS, and taurine was detected only in fish protein hydrolysate diets. Motifs with reported hypocholesterolemic or antidiabetic activities were identified in both fish protein hydrolysates. Rats fed HER diet had lower serum HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and higher serum TAG, MUFA and n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with CAS-fed rats. SAL rats gained more weight and had better postprandial glucose regulation compared with CAS rats. Serum lipids and fatty acids were only marginally affected by SAL, but adipose tissue contained less total SFA and more total n-3 PUFA when compared with CAS. To conclude, diets containing hydrolysed rest raw material from herring or salmon proteins may affect growth, lipid metabolism, postprandial glucose regulation and fatty acid composition in serum and adipose tissue in obese Zucker rats.

  12. Protein source in a high-protein diet modulates reductions in insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Jennifer L; Devassy, Jessay G; Wu, Yinghong; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-01-01

    High-protein diets are being promoted to reduce insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the effect of protein source in high-protein diets on reducing insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis was examined. Fa/fa Zucker rats were provided normal-protein (15% of energy) casein, high-protein (35% of energy) casein, high-protein soy, or high-protein mixed diets with animal and plant proteins. The high-protein mixed diet reduced area under the curve for insulin during glucose tolerance testing, fasting serum insulin and free fatty acid concentrations, homeostatic model assessment index, insulin to glucose ratio, and pancreatic islet cell area. The high-protein mixed and the high-protein soy diets reduced hepatic lipid concentrations, liver to body weight ratio, and hepatic steatosis rating. These improvements were observed despite no differences in body weight, feed intake, or adiposity among high-protein diet groups. The high-protein casein diet had minimal benefits. A high-protein mixed diet was the most effective for modulating reductions in insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis independent of weight loss, indicating that the source of protein within a high-protein diet is critical for the management of these metabolic syndrome parameters. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  13. In Plane Loaded Glass Panes in Façades, Temperature Loads in Fixed Bonded Glass Panes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huveners, E.M.P.; Herwijnen, van F.; Soetens, F.; Hofmeyer, H.; Vitkala, J.

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses the use of glass panes as transparent stability elements in vertical façade structures subjected to in-plane loads including temperature loads. In the present façade architecture, glass is normally used non-structural. The only mechanical requirement is to resist transversal

  14. Technetium labelled plasminogen activator - a potential reagent for thrombus detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsma-De Waal, J.H.; Boer, A.C. de; Cox, P.H.; Pillay, M.; Stassen, J.H.; Collen, D.

    1987-12-01

    The preparation of a technetium labelled plasminogen activator complex using a solid phase labelling technique is described. The labelled complex showed no significant loss of fibrinolytic activity in vitro and showed in vivo a rapid uptake in thrombi in an animal model and in human volunteer patients with known thrombi when injected into a vein draining to the thrombotic region. Systemic injection showed no uptake in the thrombi probably due to rapid sequestration of the complex by the liver.

  15. FA1 immunoreactivity in endocrine tumours and during development of the human fetal pancreas; negative correlation with glucagon expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornehave, D; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Teisner, B

    1996-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a glycoprotein containing six epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. It is closely similar to the protein translated from the human delta-like (dlk) cDNA and probably constitutes a proteolytically processed form of dlk. dlk is homologous to the Drosophila homeotic...... proteins delta and notch and to the murine preadipocyte differentiation factor Pref-1. These proteins participate in determining cell fate choices during differentiation. We now report that FA1 immunoreactivity is present in a number of neuroectodermally derived tumours as well as in pancreatic endocrine...... tumours. A negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon immunoreactants in these tumours prompted a reexamination of FA1 immunoreactants during fetal pancreatic development. At the earliest stages of development, FA1 was expressed by most of the non-endocrine parenchymal cells and, with ensuing...

  16. The catalytic kinetic method for the determination of trace formaldehyde (FA) base on a bromate-eosin Y system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yufang; Chen, Hao; Weng, Chao; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Miaoling; Yang, Qiongqiong; Hu, Tao; Cai, Changqun

    A new simple and highly sensitive catalytic kinetic method for the determination of trace amount of FA in food sample has been established. The method was based on the catalytic effect of FA on the oxidation of eosin Y by potassium bromate in present of phosphoric acid. The reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of eosin Y at 518 nm. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the developed method allowed the determination of FA in the range of 0.03-0.6 μg mL-1 with a good precision, and the limit of detection was down to 0.00988 μg mL-1. The relative standard deviation of five replicate measurements for the determination of FA in concentration 0.12 μg mL-1 was 1.8%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of FA in food directly and satisfactory results were obtained.

  17. Repopulation of FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma during fractionated radiotherapy correlates with reoxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Cordula; Zips, Daniel; Krause, Mechthild; Schoene, Kerstin; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Hoinkis, Cordelia; Thames, Howard D.; Baumann, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma (FaDu-hSCC) showed a clear-cut time factor during fractionated radiotherapy (RT) under ambient blood flow. It remained unclear whether this is caused solely by proliferation or if radioresistance resulting from increasing hypoxia contributed to this phenomenon. To address this question, repopulation of clonogenic FaDu cells during fractionated RT under clamp hypoxia was determined by local tumor control assays, and compared to the results after irradiation with the same regimen under ambient blood flow. Methods and Materials: FaDu-hSCC was transplanted into the right hind leg of NMRI nu/nu mice. In the first set of experiments, irradiation was performed under clamp hypoxia. After increasing numbers of 3 Gy fractions (time intervals 24 h or 48 h), graded top-up doses were given to determine the TCD 50 (dose required to control 50% of the tumors). In the second set of experiments, all 3 Gy fractions were applied under ambient conditions, but as in the previous experiments the graded top-up doses were given under clamp hypoxia. A total of 26 TCD 50 assays were performed and analyzed using maximum likelihood techniques. Results: With increasing numbers of daily fractions, the top-up TCD 50 under clamp hypoxia decreased from 39.4 Gy [95% CI 36, 42] after single dose to 19.8 Gy [15, 24] after 18 fractions in 18 days and to 37.8 Gy [31, 44] after 18 fractions in 36 days. The results were consistent with biphasic repopulation, with a switch to rapid repopulation after about 22 days [13, 30]. The clonogen doubling time (T clon ) decreased from 9.8 days [0, 21] in the beginning of RT to 3.4 days after 22 days. Under ambient blood flow the top-up TCD 50 decreased from 37.6 Gy [34, 40] after single dose irradiation to 0 Gy [0, 1] after 18 fractions in 18 days and 22.4 Gy [18, 27] after 18 fractions in 36 days. Similar to results from irradiations under clamp hypoxia, the ambient data were consistent with a biphasic course of clonogen

  18. Evaluation of a weight-adjusted single-bolus plasminogen activator in patients with myocardial infarction - A double-blind, randomized angiographic trial of lanoteplase versus alteplase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, P; Vermeer, F; Ambrosioni, E; Sadowski, Z; Lopez-Sendon, JL; von Essen, R; Beaufils, P; Thadani, U; Adgey, J; Pierard, L; Brinker, J; Davies, RF; Smalling, RW; Wallentin, L; Caspi, A; Pangerl, A; Trickett, L; Hauck, C; Henry, D; Chew, P

    1998-01-01

    Background-Lanoteplase (nPA) is a rationally designed variant of tissue plasminogen activator with greater fibrinolytic potency and slower plasma clearance than alteplase. Methods and Results-InTIME (Intravenous nPA for Treatment of Infarcting Myocardium Early), a multicenter, double-blind,

  19. Cotransport of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 and heavy metals in saturated porous media: column studies and modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Xu, H.; Wu, J.

    2017-12-01

    For in situ biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil and groundwater, precise prediction and monitoring of the movement of the bio-agent is vital for the effectiveness of the subsurface bioremediation technologies. Therefore, the fate and transport of functional microorganisms in porous media has been extensively investigated in the literature, and the effects of a number of physical and chemical factors have been explored. During the bioremediation of contaminated sites, it is highly likely that functional bacteria and heavy metals would be simultaneously present for heavy metals often co-exist with organic contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted environment. To date, relevant studies on the interactions between heavy metals and functional agents such as PAHs-degrading bacteria are lacking and thus require investigation. In this study, the cotransport of bioremediation agents and heavy metals were evaluated through batch and column experiments. Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, a pure bacterial strain capable of absorbing heavy metals and degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was used as the model remediation agent, and metal ions of Pb(Ⅱ) and Cd(Ⅱ) were used as the representative heavy metals. Effects of metal species, the concentration of heavy metals, the sequence of entering the media, and the activity of biomass were investigated in detail. In addition, numerical simulations of breakthrough curves (BTC) data were also performed for information gathering. Results of this study could advance our understanding of interactions between functional bacteria and heavy metals during bioremediation process and help to develop successful bioremediation strategies.This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China -Xinjiang Project (U1503282), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41030746, 41102148), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20151385

  20. Production of Sophorolipid from an Identified Current Yeast, Lachancea thermotolerans BBMCZ7FA20, Isolated from Honey Bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Fereshteh; Beheshti-Maal, Keivan; Massah, Ahmadreza

    2015-08-01

    Biosurfactants are a family of diverse amphipathic molecules that are produced by several microorganisms such as bacteria, molds, and yeasts. These surface active agents have several applications in agriculture, oil processing, food, and pharmaceutical industries. In this research using YMG and YUG culture media, a native yeast strain, HG5, was isolated from honey bee. The oil spread test as a screening method was used to evaluate biosurfactant production by the yeast HG5 isolate. The 5.8s-rDNA analysis confirmed that the isolated yeast was related to Lachancea thermotolerans. We named this strain Lachancea thermotolerans strain BBMCZ7FA20 and its 5.8s-rDNA sequence was deposited in GenBank, NCBI under accession number of KM042082.1. The best precursor of biosurfactant production was canola oil and the sophorolipid amount was measured for 24.2 g/l. The thin layer chromatography and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis showed that the extracted biosurfactant from Lachancea thermotolerans was sophorolipid. In conclusion, this is the first report of sophorolipid production by a native yeast Lachancea thermotolerans BBMCZ7FA20 we isolated from the honey bee gut collected from an apiary farm in Saman, Chaharmahal Bakhtiari province, Iran. We suggested that some cost-effective supplements such as canola oil, sunflower oil, and corn oils could be applied for increasing the sophorolipid production by this native yeast strain. According to several applications of biosurfactants in today world, the production of sophorolipid by Lachancea thermotolerans could be considered as a potential in the current industrial microbiology and modern microbial biotechnology.

  1. Experimental verification of FA for WWER-1000. Investigations of TVS - 2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, I.; Seleznev, A.; Kobelev, S.; Makarov, V.; Afanasjev, A.; Matvienko, I.; Enin, A.; Ustimenko, A.; Volkov, S.

    2008-01-01

    During development of TVS-2M design for WWER-1000 and within the scope of its pre-reactor verification there was performed a complex of bench tests of FA for operational impacts. These tests were carried out with the use of the full-scale non-irradiated FA dummy and the models of units. The present report presents the methods and the results of tests of the full-scale dummy for static concentrated loads, impact of thermal cycling and vibration under separate and simultaneous impact of the listed loads. The results of tests carried out indicate that the solutions implemented in TVS-2M, first of all, a rigid welded skeleton, provide much higher resistance to distortion due to thermomechanical loads in comparison with zirconium AFA of the previous generation. This work was organized by JSC TVEL. (authors)

  2. An Experimental Study on Mitigating Alkali Silica Reaction by Using Fly Ash (FA in Combination with Silica Fume and Expanded Perlite Powder (EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isneini Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ASR suppression by FA, SF, EPP, FA in combination with SF and EPP were evaluated by both mortar bar and concrete prism test. Mortar bars were made based on JIS A 1146, meanwhile concrete prism bars were casted in accordance with Rilem AAR-3. Both specimens were stored in 40°C 100% R.H. controlled room. Mortar and concrete mixtures used reactive aggregate in pessimum proportion. The results indicated that FA in combination with SF and EPP showed smaller expansion compared to FA. The best of concrete mixtures in reducing expansion is combination of FA with SF (FA15SF10.

  3. Fałszywy znak równości

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Zuroff

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The equivalency canard Efraim Zuroff's text, originally published in Haaretz magazine, is a review of Timothy Snyder's Bloodlands. Snyder distinguishes six main mass murders commited by Nazi Germany and Soviet Union during the period of the Third Reich's existence. In Zuroff's opinion there are some significant differences between these tragedies. Dubious comparisons proposed by Snyder made the Holocaust most affected. Describing the Shoah as one of the six equally horryfying mass murders, the author ignores its ideological roots. Roots that sentenced to death all Jews  - regardless of their political views, religious practicies or the level of identification with Jewish community. Moreover Snyder takes no notice of the georaphical scope of the Holocaust. He also does not notice the fact, that the Nazis effectively managed to make so many Europeans their accomplices, who actively supported the Shoah.   Fałszywy znak równości Tekst Efraima Zuroffa, który pierwotnie ukazał się w piśmie Haaretz, to recenzja książki Skrwawione ziemie Timothy Snydera. Snyder wyróżnia sześć głównych masowych mordów popełnionych przez Niemcy i Związek Radziecki w okresie, który odpowiada istnieniu Trzeciej Rzeszy. Istnieją jednak, zdaniem Zuroffa, znaczące różnice między tymi tragediami. Na wątpliwych porównaniach, które proponuje Snyder, najbardziej „ucierpiał” Holokaust. Opisując Shoah jako jeden z sześciu równie straszliwych, masowych mordów, autor pomija jego ideologiczne korzenie, które sprawiały, że na śmierć skazany był każdy bez wyjątku Żyd, niezależnie od jego poglądów politycznych, praktyk religijnych czy stopnia identyfikacji z żydowską wspólnotą. Ponadto Snyder ignoruje ogromny zasięg geograficzny Holokaustu. Nie zauważa także skuteczności, z jaką naziści potrafili uczynić swoimi wspólnikami tak wielu Europejczyków, którzy w konsekwencji aktywnie wspomagali Shoah.

  4. FA composition of heart and skeletal muscle during embryonic development of the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrock, Frederic; Groscolas, Rene; Speake, Brian K

    2002-04-01

    Since the yolk lipids of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) naturally contain the highest concentrations of DHA and EPA yet reported for the eggs of any avian species, the effects of this (n-3)-rich yolk on the FA profiles of the embryonic heart and skeletal muscle were investigated. The concentrations (mg/g wet tissue) of phospholipid (PL) in the developing heart and leg muscle of the penguin doubled between days 27 and 55 from the beginning of egg incubation (i.e., from the halfway stage of embryonic development to 2 d posthatch), whereas no net increase occurred in pectoral muscle. During this period, the concentration of TAG in heart decreased by half but increased two- and sixfold in leg and pectoral muscle, respectively. The most notable change in cholesteryl ester concentration occurred in pectoral muscle, increasing ninefold between days 27 and 55. Arachidonic acid (ARA) was the major polyunsaturate in PL of the penguin's heart, where it formed about 20% (w/w) of FA at day 55. At the equivalent developmental stage, the heart PL of the chicken contained a 1.3-fold greater proportion of ARA, contained a fifth less DHA, and was almost devoid of EPA, whereas the latter FA was a significant component (7% of FA) of penguin heart PL. Similarly, in PL of leg and pectoral muscle, the chicken displayed about 1.4-fold more ARA, up to 50% less DHA, and far less EPA in comparison with the penguin. Thus, although ARA-rich PL profiles are achieved in the heart and muscle of the penguin embryo, these profiles are significantly affected by the high n-3 content of the yolk.

  5. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II) on class II malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yassaei S.; Aghili H.; Razeghi D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Mate...

  6. FaCE: a tool for Three Body Faddeev calculations with core excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, I. J.; Nunes, F. M.; Danilin, B. V.

    2004-01-01

    FaCE is a self contained programme, with namelist input, that solves the three body Faddeev equations. It enables the inclusion of excitation of one of the three bodies, whilst the other two remain inert. It is particularly useful for obtaining the binding energies and bound state structure compositions of light exotic nuclei treated as three-body systems, given the three effective two body interactions. A large variety of forms for these interactions may be defined, and supersymmetric transf...

  7. Aggressive Recurrence of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a patient with Fanconi’s Anaemia (FA)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nolan, M.

    2017-03-01

    Fanconi’s Anaemia is a rare autosomal recessive disease for which the incidence of head and neck cancer can be increased 700-fold1. We report a case of a 31-year old Caucasian male with FA who initially presented in July 2007 with oral squamous cell carcinoma for which he received radical surgery and radiotherapy. He was disease-free until August 2015 when he presented with an extremely aggressive recurrence.

  8. Concept and development status of fast breeder reactor fuels in the FaCT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, S.; Suzuki, M.; Kaito, T.; Tanaka, K.; Abe, T.

    2013-01-01

    The fuel development and the conceptual design study have been progressed in the first phase of the FaCT project in Japan. Significant outcomes of key technologies related to fuel design, fuel properties, core materials, fuel fabrication have been provided. The prospects of these technologies have been identified. After the Fukushima accident, the research and development for reducing the amount and toxic level of radioactive wastes will be promoted more than before. These outcomes will be reflected on the future development

  9. Wind tunnel study of natural ventilation of building integrated photovoltaics double skin façade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudişteanu Sebastian Valeriu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a wind tunnel experimental analysis of a small-scale building model (1:30. The objective of the study is to determine the wind influence on the ventilation of a double skin façade channel (DSF and the cooling effect over integrated photovoltaic panels. The tests were achieved by conceiving and implementation of an experimental program using a wind tunnel with atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of the wind over the ventilation of the horizontal channels of double skin façades is evaluated for different incident velocities. The results are generalized for the average steady state values of the velocities analysed. The experimental results put in evidence the correlation between the reference wind velocity and the dynamics of the air movement inside the double skin façade. These values are used to determine the convective heat transfer and the cooling effect of the air streams inside the channel upon the integrated photovoltaic panels. The decrease of the photovoltaic panels temperature determines a raise of 11% in efficiency and power generated.

  10. EPS insulated façade fires from a fire and rescue perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumm M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the challenges the fire and rescue services can meet at façade fires involving EPS insulation during construction and use of a building. The EPS characteristics are discussed in respect to the fire and rescue operation and results from orientating fire tests performed at a fire and rescue services training and test field are presented. Types of evacuation solutions, involving the fire and rescue services, where façade fires can delay or completely rule out the possibilities for safe evacuation, are presented. The restrictions in the Swedish building codes regarding use of combustible insulation are analysed and reflections over the practical problems with following the instructions to keep an EPS insulated façade safe through the building's whole lifespan are made. A number of occurred fires involving EPS are discussed and analysed from a fire and rescue perspective. Finally, recommendations are given for the fire and rescue services and future research fields are proposed.

  11. Wind tunnel study of natural ventilation of building integrated photovoltaics double skin façade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudişteanu, Sebastian Valeriu; Popovici, Cătălin George; Cherecheş, Nelu-Cristian

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a wind tunnel experimental analysis of a small-scale building model (1:30). The objective of the study is to determine the wind influence on the ventilation of a double skin façade channel (DSF) and the cooling effect over integrated photovoltaic panels. The tests were achieved by conceiving and implementation of an experimental program using a wind tunnel with atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of the wind over the ventilation of the horizontal channels of double skin façades is evaluated for different incident velocities. The results are generalized for the average steady state values of the velocities analysed. The experimental results put in evidence the correlation between the reference wind velocity and the dynamics of the air movement inside the double skin façade. These values are used to determine the convective heat transfer and the cooling effect of the air streams inside the channel upon the integrated photovoltaic panels. The decrease of the photovoltaic panels temperature determines a raise of 11% in efficiency and power generated.

  12. Verification of FA2D Prediction Capability Using Fuel Assembly Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jecmenica, R.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.; Konjarek, D.

    2008-01-01

    FA2D is 2D transport collision probability code developed at Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University Zagreb. It is used for calculation of cross section data at fuel assembly level. Main objective of its development was capability to generate cross section data to be used for fuel management and safety analyses of PWR reactors. Till now formal verification of code predictions capability is not performed at fuel assembly level, but results of fuel management calculations obtained using FA2D generated cross sections for NPP Krsko and IRIS reactor are compared against Westinghouse calculations. Cross section data were used within NRC's PARCS code and satisfactory preliminary results were obtained. This paper presents results of calculations performed for Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., benchmark using FA2D, and SCALE5 TRITON calculation sequence (based on discrete ordinates code NEWT). Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Japan, released LWR Next Generation Fuels Benchmark with the aim to verify prediction capability in nuclear design for extended burnup regions. We performed calculations for two different Benchmark problem geometries - UO 2 pin cell and UO 2 PWR fuel assembly. The results obtained with two mentioned 2D spectral codes are presented for burnup dependency of infinite multiplication factor, isotopic concentration of important materials and for local peaking factor vs. burnup (in case of fuel assembly calculation).(author)

  13. Recoveries of rat lymph FA after administration of specific structured C-13-TAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    of intragastrically administered L*L*L*, M*M*M*, ML*M, and ML*L* (where * = C-13-labeled FA) in rats. Lymph lipids were separated into lipid classes and analyzed by GC combustion isotope ratio MS. The recoveries of lymph TAG 18:2n-6 8 h after administration of L*L*L*, ML*M, and ML*L* were 38.6, 48.4, and 49...... rapid recovery of exogenous long-chain FA following administration of specific structured TAG compared with long-chain TAG was probably due to fast hydrolysis. The lymphatic recovery of 8:0 was 2.2% 24 h after administration of M*M*M*. This minor lymphatic recovery of exogenous 8:0 was probably due...... to low stimulation of chylomicron formation. These results demonstrate tendencies toward faster lymphatic recovery of long-chain FA after administration of specific structured TAG compared with long-chain TAG....

  14. Transport and fate of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 in saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Xu, H.; Wu, J.

    2016-12-01

    For the bioremediation of contaminated groundwater, sufficient dispersal of functional microorganisms is one of the most important factors that determine the remediation efficiency. There are extensive studies on the transport of microbes in porous media, while most of them focus on pathogenic bacteria and little attention has been given toward functional bacteria that being used in bioremediation process. Therefore, accurate knowledge of the mechanisms that govern the transport and distribution of such bacteria in groundwater is needed to develop efficient treatment techniques. Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, a pure bacterial strain capable of absorbing heavy metals and degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was selected as the representative functional bacterium in this study. A series of batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the transport and deposition behavior of strain FA1 in saturated porous media. The effects of physical (grain size), chemical (ionic strength, humic acid), and biological factors (living/dead cells) were studied in detail. In addition, numerical simulations of breakthrough curve (BTC) data were also performed for information gathering. Results of this study could advance our understanding of functional bacteria transport and help to develop successful bioremediation strategies. This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China -Xinjiang Project (U1503282), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41030746, 41102148), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20151385). Keywords: Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, bacteria, porous media, transport, modeling

  15. Fire protection concepts for Timber-Glass Composite façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schleicher Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives can be summarized as follows: Growth and densification in urban areas require the development of intelligent and resource-efficient building systems for “Smart Cities” of the future. By using timber-glass composites (TGC the primary energy demand of buildings can be reduced substantially. This research project examines the feasibility of applications of this new technology in multi-story and high-rise buildings. Critical aspects concerning fire protection such as flammability of timber elements, fire spread and failure of façade elements with bracing capacity will be analyzed. Different strategies will be developed in case studies and validated by structural analysis. Large scale mock ups of TGC façade elements will be checked on their suitability in fire tests. The findings of this research will lead to innovative fire safety concepts for building systems with TGC façades. Compliance with the high safety standards for multi-story buildings in urban areas like Vienna is one of the main objectives of this work. The adaptation of these fire safety concepts to the national standards of the neighboring countries will be continued subsequently. The gained knowledge should lead to further cooperation with companies for serial productions with TGC technology.

  16. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II on class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 35 patients with class II div I malocclusion were selected. These samples were under treatment with Fa II appliance for 11 months. The range of age of females was 10-13 years and males 11-14 years. Combination analysis was used to determine skeletal and dental effects. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences of mean value pre and post treatment. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: There was significant difference between pre and post treatment in respect to posterior and anterior facial height, eruption of upper and lower posterior teeth, eruption of upper anterior teeth, mandibular body length, ANB angle, IMPA and 1 to SN. No significant difference was observed between pre and post treatment regarding facial growth.Conclusion: Treatment with Fa II functional appliance leads to significant alterations in dental and skeletal elements of craniofacial complex and improvement of dental and jaws relationship.

  17. Differential protection of Cry1Fa toxin against Spodoptera frugiperda larval gut proteases by cadherin orthologs correlates with increased synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khalidur; Abdullah, Mohd Amir F; Ambati, Suresh; Taylor, Milton D; Adang, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most widely used biopesticides effective against a range of crop pests and disease vectors. Like chemical pesticides, development of resistance is the primary threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt toxins. Recently discovered cadherin-based Bt Cry synergists showed the potential to augment resistance management by improving efficacy of Cry toxins. However, the mode of action of Bt Cry synergists is thus far unclear. Here we elucidate the mechanism of cadherin-based Cry toxin synergism utilizing two cadherin peptides, Spodoptera frugiperda Cad (SfCad) and Manduca sexta Cad (MsCad), which differentially enhance Cry1Fa toxicity to Spodoptera frugiperda neonates. We show that differential SfCad- and MsCad-mediated protection of Cry1Fa toxin in the Spodoptera frugiperda midgut correlates with differential Cry1Fa toxicity enhancement. Both peptides exhibited high affinity for Cry1Fa toxin and an increased rate of Cry1Fa-induced pore formation in S. frugiperda. However, only SfCad bound the S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicle and more effectively prolonged the stability of Cry1Fa toxin in the gut, explaining higher Cry1Fa enhancement by this peptide. This study shows that cadherin fragments may enhance B. thuringiensis toxicity by at least two different mechanisms or a combination thereof: (i) protection of Cry toxin from protease degradation in the insect midgut and (ii) enhancement of pore-forming ability of Cry toxin.

  18. Spread of smoke and heat along narrow air cavity in double-skin façade fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Lun Cheuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scenario on double-skin façade fire was identified earlier for hazard assessment. A flashover room fire occurred next to the façade, broke the interior glass pane and spread to the façade cavity. As observed in experiments, hot gas moved up as a vertical channel flow for narrow façade cavity. Heat and smoke spread along the narrow air cavity of a double-skin façade will be studied in this paper. A simple mathematical model is developed from basic heat transfer theory for studying the vertical air temperature profiles of the hot gas flowing along the cavity. Assuming one-dimensional flow for hot gas moving up the façade cavity, conservation equations on mass and enthalpy were solved. Experimental results on two double-skin façade rigs of height 6 m and 15 m with narrow cavity depth were used to justify the results. A total of 11 tests were carried out. Correlation expressions between cavity air temperature and the height above ceiling of the fire room were derived.

  19. Measurement of FA and VitB{sub 12} in serum by TRFIA and its clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinhong, Zhou; Huimin, Wang [Affiliated Hospital of Nantong Univ., Nantong (China). Dept. of Laboratory Medicine

    2006-03-15

    To investigate the correlation between diseases and the quantity of folic acid(FA) and vitamine B{sub 12} (VitB{sub 12}) in serum, the quantity of FA and VitB{sub 12} in serum was measured by TR- FIA. The results showed that the levels of FA and VitB{sub 12} in 68 controlled subjects were 20.13{+-}5.72 nmol/L and 240.45{+-}58.23 pmol/L respectively. The levels of FA and VitB{sub 12} in 6 patients with megaloblastic anemia, 26 with medium-terminal gestation femineity, 7 with liver cirrhosis, 10 with gastric ulcerand 31 with cerebral infarction were significant lower than those in the control group. The level of FA in 24 with malignant hematopathy and 57 with malignant tumor was significantly lower but VitB{sub 12} between the 31 patients with iron deficiency anemia and 12 with CAA and the control group. The amount of the FA in 9 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and 42 blood donors were lower than that in the control. The determination of FA and VitB{sub 12} levels may be quite significant in the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of diseases. Laboratories should establish the reference values which fit the locals specifically. (authors)

  20. Distribution of medium-chain FA in different lipid classes after administration of specific structured TAG in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Structured TAG (STAG) containing medium-chain FA (MCFA) in the sn-1,3 positions and essential FA in the sn-2 position were synthesized by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis. In our previous studies we found that part of the MCFA from STAG could be absorbed in the small intestine; however, it was unclear...... how they were absorbed. In order to get a better understanding of the metabolism of STAG to improve future design and application of STAG, in the present study lymph lipids collected after feeding STAG were fractionated into different classes and the FA composition of each lipid class was studied...

  1. Evaluation of Carbohydrate-Derived Fulvic Acid (CHD-FA) as a Topical Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial for Drug-Resistant Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    the newly formulated CHD-FA-Zn. Our initial results demonstrated that CHD-FA-Zn reduced microbial burdens of susceptible and drug- resistant planktonic...wound-associated drug resistant bacteria and fungi. Rat models of wound infection (open, and burn model) will be established with healthy animals ...Establish MIC90s for CHD-FA with clinical isolates of major drug resistant pathogens Assess CHD-FA in animal models of wound infection for major

  2. Endotoxin induction of an inhibitor of plasminogen activator in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-05

    The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) on the fibrinolytic activity of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were examined. Endotoxin suppressed the net fibrinolytic activity of cell extracts and conditioned media in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of endotoxin required at least 6 h for expression. Cell extracts and conditioned media contained a 44-kDa urokinase-like plasminogen activator. Media also contained multiple plasminogen activators with molecular masses of 65-75 and 80-100 kDa. Plasminogen activators in extracts and media were unchanged by treatment of cells with endotoxin. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP)-abolished fibrinolytic activity of extracts and conditioned media. DFP-treated samples from endotoxin-treated but not untreated cells inhibited urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator, but not plasmin. Inhibitory activity was lost by incubation at pH 3 or heating to 56/sup 0/C for 10 min. These treatments did not affect inhibitory activity of fetal bovine serum. Incubation of /sup 125/I-urokinase with DFP-treated medium from endotoxin-treated cells produced an inactive complex with an apparent molecular mass of 80-85 kDa.

  3. AFSC/ABL: Origins of sockeye and chum salmon seized from the F/V Ying Fa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and sockeye (O. nerka) salmon seized from the stateless fishing vessel Ying Fa were analyzed to determine their region of origin...

  4. Hydrothermal Fe-Si-Mn oxide deposits from the Central and South Valu Fa Ridge, Lau Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhilei; Zhou Huaiyang; Yang Qunhui; Sun Zhixue; Bao Shenxu; Yao Huiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Fe-Mn crust in the HHF has seawater contribution, whereas the Fe-Si oxide in the MHF is dominated by hydrothermal fluid → The Nd isotope of diffuse flow Fe-Si-Mn deposits indicates the obvious hydrothermal origin. → The Mn/Fe ratio in hydrothermal deposit may be a good indicator of propagating activities of the Valu Fa Ridge. - Abstract: A series of samples from the Hine Hina hydrothermal field (HHF) and the Mariner hydrothermal field (MHF) in the Central and Southern Valu Fa Ridge (VFR), Lau Basin were examined to explain the source origin and formation of the hydrothermal Fe-Si-Mn oxide deposits. The mineralogy was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Moessbauer spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). For the Fe-Mn oxide crusts in the HHF, varying amounts of volcanic fragments and some seawater contributions were recognized, along with higher concentrations of Mn, Al, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, Mo, elevated ΣREE and negative Ce anomalies. In contrast, the Si-rich oxide samples of the MHF were enriched in Cu, Pb and Ba, indicative of proximity to a hydrothermal jet. Moreover, conductive cooling of hydrothermal fluid evoked the Si-rich deposit formation in the MHF. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data provided further constraints regarding the source and formation of the Fe-Si-Mn deposits in the VFR by showing that the samples of the HHF are a mixture of three components, namely, hydrothermal fluid, seawater and volcanic materials, whereas the samples of the MHF were dominated by hydrothermal fluids. The seawater had a minor influence on the Nd isotope data, and the Pb isotope data exhibited a close association with the substrate rock and preformed volcaniclastic layers in this area. The occurrence of relatively high Mn/Fe ratios in the hydrothermal deposits of this area may be a good indicator of the propagating activities of the VFR over geological time.

  5. Studies on fluctuating asymmetry (FA for certain morphological traits in four species of the Drosophila bipectinata complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Parul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA is defined as subtle deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry, evident in differences between the right and the left sides of any given trait. It is a pattern of variation between sides and measures developmental instability. Differences in the level of FA may be used for comparing developmental precision among closely related species and thus may give an idea whether developmental stability was affected during the divergence and separation of populations into distinct species. Keeping this in view, FA was studied in four species of the Drosophila bipectinata complex i.e. D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata, D. malerkotliana and D. pseudoananassae. In females of all the four species, FA values did not vary significantly for any of the traits considered. However, in case of males, they varied significantly for Wing length (WL and sex comb tooth number (SCTN. Also, while in females Composite fluctuating asymmetry (CFA did not exhibit significant variation, in males it was found to vary significantly across the four species. However, Bonferroni t-tests did not reveal any consistent difference in FA levels between any two species. The magnitude of FA was found to differ significantly among traits and CFA values were found to be higher for males than females in all the four species. Therefore, it may be concluded that the level of FA shows trait specific variations and males are more prone to developmental perturbations. However, the FA levels are more or less similar in all the four species of this complex. Thus, developmental precision remains nearly same in all the four species of this complex irrespective of the degree of evolutionary divergence reached.

  6. Recovery from sublethal damage during fractionated irradiation of human FaDu SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Cordula; Zips, Daniel; Krause, Mechthild; Voelkel, Wolfram; Thames, Howard D.; Baumann, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: The present study addresses whether recovery of sublethal damage in tumours may change during fractionated irradiation in FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma and whether such an effect might contribute to the pronounced time factor of fractionated irradiation previously found in this tumour. Patients and methods: FaDu tumours were transplanted s.c. into the right hind leg of NMRI nu/nu mice. Single doses or 2, 4, and 8 equal fractions in 3.5 days were applied in previously unirradiated tumours and after priming with 18 fractions of 3 Gy in 18 or 36 days. All irradiations were given under clamp hypoxic conditions. Experimental endpoints were tumour control dose 50% (TCD 50 ) and α/β values without and after priming. Results: Without priming TCD 50 increased with increasing number of fractions from 38.8 Gy (95% CI 35;45) after single dose irradiation to 54.0 Gy (42;57) after 8 fractions. No increase in TCD 50 when given in 1, 2, 4, or 8 fractions in 3.5 days was found after priming with 18 3-Gy fractions in 18 and 36 days. After priming with 18 fractions in 18 days TCD 50 remained constant at 25 Gy and after priming with 18 fractions in 36 days at 42 Gy. The α/β ratio without priming was 68 Gy (42;127). After fractionated irradiation with 18 3-Gy fractions in 18 and 36 days the α/β ratio increased to 317 Gy (38;∞) and to infinite, respectively. Conclusions: Our results indicate that clonogenic cells in FaDu tumours lose entirely their capacity to recover from sublethal radiation damage during fractionated irradiation. Therefore, an increased repair capacity as an explanation for the pronounced time factor of fractionated irradiation in this tumour can be ruled out

  7. Current status on advanced aqueous reprocessing process (next) in FaCT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washiya, Tadahiro; Myochin, Munetaka; Koyama, Tomozo

    2009-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) launched the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project in cooperation with the Japanese electric utilities in 2006. An integration of the advanced aqueous reprocessing concept and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication was selected as the most promising fuel cycle system. In order to accomplish the integration, R and D tasks were launched as FaCT Project in 2006 by Japanese joint team. The New Extraction System for TRU Recovery (NEXT) system is an advanced aqueous reprocessing concept which was based on the well established aqueous reprocessing for LWR spent fuel and newly applied processes such as uranium crystallization and extraction chromatography for MAs recovery. Main task of the NEXT process is to develop the TRU recovery process and equipments with high reliability, criticality safety, high durability and remote maintainability. In the FaCT project, all innovative technologies are planned to be developed within the next decade focusing on the future commercialization of FBR cycle systems. The judgment of the adoption of each innovative technology will be made by 2010 based on the results of R and Ds. The development of each technology is to be completed by around 2015. By the same time, it is scheduled to present the conceptual design of commercial and demonstrative fast reactor cycle facilities. The six items (Disassembling and shearing, Fuel dissolution, Uranium Crystallization, Single cycle co-extraction of U, Pu and Np, MA recovery by extraction chromatography and Waste treatment) have been identified as the issues to be developed corresponding to each process step. Current R and D status and prospects of this system until around 2015 is reported. (author)

  8. Birth order and recalled childhood gender nonconformity in Samoan men and fa'afafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyna, Scott W; VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L

    2017-04-01

    Having a greater than average number of older biological brothers is a robust correlate of male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction and arousal to adult males). Previous investigations have sought to understand whether this fraternal birth order (FBO) effect is also systematically related to recalled indicators of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). However, these investigations have relied on data from low-fertility Western populations in which expressions of femininity in male children are routinely stigmatized and consequently, suppressed. The present study examined the FBO effect (among other sibship characteristics) and recalled indicators of CGN in Samoa, a high-fertility population, whose members are relatively tolerant of male femininity. Indeed, Samoans identify feminine androphilic males as belonging to an alternative gender category, known locally as fa'afafine. The present study compared the sibship characteristics of 231 fa'afafine and 231 opposite-sex attracted men from Samoa, as well as how these characteristics related to recalled CGN. Results replicated the well-established FBO effect for predicting male sexual orientation, with each older brother increasing the odds of being androphilic by 21%. However, no relationship was found between the number of older brothers (or other siblings) a participant had and their recalled CGN. Although fa'afafine reported significantly more CGN than Samoan men, CGN did not mediate the FBO effect, nor did the FBO effect and CGN interact to predict male sexual orientation. These findings are consistent with previous studies suggesting that the FBO effect is associated with male sexual orientation, but not childhood female-typical gender expression among androphilic males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Objective and subjective evaluation of façade sound insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Visentin, Chiara; Markovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    by filtering recordings of traffic noise with the frequency response of sound insulation measurements. The measurements were performed in typical Italian buildings in accordance with the ISO 140-5 standard. The objectives of the present paper are to compare the subjective evaluations obtained with the two......Façade insulation of several different construction types were subjectively evaluated using two psychoacoustic methods: paired comparisons using a two alternative forced choice (2-AFC) paradigm and direct scaling using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The stimuli used in the evaluations were obtained...

  10. Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) Synthesis Genes in Azotobacter sp. Strain FA8

    OpenAIRE

    Pettinari, M. Julia; Vázquez, Gustavo J.; Silberschmidt, Daniel; Rehm, Bernd; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Méndez, Beatriz S.

    2001-01-01

    Genes responsible for the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in Azotobacter sp. FA8 were cloned and analyzed. A PHB polymerase gene (phbC) was found downstream from genes coding for β-ketothiolase (phbA) and acetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase (phbB). A PHB synthase mutant was obtained by gene inactivation and used for genetic studies. The phbC gene from this strain was introduced into Ralstonia eutropha PHB-4 (phbC-negative mutant), and the recombinant accumulated PHB when either glucos...

  11. Roles of s3 site residues of nattokinase on its activity and substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuming; Feng, Chi; Zhong, Jin; Huan, Liandong

    2007-09-01

    Nattokinase (Subtilisin NAT, NK) is a bacterial serine protease with high fibrinolytic activity. To probe their roles on protease activity and substrate specificity, three residues of S3 site (Gly(100), Ser(101) and Leu(126)) were mutated by site-directed mutagenesis. Kinetics parameters of 20 mutants were measured using tetrapeptides as substrates, and their fibrinolytic activities were determined by fibrin plate method. Results of mutation analysis showed that Gly(100) and Ser(101) had reverse steric and electrostatic effects. Residues with bulky or positively charged side chains at position 100 decreased the substrate binding and catalytic activity drastically, while residues with the same characters at position 101 could obviously enhance protease and fibrinolytic activity of NK. Mutation of Leu(126) might impair the structure of the active cleft and drastically decreased the activity of NK. Kinetics studies of the mutants showed that S3 residues were crucial to keep protease activity while they moderately affected substrate specificity of NK. The present study provided some original insight into the P3-S3 interaction in NK and other subtilisins, as well as showed successful protein engineering cases to improve NK as a potential therapeutic agent.

  12. Cercetări experimentale privind comportarea sistemelor pentru faţade, expuse la acţiunea focului

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania Rădulescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Visually, it is often the goal of any architecture to define a personality or individual character through the design of the façade. This face or skin, wrapped to the structural frame beneath, is often key to an architect's desire to evoke our emotions, instilling a sense of grandeur as if each new building were an artist's sculpture. In recent decades the desire for taller structures and, particularly, those that are competing for recognition to be among the tallest, if not the world's tallest, is reason to review the fire safety issues related to façade or curtain wall design. Additionally, due to the creativity of architects, new and unique façade designs are continually appearing. The risk of fire spread through articulated elements of the façade or vertically around the façade via the mechanism of flame leap, poses new concerns for the newest class of super highrise structures. Our understanding of fire and its mechanisms of spread in buildings no longer eludes us, however, the risks of fire spread related to super high-rise buildings and the façades that define their character has not been well examined. Current code practices recognize the successful record of fully sprinkler protected high-rise buildings and only require that the void space between the curtain wall and the floor slab be resistive to fire spread using a perimeter fire barrier system.

  13. Studies on watermelon somatic cell mutant of resistance to fusaric acid (FA) by low energy Ar+ ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haobo; Gu Yunhong; Cheng Guowang; Yu Zengliang

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of watermelon seeds irradiated by Ar + ion beam (25 keV, 6.24 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 ) were inoculated in MS medium with 15 mg/L FA. Cotyledons from the sterile seedling as explants were inoculated in MS +BA 2.0 mg/L + FA 15 mg/L. And the adventitious shoots of resistance to FA were cultured in MS + NAA 0.2 mg/L + FA 15 mg/L. The results showed that both the irradiation of Ar + and FA affected the germination rate and seedling of watermelon line 3-27 and YH-5, and the joint effect of Ar + and FA showed an enhanced restraint. The adventitious shoot and rootage induction rate from the seeds irradiated by Ar + were respectively bigger than the unirradiated seeds in 3-27 and YH-5. The increasing ranges were different between two watermelon lines and between the shoot and rootage induction rates

  14. Reactivity of alpha 1-antitrypsin mutants against proteolytic enzymes of the kallikrein-kinin, complement, and fibrinolytic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patston, P.A.; Roodi, N.; Schifferli, J.A.; Bischoff, Rainer; Courtney, M.; Schapira, M.

    1990-01-01

    Increased extracellular proteolysis because of unregulated activation of blood coagulation, complement, and fibrinolysis is observed in thrombosis, shock, and inflammation. In the present study, we have examined whether the plasma kallikrein-kinin system, the classical pathway of complement, and the

  15. Tissue factor levels and the fibrinolytic system in thin and thick intraluminal thrombus and underlying walls of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennicka, Aldona; Zuchowski, Marta; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Cnotliwy, Miłosław; Clark, Jeremy Simon; Jastrzębska, Maria

    2018-03-20

    The hemostatic system cooperates with proteolytic degradation in processes allowing abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. In previous studies, it has been suggested that aneurysm rupture depends on intraluminal thrombus (ILT) thickness, which varies across each individual aneurysm. We hypothesized that hemostatic components differentially accumulate in AAA tissue in relation to ILT thickness. Thick (A1) and thin (B1) segments of ILTs and aneurysm wall sections A (adjacent to A1) and B (adjacent to B1) from one aneurysm sac were taken from 35 patients undergoing elective repair. Factor levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of protein extract. Tissue factor (TF) activities were significantly higher in thinner segments of AAA (B1 vs A1, P = .003; B vs A, P thick thrombus-covered wall segments (A) than in B, A1, and B1 (P = .015, P thick ILT (P = .021) and thick ILT (A1; P thick ILT (A1). However, no correlations were found at B sites, except for a correlation between plasmin and TF activities (r = 0.55; P = .004). These results suggest that higher TF activities are present in thinner AAA regions. These parameters and local fibrinolysis may be part of the processes leading to destruction of the aneurysm wall. Copyright © 2018 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Design of MiSolFA Hard X-Ray Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastufka, Erica; Casadei, Diego

    2017-08-01

    Advances in the study of coronal electron-accelerating regions have so far been limited by the dynamic range of X-ray instruments. A quick and economical alternative to desirable focusing optics technology is stereo observation. The micro-satellite MiSolFA (Micro Solar-Flare Apparatus) is designed both as a stand-alone X-ray imaging spectrometer and a complement to the Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) mission. These instruments will be the first pair of cross-calibrated X-ray imaging spectrometers to look at solar flares from very different points of view. MiSolFA will achieve indirect imaging between 10 and 60 keV and provide spectroscopy up to 100 keV, equipped with grids producing moiré patterns in a similar way to STIX. New manufacturing techniques produce gold gratings on a graphite or silicon substrate, with periods ranging from 15 to 225 micrometers, separated by a distance of 15.47 cm, to achieve a spatial resolutions from 10" to 60" (as compared to RHESSI's separation of 150 cm and 1" resolution). We present the progress of the imager design, the performance of the first prototypes, and reach out to the community for further scientific objectives to consider in optimizing the final design.

  17. The Arabic Hyperbolic Pattern 'Fa??al' in Two Recent Translations of the Qur'an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M. El-Zawawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses the problem of rendering the فعال'fa??al' hyperbolic pattern into English in two recent translations of the Qur'an. Due to the variety of Qur'an translations and the large amount of hyperbolic forms of Arabic verbs recorded in the Qur'an, only two translations of the Qur'an are consulted and analyzed: these two translations, namely Saheeh International Translation (1997 and Prof. Abdel-Haleem's (2004, are distinguished by the fact that they are recent and well-received. Moreover, the investigation of hyperbolic forms is confined to the Arabic formفعال    'fa??al'. The study reveals that the Saheeh translator has applied morphological shifting in many examples while Abdel-Haleem's translation exhibits a considerable amount of syntactic transposition, coupled with paraphrasing. The test of accuracy as administered here is to give a clear picture of the need to pay particular attention to hyperboles of the form examined and other ones not analyzed here for limitations of space.

  18. Comparison and development of sustainable office façade renovation solutions in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Ritzen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental, commercial and societal developments in the Netherlands stimulate the environmental improvement of the existing office building stock. In the Netherlands, about 15% of all office area was vacant in 2012, and the majority of offices have a relative poor energy performance. To measure the improvement, different assessment tools are applied. These tools either focus on one aspect, such as operation energy, and result in a specific outcome such as MJ/m2, or these tools combine different aspects, such as energy and materials, through a weighted system and result in a generic outcome, such as ‘excellent’.In this research, the relation between assessment outcome and actual environmental impact is investigated of both types of tools, by reflecting the outcome of the tool to the carrying capacity of a system. The relation is investigated through a comparison of the energy and material aspect of three office façade renovation solutions using four different assessment tools. Using a tool in which energy and material impact is related to the carrying capacity, current energy focused optimization might lead to a sub optimization of actual environmental impact. To illustrate this, a calculated façade solution is presented with minimal environmental impact based on carrying capacity.

  19. Thermal Performance of Ventilated Double Skin Façades with Venetian Blinds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Parra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Venetian blinds (VB are shading devices of widespread use in residential and corporate buildings. They can reflect or transmit light into buildings and at the same time allow daylighting and exterior views. They can also efficiently block radiative heat from entering the building, and if combined with a heat dissipation system such as forced ventilation, they can improve the thermal performance of double skin façades (DSF. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD has proven to be a useful tool for modeling flow and heat transfer in DSF, including conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer phenomena. The aim of this work is to evaluate, by means of CFD, the influence of several optical, construction and operation parameters of a DSF (such as optical properties of the materials, geometrical relations of the VB or flow stream conditions in terms of energy savings, measured as a reduction of the solar load entering the building. Results obtained show that parameters such as the proximity of the VB to the exterior skin of the façade or a differentiated surface treatment for the exterior and interior faces of the VB louvers can notably affect the thermal performance of the DSF and hence the heat gains experienced by the building.

  20. Penalaan Parameter Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES menggunakan Firefly Algorithm (FA pada Sistem Tenaga Listrik Multimesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlambang Setiadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Energi listrik yang disuplai ke konsumen harus mempunyai stabilitas dan keandalan yang tinggi. Jika terjadi sebuah gangguan pada sistem tenaga listrik dapat mengakibatkan ketidakstabilan. Gangguan tersebut dapat berupa putus jaringan (transien maupun perubahan beban (dinamik. Perubahan beban yang terjadi secara tiba-tiba dan periodik tidak dapat direspon dengan baik oleh generator sehingga dapat mempengaruhi kestabilan dinamik sistem. Hal ini menyebabkan timbul osilasi frekuensi pada generator. Respon yang kurang baik dapat menimbulkan osilasi frekuensi dalam periode yang lama. Hal itu akan mengakibatkan pengurangan kekuatan transfer daya yang ada. Pada sistem tenaga listrik multimachine, semua mesin bekerja secara sinkron se­hingga generator harus beroperasi pada frekuensi yang sama. Untuk meredam osilasi frekuensi yang terjadi dibutuhkan kontroler tambahan yaitu Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES. Agar mendapatkan koordinasi controler yang baik maka parameter pada SMES dioptimisasi dengan Firefly Algorithm (FA. Tugas Akhir ini mengajukan konsep penalaan parameter SMES menggunakan FA pada sistem tenaga listrik multimesin. Dengan diajukan metode diatas diharapkan permasalahan osilasi frekuensi akibat terdapat perubahan beban dapat diredam.

  1. A new fast data logger and viewer at Diamond: the FA archiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, M.G.; Rehm, G.; Uzun, I.S.

    2012-01-01

    At Diamond Light Source, position data from 174 Electron Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) and a number of X-Ray BPMs is distributed over the Fast Acquisition communications network at an update rate of 10 kHz; the total aggregate data rate is around 15 MB/s. The data logger described here (the FA Archiver) captures this entire data stream to disk in real time, re-broadcasts selected subsets of the live stream on demand to interested clients, and allows rapid access to any part of the saved data. The archive is saved into a rolling buffer allowing retrieval of detailed beam position data from any time in the last four days. A simple socket-based interface to the FA Archiver allows easy access to both stored and live data from a variety of clients. Clients include a graphical viewer for visualizing the motion or spectrum of a single BPM in real time, a command line tool for retrieving any part of the stored data by time of day, and Matlab scripts for exploring the dataset, helped by the storage of decimated minimum, maximum, mean, and standard deviation data. (authors)

  2. Color Image Evaluation for Small Space Based on FA and GEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem that color image is difficult to quantify, this paper proposes an evaluation method of color image for small space based on factor analysis (FA and gene expression programming (GEP and constructs a correlation model between color image factors and comprehensive color image. The basic color samples of small space and color images are evaluated by semantic differential method (SD method, color image factors are selected via dimension reduction in FA, factor score function is established, and by combining the entropy weight method to determine each factor weights then the comprehensive color image score is calculated finally. The best fitting function between color image factors and comprehensive color image is obtained by GEP algorithm, which can predict the users’ color image values. A color image evaluation system for small space is developed based on this model. The color evaluation of a control room on AC frequency conversion rig is taken as an example, verifying the effectiveness of the proposed method. It also can assist the designers in other color designs and provide a fast evaluation tool for testing users’ color image.

  3. Delta-like 1/fetal antigen-1 (Dlk1/FA1) is a novel regulator of chondrogenic cell differentiation via inhibition of the Akt kinase-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Qanie, Diyako; Jafari, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Delta-like 1 (Dlk1, also known as fetal antigen-1, FA1) is a member of Notch/Delta family that inhibits adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation; however, its role in chondrogenesis is still not clear. Thus, we overexpressed Dlk1/FA1 in mouse embryonic ATDC5 cells and tested its effects...... on chondrogenic differentiation. Dlk1/FA1 inhibited insulin-induced chondrogenic differentiation as evidenced by reduction of cartilage nodule formation and gene expression of aggrecan, collagen Type II and X. Similar effects were obtained either by using Dlk1/FA1-conditioned medium or by addition of a purified......, secreted, form of Dlk1 (FA1) directly to the induction medium. The inhibitory effects of Dlk1/FA1 were dose-dependent and occurred irrespective of the chondrogenic differentiation stage: proliferation, differentiation, maturation, or hypertrophic conversion. Overexpression or addition of the Dlk1/FA1...

  4. The Development of Thung Fa Bot Weekend Market into Cultural Tourism Attraction in San Pa Tong District, Chiang Mai Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuwanatwichit Thongchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate for the socio-cultural and economic context, along with the issues of tourism potentiality of Thung Fa Bot weekend market into the cultural tourism attraction in San Pa Tong District, Chiang Mai Province. A study was created containing Mixed Methodology Research. The data collection was focus group and in-depth interviews from the target population and questionnaires of stakeholders. The study was determined that context of socio-cultural and economic structure,which was relying on farming in the past. The potentiality level to be the cultural tourist attraction in overall was moderate.the aspect of tourist Attraction and Spirit of a community were in high level. On the other hand Accessibility, Activities and Participation civil organizations were in moderate level. There were only the Amenities and Ancillary Services had shown on low level. The results suggested the need to develop its potentiality of cultural tourist attraction in [1] Amenities and Ancillary Services management at the tourist spots and tourism promoting and [2] Linking network with government agencies, private sectors, and communities to join in tourism management in order to enlarge Thung Fha Bod Weekend Market becoming the greater cultural tourism attraction for the tourists.

  5. Three months of strictly controlled daily endurance exercise reduces thrombin generation and fibrinolytic risk markers in younger moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Skov, Jane

    2015-01-01

    -PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and von Willebrand factor (vWF). RESULTS: We observed significant within-group decreases in ETP (MOD 7 %; HIGH 6 %) and in t-PA (MOD 22 %; HIGH 21 %) and PAI-1 (MOD 16 %; HIGH 32 %) in both training groups, and no changes in the CON group. At 3 months, between......-group differences were observed for ETP (p = 0.016) and t-PA (p = 0.012) due to significantly lower values in MOD and HIGH compared with CON. Borderline significant between-group differences were observed for PAI-1 (p = 0.082). A significant increase was observed in vWF in HIGH, but with no between...

  6. Computer-simulation study on fire behaviour in the ventilated cavity of ventilated façade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo María P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fire spread through the façades is widely recognized as one of the fastest pathways of fire spreading in the buildings. Fire may spread through the façade in different ways depending on the type of façade system and on the elements and materials from which it is constructed. Ventilated façades are multilayer systems whose main feature is the creation of an air chamber of circulating air between the original building wall and the external cladding. The “chimney effect” in the air cavity is a mechanism that improves the façade's thermal behaviour and avoids the appearance of moisture from rain or condensation. However, in a event of fire, it may contribute to the quickest spreading of fire, representing a significant risk to the upper floors of a building. This study deals with some aspects of fire propagation through the ventilated cavity in ventilated façade systems. Also we review the provisions stipulated by the Spanish building code (Código Técnico de la Edificación, CTE [1] to avoid fire spread outside the building. The results highlight the importance of the use of proper fire barriers to ensure the compartmentalization of the ventilated cavity, as well as the use of non-combustible thermal insulation materials, among others. In addition, based on the results, it might be considered that the measures stipulated by the CTE are insufficient to limit the risks associated with this kind of façades systems. The study has been performed using field models of computational fluid-dynamics. In particular, the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS software has been used to numerically solve the mathematical integration models.

  7. Prismatic TIR (total internal reflection) low-concentration PV (photovoltaics)-integrated façade for low latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Low-concentration Façade-integrated Photovoltaic system in the form of TIR (total internal reflection) prismatic segmented façade could play an effective role in reducing the direct component of solar radiation transmitting through buildings, hence reducing both cooling and artificial lighting load on such buildings. A prismatic segmented façade is capable of allowing diffused skylight to transmit through it to the building interior, while preventing most of the direct solar radiation and converting it into clean energy by means of the integrated PV (​photovoltaics) cells. A range of prismatic TIR segmented façades with different head angles has been designed based on the geographical latitude of the chosen location. Each façade configuration is simulated by ray-tracing technique and its performance is investigated against realistic direct solar radiation data in two clear sky days representing summer and winter of the targeted location. Ray tracing simulations revealed that all of the selected configurations could collect most of the direct solar radiation in summer. In contrary, larger head angle of the segmented façade could collect wider intervals around the noon time till reaching a head angle of 23° at which most of the incident direct solar radiation could be collected. - Highlights: • 5 different head angles of prismatic segmented PV-integrated Façade are ray-traced. • Transmitted and PV-collected solar radiation percentages are determined. • DNI daily profiles with associated solar altitudes and azimuth data are simulated. • Expected transmitted and PV collected solar radiation are calculated for the proposed segments.

  8. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; Gilligan, Eric T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) flight characterization experiments performed using an F/A-18 (TN 853). AAC was designed and developed specifically for launch vehicles, and is currently part of the baseline autopilot design for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The scope covered here includes a brief overview of the algorithm (covered in more detail elsewhere), motivation and benefits of flight testing, top-level SLS flight test objectives, applicability of the F/A-18 as a platform for testing a launch vehicle control design, test cases designed to fully vet the AAC algorithm, flight test results, and conclusions regarding the functionality of AAC. The AAC algorithm developed at Marshall Space Flight Center is a forward loop gain multiplicative adaptive algorithm that modifies the total attitude control system gain in response to sensed model errors or undesirable parasitic mode resonances. The AAC algorithm provides the capability to improve or decrease performance by balancing attitude tracking with the mitigation of parasitic dynamics, such as control-structure interaction or servo-actuator limit cycles. In the case of the latter, if unmodeled or mismodeled parasitic dynamics are present that would otherwise result in a closed-loop instability or near instability, the adaptive controller decreases the total loop gain to reduce the interaction between these dynamics and the controller. This is in contrast to traditional adaptive control logic, which focuses on improving performance by increasing gain. The computationally simple AAC attitude control algorithm has stability properties that are reconcilable in the context of classical frequency-domain criteria (i.e., gain and phase margin). The algorithm assumes that the baseline attitude control design is well-tuned for a nominal trajectory and is designed to adapt only when necessary. Furthermore, the adaptation is attracted to the nominal design and adapts only on an as-needed basis

  9. Variations in the use of emergency PCI for the treatment of re-infarction following intravenous fibrinolytic therapy: impact on outcomes in HERO-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, J J; French, J K; Aylward, P E G; Wong, C K; Stewart, R A H; Williams, B F; De Pasquale, C G; O'connell, R L; Van den Berg, K; Van de Werf, F J; Simes, R J; White, H D

    2007-06-01

    Patients who suffer re-infarction during initial hospitalization for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have decreased survival compared to patients without re-infarction, so treatment of re-infarction may influence survival. To determine whether the utilization of reperfusion therapies varied within 12 h of re-infarction and was associated with 30-day mortality, we studied 552 patients with re-infarction of 17,073 patients with STEMI enrolled in HERO-2 in five regions (Russia, Eastern Europe, Western Countries, Asia, and Latin America). Patients presenting within 6 h of symptom-onset were randomized to receive either bivalirudin or unfractionated heparin intravenously just prior to streptokinase. Re-infarction occurred in 2.8 and 3.6% of bivalirudin and heparin treated patients, respectively (P = 0.004), but treatment assignment did not influence mortality after re-infarction. Patients with re-infarction had a higher 30-day mortality than those without re-infarction (24 vs. 10%; P model). Within 12 h of re-infarction, fibrinolytic therapy was administered to 12.0 and 8.2% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); these two treatments were more frequently utilized in patients from Western countries (n = 112), compared to patients from other countries (n = 440) (34.8 and 16.1% compared to 6.1 and 6.1%, respectively, P < 0.001). Mortality was 15% in patients receiving reperfusion therapy for re-infarction and 27% for those with conservative management, hazard ratio (HR) 0.53 (95% CI 0.32-0.88), P = 0.01. In multiple Cox regression analysis which included adjustment for clinical variables and randomized treatment assignment, 30-day mortality after re-infarction varied by region (highest Latin America 29%, lowest Western countries 15%; P = 0.01). Other independent prognostic factors included age, time from randomization to re-infarction, and Killip class at randomization. The HR for PCI treatment of re-infarction was 0.18 [(95% CI 0.04-0.76), P = 0

  10. A Decision Support Concept for a construction design project – selecting the type of glass façade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franjo Šimić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research into the possibility of developing a concept for supporting decisions in planning construction projects (one of the most important stages of construction project management. The focus is on supporting decisions in selecting the type of and solution for the glass façade in the main design. Materials and types of soluteons for a glass façade were analyzed and alternative solutions were obtained. The concept was developed in that it included relevant stakeholders in the decision-making process during the construction design. These stakeholders were the investor, architect, and construction contractor. The analysis was carried out and a hierarchical structure of objectives was formed as a goal tree. The criteria at the last hierarchical level were used to evaluate alternative solutions for the glass façade, and their weights were determined by all stakeholders using the AHP method (Analytic Hierarchy Process. Using PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Method for Enrichment Evaluation, a comparison of alternative solutions for the glass façade was conducted and the alternatives were ranked according to the priorities for inclusion into the main design. The concept was tested by selecting a type of glass façade on a residential-commercial building in the city of Rijeka, Croatia.

  11. An enhanced functional ability questionnaire (faVIQ to measure the impact of rehabilitation services on the visually impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Stuart Wolffsohn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To develop a short, enhanced functional ability Quality of Vision (faVIQ instrument based on previous questionnaires employing comprehensive modern statistical techniques to ensure the use of an appropriate response scale, items and scoring of the visual related difficulties experienced by patients with visual impairment.METHODS:Items in current quality-of-life questionnaires for the visually impaired were refined by a multi-professional group and visually impaired focus groups. The resulting 76 items were completed by 293 visually impaired patients with stable vision on two occasions separated by a month. The faVIQ scores of 75 patients with no ocular pathology were compared to 75 age and gender matched patients with visual impairment.RESULTS:Rasch analysis reduced the faVIQ items to 27. Correlation to standard visual metrics was moderate (r=0.32-0.46 and to the NEI-VFQ was 0.48. The faVIQ was able to clearly discriminate between age and gender matched populations with no ocular pathology and visual impairment with an index of 0.983 and 95% sensitivity and 95% specificity using a cut off of 29.CONCLUSION:The faVIQ allows sensitive assessment of quality-of-life in the visually impaired and should support studies which evaluate the effectiveness of low vision rehabilitation services.

  12. Formal language of Lanna Shop House’s Façade in Lampang Old city, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetsuriya, Natthakit

    2017-10-01

    This article aims to presents ‘the formal architectural language of Lanna Designs” that is a linguistic paradigm for decrypt the linguistic system which is hidden in the Lanna façade style. Lanna Designs present an identity of vital ordered and crucial articulated formal language which inherently set of mathematical rules for the arrangement of ornaments. The scope of this article is attempted to the morphology of façades of the ten shop houses which located in Lampang Old city and have familiar proportion and style. In this article, the sampling of façade buildings required proportion as three-stall and two-story with familiar style. The morphology is described based on terms of a symbolic encoding system that is represented as graphically building grammar. The system helps to emphasize commonalities in façade languages and propose a prototype of identified Lanna façade design. This methodology might be the option for decrypt or study in every facades style.

  13. First International Workshop on Human Factors in Modeling (HuFaMo 2015)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald; Chaudron, Michel R. V.; Amaral, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    human factors in modeling. Our goal is to improve the state of the science and professionalism in empirical research in the Model Based Engineering community. Typical examples of research questions might consider the usability of a certain approach, such as a method or language, or the emotional states......Modeling is a human-intensive enterprise. As such, many research questions related to modeling can only be answered by empirical studies employing human factors. The International Workshop Series on Human Factors in Modeling (HuFaMo) is dedicated to the discussion of empirical research involving...... or personal judgements of modelers. While concerned with foundations and framework support for modeling, the community has been somehow neglecting the issue of human factors in this context. There is a growing need from the community concerned with quality factors to understand the best practices...

  14. Verrerie de Passavant-la-Rochère/faïencerie de Salins

    OpenAIRE

    Barbe, Noël

    2007-01-01

    Le travail du verre est présent dès le Moyen Age à Passavant-la-Rochère. A Salins, la production céramique date du début du xviiie siècle. Sur chacun de ces sites subsiste une unité de production représentant par ailleurs la dernière activité de ce type dans la région administrative constituée par la Franche-Comté. La verrerie de Passavant-la-Rochère est une entreprise familiale employant 250 ouvriers. La faïencerie de Salins est aujourd'hui intégrée au groupe Sarreguemines-Digoin dont elle c...

  15. Figlina u Fažani i njezina preobrazba u kasnoj antici

    OpenAIRE

    Bulić, Davor; Koncani Uhač, Ida

    2011-01-01

    Figlina u Fažani prvi se put spominje u stručnoj literaturi početkom XX. stoljeća. Proučavanje proizvoda i njihove distribucije na tržište te pitanje vlasništva figline intenzivira se kroz zadnja tri desetljeća prošlog stoljeća. Zaštitna arheološka istraživanja (2007. - 2009.) omogućila su prikupljanje više ili manje cjelovitih podataka o mikrolokaciji radioničkog kompleksa i keramičkih proizvoda. Ovaj prilog predstavlja pokušaj sistematizacije dostupnih podataka i njihov...

  16. Rapid evaluation and quality control of next generation sequencing data with FaQCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chien-Chi; Chain, Patrick S G

    2014-11-19

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that parallelize the sequencing process and produce thousands to millions, or even hundreds of millions of sequences in a single sequencing run, have revolutionized genomic and genetic research. Because of the vagaries of any platform's sequencing chemistry, the experimental processing, machine failure, and so on, the quality of sequencing reads is never perfect, and often declines as the read is extended. These errors invariably affect downstream analysis/application and should therefore be identified early on to mitigate any unforeseen effects. Here we present a novel FastQ Quality Control Software (FaQCs) that can rapidly process large volumes of data, and which improves upon previous solutions to monitor the quality and remove poor quality data from sequencing runs. Both the speed of processing and the memory footprint of storing all required information have been optimized via algorithmic and parallel processing solutions. The trimmed output compared side-by-side with the original data is part of the automated PDF output. We show how this tool can help data analysis by providing a few examples, including an increased percentage of reads recruited to references, improved single nucleotide polymorphism identification as well as de novo sequence assembly metrics. FaQCs combines several features of currently available applications into a single, user-friendly process, and includes additional unique capabilities such as filtering the PhiX control sequences, conversion of FASTQ formats, and multi-threading. The original data and trimmed summaries are reported within a variety of graphics and reports, providing a simple way to do data quality control and assurance.

  17. Fasa Registry on Acute Myocardial Infarction (FaRMI: Feasibility Study and Pilot Phase Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bahramali

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI is the leading cause of death in Iran. Every attempt to improve treatment patterns and patient outcomes needs a surveillance system to both consider the efficacy and safety measures. Fasa Registry on Myocardial Infarction (FaRMI is the first population-based registry for acute MI in Iran targeted to provide meticulous description of patients' characteristics, to explore the management patterns of these patients, to discover the degree of adherence to the practice guidelines, and to investigate the determinants of poor in-hospital and later outcomes.A diagnosis of acute MI (type I, II and III was made upon the accepted criteria by the attending cardiologists and types IV and V MI were excluded. Two registrar nurses gathered data on demographics, place of residence and ethnicity, past medical history, risk factors, and the clinical course. Management patterns in the pre-hospital setting, during the hospital stay and at the discharge time were recorded. Routine laboratory results and cardiac biomarkers on three consecutive days were registered.pilot phase included the first 95 patients, 63.5% of whom were men and 31.5% were women. With a mean age of 62.89±13.75 years among participants, the rate of premature MI was 31.8%. ST segment elevation MI accounted for 68.2% cases and inferior wall was the most prevalent region involved followed by anterior and posterior walls.Obtained data on the characteristics of patients suffering an MI event revealed the major determinants of delay in initiation of therapies and contributors of poor outcome. Completeness of data was guaranteed upon involvement of multiple checkpoints and data quality was secured by means of automatic validation processes in addition to weekly physicians' roundups.Execution of FaRMI in the form presented is feasible and it will build up a comprehensive population-based registry for MI in the region.

  18. Filter-Adapted Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FA-FISH) for Filtration-Enriched Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhen, Marianne; Pailler, Emma; Faugeroux, Vincent; Farace, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may represent an easily accessible source of tumor material to assess genetic aberrations such as gene-rearrangements or gene-amplifications and screen cancer patients eligible for targeted therapies. As the number of CTCs is a critical parameter to identify such biomarkers, we developed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for CTCs enriched on filters (filter-adapted-FISH, FA-FISH). Here, we describe the FA-FISH protocol, the combination of immunofluorescent staining (DAPI/CD45) and FA-FISH techniques, as well as the semi-automated microscopy method that we developed to improve the feasibility and reliability of FISH analyses in filtration-enriched CTC.

  19. Systems of Vegetal Façade and Green Roofs used as a Sustainable Option in Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Chanampa, Mariana; Vidal Rivas, Pilar; Alonso Ojembarrena, Javier; Olivieri, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Green architecture contributes not only in reducing the building’s thermal loads but also in reducing the effects of the urban heat island in densely built-up areas in a hardly natural environment. The current green systems are built in situ/on site and are very expensive, hence the need to create industrialized prevegetated systems which improve the buildings’ energy savings and reduce the times of construction works. The present paper describes three green systems for façades (gabion façade...

  20. The cleaner, the greener? Product sustainability assessment of the biomimetic façade paint Lotusan® in comparison to the conventional façade paint Jumbosil®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Antony

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The debate on the question whether biomimetics has a specific potential to contribute to sustainability is discussed among scientists, business leaders, politicians and those responsible for project funding. The objective of this paper is to contribute to this controversial debate by presenting the sustainability assessment of one of the most well-known and most successful biomimetic products: the façade paint Lotusan®.Results: As a first step it has been examined and verified that the façade paint Lotusan® is correctly defined as a biomimetic product. Secondly, Lotusan® has been assessed and compared to a conventional façade paint within the course of a detailed product sustainability assessment (PROSA. For purposes of comparison, the façade paint Jumbosil® was chosen as reference for a conventional paint available on the market. The benefit analysis showed that both paints fulfil equally well the requirements of functional utility. With respect to the symbolic utility, Lotusan® has a particular added aesthetic value by the preservation of the optical quality over the life cycle. Within the social analysis no substantial differences between the two paints could be found regarding the handling and disposal of the final products. Regarding the life-cycle cost, Lotusan® is the more expensive product. However, the higher investment cost for a Lotusan®-based façade painting are more than compensated by the longer life time, resulting in both reduced overall material demand and lower labour cost. In terms of the life-cycle impact assessment, it can be ascertained that substantial differences between the paints arise from the respective service life, which are presented in terms of four scenario analyses.Conclusion: In summary, the biomimetic façade paint Lotusan® has been identified as a cost-effective and at the same time resource-saving product. Based on the underlying data and assumptions it could be demonstrated that

  1. Dlk1/FA1 is a novel endocrine regulator of bone and fat mass and its serum level is modulated by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Ding, Ming; Jensen, Charlotte H

    2007-01-01

    Fat and bone metabolism are two linked processes regulated by several hormonal factors. Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is the soluble form of dlk1 (delta-like 1), which is a member of the Notch-Delta family. We previously identified FA1 as a negative regulator of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell...... differentiation. Here, we studied the effects of circulating FA1 on fat and bone mass in vivo by generating mice expressing high serum levels of FA1 (FA1 mice) using the hydrodynamic-based gene transfer procedure. We found that increased serum FA1 levels led to a significant reduction in total body weight, fat...... mass, and bone mass in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced bone mass in FA1 mice was associated with the inhibition of mineral apposition rate and bone formation rates by 58 and 72%, respectively. Because FA1 is colocalized with GH in the pituitary gland, we explored the possible modulation of serum FA1...

  2. Expansion and characterization of ventral mesencephalic precursor cells: effect of mitogens and investigation of FA1 as a potential dopaminergic marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia; Bauer, Matthias; Jensen, Charlotte H

    2007-01-01

    factor 8 (FGF8) for expansion of such dopaminergic precursor cells, and fetal antigen-1 (FA1), a secreted neuronal protein of unknown function, as a non-invasive dopaminergic marker. Tissue from embryonic day (ED) 12 rat ventral mesencephalon was dissociated mechanically and cultured for 4 days...... to controls. After differentiation, biochemical analyses showed significantly more dopamine and FA1 in conditioned medium from both FGF2 and FGF8 expanded cultures than in controls. Correspondingly, numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)- and FA1-immunoreactive cells had increased 16-fold (P ... for these cells. Furthermore, FA1 was identified as a potential supplementary non-invasive marker of cultured dopaminergic neurons....

  3. Environmental and health effects of nanomaterials in nanotextiles and façade coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Claudia; Wick, Peter; Krug, Harald; Nowack, Bernd

    2011-08-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are expected to hold considerable potential for products that offer improved or novel functionalities. For example, nanotechnologies could open the way for the use of textile products outside their traditional fields of applications, for example, in the construction, medical, automobile, environmental and safety technology sectors. Consequently, nanotextiles could become ubiquitous in industrial and consumer products in future. Another ubiquitous field of application for ENM is façade coatings. The environment and human health could be affected by unintended release of ENM from these products. The product life cycle and the product design determine the various environmental and health exposure situations. For example, ENM unintentionally released from geotextiles will probably end up in soils, whereas ENM unintentionally released from T-shirts may come into direct contact with humans and end up in wastewater. In this paper we have assessed the state of the art of ENM effects on the environment and human health on the basis of selected environmental and nanotoxicological studies and on our own environmental exposure modeling studies. Here, we focused on ENM that are already applied or may be applied in future to textile products and façade coatings. These ENM's are mainly nanosilver (nano-Ag), nano titanium dioxide (nano-TiO(2)), nano silica (nano-SiO(2)), nano zinc oxide (nano-ZnO), nano alumina (nano-Al(2)O(3)), layered silica (e.g. montmorillonite, Al(2)[(OH)(2)/Si(4)O(10)]nH(2)O), carbon black, and carbon nanotubes (CNT). Knowing full well that innovators have to take decisions today, we have presented some criteria that should be useful in systematically analyzing and interpreting the state of the art on the effects of ENM. For the environment we established the following criteria: (1) the indication for hazardous effects, (2) dissolution in water increases/decreases toxic effects, (3) tendency for agglomeration or sedimentation

  4. Modernization of RTC for fabrication of MOX fuel, Vibropac fuel pins and BN-600 FA with weapon grade plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachyov, A.F.; Kalygin, V.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Mayorshin, A. A.; Bychkov, A.V.; Kisly, V.A.; Ovsyannikov, Y.F.; Bobrov, D.A.; Mamontov, S.I.; Tsyganov, A.N.; Churutkin, E.I.; Davydov, P.I.; Samosenko, E.A; Shalak, A.R.; Ojima, Hisao

    2004-01-01

    Since mid 70's RIAR has been performing activities on plutonium involvement in fuel cycle. These activities are considered a stage within the framework of the closed fuel cycle development. Developed at RIAR fuel cycle is based on two technologies: 'dry' process of fuel reprocessing and vibro-packing method for fuel pin fabrication. Due to the available scientific capabilities and a gained experience in operating the technological facilities (ORYOL, SIC) for plutonium (various grade) blending into fuel for fast reactors, RIAR is a participant of the activities aimed at solving these tasks. Under international program RIAR with financial support of JNC (Japan) is modernizing the facility for granulated fuel production, vibro-pac fuel pins and FA fabrication to provide the BN-600 'hybrid' core. In order to provide 'hybrid' core it is necessary to produce (per year): - 1775 kg of granulated MOX-fuel, 6500 fuel pins, 50 fuel assemblies. Potential output of the facility under construction is as follows: - 1800 kg of granulated MOX-fuel per year, 40 fuel pins per shift, 200 FAs for the BN-600 reactor per year. Taking into account domestic and foreign experience in MOX-fuel production, different options were discussed of the equipment layouts in the available premises of chemical technological division of RIAR: - in the shielded manipulator boxes, in the existing hot cells. During construction of the facility in the building under operation the following requirements should be met: - facility must meet all standards and regulations set for nuclear facilities, installation work at the facility must not influence other production programs implemented in the building, engineering supply lines of the facility must be connected to the existing service lines of the building, cost of the activities must not exceed amount of JNC funding. The paper presents results of comparison between two options of the process equipment layout: in boxes and hot cells. This equipment is intended

  5. Safety and efficacy of subcutaneous tocilizumab in adults with systemic sclerosis (faSScinate) : a phase 2, randomised, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanna, Dinesh; Denton, Christopher P.; Jahreis, Angelika; van Laar, Jacob M.; Frech, Tracy M.; Anderson, Marina E.; Baron, Murray; Chung, Lorinda; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; Lakshminarayanan, Santhanam; Allanore, Yannick; Pope, Janet E.; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Steen, Virginia; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Lafyatis, Robert; Stifano, Giuseppina; Spotswood, Helen; Chen-Harris, Haiyin; Dziadek, Sebastian; Morimoto, Alyssa; Sornasse, Thierry; Siegel, Jeffrey; Furst, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis is a rare disabling autoimmune disease with few treatment options. The efficacy and safety of tocilizumab, an interleukin 6 receptor-α inhibitor, was assessed in the faSScinate phase 2 trial in patients with systemic sclerosis. Methods We did this double-blind,

  6. Performance assessment and development of a design support tool for innovative BIPV façade systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghasempourabadi, M.

    2017-01-01

    This PDEng project is related to the development of two types of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) façade systems: SoloWall and ZigZagSolar. SoloWall is a modular type of BIPV for integration in vertical facades, developed by SCX Solar. ZigZagSolar, developed by Wallvision, uses a series of

  7. A Hypomorphic PALB2 Allele Gives Rise to an Unusual Form of FA-N Associated with Lymphoid Tumour Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Byrd

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with biallelic truncating mutations in PALB2 have a severe form of Fanconi anaemia (FA-N, with a predisposition for developing embryonal-type tumours in infancy. Here we describe two unusual patients from a single family, carrying biallelic PALB2 mutations, one truncating, c.1676_1677delAAinsG;(p.Gln559ArgfsTer2, and the second, c.2586+1G>A; p.Thr839_Lys862del resulting in an in frame skip of exon 6 (24 amino acids. Strikingly, the affected individuals did not exhibit the severe developmental defects typical of FA-N patients and initially presented with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The expressed p.Thr839_Lys862del mutant PALB2 protein retained the ability to interact with BRCA2, previously unreported in FA-N patients. There was also a large increased chromosomal radiosensitivity following irradiation in G2 and increased sensitivity to mitomycin C. Although patient cells were unable to form Rad51 foci following exposure to either DNA damaging agent, U2OS cells, in which the mutant PALB2 with in frame skip of exon 6 was induced, did show recruitment of Rad51 to foci following damage. We conclude that a very mild form of FA-N exists arising from a hypomorphic PALB2 allele.

  8. The effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical profiles in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S; Carling, Chris; Archer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical performance during elite soccer matches. Twenty English FA Premier League games were analysed using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system (n = 153 players). Overall ball possession...

  9. FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs): A new family of peptides from amphibian defensive skin secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Smyth, Anita; Johnsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    amide (EF-10 amide), from the defensive skin secretions of two different species of African hyperoliid frogs, Kassina maculata and Phylictimantis verrucosus, respectively. These represent the first canonical FMRF amide-related peptides (FaRPs) from a vertebrate source. The cDNA encoding IF-8 amide...

  10. Orkesten onder druk? : Op zoek naar trends & ontwikkelingen in de HaFaBra-sector in Noord-Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Linda; Bisschop Boele, Evert

    2015-01-01

    In de HaFaBra-sector wordt al langere tijd gesproken over ‘de problematiek’ in de sector maar uit datzelfde veld komen verschillende berichten over de stand van zaken. Veel muziekverenigingen kennen dalende ledenaantallen, maar er zijn ook orkesten die het heel goed doen. Wat is er nu precies aan de

  11. Behind the Façade of Fee-Free education: Shadow Education and Its Implications for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Kwo, Ora

    2013-01-01

    Most governments, at an official level, espouse the principles of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Among its statements is that education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Yet while the façade of government education systems presents an image that instruction is free of charge, families across the…

  12. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  13. Modeling a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Façade with a Building Thermal Simulation Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    to predict. This is manly due to the very transient and complex air flow in the naturally ventilated double skin façade cavity. In this paper the modelling of the DSF using a thermal simulation program, BSim, is discussed. The simulations are based on the measured weather boundary conditions...

  14. Over-expression of Gene FaASR Promotes Strawberry Fruit Coloring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongjie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit development and ripening is a complicate process. Although much progress has been made on the ripenig process, the molecular mechamism of fruit development is not yet clear. In this study, we used ‘Sweet Charlie’ strawberry as test materials, based on cloning the strawberries ASR homologous gene, we carried out the bioinformatics and temporal expression analysis of FaASR, by manipulating ASR gene expression level in strawberry fruit, we tested the changes of physiological indicators, including sugar, ABA, pigments content, and fruit firmness, as well as phenotypic changes. In addition, we measured the expression changes of some anthocyanin-related gene, such as CHS and UFGT, by which we revealed the regulation mechanisms of ASR gene over strawberry fruit ripening. Strawberry ASR contained a typical domain of ABA/WDS that was related to fruit ripening and stress-resistance, and ASR gene over-expression could promote strawberry fruit coloring, endogenous ABA and sucrose accumulation, fruit softening, and induced the transcription levels of anthocyanin-related genes CHS and UFGT. The present study will further reveal the molecular mechanisms of information transmission in fruit development, and will also play an important foundation for future molecular improvement of strawberries breeding.

  15. R245fa Flow Boiling inside a 4.2 mm ID Microfin Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, G. A.; Mancin, S.; Righetti, G.; Zilio, C.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the R245fa flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop measurements inside a mini microfin tube with internal diameter at the fin tip of 4.2 mm, having 40 fins, 0.15 mm high with a helix angle of 18°. The tube was brazed inside a copper plate and electrically heated from the bottom. Sixteen T-type thermocouples are located in the copper plate to monitor the wall temperature. The experimental measurements were carried out at constant mean saturation temperature of 30 °C, by varying the refrigerant mass velocity between 100 kg m-2 s-1 and 300 kg m-2 s-1, the vapour quality from 0.15 to 0.95, at two different heat fluxes: 30 and 60 kW m-2. The experimental results are presented in terms of two-phase heat transfer coefficient, onset dryout vapour quality, and frictional pressure drop. Moreover, the experimental measurements are compared against the most updated models for boiling heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop estimations available in the open literature for microfin tubes.

  16. PENENTUAN PATAHAN DAN TOPOGRAFI MOHO PADA DATA NOAA-FA BERBASIS FFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkono, Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Regional Gravity NOAA-FA data analysis using several gradient methods has been conducted to determine the fracture and direction fault based on FFT. Fault can be qualitatively identified from a regional anomaly data, gradient Theta and  Normalized Standard Deviation (NSD  is  trending  north-south.  Dominant  fracture  orientation  parallel  to  the  fault  is  only detectable by gradient Theta and NSD, but  more  obviously displayed on the gradient NSD. Furthermore, regional anomaly of  Gravity data  inverted to generate  Moho  topography. This inversion  using  FFT  based  algorithm  (Parker,  1972.  The  inversion  result  of  Moho  depths between 30-39  km.  In the Moho  topography, there is contrast  depth  difference, namely the Latitude -35 to -25 and Longitude -70 to -65, which is suspected as a fracture. Keyword: Gravity, FFT, Inversion, Fault, Fracture, Moho

  17. Natural Stabilized Earth Panels versus Conventional Façade Systems. Economic and Environmental Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Galán-Marín

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available More effective construction technologies are needed nowadays in order to reduce construction energy consumption during the life-cycle of buildings. Besides which, it is necessary to consider the economic feasibility and associated costs within the framework of these alternative technologies so as to favouring their practical implementation in the construction sector. In this sense, this paper presents an economic and environmental comparison of a new non-bearing façade construction solution based on the extruded unfired stabilized clay panels as opposed to three traditional solutions with similar physical, thermal, and aesthetic characteristics in terms of the exterior cladding. The proposed panels are a sandwich type configuration with an intermediate insulating material and two exterior pieces manufactured by extrusion with raw earth stabilized with alginate and animal wool fibers. In this paper, details of the constructive technology of the system are provided. From the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that the solution is a valid alternative from the environmental point of view, considerably reducing the Global Warming Potential and the Cumulative Energy Demand. And although the environmental improvement of the system can be considered the primary objective of this investigation, on the other hand, once executed, it will also be a competitive constructive technology from the perspective of the system’s final costs.

  18. Prefabricated RM Façade Panels - Search for the Safe Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulimka, Jacek; Kubica, Jan; Kałuża, Marta; Galman, Iwona

    2017-10-01

    The problem, which appeared during the design works on the untypical masonry openwork of the front elevation of the academic building in Poland was presented and discussed in this paper. The original solution of masonry external façade was too risky and practically impossible for realization from the workmanship point of view. For this reason authors were proposed to make this elevation wall as prefabricated construction consisted of medium scale prefabricated elevation panels made of openwork clinker units and masonry joints with reinforcement. Two solutions of prefabricated panels were elaborated: first by the design office and second one, significantly modified, proposed by the authors. Taking into consideration fact that proposed prefabricated panels are not the typical reinforced masonry possible to design based on Eurocode 6, the methodology of “supporting design by test” was accepted to verify the correctness of proposed solutions. The carried out tests of both types of prefabricated panels with results and their discussion are also presented here. The results have shown the lack of safety for the first type of prefabricates and good behaviour, safety and durability of the final, modified solution.

  19. Adaptive Augmenting Control Flight Characterization Experiment on an F/A-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance by adapting an otherwise welltuned classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This AAC algorithm is currently part of the baseline design for the SLS Flight Control System (FCS), but prior to this series of research flights it was the only component of the autopilot design that had not been flight tested. The Space Launch System (SLS) flight software prototype, including the adaptive component, was recently tested on a piloted aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) which has the capability to achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle. Scenarios for the flight test campaign were designed specifically to evaluate the AAC algorithm to ensure that it is able to achieve the expected performance improvements with no adverse impacts in nominal or nearnominal scenarios. Having completed the recent series of flight characterization experiments on DFRC's F/A-18, the AAC algorithm's capability, robustness, and reproducibility, have been successfully demonstrated. Thus, the entire SLS control architecture has been successfully flight tested in a relevant environment. This has increased NASA's confidence that the autopilot design is ready to fly on the SLS Block I vehicle and will exceed the performance of previous architectures.

  20. MECHANISM OF BIOACTIVITY OF LS2-FA GLASS-CERAMICS IN SBF AND DMEM MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA LUTIŠANOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of in vitro bioactivity of glass-ceramics in the Li2O–SiO2–CaO–P2O5–CaF2 (shorthand LS2-FA system immersed in two media (simulated body fluid (SBF and Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM are compared. Microprobe (EPMA and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM were used to detect the presence of a new phase on the surface and to characterize its layer. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP was used to monitor ion concentration changes in SBF with immersion time. The results show, that during the assay in vitro behaviour tests, the surface of the sample was partially dissolved and released of Si4+, Ca2+ and Li+ ions were released into the SBF medium. The results of surface characterization after in vitro tests revealed difference in the bioactivity of glass-ceramics with various time of immersion in SBF and DMEM. For the formation of an apatite-layer in an earlier testing period (1, 3 and 7 days, a pronounced difference was not observed between SBF and DMEM immersion. In the longer testing period in SBF (28 days, the apatite-layer was developed by periodic deposition of spherical bullets that covers the whole surface. The use of the acellular culture medium DMEM resulted in a delay at the start of precipitation.

  1. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto)-fermented pigeon pea

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Hong Lee; Yi-Syuan Lai; She-Ching Wu

    2015-01-01

    Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained us...

  2. Purification and characterization of tenerplasminin-1, a serine peptidase inhibitor with antiplasmin activity from the coral snake (Micrurus tener tener) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Jeilyn; Ibarra, Carlos; Salazar, Ana M; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Sánchez, Elda E; Perales, Jonás; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Guerrero, Belsy

    2016-01-01

    A plasmin inhibitor, named tenerplasminin-1 (TP1), was isolated from Micrurus tener tener (Mtt) venom. It showed a molecular mass of 6542Da, similarly to Kunitz-type serine peptidase inhibitors. The amidolytic activity of plasmin (0.5nM) on synthetic substrate S-2251 was inhibited by 91% following the incubation with TP1 (1nM). Aprotinin (2nM) used as the positive control of inhibition, reduced the plasmin amidolytic activity by 71%. Plasmin fibrinolytic activity (0.05nM) was inhibited by 67% following incubation with TP1 (0.1nM). The degradation of fibrinogen chains induced by plasmin, trypsin or elastase was inhibited by TP1 at a 1:2, 1:4 and 1:20 enzyme:inhibitor ratio, respectively. On the other hand, the proteolytic activity of crude Mtt venom on fibrinogen chains, previously attributed to metallopeptidases, was not abolished by TP1. The tPA-clot lysis assay showed that TP1 (0.2nM) acts like aprotinin (0.4nM) inducing a delay in lysis time and lysis rate which may be associated with the inhibition of plasmin generated from the endogenous plasminogen activation. TP1 is the first serine protease plasmin-like inhibitor isolated from Mtt snake venom which has been characterized in relation to its mechanism of action, formation of a plasmin:TP1 complex and therapeutic potential as anti-fibrinolytic agent, a biological characteristic of great interest in the field of biomedical research. They could be used to regulate the fibrinolytic system in pathologies such as metastatic cancer, parasitic infections, hemophilia and other hemorrhagic syndromes, in which an intense fibrinolytic activity is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Orientations of Iron-Sulfur Clusters FA and FB in the Homodimeric Type-I Photosynthetic Reaction Center of Heliobacterium modesticaldum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toru; Matsuoka, Masahiro; Azai, Chihiro; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-Oka, Hirozo

    2016-05-12

    Orientations of the FA and FB iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters in a structure-unknown type-I homodimeric heriobacterial reaction center (hRC) were studied in oriented membranes of the thermophilic anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium Heliobacterium modesticaldum by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and compared with those in heterodimeric photosystem I (PS I). The Rieske-type FeS center in the cytochrome b/c complex showed a well-oriented EPR signal. Illumination at 14 K induced an FB(-) signal with g-axes of gz = 2.066, gy = 1.937, and gx = 1.890, tilted at angles of 60°, 60°, and 45°, respectively, with respect to the membrane normal. Chemical reduction with dithionite produced an additional signal of FA(-), which magnetically interacted with FB(-), with gz = 2.046, gy = 1.942, and gx = 1.911 at 30°, 60°, and 90°, respectively. The angles and redox properties of FA(-) and FB(-) in hRC resemble those of FB(-) and FA(-), respectively, in PS I. Therefore, FA and FB in hRC, named after their g-value similarities, seem to be located like FB and FA, not like FA and FB, respectively, in PS I. The reducing side of hRC could resemble those in PS I, if the names of FA and FB are interchanged with each other.

  4. Quantitative diffusion tensor MR imaging of the brain: field strength related variance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Loenneker, Thomas; Barta, Gerd; Bellemann, Matthias E.; Hennig, Juergen; Fischer, Joachim E.; Il'yasov, Kamil A.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to study the ''impact'' of the magnetic field strength on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and also to determine whether magnetic-field-related differences in T2-relaxation times of brain tissue influence DTI measurements. DTI was performed on 12 healthy volunteers at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla (within 2 h) using identical DTI scan parameters. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at multiple gray and white matter locations. ADC and FA values were compared and analyzed for statistically significant differences. In addition, DTI measurements were performed at different echo times (TE) for both field strengths. ADC values for gray and white matter were statistically significantly lower at 3.0 Tesla compared with 1.5 Tesla (% change between -1.94% and -9.79%). FA values were statistically significantly higher at 3.0 Tesla compared with 1.5 Tesla (% change between +4.04 and 11.15%). ADC and FA values are not significantly different for TE=91 ms and TE=125 ms. Thus, ADC and FA values vary with the used field strength. Comparative clinical studies using ADC or FA values should consequently compare ADC or FA results with normative ADC or FA values that have been determined for the field strength used. (orig.)

  5. Dlk1/FA1 Is a Novel Endocrine Regulator of Bone and Fat Mass and Its Serum Level Is Modulated By Growth Hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, B.M.; Ding, M.; Jensen, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Fat and bone metabolism are two linked processes regulated by several hormonal factors. FA1 (fetal antigen 1) is the soluble form of dlk1 (delta like 1), which is a member of the Notch-Delta family. We have previously identified FA1 as a negative regulator of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell...... differentiation. Here, we studied the effects of circulating FA1 on fat and bone mass in vivo by generating mice expressing high serum levels of FA1 (FA1-mice) using the hydrodynamic-based gene transfer procedure (HGTP). We found that increased serum FA1 levels led to a significant reduction in total body weight......, fat mass and bone mass in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced bone mass in FA1-mice was associated with the inhibition of mineral apposition rate and bone formation rates by 58% and 72% respectively. Since FA1 is co-localized with growth hormone (GH) in the pituitary gland, we explored the possible...

  6. Mouse fetal antigen 1 (mFA1), the circulating gene product of mdlk, pref-1 and SCP-1: isolation, characterization and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachmann, E; Krogh, T N; Højrup, P

    1996-01-01

    The mouse homologue to human fetal antigen 1 (hFA1) was purified from mouse amniotic fluid by cation exchange chromatography and immunospecific affinity chromatography. Mouse FA1 (mFA1) is a single chain glycoprotein with an M(r) of 42-50 kDa (SDS-PAGE). The N-terminal amino acid sequence (39...... residues) revealed 74% identity to hFA1 and 100% identity to the translated cDNAs referred to as mouse dlk, pref-1 and SCP-1. mFA1 is the secreted processed molecule encoded by the mRNA defined by these identical mouse cDNAs. Monospecific rabbit anti-mFA1 antibodies, purified by ammonium sulfate...... precipitation and immunospecific affinity chromatography, were used for immunohistochemical and quantitative ELISA techniques. The indirect immunoperoxidase technique demonstrated mFA1 within the endocrine structures of adult mouse pancreas, whereas the exocrine tissue remained unstained. FA1-positive staining...

  7. Clinical significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in patients with exercise-induced ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, K.; Kurata, C.; Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.; Rydzewski, A.; Takada, Y.; Takada, A.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the fibrinolytic system in patients with exercise-induced ischemia and its relation to ischemia and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), 47 patients with CAD confirmed by results of coronary angiography underwent symptom-limited multistage exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. All patients with CAD had exercise-induced ischemia as assessed from thallium-201 images. Pre- and peak exercise blood samples from each patient and preexercise blood samples from control subjects were assayed for several fibrinolytic components and were also assayed for plasma adrenaline. The extent of ischemia was defined as delta visual uptake score (total visual uptake score in delayed images minus total visual uptake score in initial images) and the severity of CAD as the number of diseased vessels. In the basal condition, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity was significantly higher in patients with exercise-induced ischemia as compared to control subjects (p less than 0.01), although there were no significant differences in other fibrinolytic variables between the two groups. Moreover, PAI activity in the basal condition displayed a significantly positive correlation with the extent of ischemia (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01). Patients with exercise-induced ischemia were divided into two groups (24 with single-vessel disease and 23 with multivessel disease). There were no significant differences in coronary risk factors, hemodynamics, or plasma adrenaline levels during exercise between single-vessel and multivessel disease except that delta visual uptake score was significantly higher in multivessel disease (p less than 0.01)

  8. Does plasmin have anticoagulant activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Hoover-Plow

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Jane Hoover-PlowJoseph J Jacobs Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, Departments of Cardiovascular Medicine and Molecular Cardiology, Lerner Research Institute Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, USAAbstract: The coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways regulate hemostasis and thrombosis, and an imbalance in these pathways may result in pathologic hemophilia or thrombosis. The plasminogen system is the primary proteolytic pathway for fibrinolysis, but also has important proteolytic functions in cell migration, extracellular matrix degradation, metalloproteinase activation, and hormone processing. Several studies have demonstrated plasmin cleavage and inactivation of several coagulation factors, suggesting plasmin may be not only be the primary fibrinolytic enzyme, but may have anticoagulant properties as well. The objective of this review is to examine both in vitro and in vivo evidence for plasmin inactivation of coagulation, and to consider whether plasmin may act as a physiological regulator of coagulation. While several studies have demonstrated strong evidence for plasmin cleavage and inactivation of coagulation factors FV, FVIII, FIX, and FX in vitro, in vivo evidence is lacking for a physiologic role for plasmin as an anticoagulant. However, inactivation of coagulation factors by plasmin may be useful as a localized anticoagulant therapy or as a combined thrombolytic and anticoagulant therapy.Keywords: thrombosis, anticoagulant, cardiovascular disease, plasminogen’s protease, blood

  9. Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation Generated by the Double-Skin Façade of a High-Rise Building in Tropical Climate: Case Study Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziiz Akhlish Diinal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise buildings in tropical region is identical to the use of mechanical Air Conditioning in massive scale. Nevertheless, there is an encouragement to high-rise buildings to reduce its energy consumptions, since they consume quite large amount of energy. This challenge can be overcome with various of strategies, one of them, by means of reducing the cooling load of mechanical Air Conditioning in high-rise building. Prospects come from the modern tall building design strategies, for example the use of double-skin façade to give addition of building skin which could provide indoor temperature protection from outside. Double-skin façade system has continued to increase in buildings in a tropical region such as in Indonesia. However, there is another potential of double skin façade, which is the possibility to increase the buoyancy effect in the air gap between the skin and building envelope. The possibility needs to be studied in order to give a proper way in designing double-skin façade of a high-rise building, especially on Bandung-Indonesia tropical climate. This paper explores the potential of double-skin façade in driving the air inside the façade to generate natural ventilation for a high-rise building in Bandung climate condition. Two parameters are used in exploring the buoyancy force, the width of double-skin façade and the temperature of the skin façade. In general, double-skin façade of a high-rise building in tropical climate can generate buoyancy driven ventilation for the building, it relates strongly to the distance between of the double-skin façade and the building envelope.

  10. Optimizing Client Latency in a Distributed System by Using the “Remote Façade” Design Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin RABLOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the role of the Remote Façade pattern in the optimization of dis-tributed systems. The intent of this pattern is to wrap fine-grained remote objects in a coarse-grained interface and thus greatly reduce the total number of calls executed over the network. The measurement of the performance gain achieved by implementing this pattern is done through testing with a distributed application written in C# and using the latest Microsoft framework for distributed systems (Windows Communication Framework. Furthermore, we will be presenting the scenarios in which the implementation of the Remote Façade pattern brings a significant performance gain. Finally we show further scenarios in which the per-formance brought by this pattern can be investigated.

  11. Glazing façade modules : daylighting performance simulation for Bragança, Coimbra, Évora and Faro

    OpenAIRE

    Sacht, Helenice Maria; Bragança, L.; Almeida, Manuela Guedes de; Caram, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    The daylighting performance improvement is one better strategy to reduce the artificial lighting consumption in buildings and obviously requires solar radiation from the exterior. Daylighting comes not only from direct sunlight but also from illumination provided by the sky on overcast days. Particular attention must be given to daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce energy consumption. Visual comfort of glazing façades is a fundamental ...

  12. WiFi : Une nouvelle façon de combler le fossé numérique ? | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 juil. 2011 ... Se brancher à Internet en utilisant une simple antenne faite d'aluminium et une carte de réseau sans fil! Voilà une façon de donner un nouvel élan au développement économique, explique M. Onno Purbo, spécialiste des technologies de l'information et des communications (TIC) basé à Jakarta qui était de ...

  13. A Comparison of the Reproductive Output Among the Relatives of Samoan Androphilic Fa'afafine and Gynephilic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyna, Scott W; Petterson, Lanna J; VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    The sexually antagonistic gene hypothesis (SAGH) for male androphilia posits that genes associated with androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction to adult males) will result in lowered reproduction when present in males, but increased reproduction when present in females. Findings derived from some Western European samples furnish support for the SAGH; however, results from studies conducted in other regions of the world have been more equivocal. Our previous research in Samoa indicated that the mothers as well as the maternal and paternal grandmothers of androphilic males (known locally as fa'afafine) exhibit elevated reproductive output when compared to the relatives of gynephilic men (i.e., males that are sexually attracted to adult females). The present replication study tested the SAGH in Samoa using a sample that was 122 % larger than the one previously studied by our group (VanderLaan, Forrester, Petterson, & Vasey, 2012). In line with the predictions of the SAGH, we hypothesized that the grandmothers, aunts, and mothers of fa'afafine would show elevated reproductive output compared to those of Samoan gynephilic men. Data were collected from 191 fa'afafine and 191 gynephilic men on the reproductive output of their paternal and maternal biological relatives (i.e., mothers, grandmothers, aunts, uncles). The mothers and maternal grandmothers of fa'afafine showed elevated reproductive output compared to those of gynephilic men. The paternal grandmother effect was not replicated. Although these results are consistent with the SAGH, a lack of difference in the reproductive output of aunts renders support for the SAGH in Samoa equivocal.

  14. Viewing Time Measures of Sexual Orientation in Samoan Cisgender Men Who Engage in Sexual Interactions with Fa?afafine

    OpenAIRE

    Petterson, Lanna J.; Dixson, Barnaby J.; Little, Anthony C.; Vasey, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Androphilia refers to attraction to adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to attraction to adult females. The current study employed self-report and viewing time (response time latency) measures of sexual attraction to determine the sexual orientation of Samoan cisgender men (i.e., males whose gender presentation and identity is concordant with their biological sex) who engage in sexual interactions with transgender male androphiles (known locally as fa'afafine) compared to: (1) Samoan cisge...

  15. Proteasome activity is important for replication recovery, CHK1 phosphorylation and prevention of G2 arrest after low-dose formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Atienza, Sara; Green, Samantha E.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly, E-mail: anatoly_zhitkovich@brown.edu

    2015-07-15

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a human carcinogen with numerous sources of environmental and occupational exposures. This reactive aldehyde is also produced endogenously during metabolism of drugs and other processes. DNA–protein crosslinks (DPCs) are considered to be the main genotoxic lesions for FA. Accumulating evidence suggests that DPC repair in high eukaryotes involves proteolysis of crosslinked proteins. Here, we examined a role of the main cellular proteolytic machinery proteasomes in toxic responses of human lung cells to low FA doses. We found that transient inhibition of proteasome activity increased cytotoxicity and diminished clonogenic viability of FA-treated cells. Proteasome inactivation exacerbated suppressive effects of FA on DNA replication and increased the levels of the genotoxic stress marker γ-H2AX in normal human cells. A transient loss of proteasome activity in FA-exposed cells also caused delayed perturbations of cell cycle, which included G2 arrest and a depletion of S-phase populations at FA doses that had no effects in control cells. Proteasome activity diminished p53-Ser15 phosphorylation but was important for FA-induced CHK1 phosphorylation, which is a biochemical marker of DPC proteolysis in replicating cells. Unlike FA, proteasome inhibition had no effect on cell survival and CHK1 phosphorylation by the non-DPC replication stressor hydroxyurea. Overall, we obtained evidence for the importance of proteasomes in protection of human cells against biologically relevant doses of FA. Biochemically, our findings indicate the involvement of proteasomes in proteolytic repair of DPC, which removes replication blockage by these highly bulky lesions. - Highlights: • Proteasome inhibition enhances cytotoxicity of low-dose FA in human lung cells. • Active proteasomes diminish replication-inhibiting effects of FA. • Proteasome activity prevents delayed G2 arrest in FA-treated cells. • Proteasome inhibition exacerbates replication stress by FA in

  16. Simulation-based method to determine climatic energy strategies of an adaptable building retrofit façade system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capeluto, I. Guedi; Ochoa, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    Vast amounts of the European residential stock were built with limited consideration for energy efficiency, yet its refurbishment can help reach national energy reduction goals, decreasing environmental impact. Short-term retrofits with reduced interference to inhabitants can be achieved by upgrading facades with elements that enhance energy efficiency and user comfort. The European Union-funded Meefs Retrofitting (Multifunctional Energy Efficient Façade System) project aims to develop an adaptable mass-produced facade system for energy improvement in existing residential buildings throughout the continent. This article presents a simplified methodology to identify preferred strategies and combinations for the early design stages of such system. This was derived from studying weather characteristics of European regions and outlining climatic energy-saving strategies based on human thermal comfort. Strategies were matched with conceptual technologies like glazing, shading and insulation. The typical building stock was characterized from statistics of previous European projects. Six improvements and combinations were modelled using a simulation model, identifying and ranking preferred configurations. The methodology is summarized in a synoptic scheme identifying the energy rankings of each improvement and combination for the studied climates and façade orientations. - Highlights: • First results of EU project for new energy efficient façade retrofit system. • System consists of prefabricated elements with multiple options for flexibility. • Modular strategies were determined that adapt to different climates. • Technologies matching the strategies were identified. • Presents a method for use and application in different climates across Europe

  17. Platelets retain high levels of active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helén Brogren

    Full Text Available The vascular fibrinolytic system is crucial for spontaneous lysis of blood clots. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, the principal inhibitor of the key fibrinolytic enzyme tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, is present in platelets at high concentrations. However, the majority of PAI-1 stored in platelets has been considered to be inactive. Our recent finding (Brogren H, et al. Blood 2004 that PAI-1 de novo synthesized in platelets remained active for over 24 h, suggested that PAI-1 stored in the α-granules might be active to a larger extent than previously reported. To re-evaluate this issue, we performed experiments where the fraction of active PAI-1 was estimated by analyzing the tPA-PAI-1 complex formation. In these experiments platelets were lysed with Triton X-100 in the presence of serial dilutions of tPA and subsequently the tPA-PAI-1 complex was evaluated by Western blot. Also, using a non-immunologic assay, tPA was labeled with (125I, and (125I-tPA and (125I-tPA-PAI-1 was quantified by scintigraphy. Interestingly, both methods demonstrated that the majority (>50% of platelet PAI-1 is active. Further analyses suggested that pre-analytical procedures used in previous studies (sonication or freezing/thawing may have substantially reduced the activity of platelet PAI-1, which has lead to an underestimation of the proportion of active PAI-1. Our in vitro results are more compatible with the role of PAI-1 in clot stabilization as demonstrated in physiological and pathophysiological studies.

  18. Comparative Study on Acoustic Behavior Between Light Multi-layered and Traditional Façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz, L.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Light multi-layered facade systems in general have been acoustically little studied. The data available suggests they do not usually fulfil the sound insulation values required in the Technical Building Code (CTE in particularly in noisy environments. Therefore the main objectives of this study, is to obtain light multi-layered façade systems with a high degree of acoustic insulation that can be used in noisy environments. While in turn showing excellent thermal characteristics, without neglecting important aspects such as the sustainability of materials, industrialization, costs, among others. This article will explain the process that has been followed to carry out an investigation on the acoustic behaviour of light multi-layered facades. For this purpose acoustic behaviour and sound intensimetry measurement methods have been used. After obtaining these results, a comparison between light multi-layered and traditional facades was made.Los sistemas de fachadas multicapas ligeras acústicamente, en general han sido poco estudiados. Los primeros datos que se tienen es que no suelen alcanzar los valores de aislamiento acústico requeridos en el Código Técnico de la Edificación (CTE en entornos especialmente ruidosos. Los objetivos principales de esta investigación son obtener fachadas multicapas ligeras con un alto grado de aislamiento acústico, que puedan ser empleados en entornos ruidosos. Al mismo tiempo que presenten excelentes características térmicas, sin descuidar aspectos tan importantes como la sostenibilidad, industrialización, costes, etc. En este artículo se explicará el proceso que se ha llevado a cabo para realizar una investigación relacionada con el comportamiento acústico de fachadas multicapas ligeras. Para ello se han empleado los métodos de medida del comportamiento acústico a ruido aéreo e intensimetría sonora. Una vez obtenidos estos resultados se realiza una comparativa entre las fachadas multicapas ligeras

  19. Model of the expansion process for R245fa in an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luján, J.M.; Serrano, J.R.; Dolz, V.; Sánchez, J.

    2012-01-01

    An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is considered as one of the most environmental-friendly ways to convert different kinds of low temperature energies, i.e. solar, geothermal, biomass and thermal energy of exhaust gases into electrical energy. Two important facts about the ORC must be considered: An organic fluid is selected as the working fluid and a high expansion ratio is usually presented in the machinery due to thermodynamic and efficiency factors. In the past, the pre-design of turbomachinery has been based on the usage of ideal fluid laws, but the real gas effects have a significant influence in the ORC working condition, due to its proximity to the saturation vapor line. In this article, the Equations of State (EoS) (Ideal gas, Redlich-Kwong-Soave and Peng–Robinson) have been evaluated in a typical ORC expansion in order to observe the inaccuracies of the ideal gas model with different thermodynamic variables. Finally an isothermal process followed by an isochoric process is proposed to reproduce the thermodynamic process of the organic fluid expansion by means of simpler equations. In the last point of this paper, several examples of this expansion process have been calculated, in order to analyze the proposed methodologies. It has been concluded that in typical expansion process of ORC (2.5 MPa-0.1 MPa and 1.6MPa-0.1 MPa), the PR and RKS equations show deviations between 6% and 8% in specific energy. These deviations are very low compared with the ideal gas equation whose deviations are above 100%. - Highlights: ► Evaluate the ideal gas behaviour of R245fa in typical working conditions of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). ► Compare the ideal behaviour with other simple equations of state for real gas. ► Decide which equation of state has the highest precision in typical working conditions of an ORC. ► Derive the most important thermodynamic variables in each equation of state and decide the most accurate equation. ► Evaluate the speci c output

  20. Relationship between platelet phospholipid FA and mean platelet volume in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Turner, Alan; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2002-09-01

    Increased mean platelet volume (MPV) has been suggested as an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction and the increased reactivity of large platelets. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between platelet phospholipid (PL) PUFA composition and MPV in 139 free-living healthy men ages 20-55 yr (vegans, n = 18; ovolacto vegetarians, n = 43; moderate meat-eaters, n = 60; and high meateaters, n = 18). Each subject completed a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire and gave a blood sample. Platelet PL FA composition and MPV were determined by standard methods. MPV was significantly greater in the vegans than in the ovolacto vegetarian, moderate, or high meat-eater groups (P vegan and ovolacto vegetarian groups had significantly higher platelet PL 18:2n-6 and 22:4n-6, and lower 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 compared with the moderate and high meat-eater groups. The vegans demonstrated a significant reduction in 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3 compared with the ovolacto vegetarian, high meat-eater, and moderate meat-eater groups. Bivariate analysis results showed that MPV was significantly positively correlated with platelet PL 18:2n-6 (P = 0.048) and negatively correlated with 20:3n-6 (P = 0.02), 20:5n-3 (P = 0.005), and 22:5n-3 (P< 0.0001), respectively. In a multiple linear regression analysis, after controlling for potential confounding factors such as dietary group, age, exercise, body mass index, and dietary polyunsaturated and saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrate, and fiber intake, the MPV was still strongly negatively correlated with platelet PL 20:3n-6 (P = 0.003) and 22:5n-3 (P = 0.001). The present data suggest that 22:5n-3 and 20:3n-6 may play a role in the structural function of the platelet membrane.

  1. Defective homing is associated with altered Cdc42 activity in cells from patients with Fanconi anemia group A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Shang, Xun; Guo, Fukun; Murphy, Kim; Kirby, Michelle; Kelly, Patrick; Reeves, Lilith; Smith, Franklin O.; Williams, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies showed that Fanconi anemia (FA) murine stem cells have defective reconstitution after bone marrow (BM) transplantation. The mechanism underlying this defect is not known. Here, we report defective homing of FA patient BM progenitors transplanted into mouse models. Using cells from patients carrying mutations in FA complementation group A (FA-A), we show that when transplanted into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) recipient mice, FA-A BM cells exhibited impaired homing activity. FA-A cells also showed defects in both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Complementation of FA-A deficiency by reexpression of FANCA readily restored adhesion of FA-A cells. A significant decrease in the activity of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 was found associated with these defective functions in patient-derived cells, and expression of a constitutively active Cdc42 mutant was able to rescue the adhesion defect of FA-A cells. These results provide the first evidence that FA proteins influence human BM progenitor homing and adhesion via the small GTPase Cdc42-regulated signaling pathway. PMID:18565850

  2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the evolution of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Zagorka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrinolytic activity in the acute stroke was examined by monitoring the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, as one of the indicators of fibrinolytic activity. Given the role of PAI-1 in the processes of atherogenesis and thrombogenesis, plasma PAI-1 level was measured in 59 patients (up to 50 years of age with atherothrombotic stroke (verified by computed tomography scanning or magnetic resonance imaging of brain in the period from 12 to 24 hours (I analysis and 30 days after the onset of stroke (II analysis; then, it was correlated with plasma PAI-1 level in the control group (57 healthy subjects, which was 2.86±0.70 U/ml. It was found that PAI-1 level was significantly higher in the acute stroke (I analysis: PAI-1 =4.10±1.40 U/ml, p<0.001; II analysis: PAI-1 =3.64+0.90 U/ml, p<0.001, while fibrinolytic activity was lower, especially on the first day from the stroke that was not completely increased even after 30 days. There was no difference in PAI-1 levels between the subgroups of patients with infarction and lacunar cerebral ischemia (p>0.05, as well as between females and males (p>0.05. Along with significantly increased fibrinogen level (4.65±1 g/l, in the controls - 2.83±0.64 g/l, p<0.001, significantly higher triglycerides (2.04±0.76 mmol/l, in the controls - 1.38+0.54 mmol/l, p<0.001 and lipoproteins(a (0.405±0.29 g/l, in the controls -0.172±0.14 g/l, p<0.001 were found, correlating with higher plasma PAI-1 level in these patients. The increased plasma level of PAI-1 pointed to possibility of decreased fibrinolytic activity in pathogenesis of ischemie stroke, as well as, risk of reinsult, which had been the greatest after the onset of stroke and declined gradually within several weeks.

  3. Development of a simplified method for intelligent glazed façade design under different control strategies and verified by building simulation tool BSim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to develop a simplified calculation method for intelligent glazed facade under different control conditions (night shutter, solar shading and natural ventilation) to simulate the energy performance and indoor environment of an office room installed with the intelligent facade......, it is possible to calculate the whole year performance of a room or building with intelligent glazed façade, which makes it a less time consuming tool to investigate the performance of the intelligent façade under different control strategies in the design stage with acceptable accuracy. Results showed good....... The method took the angle dependence of the solar characteristic into account, including the simplified hourly building model developed according to EN 13790 to evaluate the influence of the controlled façade on both the indoor environment (indoor air temperature, solar transmittance through the façade...

  4. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with the enhancement of X-ray susceptibility by RITA in a hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (FaDu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Jinwei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing and bio-informatic analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism of reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis (RITA-enhancing X-ray susceptibility in FaDu cells.

  5. Synthesis of Fulvic Acid-Coated Magnetite (Fe3O4–FA and Its Application for the Reductive Adsorption of [AuCl4]–

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Anggo Krisbiantoro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fulvic acid-coated magnetite (Fe3O4–FA has been synthesized through coprecipitation method using NH4OH. Synthesis conducted by cheap and environmentally friendly preparation used iron salts and extracted fulvic acid (FA from Peat soil of Rawa Pening, Central Java, Indonesia. Characterization using FT–IR indicated that the coating of FA on Fe3O4 occurred through the formation of chemical bond between iron of Fe3O4 and carboxyl group of FA. The XRD measurement indicated that coated Fe3O4 successfully dispersed in smaller size than uncoated Fe3O4, i.e. from 16.67 to 14.84 nm for Fe3O4 and Fe3O4–FA, respectively. Synthesized Fe3O4–FA has pHPZC 6.37 and stable at pH > 3.0. The extracted FA has total acidity 866.61 cmol kg–1, –COOH content 229.77 cmol kg–1 and –OH content 636.84 cmol kg–1. Fe3O4–FA has total acidity 494.86 cmol kg–1, –COOH content 67.80 cmol kg–1 and –OH content 427.06 cmol kg–1. The adsorption rate constant (k of [AuCl4]– on Fe3O4–A according to the Ho kinetic model was 8006.53 g mol–1 min–1. The adsorption capacity (qmax according to Langmuir isotherm model was 1.24 × 10–4 mol g–1. The presence of reduction towards the adsorbed [AuCl4]– was shown by the appearance of peaks at 2θ: 37.41; 43.66; 64.25, and 76.67° in the XRD diffractogram.

  6. Targeting property and toxicity of a novel ultrasound contrast agent microbubble carrying the targeting and drug-loaded complex FA-CNTs-PTX on MCF7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Junxi; Li, Guozhong; Wen, Zhaohui; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Xiangyu; Liu, Fenghua

    2017-10-01

    The application of ultrasound contrast agents not only is confined to the enhancement of ultrasound imaging but also has started to be used as a drug system for diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, Span60 and PEG1500 were used as membrane materials, and a new targeting and drug-loading multifunctional ultrasound contrast agent microbubble enveloping the FA-CNTs-PTX complex was successfully prepared by acoustic cavitation. With the breast cancer cell line MCF7 as the research target, the effects of the microbubble with FA-CNTs-PTX on the proliferation and toxicity of MCF7 cells were studied using a CCK-8 and AO/EB double-staining method. The influences of the microbubbles with FA-CNTs-PTX on the cellular morphology and apoptosis period of the MCF7 cells were detected using an inverted fluorescence microscope. The apoptosis of MCF7 cells induced by the microbubbles with FA-CNTs-PTX was investigated with flow cytometry and an annexin and PI double staining fluorescence quantitative analysis. The results indicated that the ultrasound contrast agent microbubble with FA-CNTs-PTX remarkably inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells, which was mainly controlled by the drug loading rate and the nanometer size of the microbubbles. Moreover, the proliferative inhibition rate of the microbubbles with FA-CNTs-PTX was related to the cell apoptosis period of MCF7 cells. Its inhibition degree on the proliferation of MCF7 cells was higher than that of the hepatoma HepG2 cells. The apoptosis rate of MCF7 cells induced by the microbubbles with FA-CNTs-PTX was higher than that of normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the microbubbles with FA-CNTs-PTX could target the MCF7 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Façade insulation retrofitting policy implementation process and its effects on health equity determinants: A realist review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camprubí, Lluís; Malmusi, Davide; Mehdipanah, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    Fuel poverty and cold housing constitute a significant public health problem. Energy efficiency interventions, such as façade retrofitting, address the problem from a structural and long-term perspective. Despite evidence of the health benefits of insulation, little is known about the political and social contexts that contribute to social inequalities in receiving and experiencing health benefits from these interventions. We used a realist review methodology to better understand the mechanisms that explain how and why variations across different social groups appear in receiving energy efficiency façade retrofitting interventions and in their impact on health determinants. We considered the four stages of the policy implementation framework: public policy approach; policy; receiving intervention and impact on health determinants. We found strong evidence that certain social groups (low-income, renters, elderly) suffering most from fuel poverty, experience more barriers for undertaking a building retrofitting (due to factors such as upfront costs, “presentism” thinking, split incentives, disruption and lack of control), and that some public policies on housing energy efficiency may exacerbate these inequalities. This can be avoided if such policies specifically aim at tackling fuel poverty or social inequities, are completely free to users, target the most affected groups and are adapted to their needs. - Highlights: •Health benefits of housing façade insulation more pronounced in fuel poor groups. •Social groups suffering most from fuel poverty least likely to undergo insulation. •Energy efficiency policies focused solely on CO_2 reduction may increase inequalities. •Split Incentives and “Take-Back” effect show socioeconomic and contextual variability. •Universal policies without targeting increase inequalities in retrofitting uptake.

  8. Derivation of elastic stiffness formula for leaf type HDS and conceptual design of leaf type HDS of SMART FA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Suh, Jung Min; Lee, Jin Seok

    1997-12-01

    Based on the strain energy method and Euler beam theory, an elastic stiffness formula for the leaf type HDS, now widely used as the holddown spring for the FA of Westinghouse type PWRs, has been derived. Through comparisons with the characteristic test results of the test produced HDSs, it has been found that the derived formula is useful to reliably estimate an elastic stiffness with material properties and the geometric data of an HDS. Through sensitivity analysis of HDS`s elastic stiffness, the elastic stiffness sensitivity with respect to different design variables was identified, as well as the design variables having remarkable sensitivity. In addition, finite element analysis using surface-to-surface contact elements on the contact surface between the leaves shows that the analysis results are in good agreement with the elastic stiffness determined from the derived formula. It is therefore expected that the finite element model and the analysis method will be useful in the analysis of the elasto-plastic behavior of the leaf type HDS in the future. To both reduce the cobalt content, which is considered to be the source of radioactive contamination in the reactor core, and to design the HDS to meet the holddown requirements of the SMART FA, a conceptual design for the HDS of the SMART FA has been performed through two analyses of the elastic characteristics of the HDS : the possibility of substitution of the leaf spring`s material from Inconel 718 to Zircaloy and the effects on the HDS`s elastic characteristics according to the variation of leaf thickness and the number of leaves composing the HDS. (author). 34 refs., 33 tabs., 37 figs.

  9. Mn(ii) mediated degradation of artemisinin based on Fe3O4@MnSiO3-FA nanospheres for cancer therapy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Weijie; Zhang, Min; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Haibao; He, Mengni; Xu, Pengping; Zhou, Jiajia; Liu, Zhenbang; Chen, Qianwang

    2015-07-01

    Artemisinin (ART) is a natural drug with potent anticancer activities related with Fe2+ mediated cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge in ART. Herein, we reported that Mn2+ could substitute for Fe2+ to react with ART and generate toxic products, inducing a much higher anticancer efficiency. On this basis, we prepared pH-responsive Fe3O4@MnSiO3-FA nanospheres which can efficiently deliver hydrophobic ART into tumors in mice models. Mn2+ was released in acidic tumor environments and intracellular lysosomes, interacting with ART to kill cancer cells. The ART-loaded nanocarriers could suppress tumor growth more efficiently than free ART, which could be further illustrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histological analysis revealed that the drug delivery system had no obvious effect on the major organs of mice. ART has been reported to have lower toxicity than chemotherapeutics. The ART-loaded nanocarriers are promising to be used in improving the survival of chemotherapy patients, providing a novel method for clinical tumor therapy.Artemisinin (ART) is a natural drug with potent anticancer activities related with Fe2+ mediated cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge in ART. Herein, we reported that Mn2+ could substitute for Fe2+ to react with ART and generate toxic products, inducing a much higher anticancer efficiency. On this basis, we prepared pH-responsive Fe3O4@MnSiO3-FA nanospheres which can efficiently deliver hydrophobic ART into tumors in mice models. Mn2+ was released in acidic tumor environments and intracellular lysosomes, interacting with ART to kill cancer cells. The ART-loaded nanocarriers could suppress tumor growth more efficiently than free ART, which could be further illustrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histological analysis revealed that the drug delivery system had no obvious effect on the major organs of mice. ART has been reported to have lower toxicity than chemotherapeutics. The ART-loaded nanocarriers are promising to be used in

  10. Faà di Bruno's formula and the distributions of random partitions in population genetics and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Fred M

    2008-06-01

    We show that the formula of Faà di Bruno for the derivative of a composite function gives, in special cases, the sampling distributions in population genetics that are due to Ewens and to Pitman. The composite function is the same in each case. Other sampling distributions also arise in this way, such as those arising from Dirichlet, multivariate hypergeometric, and multinomial models, special cases of which correspond to Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions in physics. Connections are made to compound sampling models.

  11. Torroja Institute, the historic building: conservation and characteristics of the materials of its façades

    OpenAIRE

    Luxán, M. P.; Gaspar, D.; Sotolongo, R.; Solesio, M. T.; Dorrego, F.

    1999-01-01

    The "Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción" building is one of the most singular engineering design done by Eduardo Torroja: it was started in 1951. This study focused on the Institute façade-building materials has been carried out in the 100th anniversary of his birth. The analysis has revealed that the design of the original project has been of a great importance for the good conservation of the external walls. The pointing mortar characterization of its brick...

  12. Ações de fomento à pesquisa científica na FaBCI/FESPSP: panorama do período de 2008 a 2010Actions of scientific development research at FaBCI/FESPSP: overview of the period 2008 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Ferreira Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta e descreve as ações de incentivo à pesquisa científica desenvolvidas na Fundação Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo - FESPSP entre os anos de 2008 e 2010. O foco do trabalho é a participação dos alunos da Faculdade de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação – FaBCI nestes programas e a produção apresentada nestes anos. Além disso, são apresentados os resultados obtidos pelo programa de Monitoria Científica, aplicado em 2010 apenas no curso de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação da FESPSP, entre os meses de abril a dezembro de 2010. Palavras-chave: Pesquisa científica. Iniciação científica. Instituição de Ensino Superior. Abstract This paper presents and describes activities to encourage scientific research developed at Fundação Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo (FESPSP between 2008 and 2010. The main focus of this study is the participation of students of the School of Library and Information Science (FaBCI in these programs and their production throughout these years. Moreover, we present the results of the program of Scientific Monitoring, applied exclusively in the course of Library and Information Science of FESPSP between April and December 2010. Keywords: Scientific research. Undergraduate research. College Education Institution.

  13. Design of an effective bifunctional catalyst organotriphosphonic acid-functionalized ferric alginate (ATMP-FA) and optimization by Box-Behnken model for biodiesel esterification synthesis of oleic acid over ATMP-FA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Ping; Liu, Xiguang; Qu, Rongjun

    2014-12-01

    Biodiesel production has become an intense research area because of rapidly depleting energy reserves and increasing petroleum prices together with environmental concerns. This paper focused on the optimization of the catalytic performance in the esterification reaction of oleic acid for biodiesel production over the bifunctional catalyst organotriphosphonic acid-functionalized ferric alginate ATMP-FA. The reaction parameters including catalyst amount, ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio and reaction temperature have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using the Box-Behnken model. It was found that the reaction temperature was the most significant factor, and the best conversion ratio of oleic acid could reach 93.17% under the reaction conditions with 9.53% of catalyst amount and 8.62:1 of ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio at 91.0 °C. The research results show that two catalytic species could work cooperatively to promote the esterification reaction, and the bifunctional ATMP-FA is a potential catalyst for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nattokinase-promoted tissue plasminogen activator release from human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, Chieko; Maruyama, Masugi; Kawahara, Tomoko; Sumi, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    When heated to a temperature of 70 degrees C or higher, the strong fibrinolytic activity of nattokinase in a solution was deactivated. Similar results were observed in the case of using Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-pNA, which are synthetic substrates of nattokinase. In the current study, tests were conducted on the indirect fibrinolytic effects of the substances containing nattokinase that had been deactivated through heating at 121 degrees C for 15 min. Bacillus subtilis natto culture solutions made from three types of bacteria strain were heat-treated and deactivated, and it was found that these culture solutions had the ability to generate tissue plasminogen activators (tPA) from vascular endothelial cells and HeLa cells at certain concentration levels. For example, it was found that the addition of heat-treated culture solution of the Naruse strain (undiluted solution) raises the tPA activity of HeLa cells to about 20 times that of the control. Under the same conditions, tPA activity was raised to a level about 5 times higher for human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), and to a level about 24 times higher for nattokinase sold on the market. No change in cell count was observed for HeLa cells and HUVEC in the culture solution at these concentrations, and the level of activity was found to vary with concentration. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Epistatic effects of polymorphisms in genes from the renin-angiotensin, bradykinin, and fibrinolytic systems on plasma t-PA and PAI-1 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Williams, Scott M.; Hebert, Patricia R.; Coffey, Christopher S.; Hillege, Hans L.; Navis, Gerjan; Vaughan, Douglas E.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Moore, Jason H.

    Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) directly influence thrombus formation and degradation and thereby risk for arterial thrombosis. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system has been linked to the production of PAI-1 expression via the angiotensin II

  16. FA safety testing of HTR fuel pebbles irradiated in the High Flux Reactor in Petten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, O., E-mail: oliver.seeger@rwth-aachen.de [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Safety of Irradiated Nuclear Materials Unit, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Laurie, M., E-mail: mathias.laurie@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Safety of Irradiated Nuclear Materials Unit, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Abjani, A. El; Ejton, J.; Boudaud, D.; Freis, D.; Carbol, P.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Safety of Irradiated Nuclear Materials Unit, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fütterer, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Energy and Transport (IET), Nuclear Reactor Integrity Assessment and Knowledge Management Unit, PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Allelein, H.-J. [Lehrstuhl für Reaktorsicherheit und -technik an der RWTH Aachen, Kackertstraße 9, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    The Cold Finger Apparatus (KühlFinger-Apparatur—KüFA) in operation at JRC-ITU is designed to experimentally scrutinize the effects of Depressurization LOss of Forced Circulation (D-LOFC) accident scenarios on irradiated High Temperature Reactor (HTR) fuel pebbles. Up to 1600 °C, the reference maximum temperature for these accidents, high-quality German HTR fuel pebbles have already demonstrated a small fission product release. This paper discusses and compares the releases obtained from KüFA-testing the pebbles HFR-K5/3 and HFR-EU1/3, which were both irradiated in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten. We present the time-dependent fractional release of the volatile fission product {sup 137}Cs as well as the fission gas {sup 85}Kr for both pebbles. For HFR-EU1/3 the isotopes {sup 134}Cs and {sup 154}Eu as well as the shorter-lived {sup 110m}Ag have also been measured. A detailed description of the experimental setup and its accuracy is given. The data for the recently tested pebbles is discussed in the context of previous results.

  17. Recurrence of Neurological Deficits in an F/A-18D Pilot Following Loss of Cabin Pressure at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tom; Evangelista, Jose S; Latham, Emi; Mukherjee, Samir T; Pilmanis, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Supersonic, high altitude aviation places its pilots and aircrew in complex environments, which may lead to injury that is not easily diagnosed or simply treated. Decompression illness (either venous or arterial) and environmental conditions (e.g., abnormal gases and pressure) are the most likely adverse effects aircrew often face. Though symptomatic aircrew personnel may occasionally require hyperbaric oxygen treatment, it is rare to require more than one treatment before returning to baseline function. This challenging aviation case details the clinical course and discusses the salient physiological factors of an F/A-18D pilot who presented with neurological symptoms following loss of cabin pressure at altitude. Most crucial to this discussion was the requirement for multiple hyperbaric oxygen treatments over several days due to recurrence of symptoms. The likelihood of recurrence during and after future flights cannot be estimated with accuracy. This case illustrates a degree of recurrences for neurological symptoms in aviation (hypobaric exposure to hyperbaric baseline environment) that has not previously been described. Robinson T, Evangelista JS III, Latham E, Mukherjee ST, Pilmanis A. Recurrence of neurological deficits in an F/A-18D pilot following loss of cabin pressure at altitude. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):740-744.

  18. The mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory: an evaluative review of evidence for the CaR-FA-X model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A

    2012-02-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) has been found to be an important cognitive phenomenon with respect to depression and trauma-related psychopathology (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder), and researchers have been interested in better understanding the factors that contribute to this proposed vulnerability factor. The most prominent model of mechanisms underlying OGM to date is Williams et al.'s (2007) CaR-FA-X model. This model proposes that three processes influence OGM: capture and rumination, functional avoidance, and impaired executive control. The author reviews the current state of support for the CaR-FA-X model by evaluating 38 studies that have examined OGM and one or more mechanisms of the model. Collectively, these studies reveal robust support for associations between OGM and both rumination and impaired executive control. OGM also appears to be a cognitive avoidance strategy, and there is evidence that avoiding the retrieval of specific memories reduces distress after an aversive event, at least in the short term. Important issues that have been left unresolved are highlighted, including the nature of the capture phenomenon, the role of trauma in functional avoidance, and the developmental nature of functional avoidance. Recommendations for future research that will enhance understanding of the factors that contribute to OGM are suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. TRAC-PF1/MOD3 calculations of Savannah River Laboratory Rig FA single-annulus heated experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.R.; McDaniel, C.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of TRAC-PF1/MOD3 benchmarks of the Rig FA experiments performed at the Savannah River Laboratory to simulate prototypic reactor fuel assembly behavior over a range of fluid conditions typical of the emergency cooling system (ECS) phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The primary purpose of this work was to use the SRL Rig FA tests to qualify the TRAC-PF1/MOD3 computer code and models for computing Mark-22 fuel assembly LOCA/ECS power limits. This qualification effort was part of a larger effort undertaken by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy to independently confirm power limits for the Savannah River Site K Reactor. The results of this benchmark effort as discussed in this paper demonstrate that TRAC/PF1/MOD3 coupled with proper modeling is capable of simulating thermal-hydraulic phenomena typical of that encountered in Mark-22 fuel assembly during LOCA/ECS conditions

  20. Microbial deterioration of artistic tiles from the façade of the Grande Albergo Ausonia & Hungaria (Venice, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomucci, Lucia; Bertoncello, Renzo; Salvadori, Ornella; Martini, Ilaria; Favaro, Monica; Villa, Federica; Sorlini, Claudia; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    The Grande Albergo Ausonia & Hungaria (Venice Lido, Italy) has an Art Nouveau polychrome ceramic coating on its façade, which was restored in 2007. Soon after the conservation treatment, many tiles of the façade decoration showed coloured alterations putatively attributed to the presence of microbial communities. To confirm the presence of the biological deposit and the stratigraphy of the Hungaria tiles, stereomicroscope, optical and environmental scanning electron microscope observations were made. The characterisation of the microbial community was performed using a PCR-DGGE approach. This study reported the first use of a culture-independent approach to identify the total community present in biodeteriorated artistic tiles. The case study examined here reveals that the coloured alterations on the tiles were mainly due to the presence of cryptoendolithic cyanobacteria. In addition, we proved that the microflora present on the tiles was generally greatly influenced by the environment of the Hungaria hotel. We found several microorganisms related to the alkaline environment, which is in the range of the tile pH, and related to the aquatic environment, the presence of the acrylic resin Paraloid B72® used during the 2007 treatment and the pollutants of the Venice lagoon.

  1. Development of a responsive system for building façade protection – exploring and controlling a process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Verzola Vaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is present an exploratory research process to integrate technichs and tools to develop a system for building protection façade using as reference the Cobogó. Two traders and one engineer –Coimbra, Boeckmann and Góes - settled in Recife created this element in the early XIX. The Cobogó has as main characteristics the capacity of been manufactured in a mass production system, the capacity of protecting indoor environment from direct sun light and promote natural ventilation in these spaces, the possibility of, even being a hollow element, create a sensation of privacy and, furthermore, be used as a composition element in building façades.  This document will present the research different steps, which involved collecting data about how the Cobogó has been used in different buildings in the city of Recife, the genesis of a geometric concept, the development of different physical and digital prototypes and other methodologies and software used along the research.

  2. A coupled hydraulic and structure-dynamic model for prediction of RCCA drop time under hypothetical FA deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Mingmin; Dressel, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    The ability of the RCCA (Rod Control Cluster Assemblies) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be fully inserted into the core and to reach the dashpot within a required time limit is one of the important safety requirements for quick shutdown. This kind of quick shutdown in a PWR is initiated by allowing the control rod with the drive rod together to fall into the core by gravity. During normal operation, the RCCA drop time is mainly influenced by the weight of control assembly, hydraulic resistance in the CRDM (Control Rod Drive Mechanism), control rod guide assembly and guide thimbles and by the mechanical friction forces between the RCCA and its surroundings. In the case of an accident, e.g. earthquake, an additional influence of horizontal vibrations of the RCCA and its surroundings has to be considered [1]. A coupled hydraulic and structure-dynamic model is presented in this paper for prediction of RCCA drop time down to dashpot under hypothetical fuel assembly (FA) deformations. This coupled model was verified by RCCA static and dynamic drop tests with a deformed FA and by RCCA drop tests under operational conditions. (orig.)

  3. Double skin façade: Modelling technique and influence of venetian blinds on the airflow and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyi, Draco; Hasan, Reaz; Penlington, Roger; Underwood, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The demand to reduce building cooling load and annual energy consumption can be optimised with the use of Double Skin Facade (DSF). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods are frequently used for the analysis of heat transfer through DSF. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding few key parameters, such as modelling strategies and the solar heat transmitted to the indoor space as a function of the blind tilt angles and positioning within the façade channel. In this paper we have investigated four modelling strategies and the influence of blind tilt angle and their proximity to the façade walls. The DSF system used in this investigation is equipped with venetian blinds and facades that absorb and reflect the incident solar radiation and transfer the direct solar heat gain into the building. A finite volume discretization method with the SIMPLE solution algorithm of the velocity-pressure coupling involving the low-turbulence k–ε model is used. A ray-traced solar model is coupled with long wave radiation model to solve the complete solar and radiation fields along with convection and conduction fields. On the modelling strategies, three dimensional domains were cast over three computational zones; external zone with solar radiation entering the outer skin of glass; buoyancy-driven air cavity zone with convection and transmitted solar radiation; and an internal zone. Also investigated is the thermal behaviour of the DSF due to the blind tilt angles (30°, 45°, 60°, and 75°) and its position from the facade walls (104 mm, 195 mm, 287 mm and 379 mm). Validations of the results are based on experimental data from the literature and the predicted trends compared very well with the experimental measurements. The heat gain due to direct solar radiation and convection through the facades to the internal space are presented. Comparative analysis of the four modelling strategies shows little variation of the results. The implication is a reduction in

  4. Protein structure of fetal antigen 1 (FA1). A novel circulating human epidermal-growth-factor-like protein expressed in neuroendocrine tumors and its relation to the gene products of dlk and pG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Krogh, Thomas N; Højrup, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The present paper describes the primary structure, glycosylation and tissue localization of fetal antigen 1 (FA1) isolated from second-trimester human amniotic fluid. FA1 is a single-chained, heterogeneous glycoprotein of 225-262 amino acid residues. FA1 has six well conserved epidermal...... extends with minor corrections to the human adrenal-specific mRNA, pG2 as well. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of FA1 in 10 out of 14 lung tumors containing neuroendocrine elements, and in the placental villi where FA1 was exclusively seen in stromal cells in close contact...... to the vascular structure. In the pancreas, FA1 co-localized with insulin in the insulin secretory granules of the beta cells within the islets of Langerhans. Our findings suggest that FA1 is synthesized as a membrane anchored protein and released into the circulation after enzymic cleavage, and that circulating...

  5. Construct validity of the Heart Failure Screening Tool (Heart-FaST) to identify heart failure patients at risk of poor self-care: Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Nicholas A; Ski, Chantal F; McEvedy, Samantha M; Thompson, David R; Cameron, Jan

    2018-02-14

    The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the Heart Failure Screening Tool (Heart-FaST) via: (1) examination of internal construct validity; (2) testing of scale function in accordance with design; and (3) recommendation for change/s, if items are not well adjusted, to improve psychometric credential. Self-care is vital to the management of heart failure. The Heart-FaST may provide a prospective assessment of risk, regarding the likelihood that patients with heart failure will engage in self-care. Psychometric validation of the Heart-FaST using Rasch analysis. The Heart-FaST was administered to 135 patients (median age = 68, IQR = 59-78 years; 105 males) enrolled in a multidisciplinary heart failure management program. The Heart-FaST is a nurse-administered tool for screening patients with HF at risk of poor self-care. A Rasch analysis of responses was conducted which tested data against Rasch model expectations, including whether items serve as unbiased, non-redundant indicators of risk and measure a single construct and that rating scales operate as intended. The results showed that data met Rasch model expectations after rescoring or deleting items due to poor discrimination, disordered thresholds, differential item functioning, or response dependence. There was no evidence of multidimensionality which supports the use of total scores from Heart-FaST as indicators of risk. Aggregate scores from this modified screening tool rank heart failure patients according to their "risk of poor self-care" demonstrating that the Heart-FaST items constitute a meaningful scale to identify heart failure patients at risk of poor engagement in heart failure self-care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The gender-specific role of polymorphisms from the fibrinolytic, renin-angiotensin, and bradykinin systems in determining plasma t-PA and PAI-I levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Williams, Scott M.; Hebert, Patricia R.; Coffey, Christopher S.; Hillege, Hans L.; Navis, Gerjan; Vaughan, Douglas E.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Moore, Jason H.

    2006-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor I (PAI-I) directly influence thrombus formation and degradation and thus risk for arterial thrombosis. We report here results from a genetic analysis of plasma t-PA and PAI-I levels in a large population-based sample from the

  7. A preliminary comprehensive dynamic analysis of the typical FaCT scenarios with JSFR and related fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Ono, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Takashi; Koma, Yoshikazu; Kawaguchi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    A preliminary comprehensive dynamic analysis of the typical Fast Reactor (FR) deployment scenarios with JSFR and related fuel cycle facilities developed in 'FaCT: Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project' was conducted. The scenarios were evaluated from some of the development targets and design goals in the FaCT project. The isotopic compositions of the nuclear fuels and wastes and the quantities of radioactive wastes (HLWs, LLWs) from Japanese nuclear fuel cycle facilities were calculated to grasp the sustainability characteristics. Regarding the long-term economics, the total cash out-flows and the average electricity generation costs to 22nd century were calculated. Cash out-flow peaks and waste generation peaks were found from 2030s to 2050s, 2090s to 2110s, and 2150s to 2170s because of the cost and wastes from decommissioning of the nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants for LWR spent fuel and the construction costs of them. Firstly, the major results of the reference case are explained combined with introduction of the function of the dynamic analysis tool (Supply Chain Management Code). The analysis is related to sustainability and economics in FaCT project development targets since they are important in the sustainability and economics evaluation. Secondly, the comparisons between the reference case and the three other option cases with their own issues of choice are explained. Those options are different breeding ratios, dual-purpose reprocessing plant, and Am-Cm recycling. As the tentative conclusions of the analyses are: the exploration of the optimal breeding ratio between B.R. =1.1 and 1.2 at the start up stage of FR is regarded as reasonable; the cost reduction of the dual purpose reprocessing plant resulted from the facility integration was confirmed though the cost estimation of the facility should be modified, it is a little bit too hasty to decide the manner of MA recycling because many issues to be considered are left at present

  8. F ICT. ) :R4TIO~S I~ THE RAI)FA~f

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The operations in the Radfan mountains, within the hinterland of Aden, which occurred during May and. June 1964, possess a curious, multi-faceted appeal, which is embodied in the term 'twilight' contained within the title. It was a twilight conflict in so far as it represents the very last active military role which Brtain adopted ...

  9. Growth, physicochemical properties, and morphogenesis of Chinese wild-type PRV Fa and its gene-deleted mutant strain PRV SA215

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Shanhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PRV Fa is common in China and causes most of the pseudorabies in the pig industry. A PRV SA215 strain with deleted gE, gI, and TK genes was constructed to develop a commercial attenuated live vaccine. However, the physicochemical properties, growth pattern, penetration kinetics, and morphogenesis of the PRV SA215 and its parental PRV Fa strain are unclear. Results A series of experiments were conducted to characterize both strains and provide more information. PRV Fa and PRV SA215 were found to have similar penetration patterns, with about 5 min half-time of penetration. The SA215 strain exhibited a slight delay in entry compared with PRV Fa. In the one-step growth test, the titers of the SA215 strain were first detected at 8 h, rapidly increased, and peaked at 12 h. A plateau was formed between 12-36 h of culturing. PRV SA215 showed delayed replication and approximately 10-30-fold lower titers during 0-16 h of culturing compared with the PRV-Fa strain. After 16 h, the PRV Fa titers dramatically decreased, whereas those of PRV SA215 were prolonged to 36 h and reached a titer value equal to that of PRV Fa and then decreased. Both strains were sensitive to both heat and acid-alkali treatments; however, PRV Fa was relatively more stable to heat treatment than PRV SA215. Both strains could propagate in the cultures with pH values from 5.0 to 9.0. Cultures with pH below 3.0 or above 11.0 were fatal to both strains. Both strains had considerable resistance to freeze-thawing treatments. Morphogenetic investigations showed that typical phases in the maturation pathway were observed in the PRV Fa-infected PK15 cells, whereas secondary envelopment was not observed in the PRV SA215 strain. Instead, capsid aggregations with concomitants of electrodense materials were observed. Conclusions These results suggest that PRV SA215 is a promising strain for vaccine development

  10. Similarity Theory Based Radial Turbine Performance and Loss Mechanism Comparison between R245fa and Air for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycles using radial turbines as expanders are considered as one of the most efficient technologies to convert heavy-duty diesel engine waste heat into useful work. Turbine similarity design based on the existing air turbine profiles is time saving. Due to totally different thermodynamic properties between organic fluids and air, its influence on turbine performance and loss mechanisms need to be analyzed. This paper numerically simulated a radial turbine under similar conditions between R245fa and air, and compared the differences of the turbine performance and loss mechanisms. Larger specific heat ratio of air leads to air turbine operating at higher pressure ratios. As R245fa gas constant is only about one-fifth of air gas constant, reduced rotating speeds of R245fa turbine are only 0.4-fold of those of air turbine, and reduced mass flow rates are about twice of those of air turbine. When using R245fa as working fluid, the nozzle shock wave losses decrease but rotor suction surface separation vortex losses increase, and eventually leads that isentropic efficiencies of R245fa turbine in the commonly used velocity ratio range from 0.5 to 0.9 are 3%–4% lower than those of air turbine.

  11. Test cell data-based predictive modelling to determine HVAC energy consumption for three façade solutions in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guerrero-Rubio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to narrow the gap between predicted and actual energy performance in buildings. Predictive models were established that relate the electric consumption by HVAC systems to maintain certain indoor environmental conditions in variable weather to the type of façade. The models were developed using data gathered from test cells with adiabatic envelopes on all but the façade to be tested. Three façade types were studied. The first, the standard solution, consisted in a double wythe brick wall with an intermediate air space, the configuration most commonly deployed in multi-family dwellings built in Spain between 1940 and 1980 (prior to the enactment of the first building codes that limited overall energy demand in buildings. The other two were retrofits frequently found in such buildings: ventilated façades and ETICS (external thermal insulation composite systems. Two predictive models were designed for each type of façade, one for summer and the other for winter. The linear regression equations and the main statistical parameters are reported.

  12. Trade Offsets in Foreign Military Sales -- the F/A-18 Program: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    other activities under direct commercial arrangement between the U.S. manufacturer and a foreign entity. • Countertrade -- Countertrade involves the...and Countertrade Transactions on U.S. Industries. Concurrent with the ITC’s investigation, Congress enacted the Defense Production Act Amendments of...butnot yet specified - 1 3 - 81 Total 373 1,990 263 707 1,430 Indirect: Foreign investment - - - 5 32 Technology transfer - - 5 6 1 Countertrade 14 302 73

  13. (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium data for the {1,1-difluoroethane (R152a) + 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (R245fa)} system at temperatures from (323.150 to 353.150) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lixiang; Gong, Maoqiong; Guo, Hao; Dong, Xueqiang; Wu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • VLE data for (R152a + R245fa) system were measured at temperatures. • The experiments were based on the static-analytic method. • VLE data were correlated using PR–vdWs and PR–HV–NRTL models. - Abstract: In this paper, (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) for the {1,1-difluoroethane (R152a) + 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (R245fa)} system was determined by a static-analytical method at T = (323.150 to 353.150) K. Values of the VLE were correlated by the Peng–Robison equation of state (PR EoS) using two different models, the van der Waals (vdWs) mixing rule and the Huron–Vidal (HV) mixing rule involving the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model. The correlated results show good agreement with the experimental values. For the two models, the maximum average absolute deviations of the vapour phase mole fraction are 0.0034 and 0.0035, respectively.

  14. Yarrowia divulgata f.a., sp. nov., a yeast species from animal-related and marine sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Edina; Niss, Marete; Dlauchy, Dénes

    2013-01-01

    Five yeast strains, phenotypically indistinguishable from Yarrowia lipolytica and Yarrowia deformans, were recovered from different animal-related samples. One strain was isolated from a bacon processing plant in Denmark, two strains from chicken liver in the USA, one strain from chicken breast...... the genotypically closest relative (LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 and ITS region similarity of 97.0 and 93.7 %, respectively). Yarrowia divulgata f.a., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains with F6-17(T) ( = CBS 11013(T) = CCUG 56725(T)) as the type strain. Some D1/D2 sequences of yeasts from marine habitats were...

  15. A Review on Natural Ventilation-enabling Façade Noise Control Devices for Congested High-Rise Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Keung Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the current status of the research and development of natural ventilation-enabling noise control devices for use on the façades of high-rise residential buildings in congested cities. These devices are important for a sustainable urbanized city, as they are supposed to offer good acoustical protection to citizens, allowing for an acceptable level of natural ventilation inside residential units; energy for mechanical ventilation can then be saved. From the information presented in the existing literature, it is concluded that protrusive devices, such as lintels and balconies, are not effective noise screening devices, even if they are installed with sound absorbers and/or reflectors, under the effect of city reverberation. On the contrary, plenum windows and similar structures, which are plenum structures with a staggered air inlet and outlet, are interesting alternatives that are worth rigorous considerations.

  16. Experimental gonococcal infection in male volunteers: Cumulative experience with Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains FA1090 and MS11mkC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Metzgar Hobbs

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of male volunteers with Neisseria gonorrhoeae is safe and reproduces the clinical features of naturally acquired gonococcal urethritis. Human inoculation studies have helped define the natural history of experimental infection with two well-characterized strains of N. gonorrhoeae, FA1090 and MS11mkC. The human model has proved useful for testing the importance of putative gonococcal virulence factors for urethral infection in men. Studies with isogenic mutants have improved our understanding of the requirements for gonococcal LOS structures, pili, opacity proteins, IgA1 protease and the ability of infecting organisms to obtain iron from human transferrin and lactoferrin during uncomplicated urethritis. The model also presents opportunities to examine innate host immune responses that may be exploited or improved in development and testing of gonococcal vaccines. Here we review results to date with human experimental gonorrhea.

  17. Roadmap for improving roof and façade windows in nearly zero-energy houses in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Windows are central for the development of liveable nearly zero-energy homes and require careful consideration. Various studies have indicated that the effect of windows on energy consumption may change significantly with improved building insulation levels. Current guidelines on windows may...... comfort in nearly zero-energy houses located in the European cities Rome and Copenhagen. The aim was to identify options that can support the easy and robust design of future homes with typical use of roof and façade windows. Hourly daylight levels were calculated in DAYSIM, while space heating demand...... and operative temperatures were calculated in EnergyPlus. The results support previous findings on the limited ability of nearly zero-energy buildings to utilise solar gains. It was found that U-values are becoming increasingly important for the energy performance of windows. The paper sketches the increased...

  18. Impact of façade window design on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in nearly zero-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2015-01-01

    a solution space defined by targets for daylighting and thermal comfort. In contrast with existing guidelines, the results show an upper limit for energy savings and utilisation of solar gains in south-oriented rooms. Instead, low U-values are needed in both north- and south oriented rooms before large......Appropriate window solutions are decisive for the design of 'nearly zero-energy' buildings with healthy and comfortable indoor environment. This paper focuses on the relationship between size, orientation and glazing properties of façade windows for different side-lit room geometries in Danish...... 'nearly zero-energy' houses. The effect of these parameters on space heating demand, daylighting and thermal environment is evaluated by means of EnergyPlus and DAYSIM and presented in charts illustrating how combinations of design parameters with minimum space heating demand can be selected within...

  19. SaFaRI: sacral nerve stimulation versus the FENIX magnetic sphincter augmentation for adult faecal incontinence: a randomised investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Annabelle E; Croft, Julie; Napp, Vicky; Corrigan, Neil; Brown, Julia M; Hulme, Claire; Brown, Steven R; Lodge, Jen; Protheroe, David; Jayne, David G

    2016-02-01

    Faecal incontinence is a physically, psychologically and socially disabling condition. NICE guidance (2007) recommends surgical intervention, including sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), after failed conservative therapies. The FENIX magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) device is a novel continence device consisting of a flexible band of interlinked titanium beads with magnetic cores that is placed around the anal canal to augment anal sphincter tone through passive attraction of the beads. Preliminary studies suggest the FENIX MSA is safe, but efficacy data is limited. Rigorous evaluation is required prior to widespread adoption. The SaFaRI trial is a National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA)-funded UK multi-site, parallel group, randomised controlled, unblinded trial that will investigate the use of the FENIX MSA, as compared to SNS, for adult faecal incontinence resistant to conservative management. Twenty sites across the UK, experienced in the treatment of faecal incontinence, will recruit 350 patients randomised equally to receive either SNS or FENIX MSA. Participants will be followed-up at 2 weeks post-surgery and at 6, 12 and 18 months post-randomisation. The primary endpoint is success, as defined by device in use and ≥50 % improvement in the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score (CCIS) at 18 months post-randomisation. Secondary endpoints include complications, quality of life and cost effectiveness. SaFaRI will rigorously evaluate a new technology for faecal incontinence, the FENIX™ MSA, allowing its safe and controlled introduction into current clinical practice. These results will inform the future surgical management of adult faecal incontinence.

  20. Scheduling Appliances with GA, TLBO, FA, OSR and Their Hybrids Using Chance Constrained Optimization for Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunaira Nadeem

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we design a controller for home energy management based on following meta-heuristic algorithms: teaching learning-based optimization (TLBO, genetic algorithm (GA, firefly algorithm (FA and optimal stopping rule (OSR theory. The principal goal of designing this controller is to reduce the energy consumption of residential sectors while reducing consumer’s electricity bill and maximizing user comfort. Additionally, we propose three hybrid schemes OSR-GA, OSR-TLBO and OSR-FA, by combining the best features of existing algorithms. We have also optimized the desired parameters: peak to average ratio, energy consumption, cost, and user comfort (appliance waiting time for 20, 50, 100 and 200 heterogeneous homes in two steps. In the first step, we obtain the optimal scheduling of home appliances implementing our aforementioned hybrid schemes for single and multiple homes while considering user preferences and threshold base policy. In the second step, we formulate our problem through chance constrained optimization. Simulation results show that proposed hybrid scheduling schemes outperformed for single and multiple homes and they shift the consumer load demand exceeding a predefined threshold to the hours where the electricity price is low thus following the threshold base policy. This helps to reduce electricity cost while considering the comfort of a user by minimizing delay and peak to average ratio. In addition, chance-constrained optimization is used to ensure the scheduling of appliances while considering the uncertainties of a load hence smoothing the load curtailment. The major focus is to keep the appliances power consumption within the power constraint, while keeping power consumption below a pre-defined acceptable level. Moreover, the feasible regions of appliances electricity consumption are calculated which show the relationship between cost and energy consumption and cost and waiting time.

  1. Torroja Institute, the historic building: conservation and characteristics of the materials of its façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxán, M. P.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The "Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción" building is one of the most singular engineering design done by Eduardo Torroja: it was started in 1951. This study focused on the Institute façade-building materials has been carried out in the 100th anniversary of his birth. The analysis has revealed that the design of the original project has been of a great importance for the good conservation of the external walls. The pointing mortar characterization of its brick walls by instrumental techniques (infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with EDS reveals that calcite is its main component, with gypsum presence in polluted external zones and silica compounds from the sand. The obtained results indicate a good compatibility between mortars and façade bricks.

    El edificio del "Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción", construido en 1951, constituye una de las obras singulares del ingeniero Eduardo Torroja. En el centenario de su nacimiento se ha elaborado este estudio, que se centra en los materiales de construcción de las fachadas del Instituto. De su análisis se desprende la importancia del diseño del proyecto original en la buena conservación de los paramentos exteriores. La caracterización de los morteros de junta de las fábricas de ladrillo de los paramentos, mediante técnicas instrumentales (espectroscopia infrarroja, difracción de rayos X, microscopía electrónica de barrido con energías dispersivas de rayos X revela que la calcita es el compuesto principal, con presencia de yeso -especialmente en zonas externas contaminadas- y compuestos silíceos procedentes de la arena. Los resultados sobre las fachadas reflejan una buena compatibilidad entre los morteros de cal y los ladrillos.

  2. Weekly infusional high-dose fluorouracil (HD-FU), HD-FU plus folinic acid (HD-FU/FA), or HD-FU/FA plus biweekly cisplatin in advanced gastric cancer: randomized phase II trial 40953 of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Gastrointestinal Group and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Manfred P; Wilke, Hansjochen; Wagener, D J Theo; Vanhoefer, Udo; Jeziorski, Krzysztof; Hegewisch-Becker, Susanna; Balleisen, Leopold; Joossens, Eric; Jansen, Rob L; Debois, Muriel; Bethe, Ullrich; Praet, Michel; Wils, Jacques; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2007-06-20

    This multicentric, randomized, two-stage phase II trial evaluated three simplified weekly infusional regimens of fluorouracil (FU) or FU plus folinic acid (FA) and cisplatin (Cis) with the aim to select a regimen for future phase III trials. A total of 145 patients with advanced gastric cancer where randomly assigned to weekly FU 3,000 mg/m2/24 hours (HD-FU), FU 2,600 mg/m2/24 hours plus dl-FA 500 mg/m2 or l-FA 250 mg/m2 (HD-FU/FA), or FU 2000 mg/m2/24 hours plus FA plus biweekly Cis 50 mg/m2, each administered for 6 weeks with a 1-week rest. The primary end point was the response rate. Confirmed responses were observed in 6.1% (two of 33) of the eligible patients treated with HD-FU, in 25% (12 of 48, including one complete remission [CR]) with HD-FU/FA, and in 45.7% (21 of 46, including four CRs) with HD-FU/FA/Cis. The HD-FU arm was closed after stage 1 because the required minimum number of responses was not met. The median progression-free survival of all patients in the HD-FU, HD-FU/FA, and HD-FU/FA/Cis arm was 1.9, 4.0, and 6.1 months, respectively. The median overall survival was 7.1, 8.9, and 9.7 months, and the survival rate at 1 year was 24.3%, 30.3%, and 45.3%, respectively. Grade 4 toxicities were rare. The most relevant grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia in 1.9%, 5.4%, and 19.6%, and diarrhea in 2.7%, 1.9%, and 3.9% of the cycles in the HD-FU, HD-FU/FA, and HD-/FU/Cis arms, respectively. Weekly infusional FU/FA plus biweekly Cis is effective and safe in patients with gastric cancer.

  3. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with the enhancement of X-ray susceptibility by RITA in a hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (FaDu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jinwei; Li, Xianglan; Guo, Rutao; Liu, Shanshan; Luo, Hongyu; You, Qingshan

    2016-06-01

    Next generation sequencing and bio-informatic analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism of reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis (RITA)-enhancing X-ray susceptibility in FaDu cells. The cDNA was isolated from FaDu cells treated with 0 X-ray, 8 Gy X-ray, or 8 Gy X-ray + RITA. Then, cDNA libraries were created and sequenced using next generation sequencing, and each assay was repeated twice. Subsequently, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using Cuffdiff in Cufflinks and their functions were predicted by pathway enrichment analyses. Genes that were constantly up- or down-regulated in 8 Gy X-ray-treated FaDu cells and 8 Gy X-ray + RITA-treated FaDu cells were obtained as RITA genes. Afterward, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) relationships were obtained from the STRING database and a PPI network was constructed using Cytoscape. Furthermore, ClueGO was used for pathway enrichment analysis of genes in the PPI network. Total 2,040 and 297 DEGs were identified in FaDu cells treated with 8 Gy X-ray or 8 Gy X-ray + RITA, respectively. PARP3 and NEIL1 were enriched in base excision repair, and CDK1 was enriched in p53 signaling pathway. RFC2 and EZH2 were identified as RITA genes. In the PPI network, many interaction relationships were identified (e.g., RFC2-CDK1, EZH2-CDK1 and PARP3-EZH2). ClueGO analysis showed that RFC2 and EZH2 were related to cell cycle. RFC2, EZH2, CDK1, PARP3 and NEIL1 may be associated, and together enhance the susceptibility of FaDu cells treated with RITA to the deleterious effects of X-ray.

  4. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with the enhancement of X-ray susceptibility by RITA in a hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (FaDu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, Jinwei; Li, Xianglan; Guo, Rutao; Liu, Shanshan; Luo, Hongyu; You, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing and bio-informatic analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism of reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis (RITA)-enhancing X-ray susceptibility in FaDu cells. The cDNA was isolated from FaDu cells treated with 0 X-ray, 8 Gy X-ray, or 8 Gy X-ray + RITA. Then, cDNA libraries were created and sequenced using next generation sequencing, and each assay was repeated twice. Subsequently, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using Cuffdiff in Cufflinks and their functions were predicted by pathway enrichment analyses. Genes that were constantly up- or down-regulated in 8 Gy X-ray-treated FaDu cells and 8 Gy X-ray + RITA-treated FaDu cells were obtained as RITA genes. Afterward, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) relationships were obtained from the STRING database and a PPI network was constructed using Cytoscape. Furthermore, ClueGO was used for pathway enrichment analysis of genes in the PPI network. Total 2,040 and 297 DEGs were identified in FaDu cells treated with 8 Gy X-ray or 8 Gy X-ray + RITA, respectively. PARP3 and NEIL1 were enriched in base excision repair, and CDK1 was enriched in p53 signaling pathway. RFC2 and EZH2 were identified as RITA genes. In the PPI network, many interaction relationships were identified (e.g., RFC2-CDK1, EZH2-CDK1 and PARP3-EZH2). ClueGO analysis showed that RFC2 and EZH2 were related to cell cycle. RFC2, EZH2, CDK1, PARP3 and NEIL1 may be associated, and together enhance the susceptibility of FaDu cells treated with RITA to the deleterious effects of X-ray

  5. Role of the combination of FA and T2* parameters as a new diagnostic method in therapeutic evaluation of parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Zheng, Tao; Liu, Lanxiang; Gao, Dawei; Shi, Qinglei; Dong, Yanchao; Du, Dan

    2017-11-17

    Simple diffusion delivery (SDD) has attained good effects with only tiny amounts of drugs. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and relaxation time T2* that indicate the integrity of fiber tracts and iron concentration within brain tissue were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of SDD. To evaluate therapeutic effect of SDD in the Parkinson's disease (PD) rat model with FA and T2* parameters. Prospective case-control animal study. Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley rats (eight normal, eight PD, eight SDD, and eight subcutaneous injection rats). Single-shot spin echo echo-planar imaging and fast low-angle shot T 2 WI sequences at 3.0T. Parameters of FA and T2* on the treated side of the substantia nigra were measured to evaluate the therapeutic effect of SDD in a PD rat model. The effects of time on FA and T2* values were analyzed by repeated measurement tests. A one-way analysis of variance was conducted, followed by individual comparisons of the mean FA and T2* values at different timepoints. The FA values on the treated side of the substantia nigra in the SDD treatment group and subcutaneous injection treatment group were significantly higher at week 1 and lower at week 6 than that of the PD control group (SDD vs. PD, week 1, adjusted P = 0.012; subcutaneous vs. PD, week 1, adjusted P T2* parameter in the SDD treatment group and subcutaneous injection treatment group was significantly higher than that in the PD control group at week 6 (SDD vs. PD, adjusted P = 0.032; subcutaneous vs. PD, adjusted P T2* parameters can potentially serve as a new effective evaluation method of the therapeutic effect of SDD. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Operation characteristic and performance comparison of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for low-grade waste heat using R245fa, R123 and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yong-qiang; Hung, Tzu-Chen; He, Ya-Ling; Wang, Qian; Wang, Shuang; Li, Bing-xi; Lin, Jaw-Ren; Zhang, Wenping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental comparison using R123, R245fa and their mixtures has been investigated. • The basic operation parameters and the detailed operation characteristics of pure and mixture working fluids are addressed. • The mixture owns a relatively higher pump power consumption, 10–50% higher than that of R245fa and 2–47% higher than that of R123. • The highest system generating efficiency of 4.53% is obtained by 0.67R245fa/0.33R123. - Abstract: The operation characteristic and performance comparison of low-grade organic Rankine cycle (ORC) using R245fa, R123 and their mixtures have been investigated. The heat source temperature is set to be 120 °C, while the mass flow rate is controlled by adjusting the pump frequency. The basic operation parameters are first examined, while the detailed operation characteristics of pure and mixture working fluids are addressed. The system overall performance, including thermal efficiency and system generating efficiency, for pure and mixture working fluids are explored. The experimental results show that the mixtures own a relatively higher pump power consumption and enhancing the pump performance is also significant for ORC application. Whether the mixtures exhibit better thermodynamic performance than the pure working fluids depend on the operation parameters and mass fraction of mixtures. 0.67R245fa/0.33R123 owns the highest maximum net electricity output of 1.67 kW, 4.38% higher than that of R245fa and 63.73% higher than that of R123. Compared to the pure working fluids, the mixture working fluids own a better thermodynamic performance and a moderate economic performance.

  7. Lessons learned from the computational simulation of thermomechanical behaviour of the WWER-1000 reactor cores: FA development and its implantation into the Balakovo NPP unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanov, V.; Likhatchev, Y.; Folomeev, V.; Demishonkov, A.

    2003-01-01

    The fuel assembly is forced under operation conditions by weight and hydraulic force; hold-down force; contact transversal forces; non-uniform thermal and neutron fields; thermomechanical forces in the fuel assembly multirod structure. The fuel assembly bowing has been investigated in this work. The objective of the study is to recommend the optimal design for fuel assemblies. Calculations are made using the code TEREMOK. A new generation fuel assemblies for WWER-1000 named FA-2 are suggested. The performance of the FA- 2 has been studied. The theoretical approach and the calculation technique have been verified

  8. In-Flight Suppression of a De-Stabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John; VanZwieten, Tannen; Giiligan Eric; Miller, Chris; Hanson, Curtis; Orr, Jeb

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) has been developed for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles and implemented as a baseline part of its flight control system (FCS). To raise the technical readiness level of the SLS AAC algorithm, the Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control (LVAC) flight test program was conducted in which the SLS FCS prototype software was employed to control the pitch axis of Dryden's specially outfitted F/A-18, the Full Scale Advanced Systems Test Bed (FAST). This presentation focuses on a set of special test cases which demonstrate the successful mitigation of the unstable coupling of an F/A-18 airframe structural mode with the SLS FCS.

  9. Partial activation of SA- and JA-defensive pathways in strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO AMIL-RUIZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5 and FaPR10 were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  10. Immune activation by medium-chain triglyceride-containing lipid emulsions is not modulated by n-3 lipids or toll-like receptor 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, E.D.; Gulich, A.F.; Renne, M.F.; Landman, S.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Roelofs, H.M.; Wanten, G.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saturated medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) as part of the parenteral lipid regimen (50% MCT and 50% long chain triglycerides (LCT)) activate the immune system in vitro. Fish oil (FO)-derived n-3 fatty acids (FA) inhibit saturated FA-induced immune activation via a toll-like receptor

  11. fA cellular automaton model of crystalline cellulose hydrolysis by cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little Bryce A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose from plant biomass is an abundant, renewable material which could be a major feedstock for low emissions transport fuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Cellulase enzymes that break down cellulose into fermentable sugars are composed of different types - cellobiohydrolases I and II, endoglucanase and β-glucosidase - with separate functions. They form a complex interacting network between themselves, soluble hydrolysis product molecules, solution and solid phase substrates and inhibitors. There have been many models proposed for enzymatic saccharification however none have yet employed a cellular automaton approach, which allows important phenomena, such as enzyme crowding on the surface of solid substrates, denaturation and substrate inhibition, to be considered in the model. Results The Cellulase 4D model was developed de novo taking into account the size and composition of the substrate and surface-acting enzymes were ascribed behaviors based on their movements, catalytic activities and rates, affinity for, and potential for crowding of, the cellulose surface, substrates and inhibitors, and denaturation rates. A basic case modeled on literature-derived parameters obtained from Trichoderma reesei cellulases resulted in cellulose hydrolysis curves that closely matched curves obtained from published experimental data. Scenarios were tested in the model, which included variation of enzyme loadings, adsorption strengths of surface acting enzymes and reaction periods, and the effect on saccharide production over time was assessed. The model simulations indicated an optimal enzyme loading of between 0.5 and 2 of the base case concentrations where a balance was obtained between enzyme crowding on the cellulose crystal, and that the affinities of enzymes for the cellulose surface had a large effect on cellulose hydrolysis. In addition, improvements to the cellobiohydrolase I activity period substantially improved overall

  12. Life cycle assessment of façade coating systems containing manufactured nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hischier, Roland, E-mail: roland.hischier@empa.ch; Nowack, Bernd [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland); Gottschalk, Fadri [ETSS (Switzerland); Hincapie, Ingrid [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland); Steinfeldt, Michael [University of Bremen FB 4/FG 10 Technological Design and Development (Germany); Som, Claudia [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    Nanotechnologies are expected to hold considerable potential for the development of new materials in the construction sector. Up to now the environmental benefits and risks of products containing manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) have been quantified only to a limited extent. This study aims to assess the potential environmental, health and safety impacts of coatings containing MNM using Life-cycle assessment: Do paints containing MNM result in a better environmental performance than paints not containing MNM? The study shows that the results depend on a number of factors: (i) The MNM have to substitute an (active) ingredient of the initial paint composition and not simply be an additional ingredient. (ii) The new composition has to extend the lifetime of the paint for such a time period that the consumption of paint along the life cycle of a building is reduced. (iii) Releases of MNM have to be reduced to the lowest level possible (in particular by dumping unused paint together with the packaging). Only when all these boundary conditions are fulfilled, which is the case only for one of the three paint systems examined, is an improved environmental performance of the MNM-containing paint possible for the paint compositions examined in this study.

  13. Asn12 and Asn278: Critical Residues for In Vitro Biological Activity of Reteplase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naganath Mandi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reteplase (rPA is a thrombolytic agent used for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. We studied the expression of rPA and its selected asparagine mutants after integration into the Pichia genome. Though methanol induction of the native and the rPA mutants showed similar expression levels (~200–250 mg/L, the mutants displayed significant loss of protease activity. Strikingly, the clot lysis activities of these mutants were considerably different. While mutation of Asn12 (N12P of the Kringle 2 domain showed delayed clot lysis activity (1/2=38 min compared to the native rPA (1/2=33 min, a faster rate of clot lysis (1/2=27 min was observed when the Asn278 (N278S of the serine protease domain was mutated. Interestingly, the slowest clot lysis activity (1/2=49 min demonstrated by the double mutant (N12P, N278S suggests the dominant role of Asn12 in regulating the fibrinolytic activity of rPA. The results presented in this paper indicate that the fibrinolytic and the proteolytic activities of rPA are independent of each other.

  14. Improving the activity of the subtilisin nattokinase by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Meizhi; Deng, Xiongwei; Bao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Wu, Jieyuan; Cai, Yongjun; Jia, Yan; Zheng, Zhongliang; Zou, Guolin

    2015-09-25

    Nattokinase (NK), a bacterial serine protease from Bacillus subtilis var. natto, is a potential cardiovascular drug exhibiting strong fibrinolytic activity. To broaden its commercial and medical applications, we constructed a single-mutant (I31L) and two double-mutants (M222A/I31L and T220S/I31L) by site-directed mutagenesis. Active enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli with periplasmic secretion and were purified to homogeneity. The kinetic parameters of enzymes were examined by spectroscopy assay and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and their fibrinolytic activities were determined by fibrin plate method. The substitution of Leu(31) for Ile(31) resulted in about 2-fold enhancement of catalytic efficiency (Kcat/KM) compared with wild-type NK. The specific activities of both double-mutants (M222A/I31L and T220S/I31L) were significantly increased when compared with the single-mutants (M222A and T220S) and the oxidative stability of M222A/I31L mutant was enhanced with respect to wild-type NK. This study demonstrates the feasibility of improving activity of NK by site-directed mutagenesis and shows successful protein engineering cases to improve the activity of NK as a potent therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ferulic acid suppresses activation of hepatic stellate cells through ERK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianjiao; Pan, Zhi; Dong, Miaoxian; Yu, Chunlei; Niu, Yingcai

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary source of matrix components in hepatic fibrosis. Ferulic acid (FA) has antifibrotic potential in renal and cardiac disease. However, whether FA comprises inhibitive effects of HSCs activation remains to be clarified. This study aims at evaluating the hypothesis that FA inhibits extracellular matrix (ECM)-related gene expression by the interruption of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) or/and Smad signaling pathways in HSC-T6. Our results indicated that FA significantly inhibited both viability and activation of HSC-T6 cells in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated, for the first time, that FA dramatically inhibited the expression of α1(I) collagen (Col-I) and fibronectin at levels of transcription and translation. Moreover, FA treatment inhibited Smad transcriptional activity, as evaluated by transient transfection with a plasmid construction containing SMAD response element and the luciferase reporter gene. Furthermore, FA inhibition of HSCs activation involved in both focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-dependent ERK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways with independent manner. Blocking transforming growth factor-β by a neutralizing antibody caused a marked reduction in both ERK1/2 and Smad signaling. These results support FA as an effective therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical heat flux of R134A and R245FA in a 2.2 mm circular tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tibirica, Cristiano Bigonha; Ribatski, Gherhardt [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mails: bigonha@sc.usp.br, ribatski@sc.usp.br; Szczukiewicz, Sylwia; Thome, John Richard [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (LTCM/EPFL) (Switzerland). Lab. of Heat and Mass Transfer], Emails: sylwia.szczukiewicz@epfl.ch, john.thome@epfl.ch

    2010-07-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) during flow boiling is generally related to a drastic decrease in the heat transfer coefficient and it is the maximum operational heat flux that can be achieved under safe operation. Due to such a fact, this topic has attracted great attention of the academic society dealing with boiling heat transfer and also in the industrial sector involved with the dissipation of high heat flux densities. In the specific case of high heat flux densities, micro-channel flow boiling is a promising technique for pursuing this objective. The boundary where microscale effects start in flow boiling is still an open issue in the literature and a 3 mm internal diameter (ID) threshold value, as suggested by Kandlikar and Grande (2003) is frequently adopted to characterize this point. Considering the needs for a better understanding of the micro/macro transition, this paper presents new experimental critical heat flux results in saturated flow boiling conditions for a macro/micro-scale tube. The data were obtained in a horizontal 2.20 mm ID stainless steel tube with heating lengths of 361 and 154 mm, R134a and R245fa as working fluids, mass velocities ranging from 100 to 1500 kg/m{sup 2s}, critical heat fluxes from 25 to 300 kW/m2, exit saturation temperatures of 25, 31 and 35 degree C, and critical vapor qualities ranging from 0.55 to 1. The experimental results show that critical heat flux increases with increasing mass velocity and inlet subcooling but decreases with increasing saturation temperature and heated length. The data also indicated a higher CHF for R245fa when compared with R134a at similar conditions. The experimental data were compared against the following CHF predictive methods: Katto and Ohno (1984), Shah (1987), Zhang et al. (2006) and Ong and Thome(2010). Katto and Ohno (1984) and Ong and Thome (2010) best predicted the database with a mean average error smaller than 15%. Both correlations include low and high pressure fluids in their

  17. An Assessment of the Fire Safety Hazard Associated with External Fire Spread in Tall Buildings with Combustible Façade Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavard Brogaard, Nicholas; Torero, Jose L.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    in order to obtain a conclusive assessment of the fire safety hazards associated with combustible facades. Prescriptive fire safety codes are typically not allowing any type of combustible façade in buildings that are taller than 2-3 stories. However, a performance based approach does not contain height...

  18. A critical evaluation of fasted state simulating gastric fluid (FaSSGF) that contains sodium lauryl sulfate and proposal of a modified recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburub, Aktham; Risley, Donald S; Mishra, Dinesh

    2008-01-22

    The aim of this work is to evaluate one of the most commonly used fasted state simulating gastric fluids (FaSSGFs), which contains sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) (FaSSGF(SLS)), and propose a more appropriate surfactant concentration. Surface tension studies clearly show that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SLS in the relevant media (a media whose pH and sodium chloride concentration are representative of physiological conditions) is significantly lower (p<0.05) than 8.67 mM, which is the SLS concentration in FaSSGF(SLS). The CMC of SLS in the relevant media was determined to be 1.75 mM. Based on this a modified recipe is proposed in which the concentration of SLS is sufficient to achieve a surface tension similar to that in vivo without causing artificial micellar solubilization. Solubility, intrinsic dissolution, and GastroPlus modeling studies are presented to support and give rationale for the modified recipe. In addition, a comparison between the modified recipe and other FaSSGFs reported in the literature is made.

  19. Deficiency of UBE2T, the E2 Ubiquitin Ligase Necessary for FANCD2 and FANCI Ubiquitination, Causes FA-T Subtype of Fanconi Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Kimberly A; Lach, Francis P; Abhyankar, Avinash; Donovan, Frank X; Sanborn, Erica M; Kennedy, Jennifer A; Sougnez, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B; Elemento, Olivier; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Schindler, Detlev; Auerbach, Arleen D; Smogorzewska, Agata

    2015-07-07

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition syndrome resulting from pathogenic mutations in genes encoding proteins participating in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Mutations in 17 genes (FANCA-FANCS) have been identified in FA patients, defining 17 complementation groups. Here, we describe an individual presenting with typical FA features who is deficient for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), UBE2T. UBE2T is known to interact with FANCL, the E3 ubiquitin-ligase component of the multiprotein FA core complex, and is necessary for the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Proband fibroblasts do not display FANCD2 and FANCI monoubiquitination, do not form FANCD2 foci following treatment with mitomycin C, and are hypersensitive to crosslinking agents. These cellular defects are complemented by expression of wild-type UBE2T, demonstrating that deficiency of the protein UBE2T can lead to Fanconi anemia. UBE2T gene gains an alias of FANCT. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of matrigel has no influence on tumor development or PET imaging in FaDu human head and neck cancer xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fliedner, Frederikke P.; Hansen, Anders Elias; Jorgensen, Jesper T.

    2016-01-01

    is currently available. This study evaluates the potential effect of matrigel use in a human head and neck cancer xenograft model (FaDu; hypopharyngeal carcinoma) in NMRI nude mice. The FaDu cell line was chosen based on its frequent use in studies of cancer imaging and tumor microenvironment. Methods: NMRI...... nude mice (n = 34) were divided into two groups and subcutaneously injected with FaDu cells in medium either including (+MG) or excluding matrigel (-MG). In sub study I seven mice from each group (+MG, n = 7; -MG, n = 7) were 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT scanned on Day 5, 8, 12, 15, and 19...... for the FaDu xenograft model evaluated. Tumors in the -MG group displayed increased angiogenesis compared to the +MG tumors. No difference in 18F-FDG PET uptake for tumors of different groups was found. Based on these observations the influence of matrigel on tumor imaging and tumor microenvironment seems...

  1. Generation of human iPSC line GRX-MCiPS4F-A2 from adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with Spanish genetic background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cabrera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have generated iPSCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of a healthy man using heat sensitive and non-integrative Sendai virus containing Sox2, Oct3/4, c-Myc and Klf4. Human GRX-MCiPS4F-A2 cell line was established and characterized through this study.

  2. Deficiency of UBE2T, the E2 Ubiquitin Ligase Necessary for FANCD2 and FANCI Ubiquitination, Causes FA-T Subtype of Fanconi Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rickman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a rare bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition syndrome resulting from pathogenic mutations in genes encoding proteins participating in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs. Mutations in 17 genes (FANCA-FANCS have been identified in FA patients, defining 17 complementation groups. Here, we describe an individual presenting with typical FA features who is deficient for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2, UBE2T. UBE2T is known to interact with FANCL, the E3 ubiquitin-ligase component of the multiprotein FA core complex, and is necessary for the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Proband fibroblasts do not display FANCD2 and FANCI monoubiquitination, do not form FANCD2 foci following treatment with mitomycin C, and are hypersensitive to crosslinking agents. These cellular defects are complemented by expression of wild-type UBE2T, demonstrating that deficiency of the protein UBE2T can lead to Fanconi anemia. UBE2T gene gains an alias of FANCT.

  3. Use of LiDAR for calculating solar irradiance on roofs and façades of buildings at city scale: Methodology, validation, and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Xu, Hao; Li, Shuyi; Chen, Yanming; Zhang, Fangli; Li, Manchun

    2018-04-01

    As the rate of urbanization continues to accelerate, the utilization of solar energy in buildings plays an increasingly important role in sustainable urban development. For this purpose, we propose a LiDAR-based joint approach for calculating the solar irradiance incident on roofs and façades of buildings at city scale, which includes a methodology for calculating solar irradiance, the validation of the proposed method, and analysis of its application. The calculation of surface irradiance on buildings may then inform photovoltaic power generation simulations, architectural design, and urban energy planning. Application analyses of the proposed method in the experiment area found that: (1) Global and direct irradiations vary significantly by hour, day, month and season, both following the same trends; however, diffuse irradiance essentially remains unchanged over time. (2) Roof irradiation, but not façade irradiation, displays distinct time-dependent patterns. (3) Global and direct irradiations on roofs are highly correlated with roof aspect and slope, with high global and direct irradiations observed on roofs of aspect 100-250° and slopes of 0-60°, whereas diffuse irradiation on roofs is only affected by roof slope. (4) The façade of a building receives higher levels of global and direct irradiations if facing southeast, south, and southwest; however, diffuse irradiation remains constant regardless of façade orientation.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis and comparison between CO_2 transcritical power cycles and R245fa organic Rankine cycles for low grade heat to power energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Ge, Y.T.; Luo, X.; Tassou, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CO_2 is a promising working fluid to be applied in low-grade power generation systems. • Thermodynamic models of CO_2 transcritical power cycles (T-CO_2) and R245fa ORC were developed. • Energy and exergy analyses were carried out for T-CO_2 and R245fa ORC systems. • Optimal system designs are existed for both T-CO_2 and R245fa ORC systems. - Abstract: In this paper, a theoretical study is conducted to investigate and compare the performance of CO_2 transcritical power cycles (T-CO_2) and R245fa organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) using low-grade thermal energy to produce useful shaft or electrical power. Each power cycle consists of typical Rankine cycle components, such as a working fluid pump, gas generator or evaporator, turbine with electricity generator, air cooled condenser and recuperator (internal heat exchanger). The thermodynamic models of both cycles have been developed and are applied to calculate and compare the cycle thermal and exergy efficiencies at different operating conditions and control strategies. The simulation results show that the system performances for both cycles vary with different operating conditions. When the heat source (waste heat) temperature increases from 120 °C to 260 °C and heat sink (cooling air) temperature is reduced from 20 °C to 0 °C, both thermal efficiencies of R245fa ORC and T-CO_2 with recuperator can significantly increase. On the other hand, R245fa ORC and T-CO_2 exergy efficiencies increase with lower heat sink temperatures and generally decrease with higher heat source temperatures. In addition, with the same operating conditions and heat transfer assumptions, the thermal and exergy efficiencies of R245fa ORCs are both slightly higher than those of T-CO_2. However, the efficiencies of both cycles can be enhanced by installing a recuperator in each system at specified operating conditions. Ultimately, optimal operating states can be predicted, with particular focus on the working fluid expander

  5. Assessment of the Economic and Environmental Impact of Double Glazed Façade Ventilation Systems in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Alavedra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Free convection is the most often used method in order to reduce solar load gains on a building with double glazed façades (DGFs. However, depending on the climate factors, the thermal performance of a DGF may not be satisfactory and extra energy costs are required to obtain suitable comfort conditions inside the building. Forced ventilation systems are a feasible alternative to improve the thermal performance of a DGF in Mediterranean climates where large solar gains are a permanent condition throughout the year. In this paper the feasibility of using diverse forced ventilation methods in DGF is evaluated. In addition, an economical comparison between different mechanical ventilation systems was performed in order to demonstrate the viability of DGF forced ventilation. Moreover, an environmental study was carried out to prove the positive energetic balance on cooling loads between free and forced convection in DGF for Mediterranean climates. For this investigation, a CFD model was used to simulate the thermal conditions in a DGF for the different ventilation systems. Results obtained for heat flux, temperature and reductions in solar load gains were analyzed and applied for the economic and environmental research.

  6. Analysis and Monitoring Results of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic Façade Using PV Ceramic Tiles in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal silicon-based solar cells laminated with tempered-glass and ceramic tiles for use in a building’s façade have been developed. The optical, thermal, and electrical properties of the proposed PV module are first evaluated, and then a wind-resistance test is carried out to evaluate the feasibility of installing it in Taiwan. The electrical and deflection characteristics of the proposed PV module did not change significantly after a 50 thermal cycling test and a 200-hour humidity-freeze test, based on IEC 61215 and a wind-resistance test. Finally, the electrical power generation ability of the proposed BIPV system with 1 kWp electrical power capacity was examined. Building information modeling software tools were used to simulate the BIPV system and carry out the energy analysis. The simulation results show a very consistent trend with regard to the actual monthly electricity production of the BIPV system designed in this work. The BIPV system was able to produce an accumulative electrical power of 185 kWh during the 6-month experimental period. In addition, the exterior temperature of the demonstration house was about 10°C lower than the surface of the BIPV system, which could reduce indoor temperature.

  7. A static investigation of the thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high-alpha research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mary L.; Capone, Francis J.; Asbury, Scott C.

    1992-01-01

    A static (wind-off) test was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the vectoring capability and isolated nozzle performance of the proposed thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV). The thrust vectoring system consisted of three asymmetrically spaced vanes installed externally on a single test nozzle. Two nozzle configurations were tested: A maximum afterburner-power nozzle and a military-power nozzle. Vane size and vane actuation geometry were investigated, and an extensive matrix of vane deflection angles was tested. The nozzle pressure ratios ranged from two to six. The results indicate that the three vane system can successfully generate multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring. However, large resultant vector angles incurred large thrust losses. Resultant vector angles were always lower than the vane deflection angles. The maximum thrust vectoring angles achieved for the military-power nozzle were larger than the angles achieved for the maximum afterburner-power nozzle.

  8. Assessment of municipal infrastructure development and its critical influencing factors in urban China: A FA and STIRPAT approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    Full Text Available Municipal infrastructure is a fundamental facility for the normal operation and development of an urban city and is of significance for the stable progress of sustainable urbanization around the world, especially in developing countries. Based on the municipal infrastructure data of the prefecture-level cities in China, municipal infrastructure development is assessed comprehensively using a FA (factor analysis model, and then the stochastic model STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology is examined to investigate key factors that influence municipal infrastructure of cities in various stages of urbanization and economy. This study indicates that the municipal infrastructure development in urban China demonstrates typical characteristics of regional differentiation, in line with the economic development pattern. Municipal infrastructure development in cities is primarily influenced by income, industrialization and investment. For China and similar developing countries under transformation, national public investment remains the primary driving force of economy as well as the key influencing factor of municipal infrastructure. Contribution from urbanization and the relative consumption level, and the tertiary industry is still scanty, which is a crux issue for many developing countries under transformation. With economic growth and the transformation requirements, the influence of the conventional factors such as public investment and industrialization on municipal infrastructure development would be expected to decline, meanwhile, other factors like the consumption and tertiary industry driven model and the innovation society can become key contributors to municipal infrastructure sustainability.

  9. Wickerhamomyces arborarius f.a., sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species found in arboreal habitats on three different continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen A; Barriga, Enrique Javier Carvajal; Barahona, Patricia Portero; Harrington, Thomas C; Lee, Ching-Fu; Bond, Christopher J; Roberts, Ian N

    2014-03-01

    Five strains representing a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Wickerhamomyces were independently isolated from Ecuador, Taiwan and the USA. One strain (CLQCA 10-161(T)) was isolated from the white flower of an unidentified plant species collected in the Maquipucuna cloud forest reserve, near Quito, in Ecuador. A second strain (GY7L12) was isolated from the leaf of a Chinese sumac or nutgall tree (Rhus chinensis 'roxburghiana') collected in the Taoyuan mountain area, Kachsiung, in Taiwan. Three additional strains (A543, A546 and A563) were isolated from two species of wood-boring beetle (Xyleborus glabratus and Xyleborinus saxeseni) collected near Clyo, Georgia, USA. Analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene indicated that the novel species belongs to the genus Wickerhamomyces, and is most closely related to Wickerhamomyces sydowiorum, an insect-associated species predominantly found in South Africa. The North American and Taiwanese strains have identical internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and can be distinguished from the Ecuadorian strain based on a single nucleotide substitution in the ITS1 region. The species name of Wickerhamomyces arborarius f.a., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains, with CLQCA 10-161(T) ( = CBS 12941(T) = NCYC 3743(T)) designated the type strain.

  10. Epistemología del individualismo y orden espontáneo en el pensamiento de F.A. Hayek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alí Javier Suárez-Brito

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la epistemología de las nociones de individualismo y orden espontáneo en el pensamiento del economista y filósofo F.A. Hayek. En virtud de esto, se recurre al método hermenéutico con diseño documental para interpretar la información bibliográfica y reflexionar en torno a las ideas centrales. Del análisis se deriva que las referidas nociones no pueden entenderse de forma separada, por cuanto una supone a la otra: el individualismo no es tan sólo un método, ni mucho menos una metodología particular, aunque la presupone; se trata de una teoría social que intenta explicar la forma como los individuos actúan y cooperan en un orden espontáneo que no ha sido creado deliberadamente.

  11. Assessment of municipal infrastructure development and its critical influencing factors in urban China: A FA and STIRPAT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zheng, Ji; Li, Fei; Jin, Xueting; Xu, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Municipal infrastructure is a fundamental facility for the normal operation and development of an urban city and is of significance for the stable progress of sustainable urbanization around the world, especially in developing countries. Based on the municipal infrastructure data of the prefecture-level cities in China, municipal infrastructure development is assessed comprehensively using a FA (factor analysis) model, and then the stochastic model STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) is examined to investigate key factors that influence municipal infrastructure of cities in various stages of urbanization and economy. This study indicates that the municipal infrastructure development in urban China demonstrates typical characteristics of regional differentiation, in line with the economic development pattern. Municipal infrastructure development in cities is primarily influenced by income, industrialization and investment. For China and similar developing countries under transformation, national public investment remains the primary driving force of economy as well as the key influencing factor of municipal infrastructure. Contribution from urbanization and the relative consumption level, and the tertiary industry is still scanty, which is a crux issue for many developing countries under transformation. With economic growth and the transformation requirements, the influence of the conventional factors such as public investment and industrialization on municipal infrastructure development would be expected to decline, meanwhile, other factors like the consumption and tertiary industry driven model and the innovation society can become key contributors to municipal infrastructure sustainability.

  12. Energy and Economic Performance of Plant-Shaded Building Façade in Hot Arid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Haggag

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetated walls and intensive plantation around buildings has increased in popularity in hot and arid climates, such as those in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. This is due to its contribution towards reducing the heat gain and increasing the occupants’ comfort levels in spaces. This paper examines the introduction of plant-shaded walls as passive technique to reduce heat gain in indoor spaces as a strategy to lower cooling demand in hot arid climate of Al-Ain city. Experimental work was carried out to analyze the impact of using plantation for solar control of residential building façades in extreme summer. External and internal wall surface and ambient temperatures were measured for plant-shaded and bare walls. The study concluded that shading effect of the intensive plantation can reduce peak time indoor air temperature by 12 °C and reduce the internal heat gain by 2 kWh daily in the tested space. The economic analysis reveals a payback period of 10 years considering local energy tariff excluding environmental savings.

  13. Wickerhamiella allomyrinae f.a., sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from the gut of the rhinoceros beetle Allomyrina dichotoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Yun; Chen, Liang; Ke, Tao; Hui, Feng-Li

    2014-11-01

    Two strains representing Wickerhamiella allomyrinae f.a., sp. nov. were isolated from the gut of Allomyrina dichotoma (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) collected from the Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Nanyan, Henan Province, China. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene revealed that this novel species was located in the Wickerhamiella clade (Saccharomycetes, Saccharomycetales), with three described species of the genus Candida, namely Candida musiphila, Candida spandovensis and Candida sergipensis, as the most closely related species. The novel species differed from these three species by 9.3-9.8% sequence divergence (35-45 nt substitutions) in the D1/D2 sequences. The species could also be distinguished from the closely related species, C. musiphila, C. spandovensis and C. sergipensis, by growth on vitamin-free medium and at 37 °C. The type strain is Wickerhamiella allomyrinae sp. nov. NYNU 13920(T) ( =CICC 33031(T) =CBS 13167(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging of the median nerve at 3.0 T using different MR scanners: Agreement of FA and ADC measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenberger, Roman; Nanz, Daniel; Bussmann, Lorenz; Chhabra, Avneesh; Fischer, Michael A.; Hodler, Jürg; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the agreement of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the median nerve on 3.0 T MR scanners from different vendors. Materials and methods: IRB approved study including 16 healthy volunteers (9 women; mean age 30.6 ± 5.3 years). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the dominant wrist was performed on three 3.0 T MR scanners (GE, Siemens, Philips) using similar imaging protocols and vendor-proprietary hard- and software. Intra-, inter-reader and inter-vendor agreements were assessed. Results: ICCs for intra-/inter-reader agreements ranged from 0.843–0.970/0.846–0.956 for FA, and 0.840–0.940/0.726–0.929 for ADC, respectively. ANOVA analysis identified significant differences for FA/ADC measurements among vendors (p −3 mm 2 /s (SD ± 0.134 × 10 −3 ) for ADC. A significant negative measurement bias was found for FA values from the GE scanner (−0.05 and −0.07) and for ADC values from the Siemens scanner (−0.053 and −0.063 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s) as compared to the remainder vendors Conclusion: FA and ADC values of the median nerve obtained on different 3.0 T MR scanners differ significantly, but are in comparison to the standard deviation of absolute values small enough to not have an impact on larger group studies or when substantial diffusion changes can be expected. However, caution is warranted in an individual patient when interpreting diffusion values from different scanner acquisitions

  15. Experimental comparison of R123 and R245fa as working fluids for waste heat recovery from heavy-duty diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Zhao, Mingru; Tian, Hua; Huo, Yongzhan; Zhu, Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) on-board is a solution for vehicles to save energy and reduce emission. Considering the characteristics of waste heat from vehicle, the criterions of the suitable working fluid are very strict. R123 and R245fa have been widely used in companies and labs, however, the difference of their properties under different engine conditions still requires further study. During this research, a series of experiments have been done to compare the performance of these two working fluids, what's more, to determine under which engine conditions they are suitable separately. These experimental comparisons are new and important for the targeting design of ORC for vehicles. The result shows that, considering the difference of thermodynamic properties and the limited cooling capacity on board, R123 shows its advantage for the waste heat recovery at heavy duty, while R245fa is more suitable at light-and-medium duty. These properties make R123 suitable for the ORC designed for long-haul heavy-duty truck, while R245fa is suggested for city bus. The following performance test of R123 for waste heat recovery from heavy-duty diesel engine shows that the maximum fuel consumption improvement can be as much as 2.8%. - Highlights: • R123 is more suitable for heavy duty and steady working condition. • R245fa shows its advantage at light-and-medium duty and varying working condition. • R123 suits better for long-haul heavy-duty truck, while R245fa for city bus. • The maximum fuel consumption improvement is as much as 2.8%.

  16. Thermal surface analysis on high-rise building façades with neo-minimalist and modern style in Penang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Yasser; Hassan, Ahmad Sanusi; Qanaa, Bushra

    2017-10-01

    This research analyzed the façade thermal performance of high-rise buildings with modern and neo-minimalist architectural style. Four high-rise apartment buildings in Penang Island are selected as case studies for this research. The modern architectural style, which was popular during the 1970s to 1990s, nearly disregarded the cultural identity of the country and used the basic geometric shapes in the design. Conversely, the neo-minimalist style is the popular style from the 2010s up to the present. This style is a result of the "less is more" concept, which means using minimal applications to obtain an efficient design. The four selected case studies are as follows: Halaman Kristal 2 and Mutiara Idaman 1 with modern architectural style and Light Linear and Baystar apartments with neo-minimalist style. The research uses Fluke Ti20 thermal imager to capture thermal images of the west façade of the selected case studies on an hourly basis from 12:00 to 6:00 P.M. on March 15, 2017. Results confirm that the neo-minimalist façade elements, such as balconies and recessed walls, as well as other shading elements, are effective in improving the performance of façade shading. Notably, façade shading causes low surface temperature and provides cool indoor atmosphere during the day when the temperature is extremely high outside. Accordingly, this distinct feature partly explains the current popularity of the neo-minimalist architectural style.

  17. Unraveling fatty acid transport and activation mechanisms in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulermo, Rémi; Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Thévenieau, France; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    Fatty acid (FA) transport and activation have been extensively studied in the model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae but have rarely been examined in oleaginous yeasts, such as Yarrowia lipolytica. Because the latter begins to be used in biodiesel production, understanding its FA transport and activation mechanisms is essential. We found that Y. lipolytica has FA transport and activation proteins similar to those of S. cerevisiae (Faa1p, Pxa1p, Pxa2p, Ant1p) but mechanism of FA peroxisomal transport and activation differs greatly with that of S. cerevisiae. While the ScPxa1p/ScPxa2p heterodimer is essential for growth on long-chain FAs, ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 is not impaired for growth on FAs. Meanwhile, ScAnt1p and YlAnt1p are both essential for yeast growth on medium-chain FAs, suggesting they function similarly. Interestingly, we found that the ΔYlpxa1 ΔYlpxa2 ΔYlant1 mutant was unable to grow on short-, medium-, or long-chain FAs, suggesting that YlPxa1p, YlPxa2p, and YlAnt1p belong to two different FA degradation pathways. We also found that YlFaa1p is involved in FA storage in lipid bodies and that FA remobilization largely depended on YlFat1p, YlPxa1p and YlPxa2p. This study is the first to comprehensively examine FA intracellular transport and activation in oleaginous yeast. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Friedreich's Ataxia (FA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I’m studying for a master’s degree in psychology and working as an assistant to two professors. ... for “MDA Services for the Individual, Family and Community” and for help with obtaining copies of other ...

  19. Dynamic changes in plasma tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and beta-thromboglobulin content in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ping; Wo, Da; Xu, Zeng-Guang; Wei, Wei; Mao, Hui-ming

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the corresponding variations of plasma tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activities, and beta-thromboglobulin (β-TG) content in patients during different stages of ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke is a common disease among aging people and its occurrence is associated with abnormalities in the fibrinolytic system and platelet function. However, few reports focus on the dynamic changes in the plasma fibrinolytic system and β-TG content in patients with ischemic stroke. Patients were divided into three groups: acute, convalescent and chronic. Plasma t-PA and PAI-1 activities were determined by chromogenic substrate analysis and plasma β-TG content was detected by radioimmunoassay. Patients in the acute stage of ischemic stroke had significantly increased levels of t-PA activity and β-TG content, but PAI-1 activity was significantly decreased. Negative correlations were found between plasma t-PA and PAI-1 activities and between plasma t-PA activity and β-TG content in patients with acute ischemic stroke. There were significant differences in plasma t-PA and PAI-1 activities in the aged control group, as well as in the acute, convalescent and chronic groups. It can be speculated that the increased activity of t-PA in patients during the acute stage was the result of compensatory function, and that the increase in plasma β-TG level not only implies the presence of ischemic stroke but is likely a cause of ischemic stroke. During the later stages of ischemic stroke, greater attention is required in monitoring levels of PAI-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos.

  1. FA1 Induces Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Adipogenic Pathways/Markers in Human Myotubes Established from Lean, Obese, and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects but Not Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Gaster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Delta like 1/fetal antigen 1 (Dlk1/FA1) is a protein secreted by hormone producing cells in adult human and mice that is known to inhibit adipogenesis. Recent studies demonstrated the role of Dlk1/FA1 in inducing insulin resistance in mice. To investigate the involvement of circulating Dlk1....../FA1 in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in human subjects, we studied the effects of chronic FA1 on the intermediary metabolism in myotubes established from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. Methods: Myotube cultures were established from lean and obese control subjects......, and obese T2D subjects and treated with soluble FA1 for 4 days supplemented with/without palmitate (PA). Lipid- and glucose metabolism were studied with labeled precursors while quantitative expression of genes was analyzed using real-time PCR. Results: Diabetic myotubes express significantly reduced...

  2. Influence of the type of lightweight clay brick on the equivalent thermal transmittance of different types of façades on buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, M. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the equivalent thermal transmittances of different façades built using commercial clay bricks with three different thicknesses and façades made using the same method but with ceramic bricks with optimized rhomboidal interior geometry. Equivalent thermal transmittances of 0.300 W/m2·K were recorded for the rhomboidal brick with a thickness of 0.290 m and a façade with thermo-acoustic insulation and a large format brick on the interior, but the final thickness of the façade was 0.445 m. For ventilated façades made of the proposed rhomboidal brick with thicknesses of 0.290 and 0.240 m an 8–9% improvement was found, with values of 0.312 W/m2·K and 0.339 W/m2·K, respectively. It can be concluded that in view of the small difference in thermal terms, the best option is to use a brick 0.240 m thick, as the overall thickness of the façade will not then exceed 0.300 m.En el presente trabajo se comparan las transmitancias térmicas equivalentes de diferentes fachadas ejecutadas con bloques comerciales de tres espesores 0,290 m, 0,240 m y 0,190 m, con el mismo montaje pero con un bloque cerámico optimizado con geometría interior romboidal. Se ha obtenido una transmitancia térmica equivalente de 0,300 W/m2·K para el ladrillo con geometría romboidal de 0,290 m de espesor y pared con aislamiento termoacústico y gran formato en el interior, con un espesor total de fachada de 0,445 m. Para fachadas ventiladas con el ladrillo romboidal propuesto con espesores de 0,290 y 0,240 m, se obtiene una mejora de un 8%–9%, con valores de 0,312 W/m2·K y 0,339 W/m2·K, respectivamente. Podemos concluir que, dada la pequeña diferencia en términos térmicos, la mejor opción es el uso de ladrillos de 0,240 m de espesor, siempre y cuando el espesor total de fachada no exceda los 0,300 m.

  3. Crystal Structure of the Receptor-Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type HA, Also Known as Type FA or H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Perry, Kay; Weisemann, Jasmin; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng

    2017-03-08

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A-G), a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H) was reported recently. Sequence analyses indicate that the receptor-binding domain (H C ) of BoNT/HA is ~84% identical to that of BoNT/A1. However, BoNT/HA responds differently to some potent BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies (e.g., CR2) that target the H C . Therefore, it raises a serious concern as to whether BoNT/HA poses a new threat to our biosecurity. In this study, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of BoNT/HA-H C at 1.8 Å. Sequence and structure analyses reveal that BoNT/HA and BoNT/A1 are different regarding their binding to cell-surface receptors including both polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Furthermore, the new structure also provides explanations for the ~540-fold decreased affinity of antibody CR2 towards BoNT/HA compared to BoNT/A1. Taken together, these new findings advance our understanding of the structure and function of this newly identified toxin at the molecular level, and pave the way for the future development of more effective countermeasures.

  4. Crystal Structure of the Receptor-Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type HA, Also Known as Type FA or H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorui Yao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A–G, a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H was reported recently. Sequence analyses indicate that the receptor-binding domain (HC of BoNT/HA is ~84% identical to that of BoNT/A1. However, BoNT/HA responds differently to some potent BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies (e.g., CR2 that target the HC. Therefore, it raises a serious concern as to whether BoNT/HA poses a new threat to our biosecurity. In this study, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of BoNT/HA-HC at 1.8 Å. Sequence and structure analyses reveal that BoNT/HA and BoNT/A1 are different regarding their binding to cell-surface receptors including both polysialoganglioside (PSG and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2. Furthermore, the new structure also provides explanations for the ~540-fold decreased affinity of antibody CR2 towards BoNT/HA compared to BoNT/A1. Taken together, these new findings advance our understanding of the structure and function of this newly identified toxin at the molecular level, and pave the way for the future development of more effective countermeasures.

  5. Crystal Structure of the Receptor-Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type HA, Also Known as Type FA or H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-ho; Perry, Kay; Weisemann, Jasmin; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng (Cornell); (Dusseldorf); (UCI)

    2017-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A–G), a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H) was reported recently. Sequence analyses indicate that the receptor-binding domain (HC) of BoNT/HA is ~84% identical to that of BoNT/A1. However, BoNT/HA responds differently to some potent BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies (e.g., CR2) that target the HC. Therefore, it raises a serious concern as to whether BoNT/HA poses a new threat to our biosecurity. In this study, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of BoNT/HA-HC at 1.8 Å. Sequence and structure analyses reveal that BoNT/HA and BoNT/A1 are different regarding their binding to cell-surface receptors including both polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Furthermore, the new structure also provides explanations for the ~540-fold decreased affinity of antibody CR2 towards BoNT/HA compared to BoNT/A1. Taken together, these new findings advance our understanding of the structure and function of this newly identified toxin at the molecular level, and pave the way for the future development of more effective countermeasures

  6. Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) - A possible link between coagulation and complement activation in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giorgia; Vikerfors, Anna; Woodhams, Barry; Adam, Mariette; Bremme, Katarina; Holmström, Margareta; Ågren, Anna; Eelde, Anna; Bruzelius, Maria; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Antovic, Aleksandra

    2017-10-01

    Thrombosis and complement activation are pathogenic features of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Their molecular link is Plasma carboxypeptidase-B, also known as thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa), which plays a dual role: anti-fibrinolytic, by cleaving carboxyl-terminal lysine residues from partially degraded fibrin, and anti-inflammatory, by downregulating complement anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. To investigate the levels of TAFI (proenzyme) and TAFIa (active enzyme) in relation to complement activation, fibrin clot permeability and fibrinolytic function in clinical and immunological subsets of 52 APS patients and 15 controls. TAFI (pAPS patients compared to controls. Furthermore, TAFIa was increased (pAPS patients affected by arterial thrombosis compared to other APS-phenotypes. Positive associations were found between TAFI and age, fibrinogen and C5a, and between TAFIa and age, fibrinogen and thrombomodulin. TAFI and TAFIa levels were increased in patients with APS as a potential response to complement activation. Interestingly, TAFI activation was associated with arterial thrombotic APS manifestations. Thus, TAFIa may be considered a novel biomarker for arterial thrombosis in APS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Porušená funkce insulinové signalizační kaskády a zvýšená patologická fosforylace proteinu Tau v hipokampu starých fa/fa (Zucker) potkanů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špolcová, Andrea; Mikulášková, B.; Kršková, K.; Gajdošechová, L.; Zórad, Š.; Olszanecki, R.; Maletínská, Lenka; Železná, Blanka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 5 (2013), s. 440-441 ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /13./. 14.5.2013-17.5.2013, Žďár nad Sázavou] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/12/0576 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fa/fa rats * Tau protein * insulin resistance * leptin resistance Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  8. A paclitaxel prodrug with bifunctional folate and albumin binding moieties for both passive and active targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lingling; Zhuo, Xin; Zhang, Fuwu; Dai, Yunlu; Zhu, Guizhi; Yung, Bryant C; Fan, Wenpei; Zhai, Kefeng; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Ma, Ying; Gao, Guizhen; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-01-01

    Folate receptor (FR) has proven to be a valuable target for chemotherapy using folic acid (FA) conjugates. However, FA-conjugated chemotherapeutics still have low therapeutic efficacy accompanied with side effects, resulting from complications such as short circulation half-life, limited tumor delivery, as well as high kidney accumulation. Herein, we present a novel FA-conjugated paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug which was additionally conjugated with an Evans blue (EB) derivative for albumin binding. The resulting bifunctional prodrug prolonged blood circulation, enhanced tumor accumulation, and consequently improved tumor therapeutic efficacy. Methods: Fmoc-Cys(Trt)-OH was coupled onto PTX at the 7'-OH position for further synthesis of ester prodrug FA-PTX-EB. The targeting ability was investigated using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The pharmacokinetics of this bifunctional compound was also studied. Meanwhile, cell viability was evaluated in normal cells and three cancer cell lines by MTT assay. In vivo therapeutic effect was tested on FR-α overexpressing MDA-MB-231 tumor model. Results: Compared with free PTX, the FA-PTX, PTX-EB and FA-PTX-EB prodrugs increased circulation half-life in mice from 2.19 to 3.82, 4.41, and 7.51 h, respectively. Pharmacokinetics studies showed that the FA-PTX-EB delivered more PTX to tumors than FA-PTX and free PTX. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that FA-EB-conjugated PTX induced potent antitumor activity. Conclusion: FA-PTX-EB showed prolonged blood circulation, enhanced drug accumulation in tumors, higher therapeutic index, and lower side effects than either free PTX or monofunctional FA-PTX and EB-PTX. The results support the potential of using EB for the development of long-acting therapeutics.

  9. Li2b2-Façade: Simulation of i2b2 Data Warehouse Server and Client for Interaction with Other Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Raphael W; Xu, Tingyan; Stöhr, Mark R; Röhrig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Since its release in 2004, the i2b2 data warehouse software has become a valuable tool for clinical researchers. Physicians can use its browser-based query frontend intuitively without additional training or reading through documentation. While the i2b2 software describes it's API as "REST", it is neither stateless nor does it follow the common guidelines for RESTful APIs. Thus, interfacing other software with i2b2's custom RPC-style XML-API is a very cumbersome process. To overcome these issues, we developed a lightweight software abstraction layer "lightweight i2b2 façade" (li2b2-façade).

  10. Abstracts of oral and poster presentation given at the first COST Action FA 1303 workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases, Cognac, France, 23-24 June 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The International COST Action FA1303 Workshop on “Sustainable control of Grapevine Trunk Diseases: current state and future prospects” was held in Cognac, France, on June 23-24 2015. The meeting was attended by 90 participants. Forty-eight oral and posterpapers were presented,in four sessions: Pathogen characterization, detection and epidemiology; Microbial ecology; Host-pathogen and fungus-fungus competitive interactions; and Disease management. A field trip to the nursery Mercier at Vix was undertaken on June the 22th and 25th, including a demonstration of the MYCORRAY detection tool in the nursery research lab. A second field trip was to the Hennessy cellar, on the  afternoon of June 23th.The workshop was organized by members of the COST Action FA1303 (www.managtd.eu, in collaboration with Hennessy.

  11. In-Flight Suppression of an Unstable F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off-nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using post-flight frequency-domain reconstruction, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  12. In-Flight Suppression of a Destabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using frequency-domain reconstruction of flight data, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  13. Piccola storia della danse de façade. Un cammino verticale tra radici artistico-sportive e tattiche culturali di trasformazione del tessuto urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fanni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay describes some topics that I dealt with within my master's thesis. In particular I have examined and analyzed the intricate historical, social and anthropological background of the origins of the phenomenon called danse de façade. A path that going through the 20th century links several artistic movements (dada, surrealism, situationism, land art, nouvelle danse française and sport movements (mountaineering, free climbing, sport climbing reaching the currents trespassing that lead to an intense exchange between vertical dance, urban dance, and terrain vague theories. In this work my first aim was to describe the origins of this discipline and in doing so decisively infer how danse de façade gives rise to political and civil engagement in urban areas.

  14. Algae façade as green building method: application of algae as a method to meet the green building regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerbo, Heru W.; Martokusumo, Widjaja; Donny Koerniawan, M.; Aulia Ardiani, Nissa; Krisanti, Susan

    2017-12-01

    The Local Government of Bandung city has stipulated a Green Building regulation through the Peraturan Walikota Number 1023/2016. Signed by the mayor in October 2016, Bandung became the first city in Indonesia that put green building as mandatory requirement in the building permit (IMB) process. Green Building regulation is intended to have more efficient consumption of energy and water, improved indoor air quality, management of liquid and solid waste etc. This objective is attained through various design method in building envelope, ventilation and air conditioning system, lighting, indoor transportation system, and electrical system. To minimize energy consumption of buildings that have large openings, sun shading device is often utilized together with low-E glass panes. For buildings in hot humid tropical climate, this method reduces indoor air temperature and thus requires less energy for air conditioning. Indoor air quality is often done by monitoring the carbon dioxide levels. Application of algae as part of building system façade has recently been introduced as replacement of large glass surface in the building façade. Algae are not yet included in the green building regulation because it is relatively new. The research will investigate, with the help of the modelling process and extensive literature, how effective is the implementation of algae in building façade to reduce energy consumption and improve its indoor air quality. This paper is written based on the design of ITB Innovation Park as an ongoing architectural design-based research how the algae-integrated building façade affects the energy consumption.

  15. Correlation of geomagnetic activity with implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks and antitachycardia pacing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ebrille, E.; Konecny, T.; Konecny, D.; Špaček, R.; Jones, P.; Ambrož, Pavel; DeSimone, C.V.; Powel, B.D.; Hayes, D.L.; Friedman, P.A.; Asirvatham, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2015), s. 202-208 ISSN 0025-6196 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : geomagnetic activity * implantable cardioverter defibrillator Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.920, year: 2015

  16. Simulation model of the F/A-18 high angle-of-attack research vehicle utilized for the design of advanced control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Mark E.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Messina, Michael D.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Yeager, Jessie C.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The 'f18harv' six degree-of-freedom nonlinear batch simulation used to support research in advanced control laws and flight dynamics issues as part of NASA's High Alpha Technology Program is described in this report. This simulation models an F/A-18 airplane modified to incorporate a multi-axis thrust-vectoring system for augmented pitch and yaw control power and actuated forebody strakes for enhanced aerodynamic yaw control power. The modified configuration is known as the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The 'f18harv' simulation was an outgrowth of the 'f18bas' simulation which modeled the basic F/A-18 with a preliminary version of a thrust-vectoring system designed for the HARV. The preliminary version consisted of two thrust-vectoring vanes per engine nozzle compared with the three vanes per engine actually employed on the F/A-18 HARV. The modeled flight envelope is extensive in that the aerodynamic database covers an angle-of-attack range of -10 degrees to +90 degrees, sideslip range of -20 degrees to +20 degrees, a Mach Number range between 0.0 and 2.0, and an altitude range between 0 and 60,000 feet.

  17. Fast reactor cycle technology development. 'FaCT seminar - R and D for key technology of national importance'. Seminar report and collection of documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    An R and D program on the fast breeder reactor cycle commercialization, the FaCT Project, which was selected as one of the Key Technologies of National Importance, has been conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency for the purposes of resolving the issues of long-term sustainable energy supply and the global warming. The first Seminar of the FaCT Project was held at the Osaka Science and Technology Center on November 30, 2007, to present the progress and status of the Project and exchange opinions among the participants from various sectors. In the Seminar, MEXT, METI and JAEA reported the national nuclear policy, the current status and future plan of the FaCT Project. A special panel session was also held on the approach to international collaboration relevant to the project, and the importance was stressed on further promoting the international collaboration and keeping the framework of international partnership in this area, while distinguishing the relationship between 'cooperation' and 'competition'. Over 260 audiences from various sectors including government, universities, research organizations, utilities, nuclear industries participated. This report provides a seminar summary and the presented papers. (author)

  18. A narrative synthesis of the applicability of the CaR-FA-X model in child and adolescent populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tracy M; Hunter, Simon C; Rhodes, Sinéad M

    2017-10-01

    The CaR-FA-X model [Williams, J. M. G., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Hermans, D., Raes, F., Watkins, E., … Dalgleish, T. (2007). Autobiographical memory specificity and emotional disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 122-148. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.122 ] is the most prominent and comprehensive model of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) and provides a framework for OGM. The model comprises of three mechanisms, capture and rumination, functional avoidance and impaired executive control. These can independently, or in interaction, account for OGM. This systematic review aims to evaluate the existing research on the CaR-FA-X model, and trauma exposure studies specific to child and adolescent populations. The following databases were searched: "PsychInfo", "PsychArticles", "PubMed", "Web of Science", "Medline", "SCOPUS" and "Embase" for English-language, peer-reviewed papers with samples FA-X model was found for child and adolescent populations. Recommendations, proposals for future research and plausible explanations for the mixed findings are discussed.

  19. Numerical Modelling for the Thermal Performance Assessment of a Semi-Opaque Façade with a Multilayer of Nano-Structured and Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Balocco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our present study was to assess and compare the thermo-physical and energy behaviour of different integrated building façades, using a multi-physics simulation approach. Advanced integrated façades composed of opaque modules, one of them with a phase change materials (PCM layer, the others with multilayer panels, combined with transparent ones, consisting of nano-structured materials and new-generation photovoltaic systems, were investigated. A multi-physics approach was used for the design optimization of the studied components and evaluation of their thermo-physical and heat transfer performance. In particular, computational fluid dynamics (CFD multi-physics transient simulations were performed to assess air temperature and velocity fields inside the ventilated cavities. Analysis of heat and mass exchange through all the components was assessed during heating and cooling mode of a reference building. The typical Mediterranean climate was considered. Results comparison allowed the dynamic heat transfer evaluation of the multilayer façades as a function of variable climatic conditions, and their flexibility and adaptability exploitation, when different energy strategies are pursued. The multi-physics modelling approach used, proved to be a strong tool for the energy design optimization and energy sustainability evaluation of different advance materials and building components.

  20. Supplier Selection Study under the Respective of Low-Carbon Supply Chain: A Hybrid Evaluation Model Based on FA-DEA-AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshuo He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of global environment and social economy, it is an indispensable choice for enterprises to achieve sustainable growth through developing low-carbon economy and constructing low-carbon supply chain. Supplier is the source of chain, thus selecting excellent low-carbon supplier is the foundation of establishing efficient low-carbon supply chain. This paper presents a novel hybrid model for supplier selection integrated factor analysis (FA, data envelopment analysis (DEA, with analytic hierarchy process (AHP, namely FA-DEA-AHP. First, an evaluation index system is built, incorporating product level, qualification, cooperation ability, and environmental competitiveness. FA is utilized to extract common factors from the 18 pre-selected indicators. Then, DEA is applied to establish the pairwise comparison matrix and AHP is employed to rank these low-carbon suppliers comprehensively and calculate the validity of the decision-making units. Finally, an experiment study with seven cement suppliers in a large industrial enterprise is carried out in this paper. The results reveal that the proposed technique can not only select effective suppliers, but also realize a comprehensive ranking. This research has enriched the methodology of low-carbon supplier evaluation and selection, as well as owns theoretical value in exploring the coordinated development of low-carbon supply chain to some extent.

  1. FaCT phase-I evaluation on the advanced aqueous reprocessing process (2). Development of mechanical disassembly and short stroke shearing systems for FBR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Masayuki; Kitagaki, Toru; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Fukushima, Mineo; Washiya, Tadahiro; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki

    2011-01-01

    JAEA promotes a development of an advanced head-end process in FaCT project. We selected mechanical cutting method for disassembly process and short stroke method for shearing process. In the FaCT phase-I, the criteria was set for decision about the innovative technology and some fundamental performances of the innovative technology such as precision, speed, durability, operation performance and system concept were discussed by the engineering test and design work. We designed and fabricated an engineering-scale test device for mechanical disassembly and short stroke shearing and have carried out the engineering tests using simulated fuel assemblies. As a part of the engineering test results, the effects of cutting conditions on the durability of cutting tool and cutting stability were discussed. Also, the reduction of magazine width is effective to improve the precision of sheared pin length, and the bundle of simulated fuel pins were successfully sheared to 10 ± 5mm, which is a target for the sheared pin length. The criteria for the mechanical disassembly technology and the short stroke shearing technology were satisfied, so we judged that the development of innovative technologies has worth going on for the next phase in the FaCT project. (author)

  2. Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid on High Glucose-Induced Protein Glycation, Lipid Peroxidation, and Membrane Ion Pump Activity in Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachat Sompong

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid (FA is the ubiquitous phytochemical phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid. Experimental studies in diabetic models demonstrate that FA possesses multiple mechanisms of action associated with anti-hyperglycemic activity. The mechanism by which FA prevents diabetes-associated vascular damages remains unknown. The aim of study was to investigate the protective effects of FA on protein glycation, lipid peroxidation, membrane ion pump activity, and phosphatidylserine exposure in high glucose-exposed human erythrocytes. Our results demonstrated that FA (10-100 μM significantly reduced the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c whereas 0.1-100 μM concentrations inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes exposed to 45 mM glucose. This was associated with increased glucose consumption. High glucose treatment also caused a significant reduction in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the erythrocyte plasma membrane which could be reversed by FA. Furthermore, we found that FA (0.1-100 μM prevented high glucose-induced phosphatidylserine exposure. These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism of FA for the prevention of vascular dysfunction associated with diabetes.

  3. Type III methyltransferase M.NgoAX from Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090 regulates biofilm formation and human cell invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eKwiatek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the etiological factor of the sexually transmitted gonorrhea disease that may lead, under specific conditions, to systemic infections. The gonococcal genome encodes many Restriction Modification (RM systems, which main biological role is to defend the pathogen from potentially harmful foreign DNA. However, RM systems seem also to be involved in several other functions. In this study, we examined the effect of inactivation the N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 ngo0545 gene encoding M.NgoAX methyltransferase on the global gene expression, biofilm formation, interactions with human epithelial host cells and overall bacterial growth. Expression microarrays showed at least a two-fold deregulation of a total of 121 genes in the NgoAX knock-out mutant compared to the wt strain under standard grow conditions. As determined by the assay with crystal violet, the NgoAX knock-out strain formed a slightly larger biofilm biomass per cell than the wt strain (OD570/600 = 13.8  2.24 and 9.35  2.06, respectively. SCLM observations showed that the biofilm formed by the gonococcal ngo0545 gene mutant is more relaxed and dispersed than the one formed by the wt strain. Thickness of the biofilm formed by both strains was 48.3 (14.9 µm for the mutant and 28.6 (4.0 µm for the wt. This more relaxed feature of the biofilm in respect to adhesion and bacterial interactions seems advantageous for pathogenesis of the NgoAX-deficient gonococci at the stage of human epithelial cell invasion. Indeed, the overall adhesion of mutant bacterial cells to human cells was lower than adhesion of the wt gonococci (adhesion index = 0.672 ( 0.2 and 2.15 ( 1.53, respectively; yet, a higher number of mutant than wt bacteria were found inside the Hec-1-B epithelial cells (invasion index = 3.38 ( 0.93  105 for mutant and 4.67 ( 3.09  104 for the wt strain. These results indicate that NgoAX-deficient cells have lower ability to attach to human cells

  4. Weekly infusional high-dose fluorouracil (HD-FU), HD-FU plus folinic acid (HD-FU/FA), or HD-FU/FA plus biweekly cisplatin in advanced gastric cancer: randomized phase II trial 40953 of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Gastrointestinal Group and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, M.P.; Wilke, H.; Wagener, D.J.T.; Vanhoefer, U.; Jeziorski, K.; Hegewisch-Becker, S.; Balleisen, L.; Joossens, E.; Jansen, R.L.; Debois, M.; Bethe, U.; Praet, M.; Wils, J.; Cutsem, E. van

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This multicentric, randomized, two-stage phase II trial evaluated three simplified weekly infusional regimens of fluorouracil (FU) or FU plus folinic acid (FA) and cisplatin (Cis) with the aim to select a regimen for future phase III trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 145 patients

  5. “STRUCTURA”, fachada autoportante de ladrillo cara vista para cumplir los requisitos del nuevo CTE DB HE” = “STRUCTURA”, self-supporting face brick façade to comply with the new CTE DB HE requirements”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Río Vega

    2016-08-01

    -supporting face brick façade is the result of a profound reflection on the different solutions for the brick façades that have been used throughout history. It has been promoted by Hispalyt in close collaboration with the Technical Department of Geohidrol S.A., leader company in the research, manufacture and marketing of systems for masonry closings. When analyzing different solutions of face brick façade, under the perspective of the technical building code requirements, the self-supporting façade 'STRUCTURA' appears as the optimal solution for its simplicity, high performance and low cost in auxiliary resources. The self-supporting façade 'STRUCTURA' is characterised by the outer leaf of the enclosure being built fully separately from the building, supported on itself, and thus enabling the provision of an air chamber (ventilated or not with continuous thermal insulation. In this manner thermal bridges on the fronts of pillars and floors are eliminated, noticeably improving the hygrothermal performance of the building in order to comply with the technical building code basic document for energy saving (DB HE, whose requirements in the new version approved in September 2013 have substantially increased with respect to the requirements of the previous version. From the point of view of the mechanical response, the self-supporting façade is based on exploiting the potential that brick walls have when used as a load-bearing structural element themselves. Unlike conventional solutions or those that require additional support devices arranged floor-to-floor, with the 'STRUCTURA' solution the brick wall is analyzed as an active element in the structural behaviour, so that its own weight contributes beneficially to the resistance against horizontal actions.

  6. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus CSY-P13 Mitigates Stress of Ferulic and p-Hydroxybenzoic Acids in Cucumber by Affecting Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Soil Bacterial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghui Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid (FA and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA are main phenolic compounds accumulated in rhizosphere of continuously cropped cucumber, causing stress in plants. Microbial degradation of a mixture of FA and PHBA is not well understood in soil. We isolated a strain CSY-P13 of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, inoculated it into soil to protect cucumber from FA and PHBA stress, and explored a mechanism underlying the protection. CSY-P13 effectively degraded a mixture of FA and PHBA in culture solution under conditions of 39.37°C, pH 6.97, and 21.59 g L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate, giving rise to 4-vinyl guaiacol, vanillin, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. During FA and PHBA degradation, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase in CSY-P13 were induced. Inoculated into cucumber-planted soil containing 220 μg g-1 mixture of FA and PHBA, CSY-P13 degraded FA and PHBA in soil, increased plant height, and decreased malonaldehyde, superoxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide levels in leaves. CSY-P13 also enhanced SOD, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase activities; increased ascorbate and glutathione contents; and elevated transcript levels of copper/zinc SOD, manganese SOD, and catalase in leaves under FA and PHBA. Moreover, CSY-P13 increased phosphatase, catalase, urease, and sucrase activities and changed bacterial richness, diversity, and community composition by high throughput sequencing in cucumber-planted soil supplemented with the mixture of FA and PHBA. So CSY-P13 degrades the mixture of FA and PHBA in soil and mitigates stress from the two phenolic compounds in cucumber by activating antioxidant enzymes, changing soil bacterial community, and inducing soil enzymes.

  7. Detection of deep venous thrombosis with indium 111-labelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromholt, N.; Hesse, B. (Hilleroed County Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Physiology); Folkenborg, O. (Isotope-Pharmcy, Broenshoej (Denmark)); Selmer, J. (Novo Industri A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark)); Nielsen, N.T. (Hilleroed County Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-05-01

    The administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator allows detection of areas with increased fibrinolytic activity, i.e. those with an active thrombotic lesion. Eight patients with phlebographically verified deep venous thrombosis were examined. At the time of immunoscintigraphy study they were examined receiving anticoagulant therapy. Some 75-85 MBq {sup 111}In-labelled antibody were injected, and scintigrams were obtained after 30 min and after 24 h. The precise site of the thrombus could not be visualized after 30 min due to high background activity, whereas after 24 h it was detectable in all patients. The thrombus/background ratios achieved are twice as high as those observed in a human antifibrin antibody study. These preliminary data suggest a high sensitivity of our PA-specific antibody for the detection of active deep venous thrombosis in man, and our antibody seems to offer theoretical advantages over both platelet and fibrin-specific antibodies. (orig.).

  8. Detection of deep venous thrombosis with indium 111-labelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromholt, N.; Hesse, B.; Selmer, J.; Nielsen, N.T.

    1991-01-01

    The administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator allows detection of areas with increased fibrinolytic activity, i.e. those with an active thrombotic lesion. Eight patients with phlebographically verified deep venous thrombosis were examined. At the time of immunoscintigraphy study they were examined receiving anticoagulant therapy. Some 75-85 MBq 111 In-labelled antibody were injected, and scintigrams were obtained after 30 min and after 24 h. The precise site of the thrombus could not be visualized after 30 min due to high background activity, whereas after 24 h it was detectable in all patients. The thrombus/background ratios achieved are twice as high as those observed in a human antifibrin antibody study. These preliminary data suggest a high sensitivity of our PA-specific antibody for the detection of active deep venous thrombosis in man, and our antibody seems to offer theoretical advantages over both platelet and fibrin-specific antibodies. (orig.)

  9. Influence of gamma-radiation on the biological activity of snake venoms in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarleque Ch, A.

    1986-03-01

    Effects of Co-60 gamma radiation on enzymatic, haemorragic and necrotic activities of Lachesis muta and Bothrops atrox venoms was studied at several ranges of irradiation lower than 1.0 Mrad. The radiation produced changes on its enzymatic activities. Irradiation at 0.1 Mrad resulted in the partial or complete inactivation of the following enzymes that are listed in order of increasing sensitivity: exonuclease, phospholipase A, caseinolytic enzyme, thrombinolytic enzyme, fibrinolytic enzyme, 5'-nucleotidase and endonuclease. The enzymatic inactivation was increased with 0.5 and 1.0 Mrad although not in a linear manner. Exonuclease was found to be the most radioresistant. The haemorragic activity was decreased to a greater extent than the necrotic activity. The probable mechanism for the changes in the enzymatic, haemorragic and necrotic activities are discussed

  10. Hemostatic Findings in Ascitic Fluid: A Cross-Sectional Study in 70 Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoia, A.; Drigo, M.; Piek, C. J.; Simioni, P.; Caldin, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ascitic fluids of horses and humans have fibrinolytic activity, independent of the underlying mechanism of fluid formation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether coagulation and fibrinogenolytic/fibrinolytic activity (ie, low fibrinogen and increased fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products

  11. Extraction and Simplification of Building Façade Pieces from Mobile Laser Scanner Point Clouds for 3D Street View Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and analysis of building façades are key processes in the three-dimensional (3D building reconstruction and realistic geometrical modeling of the urban environment, which includes many applications, such as smart city management, autonomous navigation through the urban environment, fly-through rendering, 3D street view, virtual tourism, urban mission planning, etc. This paper proposes a building facade pieces extraction and simplification algorithm based on morphological filtering with point clouds obtained by a mobile laser scanner (MLS. First, this study presents a point cloud projection algorithm with high-accuracy orientation parameters from the position and orientation system (POS of MLS that can convert large volumes of point cloud data to a raster image. Second, this study proposes a feature extraction approach based on morphological filtering with point cloud projection that can obtain building facade features in an image space. Third, this study designs an inverse transformation of point cloud projection to convert building facade features from an image space to a 3D space. A building facade feature with restricted facade plane detection algorithm is implemented to reconstruct façade pieces for street view service. The results of building facade extraction experiments with large volumes of point cloud from MLS show that the proposed approach is suitable for various types of building facade extraction. The geometric accuracy of building façades is 0.66 m in x direction, 0.64 in y direction and 0.55 m in the vertical direction, which is the same level as the space resolution (0.5 m of the point cloud.

  12. The Suppressive Activity of Fucofuroeckol-A Derived from Brown Algal Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura on UVB-Induced Mast Cell Degranulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Sang Vo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available UV light, especially UVB, is known as a trigger of allergic reaction, leading to mast cell degranulation and histamine release. In this study, phlorotannin Fucofuroeckol-A (F-A derived from brown algal Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura was evaluated for its protective capability against UVB-induced allergic reaction in RBL-2H3 mast cells. It was revealed that F-A significantly suppress mast cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release as well as intracellular Ca2+ elevation at the concentration of 50 μM. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of F-A on IL-1β and TNF-α productions was also evidenced. Notably, the protective activity of F-A against mast cell degranulation was found due to scavenging ROS production. Accordingly, F-A from brown algal E. stolonifera was suggested to be promising candidate for its protective capability against UVB-induced allergic reaction.

  13. Proceso de Explotación de Información para Analítica Académica en FaCENA-UNNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano E.A. Lopez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un proceso de explotación de información adaptado del modelo propuesto por Vanrell, el cual combina las etapas de la metodología CRISP-DM con actividades de la metodología COMPETISOFT, con el objetivo de aplicar un abordaje ingenieril para el desarrollo de una propuesta tecnológica como soporte para la implementación de Analítica Académica en la FaCENA-UNNE.

  14. The wall painting on the western façade and the lunette of the southern portal of St. Nicholas in Ljuboten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radujko Milan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The wall painting on the façades of St. Nicholas in Ljuboten near Skopje, the endowment of 'Lady Danica', a noblewoman in the time of King Dušan, was destroyed in 1928, during the restoration of the church. Evidence of the appearance of the hitherto unnoticed decoration on the western facade and the southern entrance can be seen on glass plates in the Photograph Collection of the National Museum in Belgrade. When the photographs Nos. 1438, 1444 and 1567 were taken, the painting on the Ljuboten church façades, although damaged or washed away, was still partly visible. On the western façade it extended in three zones (the socle, the standing figures and the busts across the entire façade and from the ground to the porch, the roof of which stood at the foot of the western wall archivolt, while the ornamentation of the southern façade covered the lunette above the entrance and its archivolt. Although in 1925, the painting did not contain a single legible signature or physiognomy, thematically, the outer ornamentation of Ljuboten is essentially clear. The bust of the Mother of God with the infant Christ, facing south, was in the centre of the compositional focus of the western façade. Three figures stood on the left and on the right sides of the portal, one on each of the pilasters, and one monumental figure in each of two niches. From the south, a church hierarch, with short, curly beard, was moving in a stooping position towards the Mother of God. He, certainly, could be identified as the patron of the church, St. Nicholas. The saint raises his right hand in a gesture of exhortation. Behind him, a figure in monastic habit was painted. This person holds a model of the church in the left hand, with the right hand in a gesture of prayer. Undoubtedly, it was the donatrix of the church painted here. As opposed to the figures in the southern part of the western façade, those in the northern part were facing forward. We recognized a saint on the

  15. Sequential Introduction of Cations Deriving Large-Grain Csx FA1-x PbI3 Thin Film for Planar Hybrid Solar Cells: Insight into Phase-Segregation and Thermal-Healing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiahao; Xu, Pan; Liu, Jian; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2017-03-01

    Composition engineering of perovskite materials has been demonstrated to be important for high-performance solar cells. Recently, the energy favorable hybridization of formamidinium (FA) and cesium (Cs) in three dimension lead halide perovskites has been attracting increasing attention due to its potential benefit on durability. Herein, we reported a simple and effective method to produce phase-pure CsxFA1-xPbI3 thin film via sequential introduction of cations, in which the FA cation was introduced by interdiffusion annealing in the presence of N-methylimidazole (NMI). NMI was employed as an additive to slow down the crystallization and thus drive the formation of CsxFA1-xPbI3 with micrometer grain size, which probably facilitate the charge dissociation and transportation in photovoltaic devices. More importantly, composition dependent phase-segregation has been revealed and investigated for the first time during the phase-pure mixed-cation perovskites CsxFA1-xPbI3. The present findings demonstrated that suppressing phase-segregation of mixed-cation perovskites by meticulous composition engineering is significant for further development of efficient photovoltaics. It also suggested that phase-pure Cs0.15FA0.85PbI3 may be a promising candidate with superior phase-durability, which performed an efficiency over 16% in planar perovskite solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Experimental study on workability of alkali activated fly ash and slag-based geopolymer concretes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbi, K.A.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Zuo, Y.; Grunewald, S.; Keulen, A.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on workability and strength of geopolymer concrete made of fly ash (FA), blast furnace slag (BFS) and a multicompound activator of Na2SiO3 and NaOH solutions. The FA/BFS ratios were 100:0, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70 and 0:100. The workability of geopolymer

  17. Exploring the In Vitro Thrombolytic Activity of Nattokinase From a New Strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Subathra Devi; Vaithilingam, Mohanasrinivasan; Shanker, Ravi; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thiyur, Swathi; Babu, Vaishnavi; Selvakumar, Jemimah Naine; Prakash, Suyash

    2015-10-01

    Thrombolytic therapy has become a conventional treatment for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet currently, clinically prescribed thrombolytic drugs have problems such as delayed action and other side effects. Fibrinolytic enzymes have attracted interest as thrombolytic agents because of their efficiency in the fibrinolytic process, including plasmin activation. Nattokinase (NK) is a potent fibrinolytic agent for thrombosis therapy. The aim of this study was to enhance the production of NK from Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMSS by media optimization and strain improvement. In the present study, a potent NK-producing strain was isolated from cow milk and identified. To enhance the yield of NK, effect of various parameters such as pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inoculum size were optimized. Strain improvement of P. aeruginosa CMSS was done by random UV-mutagenesis. Nattokinase was partially purified and the activity was determined by the casein digestion method, blood clot lysis and fibrin degradation assay. Based on morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization, the strain was confirmed as P. aeruginosa (GenBank accession number: JX112657), designated as P. aeruginosa CMSS. The optimum condition at pH 7 and temperature at 25˚C showed activity of NK as 1514 U mL(-1) and 1532 U mL(-1), respectively. Sucrose as the carbon source and shrimp shell powder (SSP) as the nitrogen source expressed NK activity of 1721 U mL(-1) and 2524 U mL(-1), respectively. At 1% inoculum size, the maximum rate of enzyme production was achieved with 2581 U mL(-1). The NK activity of the mutant strain UV60 was 4263 U mL(-1), indicating a two-fold increase in activity compared to the wild strain (2581 UmL(-1)). Nattokinase produced from mutant strain P. aeruginosa CMSS UV60 showed 94% blood clot lysis at ten minutes. The degradation of fibrin clot by the produced NK was observed after two hours of incubation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel

  18. Integrating Life Cycle Energy into the Design of Façade Refurbishment for a Post-War Residential Building in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paressa Loussos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing building stock has been in the focus of European Union policies for energy savings. Nevertheless, energy certification schemes refer mostly to operational energy and usually do not consider aspects related to the life cycle of the building. To look at the overall energy cost during the lifespan of a building, the energy used to produce and assemble the building materials also needs to be included. This paper develops a design methodology for existing residential buildings that aims at decreasing the life cycle energy use as much as possible. This approach was applied on a case study of an existing post-war residential building in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The main focus of this study is to find a design solution for façade retrofitting that considers both embodied and operational energy. The design approach is based on comparing different strategies for the use of façade materials. This design methodology can be replicated in other projects, as the conclusions and recommendations can also be used for future refurbishment projects for which a low operational energy and materials with a low embodied energy are desired.

  19. The Use of Sound Absorbing Shading Systems for the Attenuation of Noise on Building Façades. An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Zuccherini Martello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of solar irradiation in building façades with large windows is often solved with the use of external shading devices, such as brise-soleil systems, but their potential acoustic effects on building façades are usually neglected. The purpose of this work is a preliminary consideration of the acoustic behaviour of brise-soleil systems and, furthermore, the evaluation of the possibility to improve their performances, in terms of Sound Pressure Level (SPL abatement over glass surfaces. The paper reports the results of a study on two portions of the same office building, with shading devices installed in front of large windows. Both airborne sound insulation measurements and SPL measurements over the glass surfaces of the windows were carried out to compare different situations, with or without louvers, and with sound absorbing experimental louvers as well. Results show that the louvers' presence can produce an increase in the SPL over the glass surface as a consequence of the reflection of the sound. Results further show that sound absorbing louvers improve the noise protection of the system, in terms of the SPL reduction, over glass surfaces, cancelling out the negative effect of the standard shading devices.

  20. Thermodynamic performance of an auto-cascade ejector refrigeration cycle with mixed refrigerant R32 + R236fa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yingying; Wang, Lin; Liang, Kunfeng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an auto-cascade ejector refrigeration cycle (ACERC) is proposed to obtain lower refrigeration temperature based on conventional ejector refrigeration and auto-cascade refrigeration principle. The thermodynamic performance of ACERC is investigated theoretically. The zeotropic refrigerant mixture R32 + R236fa is used as its working fluid. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of some thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance. The study shows that refrigerant mixture composition, condenser outlet temperature and evaporation pressure have effects on performance of ACERC. The theoretical results also indicate that the ACERC can achieve the lowest refrigeration temperature at the temperature level of −30 °C. The application of zeotropic refrigerant mixture auto-cascade refrigeration in the ejector refrigeration cycle can provide a new way to obtain lower refrigeration temperature utilizing low-grade thermal energy. - Highlights: • An auto-cascade ejector refrigerator with R32 + R236fa mixed refrigerant is proposed. • The cycle can obtain a refrigeration temperature at −30 °C temperature range. • The effects of some thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance are evaluated