WorldWideScience

Sample records for fibre plant straw

  1. Fibres and energy from wheat straw by simple practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leponiemi, A.

    2011-06-15

    The overall purpose of this work is to evaluate the possibilities of wheat straw for fibre and energy production and address the question of whether or not it is possible to develop a cost-effective process for producing good quality pulp from wheat straw for current paper or paperboard products. In addition, in light of the green energy boom, the question of whether fibre production could give added value to energy production using wheat straw is addressed. Due to the logistics of the bulky raw material, the process should be applied on a small scale that determines the requirements for the process. The process should be simple, have low chemical consumption and be environmentally safe. The processes selected for the study were based on an initial hot water treatment. Actual defibration in the 'chemical' approach was then performed using a subsequent alkaline peroxide bleaching process or in the 'mechanical' approach through mechanical refining. In both approaches, energy can be produced from lower quality material such as dissolved solids or fines. In this work, one of the primary aims besides the development of the above-mentioned process is to investigate the chemical storage of wheat straw which decays easily between harvesting periods and examine its effects on pulping and pulp properties. In addition, the aim of this work is to determine the market potential for non-wood pulp and evaluate non-wood pulp production. The results showed that the 'chemical' approach produced fibres for printing and writing. The quality of the pulp was relatively good, but the chemical consumption at the target brightness of 75% was high, indicating that a chemical recovery would be needed unless the brightness target could be significantly reduced. The 'mechanical' approach produced unbleached fibres for fluting and the energy production from fines and dissolved solids generated additional income. The results also showed that it is possible

  2. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on rice straw fibre structure and enzyme hydrolyzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingping; Li Wenge; Peng Ling; Wang Keqin; Xiong Xingyao

    2008-01-01

    The effect of improving enzyme hydrolyze of rice straw was estimated with treating dry rice straw and raw fiber by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated rice straw and raw fibres were measured by DNS method and vitrol-phenol method. The changes of deoxidize carbohydrate groups of irradiated hydrolyzing rice straw were analyzed by gas chromatography. The organism structures of irradiated rice straw were scanned by electron microscope, the results showed that 1000-1500 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiation doses effectively destroyed rice straw's organism structures, especially the silicon crystal structures, and along with irradiation doses increased the breakage degree enlarged significantly. The contents of the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of rice straw increased significantly. treated by both irradiation and enzyme, the cellulose transform rate of rice straw was 88.7%, which is better than that only treated by 60 Co γ-irradiation or enzyme. The content of water-solubility deoxidize carbohydrate of the treated rice straw was 214.4 mg/g and the total carbohydrate of straw was 758.5 mg/g. The contents of mannose, galactose, glucose, arabinose and xylose increased significantly, among those carbohydrate, the glucose's increment was the largest and account for 62.64%, and mannose's increments was the second. The contents of lignin of the rice straw were not influenced obviously by irradiation treatment. (authors)

  3. Economy of straw-fired heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The aim was to produce a detailed survey of the economical aspects of the operation of individual Danish straw-fired heating plants and to compare the results. It is hoped the operators of these plants will thus be encouraged to work together when atttempting to solve problems in this respect and that the gathered information could be used by consultants. The collected data from the survey is presented in the form of tables and graphs. (AB)

  4. Plant fibre composites - porosity and volumetric interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Thygesen, Anders; Lilholt, Hans

    2007-01-01

    the combination of a high fibre volume fraction, a low porosity and a high composite density is optimal. Experimental data from the literature on volumetric composition and density of four types of plant fibre composites are used to validate the model. It is demonstrated that the model provides a concept......Plant fibre composites contain typically a relative large amount of porosity, which considerably influences properties and performance of the composites. The large porosity must be integrated in the conversion of weight fractions into volume fractions of the fibre and matrix parts. A model...... is presented to predict the porosity as a function of the fibre weight fractions, and to calculate the related fibre and matrix volume fractions, as well as the density of the composite. The model predicts two cases of composite volumetric interaction separated by a transition fibre weight fraction, at which...

  5. Utilization of straw in district heating and CHP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaisen, L.

    1993-01-01

    In Denmark 64 straw-fired district heating plants and 6 decentral CHP plants have been built since 1980 which are completely or partly straw-fired. The annual straw consumption in the district heating plants is 275,000 tons and in the decentral plants about 200,000 tons. The size of the district heating plants amounts to 0.5 MW - 10 MW and that of the CHP plants to 7 MW - 67 MW heat flow rate. Either whole bales or cut/scarified straw is used for firing. Hesston bales of about 450 kg control the market. The Centre of Biomass Technology is an activity supported 100 % by the Danish Energy Agency with the purpose of increasing the use of straw and wood in the energy supply (orig.)

  6. Straw quality for its combustion in a straw-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Allica, J.; Blanco, F.; Garbisu, C. [NEIKER, Instituto Vasco de Investigacion y Desarrollo Agrario, Derio (Spain); Mitre, A.J.; Gonzalez Bustamante, J.A. [IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Consultoria, Bilbao (Spain); Itoiz, C. [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Alkorta, I. [Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias

    2001-07-01

    ENERGIA HIDROELECTRICA DE NAVARRA, S.A. (Navarra, Spain) is erecting a 25 MW power generation plant using straw for electricity generation. Cereal straws have proved to be difficult to burn in most existing combustion systems. During the last two years, a study has been carried out in Navarra to investigate the possibilities of improving the fuel quality of straw by a reduction in its K{sup +} and Cl{sup -} contents. The simple leaching of K{sup +} and Cl{sup -} with water by exposure to natural rainfall in the field resulted in considerable reductions of these two elements. A reduction in the K{sup +} content of the cereal plants caused by exposure to natural rainfall has been observed during plant ripening (before crop harvesting). Some varieties of straw show lower initial K{sup +} contents, making them more suitable for this purpose. There seems to be no clear correlation between the relative decrease in K{sup +} content and the amount of accumulated rainfall. Our results have also shown a very close correlation between K{sup +} content and electrical conductivity. The simplicity of this latter measurement makes this parameter a very interesting option to test the straw quality directly in the field. Structural components of the straw were not decomposed during the time when we left the straw in the field. Finally, the Cl{sup -} content in straw was increased when the Cl{sup -} dose from the fertiliser was increased. On the other hand, the content of K{sup +} was not influenced by the applied amount of K{sup +} fertiliser. (Author)

  7. Corrosion Investigations in Straw-Fired Power Plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Frandsen, Flemming; Karlsson, A

    2001-01-01

    of accelerated corrosion. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. A series of field tests have been undertaken in the various straw-fired power plants in Denmark, namely the Masnedø, Rudkøbing and Ensted CHP plants. Three types......In Denmark, straw and other types of biomass are used for generating energy in power plants. Straw has the advantage that it is a "carbon dioxide neutral fuel" and therefore environmentally acceptable. Straw combustion is associated with corrosion problems which are not encountered in coal-fired...... of exposure were undertaken to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, b) the exposure of test tubes in a test superheater, and c) the exposure of test tubes in existing superheaters. Thus both austenitic steels and ferritic steels were exposed in the steam...

  8. Straw fired district heating plants in Denmark. Facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    A series of analyses and comparisons of technical, operational and financial and environmental conditions relating to straw-fired district heating and cogeneration plants in Denmark during the period of May 1993 to June 1995. The report provides an insight into the potentials of straw as a source of energy, particularly in the case of countries where the cultivation of cereals represents a major part of the agricultural economy. (AB)

  9. Plant fibre composites - porosity and stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Thygesen, Anders; Lilholt, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Plant fibre composites contain typically a relatively large amount of porosity which influences their performance. A model, based on a modified rule of mixtures, is presented to include the influence of porosity on the composite stiffness. The model integrates the volumetric composition...... of the composites with their mechanical properties. The fibre weight fraction is used as an independent parameter to calculate the complete volumetric composition. A maximum obtainable stiffness of the composites is calculated at a certain transition fibre weight fraction, which is characterised by a best possible...... combination of high fibre volume fraction and low porosity. The model is validated with experimental data from the literature on several types of composites. A stiffness diagram is presented to demonstrate that the calculations can be used for tailoring and design of composites with a given profile...

  10. Plant growth inhibitors isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, Diego Alejandro; Vattuone, Marta Amelia; Isla, María Ines

    2006-07-01

    Several compounds related with plant defense and pharmacological activities have been isolated from sugarcane. Straw phytotoxins and their possible mechanisms of growth inhibition are largely unknown. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the phytotoxic constituents leachated from a sugarcane straw led to the isolation of trans-ferulic (trans-FA), cis-ferulic (cis-FA), vanillic (VA) and syringic (SA) acids. The straw leachates and their identified constituents significantly inhibited root growth of lettuce and four weeds. VA was more phytotoxic to root elongation than FA and SA. The identified phenolic compounds significantly increased leakage of root cell constituents, inhibited dehydrogenase activity and reduced chlorophyll content in lettuce. VA and FA inhibited mitotic index while SA increased cell division. Additive (VA-FA and FA-SA) and synergistic (VA-SA) interactions on root growth were observed at the response level of EC(25). Although the isolated compounds differed in their relative phytotoxic activities, the observed physiological responses suggest that they have a common mode of action. HPLC analysis indicated that sugarcane straw can potentially release 1.43 (ratio 2:1, trans:cis), 1.14 and 0.14mmolkg(-1) (straw dry weight) of FA, VA and SA, respectively. As phenolic acids are often found spatially concentrated in the top soil layers under plant straws, further studies are needed to establish the impact of these compounds in natural settings.

  11. Economic production and processing of agricultural fibre plants for high quality applications in automotive, building and furniture industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecenka, R.; Furll, C.; Gusovius, H.J. [Leibniz Inst. for Agricultural Engineering, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The demand for high-quality fibres and shives from hemp and flax as an alternative raw material for the automotive and building industry is increasing. Fibres are used primarily for composite reinforcement instead of synthetic fibres. Shives are used for animal bedding, but processing trials in wood industry for the production of low weight particle boards from shives are also very promising. Fibre producers require experience in cultivation and harvesting as well as modern processing technologies in order to supply flax fibres or shives at competitive prices under the changing conditions of international raw material markets. A complete processing line has been developed, installed and tested at the Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering (ATB) to study all the processing stages of fibre production. The new ATB line can produce high quality fibres and shives from retted and unretted hemp, flax and oilseed flax straw without technical changes of the machine line. The ATB pilot plant has been operated by a cooperation of farmers since 2008. Experience from industrial operation has been used to develop a modern fibre processing line with a throughput of up to 5 t per h hemp straw in only one short line.

  12. Nitrogen derived from fertilization and straw for plant cane nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, Andre Cesar; Faroni, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery, by plant cane, of the nitrogen ( 15 N) from urea and from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop residues - straw and root system - incorporated into the soil. The experiment was settled in 2005/2006 with the sugarcane cultivar SP81 3250. At planting, microplots of 2 m length and 1.5 m width were installed, and N applications were done with 80 kg ha-1 N (urea with 5.05% in 15 N atoms) and 14 Mg ha -1 crop residues - 9 Mg ha -1 of sugarcane straw and 5 Mg ha -1 of root system, labeled with 15 N (1.07 and 0.81% in 15 N atoms, respectively). The total N accumulation by plants was determined during the crop cycle. Although the N use by shoot from crop residue mineralization (PA and SR) increased significantly over time, this source hardly contributed to crop nutrition. The recovery of the 15 N-urea, 15 N-SS and 15 N-RS by plant cane was 30.3 +- 3.7%, 13.9 +- 4.5% and 6.4 +- 0.9%, respectively, representing 15.9, 4.7 and 1.4% of total nitrogen uptake by shoot. (author)

  13. A Site Selection Model for a Straw-Based Power Generation Plant with CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lv

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decision on the location of a straw-based power generation plant has a great influence on the plant’s operation and performance. This study explores traditional theories for site selection. Using integer programming, the study optimizes the economic and carbon emission outcomes of straw-based power generation as two objectives, with the supply and demand of straw as constraints. It provides a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model to solve the site selection problem for a straw-based power generation plant. It then provides a case study to demonstrate the application of the model in the decision on the site selection for a straw-based power generation plant with a Chinese region. Finally, the paper discusses the result of the model in the context of the wider aspect of straw-based power generation.

  14. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célino, Amandine; Freour, Sylvain; Jacquemin, Frederic; Casari, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior). The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  15. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine eCélino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior. The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  16. Laboratory Investigation of High Temperature Corrosion in Straw fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion in straw-fired power plants has been studied in the laboratory for Sandvik 8LR30 and Sanicro 28. The influence of HCl and SO2 was investigated at 600C metal temperature for upto 300 hours.In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was examined in ash taken from a straw-fired...

  17. FT Raman microscopy of untreated natural plant fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.; Webster, D.

    1997-11-01

    The application of FT-Raman microscopy to the non-destructive analysis of natural plant fibres is demonstrated with samples of flax, jute, ramie, cotton, kapok, sisal and coconut fibre. Vibrational assignments are proposed and characteristic features of each material are presented. Samples were not pre-treated chemically before analysis and were used directly from their respective storage collection; the adaptation of the Raman microscopic technique to the identification of specimens of natural fibres in archaeological burial sites is explored for its forensic potential.

  18. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Amandine eCélino; Sylvain eFreour; Frederic eJacquemin; Pascal eCasari

    2014-01-01

    Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a ...

  19. Hyperaccumulator straw improves the cadmium phytoextraction efficiency of emergent plant Nasturtium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keqiang; Lin, Lijin; Wang, Jin; Xia, Hui; Liang, Dong; Wang, Xun; Liao, Ming'an; Wang, Li; Liu, Li; Chen, Cheng; Tang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    With the development of economy, the heavy metal contamination has become an increasingly serious problem, especially the cadmium (Cd) contamination. The emergent plant Nasturtium officinale R. Br. is a Cd-accumulator with low phytoremediation ability. To improve Cd phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale, the straw from Cd-hyperaccumulator plants Youngia erythrocarpa, Galinsoga parviflora, Siegesbeckia orientalis, and Bidens pilosa was applied to Cd-contaminated soil and N. officinale was then planted; the study assessed the effect of hyperaccumulator straw on the growth and Cd accumulation of N. officinale. The results showed that application of hyperaccumulator species straws increased the biomass and photosynthetic pigment content and reduced the root/shoot ratio of N. officinale. All straw treatments significantly increased Cd content in roots, but significantly decreased Cd content in shoots of N. officinale. Applying hyperaccumulator straw significantly increased the total Cd accumulation in the roots, shoots, and whole plants of N. officinale. Therefore, application of straw from four hyperaccumulator species promoted the growth of N. officinale and improved the phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale in Cd-contaminated paddy field soil; the straw of Y. erythrocarpa provided the most improvement.

  20. Grain and straw for whole plant: implications for crop management and genetic improvement strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Schiere, J.B.; Joshi, A.L.; Seetharam, A.; Oosting, S.J.; Goodchild, A.V.; Deinum, B.; Keulen, van, H.

    2004-01-01

    Straws and stovers are often called `by-products` of grain production even though they are increasingly important, e.g. for animal feed, thatching, soil improvement, mushroom production and industrial use. As a result, plant breeders, agronomists, economists and animal nutritionists have to pay more attention than before to the total value of crops, i.e. whole plant value in which straws and grain both play a part. This paper reviews literature about the technical potential of breeding and/or...

  1. Rice straw addition as sawdust substitution in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) planted media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Christine Pamardining; Susilawati, Puspita Ratna

    2017-08-01

    Oyster mushroom is favorite by the people because of the high nutrients. The oyster mushroom cultivation usually using sawdust. The availability of sawdust become difficult to find. It makes difficulties of mushroom cultivation. Rice straw as an agricultural waste can be used as planted media of oyster mushroom because they contain much nutrition needed to the mushroom growth. The aims of this research were to analysis the influence of rice straw addition in a baglog as planted media and to analysis the concentration of rice straw addition which can substitute sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom. This research used 4 treatment of sawdust and rice straw ratio K = 75 % : 0 %, P1 = 60 % : 15 %, P2 = 40 % : 35 %, P3 = 15 % : 60 %. The same material composition of all baglog was bran 20%, chalk 5%, and water 70%. The parameters used in this research were wet weight, dry weight, moisture content and number of the mushroom fruit body. Data analysis was used ANOVA test with 1 factorial. The results of this research based on statistical analysis showed that there was no influence of rice straw addition in a planted media on the oyster mushroomgrowth. 15% : 60% was the concentrationof rice straw additionwhich can substitute the sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom.

  2. Flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants; Roeggaskondensation i halmfyrede kraftvarmeanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-15

    The high price of straw and a general demand for increased use of straw in power and heat production are expected to result in an increased need for efficient fuel utilization. The use of flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants can contribute to a higher exploitation of energy, and at the same time open of the possibility of utilization of wet (cheaper) fuels without energy loss. Furthermore flue gas condensation can contribute to the flue gas cleaning process through removal of HCl and SO{sub 2} as well as in particle cleaning in wet cleaning processes. With starting point in a straw fired CHP plant the technical and economic consequences of installation of a flue gas condensation system are investigated. Fuel exploitation and power/heat production distribution is included in the investigation. (BA)

  3. Effect of wheat and Miscanthus straw biochars on soil enzymatic activity, ecotoxicity, and plant yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwa-Hersztek, Monika; Gondek, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka; Baran, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    The variety of technological conditions and raw materials from which biochar is produced is the reason why its soil application may have different effects on soil properties and plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of wheat straw and Miscanthus giganteus straw (5 t DM ha-1) and biochar obtained from this materials in doses of 2.25 and 5 t DM ha-1 on soil enzymatic activity, soil ecotoxicity, and plant yield (perennial grass mixture with red clover). The research was carried out under field conditions on soil with the granulometric composition of loamy sand. No significant effect of biochar amendment on soil enzymatic activity was observed. The biochar-amended soil was toxic to Vibrio fischeri and exhibited low toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens. Application of wheat straw biochar and M. giganteus straw biochar in a dose of 5 t DM ha-1 contributed to an increase in plant biomass production by 2 and 14%, respectively, compared to the soil with mineral fertilisation. Biochars had a more adverse effect on soil enzymatic activity and soil ecotoxicity to H. incongruens and V. fischeri than non-converted wheat straw and M. giganteus straw, but significantly increased the grass crop yield.

  4. Visualization of Plant Fibres via Difusion Tensor Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gescheidtová, E.; Marcon, P.; Bartušek, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2011), s. 543-546 ISSN 1931-7360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/11/0318 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : plant fibres * difusion weighted imaging * difusion tensor imaging * MR imaging Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  5. Preliminary project concerning the straw-based combined power-heat plant at Glamsbjerg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Koch, T.

    1994-01-01

    The supplement to the main report on the planned dual-purpose power plant at Glamsbjerg contains documentation of the straw gasification and pyrolysis process, a detailed description of the power plant components, and the procedures of operation and maintenance of the combined systems. (EG)

  6. Effects of mulching tolerant plant straw on soil surface on growth and cadmium accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijin Lin

    Full Text Available Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil.

  7. Factors That Improve the Impact Responses of Ukam Plant Fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural fibres around us have mechanical properties capable of making them compete effectively with synthetic fibres in the development of fibre reinforced composites. Synthetic fibres (such as glass fibres) and resins (such as polyester resin) have long been used in the development of structural components for car bodies, ...

  8. Genetic variation in degradability of wheat straw and potential for improvement through plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Magid, Jakob; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2011-01-01

    contemporary gene pool. The cultivars were grown at two different locations to assess the potential for breeding for improved degradability. The straws exhibited much variation in degradability ranging from 258 g kg1 to 407 g kg1 of dry matter. The heritability for degradability was estimated to 29% indicating...... a reasonable potential for response to selection. Inclusion of height as a regression-term, indicated that only a minor part of genetic differences are directly related to plant height and that improvements in degradability may be achieved without unacceptable changes in straw length. Finally, a lack...... of correlation between degradability and grain yield indicated that straw degradability may be improved through breeding without serious negative effect on grain yield....

  9. Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw. [Mali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fock, F. [Ea Energy Analysis, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nygaard, I. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Management Engineering, UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, Roskilde (Denmark); Maiga, A.; Kone, B.; Kamissoko, F.; Coulibaly, N.; Ouattara, O.

    2012-11-15

    The main objective is to make a first evaluation regarding if it's technically possible, economically viable, sustainable and recommendable to build a rice straw/hulls fired power plant in Niono in Mali. Based on the available resource of rice straw and the possibilities for connecting to the grid it has been chosen to analyse a 5 MW power plant in the project. For technical reasons the rice straw should be the main fuel, but rice hulls can be used for co-firing. Up to around 20% of the fuel in the plant can be rice hulls instead of rice straw. A number of different biomass power production technologies have been evaluated in the project. This includes: 1) Grate fired boiler. 2) Bubbling fluidised bed. 3) Circulating fluidised bed. 4) Dust fired boiler. 5) Gasification. 6) Stirling engine. 7) Organic Rankine Cycle. Grate firing is the most relevant technology in this case, due to the fuel, the size of the power plant, the demand for electricity only and not heat, the demand for a robust and well proven technology. For a grate fired plant a calculation of the thermodynamic process of the power plant has been carried out in order to determine the electrical efficiency of the plant. The case consists of a 5 MW grate fired power plant with steam turbines and air cooled condenser resulting in an efficiency of 24.6% at full load (20% as yearly average). Investment costs and costs for O and M have been assumed based on experience from Danish power plants but adjusted for local conditions in Mali. The costs for collecting and transporting the rice straw and for the ash disposal have been specifically estimated in this project. The average cost of capital has been estimated based on assumptions on equity, international loans and local loans/bank finance. Based on the investment, the cost of O and M, fuel, ash disposal and the financial assumptions, a cash flow analysis is made in order to calculate the power price resulting in a Net Present Value (NPV) of the

  10. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system.

  11. In-situ corrosion investigation at Masnedø CHP plant - a straw-fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, Asger

    1999-01-01

    Various austenitic and ferritic steels were exposed on a water-cooled probe in the superheater area of a straw-fired CHP plant. The temperature of the probe ranged from 450-600°C and the period of exposure was 1400 hours. The rate of corrosion was assessed based on unattacked metal remaining...

  12. Ashes from straw and wood-chip fired plants for agricultural usage. Pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsing, M.; Westborg, S.

    1994-08-01

    The content of nutrients and heavy metals in ashes from the combustion of straw and wood chips at district heating plants is studied, on the basis of results of analyses from Danish municipalities, to determine whether such ashes are suitable for use as fertilizers. Results of the analysis of ashes from 9 wood-chip fired and 26 straw-fired plants are presented. They show significant variations in nutrient and heavy metal content which could be caused by combustion and operational conditions and/or testing methods. On condition that the phosphorous content of straw and wood-chip ashes amount to 1% of the dry matter, 50%-75% of the straw ashes and under 50% of wood chip ashes analyses are within the limit for cadmium stipulated in the Danish Ministry of the Environment's Executive Order no. 736 on the use of wastes for agricultural purposes. This is found to be unsatisfactory. It is suggested that a closer investigation should be undertaken in order to determine which amount of straw and wood-chip ashes can be accepted for use as fertilizers in consideration of the stipulated limits for cadmium content of wastes to be used for agricultural purposes. In addition the technological and economic potentials of dosing of these ashes for this use should be investigated. Fly ash and slag were also included in the analysis results studied and it was found that the cadmium content of slag did not prevent its use as fertilizer, but that the distribution of cadmium in slag, in fly ash and in slam from flue gas cleaning systems related to the combustion of wood chips should be further investigated. (AB)

  13. Comprehensive analysis of a straw-fired power plant in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Dragan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, renewable energy sources have played an increasingly important role in potential energy production. The integration of renewable energy technologies into existing national energy system has therefore become a major challenge for many countries. Due to the importance of this matter, this paper deals with the comprehensive analysis for implementation of a power plant on biomass (straw. The analysis is conducted regarding several key indicators: availability of biomass, regulation, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, location, land use, electricity price and social impacts. The analysis also includes favorable price for electricity produced from biomass relevant to national feed in tariffs. In order to demonstrate all above mentioned indicators, the region in Serbia (Province of Vojvodina with significant potential in biomass, especially in straw, is selected. The results of the analysis are validated trough environmental and social aspects. Special attention is given to identifying risks for this application.

  14. The determination of bulk (apparent) density of plant fibres by density method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifah Hanisah Syed Abd Aziz; Raja Jamal Raja hedar; Zahid Abdullah

    2004-01-01

    The absolute density of plant fibres excludes all pores and lumen and therefore is a measure of the solid matter of the fibres. On the other hand the bulk density, which is being discussed here, includes all the solid matter and the pores of the fibres. In this work, the apparent density of the fibre was measured by using the Archimedes principle, which involves the immersion of a known weight of fibre into a solvent of lower density than the fibre. Toluene with a density of about 860 kg/m3 was chosen as a solvent. A tuft of fibre was weighed and recorded as W fa . The fibre was then immersed in toluene, which wetted the fibre, and made to rest on the weighing pan submerged in the solvent and the weight of the immersed fibre was recorded as W fs . The apparent density was then calculated using the equation. All the measurements were taken at room temperature. The fibre samples were not oven dried prior to measurement. (Author)

  15. Microstructure, quantification and control of dislocations in bast-type plant fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lester, Catherine L.; Mortensen, Ulrich Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Bast-type plant fibres are increasingly being used for structural composite applications where high quality fibres with good mechanical properties are required. A central aspect for this application is the existence of dislocations in the cell wall of plant fibres, i.e. regions of misaligned...... cellulose microfibrils, which are believed to form weak points leading to reduced mechanical properties. In the present study, microstructural observations of dislocations are made using high-magnification scanning electron microscopy. An experimental protocol using polarized optical microscopy and image...... that this leads to a reduction in the content of dislocations. This is indicating that dislocations in the cell wall of plant fibres are changeable structures. Preliminary work is presented where plant fibres are exposed to physical treatments involving moisture and mechanical straining in order to change...

  16. Preliminary project concerning the straw-fueled combined power-heat plant to be constructed at Glamsbjerg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Koch, T.

    1994-06-01

    Power and heat generation based on biomass gasification is of great importance due to its beneficial environmental effects and good economy. This report concerns a preliminary project on feasibility and problems of implementing a dual-purpose power plant, supplying both power and district heating to several schools, swimming pools and other public facilities at Glamsbjerg (Funen). The plant is to be based on thermal gasification (pyrolysis) of straw and use of the gas in a diesel engine. The diesels operate the power generator, and their waste heat should be utilized in the local district heating network. In order to establish a stable and flexible straw supply to the plant an evaluation of resources in the area has been carried out. Apart from straw-derived fuel the plant is planned to use natural gas for start and maintenance of the process. The prices of the combined plant and of the fuel processing are estimated in the report. (EG)

  17. Treatments of non-wood plant fibres used as reinforcement in composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ange Arsène

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a summary of the knowledge on fibres and pulps of non wood tropical plants used as reinforcement in cementitious composites accumulated during the recent years by Guadeloupean and Brazilian teams participating in collaborative work. Vegetable fibres represent a good alternative as non-conventional materials for the construction of ecological and sustainable buildings. The use of such renewable resources contributes to the development of sustainable technologies. The main objective of the paper is to emphasize the use of agricultural wastes in the production of cement based composites. The botanical, chemical, physical, morphological and mechanical properties of fibres from various plants are described. The effects of different treatments on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of fibres are presented. The most effective treatments in influencing the mechanical and physical properties are pyrolysis and alkaline ones, according to the type of plant. The final choice will have to consider fibre availability, and treatment costs.

  18. Estimation of axial stiffness of plant fibres from compaction of non-woven mats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamstedt, E K; Bommier, E; Madsen, B

    2014-01-01

    Plant fibres are known to show a large variability in stiffness, which makes it time-consuming to experimentally characterize this property by conventional tensile testing. In this work, an alternative method is used, where the average fibre stiffness is back-calculated from compaction tests of in-plane randomly oriented fibre mats. The model by Toll is used to relate the load–displacement curve from the test to the Young modulus of the fibre, taking into account the natural variability in fibre cross section. Several tests have been performed on hemp fibre mats and compared with results from single-fibre tensile testing. The average back-calculated Young's modulus of the fibres was 45 GPa, whereas the average value from tensile testing ranged from 30 to 60 GPa. The straightforward compaction test can be useful in ranking of fibre stiffness, provided that the mat is composed of well-separated fibres and not of twisted yarns. (paper)

  19. Corrosion monitoring in a straw-fired power plant using an electrochemical noise probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Frederik Vilhelm; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical Noise Measurements have been carried out in situ in a straw-fired power plant using an experimental probe constructed from alumina and AlSl 347 steel. Based on a framework of controlled laboratory experiments it has been found that electrochemical noise has the unique ability...... to provide in-situ monitoring of intergranular corrosion in progress. The probe had a lifetime of two months. It was shown that down-time corrosion in the boiler was negligible. Electrochemical noise data indicated that metal temperatures around 590 degrees C should be avoided as the intergranular corrosion...

  20. On the determination of crystallinity and cellulose content in plant fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Oddershede, Jette; Lilholt, Hans

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of cellulose crystallinity based on the sample crystallinity and the cellulose content in plant fibres was performed for samples of different origin. Strong acid hydrolysis was found superior to agricultural fibre analysis and comprehensive plant fibre analysis for a consistent...... determination of the cellulose content. Crystallinity determinations were based on X-ray powder diffraction methods using side-loaded samples in reflection (Bragg-Brentano) mode. Rietveld refinements based on the recently published crystal structure of cellulose I beta followed by integration of the crystalline...... and 60 - 70 g/ 100 g cellulose in wood based fibres. These findings are significant in relation to strong fibre composites and bio-ethanol production....

  1. Exergetic analysis of a steam power plant using coal and rice straw in a co-firing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Alvaro; Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mails: arestrep@labcet.ufsc.br, miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil). U.O. Usina Termeletrica Jorge Lacerda C.], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an exergetic analysis concerning an existing 50 M We steam power plant, which operates with pulverized coal from Santa Catarina- Brazil. In this power plant, a co-firing rice straw is proposed, replacing up to 10% of the pulverized coal in energy basis required for the boiler. Rice straw has been widely regarded as an important source for bio-ethanol, animal feedstock and organic chemicals. The use of rice straw as energy source for electricity generation in a co-firing process with low rank coal represents a new application as well as a new challenge to overcome. Considering both scenarios, the change in the second law efficiency, exergy destruction, influence of the auxiliary equipment and the greenhouse gases emissions such as CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} were considered for analysis. (author)

  2. Relationship between Water and Carbon Utilization under Different Straw Mulching and Plant Density of Summer Maize in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanru; Du, Shoujian; Yin, Honglian; Wang, Juan

    2018-03-01

    To explore the relationship between water and carbon utilization and key factors to keep high water use efficiency (WUE), a 2-yr experiment was conduct by covering 0 and 0.6 kg m-2 straw to the surface of soil with plant densities of 1.0 × 105, 7.5 × 104, and 5.5 × 104 plants ha-1 in North China Plain during summer maize growing seasons of the 2012 and 2013. Results showed that straw mulching not only increased grain yield (GY), WUE, and carbon efficient ratio (CER) but also inhibited CO2 emission significantly. WUE positively correlated with CER, GY and negative correlated with evapotranspiration (ET) and CO2 emission. CER had the larger direct effect on WUE compared with ET and CO2 emission. The results indicate that straw mulching management in summer maize growing seasons could make sense for inhibiting CO2 emission.

  3. Sugarcane straw harvest effects on soil quality and plant growth: preliminary data synthesis of a multi-local project running in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Feigl, Brigitte J.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2017-04-01

    Brazil is the largest sugarcane producer in the world, and consequently, it is one of major players in the bioenergy production sector. Despite that, growing demands for bioenergies have raised the interest of Brazilian sugarcane industry to harvest the sugarcane straw left on the field for cellulosic ethanol production and/or bioelectricity cogeneration. However, crop residues have a key role in the soil, affecting directly or indirectly multiple soil functions and related ecosystem services. Therefore, indiscriminate straw harvest could jeopardize soil quality, decreasing its capacity to sustain plant productivity over time. In order to evaluate the potential impacts of sugarcane straw harvest on soil quality and plant growth, we are conducting since 2014 a multi-local project across central-southern Brazil, the main core of sugarcane production in the world. A wide range of soil chemical, physical and biological parameters, as well as, plant biomass production has been quantified under increasing straw harvest intensities. Our preliminary findings have showed that short-term straw harvest management did not affect total organic C stocks; however, high straw harvest led to significant reduction in labile C forms (e.g., microbial biomass C and N), and abundance of microbial communities as well. Sugarcane straw harvest affects soil nutrient cycling, since significant amount of nutrients are removed annually by straw, especially in top (green) leaves. In addition, our data show that straw acts as a thermal insulator, decreasing soil temperature amplitude and keeping soil moisture for a longer time. Straw harvest management did not affect sugarcane yields in the first two crop seasons. Based on this first synthesis of the project, we conclude that short-term sugarcane straw harvest led to soil changes, especially in more sensitive and dynamic properties, which did not affect the plant yield. However, long-term impacts should be monitored towards a better

  4. Mathematical modelling of straw combustion in a 38 MWe power plant furnace and effect of operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Bin Yang; Robert Newman; Vida Sharifi; Jim Swithenbank; John Ariss [Sheffield University, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC), Department of Chemical and Process Engineering

    2007-01-15

    As one of the most easily accessible renewable energy resources, straw can be burned to provide electricity and heat to local communities. In this paper, mathematical modelling methods have been employed to simulate the operation of a 38 MWe straw-burning power plant to obtain detailed information on the flow and combustion characteristics in the furnace and to predict the effect on plant performance of variation in operating conditions. The predicted data are compared to measurements in terms of burning time, furnace temperature, flue gas emissions (including NOx), carbon content in the ash and overall combustion efficiency. It is concluded that straw burning on the grate is locally sub-stoichiometric and most of the NO is formed in the downstream combustion chamber and radiation shaft; auxiliary gas burners are responsible for the uneven distribution of temperature and gas flow at the furnace exit; and fuel moisture content is limited to below 25% to prevent excessive CO emission without compromising the plant performance. The current work greatly helps to understand the operating characteristics of large-scale straw-burning plants. 33 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Study on the Potential of Rice Straws as a Supplementary Fuel in Very Small Power Plants in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penwadee Cheewaphongphan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residue is a major raw material for renewable energy production, particularly heat production, in Thailand. Meanwhile, the process-based residue, such as bagasse, rice husk, wood residue, palm fiber, palm shell, and saw dust, is used as a fuel for energy production in the agro-industry. Hence, this study is intended to assess the net potential and capacity of alternative agricultural residues, specifically rice straws, to serve as the supplementary fuel for very small power plants (VSPPs in Thailand. According to the results obtained during the crop season of 2015/2016, approximately 26 Mt of rice straws were generated upon the harvesting process. The net potential of rice straws, including those that were burned and those that were left in the fields, was only about 15% or 3.85 Mt, which could be used for heat and electricity production at 1331 kilotons of oil equivalent (ktoe or 457 MWe. As agro-residues vary by seasonality, the peak season of rice straws was in November, where approximately 1.64 Mt (43% were generated, followed by December, at 1.32 Mt (34%. On the basis of the results, rice straw has the potential to serve as a fuel supply for VSPPs at 14.2%, 21.6%, 26.3%, and 29.0% for the radii of compilation at 24, 36, 48 km and 60 km, respectively.

  6. Physical and mechanical properties of unidirectional plant fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B.; Lilholt, H.

    2003-01-01

    Unidirectional composites were made from filament wound non-treated flax yarns and polypropylene foils. With increasing composite fibre weight fractions from 0.56 to 0.72, porosity fractions increased from 0.04 to 0.08; a theoretical model was fitted to the data in order to describe the composite...... version of the "rule-of-mixtures", supplemented with parameters of composite porosity content and anisotropy of fibre properties, were developed to improve the prediction of composite tensile properties. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Study on the Potential of Rice Straws as a Supplementary Fuel in Very Small Power Plants in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Penwadee Cheewaphongphan; Agapol Junpen; Orachorn Kamnoet; Savitri Garivait

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural residue is a major raw material for renewable energy production, particularly heat production, in Thailand. Meanwhile, the process-based residue, such as bagasse, rice husk, wood residue, palm fiber, palm shell, and saw dust, is used as a fuel for energy production in the agro-industry. Hence, this study is intended to assess the net potential and capacity of alternative agricultural residues, specifically rice straws, to serve as the supplementary fuel for very small power plant...

  8. The Last Straw

    CERN Multimedia

    McFarlane, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    On 4 December 2002 at Hampton University, we completed processing the 'straws' for the Barrel TRT. The straws are plastic tubes 4 mm in diameter and 1.44 m long. More than 52 thousand straws will be used to build the drift tube detectors in the Barrel TRT. The picture shows some members of the Hampton production team ceremonially cutting the last straw to its final precise length. The production team, responsible for processing 64 thousand straws, included Jacquelyn Hodges, Carolyn Griffin, Princess Wilkins, Aida Kelly, Alan Fry, and (not pictured) Chuck Long, Nedra Peeples, and Hilda Williams. The straws have a cosmopolitan history. First, plastic film from a U.S. company was shipped to Russia to be coated with conductive materials and adhesive. The coated film was slit into long ribbons and sent to the UK to be wound into tubes. The tubes were then sent to two ATLAS collaborators in Russia, PNPI (Gatchina) and JINR (Dubna), where they were reinforced with carbon fibres to make them stiff and accuratel...

  9. Reclamation Of Plant Wastes (Straw And Obtaining (Nano Chips With Bactericidal Properties Based On Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidovna Voropaeva Nadezda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rape, camelina, wheat and Jerusalem artichoke vegetable wastes (straw as annually renewable raw materials were processed into activated carbons, which were modified with silver nanoparticles for carbonaceous sorbents to acquire specific properties, since carbonaceous sorbents are usually widely used in the food industry, agriculture, medicine and other fields of human activity. The technology to obtain active carbons from agricultural crop residues has been developed, active carbon physico-chemical and adsorption properties, textural characteristics have been studied, new functional carbon (nano materials with antibacterial activity containing (nano particles of silver have been obtained, their influence within (nano chip composition on rape crop growth, development and yield has been studied. In the conducted field tests, the highest activity was noted when using the (nano chip whose structure included RAC - camelina and silver nanoparticles. Besides, when nano chips are used for seed treatment, the yield increase makes up 11.6 % for nanoparticles containing Ag, for plant active carbons (PAC (rape with Ag this index makes up 28.1 %, for RAC (Camelina with Ag it makes up 55.8 % (compared to the control variant, which can be explained by the differences in the sorption characteristics of the studied radio activated carbons. Our results and the previous studies of other authors can prove the fact that silver nanoparticles (including those being a part of (nano chips “get” into the biochemical processes and have a pronounced phytostimulating effect on plants, which was especially obvious when suppressing the activity of plant pathogenic microflora by silver nanoparticles.

  10. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...... the characteristic low compressibility and high friction giving much better conditions for root penetration increasing yield potentials. Furthermore, risk of drought in dry periods, and nutrient losses in wet periods in coarser soil types is also reduced...

  11. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from straw ash in a pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana Teresa; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2008-01-01

    Ashes from biomass combustion contain many macro and micro nutrients and its reuse in agricultural fields could be beneficial. In the case of straw ash, however, the content of Cd is often too high for the ash to be utilized this way. In Denmark the limiting concentration for spreading the ash...

  12. Potential Use of Plant Fibres and their Composites for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Namvar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based fibers such as flax, jute, sisal, hemp, and kenaf have been frequently used in the manufacturing of biocomposites. Natural fibres possess a high strength to weight ratio, non-corrosive nature, high fracture toughness, renewability, and sustainability, which give them unique advantages over other materials. The development of biocomposites by reinforcing natural fibres has attracted attention of scientists and researchers due to environmental benefits and improved mechanical performance. Manufacturing of biocomposites from renewable sources is a challenging task, involving metals, polymers, and ceramics. Biocomposites are already utilized in biomedical applications such as drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, orthopedics, and cosmetic orthodontics. The first essential requirement of materials to be used as biomaterial is its acceptability by the human body. A biomaterial should obtain some important common properties in order to be applied in the human body either for use alone or in combination. Biocomposites have potential to replace or serve as a framework allowing the regeneration of traumatized or degenerated tissues or organs, thus improving the patients’ quality of life. This review paper addresses the utilization of plant fibres and its composites in biomedical applications and considers potential future research directed at environment-friendly biodegradable composites for biomedical applications.

  13. The Effects of Rice Straw and Biochar Applications on the Microbial Community in a Soil with a History of Continuous Tomato Planting History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial abundance and diversity change constantly in continuous cropping systems, resulting in the prevalence of soil-borne pathogens and a decline in crop yield in solar greenhouses. To investigate the effects of rice straw and biochar on soil microbial abundance and diversity in soils with a history of continuous planting, three treatments were examined: mixed rice straw and biochar addition (RC, rice straw addition (R, and biochar addition (C. The amount of C added in each treatment group was 3.78 g kg−1 soil. Soil without rice straw and biochar addition was treated as a control (CK. Results showed that RC treatment significantly increased soil pH, available nitrogen (AN, available phosphorus (AP, and potassium (AK by 40.3%, 157.2%, and 24.2%, respectively, as compared to the CK soil. The amount of soil labile organic carbon (LOC, including readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and light fraction organic carbon (LFOC, was significantly greater in the RC, R, and C treatment groups as compared to CK soil. LOC levels with RC treatment were higher than with the other treatments. Both rice straw and biochar addition significantly increased bacterial and total microbial abundance, whereas rice straw but not biochar addition improved soil microbial carbon metabolism and diversity. Thus, the significant effects of rice straw and biochar on soil microbial carbon metabolism and diversity were attributed to the quantity of DOC in the treatments. Therefore, our results indicated that soil microbial diversity is directly associated with DOC. Based on the results of this study, mixed rice straw and biochar addition, rather than their application individually, might be key to restoring degraded soil.

  14. A statistical analysis of fibre size and shape distribution after compounding in composites reinforced by natural fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moigne, Le N.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Budtova, T.

    2011-01-01

    Using high resolution optical microscopy coupled with image analysis software and statistical methods, fibre length and aspect ratio distributions in polypropylene composites were characterized. Three types of fibres, flax, sisal and wheat straw, were studied. Number and surface weighted

  15. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Van Hees, M.

    2005-01-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 and to fibres 1.0 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12 300 kBq m -2 ). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination -2 ). Use of stems as biofuel is restricted to areas with contamination levels of -2 for flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 ) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care

  16. Estimation of axial stiffness of plant fibres from compaction of non-woven mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamstedt, E. K.; Bommier, E.; Madsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    -plane randomly oriented fibre mats. The model by Toll is used to relate the load-displacement curve from the test to the Young modulus of the fibre, taking into account the natural variability in fibre cross section. Several tests have been performed on hemp fibre mats and compared with results from single...

  17. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  18. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE BIODIVERSITY OF SAMPLES USED FOR ISOLATION OF MICROBIAL STRAINS CAPABLE OF CONVERTING STRAW DESTINED AS A SUBSTRATE FOR BIOGAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Cybulska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In biogas plants, almost any type of organic matter can be used as a substrate to produce biogas. To make the process of methane fermentation more effective, these materials are pretreated. This applies in particular to a group of difficult substrates. Straw, due to its hemicellulose structure and saturation, is hardly fermented by biogas reactor microorganisms. The methods of post-harvest residue preparation for anaerobic digestion being applied so far are expensive, while their application has a negative effect on methanoegenic bacteria. Therefore, the microorganisms being able to degrade straw hemicellulose structure, utilisation of which could precede the proper fermentation process, have been searched for. This paper presents the results of microbial biodiversity analysis in the environmental samples being lupin, cereal, rape and maize straw as well as hay and haylage at different degradation stages. The analysis of biodiversity will help at a further stage of study to isolate active microbial strains showing cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic or ligninolytic activity which are desirable in the process of straw biodegradation. Analysis of the microbial count was performed by the method of deep inoculation on different microbiological culture media. The conducted tests include determination of the number of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of the analysed samples for isolation of microbial strains capable of converting straw preceding the biogas production.

  20. Power from triticale straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassanayake, M.; Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using triticale straw for production of electricity in Canada. Triticale is a manmade hybrid of wheat and rye and it has a high potential of growth in Canada. The cost ($/MWh) of producing electricity from triticale straw was estimated using a data intensive techno-economic model. The study also determined the optimum size of a biomass power plant (MW) which is a trade-off between capital cost of the plant and transportation cost of biomass. Cost curves were also developed in order to evaluate the impact of scale on power production costs. The location of the power plant and the future expansion of triticale were among the factors considered in the techno-economic mode. The scope of the work included all the processes beginning with the collection of straw to the conversion to electricity through direct combustion at the power plant. According to the preliminary results, the cost of producing power from triticale straw is higher than coal-based electricity production in western Canada.

  1. fibre separator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    sharp edged spiral worm and four fixed blades, a pair of adjustable blades, ... energy and/or for the production of other products. ... 388 Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. Figure 1. Layers of the palm fruit. planting. ... a skeleton of hard fibre running lengthwise through the ... maximum temperature of 28 - 32°C which is peculiar to.

  2. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    Silicon (Si) is known to be a beneficial element for plants. However, when plant residues are to be used as feedstock for second generation bioenergy, Si may reduce the suitability of the biomass for biochemical or thermal conversion technologies. The objective of this PhD study was to investigate......, a mutant in Si influx transporter BdLsi1 was identified. BdLsi1 belongs to the major intrinsic protein family. The mutant BdLsi1 protein had an amino acid change from proline to serine in the highly conserved NPA motif. The mutation caused a defect in channeling of Si as well as other substrates...... such as germanium and arsenite. The Si concentration in the mutant plant was significantly reduced by more than 80 %. Rice mutants defective in Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 also showed significantly lower straw Si concentration. It is concluded that the quality of straw biomass for bioenergy purposes can...

  3. Application of natural fibre composites in construction: a research case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available properties. BACKGROUND In a report dated March 2005 (PDP TH/2004/20) the use of agricultural crops (animal and plant), recycled materials and industrial wastes as a material source for developing construction products was investigated (van Wyk 2005... materials (based on straw, hemp, cotton, flax, sisal and sugar cane fibres), paints, floor coverings, geotextiles, thatch, biopolymers and bio composites including board products, and starches for packaging. However, the report suggested...

  4. Gut Fermentation of Dietary Fibres: Physico-Chemistry of Plant Cell Walls and Implications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Williams

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of dietary fibre (DF originates from plant cell walls. Chemically, DF mostly comprise carbohydrate polymers, which resist hydrolysis by digestive enzymes in the mammalian small intestine, but can be fermented by large intestinal bacteria. One of the main benefits of DF relate to its fermentability, which affects microbial diversity and function within the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT, as well as the by-products of the fermentation process. Much work examining DF tends to focus on various purified ingredients, which have been extracted from plants. Increasingly, the validity of this is being questioned in terms of human nutrition, as there is evidence to suggest that it is the actual complexity of DF which affects the complexity of the GIT microbiota. Here, we review the literature comparing results of fermentation of purified DF substrates, with whole plant foods. There are strong indications that the more complex and varied the diet (and its ingredients, the more complex and varied the GIT microbiota is likely to be. Therefore, it is proposed that as the DF fermentability resulting from this complex microbial population has such profound effects on human health in relation to diet, it would be appropriate to include DF fermentability in its characterization—a functional approach of immediate relevance to nutrition.

  5. Cadmium, lead, and zinc mobility and plant uptake in a mine soil amended with sugarcane straw biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Paz-Ferreiro, J; Beesley, L

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in unconsolidated soils can prove toxic to proximal environments, if measures are not taken to stabilize soils. One way to minimize the toxicity of metals in soils is the use of materials capable of immobilizing these contaminants by sorption. Biochar (BC) can retain large amounts of heavy metals due to, among other characteristics, its large surface area. In the current experiment, sugarcane-straw-derived biochar, produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy-metal-contaminated mine soil at 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing a mine contaminated soil and soil mixed with BC. Pore water was sampled to assess the effects of biochar on zinc solubility, while soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water. Amendment with BC reduced plant uptake of Cd, Pb, and Zn with the jack bean uptaking higher amounts of Cd and Pb than M. aterrima. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation could reduce plant concentrations of heavy metals. Coupled with this, symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were absent only in plants growing in pots amended with biochar. The reduction in metal bioavailability and other modifications to the substrate induced by the application of biochar may be beneficial to the establishment of a green cover on top of mine soil to aid remediation and reduce risks.

  6. Detecting plant silica fibres in animal tissue by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, M J; Smith, R J; van Blaaderen, A; Crafton, T; O'Neill, C H

    1994-04-01

    Silica fibres from the inflorescence bracts of the grass Phalaris canariensis L. cause dermatitis, and have been implicated in the aetiology of oesophageal cancer in northeastern Iran. Here we describe a method for labelling these fibres so that they can be located in mammalian tissue. Fluorescein was covalently linked to isolated, purified fibres with the silane coupling agent 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The labelled hairs were then rubbed into the backs of mice. These were later killed and their skin fixed, stained and sliced at a thickness of 250 microns. A confocal laser scanning microscope gave brilliant images of the fibres at any depth up to 100 microns or more beneath the surface of the slice. Fibres penetrated deeply into the dermis. Several cubic millimetres of tissue could be surveyed in 1 h. The number of fibres present was approximately 2 mm-3 initially, falling to 0.1 mm-3 after 7 days.

  7. Impact of rice-straw biochars amended soil on the biological Si cycle in soil-plant ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zimin; Delvaux, Bruno; Struyf, Eric; Unzué-Belmonte, Dácil; Ronsse, Frederik; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Biochar used as soil amendment can enhance soil fertility and plant growth. It may also contribute to increase the plant mineralomass of silicon (Si). However, very little studies have focused on the plant Si cycling in biochar amended soils. Here, we study the impact of two contrasting biochars derived from rice straws on soil Si availability and plant Si uptake. Rice plants were grown in a hydroponic device using Yoshida nutrient solution, respectively devoid of H4SiO4 (0 ppm Si: Si-) and enriched with it (40 ppm Si: Si+). After 12 weeks, the plants were harvested for further pyrolysis, conducted with holding time of 1h at 500˚ C. The respective rice-biochars are Si-/biochar and Si+/biochar. They exhibit contrasting phytolith contents (0.3 g Si kg-1 vs. 51.3 g Si kg-1), but identical physico-chemical properties. They were applied in two soils differing in weathering stage: a weathered Cambisol (CA) and a highly weathered Nitisol (NI). We then studied the effects of the amended biochar on CaCl2 extractable Si using a 64-days kinetic approach, on the content of soil biogenic Si, and on the uptake of Si by wheat plants grown for 5 weeks. We also quantified Si mineralomass in plants. We compared the effects of biochars to that of wollastonite (Wo)-(CaSiO3), a common Si-fertilizer. Our results show that Si+/biochar significantly increase the content of BSi in both soils. In CA, the cumulative content of CaCl2 extractable Si amounts to 85 mg kg-1 after Si+/biochar amendment, which is below the amount extracted after Wo application (100 mg kg-1). In contrast, in NI, the cumulative content of CaCl2 extractable Si is 198 mg kg-1 in the Si+/biochar amended treatment, which is far above the one measured after Wo application (93 mg kg-1). The Si-/biochar has no effect on the cumulative content of CaCl2 extractable Si in either soil type. Biochars and wollastonite increase the biomass of wheat on both soils. The increase is, however, larger in NI than in CA. In terms of Si

  8. High temperature corrosion in straw-fired power plants: Influence of steam/metal temperature on corrosion rates for TP347H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Biede, O; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion in straw-fired boilers has been investigated at various straw-fired power plants in Denmark. Water/air-cooled probes, a test superheater and test sections removed from the actual superheater have been utilised to characterise corrosion and corrosion rates. This paper describes...... the corrosion rates measured for the TP347H type steel. The corrosion morphology at high temperature consists of grain boundary attack and selective attack of chromium. The corrosion rate increases with calculated metal temperature (based on steam temperature), however there is great variation within....... The difference in the results could be traced back to a lower flue gas temperature on one side of the boiler. Although metal temperature is the most important parameter with respect to corrosion rate, flue gas temperature also plays an important role. Efforts to quantify the effect of flue gas temperature...

  9. Rheological behaviour of fibre-rich plant materials in fat-based food systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonarius, G.A.; Vieira, J.B.; Goot, van der A.J.; Bodnar, I.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of fibre-rich materials as bulking agents to replace sucrose in chocolate confectionary products is investigated. Since the rheological behaviour of the molten chocolate mass is key in chocolate production, the rheology of fibre-rich materials in medium chain triglycerides (MCT) is

  10. Air supersaturation, release of wooden fibres and upstream migration of Atlantic salmon at Rygene power plant in the River Nidelva, Aust Agder county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorstad, Eva B.; Kroglund, Frode; Oekland, Finn; Heggberget, Tor G.

    1997-01-01

    Incidents of dead fish have been reported in connection with a power plant at Rygene on the River Nidelva in the Aust-Agder county, Norway. Air supersaturation has been used in a bypass construction of the power plant tunnel system. In addition, wooden fibres from a fabric have been released into the water of the tunnel. Results from relevant studies concerning air saturation, wooden fibres and upstream migration are summarised in this report. 148 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Design considerations for a farm-scale biogas plant based on pilot-scale anaerobic digesters loaded with rice straw and piggery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussoline, Wendy; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet; Garuti, Gilberto; Giordano, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Two pilot-scale (1 m 3 ) digesters filled with untreated rice straw and co-digested with raw pig wastewater were operated to obtain design parameters for a farm-scale biogas plant. Both digesters contained 50 kg of dry straw mixed with diluted pig wastewater to create dry digestion conditions (20% TS) and operated for 189 days with leachate recirculation. Digester A was designed for optimum performance (150 L of pig wastewater and mesophilic temperatures) while Digester B was designed to establish minimum inputs (60 L of pig wastewater at ambient temperatures). The pig wastewater provided sufficient buffering capacity to maintain appropriate pH values (between 7.0 and 8.1) and nutrient balances (TOC to TKN ratios of 20 in Digester A and 32 in Digester B). Total biogas production was 22,859 L in Digester A and 1420 L from Digester B, resulting in specific methane yields of 231 and 12 L CH 4 /kgVS added, respectively. Gas production in Digester A was directly correlated with temperature, but the overall lack of methanogenic activity was caused primarily by the reduced wastewater volume. Two theoretical farm-scale scenarios (considering both untreated and pretreated rice straw) were developed for a 100-ha rice farm. Either scenario can produce 100,000 m 3 CH 4 per year, yielding 328 MWh. Major differences including heat input, space requirements, loading frequency, digester volume, engine size, wastewater quantities, and additives are quantitatively defined. The appropriate choice for a farm-scale operation is the simplest model using untreated rice straw without additives, although six times more heat and twice as much reactor volume is required. -- Highlights: ► The co-digestion of untreated rice straw and piggery wastewater is investigated. ► Gas production increases with the volume of pig wastewater added and temperature. ► Pig wastewater alone can provide appropriate buffering capacity and nutrient balance. ► Pilot-scale results are used to establish

  12. Nitrogen derived from fertilization and straw for plant cane nutrition; Nitrogenio proveniente da adubacao nitrogenada e de residuos culturais na nutricao da cana-planta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitti, Andre Cesar, E-mail: acvitti@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro-Sul; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira, E-mail: henrique.franco@bioetanol.org.b [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Ferreira, Danilo Alves; Otto, Rafael; Fortes, Caio, E-mail: pcotrive@cena.usp.b, E-mail: danilo.alves.ferreira@usp.b, E-mail: rotto@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: cfortes@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Faroni, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: cfaroni@ctc.com.b [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery, by plant cane, of the nitrogen ({sup 15}N) from urea and from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop residues - straw and root system - incorporated into the soil. The experiment was settled in 2005/2006 with the sugarcane cultivar SP81 3250. At planting, microplots of 2 m length and 1.5 m width were installed, and N applications were done with 80 kg ha-1 N (urea with 5.05% in {sup 15}N atoms) and 14 Mg ha{sup -1} crop residues - 9 Mg ha{sup -1} of sugarcane straw and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} of root system, labeled with {sup 15}N (1.07 and 0.81% in {sup 15}N atoms, respectively). The total N accumulation by plants was determined during the crop cycle. Although the N use by shoot from crop residue mineralization (PA and SR) increased significantly over time, this source hardly contributed to crop nutrition. The recovery of the {sup 15}N-urea, {sup 15}N-SS and {sup 15}N-RS by plant cane was 30.3 +- 3.7%, 13.9 +- 4.5% and 6.4 +- 0.9%, respectively, representing 15.9, 4.7 and 1.4% of total nitrogen uptake by shoot. (author)

  13. Cellulose fibres, nanofibrils and microfibrils: The morphological sequence of MFC components from a plant physiology and fibre technology point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinga-Carrasco Gary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the last decade, major efforts have been made to develop adequate and commercially viable processes for disintegrating cellulose fibres into their structural components. Homogenisation of cellulose fibres has been one of the principal applied procedures. Homogenisation has produced materials which may be inhomogeneous, containing fibres, fibres fragments, fibrillar fines and nanofibrils. The material has been denominated microfibrillated cellulose (MFC. In addition, terms relating to the nano-scale have been given to the MFC material. Several modern and high-tech nano-applications have been envisaged for MFC. However, is MFC a nano-structure? It is concluded that MFC materials may be composed of (1 nanofibrils, (2 fibrillar fines, (3 fibre fragments and (4 fibres. This implies that MFC is not necessarily synonymous with nanofibrils, microfibrils or any other cellulose nano-structure. However, properly produced MFC materials contain nano-structures as a main component, i.e. nanofibrils.

  14. Cellulose fibres, nanofibrils and microfibrils: The morphological sequence of MFC components from a plant physiology and fibre technology point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary

    2011-06-13

    During the last decade, major efforts have been made to develop adequate and commercially viable processes for disintegrating cellulose fibres into their structural components. Homogenisation of cellulose fibres has been one of the principal applied procedures. Homogenisation has produced materials which may be inhomogeneous, containing fibres, fibres fragments, fibrillar fines and nanofibrils. The material has been denominated microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). In addition, terms relating to the nano-scale have been given to the MFC material. Several modern and high-tech nano-applications have been envisaged for MFC. However, is MFC a nano-structure? It is concluded that MFC materials may be composed of (1) nanofibrils, (2) fibrillar fines, (3) fibre fragments and (4) fibres. This implies that MFC is not necessarily synonymous with nanofibrils, microfibrils or any other cellulose nano-structure. However, properly produced MFC materials contain nano-structures as a main component, i.e. nanofibrils.

  15. Possibilities and evaluation of straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Niels Ole; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sander, Bo

    1998-01-01

    Biomass utilisation by cofiring of straw in a pulverised coal fire boiler is economically attractive compared to dedicated straw fired plants. However, the high content of potassium and chloride impedes utilisation of the fly ash, deactivates the de NOx catalysts in the flue gas cleaning system...

  16. MASS BALANCE OF SILICA IN STRAW FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SILICA REDUCTION IN STRAW PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Atik,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The high silica content of wheat straw is an important limiting factor for straw pulping. High silica content complicates processing and black liquor recovery, wears out factory installations, and lowers paper quality. Each section of wheat straw has different cells and chemical compositions and thus different silica content. In this work, the silica content of balled straw samples were examined according to their physical components, including internodes, nodes, leaves (sheath and blade, rachis, grain, other plant bodies, and other plant spikes. Mass distribution of silica was determined by a dry ashing method. Half (50.90% of the silica comes from leaves, and its mechanical separation will reduce the silica content in wheat straw pulp significantly. Destroying silica bodies by sonication will increase the strength properties of straw pulp.

  17. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research, Radioecology Section, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Van Hees, M [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research, Radioecology Section, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} and to fibres 1.0 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12 300 kBq m{sup -2}). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination <740 kBq m{sup -2}). Use of stems as biofuel is restricted to areas with contamination levels of <250 and 1050 kBq m{sup -2} for flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care.

  18. Simulation and cost analysis of systems for handling of fuel straw - applied to a heating plant in Skaane; Simulering och kostnadsanalys av hanteringssystem foer braenslehalm - tillaempning foer en vaermeanlaeggning i Skaane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    The following conclusions were drawn from this study: - The total costs for delivery of fuel straw to heating plants ranged from about 130 SEK/MWh to 180 SEK/MWh (1 SEK approx 0.14 USD), depending on the payment to farmers for the straw, the storage method used, the profit margins of the contractors, etc. - The area investigated, which covered parts of the municipalities of Svaloev, Esloev and Kaevlinge, has very good conditions for harvest of straw compared with other parts of Sweden. The yield of winter wheat (and straw) is high, the road network is well developed, the fields are concentrated and large, the straw crops ripen early, and security of supply between years is high. - For a harvest and handling system with an average capacity of about 8 000 tonnes of straw per year, the simulations showed that a machine system with six balers, two loaders in the field, four transporters (tractor), one loader at the stores and lorry transport to the heating plant was cost-effective with regard to system performance (for example, expressed as the average amount of straw baled per year with a moisture content below 18%, the average quantity of straw per year put into storage prior to 1 October, the average lying time for the straw between threshing and baling, etc.). - Harvesting straw from various crops (in this case winter rape, rye and winter wheat) instead of only winter wheat had no major impact on costs, but increased the chance to harvest 'greyer' straw with lower contents of alkali metals, chlorine, etc. Only including fields of at least 5 ha had a minor impact on costs. Noticeable cost savings occurred when the field size limit was set to 10 ha or more. Increasing the moisture content limit at baling to 20% made it possible to harvest more straw, especially in years with difficult weather conditions. - The storage method used had a decisive impact on costs. Outdoor storage decreased the total costs to 133 SEK/MWh (7% storage losses), compared with 154

  19. Investigations on the emission of air pollutants from small-scale firing plants during the combustion of cereals, straw and similar plant materials; Untersuchungen zur Emission von Luftschadstoffen aus Kleinfeuerungsanlagen bei der Verbrennung von Getreide, Stroh und aehnlichen pflanzlichen Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkoff, Wolf-Dieter; Maiwald, Birk; Wolf, Stephan

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of the present field study by the State Environmental Protection Office and the State Institution for Agriculture, Forestry and Horticulture of Saxony Anhalt was to measure emissions of relevant pollutants during the combustion of biogenic fuels such as cereals, straw and similar plant materials in exemplary firing installations. In spite of considerable development efforts on the part of manufacturers there are still problems to be solved with some fuels in meeting the tightened limit values of the First Emission Control Ordinance while ensuring user-friendly equipment operability. Based on these insights, as well as the experiences gained in the course of the trial programme, the recommendation for problem fuels such as straw and similar materials is to operate the boiler at full load and provide robust, amply dimensioned ash removal equipment.

  20. Gamma and electron radiation effects on agricultural by-products with high fibre content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Baer, M.; Nehring, K.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma and electron radiation effects on wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw, rye straw and dried green fodder are reported. In vitro and in vivo studies show that the digestibility of these agricultural by-products with high fibre content can be increased up to 80% and more at high doses. The increase of the digestibility is connected with a depolymerization of the cellulose and hemicellulose. (author)

  1. Prototype ATLAS straw tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This is an early prototype of the straw tracking device for the ATLAS detector at CERN. This detector will be part of the LHC project, scheduled to start operation in 2008. The straw tracker will consist of thousands of gas-filled straws, each containing a wire, allowing the tracks of particles to be followed.

  2. Improved method for fibre content and quality analysis and their application to flax genetic diversity investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Bas, N.; Soest, van L.J.M.; Melis, C.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation for fibre content and quality in a breeding selection program is time consuming and costly. Therefore, this study aims to develop a method for fast and reproducible fibre content analysis on small flax straw samples. A protocol has been developed and verified with fibre screening methods

  3. Analysis and simulation of straw fuel logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Straw is a renewable biomass that has a considerable potential to be used as fuel in rural districts. This bulky fuel is, however, produced over large areas and must be collected during a limited amount of days and taken to the storages before being ultimately transported to heating plants. Thus, a well thought-out and cost-effective harvesting and handling system is necessary to provide a satisfactory fuel at competitive costs. Moreover, high-quality non-renewable fuels are used in these operations. To be sustainable, the energy content of these fuels should not exceed the energy extracted from the straw. The objective of this study is to analyze straw as fuel in district heating plants with respect to environmental and energy aspects, and to improve the performance and reduce the costs of straw handling. Energy, exergy and emergy analyses were used to assess straw as fuel from an energy point of view. The energy analysis showed that the energy balance is 12:1 when direct and indirect energy requirements are considered. The exergy analysis demonstrated that the conversion step is ineffective, whereas the emergy analysis indicated that large amounts of energy have been used in the past to form the straw fuel (the net emergy yield ratio is 1.1). A dynamic simulation model, called SHAM (Straw HAndling Model), has also been developed to investigate handling of straw from the fields to the plant. The primary aim is to analyze the performance of various machinery chains and management strategies in order to reduce the handling costs and energy needs. The model, which is based on discrete event simulation, takes both weather and geographical conditions into account. The model has been applied to three regions in Sweden (Svaloev, Vara and Enkoeping) in order to investigate the prerequisites for straw harvest at these locations. The simulations showed that straw has the best chances to become a competitive fuel in south Sweden. It was also demonstrated that costs can be

  4. Estimation and change tendency of rape straw resource in Leshan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu

    2018-04-01

    Rape straw in Leshan area are rape stalks, including stems, leaves and pods after removing rapeseed. Leshan area is one of the main rape planting areas in Sichuan Province and rape planting area is large. Each year will produce a lot of rape straw. Based on the analysis of the trend of rapeseed planting area and rapeseed yield from 2008 to 2014, the change trend of rape straw resources in Leshan from 2008 to 2014 was analyzed and the decision-making reference was provided for resource utilization of rape straw. The results showed that the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was very large, which was more than 100,000 tons per year, which was increasing year by year. By 2014, the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was close to 200,000 tons.

  5. Joint project final report, Task II: Sulfur chemistry, Task III: Nitrogen Chemistry[Straw fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Lans, R. van der; Weigang, L.; Arendt Jensen, P.; Degn Jensen, A.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2001-09-01

    It is the aim of the project to promote the use of biomass in the production of power and heat in Denmark as well as enhancing the technology base of the Danish industry within this area. The project involves, the following task areas: 1) Deposit Build-up; 2) Sulfur Chemistry; 3) Nitrogen Chemistry; and 4) Furnace Modeling. The present report covers the activities in task 2 and 3, which are carried out at Department of Chemical Engineering, DTU. Task 2: Sulfur chemistry: The lab-scale results show that the amount of sulfur released into the gas-phase increases at high temperatures. Other process parameters such as oxygen concentration have less impact. Little sulfur is apparently released during char oxidation. The experiments show that about 40% of the sulfur is released during pyrolysis at 400 {sup d}eg{sup .}C. At combustion conditions it was found that about 50% of the sulfur is released at 500{sup d}eg.{sup C}; above this temperature an almost linear correlation is found beteen sulfur release and combustion temperature up to 80-85% release at 950{sup d}eg.{sup C}. The experiments are in agreement with results from full scale straw fired grate boilers, indicating that only a small amount of fuel-sulfur is fixed in the bottom ash under typical operating conditions. The results are important in order to understand the varying emission levels observed in full-scala systems and provide guidelines for low SO{sub 2} operation. Task 3: Nitrogen chemistry: In the nitgrogen chemistry submodel volatile-N is released as NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}. The ammonia can react further to N{sub 2} or NO. Char nitrogen is oxidized to NO, and the char bed acts as a catalyst for the reduction of NO to N{sub 2}. Predictions with the bed-model including the NO submodel indicate that when all volatile nitrogen is converted to NH{sub 3}, the concentrations og NH{sub 3} are significantly overpredicted. This means that either the NH{sub 3} reaction rates are underpredicted or that a smaller

  6. Exposure and acute exposure-effects before and after modification of a contaminated humidification system in a synthetic-fibre plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, TM; de Monchy, JGR; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    Objective: Follow-up study of exposure and acute exposure-effects after modification to steam humidification of a contaminated cold water system which had caused an outbreak of humidifier fever in a synthetic-fibre plant. Methods: Before and after modification of the system aerobiological

  7. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  8. Utilization of poor quality roughages III. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and structural polysaccharides utilization of straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, S.N.; Mudgal, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The wheat and paddy straws were irradiated with 60 Co gamma source in doses of 10 5 and 10 6 rad, respectively. The data indicated that these doses applied to straws were not sufficient to bring the appreciable changes in the chemical composition in wheat straw. However, the cell wall constituents, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin : cellulose ratio and acid insoluble ash decreased (P < 0.05), while cell contents increased (P < 0.01) in irradiated samples of paddy straw. The findings further revealed that small changes in chemical composition due to irradiation could not bring any significant changes in the in vitro digestibility values for any of the fibre components in both the straws, except in paddy straw, where the in vitro acid detergent fibre digestibility was reduced (P < 0.05), while availability index increased (P < 0.05) due to irradiation. (author)

  9. Fibre tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    A large-size scintillating plastic fibre tracking detector was built as part of the upgrade of the UA2 central detector at the SPS proton-antiproton collider. The cylindrical fibre detector of average radius of 40 cm consisted of 60000 plastic fibres with an active length of 2.1 m. One of the main motivations was to improve the electron identification. The fibre ends were bunched to be coupled to read-out systems of image intensifier plus CCD, 32 in total. The quality and the reliability of the UA2 fibre detector performance exceeded expectations throughout its years of operation. A few examples of the use of image intensifiers and of scintillating fibres in biological instrumentation are described. (R.P.) 11 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  11. Review of straw chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, W.H.

    1990-03-01

    This is a review of straw chambers used in the HRS, MAC, Mark III, CLEO, AMY, and TPC e + e - experiments. The straws are 6--8 mm in diameter, operate at 1--4 atmospheres and obtain resolutions of 45--100 microns. The designs and constructions are summarized and possible improvements discussed

  12. Air supersaturation, release of wooden fibres and upstream migration of Atlantic salmon at Rygene power plant in the River Nidelva, Aust Agder county; Vurdering av luftovermetning, trefiberutslipp og oppvandring av laks ved Rygene kraftverk i Nidelva, Aust-Agder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorstad, Eva B.; Kroglund, Frode; Oekland, Finn; Heggberget, Tor G.

    1997-12-31

    Incidents of dead fish have been reported in connection with a power plant at Rygene on the River Nidelva in the Aust-Agder county, Norway. Air supersaturation has been used in a bypass construction of the power plant tunnel system. In addition, wooden fibres from a fabric have been released into the water of the tunnel. Results from relevant studies concerning air saturation, wooden fibres and upstream migration are summarised in this report. 148 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Fibres from flax overproducing β-1,3-glucanase show increased accumulation of pectin and phenolics and thus higher antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, in order to improve the resistance of flax plants to pathogen infection, transgenic flax that overproduces β-1,3-glucanase was created. β-1,3-glucanase is a PR protein that hydrolyses the β-glucans, which are a major component of the cell wall in many groups of fungi. For this study, we used fourth-generation field-cultivated plants of the Fusarium -resistant transgenic line B14 to evaluate how overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene influences the quantity, quality and composition of flax fibres, which are the main product obtained from flax straw. Results Overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase did not affect the quantity of the fibre obtained from the flax straw and did not significantly alter the essential mechanical characteristics of the retted fibres. However, changes in the contents of the major components of the cell wall (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin) were revealed. Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene resulted in higher cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin contents and a lower lignin content in the fibres. Increases in the uronic acid content in particular fractions (with the exception of the 1 M KOH-soluble fraction of hemicelluloses) and changes in the sugar composition of the cell wall were detected in the fibres of the transgenic flax when compared to the contents for the control plants. The callose content was lower in the fibres of the transgenic flax. Additionally, the analysis of phenolic compound contents in five fractions of the cell wall revealed important changes, which were reflected in the antioxidant potential of these fractions. Conclusion Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene has a significant influence on the biochemical composition of flax fibres. The constitutive overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase causes a decrease in the callose content, and the resulting excess glucose serves as a substrate for the production of other polysaccharides. The monosaccharide excess redirects the phenolic

  14. Mechanosensitive channels are activated by stress in the actin stress fibres, and could be involved in gravity sensing in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, H; Furuichi, T; Nakano, M; Toyota, M; Hayakawa, K; Sokabe, M; Iida, H

    2014-01-01

    Mechanosensitive (MS) channels are expressed in a variety of cells. The molecular and biophysical mechanism involved in the regulation of MS channel activities is a central interest in basic biology. MS channels are thought to play crucial roles in gravity sensing in plant cells. To date, two mechanisms have been proposed for MS channel activation. One is that tension development in the lipid bilayer directly activates MS channels. The second mechanism proposes that the cytoskeleton is involved in the channel activation, because MS channel activities are modulated by pharmacological treatments that affect the cytoskeleton. We tested whether tension in the cytoskeleton activates MS channels. Mammalian endothelial cells were microinjected with phalloidin-conjugated beads, which bound to stress fibres, and a traction force to the actin cytoskeleton was applied by dragging the beads with optical tweezers. MS channels were activated when the force was applied, demonstrating that a sub-pN force to the actin filaments activates a single MS channel. Plants may use a similar molecular mechanism in gravity sensing, since the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration increase induced by changes in the gravity vector was attenuated by potential MS channel inhibitors, and by actin-disrupting drugs. These results support the idea that the tension increase in actin filaments by gravity-dependent sedimentation of amyloplasts activates MS Ca(2+) -permeable channels, which can be the molecular mechanism of a Ca(2+) concentration increase through gravistimulation. We review recent progress in the study of tension sensing by actin filaments and MS channels using advanced biophysical methods, and discuss their possible roles in gravisensing. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Obtaining of Peracetic Cellulose from Oat Straw for Paper Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Zelenchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Development of technology for obtaining peracetic pulp from oat straw and its use in the production of one of the paper mass types. Objective. Determination of peracetic cooking technological parameters’ optimal values for oat straw peracetic cellulose quality indicators. Methods. The oat straw cooking was carried out with peracetic acid at 95 ± 1 °C from 90 to 180 min for hydromodulus 8:1 and 7:1, using a sodium tungstate catalyst. To determine the oat straw peracetic cellulose mechanical indexes, laboratory samples of paper weighing 70 g/m2 were made. Results. Technological parameters’ optimum values (temperature, cooking duration, hydromodulus, hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid concentration for the oat straw delignification process were established. It is shown that the sodium tungstate catalyst addition to the cooking solution at a rate of up to 1 % of the plant raw material weight helps to reduce the lignin content in cellulose to 15 %. A diagram of the cellulose yield dependence on its residual lignin content for various methods of non-wood plant material species delignification is constructed. The high efficiency of the peracetic method for obtaining cellulose from non-wood plant raw materials, in particular from oat straw, has been confirmed. It is determined that the obtained peracetic cellulose from oat straw has high mechanical indexes. Conclusions. Oat straw peracetic cellulose can be used for the production of paper and cardboard mass types, in particular wrapping paper.

  16. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  17. Use and co-combustion of straw in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, J S [SK Power, Ballerup (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Coal has in more decades been the backbone of the Danish energy production. As a consequence of a political wish to utilize domestic fuel and reduce the massive use of coal and the CO{sub 2} emission, straw has since 1989 been used in Denmark at small-scale combined heat and power plants. All straw-fired combined heat and power plants in Denmark are owned by the power stations. Furthermore some district heating plants owned by the municipalities, consumers or privately owned, also use straw as a fuel, as in the middle of the eighties it was prohibited to use coal as fuel in district heating plants. Different rules of subsidies and duties made natural gas or biomass the most competitive fuel for the district heating plants. For various other reasons there are also some oil-fired district heating plants in operation. Today five straw-fired combined heat and power plants in Denmark are in commercial operation. Three of these plants exclusively use straw as a fuel, one uses both straw, wood chips and natural gas, and one straw and coal. These five combined heat and power plants, having a total annual consumption of straw of approx. 200 000 tonnes, supply district heating to five medium-sized towns. On 14 June 1993 an agreement was made in the Danish Parliament ordering the power stations to reach an annual volume input of 1.2 mill. tonnes of straw and 0.2 mill. tonnes of wood chips in year 2000. Therefore two new plants are under construction and co-combustion with straw is being installed at an existing coal-fired power station. In addition, two large plants are under consideration. With the two plants under construction and with the co-combustion plant, the straw consumption is expected to increase to 430 000 tons of straw per year. These two plants will start operations in 1995 and 1997 respectively. All the operating straw-fired combined heat and power stations show an economic loss. Besides the price of fuel, this is due to the efficiency of the plants, which with

  18. Use and co-combustion of straw in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, J.S. [SK Power, Ballerup (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Coal has in more decades been the backbone of the Danish energy production. As a consequence of a political wish to utilize domestic fuel and reduce the massive use of coal and the CO{sub 2} emission, straw has since 1989 been used in Denmark at small-scale combined heat and power plants. All straw-fired combined heat and power plants in Denmark are owned by the power stations. Furthermore some district heating plants owned by the municipalities, consumers or privately owned, also use straw as a fuel, as in the middle of the eighties it was prohibited to use coal as fuel in district heating plants. Different rules of subsidies and duties made natural gas or biomass the most competitive fuel for the district heating plants. For various other reasons there are also some oil-fired district heating plants in operation. Today five straw-fired combined heat and power plants in Denmark are in commercial operation. Three of these plants exclusively use straw as a fuel, one uses both straw, wood chips and natural gas, and one straw and coal. These five combined heat and power plants, having a total annual consumption of straw of approx. 200 000 tonnes, supply district heating to five medium-sized towns. On 14 June 1993 an agreement was made in the Danish Parliament ordering the power stations to reach an annual volume input of 1.2 mill. tonnes of straw and 0.2 mill. tonnes of wood chips in year 2000. Therefore two new plants are under construction and co-combustion with straw is being installed at an existing coal-fired power station. In addition, two large plants are under consideration. With the two plants under construction and with the co-combustion plant, the straw consumption is expected to increase to 430 000 tons of straw per year. These two plants will start operations in 1995 and 1997 respectively. All the operating straw-fired combined heat and power stations show an economic loss. Besides the price of fuel, this is due to the efficiency of the plants, which with

  19. 2nd international expert meeting straw power; 2. Internationale Fachtagung Strohenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    Within the 2nd Guelzow expert discussions at 29th to 30th March, 2012 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Promotion of the utilisation of straw in Germany (A. Schuette); (2) The significance of straw in the heat and power generation in EU-27 member states in 2020 and in 2030 under consideration of the costs and sustainability criteria (C. Panoutsou); (3) State of he art of the energetic utilization of hay goods in Europe (D. Thraen); (4) Incineration technological characterisation of straw based on analysis data as well as measured data of large-scale installations (I. Obernberger); (5) Energetic utilization of hay goods in Germany (T. Hering); (6) Actual state of the art towards establishing the first German straw thermal power station (R. Knieper); (7) Straw thermal power plants at agricultural sow farms and poultry farms (H. Heilmann); (8) Country report power from straw in Denmark (A. Evald); (9) Country report power from straw in Poland (J. Antonowicz); (10) Country report power from straw in China (J. Zhang); (11) Energetic utilisation of straw in Czechia (D. Andert); (12) Mobile pelletization of straw (S. Auth); (13) Experiences with the straw thermal power plant from Vattenfall (N. Kirkegaard); (14) Available straw potentials in Germany (potential, straw provision costs) (C. Weiser); (15) Standardization of hay good and test fuels - Classification and development of product standards (M. Englisch); (16) Measures of reduction of emissions at hay good incinerators (V. Lenz); (17) Fermentation of straw - State of the art and perspectives (G. Reinhold); (18) Cellulosis - Ethanol from agricultural residues - Sustainable biofuels (A. Hartmair); (19) Syngas by fermentation of straw (N. Dahmen); (20) Construction using straw (D. Scharmer).

  20. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulose. Additionally, the SEM image illustrates that there are many fine fibres in the pulp and the spaces between the fibres are large.

  1. Fungal diversity of rice straw for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-12-01

    Rice straw is closely associated with meju fermentation and it is generally known that the rice straw provides meju with many kinds of microorganisms. In order to elucidate the origin of meju fungi, the fungal diversity of rice straw was examined. Rice straw was collected from 12 Jang factories where meju are produced, and were incubated under nine different conditions by altering the media (MEA, DRBC, and DG18), and temperature (15°C, 25°C, and 35°C). In total, 937 strains were isolated and identified as belonging to 39 genera and 103 species. Among these, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Fusarium, and Penicillium were the dominant genera. Fusarium asiaticum (56.3%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (48.6%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.5%), A. oryzae (31.9%), Eurotium repens (27.1%), and E. chevalieri (25.0%) were frequently isolated from the rice straw obtained from many factories. Twelve genera and 40 species of fungi that were isolated in the rice straw in this study were also isolated from meju. Specifically, A. oryzae, C. cladosporioides, E. chevalieri, E. repens, F. asiaticum, and Penicillium polonicum (11.8%), which are abundant species in meju, were also isolated frequently from rice straw. C. cladosporioides, F. asiaticum, and P. polonicum, which are abundant in the low temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 15°C and 25°C, whereas A. oryzae, E. repens, and E. chevalieri, which are abundant in the high temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 25°C and 35°C. This suggests that the mycobiota of rice straw has a large influence in the mycobiota of meju. The influence of fungi on the rice straw as feed and silage for livestock, and as plant pathogens for rice, are discussed as well.

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Parathion, Malathion, Diazinon, and Pirimiphos Methyl in Dried Medicinal Plants Using Solid-Phase Microextraction Fibre Coated with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ahmadkhaniha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and sensitive headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of different organophosphorus pesticides in dried medicinal plant samples is described. The analytes were extracted by single-walled carbon nanotubes as a new solid-phase microextraction adsorbent. The developed method showed good performance. For diazinon and pirimiphos methyl calibration, curves were linear (r2≥0.993 over the concentration ranges from 1.5 to 300 ng g−1, and the limit of detection at signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 0.3 ng g−1. For parathion and malathion, the linear range and limit of detection were 2.5–300 (r2≥0.991 and 0.5 ng g−1, respectively. In addition, a comparative study between the single-walled carbon nanotubes and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre for the determination of target analytes was carried out. Single-walled carbon nanotubes fibre showed higher extraction capacity, better thermal stability (over 350∘C, and longer lifespan (over 250 times than the commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre. The developed method was successfully applied to determine target organophosphorus pesticides in real samples.

  3. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  4. A Stackelberg Game Theoretic Analysis of Incentive Effects under Perceived Risk for China’s Straw-Based Power Plant Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of the biomass power generation industry has resulted in the conversion of substantial agricultural waste (crop straw into energy feedstock, thereby increasing the income of farmers and promoting the development of rural areas. However, the promising industry faces financial deficits because of difficulties in collecting straw from farmers. To determine strategies for overcoming the biomass supply problem, we apply Stackelberg game theory in modeling the Chinese biomass supply chain and design incentive scenarios under stakeholder risk perception. We illustrate the proposed methodology through an empirical case study on China and demonstrate the effects of incentives on farmers and middlemen. Results show that with incentives, straw quantity and stakeholder profit are expected to increase. Incentives exert a particularly remarkable effect on farmers, with such inducements producing the highest social welfare. Moreover, perceived risk dramatically affects stakeholder profit. Mitigating the risk perception of farmers is expected to significantly advance the development of the biomass power generation industry, increase stakeholder profit, and decrease the amount of incentives needed.

  5. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Ohki, Yumi

    1991-11-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10{sup 7} - 3x10{sup 8} per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D{sub 10} values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D{sub 10} values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10{sup -4} per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author).

  6. Scintillating fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahnhauer, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for new detector techniques, scintillating fibre technology has already gained a firm foothold, and is a strong contender for the extreme experimental conditions of tomorrow's machines. Organized by a group from the Institute of High Energy Physics, Berlin-Zeuthen, a workshop held from 3-5 September in the nearby village of Blossin brought together experts from East and West, and from science and industry

  7. Scintillating fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahnhauer, R. [IHEP Zeuthen (Germany)

    1990-11-15

    In the search for new detector techniques, scintillating fibre technology has already gained a firm foothold, and is a strong contender for the extreme experimental conditions of tomorrow's machines. Organized by a group from the Institute of High Energy Physics, Berlin-Zeuthen, a workshop held from 3-5 September in the nearby village of Blossin brought together experts from East and West, and from science and industry.

  8. Dietary fibre in foods: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods li...

  9. Life cycle GHG analysis of rice straw bio-DME production and application in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Sagisaka, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Katsunobu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production in Thailand are assessed. • Bio-DME replaces diesel in engines and supplements LPG for household application. • Rice straw bio-DME in both cases of substitution helps reduce GHG emissions. - Abstract: Thailand is one of the leading countries in rice production and export; an abundance of rice straw, therefore, is left in the field nowadays and is commonly burnt to facilitate quick planting of the next crop. The study assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of using rice straw for bio-DME production in Thailand. The analysis is divided into two scenarios of rice straw bio-DME utilization i.e. used as automotive fuel for diesel engines and used as LPG supplement for household application. The results reveal that that utilization of rice straw for bio-DME in the two scenarios could help reduce GHG emissions by around 14–70% and 2–66%, respectively as compared to the diesel fuel and LPG substituted. In case rice straw is considered as a by-product of rice cultivation, the cultivation of rice straw will be the major source of GHG emission contributing around 50% of the total GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production. Several factors that can affect the GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production are discussed along with measures to enhance GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production and utilization

  10. Numerical investigation of ash deposition in straw-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    in the design phase of straw-fired boilers. Some of the primary model outputs include improved heat transfer rate predictions and detailed information about local deposit formation rates. This information is essential when boiler availability and efficiency is to be estimated. A stand-alone program has been...... accumulation rates encountered during straw combustion in grate-fired boilers. The sub-models have been based on information about the combustion and deposition properties of straw gathered from the literature and combined into a single Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based analysis tool which can aid...... transfer mechanisms have a pronounced influence on the combustion pattern. The combined set of sub-models has been evaluated using the straw-fired boiler at Masnedø CHP plant as a test case. The predicted grate combustion and KCl release patterns are in qualitative agreement with experimental findings...

  11. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... and coal co-firing. Reasonable agreement in fly ash compositions regarding total K and fraction of water soluble K was obtained between co-firing in an entrained flow reactor and full-scale plants. Capture of potassium and subsequent release of HCl can be achieved by sulphation with SO2 and more...

  12. Targeted pre-treatment of hemp bast fibres for optimal performance in biocomposite materials: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Thygesen, Anders; Summerscales, John

    2017-01-01

    . In order to achieve strong NFCs, well separated and cellulose-rich fibres are required. Hemp is taking a center stage in this regard as a source of suitable natural plant cellulose fibres because natural hemp bast fibres are long and inherently possess high strength. Classical field and water retting...... methods have been used for centuries for removal of non-cellulosic components from fibrous plant stems including from hemp, but carries a risk of reducing the mechanical properties of the fibres via damaging the cellulose. For NFCs new targeted fibre pre-treatment methods are needed to selectively...... and effectively remove non-cellulosic components from the plant fibres to produce cellulose rich fibres without introducing any damage to the fibres. A key feature for successful use of natural fibres such as hemp fibres in composite materials is optimal interfacial contact between the fibres and the hydrophobic...

  13. Dietary fibre in foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R T

    2012-06-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments (like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying) alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic-chemical methods. This paper presents the recent developments in the extraction, applications and functions of dietary fibre in different food products.

  14. Protocol for Quantification of Defects in Natural Fibres for Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ulrich Andreas; Madsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Natural bast-type plant fibres are attracting increasing interest for being used for structural composite applications where high quality fibres with good mechanical properties are required. A protocol for the quantification of defects in natural fibres is presented. The protocol is based...

  15. Intake and digestibility of untreated and urea treated rice straw base diet fed to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yulistiani

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw as one of agricultural by-products has low quality due to low content of essensial nutrients like protein, energy, minerals and vitamin as well as poor palatability and digestibility. Therefore, the quality of rice straw needs to be improved in order to increase its utilization by gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. The purpose of this study is to compare untreated and urea treated rice straw as basal diets for sheep. Twelve mature Merino wethers (average body weight 53.62 + 3.44 kg were separated into 4 groups based on their live weight with each groups assigned three diets, that are: diet 1 untreated rice straw with high forage legume content, diet 2 urea ensiled rice straw and diet 3 rice straw sprayed with urea solution at feeding time. Diets were allocated based on a randomized complete block design. Urea ensiled rice straw was prepared by spraying chopped straw with urea solution to yield straw containing 4% urea and 40% moisture, then kept in air tight polythylene bags for 6 weeks. The untreated, ensiled and urea supplemented rice straw were mixed with other feed ingredients to provide isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets. Diets were formulated to meet maintenance requirement according to NRC. Sheep were adapted to experimental diets for 15 days, and after adaptation period, a metabolism trial was conducted. Results reveal that dry matter intake permetabolic body weight (DMI/W0.75, DE (digestible energi intake and apparent digestibility of NDF (neutral detergent fibre were not significantly different between diet 1 and diet 2. Apparent digestibility of DM (dry matter, OM (organic matter, and ADF (acid detergent fibre, as well as N retention were not significantly different between three diets. Positive result in N retention was only observed in diet 2, while others were negative. It may be concluded from this study that untreated rice straw basal diet supplemented with forage legume offer an alternative method other than urea

  16. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process......The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary......, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure...

  17. Straw and energy crops- analysis of economy, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsby, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the biomass agreement of 14 June 1993 was to increase the use of biomass fuels in the Danish power plants to 1.2 million tons straw and 200 000 wood chips. Contribution from straw combustion should reach 25 PJ in year 2000. However biomass cultivation can endanger the governmental policy of pesticide and nitrogen reduction in agriculture. In the worst harvest years straw quantity can be reduced to 70 % of the normal level, while in good years there would occur a 3-4 fold excess of straw. Supply depends in a decisive degree on the offered price as the indirect cost can vary much (wet straw, delayed sawing, lost fertilizer value etc.). Potential for energy crops can be based on ca 300 000 ha present fallow agricultural areas. Cost is higher than that for straw, the most probable plants are elephant grass, willow, rape, sugar beets, winter cereals. Cost is lower for perennial plants, but at least 10-12 years are necessary for such crops to become profitable. Generally the biofuel crops are more expensive than crops for immediate combustion. Expenses for energy crops will decrease with time per ton dry matter, but ground rent for soils previously fallow has to be taken into account. A reduced nitrogen fertilization will reduce the economic profits quite essentially due to smaller harvests. Pesticide consumption will not have to grow as straw and elephant grass do not require any larger quantities (unless very large areas of one crop are cultivated).(EG) 92 refs

  18. WORKSHOP: Scintillating fibre detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Scintillating fibre detector development and technology for the proposed US Superconducting Supercollider, SSC, was the subject of a recent workshop at Fermilab, with participation from the high energy physics community and from industry. Sessions covered the current status of fibre technology and fibre detectors, new detector applications, fluorescent materials and scintillation compositions, radiation damage effects, amplification and imaging structures, and scintillation fibre fabrication techniques

  19. Large-scale straw supplies to existing coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, M.; Parsby, M.; Thellesen, H.Z.; Keller, P.

    1992-08-01

    It is considered that large-scale supply of straw to power stations and decentral cogeneration plants could open up new economical systems and methods of organization of straw supply in Denmark. This thesis is elucidated and involved constraints are pointed out. The aim is to describe to what extent large-scale straw supply is interesting with regard to monetary savings and available resources. Analyses of models, systems and techniques described in a foregoing project are carried out. It is reckoned that the annual total amount of surplus straw in Denmark is 3.6 million tons. At present, use of straw which is not agricultural is limited to district heating plants with an annual consumption of 2-12 thousand tons. A prerequisite for a significant increase in the use of straw is an annual consumption by power and cogeneration plants of more than 100.000 tons. All aspects of straw management are examined in detail, also in relation to two actual Danish coal-fired plants. The reliability of straw supply is considered. It is concluded that very significant resources of straw are available in Denmark but there remain a number of constraints. Price competitiveness must be considered in relation to other fuels. It is suggested that the use of corn harvests, with whole stems attached (handled as large bales or in the same way as sliced straw alone) as fuel, would result in significant monetary savings in transport and storage especially. An equal status for whole-harvested corn with other forms of biomass fuels, with following changes in taxes and subsidies could possibly reduce constraints on large scale straw fuel supply. (AB) (13 refs.)

  20. Melting Behavior of ashes from the co-combustion of coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    . The use of straw as a co-firing feedstock in traditional coal-fired plants is associated with operational problems, such as deposition, agglomeration, and/or corrosion, mainly because of the higher amounts of alkali metals and chlorine in straw compared to coal. This may lead to unscheduled shutdowns...

  1. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and vegetation type on microbiota associated with decomposing straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Straw from wheat plants grown at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations was placed in litterbags in a grass fallow field and a wheat field. The CO2 treatment induced an increase in straw concentration of ash-free dry mass from 84% to 93% and a decrease in nitrogen concentration from ...

  2. Gamma and electron radiation effects on straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Baer, M.; Huebner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma and electron radiation effects on wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw and rye straw are reported. In vitro and in vivo studies show that the digestibility of these agricultural rough materials can be increased up to 80% and more at high doses. The increase of the digestibility is connected with a depolymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose. (author)

  3. Straw detector: 1 - Vacuum: 0

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 straw tracker is using pioneering CERN technology to measure charged particles from very rare kaon decays. For the first time, a large straw tracker with a 4.4 m2 coverage will be placed directly into an experiment’s vacuum tank, allowing physicists to measure the direction and momentum of charged particles with extreme precision. NA62 measurements using this technique will help physicists take a clear look at the kaon decay rate, which might be influenced by particles and processes that are not included in the Standard Model.   Straw ends are glued to an aluminium frame, a crucial step in the assembly of a module. The ends are then visually inspected before a leak test is performed.  “Although straw detectors have been around since the 1980s, what makes the NA62 straw trackers different is that they can work under vacuum,” explains Hans Danielsson from the PH-DT group leading the NA62 straw project. Straw detectors are basically small drift cha...

  4. Effect of straw application on nitrogen uptake and growth of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto; Idawati.

    1990-01-01

    A pot experiment has been conducted to know the effect of straw application on the efficiency of nitrogen uptake and growth rice plant. The rice straw was applied at different time i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks before tranplanting. Soil without rice straw was used as control. Thirty gram of rice straw having 3.61 percent of N-15 atom excess was incorporated into 6 kg of latosol soil originated from Pasar jumat, in which Atomoita I, a lowland rice variety, was planted. Urea was given once at the tranplanting time. The result showed that the longer the time of the rice straw application prior to the transplanting time, the higher the N-straw uptake efficiency in the rice plant at any different stages. The highest efficiency was 6.14 percent, reached with straw applicaions at 4 weeks before tranplanting. Compared to the control, straw applications 2 weeks or more before tranplanting resulted in higher grain production, while application at or before 2 weeks of tranplanting produced lower production. (authors). 9 refs.; 5 tabs

  5. Integrated economic and environmental analysis of agricultural straw reuse in edible fungi industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencong Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background China currently faces severe environmental pollution caused by burning agricultural straw; thus, resource utilization of these straws has become an urgent policy and practical objective for the Chinese government. Methods This study develops a bio-economic model, namely, “straw resource utilization for fungi in China (SRUFIC,” on the basis of a field survey of an edible fungi plant in Zhejiang, China, to investigate an integrated economic and environmental performance of straw reuse in fungi production. Five scenarios, which cover changes in the production scale, wage level, and price fluctuations of the main product and inputs, are simulated. Results Results reveal that (1 the pilot plant potentially provides enhanced economic benefits and disposes added agricultural residues by adjusting its production strategy; (2 the economic performance is most sensitive to fungi price fluctuations, whereas the environmental performance is more sensitive to production scale and price of fungi than other factors; (3 expanding the production scale can be the most efficient means of improving the performance of a plant economically and environmentally. Discussion Overall, agricultural straw reuse in the edible fungi industry can not only reduce the environmental risk derived from burning abandoned straws but also introduce economic benefits. Thus, the straw reuse in the fungi industry should be practiced in China, and specific economic incentive policies, such as price support or subsidies, must be implemented to promote the utilization of agricultural straws in the fungi industry.

  6. Penetration of UV-A, UV-B and blue light through the leaf trichome layers of two xeromorphic plants, olive and oak, measured by optical fibre microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabourniotis, G.; Bornman, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Quartz fibre-optic microprobes were used to monitor the light microenvironment beneath trichome layers of the xeromorphic leaves of two Mediterranean evergreen sclerophylls, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex. Young developing leaves of both plants were densely pubescent on both surfaces of the lamina, whereas the mature leaves were pubescent only on the abaxial side. Trichome layers of young as well as of mature leaves of both plants attenuated almost all incident ultraviolet (UV)-B (310 nm) and UV-A (360 nm) radiation and a considerable portion of blue light (430 nm). Abaxial trichome layers of young leaves were more effective in screening out the incident radiation compared to the adaxial ones of the same leaves and also compared to the abaxial layer of the mature leaves. The abaxial epidermis of dehaired mature leaves of O. europaea was ineffective in absorbing most of the incident UV-B and UV-A radiation. UV and visible spectra beneath trichome layers of O. europaea in mature leaves confirmed that the light microenvironment on the epidermis was deprived in the UV-B, UV-A and partly in the blue spectral regions. It is proposed that the occurrence of a dense trichome layer, especially in young leaves, may play a protective role against not only UV-B radiation damage, but also against high visible irradiance. This function is performed irrespective of the differing anatomy of individual hairs of both plants. The protection provided by the trichomes could afford advantages under stress conditions, especially during leaf development. (author)

  7. External nitrogen input affects pre- and post-harvest cell wall composition but not the enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldwin, Laetitia Andrée; Glazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops for food and feed and its straw is a potential feedstock for biorefinery purposes. Nitrogen (N) is an essential input factor in wheat agriculture but no information is available on how it affects straw composition during maturation and at harvest....... To investigate this, we conducted a large scale field experiment in which wheat plants were cultivated at three levels of externally applied N. The plants were harvested at different stages of maturation, spanning green straw at heading (ear emergence) to fully yellow straw at final maturity. Defined parts...

  8. Review article: dietary fibre-microbiota interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, H L; Campbell, B J

    2015-07-01

    Application of modern rapid DNA sequencing technology has transformed our understanding of the gut microbiota. Diet, in particular plant-based fibre, appears critical in influencing the composition and metabolic activity of the microbiome, determining levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) important for intestinal health. To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of how long-term and short-term alterations in dietary fibre intake impact on the microbiome and metabolome. A Medline search including items 'intestinal microbiota', 'nutrition', 'diet', 'dietary fibre', 'SCFAs' and 'prebiotic effect' was performed. Studies found evidence of fibre-influenced differences in the microbiome and metabolome as a consequence of habitual diet, and of long-term or short-term intervention (in both animals and humans). Agrarian diets high in fruit/legume fibre are associated with greater microbial diversity and a predominance of Prevotella over Bacteroides. 'Western'-style diets, high in fat/sugar, low in fibre, decrease beneficial Firmicutes that metabolise dietary plant-derived polysaccharides to SCFAs and increase mucosa-associated Proteobacteria (including enteric pathogens). Short-term diets can also have major effects, particularly those exclusively animal-based, and those high-protein, low-fermentable carbohydrate/fibre 'weight-loss' diets, increasing the abundance of Bacteroides and lowering Firmicutes, with long-term adherence to such diets likely increasing risk of colonic disease. Interventions to prevent intestinal inflammation may be achieved with fermentable prebiotic fibres that enhance beneficial Bifidobacteria or with soluble fibres that block bacterial-epithelial adherence (contrabiotics). These mechanisms may explain many of the differences in microbiota associated with long-term ingestion of a diet rich in fruit and vegetable fibre. © 2015 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, D.; Sapuan, S. M.; Zainudin, E. S.; Khalina, A.; Dahlan, K. Z. M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  10. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachtiar, D; Sapuan, S M; Zainudin, E S; Khalina, A; Dahlan, K Z M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  11. Natural Pineapple Leaf Fibre Extraction On Josapine And Morris

    OpenAIRE

    Mazalan Muhammad Firdaus; Yusof Yusri

    2017-01-01

    The pineapple’s leaf plant contains approximately 2.5% to 3.5% of strong white silky fibres. These fibres are useful and can be extracted from the leaves. There are a few ways to extract the fibre such as hand scrapping and by extraction machine. The objective of this research is to study the quality of fibre extraction by using different age of pineapple leaf. Next, the study aims to compare the quality of Josapine and Morris pineapple leaf with tensile test. Fibre yield percentage are calcu...

  12. GIS-based biomass resource utilization for rice straw cofiring in the Taiwanese power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Huang, An-Lei; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rice straw, a rich agricultural byproduct in Taiwan, can be used as biomass feedstock for cofiring systems. In this study, we analyzed the penetration of rice straw cofiring systems in the Taiwanese power market. In the power generation system, rice straw is cofired with fossil fuel in existing electricity plants. The benefits of cofiring systems include increasing the use of renewable energy, decreasing the fuel cost, and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. We established a linear complementarity model to simulate the power market equilibrium with cofiring systems in Taiwan. GIS-based analysis was then used to analyze the geospatial relationships between paddy rice farms and power plants to assess potential biomass for straw-power generation. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of the biomass feedstock supply system was conducted for various cofiring scenarios. The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring in Taiwanese power market are presented in the paper. - Highlights: ► The penetration of straw cofiring systems in the power market is analyzed. ► GIS-based analysis assesses potential straw-power generation. ► The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring are presented

  13. Characteristics and community diversity of a wheat straw-colonizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A microbial community named WSD-5 was successfully selected from plant litter and soil after longterm directed acclimation at normal temperature. After 15 days of cultivation at 30°C, the degradation rate of wheat straw by WSD-5 was 75.6%. For cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, the degradation rates were 94.2, 81.9 ...

  14. Consumer attitudes and understanding of cholesterol-lowering claims on food: randomize mock-package experiments with plant sterol and oat fibre claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C L; Mendoza, J; Henson, S J; Qi, Y; Lou, W; L'Abbé, M R

    2014-08-01

    Few studies have examined consumer acceptability or comprehension of cholesterol-lowering claims on food labels. Our objective was to assess consumer attitudes and understanding of cholesterol-lowering claims regarding plant sterols (PS) and oat fibre (OF). We conducted two studies on: (1) PS claims and (2) OF claims. Both studies involved a randomized mock-packaged experiment within an online survey administered to Canadian consumers. In the PS study (n=721), we tested three PS-related claims (disease risk reduction claim, function claim and nutrient content claim) and a 'tastes great' claim (control) on identical margarine containers. Similarly, in the OF study (n=710), we tested three claims related to OF and a 'taste great' claim on identical cereal boxes. In both studies, participants answered the same set of questions on attitudes and understanding of claims after seeing each mock package. All claims that mentioned either PS or OF resulted in more positive attitudes than the taste control claim (Pprofile. How consumers responded to the nutrition claims between the two studies was influenced by contextual factors such as familiarity with the functional food/component and the food product that carried the claim. Permitted nutrition claims are approved based on physiological evidence and are allowed on any food product as long as it meets the associated nutrient criteria. However, it is difficult to generalize attitudes and understanding of claims when they are so highly dependent on contextual factors.

  15. Microgel polymer composite fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Kehren, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis some novel ideas and advancements in the field of polymer composite fibres, specifically microgel-based polymer composite fibres have been achieved. The main task was to investigate and understand the electrospinning process of microgels and polymers and the interplay of parameter influences, in order to fabricate reproducible and continuously homogenous composite fibres. The main aim was to fabricate a composite material which combines the special properties of polymer fibres ...

  16. Natural Pineapple Leaf Fibre Extraction On Josapine And Morris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazalan Muhammad Firdaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineapple’s leaf plant contains approximately 2.5% to 3.5% of strong white silky fibres. These fibres are useful and can be extracted from the leaves. There are a few ways to extract the fibre such as hand scrapping and by extraction machine. The objective of this research is to study the quality of fibre extraction by using different age of pineapple leaf. Next, the study aims to compare the quality of Josapine and Morris pineapple leaf with tensile test. Fibre yield percentage are calculated to determine which type of pineapple leaf produce high production of dry fibre. The mechanical properties of the fibres are analysed by Tensile Test under American Standard Testing Methods (ASTM C1577-03 and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The result of the fibre yield percentage show the Josapine type on 12 month ages are the highest value fibre yield percentage which is 7.89%. Based on fibre yield percentages, it showed the Josapine type produce better dry fibre production compare to Morris type. Based on mechanical test, it showed Josapine type on 12 months ages are the strongest fibre compare to Morris type since it can withstand on 67.6 N of load.

  17. Fun with Optical Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alti, Kamlesh

    2017-01-01

    Optical fibres play a very crucial role in today's technologies. Academic courses in optical fibres start at the undergraduate level. Nevertheless, student's curiosity towards optical fibres starts from the school level. In this paper, some fun experiments have been designed for both school and college students, which have some concrete…

  18. Special fibres and components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunge, C.-A.; Woyessa, Getinet; Bremer, K.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we present more specific fibre types for particular applications. Starting with the multi-core fibre, which can be used as a substitution for ordinary SI-POF transmission fibres, but with better bending losses, over the ever increasing range of micro-structured POF for diverse sen...

  19. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  20. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  1. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...

  2. Fibre illumination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Source: EP2426402A The invention relates to a fibre illumination module and system for the collection and delivery of daylight for illumination purposes. The fibre illumination module comprises a plurality of collector elements, each collector element comprising an input fibre having a first end......-directional arrangement. The fibre illumination system comprises a fibre illumination module of the above-mentioned type. By the invention, daylight may be exploited for the illumination of remote interior spaces of buildings in order to save energy, and improve the well-being of users in both housing and working...

  3. Opto-mechanical design of a buckling cavity in a novel high-performance outside-plant robust field installable single-mode fibre connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebraert, Evert; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks provide an ideal means to reach the goal the European Union has set to provide 50 % of the households with a broadband connection faster than 100 Mb/s. Deployment of FTTH networks, which is still costly today, could be significantly boosted by novel ferrule-less connectors which don't require highly skilled personnel and allow installation in the field. We propose a ferrule-less connector in which two single-mode fibres (SMFs) are aligned and maintain physical contact by ensuring that at least one fibre is in a buckled state. To this end, we design a cavity in which a fibre can buckle in a controlled way. Using finite element analysis simulations to investigate the shape of the formed buckle for various buckling cavity lengths, we show that it can be accurately approximated by a cosine function. In addition, the optical performance of a buckled SMF is investigated by bending loss calculations and simulations. We show a good agreement between the analytical and the simulated bending loss results for a G.652 fibre at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Buckling cavity lengths smaller than 20 mm should be avoided to keep the optical bending loss due to buckling below 0.1 dB. In this case the cavity height should at least be 2 mm to avoid mechanical confinement of the fibre.

  4. Field test corrosion experiments in Denmark with biomass fuels Part I Straw firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, A; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. A series of field tests have been undertaken in the various straw-fired power plants in Denmark, namely Masnedø, Rudkøbing and Ensted. Three types of exposure were undertaken......In Denmark, straw and other types of biomass are used for generating energy in power plants. Straw has the advantage that it is a "carbon dioxide neutral fuel" and therefore environmentally acceptable. Straw combustion is associated with corrosion problems which are not encountered in coal-fired...... to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, b) the exposure of test tubes in a test superheater, and c) the exposure of test tubes in existing superheaters. Thus both austenitic steels and ferritic steels were exposed in the steam temperature range of 450-600°C...

  5. An Inclusive Investigation on Conceivable Performance of Rice Straw Incinerated Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Mohanta, Subhajit

    2018-03-01

    Biomass energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources which occupy 77% of the available natural resources of the world. In India, agro residues constitute a major part of the total annual production of the biomass resource. Rice is the major crop in India that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. 34% of rice straw residue produced in the country is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. Thus, the unutilized rice straw is found promising for heat and power generation either through incineration (direct combustion) or thermo chemical conversion. This present work envisages the comprehensive performative evaluation of a rice straw supported biomass incineration power plant mainly through plant performance characterization, plant economics, and co-firing issues with emission analysis.

  6. Elaboration of a Platform for Increasing Straw Combustion in Sweden, based on Danish Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinge, Joergen (Danish Technological Inst. (Denmark))

    2009-05-15

    The report forms the background for planning a straw-fired CHP plant through recommendations based on Danish experiences. Almost all straw for large scale combustion in Denmark is produced and handled as 'big bales' (500-600 kg). Other systems with chaffed straw and straw pellets have been investigated. But even though 120,000 tonnes of straw pellets is used annually at one plant, this is not considered a feasible alternative to handling in big bales--especially not when considering establishment a new plant. In general, there are no major problems with straw quality. Quality measures are regulated in the contract/terms of delivery between producer and buyer, and each load of straw bales is visually inspected, whereas moisture content is measured automatically. Up to 20% average moisture content is in general acceptable (although not ideal), and most plants are quite flexible with regard to type of straw. Experiences and data have been collected from a number of plants. The plants were selected, so that the different combustion principles were represented. Special attention has been given to the choice of technical solutions at the most recently established plant at Fynsvaerket. Co-firing of coal and straw has proved a viable technology with low investment costs, when an existing conventional coal-fired boiler is modified for co-combustion. Corrosion has not been a problem, as ash from coal is considered to neutralize the difficult substances (chloride, potassium) from straw combustion. The limiting factor can however be whether legislation permits the utilization of the mixed ash for concrete production; Danish legislation has been adapted to this. A separate boiler can be built and operated without any major problems. The investments are much higher for a given amount of straw to be burnt, than the co-firing technology. However, separate biomass boilers offer the opportunity of using different types of biomass in varying combinations. Problems with

  7. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, A; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Gianotti, P; Giardoni, M; Lucherini, V; Mecozzi, A; Pace, E; Passamonti, L; Qaiser, N; Russo, V; Tomassini, S; Sarwar, S; Serdyouk, V

    2001-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m sup 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 mu m, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

  8. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

    2001-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 μm, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work

  9. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

    2001-04-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 μm, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

  10. Industrial scale straw-to-biomethane conversion. A new bioenergy and business opportunity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonde, T.A. [BioFuel Technology ApS, Randers (Denmark); Sangaraju Raju, C.; Moeller, H.B. [Aarhus Univ., Forskningscenter Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Slot Knudsen, M. [C.F. Nielsen A/S, Baelum (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    The project resulted in the development, design, engineering, construction, and demonstration of a plant for industrial scale use of cereal straw for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The technology is based on the C. F. Nielsen A/S mechanical presses and adapted to the new purpose, to pre-treat and feed straw into a digester in one single step. A number of laboratory measurements as a function of variations of the pre-treatment showed, that under practical circumstances it is possible to achieve a biogas yield of 400 m{sup 3} per tons straw (corresponding to 300 m{sup 3} methane per tons volatile solids). The most significant effect was achieved by impregnating the straw with 1 % acetic acid before mechanical treatment. It was additionally shown that an extended incubation, after the mechanical treatment at 90 deg. C, resulted in a more pronounced effect than incubation at 140 deg. C. The maximum gas yield was 360 l methane per kg vs (volatile solids). This is equivalent to 290 l methane per kg straw (at 85 % dry matter, 95 % vs) or 450 l biogas per kg straw (at 65 % methane). A typical annual quantity of straw for anaerobic digestion would be 10.000 tons and more. A biogas plant digesting e.g. 100.000 tons liquid manure and 10.000 tons straw will produce a total of app. 6.5 mio. m{sup 3} biogas, of which 2.5 mio. m{sup 3} stems from the slurry and 4 mio. m{sup 3} from the straw. The result is a sustainable and robust biogas production and an equally sustainable economic performance of the biogas plant. (Author)

  11. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) – The impact of lignin relocation and plant tissues on enzymatic accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Anders Tengstedt; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2011-01-01

    , after 144 h of enzymatic hydrolysis the cortex had vanished, exposing the heavier lignified vascular tissue. Accumulation of lignin droplets and exposure of residual lignin could be part of the explanation for the decreasing hydrolysis rate. Flattening of macrofibrils after pretreatment together...... with more indentations on the surfaces was also observed, possibly caused by a proposed synergistic effect of cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases. Keywords: Lignocellulose; Plant tissues; Lignin accumulation; Atomic Force Microscopy; Scanning Electron Microscopy...

  12. Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Hanif Mohamad Jamil; Sepiah Muid

    1998-01-01

    Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

  13. Energetic utilization and recycling of straw; Energetische und stoffliche Verwertung von Stroh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuech, Andrea; Engler, Nils; Weissbach, Gunter; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft

    2013-10-01

    Worldwide arising significant emissions caused by the burning of rice straw on the field. The combined energetic and material utilization of rice straw offers the production possibility of various usable bioenergy and the closing of nutrient cycles by the return of the conversion residues. Thereby the soil quality can be improved and an important contribution to climate protection and resource conservation be realized. In the German-Egyptian project CEMUWA, the options of material and energetic use of rice straw are investigated. It is used as substrate for plant cultivation and for the production of ethanol, butanol and biogas. In this paper first results are presented. (orig.)

  14. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background

  15. Straw Appliqué Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... colours. This combination make up the costumed part; and the exposed part of the skin; ... Bits of different geometric shapes, sizes, and tones are combined to create the forms from the ... Acrylic, Poster//Water-colour and Pastel. ... (Enenajor 2004) where all aspects of the work is filled with straw medium.

  16. Mechanical support for straw tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joestlein, H.

    1990-01-01

    A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing of modules is possible prior to the final assembly. 4 figs

  17. Life cycle assessment of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie, S.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) with a view to analyzing the environment aspects of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia. It also compares rice straw-based power generation with that of coal and natural gas. GHG (Greenhouse gas) emission savings were calculated. It finds that rice straw power generation can save GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of about 1.79 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to coal-based and 1.05 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh with natural gas based power generation. While the development of rice straw-based power generation in Malaysia is still in its early stage, these paddy residues offer a large potential to generate electricity because of their availability. Rice straw power plants not only could solve the problem of removing rice straw from fields without open burning, but also could reduce GHG emissions that contribute to climate change, acidification, and eutrophication, among other environmental problems. - Highlights: • Overall rice straw preparations contribute 224.48 g CO 2 -eq/kg rice straw. • The most constraints due to GHG (greenhouse gas) emission is from transportation. • Distance collection centre to plant less than 110 km to obtains minimum emissions. • Rice straw can save GHG emissions 1.79 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to coal power. • GHG saving 1.05 kg CO 2 -eq/kWh compared to natural gas based power generation

  18. Effect of moisture on natural fibre reinforced plastics | Ogakwu | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, the rate of moisture absorption of the composites reinforced with natural fibres – Ukam plant fibres (chochlostermum placoni) were studied and determined.Composite cubes and plates of different sizes were prepared, then immersed in water for 24 hours at room temperature in order to determine the extent ...

  19. Sugarcane straw and the populations of pests and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The green cane harvesting represented a significant change in sugarcane ecosystem due to the presence of straw left on the soil and to the absence of fire. These two factors may affect the populations of pests and their natural enemies. Among the pests benefit from the green cane harvesting stand out the spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata, the curculionid Sphenophorus levis and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. In areas of green cane harvesting, the population of these species grew faster than in areas of burnt cane. On the other hand, there are virtually no records of attacks by lesser cornstalk borers in areas of green cane harvesting. Populations of plant parasitic nematodes and the beetles Migdolus fryanus, very important pests of sugarcane, were apparently not affected by the green cane harvesting. Despite the absence of more consistent information, it appears that populations of ants and the giant borer Telchin licus can increase in green cane areas, due primarily to the difficulty of pest control. The partial or total removal of straw from the field represents an additional change to the ecosystem that could alter the status of pests and nematodes. It is likely that spittlebug, the curculionid S. levis and sugarcane borer populations decrease if a portion of the straw is removed from the field. However, the pest populations in areas where the straw is collected will not return to their original conditions at the time of burnt cane harvesting because the absence of fire will be maintained.

  20. Edafic fauna under different straw levels in sugarcane crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossiana Ribeiro Lino de Abreu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The organisms that constitute the soil fauna are highly relevant to the litter-soil compartments, because they act in important processes, such as fragmentation of the plant material, decomposition and nutrients cycling. This study aimed to evaluate the invertebrate fauna community in soil cultivated with sugarcane harvested without burning, considering the maintenance of different straw levels on the soil surface. Treatments consisted of different amounts of sugarcane straw: T0% (0 Mg ha-1; T25% (2.2 Mg ha-1; T50% (5.1 Mg ha-1; T75% (7.8 Mg ha-1; and T100% (12.0 Mg ha-1. Samples were collected in the dry season and late wet season, with "Pitfall" traps. The number of individuals per trap per day during the dry period ranged from 11.1 (T0% to 14.7 (T25% and, in the rainy season, from 15.11 (T0% to 33.15 (T75%. The highest Shannon values were observed during the rainy season, and the lowest values for diversity and equitability resulted in a higher incidence of Araneae and Formicidae groups. The amount of straw on soil showed no significant influence on ecological indices and total and average wealth. The harvest time affected the number of individuals, species wealth and Shannon and Pielou's indices. The maintenance of straw on the soil surface benefitted the soil fauna, concerning the conventional crop management.

  1. Fibre-concrete container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the fibre-concrete container for radioactive wastes is described. The fibre container is made of fibre-concrete that contains cement, aggregate, sand, filter, flame-silica, super-plastificator, water and scattered metal fibres. The fibre-concrete container has a dice shape with outer dimension 1.7 x 1.7 x 1.7 m. It is mounted of a container body, a container cover and two caps. Total weight of container is 4,240 kg, maximum weight of loaded container do not must exceed 15,000 kg. The physical and mechanical properties of the fibre-concrete container are described in detail. The fibre-concrete container manufactured for storing of low and intermediate radioactive wastes. A fibre-concrete container utilization to store of radioactive wastes solves these problems: increase of stability of stored packages of radioactive waste; watertightness within 300 years at least; static stability of bearing space; better utilization of bearing spaces; insulation of radioactive waste in a case of seismic and geological event; increase of fire resistance; and transport of radioactive waste

  2. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    . This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  3. Bioethanol production using genetically modified and mutant wheat and barley straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Engineering; East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (CN). State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering; Liu, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Chen, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zemetra, R.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (US). Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences

    2011-01-15

    To improve the performance of wheat and barley straws as feedstocks for ethanol biorefining, the genetic modifications of down regulating Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and low phytic acid mutation have been introduced into wheat and barley respectively. In this study, total 252 straw samples with different genetic background and location were collected from the field experiment based on a randomized complete block design. The fiber analysis (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) indicated that there were no significant differences between modified and wild type straw lines in terms of straw compositions. However, the difference did exist among straw lines on fiber utilization. 16 straw samples were further selected to conduct diluted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The data indicated that the phytic acid mutant and transgenic straws have changed the fiber structure, which significantly influences their hydrolysibility. These results may lead to a possible solution of mutant or genetic modified plant species that is capable to increase the hydrolysibility of biomass without changing their compositions and sacrificing their agronomy performance. (author)

  4. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility in Merino Sheep Fed Peanut Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanim, C.; Muhlisin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare nutrient intake and digestibility between male and female Merino fed peanut straw as sole feed. Four male and five female Merino sheep ages 10 to 12 month with average weight of 40 kg were used in this study. All animals were confined in individual metabolism cages and nylon nets were fitted bellow the cages for faecal collection. This experiment was done with 14 d adaptation period and 7 d collection period. Representative sample of feed, refusal feed, and faeces were analysed proximate including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and extract-free nitrogen (EFN). Data collected were used to calculate nutrient intake and digestibility. All nutrient intake in male Merino was higher (Pdigestibility of DM, CP, and CF in male Merino sheep were higher (Pdigestibility.

  5. Pure chiral optical fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poladian, L; Straton, M; Docherty, A; Argyros, A

    2011-01-17

    We investigate the properties of optical fibres made from chiral materials, in which a contrast in optical activity forms the waveguide, rather than a contrast in the refractive index; we refer to such structures as pure chiral fibres. We present a mathematical formulation for solving the modes of circularly symmetric examples of such fibres and examine the guidance and polarisation properties of pure chiral step-index, Bragg and photonic crystal fibre designs. Their behaviour is shown to differ for left- and right-hand circular polarisation, allowing circular polarisations to be isolated and/or guided by different mechanisms, as well as differing from equivalent non-chiral fibres. The strength of optical activity required in each case is quantified.

  6. Identification of ancient textile fibres from Khirbet Qumran caves using synchrotron radiation microbeam diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Martin [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik der Christian, Albrechts, Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 19, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)]. E-mail: mmueller@physik.uni-kiel.de; Murphy, Bridget [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik der Christian, Albrechts, Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 19, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Burghammer, Manfred [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Riekel, Christian [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Roberts, Mark [Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Papiz, Miroslav [Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Clarke, David [Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Gunneweg, Jan [Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel); Pantos, Emmanuel [Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-08

    Archaeological textiles fragments from the caves of Qumran in the Dead Sea region were investigated by means of X-ray microbeam diffraction on single fibres. This non-destructive technique made the identification of the used plant textile fibres possible. Apart from bast fibres (mainly flax), cotton was identified which was most unexpected in the archaeological context.

  7. Identification of ancient textile fibres from Khirbet Qumran caves using synchrotron radiation microbeam diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Martin; Murphy, Bridget; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian; Roberts, Mark; Papiz, Miroslav; Clarke, David; Gunneweg, Jan; Pantos, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Archaeological textiles fragments from the caves of Qumran in the Dead Sea region were investigated by means of X-ray microbeam diffraction on single fibres. This non-destructive technique made the identification of the used plant textile fibres possible. Apart from bast fibres (mainly flax), cotton was identified which was most unexpected in the archaeological context

  8. Identification of ancient textile fibres from Khirbet Qumran caves using synchrotron radiation microbeam diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Martin; Murphy, Bridget; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian; Roberts, Mark; Papiz, Miroslav; Clarke, David; Gunneweg, Jan; Pantos, Emmanuel

    2004-10-01

    Archaeological textiles fragments from the caves of Qumran in the Dead Sea region were investigated by means of X-ray microbeam diffraction on single fibres. This non-destructive technique made the identification of the used plant textile fibres possible. Apart from bast fibres (mainly flax), cotton was identified which was most unexpected in the archaeological context.

  9. Logistics and feed preparation of straw for gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The system for supply of biomass comprises the entire chain from harvest to feeding. The subsequent energy process makes demands on the quality of the biomass that is supplied. The process, moreover, makes a number of demands on the preceding pretreatment and the equipment subsequently utilised. The straw delivery and handling system ought therefore to be considered as a coherent unit whole consisting of the following: harvesting and collection; storage; transportation; fragmentizing; drying; densification; handling at the plants; feeding; `subsequent process`. (EG)

  10. FibreBags vs. FibreCaps for acid and neutral detergent fibre analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto , Jason

    2003-01-01

    International audience; A new procedure for determining acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (ADF and NDF) was developed to reduce the need for filtration and to allow for batch processing of forage samples. The FibreBag system is an economically necessary evolution of the earlier FibreCap system. The purpose of this enquiry was to determine if the FibreBag is a suitable replacement for the FibreCap. The FibreBag method produced very similar results to the FibreCap system of analy...

  11. The effect of gamma irradiation on crude fibre NDF, ADF, and ADL of some Syrian agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1992-07-01

    The effects of 150 KGy of gamma irradiation on crude fibre and its main components (cellulose, hemicellulose-cellulose and lignin) and on neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were investigated. The results indicate that gamma irradiation decreased Cf content by 30%, 28%, 29%, and 17% for cottonwood, lentils straw, apple-tree pruning products and olive-oil cake, respectively. NDF values also decreased by 5%, 23%, 13% and 3% for, cottonwood, lentils straw, olive-oil cake and apple-tree pruning products respectively. Gamma irradiation (150 KGy) had no effects on ADF and ADL for lentils straw, apple-tree pruning products and olive-oil cake whereas, ADF decreased by 8.5% and ADL by 8.3 for cottonwood. Hemicellulose content increased by 12% for cottonwood while decreased by 54% for lentils straw and by 33% for apple-tree pruning products with no effects for olive-oil cake. Cellulose content decreased by 8.6% for cottonwood whereas no effects for the remaining residues were seen. Gamma irradiation treatment improved the nutritive value of the agriculture residues examined. The reduction in crude fibre content varies with the residue. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  12. Effect of ecological surface treatment method on friction strength properties of nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şansal, S.; Mıstık, S. I.; Fettahov, R.; Ovalı, S.; Duman, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the last few decades, more attention is given to lignocellulose based fibres as reinforcement material in the polymer composites owing to the environmental pollution caused by the extensive usage of synthetic and inorganic fibres. Developing new natural fibre reinforced composites is the focus of many researches nowadays. They are made from renewable resources and they have less environmental effect in comparison to inorganic fibre reinforced composites. The interest of consumers in eco-friendly natural fibres and textiles has increased in recent years. Unlike inorganic fibres, natural fibres present light weight, high strength/density ratio and are readily available, environmentally friendly and biodegradable. Many different types of natural fibres are exploited for the production of biodegradable polymer composites. The nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant growing on rural sites of Europe, Asia, and North America. Nettle plant contains fibre similar to hemp and flax. However, similar to other natural fibres, nettle fibres are poorly compatible with the thermoplastic matrix of composites, due to their hydrophilic character which reduces mechanical properties of nettle fibre reinforced thermoplastics. In order to improve the fibrematrix adhesion of the natural fibre reinforced composites, surface treatment processes are applied to the lignocellulose fibres. In this study nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns were treated with NaOH by using conventional, ultrasonic and microwave energy methods. After treatment processes tensile strength, elongation, friction strength and SEM observations of the nettle fibre yarns were investigated. All treatment processes were improved the tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties of the nettle fibre yarns. Also higher tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties were obtained from treated nettle fibre yarns which treated by using microwave energy method.

  13. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  14. An economic evaluation of biological conversion of wheat straw to butanol: A biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Saha, B.C.; Cotta, M.A.; Singh, V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An economic evaluation of bioconversion of wheat straw to butanol was performed. ► Wheat straw and utilities impact butanol economics significantly. ► Sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide affect butanol production cost adversely. ► Annexation of butanol plant to an existing distillery improves butanol economics. ► Butanol production cost from wheat straw was estimated to be $1.31–1.00/kg. - Abstract: A cost estimation study was performed for a biological butanol production plant with a capacity of 150 × 10 6 kg butanol/year. Wheat straw (WS) was used as a feedstock. In addition to butanol, acetone (78.05 × 10 6 kg/year) and ethanol (28.54 × 10 6 kg/year) would also be produced. The total capital cost for this plant was $193.07 × 10 6 . This exercise was based in part on data generated in our laboratory and in part on data obtained from literature. The design, mass balance, and energy balance simulations were performed using SuperPro Designer (Version 8.5003, 2012). For butanol production wheat straw would be pretreated with dilute (1% v/v) sulfuric acid at 121 °C for 1 h followed by separate hydrolysis (using enzymes), fermentation and recovery. Enzyme cost for wheat straw hydrolysis was adapted from literature ($0.16/kg butanol). Utilities which included steam/high pressure steam, cooling/chilling water, and electricity represented the major cost of the operation (49.18%) followed by raw materials (26.81%). Based on batch fermentation of wheat straw hydrolysate and distillative recovery of acetone butanol ethanol (ABE), butanol production cost was estimated to be $1.30/kg for a grass-rooted/green-field plant. Application of a membrane recovery process could reduce this price to $1.00/kg for a plant annexed to an existing distillery.

  15. Decomposition of Rice Straw and Corn Straw Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition dynamics of rice straw and corn straw at aerobic and anaerobic condition were investigated under the simulated condition in the lab. Results showed that two stages, i.e. the rapid decomposition stage from 0 to 3 months, and the slow one between 3 and 12 months, of decomposition dynamics of rice straw and corn straw were found under anaerobic and aerobic incubation condition, and more than 55%of rice straw and corn mass was lost at the initial 3 months incubation period. The half times(t1/2of rice straw and corn straw mass lost under aerobic condition were 59.2 d and 52.9 d, which were short than those(72.6 d and 79.9 dunder the anaerobic condition, respectively. Carbon release constants from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were 0.61 and 0.60 per month, which were higher than those (0.55 and 0.57 per monthunder anaerobic condition. The nitrogen release from crop straw followed the same rule as the carbon release from straw. The constants of nitrogen released from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were 0.25 and 2.36 per month, which were higher than those(0.16 and 2.32 per monthunder anaerobic condition. The losses of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin from rice straw and corn straw under aerobic condition were also higher than those under anaerobic condition. In summary, the aerobic environment increases de composition and release of organic and inorganic substances from crop straw.

  16. Bio-composites made from pine straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Jamie Tang

    2004-01-01

    Pine straw is renewable natural resource that is under-utilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical performances of pine straw composites. Three panel density levels (0.8, 0.9, 1.0 g/cm2) and two resin content levels (1% pMDI + 4% UF, 2% pMDI + 4% UF) were selected as treatments. For the pine-straw-bamboo-...

  17. Relations between combustion, deposition, flue gas temperatures and corrosion in straw-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Additives trials in three different plants, Sønderborg waste incineration plant and Ensted woodchip and straw firing boiler, are described. Both aluminium silicate containing additives and ammonium sulphate was tested. At Sønderborg, there was a drastic decrease in Cl deposition when...... using an aluminium silicate additive, however the relative chlorine content of the deposits was unchanged. At Ensted woodchip plant, a dosage level of additives was reached which reduced the chlorine flux. For straw firing where the chlorine level in the fuel is higher and the fuel load is greater...

  18. Fibre optic microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, David R

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial review describes how fibre optic microarrays can be used to create a variety of sensing and measurement systems. This review covers the basics of optical fibres and arrays, the different microarray architectures, and describes a multitude of applications. Such arrays enable multiplexed sensing for a variety of analytes including nucleic acids, vapours, and biomolecules. Polymer-coated fibre arrays can be used for measuring microscopic chemical phenomena, such as corrosion and localized release of biochemicals from cells. In addition, these microarrays can serve as a substrate for fundamental studies of single molecules and single cells. The review covers topics of interest to chemists, biologists, materials scientists, and engineers.

  19. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  20. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  1. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    produced to support communication between clients and the consultants and facilitate the straw build design and decision making process. The intended audiences for the design guide are clients of small scale construction projects, architects, engineers, builders of straw construction, homeowner...... construction, and a series of qualitative interviews with a variety of stakeholders from previous straw build housing projects, results were gathered to find the most influential motives, barriers and considerations for straw build housing construction. Based on this empirical data, a design guide has been...

  2. New generation of optical fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianov, E M; Semjonov, S L; Bufetov, I A [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    The growing need for information in contemporary society is the motivating force behind the development of fibre optics in general and optical fibre communications in particular. Intensive research effort has been concentrated on designing new types of optical fibres and extending their application field. This paper reviews results of research on new types of optical fibres: bismuthdoped active fibres, multicore fibres and hollow-core fibres, which can be used as key components of systems that ensure further increase in optical information transfer rate. (invited paper)

  3. Utilization of straw as a fermentation substrate by means of digestion of straw; Einsatz von Stroh als Gaersubstrat durch technischen Strohaufschluss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droege, Stefan [Pruef- und Forschungsinstitut Pirmasens (Germany); Pacan, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    Energy plants play an increasingly dominant role with regard to the starting materials in agricultural biogas plants. Here, the agricultural by-product straw has a significant energy potential. However, the structure of this highly lignified biomass are opposed to the utilization of straw for the production of biogas. An alternative to the purely mechanical or chemical pulping process is the hydrothermal digestion by means of a thermal pressure hydrolysis. The thermal hydrolysis of biomass is carried out at temperatures between 120 and 220 Celsius in special pressure reactors. A major advantage of this method are the structural disintegration of lignified biomass and the appropriate use of waste heat produced. Under this aspect, the Pruef- und Forschungsinstitut e.V. Pirmasens (Pirmasens, Federal Republic of Germany) performed studies on the hydrothermal digestion of straw and on a subsequent biogas production.

  4. Life-cycle assessment of straw use in bio-ethanol production: A case study based on biophysical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielle, Benoit; Gagnaire, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Cereal straw, a by-product in the production of agricultural crops, is considered as a potentially large source of energy supply with an estimated value of 47 x 10 18 J worldwide. However, there is some debate regarding the actual amounts of straw which could be removed from arable soils without jeopardizing their quality, as well as the potential trade-offs in the overall straw-to-energy chain compared to the use of fossil energy sources. Here, we used a deterministic model of C and N dynamics in soil-crop systems to simulate the effect of straw removal under various sets of soil, climate and crop management conditions in northeastern France. Model results in terms of nitrate leaching, soil C variations, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions were subsequently inputted into the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a particular bio-energy chain in which straw was used to generate heat and power in a plant producing bio-ethanol from wheat grains. Straw removal had little influence on simulated environmental emissions in the field, and straw incorporation in soil resulted in a sequestration of only 5-10% of its C in the long term (30 years). The LCA concluded to significant benefits of straw use for energy in terms of global warming and use of non-renewable energy. Only the eutrophication and atmospheric acidification impact categories were slightly unfavourable to straw use in some cases, with a difference of 8% at most relative to straw incorporation. These results based on a novel methodology thereby confirm the environmental benefits of substituting fossil energy with straw. (author)

  5. Fibre optics compatibility with radiative environment inside PWR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuze, G.; Jucker, P.; Serre, J.

    1993-01-01

    Fibre optic links operating with multiplexed sensors data are potentially attractive for nuclear power plant applications. It hence became essential to test for radiation vulnerability not only transmission support -fibres- but also fibre-end electro-optical components which could be exposed to hostile environment, perhaps in worse conditions than fibres. Present paper gives results of multimode silica-based fibre behaviour during long-term steady-state low dose-rate gamma ray exposure - one year under 0.1 to 0.2 Gy/h. Studies concerned radiation-induced loss (ΔL) measurement of eight different commercially available fibres and bit error-rate (BER) recording of four 1 100 m length data links operating with a 100 m part exposed to gamma-rays. Main result is the good behaviour of pure silica-core fibres, especially a step-index polymer-clad fibre transmitting 850 nm light but also a graded-index fluorine-clad fibre for 1 300 nm window. Mean ΔL values are respectively 3 dB/km and 4.5 dB/km at the exposure end. Complementary result is no influence of gamma-ray exposure upon data link initial 10 -9 BER. (authors). 9 figs., 7 tabs., 26 refs

  6. Field test corrosion experiments in Denmark with biomass fuels Part II Co-firing of straw and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    undertaken where coal has been co-fired with 10% straw and 20% straw (% energy basis) for up to approx. 3000 hours. Two types of exposure were undertaken to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, and b) the exposure of a range of materials built into the existing...... and potassium sulphate. These components give rise to varying degrees of accelerated corrosion. This paper concerns co-firing of straw with coal to reduce the corrosion rate from straw to an acceptable level. A field investigation at Midtkraft Studstrup suspension-fired power plant in Denmark has been...... for 100% straw-firing. The corrosion products and course of corrosion for the various steel types were investigated using light optical and scanning electron microscopy. Catastrophic corrosion due to potassium chloride was not observed. Instead a more modest corrosion rate due to potassium sulphate rich...

  7. DETECTORS: scintillating fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the continual search for improved detection techniques, new materials are continually proving profitable. A good example is scintillating plastic fibres - tiny transparent threads sometimes finer than a human hair which transmit light. The narrowness and flexibility of these fibres was a major breakthrough for endoscopy - non-invasive techniques for viewing the otherwise inaccessible in surgery or machine inspection. In a more sophisticated form, these fibres find ready application in communications technology, where the goal is to transmit information rather than electrical power, replacing conventional and unwieldy current-carrying wire conductors. In particle physics, fibres have long been used to take the tiny scintillations produced when high energy particles hit fluorescent materials and 'conduct' them to photosensitive detectors some distance away

  8. A trial burn of rape straw and whole crops harvested for energy use to assess efficiency implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R.

    2003-11-01

    Increased biomass utilisation and alternatives to cereal straw such as oil seed rape (OSR) straw will be necessary to achieve the Government's renewable energy targets. This report describes the results of a study to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of burning OSR straw and whole crops in an existing biomass power plant operated by EPR Ely Ltd in comparison with conventional cereal straw. Suitable quantities of bales of each fuel were provided for the combustion trials by Anglian Straw Ltd. Three trials were conducted: one using wheat-based cereal straw; one using 92% OSR; and one using 65% whole crop fuel. The availability of OSR straw and whole crop in Eastern England for use as fuel was also determined. Plant performance and stack emissions were evaluated and samples of delivered crop samples, bottom ash and fly ash from each trial were analysed. The parameters against which performance was assessed included: ease of handling and conveying; ease of chopping; ease of entry into the combustion chamber; furnace temperature profile; steam and electricity production rate; plant chimney emissions; ash collection and removal; operating stability; sustainability; and fuel availability.

  9. Fibre Concrete 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    9th international conference on fibre reinforced concretes (FRC), textile reinforced concretes (TRC) and ultra-high performance concretes (UHPC) Preface The Fibre Concrete Conference series is held biennially to provide a platform to share knowledge on fibre reinforced concretes, textile concretes and ultra-high performance concretes regarding material properties and behaviour, technology procedures, topics of long-term behaviour, creep, durability; sustainable aspects of concrete including utilisation of waste materials in concrete production and recycling of concrete. The tradition of Fibre Concrete Conferences started in eighties of the last century. Nowadays the conference is organized by the Department of Concrete and Masonry Structures of the Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering. The 9th International Conference Fibre Concrete 2017 had 109 participants from 27 countries all over the world. 55 papers were presented including keynote lectures of Professor Bažant, Professor Bartoš and Dr. Broukalová. The conference program covered wide range of topics from scientific research to practical applications. The presented contributions related to performance and behaviour of cement based composites, their long-term behaviour and durability, sustainable aspects, advanced analyses of structures from these composites and successful applications. This conference was organized also to honour Professor Zděnek P. Bažant on the occasion of his jubilee and to appreciate his merits and discoveries in the field of fibre reinforced composites, structural mechanics and engineering.

  10. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  11. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the wheat...

  12. Straw Combustion in a Grate Furnace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der

    1998-01-01

    Fixed-bed combustion of straw has been conducted in a 15 cm diameter and 137 cm long cylindrical reactor. Air, which could be preheated, was introduced through the bottom plate. The straw was ignited at the top with a radiation heater. After ignition, when a self-sustaining reaction front...

  13. Ash Deposit Formation and Removal in a Straw and Wood Suspension-Fired Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    ). The shedding investigation was also made when the nearby plant sootblower (4m below) was working. It was identified that the mass uptake signal remained stable and the deposits in small pieces were continuously removed during 35% and 65% straw-firing. Previous findings of Vattenfall indicated that a mixture...... was limited to two weeks when 100% straw was fired due to ash deposition in the superheater region that has tube spacing specified for coal-firing (113mm). A series of 3-5 days deposit probe experiments were conducted utilizing 35 to 100% straw with wood on mass basis. The applied deposit probe was water...... two hours deposit mass uptake rate was 52.8 (g/m2/h), while it was 353.8 (g/m2/h) during 100% straw-firing. All tests in the superheater region for all applied straw shares indicated that with increase in straw share, final deposit mass uptake increased. The comparison of current and previous full...

  14. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Aligned Natural Fibre Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    properties (stiffness-to-density ratio). The perspective of using natural fibres is to have a sustainable, biodegradable, CO2-neutral alternative to glass fibres. However, so far, it has not been possible to take full advantage of the natural fibre properties when using them for composite applications....... Several challenges have to be addressed and solved, many of which pertain to the fact that the fibres are sourced from a natural resource: 1) Inconsistent properties, depending on plant species, growth and harvest conditions, and fibre extraction techniques. 2) Strength values of composites are lower than...... microscopy during tensile tests of small composite specimens. With this technique, 3D images can be obtained with spatial resolution mechanisms have been identified: (i) Interface...

  15. Glass ceramic fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschek, O.; Paulitsch, P.

    1983-01-01

    As the correlation between mineralogical phase and chemical composition influences the type of application at different high temperatures, we studied the mineralogical phases of nine crystal glass fibres of the temperature ranges 1 150 degrees Celsius (Type 1), 1 400 degrees Celsius (Type 2) and 1 500 degrees Celsius (Type 3) at various high temperatures. The methods used in the study were microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis. The investigations showed that mullite forms in glassy fibres of the system Al 2 O 3 . SiO 2 from 850 degrees Celsius to 990 degrees Celsius as 2/1 mullite; 3/2 mullite appeared above 990 degrees Celsius besides the crystallization of cristobalite. Fibres with 95 per cent Al 2 O 3 include the phases delta-Al 2 O 3 and alpha- Al 2 O 3 and mullite. Delta- Al 2 O 3 is stable up to 1 100 degrees Celsius. Alpha-Al 2 O 3 and mullite are only stable phases at 1 400 degrees Celsius. These different crystal phases influence the quality of the technical fibre according to the stability field of glass and crystals. This study has determined that it is possible to identify different fibres from different productions by their mineralogical compositions and to relate them to the high temperature application

  16. Synthesis of magnetic wheat straw for arsenic adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ye; Wu, Min; Lin, Xiaobo; Huang, Pei; Huang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This work provides a way for fabricating low-cost arsenic adsorbents using agro- or plant-residues. → The introduction of wheat straw template highly enhances the arsenic adsorption of Fe 3 O 4 . → This magnetic adsorbent can be separated and collected by magnetic control easily and rapidly. → This adsorbent can be regenerated. → - Abstract: Magnetic wheat straw (MWS) with different Fe 3 O 4 content was synthesized by using in-situ co-precipitation method. It was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). This material can be used for arsenic adsorption from water, and can be easily separated by applied magnetic field. The introduction of wheat straw template highly enhanced the arsenic adsorption of Fe 3 O 4 . Among three adsorption isotherm models examined, the data fitted Langmuir model better. Fe 3 O 4 content and initial pH value influenced its adsorption behavior. Higher Fe 3 O 4 content corresponded to a higher adsorption capacity. In the pH range of 3-11, As(V) adsorption was decreased with increasing of pH; As(III) adsorption had the highest capacity at pH 7-9. Moreover, by using 0.1 mol L -1 NaOH aqueous solution, it could be regenerated. This work provided an efficient way for making use of agricultural waste.

  17. A Review on Pineapple Leaves Fibre and Its Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibre based composites are under intensive study due to their ecofriendly nature and peculiar properties. The advantage of natural fibres is their continuous supply, easy and safe handling, and biodegradable nature. Although natural fibres exhibit admirable physical and mechanical properties, it varies with the plant source, species, geography, and so forth. Pineapple leave fibre (PALF is one of the abundantly available wastes materials of Malaysia and has not been studied yet as it is required. A detailed study of chemical, physical, and mechanical properties will bring out logical and reasonable utilization of PALF for various applications. From the socioeconomic prospective, PALF can be a new source of raw material to the industries and can be potential replacement of the expensive and nonrenewable synthetic fibre. However, few studies on PALF have been done describing the interfacial adhesion between fibres and reinforcement compatibility of fibre but a detailed study on PALF properties is not available. In this review, author covered the basic information of PALF and compared the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties with other natural fibres. Furthermore, it summarizes the recent work reported on physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of PALF reinforced polymer composites with its potential applications.

  18. Nutritional evaluation of treated canola straw for ruminants using in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that organic matter digestibility (OMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) for treated canola straw were significantly higher than that of untreated canola straw (control) (p<0.001). Gas productions at 24 h for untreated canola straw (control) and treated canola straw were 20.03 and 27.07 ml, respectively.

  19. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  20. Actinomycete enzymes and activities involved in straw saccharification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, A J; Ball, A S [Liverpool Univ. (UK). Dept. of Genetics and Microbiology

    1990-01-01

    This research programme has been directed towards the analysis of actinomycete enzyme systems involved in the degradation of plant biomass (lignocellulose.) The programme was innovative in that a novel source of enzymes was systematically screened and wheat straw saccharifying activity was the test criterion. Over 200 actinomycete strains representing a broad taxonomic range were screened. A range of specific enzyme activities were involved and included cellulase, xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, acetylesterase, {beta}-xylosidase and {beta}-glucosidase. Since hemicellulose (arabinoxylan) was the primary source of sugar, xylanases were characterized. The xylan-degrading systems of actinomycetes were complex and nonuniform, with up to six separate endoxylanases identified in active strains. Except for microbispora bispora, actinomycetes were found to be a poor source of cellulase activity. Evidence for activity against the lignin fraction of straw was produced for a range of actinomycete strains. While modification reactions were common, cleavage of inter-monomer bonds, and utilization of complex polyphenolic compounds were restricted to two strains: Thermomonospora mesophila and Streptomyces badius. Crude enzyme preparations from actinomycetes can be used to generate sugar, particularly pentoses, directly from cereal straw. The potential for improvements in yield rests with the formulation to cooperative enzyme combinations from different strains. The stability properties of enzymes from thermophilic strains and the general neutral to alkali pH optima offer advantages in certain process situations. Actinomycetes are a particularly rich source of xylanases for commercial application and can rapidly solubilise a lignocarbohydrate fraction of straw which may have both product and pretreatment potential. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Nitrogen fertilization affects silicon concentration, cell wall composition and biofuel potential of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Lindedam, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential input factor required for plant growth and biomass production. However, very limited information is available on how nitrogen fertilization affects the quality of crop residues to be used as lignocellulosic feedstock. In the present study, straw of winter wheat plants grown...... linearly from 0.32% to 0.71% over the range of nitrogen treatments. Cellulose and hemicellulose were not affected by the nitrogen supply while lignin peaked at medium rates of nitrogen application. The nitrogen treatments had a distinct influence on the silicon concentration, which decreased from 2.5% to 1.......5% of the straw dry matter when the nitrogen supply increased from 48 to 192kgha-1. No further decline in Si occurred at higher rates of nitrogen application. The most abundant metals in the straw were potassium and calcium and their concentrations almost doubled over the range of nitrogen supplies. The enzymatic...

  2. Polarisation effects in fibre lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, J.T.; Morkel, P.R.; Reekie, L.; Payne, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    Two orthogonal polarisation eigenmodes have been observed in a single-mode fibre laser. Experimental investigation shows good agreement with theoretical analysis. Both Nd3+ and Er3+-doped single-polarisation single-mode fibre lasers have been demonstrated

  3. Modelling of photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    , as well as a honeycomb bandgap fibre and the first analysis of semi-periodic layered air-hole fibres. Using the modelling framework established as a basis, we provide an analysis of microbend loss, by regarding displacement of a fibre core as a stationary stochastic process, inducing mismatch between......In the presenta ph.d. work a theoretical study of aspects of modelling photonic crystal fibres was carried out. Photonic crystal fibres form a class of optical waveguides where guidance is no longer provided by a difference in refractive index between core and cladding. Instead, guidance...... is provided by an arrangement of air-holes running along the length of the fibre. Depending on the geometry of the fibre, the guiding mechanism may be either arising from the formation of a photonic bandgap in the cladding structure (photonic bandgap fibre), or by an effect resembling total internal...

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  5. Mineral fibres and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l -1 , which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

  6. Concrete workability and fibre content

    OpenAIRE

    Vikan, Hedda

    2007-01-01

    Research report Parameters influencing the workability of fibre concrete and maximum fibre content are given in this state of the art report along with the range of fibre types available on today’s market. The study reveales that new placing techniques and production methods are crucial in order to increase fibre content and concrete strength. Achieving the same mechanical properties as traditionally reinforced concrete will probably also demand changes of the matrix. Finally, reco...

  7. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw).

  8. Dust-Firing of Straw and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the ash chemistry and deposition behavior during straw dust-firing were studied by performing experiments in an entrained flow reactor. The effect of using spent bleaching earth (SBE) as an additive in straw combustion was also investigated by comparing with kaolinite. During...... dust-firing of straw, the large (>∼2.5 μm) fly ash particles generated were primarily molten or partially molten spherical particles rich in K, Si, and Ca, supplemented by Si-rich flake-shaped particles. The smaller fly ash particles (...

  9. Carnauba straw incorporated into the soil for fertilization carrot in organic cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micharlyson Carlos Morais

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrot is one of the most produced vegetables in Brazil and, with the growing demand for organic vegetables, it is necessary to develop production technologies that are less dependent on external inputs and more accessible to family agriculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition to soil of carnauba straw as fertilizer, incorporated under different pre-planting periods, for the organic cultivation of the carrot. The experiment was carried out in the Experimental Horta of the Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Ipanguaçu, using the experimental design in randomized blocks with three replicates and five treatments referring to the times of 15; 30; 45 and 60 days for the incorporation of carnauba straw, in the amount of 14 t ha-1, prior to planting the carrot, and a control treatment without addition of straw to the soil. The evaluated characteristics was dry mass of the aerial part, the length and root diameter, and productivity. There was an effect of the incorporation time of the carnauba straw on the length and productivity, being the highest values observed when the straw was incorporated between 15 and 30 days before sowing.

  10. Effects of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw additions on selected properties of petroleum-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaham, Mac A; Stewart, Arthur J; Alarcón, Clara; McMillen, Sara J

    2002-08-01

    Current bioremediation techniques for petroleum-contaminated soils are designed to remove contaminants as quickly and efficiently as possible, but not necessarily with postremediation soil biological quality as a primary objective. To test a simple postbioremediation technique, we added earthworms (Eisenia fetida) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw to petroleum land-farm soil and measured biological quality of the soil as responses in plant growth, soil respiration, and oil and grease (O&G) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. Results indicated that plant growth was greater in earthworm-treated land-farm soil. Furthermore, addition of wheat straw resulted in greater total respiration in all soils tested (land-farm soil, noncontaminated reference soil, and a 1:1 mixture of land-farm and reference soils). We observed a 30% increase in soil respiration in straw-amended oily soil, whereas respiration increased by 246% in straw-amended reference soil. Much of the difference between oily and reference soils was attributable to higher basal respiration rates of nonamended oily soil compared to nonamended reference soil. Addition of earthworms resulted in greater total respiration of all soil and straw treatments except two (the land-farm and the 1:1 mixture soil treatments without straw). Straw and earthworm treatments did not affect O&G or TPH concentrations. Nevertheless, our findings that earthworm additions improved plant growth and that straw additions enhanced microbial activity in land-farm soil suggest that these treatments may be compatible with plant-based remediation techniques currently under evaluation in field trials, and could reduce the time required to restore soil ecosystem function.

  11. Single-mode optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, G

    1991-01-01

    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  12. Biodegradable composites based on L-polylactide and jute fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Løgstrup Andersen, T.; Batsberg Pedersen, W.

    2003-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers can potentially be combined with plant fibres to produce biodegradable composite materials. In our research, a commercial L-polylactide was converted to film and then used in combination with jute fibre mats to generate composites by a film stacking technique. Composite...... in the 180-220 degreesC range were significantly higher than those of polylactide alone. Composite samples failed in a brittle fashion under tensile load and showed little sign of fibre pull-out. Examination of composite fracture surfaces using electron microscopy showed voids occurring between the jute...

  13. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  14. Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

    2002-05-01

    Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw.

  15. Pre-study - Straw ash in a nutrient loop; Foerstudie - Halmaska i ett kretslopp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter; Bjurstroem, Henrik; Johansson, Christina; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Mattsson, Jan Erik

    2009-03-15

    A sustainable production of energy crops requires that the loss of mineral nutrients when removing biomass is compensated naturally or by an addition of plant nutrients. Recycling ash is a natural way to satisfy this need arising after combustion of energy crops. In this pre-study, the prerequisites for recycling straw ash have been investigated. The Danish experience with spreading ash to fields and information in literature on the composition of ash have been collected and presented. Analysis of straw samples taken from four different places in Scania yielded information on cadmium and nutrient concentration in straw and in ash. A balance between removal of nutrient and cadmium with wheat straw and restoring them by recycling straw ash has been computed. Straw ash is a potassium fertiliser with some phosphorus and some liming effect. It is technically difficult to spread the small quantities of ash in solid form, ca 250 kg per hectare and year in average, which a pure recycling would require. It is easier to spread larger quantities, e.g. ca 1 ton per hectare every fourth year, which corresponds to spreading once in a four year crop rotation, but then one provides too much potassium if one considers the actual needs of the coming crops at that occasion, which could lead to potassium being leached out on light soils. Alternatively, one could spread only bottom ash, but this would lead to half of the potassium content not being recycled to agricultural soil and lost with the fly ash that is disposed of. If one spreads about 500 kg bottom ash per hectare every other year, which could be a suitable strategy to avoid overloading soils with potassium, the dose brought to 1 ha may be computed as: 4 - 10 kg phosphorus, 50 - 100 kg potassium, 5 - 15 kg sulphur, 4 - 8 kg magnesium, 0.1 - 0.3 kg manganese and 20 - 40 kg CaO. These basis of these calculations is the results from the analyses performed in this study. The cadmium concentration was significantly higher in wheat

  16. HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a hollow fibre membrane having a supporting layer and a separating layer, said process comprising: (a)extruding a spinning composition comprising a first polymer and a solvent for the first polymer through an inner annular orifice of a

  17. HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a hollow fibre membrane having a supporting layer and a separating layer, said process comprising: (a) extruding a spinning composition comprising a first polymer and a solvent for the first polymer through an inner annular orifice of a

  18. Influence of pesticides contamination on the emission of PCDD/PCDF to the land from open burning of corn straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tingting; Huang Jun; Deng Shubo; Yu Gang

    2011-01-01

    Open burning of crop residues has been identified as an important emission source of PCDD/PCDF to the environment. This paper presents the first known data on the emission of PCDD/PCDF to the land considering the influence of pesticides applied in crops planting. Emission factor for PCDD/PCDF to the land from open burning of corn straw with pesticides contamination ranged from 0.07 to 0.57 ng WHO 2005 -TEQ/kg straw burned with a mean value of 0.24 ng WHO 2005 -TEQ/kg straw burned and median value of 0.20 ng WHO 2005 -TEQ/kg straw burned, respectively. The concentration was 35 to 270 times higher than that without additional pesticide contaminated. Initial observation was that emission factor for PCDD/PCDF from open burning of crop residues was overestimated in the former UNEP Dioxin Toolkit. Pesticides contamination should be considered in some hotpots where special and over dosed pesticides has been sprayed especially in developing countries. - Highlights: → Pesticides applied on the corn straws would influence the emission of PCDD/PCDF in the open burning process of the straws. → Contaminated straw released 35 to 270 times higher PCDD/PCDF than that without. → Pesticides contamination should be included in hotpots about PCDD/PCDF emission. - Influence of pesticides contamination on the emission of PCDD/PCDF from open burning of crop residues is of great importance for the Dioxin Toolkit update.

  19. Deposition and high temperature corrosion in a 10 MW straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Hanne Philbert; Frandsen, Flemming; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Deposition and corrosion measurements were conducted at a 10 MW wheat straw fired stoker boiler used for combined power and heat production. The plant experiences major problems with deposits on the heat transfer surfaces, and test probes have shown enhanced corrosion due to selective corrosion...... for metal temperatures above 520 C. Deposition measurements carried out at a position equal to the secondary superheater showed deposits rich in potassium and chlorine and to a lesser extent in silicon, calcium, and sulfur. Potassium and chlorine make up 40-80 wt% of the deposits. Mechanisms of deposit...

  20. Fermentative production of butyric acid from wheat straw: Economic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, G. N.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Westermann, P.

    2017-01-01

    2014) at 3.50 and 3.95 $ per kg product (for S1 and S2 respectively) and a plant capacity of 10,000 tonnes indicated an internal rate of return of 14.92% and 12.42% and payback time of 4.28 and 4.70 years for S1 and S2 respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that under the assumptions of the present......The economic feasibility of biochemical conversion of wheat straw to butyric acid was studied in this work. Basic process steps included physicochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and saccharification, fermentation with in-situ acids separation by electrodialysis and product purification...

  1. Fruiting branch K+ level affects cotton fibre elongation through osmoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashuo eYang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fibre length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fibre elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fibre length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1 on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibres were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax is the parameter that best reflects the change in fibre elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analysed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fibre length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibres, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fibre length in late season bolls.

  2. Changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after an application of straw and elemental sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after the application of straw and elemental sulphur (ES were explored in a 2-year vegetation pot experiment. The following variants were included in the experiment: 1 unfertilised control; 2 wheat straw; 3 rape straw; 4 ES; 5 wheat straw + ES; 6 rape straw + ES. The two types of straw were applied in a dose of 32 g of dry matter and elemental sulphur was applied in a dose of 0.42 g per pot, i.e. 6 kg of soil. The unsatisfactory C:N ratio in the straw was optimised to 25:1 by adding nitrogen in urea. Soil samples were taken prior to sowing of the model plant (spring wheat in 2005 and white mustard in 2006 and then in regular monthly intervals until harvesting (5 times a year. The content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil was evaluated by multifactorial analysis of variance monitoring the effect of the crop, date of soil sampling, application of straw and elemental sulphur.The contents of water-soluble sulphur differed statistically significantly (P > 0.999 when growing the individual model plants. When growing white mustard in 2006 the amount of available sulphur was by 1/5 higher and could have been partly affected by the warm year 2006, as compared to 2005 when spring wheat was grown. Significant differences (P > 0.999 were also discovered among the dates of soil sampling; higher values were detected before the sowing of model plants, i.e. after incubation in the winter, during vegetation the content of water-soluble sulphur decreased and sulphur showed the significantly highest values at the harvest of model plants. When wheat straw was applied the sulphur content did not increase and this may be associated with the wide C:S ratio, whereas after the application of rape straw the content of water-soluble sulphur increased by one third more than in the unfertilised control. The application of elemental sulphur also significantly increased the amount of water-soluble sulphur in

  3. Utilization of straw for Bihudung production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietjen, C

    1955-01-01

    Surplus straw unwanted for farmyard-manure preparation is best utilized for the production of manure gas. In the German Bihugas process, anaerobic fermentation of wheat straw, alone or mixed with beet leaves, at 31/sup 0/ for 22 to 36 days produces about 15 cu m gas of 44 to 46% CO/sub 2/ content/100 kg material. The decomposition product supplies an organic manure of favorable C/N ratio, generally <20 : 1.

  4. The Effect of zeolite addition on viability of paddy straw mushroom spawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUMHAWAN RATMAN PERMANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to increase the viability of the paddy straw mushroom spawn by adding natural stone on the media’s composition for the paddy straw mushroom spawn. Mycelium of the paddy straw mushroom was take from the pure development of the paddy straw mushroom which was planted on the various treatment for media e.i. 100% cotton media and rice bran + 0% zeolite (A, 75% cotton media and rice bran + 25% zeolite (B, 50% cotton media and rice bran + 50% zeolite (C, 25% cotton and rice bran + 75% zeolite (D, 0% cotton media and rice bran + 100% rice bran (E. Each treatment was observed for the length of mycelium, the concentration of reduced sugar, total carbon and water content, spawn media weight, pH and temperature. Results demonstrated that there is a positive effect of zeolite added to the paddy straw mushroom media. The zeolite able to adsorbed nutrient through its pores, so the mycelium of the paddy straw mushroom able to use the nutrient gradually and equally appropriate with its growth. Therefore the viability of the paddy straw mushroom is increase. Result showed that the B is the best viability in the Potetos Dectrose Agar (PDA media, that has viability power up to 50 days after inoculation and the temperature are 29,6 0C, then followed by treatment C, D, A and E, each has viability power up to 42; 38; 34; 22 days after inoculation and the maximum length of each mycelium are 17.5; 9.2; 0.9; 0.5 cm, but in the treatment D being contaminated by Aspergillus sp.

  5. Developments for the TOF Straw Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucar, A.

    2006-07-01

    COSY-TOF is a very large acceptance spectrometer for charged particles using precise information on track geometry and time of flight of reaction products. It is an external detector system at the Cooler Synchrotron and storage ring COSY in Juelich. In order to improve the performance of the COSY-TOF, a new tracking detector ''Straw Tracker'' is being constructed which combines very low mass, operation in vacuum, very good resolution, high sampling density and very high acceptance. A comparison of pp{yields}d{pi}{sup +} data and a simulation using the straw tracker with geometry alone indicates big improvements with the new tracker. In order to investigate the straw tracker properties a small tracking hodoscope ''cosmic ray test facility'' was constructed in advance. It is made of two crossed hodoscopes consisting of 128 straw tubes arranged in 4 double planes. For the first time Juelich straws have been used for 3 dimensional reconstruction of cosmic ray tracks. In this illuminating field the space dependent response of scintillators and a straw tube were studied. (orig.)

  6. Developments for the TOF Straw Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucar, A.

    2006-01-01

    COSY-TOF is a very large acceptance spectrometer for charged particles using precise information on track geometry and time of flight of reaction products. It is an external detector system at the Cooler Synchrotron and storage ring COSY in Juelich. In order to improve the performance of the COSY-TOF, a new tracking detector ''Straw Tracker'' is being constructed which combines very low mass, operation in vacuum, very good resolution, high sampling density and very high acceptance. A comparison of pp→dπ + data and a simulation using the straw tracker with geometry alone indicates big improvements with the new tracker. In order to investigate the straw tracker properties a small tracking hodoscope ''cosmic ray test facility'' was constructed in advance. It is made of two crossed hodoscopes consisting of 128 straw tubes arranged in 4 double planes. For the first time Juelich straws have been used for 3 dimensional reconstruction of cosmic ray tracks. In this illuminating field the space dependent response of scintillators and a straw tube were studied. (orig.)

  7. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  8. Tribological performance of paddy straw reinforced polypropylene (PSRP and unidirectional glass-pultruded-kenaf (UGPK composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Nasir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In standard preparation and fabrication of natural-fibre embedded composites, 5 wt. % of natural fibre is enough to strengthen and homogenized in parental matrix as the mechanical strength was observed to increase by more than 25% of pure matrix. Hence, paddy straw and kenaf has been a potential candidate in northern region of Malaysia due to its abundance and easily replenished. A unidirectional glass-pultruded-kenaf (UGPK and paddy straws reinforced polypropylene (PSRP was studied focusing on its tribological performance. Meanwhile, friction and wear properties were examined using pin-on-disc machine under ambient temperature with dry contact condition. The tests were conducted at various sliding velocities (1.178-2.749m/s and applied normal loads (9.82-19.64N. The results showed that specific wear rate and friction coefficient decreased with increasing applied normal load and sliding velocity, but the applied normal load was more influential. The coefficient of friction ranges from 0.5 to 4 and wear rate varies from 0.5 to 4 x 10-5 mm3/Nm for PSRP. The friction coefficient of UGPK is within a range of 2.76 to 4.54 at the given test parameters while its wear rate ranging from 0.8 to 1.79 x 10-5mm3/Nm. The failure mode observed during the test was micro-buckling and followed by splitting while fiber-matrix interfacial failure occurred.

  9. Incorporation of treated straw and wood fly ash into clay building brick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    High Cd content in straw and wood fly ash, generated from biomass-fired power plants, prohibits its recycling as fertilizer spreading on the landfilled. To improve and alter the current mainstream of fly ash treatment by landfilling, different approaches were tried for treatment of straw and wood...... fly ash, such as washing with water to quickly recover the highly soluble salts (mainly K and Cl), and treatment of the washed fly ash with elevated heavy metal content resulted from washing by electrodialytic remediation (EDR). The finding that SiO2 (quartz) accounted for a significant portion...

  10. Biological upgrading of wheat straw through solid-state fermentation with Streptomyces cyaneus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrocal, M.; Hernandez, M.; Perez-Leblie, M.I.; Arias, M.E. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia; Ball, A.S. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Huerta, S. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Biotecnologia; Barrasa, J.M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Biologia Vegetal

    2000-07-01

    The biological upgrading of wheat straw with Streptomyces cyaneus was examined through the analysis of chemical and structural changes of the transformed substrate during solid-state fermentation. Analysis of enzymes produced during the growth of S. cyaneus showed that phenol oxidase was the predominant enzyme. The reduction in Klason lignin content (16.4%) in the transformed substrate indicated the ability of this strain to delignify lignocellulose residues and suggests a role for phenol oxidase in the bacterial delignification process. Microscopic examination of the transformed substrate showed that the initial attack occurred at the less lignified cell walls (phloem and parenchyma), while xylem and sclerenchyma were slowly degraded. The pattern of degradation of sclerenchymatic tissues by S. cyaneus showed delamination between primary and secondary walls and between S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} due to partial removal of lignin. In the later stages of the decay a disorganization of the secondary walls was detected on account of fibrillation of this layer. A comparison of the properties of the pulp from wheat straw transformed by S. cyaneus with untreated wheat straw showed that pretreatment improved the characteristics that determine the quality of pulp. This was indicated by an increase in pulp brightness and by a decrease in the kappa number. These changes occurred without significantly affecting the viscosity, a measure of the quality of the cellulose fibres. These results support the potential application of this organism or its oxidative enzymes in biopulping. (orig.)

  11. Fibre and polyphenols of selected fruits, nuts and green leafy vegetables used in Serbian diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodevska Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are known as good sources of numerous bioactive compounds among which polyphenols and dietary fibre are considered essential because of their protective health effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the quality of selected plant foods of our region regarding amount of total phenols, fibres and ratio of certain fractions of fibre. Fifteen samples of plant foods (green leafy vegetables, fruits and nuts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total, soluble and insoluble fibre and fractions of fibre: beta-glucans, arabinoxylan, cellulose and resistant starch. Generally nuts were the richest sources of fibre and total phenols. However, when serving size was taken into consideration, it appeared that raspberry and blackberry were the richest in total, soluble fibre and cellulose. At the same time, almonds and hazelnuts were particulary rich in insoluble fibre, while walnuts had the highest polyphenol content. Analyzed plant foods were poor sources of arabinoxylan and beta-glucan. Data on resistant starch presence in cashew nut is the first confirmation that resistant starch can be found in significant amount in some nuts. The results give rare insight into the quality of selected plant foods regarding dietary fibre and polyphenols from the nutritive point of view. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46001

  12. Co-digestion of ley crop silage, straw and manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aa; Edstroem, M [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of ley crop silage, wheat straw and liquid manure with liquid recirculation was investigated in laboratory- and pilot scale. An organic loading rate of 6.0 g Vs L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when 20% of liquid manure (TS-basis) was added, whereas an organic loading rate of 2.5 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when the manure was replaced with a trace element solution. The methane yield varied between 0.28 and 0.32 L g VS{sup -1}, with the value being lowest for a mixture containing 60% silage, 20% straw and 20% manure (TS-basis), and highest for 100% ley crop silage. The concentration of ammonia-N was maintained at ca 2 g L{sup -1} by adjusting the C:N-ratio with straw. To achieve good mixing characteristics with a reasonable energy input at TS-concentrations around 10%, the particle sizes of straw and silage had to be reduced with a meat mincer. The digester effluent was dewatered, resulting in a solid phase that could be composted without having to add amendments or bulking agents, and a liquid phase containing 7-8% TS (mainly soluble and suspended solids). The liquid phase, which should be used as an organic fertilizer, contained up to 90% of the N and 74% of the P present in the residues. Calculations of the costs for a full-scale plant showed that a biogas price of SEK 0.125 MJ{sup -1} (0.45 k Wh{sup -1}) is necessary to balance the costs of a 1-MW plant. An increase in plant size to 4 MW together with an increase in compost price from SEK 100 tonnes{sup -1} to SEK 370 tonnes{sup -1} and a 20% rise in the methane yield through post-digestion (20%) would decrease the price to SEK 0.061 MJ{sup -1} (0.22 kWh{sup -1}). (au) 15 refs.

  13. Mechanical reliability assessment of optical fibres in Radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Uffelen, M.

    2006-01-01

    After more than two decades of intensive research and even some pioneering applications in space, optical fibres are now finding their way in various radiation environments, including both fission and future fusion nuclear-power plants, and high-energy physics experiments. For example, next to distributed monitoring applications of large nuclear infrastructures, fibre-optics can also be used for data communications during maintenance operations in the reactor vessel of the future ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), or for plasma diagnostics applications during operation of the reactor. These maintenance and diagnostics tasks require the optical fibres to withstand extremely high doses of radiation, up to MGy dose levels and temperatures above 150 degrees Celsius. The reliability assessment of fibre-optic systems for their qualification in nuclear environments often requires to meet stringent radiation tolerance levels. The majority of (usually accelerated) radiation assessments have so far focused on optical properties, such as wavelength-dependent radiation induced attenuation and radio-luminescence. The relation of these radiation effects with the fabrication methods and other environmental parameters has been the subject of years of research. Only a few results are available on the long-term evolution of mechanical properties of irradiated optical fibres. As a first step towards understanding the long-term reliability of fibre-optic composite cables in hostile radiation environments, we therefore performed dynamic fatigue tests with different commercial-grade optical fibres, both multi-mode and single-mode types

  14. Process optimization for the preparation of straw feedstuff for rearing yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) in BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Liu, lh64. Hong

    2012-07-01

    It has been confirmed in our previous work that in bioregenerative life support systems, feeding yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) using fermented straw has the potential to provide good animal protein for astronauts, meanwhile treating with plant wastes. However, since the nitrogen content in straw is very low, T. molitor larvae can not obtain sufficient nitrogen, which results in a relatively low growth efficiency. In this study, wheat straw powder was mixed with simulated human urine before fermentation. Condition parameters, e.g. urine:straw ratio, moisture content, inoculation dose, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and pH were optimized using Taguchi method. Larval growth rate and average individual mass of mature larva increased significantly in the group of T. molitor larvae fed with feedstuff prepared with the optimized process.

  15. Pelletizing of rice straws: A potential solid fuel from agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puad, E.; Wan Asma, I; Shaharuddin, H.; Mahanim, S.; Rafidah, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Rice straw is the dry stalks of rice plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. More than 1 million tonnes of rice straw are produced in MADA in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia annually. Burning in the open air is the common technique of disposal that contribute to air pollution. In this paper, a technique to convert these residues into solid fuel through pelletizing is presented. The pellets are manufactured from rice straw and sawdust in a disc pelletizer. The pellet properties are quite good with good resistance to mechanical disintegration. The pellets have densities between 1000 and 1200 kg/ m 3 . Overall, converting rice straw into pellets has increased its energy and reduced moisture content to a minimum of 8 % and 30 % respectively. The gross calorific value is about 15.6 MJ/ kg which is lower to sawdust pellet. The garnering of knowledge in the pelletization process provides a path to increase the use of this resource. Rice straw pellets can become an important renewable energy source in the future. (author)

  16. Production and uses of 14C-labelled rice straw in organic matter decomposition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capistrano, R.F.; Neue, H.N.U.

    1987-01-01

    A new systematic procedure in labeling rice homogenously with 14 CO 2 to maturity is described. It uses a modified plant growth chamber equipped with provisions for the growth requirements of rice as well as, the decontamination and safety aspects of labeling process. Uses of 14 C-labeled rice straw are described. Sample preparation using a new wet combustion set-up a high vacuum preparation line, concomitant with instruments as liquid scintillation counter, vibrating reed electrometer and radiogaschromatograph is also discussed. The turnover and behavior of 14 C-labeled rice straw in organic matter decomposition experiments on wetland soils, upland soils, greenhouse set-up and controlled laboratory conditions are concurrent researches that make use of the produced 14 C-labeled straw. Initial results are discussed. (Auth.) 16 refs.; 14 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well......-plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark....... Following hydrothermal pretreatment (180 °C for 17.6 min) and co-hydrolysis, sugar release and sugar conversion were measured. Up to 26% difference in sugar release between cultivars was observed. Sugar release showed negative cultivar correlation with lignin and ash content, whereas sugar release showed...

  18. The effect of Co-firing with Straw and Coal on High Temperature Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, OH

    2001-01-01

    As a part of ELSAMS development programme into alternative energy sources, various concepts of straw-firing have been investigated. This paper concerns co-firing of straw with coal to reduce the corrosion rate observed in straw-fired power plants. Co-firing with coal reduces the amount of potassium......: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, and b) the exposure of a range of materials built into the existing superheaters. A range of austenitic and ferritic steels was exposed in the steam temperature region of 520-580°C. The flue gas temperature ranged from 925-1100°C....... The corrosion products for the various steel types were investigated using light optical and scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion mechanisms for the austenitic and ferritic steels are presented. These are discussed in relation to temperature and deposit composition. Co-firing with coal has removed potassium...

  19. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... rapeseed biodiesel plant of Europe to an oilseed rape whole-crop biorefinery by 2020 is envisioned and discussed. The description and discussion of this biorefinery is based partly on literature review, and partly on own experimental data, especially on pretreatment of rape straw, and production...

  20. Evaluation of the thermal and structural performance of straw bale construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, Kyle R.

    This thesis is primarily divided into two distinct experimental programs evaluating: 1) the thermal performance and, 2) the structural performance of straw bale construction. The thermal performance chapter describes hot-box testing (based on ASTM C1363-11) of seven straw bale wall panels to obtain their apparent thermal conductivity values. All panels were constructed with stacked bales and cement-lime plaster skins on each side of the bales. Four panels were made with traditional, 2-string field bales of densities ranging from 89.5 kg/m3 - 131 kg/m3 and with the bales on-edge (fibres perpendicular to the heat flow). Three panels were made with manufactured high-density bales (291 kg/m3 - 372 kg/m3). The fibres of the manufactured bales were randomly oriented. The key conclusion of this work is that within the experimental error, there is no difference in the apparent thermal conductivity value for panels using normal density bales and manufactured high-density bales up to a density of 333 kg/m3. The structural performance chapter describes gravity and transverse load testing (based on ASTM E72-15) of non-plastered modular straw bale wall (DBW) panels to evaluate their strength capacity and failure modes. The out-of-plane flexural (OPF) tests exhibited a mean ultimate bending moment of 49.7 kNm. The axial compression (AC) tests exhibited a mean ultimate line load of 161.0 kN/m. The local flexural header beam (HP) tests exhibited an ultimate line load of 31.6 kN/m. The OPF and AC capacities of the DBW exceeded the capacities exhibited by a conventional 38 mm x 140 mm stud wall. However, the DBW's header beam strength and stiffness was inferior to conventional stud wall.

  1. Optical Fibre Bundle

    CERN Multimedia

    These are sample fibre optic cables which are used for networking. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than wire cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. This is useful for somewhere like CERN where magnets with their highly powerful magnetic fields could pose a problem.

  2. Natural fibres actuators for smart bio-inspired hygromorph biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duigou, Antoine; Requile, Samuel; Beaugrand, Johnny; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Castro, Mickael

    2017-12-01

    Hygromorph biocomposite (HBC) actuators make use of the transport properties of plant fibres to generate an out-of-plane displacement when a moisture gradient is present. HBC actuators possess a design based on the bilayer configuration of natural hygromorph actuators (like pine cone, wheat awn, Selaginella lepidophyll). In this work we present a series of design guidelines for HBCs with improved performance, low environmental footprints and high durability in severe environments. We develop a theoretical actuating response (curvature) formulation of maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP)/plant fibres based on bimetallic actuators theory. The actuation response is evaluated as a function of the fibre type (flax, jute, kenaf and coir). We demonstrate that the actuation is directly related to the fibre microstructure and its biochemical composition. The jute and flax fibres appear to be the best candidates for use in HBCs. Flax/MAPP and jute/MAPP HBCs exhibit similar actuating behaviours during the sorption phase (amplitude and speed), but different desorption characteristics due to the combined effect of the lumen size, fibre division and biochemical composition on the desorption mechanism. During hygromechanical fatigue tests the jute/MAPP HBCs exhibit a drastic improvement in durability compared to their flax counterparts. We also provide a demonstration on how HBCs can be used to trigger deployment of more complex structures based on Origami and Kirigami designs.

  3. FIBER OPTICS: Fibre optics: Forty years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed.

  4. Logistics Mode and Network Planning for Recycle of Crop Straw Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lingyun; Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    To realize the straw biomass industrialized development, it should speed up building crop straw resource recycle logistics network, increasing straw recycle efficiency, and reducing straw utilization cost. On the basis of studying straw recycle process, this paper presents innovative concept and property of straw recycle logistics network, analyses design thinking of straw recycle logistics network, and works out straw recycle logistics mode and network topological structure. Finally, it come...

  5. Effect of cotton leaf-curl virus on the yield-components and fibre properties of cotton genotypes under varying plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Hayat, K.; Ashraf, F.; Sadiq, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cotton leaf-curl virus (CLCu VB. Wala strain) is one of the major biotic constraints of cotton production in Punjab. Development of resistant cotton genotype is the most feasible, economical and effective method to combat this hazardous problem, but so far no resistant genotype has been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare yield and yield-components and fiber traits of different genotypes/varieties under different plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer as a management strategy to cope with this viral disease. Field experiment was conducted during 2006-07 to evaluate the effect of genotype, plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on cotton. Five genotypes (MNH-786, MNH-789, MNH- 6070, CIM- 496, and BH-160), three plant-spacings (15, 30 and 45 cm) and three nitrogen fertilizer-levels (6.5, 8.6 and 11 bags Urea / ha) were studied. Results showed that significant differences exist for plant height, no. of bolls/m/sup -2/, seed-cotton yield (kg/ha) due to genotype, interaction of genotype with plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer level. Whereas boll weight, ginning out-turn, staple length and fiber fineness were not affected significantly by the plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer, the effect due to genotype was significant for these traits. CLCuV infestation varied significantly with genotypes, while all other factors, i.e., plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizers, have non-significant effect. As the major objective of cotton cultivation is production of lint for the country and seed- cotton yield for the farmers, it is noted that genotypes grown in narrow plant-spacing (15 cm) and higher nitrogen fertilizer level (11.0 bags of urea/ha) produced maximum seed-cotton yield under higher CLCu V infestation in case of CIM-496, MNH-789 and BH-I60, while the new strain MNH-6070 gave maximum yield under 30cm plant-spacing and 8.6 bags of urea/ha has the 2.3% CLCu V infestation was observed in this variety. From the present study, it is concluded that

  6. Analysis of glass fibre sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl

    2014-01-01

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer composites are widely used for industrial and engineering applications which include construction, aerospace, automotive and wind energy industry. During the manufacturing glass fibres, they are surface-treated with an aqueous solution. This process and the treated...... surfaces are called sizing. The sizing influences the properties of the interface between fibres and a matrix, and subsequently affects mechanical properties of composites. In this work the sizing of commercially available glass fibres was analysed so as to study the composition and chemical structures....... Soxhlet extraction was used to extract components of the sizing from the glass fibres. The glass fibres, their extracts and coated glass plates were analysed by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis combined with a mass spectrometer (TGA-MS), and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR...

  7. Sputter etching of polymer fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Hill, A.E.; Nobes, M.J.; Jeffries, R.; Simmens, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Fibres of polyamide, polyester and an aromatic polyamide (Kevlar) have been subjected to Ar + ion bombardment erosion in an ion accelerator or an rf discharge system. In the case of the former two polymers, cones are observed to develop upon the fibre surface and these are associated with etch protection resulting from the presence of particles of titanium dioxide pigment. This effect is absent in the third, unpigmented, fibre. In all cases ripple structures with a habit transverse to the fibre axes and of wavelength of approximately 1000 Angstrom are gradually developed during ion bombardment. It is suggested that this morphology results from an underlying periodicity of the fibre structure either inherent in the fibre structure or induced by the irradiation. (author)

  8. Advanced Fibre Based Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel Oliver

    New energy storage devices are required to enable future technologies. With the rise of wearable consumer and medical devices, a suitable flexible and wearable means of storing electrical energy is required. Fibre-based devices present a possible method of achieving this aim. Fibres are inherently more flexible than their bulk counterparts, and as such can be employed to form the electrodes of flexible batteries and capacitors. They also present a facile possibility for incorporation into many fabrics and clothes, further boosting their potential for use in wearable devices. Electrically conducting fibres were produced from a dispersion of carbon nanomaterials in a room temperature ionic liquid. Coagulation of this dispersion was achieved through manual injection into aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. The limitations of this method are highlighted by very low ultimate tensile strengths of these fibres, in the order of 3 MPa, with high variation within all of the fibres. Fibres were also produced via scrolling of bi-component films containing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Chemical treatments were employed to impart water compatibility to these fibres, and their electrochemical, physical and electrical properties were analysed. Fibres were wet spun from two PEDOT:PSS sources, in several fibre diameters. The effect of chemical treatments on the fibres were investigated and compared. Short 5 min treatment times with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on 20 mum fibres produced from Clevios PH1000 were found to produce the best overall treatment. Up to a six-fold increase in electrical conductivity resulted, reaching 800 S cm-1, with up to 40 % increase in specific capacitance and no loss of mechanical strength (55 F g-1 and 150 MPa recorded). A wet spinning system to produce PEDOT:PSS fibres containing functionalised graphenes and carbon nanotubes, as well as birnessite nanotubes was subsequently developed

  9. Rice straw incorporated just before soil flooding increases acetic acid formation and decreases available nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldir Knoblauch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of rice straw into the soil just before flooding for water-seeded rice can immobilize mineral nitrogen (N and lead to the production of acetic acid harmful to the rice seedlings, which negatively affects grain yield. This study aimed to evaluate the formation of organic acids and variation in pH and to quantify the mineral N concentration in the soil as a function of different times of incorporation of rice straw or of ashes from burning the straw before flooding. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using an Inceptisol (Typic Haplaquept soil. The treatments were as follows: control (no straw or ash; incorporation of ashes from previous straw burning; rice straw incorporated to drained soil 60 days before flooding; straw incorporated 30 days before flooding; straw incorporated 15 days before flooding and straw incorporated on the day of flooding. Experimental units were plastic buckets with 6.0 kg of soil. The buckets remained flooded throughout the trial period without rice plants. Soil samples were collected every seven days, beginning one day before flooding until the 13th week of flooding for determination of mineral N- ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3-. Soil solution pH and concentration of organic acids (acetic, propionic and butyric were determined. All NO3- there was before flooding was lost in approximately two weeks of flooding, in all treatments. There was sigmoidal behavior for NH4+ formation in all treatments, i.e., ammonium ion concentration began to rise shortly after soil flooding, slightly decreased and then went up again. On the 91st day of flooding, the NH4+ concentrations in soil was 56 mg kg-1 in the control treatment, 72 mg kg-1 for the 60-day treatment, 73 mg kg-1 for the 30-day treatment and 53 mg kg-1 for the ash incorporation treatment. These ammonium concentrations correspond to 84, 108, 110 and 80 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. When the straw was incorporated on the day of flooding or 15 days

  10. Increased electricity production from straw by co-firing with woody biomass; Oekad elproduktion med halm genom sameldning med traedbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, Henry; Nordgren, Daniel; Bostroem, Dan; Oehman, Marcus; Padban, Nader

    2011-01-15

    ). In addition, the bottom ash hopper and ash conveying from the electrostatic precipitator may need to be modified to cope with when a high slagging propensity fuel such as is co-firing. For Swedish power plants owners interested in introducing straw in the fuel mix, it is recommended to start with lower straw co-firing than those presented in this project. Based on the characteristics of the bottom ash and deposits on air-cooled probes (550 oC) a co-firing ration of 15-25 wt-% straw is initially recommended

  11. Some characteristics of the long straw drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Ivanov, A.B.; Livinskij, V.V.; Lobastov, S.P.; Lysan, V.M.; Mishin, S.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.

    1998-01-01

    This article represents the construction and testing of the long straw drift tubes of different types. The diameter and the length of each straw were equal to 15 mm and 3 m respectively. The cathode resistance of these straws has a small value, i.e. about 100 Ohm/m. Thus, they do not have a large attenuation length. Installation of the spacers reduces the effective straw length by 0.5 % per meter, at least

  12. Straw insulated buildings. Nature building materials; Strohgedaemmte Gebaeude. Naturbaustoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Straw is one of the major agricultural by-products and is mainly used as litter in animal husbandry and to compensate the balance of humus. A relatively recent development is the use of straw bales for the construction of buildings. The brochure under consideration documents the technical development of straw construction in Germany. Possibilities of the use of straw in single family homes up to commercial buildings are described.

  13. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  14. Effect of gamma rays on fibre of sida rhombifolia Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dnyansagar, V.R.

    1975-01-01

    It was reported long back that the stem fibre of Sida rhombifolia might be advantageously employed for many purposes. A study was, therefore, undertaken to study the effect of gamma rays on plants of this species raised from irradiated seeds to assess its value with reference to its fibre and as a substitute for jute. The fibres were extracted from stems of Sida rhombifolia and their characters were compared with those obtained from the plants raised from seeds irradiated at different doses of gamma rays ranging from 5,000 R to 35,000 R. The physical tests such as length and diameter of ultimate cells, intrinsic strength, elongation percentage at break were applied while the chemical tests were based on the estimation of ash, cellulose, lignin, fat and wax contents of fibres. The results indicate that the fibres of plants raised from seeds irradiated at 20,000 R, are stronger than those of control. Their strength reaches the value of those of Corchorus species and their cellulose content is more than that in Corchorus. (author)

  15. An Uncoventional Approach for a Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  16. Design and performance of a straw tube drift chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S. H.; Wesson, D. K.; Cooke, J.; Goshaw, A. T.; Robertson, W. J.; Walker, W. D.

    1991-06-01

    The design and performance of the straw drift chambers used in E735 is reported. The chambers are constructed from 2.5 cm radius aluminized mylar straw tubes with wall thickness less than 0.2 mm. Also, presented are the results of tests with 2 mm radius straw tubes. The small tube has a direct detector application at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  17. Creep properties of discontinuous fibre composites with partly creeping fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilde-Soerensen, J.B.; Lilholt, H.

    1977-05-01

    In a previous report (RISO-M-1810) the creep properties of discontinuous fibre composites with non-creeping fibres were analyzed. In the present report this analysis is extended to include the case of discontinuous composites with partly creeping fibres. It is shown that the creep properties of the composite at a given strain rate, epsilonsub(c), depend on the creep properties of the matrix at a strain rate higher than epsilonsub(c), and on the creep properties of the fibres at epsilonsub(c). The composite creep law is presented in a form which permits a graphical determination of the composite creep curve. This can be constructed on the basis of the matrix and the fibre creep curves by vector operations in a log epsilon vs. log sigma diagram. The matrix contribution to the creep strength can be evaluated by a simple method. (author)

  18. Evaluation of an agricultural biogas plant at Hagavik; Utvaerdering av gaardsbaserad biogasanlaeggning paa Hagavik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edstroem, Mats; Nordberg, Aake; Ringmar, Anders

    2005-07-01

    Hagavik is an organic farm (municipality of Malmoe in Sweden) and the grown crops at the farm are sugar-beet, wheat, tritricale and ley crop (for green manure). The farmer has erected a new farm scale biogas plant with a digester volume of 500 m{sup 3}. The motives for building the plant were to produce biogas for cogeneration and digestate for supplying the farm with nutrients. Biogas substrates, harvested at the farm, are ley crop and sugar-beet tops and external substrates are solid manure from horses and organic waste from industrial bakery. Digestion of fibre-rich substrates as ley crop and straw-rich solid manure at farm scale plants is fairly untested in Sweden. The fibre has a rather big impact on the rheological properties of the substrate mixture and digester slurry and can cause problems with pumping and ineffective stirring. To achieve satisfactory function on the pumps and stirrers the fibre-rich substrates the rheological properties has to be improved. This can be done by 1) mixing the fibre-rich substrates with rather large quantities of liquids which can result in low dry mater content both in substrates an digester slurry 2) reduce the fibre size by mechanical disintegration. The Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering (JTI) has been in charge of the evaluation of the biogas plant. Evaluation of the start-up phase of the plant, regarding the technical and biological function, was accomplished in July-November 2003. During year 2004 focus has been on practical experience running the plant. The plant electricity demand has been measured. Based on those measurements the calculated electricity demand running the plant with a biogas production at 600 m{sup 3}/d (3,54 MWh/d) corresponds to ca 2-3% of the energy content of the biogas. The calculated heat demand corresponds to 15 % of the biogas. At cogeneration (with assumed electrical efficiency of 34% and thermal efficiency of 55%) the net-energy production is 919 MWh/year where 44

  19. One step conversion of wheat straw to sugars by simultaneous ball milling, mild acid, and fungus Penicillium simplicissimum treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Chen, Zhenhua; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Xuanming; Liao, Hongdong; Chen, Ding

    2012-05-01

    Wheat straw is one of the major lignocellulosic plant residues in many countries including China. An attractive alternative is the utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. This article mainly studies a simple one-step wet milling with Penicillium simplicissimum and weak acid to hydrolysis of wheat straw. The optimal condition for hydrolysis was ball milling 48 h in citrate solvent (pH = 4) with P. simplicissimum H5 at the speed of 500 rpm and the yield of sugar increased with increased milling time. Corresponding structure transformations before and after milling analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that this combined treatment could be attributed to the crystalline and chemical structure changes of cellulose in wheat straw during ball milling. This combined treatment of ball milling, mild acid, and fungus hydrolysis enabled the conversion of the wheat straw. Compared with traditional method of ball milling, this work showed a more simple, novel, and environmentally friendly way in mechanochemical treatment of wheat straw.

  20. Scintillating-fibre calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livan, M.; Vercesi, V.; Wigmans, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the past decade, calorimetry based on scintillating plastic fibres as active elements was developed from a conceptual idea to a mature detector technology, which is nowadays widely applied in particle physics experiments. This development and the performance characteristics of representative calorimeters, both for the detection of electromagnetic and hadronic showers, are reviewed. We also discuss new information on shower development processes in dense matter and its application to calorimetric principles that has emerged from some very thorough studies that were performed in the framework of this development. (orig.)

  1. Cellulose-hemicellulose networks as target for in planta modification of the properties of natural fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obembe, O.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vincken, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Plant cell wall polysaccharides are predominant components of fibres. Natural fibres have a wide range of industrial applications, such as in paper and textile industries. Furthermore, their demand for use as bio-composites in building and automotive applications is also increasing. For the various

  2. Optimization of mechanical properties of non-woven short sisal fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fibre-reinforced vinyl ester composite using factorial design and GA method ... fibre is extracted from the plant Agave sisalana and is avai- lable in abundant quantity ..... Sotton M and Ferrari M 1989 L'industrie Textile 1197 58. Woodhams R T ...

  3. The effects of growth conditions and of processing into yarn on dislocations in hemp fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2011-01-01

    at harvest in hemp fibres from plants grown in a green house under three different regimes (wind free, windy and dry) with the percentage found in commercial hemp yarn. As expected a higher percentage of the cell wall consisted of dislocations in the processed fibres, but the increase was only significant...

  4. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  5. Properties of hemp fibre polymer composites - An optimisation of fibre properties using novel defibration methods and fibre characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of hemp fibres was carried out with fibres obtained with low handling damage and defibration damage to get an indication of how strong cellulose based fibres that can be produced from hemp. Comparison was made with hemp yarn producedunder traditional conditions where damage...... obtained by steam explosion of hemp fibres prior defibrated with pectin degrading enzymes. The S2 layer in the fibre wall of the hemp fibres consisted of1-4 cellulose rich and lignin poor concentric layers constructed of ca. 100 nm thick lamellae. The microfibril angle showed values in the range 0......-10° for the main part of the S2-layer and 70-90° for the S1-layer. The microfibrils that are mainly parallelwith the fibre axis explain the high fibre stiffness, which in defibrated hemp fibres reached 94 GPa. The defibrated hemp fibres had higher fibre stiffness (88-94 GPa) than hemp yarn (60 GPa), which...

  6. Effect of Alkali treatments on physical and Mechanical strength of Pineapple leaf fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, M.; Jawaid, M.; Abdan, K.; Nasir, M.

    2018-01-01

    Pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) is a waste material of pineapple plants. PALF is abundant in amount for industrial purpose, cheap, easily available, high specific strength and stiffness. PALF is contributing a sustainable development in bio-composites as reinforcement material. However, natural fibres are not fully compatible with matrix due to hydrophilic in nature. To enhance the compatibility with matrix, fibres are modified its surface to make good interfacial bonding with matrix. In this research, PALF is treated with 3% and 6% concentration of NaOH for 3h, 6h 9h, and 12h soaking time. Surface modification of fibres was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. Single fibre test and diameter of PALF fibres were evaluated the effects of NaOH treatments.

  7. Fibre-optic temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jie; Liu Zhenyuan.

    1993-04-01

    This experiment is a kind of nonfunction fibre-optic temperature sensor. It utilizes high-sensitive bimetallic strip for element of measuring temperature. The changing of bimetallic strip alterates intensity of light through fibre-optic. This equipment is simple in structure, subtle in design, extensive in application, and so on. (author). 4 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  8. Current status of natural fibres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Selection Conference, 17-19 May 1999, Greenville, SC, USA. 16. Sankari, H.S. 2000. Comparison of bast fibre yield and mechanical fibre properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars. Industrial Crops and Products (11) 1: 73-84. 17. W...

  9. Design of DFB fibre lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Vibeke Claudia; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Varming, Poul

    1998-01-01

    A numerical model for erbium distributed feedback (DFB) fibre lasers is presented. The model is used to optimise the location of a discrete phase-shift to obtain maximum output power. For DFB fibre lasers of up to 10cm in length it is shown that the influence of Kerr nonlinearity with respect to ...... to output power is negligible....

  10. Dietary fibre as an important constituent of the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Maćkowiak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The intake of fibre in the diet of a child or an adult, through various foods (such as wholegrain foods, nuts, fruits and vegetables, plays an important role in reducing the risk and lowering the incidence of numerous diseases. The interest of researchers and consumers in the role of diet in the prevention or treatment of many illnesses, and maintaining the general and oral health, has been growing lately. The aim of our study was to underline the role of dietary fibre through its effects on many aspects of the human body and metabolism. Evidence has been found that dietary fibre from whole foods or supplements may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by improving serum lipids and reducing serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol concentrations in adults and children. Increased fibre content decreases the glycaemic index of foods, which leads to a significant improvement in glycaemic response. High fibre intake is associated with reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer. In contemporary children, the reluctance to chew raw, hard plant foods may result in a risk of malocclusion and a lack of tooth wear, which cause the need for orthodontic intervention. Fibre consumption is associated with high nutritional value and antioxidant status of the diet, enhancing the effects on human health.

  11. Dietary fibre as an important constituent of the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Maćkowiak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The intake of fibre in the diet of a child or an adult, through various foods (such as wholegrain foods, nuts, fruits and vegetables, plays an important role in reducing the risk and lowering the incidence of numerous diseases. The interest of researchers and consumers in the role of diet in the prevention or treatment of many illnesses, and maintaining the general and oral health, has been growing lately. The aim of our study was to underline the role of dietary fibre through its effects on many aspects of the human body and metabolism. Evidence has been found that dietary fibre from whole foods or supplements may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by improving serum lipids and reducing serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol concentrations in adults and children. Increased fibre content decreases the glycaemic index of foods, which leads to a significant improvement in glycaemic response. High fibre intake is associated with reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer. In contemporary children, the reluctance to chew raw, hard plant foods may result in a risk of malocclusion and a lack of tooth wear, which cause the need for orthodontic intervention. Fibre consumption is associated with high nutritional value and antioxidant status of the diet, enhancingthe effects on human health.

  12. Linkage and association mapping reveals the genetic basis of brown fibre (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tianwang; Wu, Mi; Shen, Chao; Gao, Bin; Zhu, De; Zhang, Xianlong; You, Chunyuan; Lin, Zhongxu

    2018-02-24

    Brown fibre cotton is an environmental-friendly resource that plays a key role in the textile industry. However, the fibre quality and yield of natural brown cotton are poor, and fundamental research on brown cotton is relatively scarce. To understand the genetic basis of brown fibre cotton, we constructed linkage and association populations to systematically examine brown fibre accessions. We fine-mapped the brown fibre region, Lc 1 , and dissected it into 2 loci, qBF-A07-1 and qBF-A07-2. The qBF-A07-1 locus mediates the initiation of brown fibre production, whereas the shade of the brown fibre is affected by the interaction between qBF-A07-1 and qBF-A07-2. Gh_A07G2341 and Gh_A07G0100 were identified as candidate genes for qBF-A07-1 and qBF-A07-2, respectively. Haploid analysis of the signals significantly associated with these two loci showed that most tetraploid modern brown cotton accessions exhibit the introgression signature of Gossypium barbadense. We identified 10 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fibre yield and 19 QTLs for fibre quality through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and found that qBF-A07-2 negatively affects fibre yield and quality through an epistatic interaction with qBF-A07-1. This study sheds light on the genetics of fibre colour and lint-related traits in brown fibre cotton, which will guide the elite cultivars breeding of brown fibre cotton. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Direct ethanol conversion of pretreated straw by Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.P.; Kekos, D.; Koukios, E.G.; Macris, B.J. (National Technical Univ., Athens (GR). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Factors affecting the direct conversion of alkali pretreated straw to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 were investigated and the alkali level used for pretreatment and the degree of delignification of straw were found to be the most important. A linear correlation between ethanol yield and both the degree of straw delignification and the alkali level was observed. At optimum delignified straw concentration (4% w/v), a maximum ethanol yield of 0.275 g ethanol g{sup -1} of straw was obtained corresponding to 67.8% of the theoretical yield. (author).

  14. Hygienic quality of stem fractions of mechanically processed fibre hemp and linseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H-R. KYMÄLÄINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bast fibre is the most important fraction of bast fibre plants for technical products, i.e. thermal insulations and packaging materials. The hygienic quality of the various fractions of bast fibre plants is of interest in thermal insulations, because it may affect the quality of indoor air. Packaging materials may be associated e.g. with foodstuffs, which highlights the importance of hygienic quality. The aim of this study was to screen the hygienic quality, determined as microbial content, of mechanically fractionated fibre hemp and linseed plants harvested in the autumn before frost, after early frost and in spring. In addition, the possible correlation between microbes and ash was investigated. Two plant species, fibre hemp and linseed were studied. The plants were cultivated in Siuntio in southern Finland during the years 2002 and 2003, harvested in autumn or in spring and mechanically fractionated. The microbial contents of the fractions were examined by measuring the total number of microbes using Hygicult® growing slides. The microbial content of fractions of fibre hemp and linseed varied between 103 and 109 cfu/gdw. The fibre of hemp harvested after early frost or in spring had the lowest amount of moulds, but during winter and spring the amounts of bacteria and yeasts increased in hemp. Mechanically separated fibre and shive contained less microbes than the stalk. Ash contents of all examined samples of stems and stem fractions varied between 1% and 14%. The fibre after fractionating had a lower ash content (2.3–3.3% than that of stems (4.4–6.9% harvested in the autumn. The ash content of stem and shive decreased to 1.6% during winter, the ash content of fibre being even somewhat lower (0.9%. No correlation was observed between the contents of microbes and ash.;

  15. Straw Rockets Are out of This World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    To capture students' excitement and engage their interest in rocketships and visiting planets in the solar system, the author designed lessons that give students the opportunity to experience the joys and challenges of developing straw rockets, and then observing which design can travel the longest distance. The lessons are appropriate for…

  16. Dehalogenation and decolorization of wheat straw- basedbleachery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... Differences in the persistence of various bleachery effluent lignins against attack by white-rot fungi. Biotechnol. Lett. 14: 869-874. Nonwood (2000). Biological Materials for Nonwood Products, Upgrading straw into pulp, pulp and polymeric material. available at http://www.nf-2000.org/secure/Eclair/F141.htm.

  17. Experimental study of methanic fermentation of straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopter, P; Beerens, H

    1952-12-03

    The amount of liquid manure obtainable was a limiting factor in methanic fermentation of wheat straw. An equal volume of 0.2% aqueous solution of Na formate could be substituted for 90% of the normal requirements of liquid manure. This shortened the preliminary stages of cellulosic fermentation when no methane was produced and slightly increased the subsequent yield of methane.

  18. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  19. Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the production of ergosterol by the strain using corn straw as an inexpensive carbon source was investigated. The total yield of ergosterol was determined by both the biomass and ergosterol content in yeast cells which ...

  20. Cross-talk in straw tube chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, J. E-mail: janusz.marzec@ire.pw.edu.pl

    2003-05-11

    An analytical model of the signal transmission between neighboring straw tubes with resistive cathodes (cross-talk) is presented. The dependence of the cross-talk level on the cathode resistance, tube length, particle detection point, the distance of the tube from the shielding planes, and termination of the tube ends is analyzed.

  1. Cross-talk in straw tube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, J.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical model of the signal transmission between neighboring straw tubes with resistive cathodes (cross-talk) is presented. The dependence of the cross-talk level on the cathode resistance, tube length, particle detection point, the distance of the tube from the shielding planes, and termination of the tube ends is analyzed

  2. Random distributed feedback fibre lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K., E-mail: s.k.turitsyn@aston.ac.uk [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Babin, Sergey A. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, Dmitry V. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim [Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Podivilov, Evgenii V. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-10

    The concept of random lasers exploiting multiple scattering of photons in an amplifying disordered medium in order to generate coherent light without a traditional laser resonator has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This research area lies at the interface of the fundamental theory of disordered systems and laser science. The idea was originally proposed in the context of astrophysics in the 1960s by V.S. Letokhov, who studied scattering with “negative absorption” of the interstellar molecular clouds. Research on random lasers has since developed into a mature experimental and theoretical field. A simple design of such lasers would be promising for potential applications. However, in traditional random lasers the properties of the output radiation are typically characterized by complex features in the spatial, spectral and time domains, making them less attractive than standard laser systems in terms of practical applications. Recently, an interesting and novel type of one-dimensional random laser that operates in a conventional telecommunication fibre without any pre-designed resonator mirrors–random distributed feedback fibre laser–was demonstrated. The positive feedback required for laser generation in random fibre lasers is provided by the Rayleigh scattering from the inhomogeneities of the refractive index that are naturally present in silica glass. In the proposed laser concept, the randomly backscattered light is amplified through the Raman effect, providing distributed gain over distances up to 100 km. Although an effective reflection due to the Rayleigh scattering is extremely small (∼0.1%), the lasing threshold may be exceeded when a sufficiently large distributed Raman gain is provided. Such a random distributed feedback fibre laser has a number of interesting and attractive features. The fibre waveguide geometry provides transverse confinement, and effectively one-dimensional random distributed feedback leads to the

  3. Random distributed feedback fibre lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Babin, Sergey A.; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim; Podivilov, Evgenii V.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of random lasers exploiting multiple scattering of photons in an amplifying disordered medium in order to generate coherent light without a traditional laser resonator has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This research area lies at the interface of the fundamental theory of disordered systems and laser science. The idea was originally proposed in the context of astrophysics in the 1960s by V.S. Letokhov, who studied scattering with “negative absorption” of the interstellar molecular clouds. Research on random lasers has since developed into a mature experimental and theoretical field. A simple design of such lasers would be promising for potential applications. However, in traditional random lasers the properties of the output radiation are typically characterized by complex features in the spatial, spectral and time domains, making them less attractive than standard laser systems in terms of practical applications. Recently, an interesting and novel type of one-dimensional random laser that operates in a conventional telecommunication fibre without any pre-designed resonator mirrors–random distributed feedback fibre laser–was demonstrated. The positive feedback required for laser generation in random fibre lasers is provided by the Rayleigh scattering from the inhomogeneities of the refractive index that are naturally present in silica glass. In the proposed laser concept, the randomly backscattered light is amplified through the Raman effect, providing distributed gain over distances up to 100 km. Although an effective reflection due to the Rayleigh scattering is extremely small (∼0.1%), the lasing threshold may be exceeded when a sufficiently large distributed Raman gain is provided. Such a random distributed feedback fibre laser has a number of interesting and attractive features. The fibre waveguide geometry provides transverse confinement, and effectively one-dimensional random distributed feedback leads to the

  4. Manufacturing and process optimization of porous rice straw board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejun; Dong, Bing; Bai, Xuewei; Gao, Wei; Gong, Yuanjuan

    2018-03-01

    Development and utilization of straw resources and the production of straw board can dramatically reduce straw waste and environmental pollution associated with straw burning in China. However, the straw board production faces several challenges, such as improving the physical and mechanical properties, as well as eliminating its formaldehyde content. The recent research was to develop a new straw board compound adhesive containing both inorganic (MgSO4, MgCO3, active silicon and ALSiO4) and organic (bean gum and modified Methyl DiphenylDiisocyanate, MDI) gelling materials, to devise a new high frequency straw board hot pressing technique and to optimize the straw board production parameters. The results indicated that the key hot pressing parameters leading to porous straw board with optimal physical and mechanical properties. These parameters are as follows: an adhesive containing a 4:1 ratio of inorganic-to-organic gelled material, the percentage of adhesive in the total mass of preload straw materials is 40%, a hot-pressing temperature in the range of 120 °C to 140 °C, and a high frequency hot pressing for 10 times at a pressure of 30 MPa. Finally, the present work demonstrated that porous straw board fabricated under optimal manufacturing condition is an environmentally friendly and renewable materials, thereby meeting national standard of medium density fiberboard (MDF) with potential applications in the building industry.

  5. Numerical modeling of straw combustion in a fixed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Haosheng; Jensen, Anker; Glarborg, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . The straw combustion processes include moisture evaporation, straw pyrolysis, gas combustion, and char combustion. The model provides detailed information of the structure of the ignition flame front. Simulated gas species concentrations at the bed surface, ignition flame front rate, and bed temperature......Straw is being used as main renewable energy source in grate boilers in Denmark. For optimizing operating conditions and design parameters, a one-dimensional unsteady heterogeneous mathematical model has been developed and experiments have been carried out for straw combustion in a fixed bed...... are in good agreement with measurements at different operating conditions such as primary air-flow rate, pre-heating of the primary air, oxygen concentration, moisture content in straw, and bulk density of the straw in the fixed bed. A parametric study indicates that the effective heat conductivity, straw...

  6. Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels: Availability, recalcitrance, and chemical properties: Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satlewal, Alok [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Joint Inst. for Biological Sciences, Biosciences Division; Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Agrawal, Ruchi [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Bhagia, Samarthya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Das, Parthapratim [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2017-10-17

    The surplus availability of rice straw, its limited usage and environment pollution caused by inefficient burning has fostered research for its valorization to biofuels. This review elucidates the current status of rice straw potential around the globe along with recent advances in revealing the critical factors responsible for its recalcitrance and chemical properties. The role and accumulation of high silica content in rice straw has been elucidated with its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis in a biorefinery environment. The correlation of different pretreatment approaches in modifying the physiochemical properties of rice straw and improving the enzymatic accessibility has also been discussed. This study highlights new challenges, resolutions and opportunities for rice straw based biorefineries.

  7. Microstructured Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a new class of optical waveguides, in which waveguiding along one or more core regions is obtained through the application of the Photonic Bandgap (PBG) effect. The invention further relates to optimised two-dimensional lattice structures capable of providing......, which are easy to manufacture. Finally, the present invention relates to a new fabrication technique, which allows easy manufacturing of preforms for photonic crystal fibers with large void filling fractions, as well as it allows a high flexibility in the design of the cladding and core structures....... complete PBGs, which reflects light incident from air or vacuum. Such structures may be used as cladding structures in optical fibres, where light is confined and thereby guided in a hollow core region. In addition, the present invention relates to designs for ultra low-loss PBG waveguiding structures...

  8. Luminescent Solar Concentrators with Fibre Geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O.Y.; Fisher, M.; Patrignani, L.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Chatten, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a fibre luminescent solar concentrator has been explored by means of both analytical and ray-tracing techniques. Coated fibres have been found to be more efficient than homogeneously doped fibres, at low absorption. For practical fibres concentration is predicted to be linear

  9. Dispersion properties of photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Dridi, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Approximate dispersion and bending properties of all-silica two-dimensional photonic crystal fibres are characterised by the combination of an effective-index model and classical analysis tools for optical fibres. We believe for the first time to have predicted the dispersion properties of photonic...... crystal fibres. The results strongly indicate that these fibres have potential applications as dispersion managing components...

  10. The Influence of Fibre Content on the Performance of Steel Fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence of Fibre Content on the Performance of Steel Fibre Refractory Concrete. ... Little information is available on the effect of fibre content on refractory performance and in particular resistance to thermal shock. This study has examined the influence of fibre content of stainless steel melt extract fibres on the ...

  11. Effects of fibre orientation on mechanical properties of hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The usage of plant fibre cannot alone satisfy all the needs of the composites. Hence, introduction of hybrid ... density, low cost, consumes low energy, distributed worldwide, neutral to CO2, no abrasion to machining, no health risk when inhaled ...

  12. Effect of Moisture on Natural Fibre Reinforced Plastics.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... thermoplastic and thermoset matrix composites provide positive environmental benefits with respect to ultimate disposability and raw material utilization [6]. 2.0 Materials And Methods. The materials used in this work include: i. Ukam plant fibres (chochlostermum placoni) ii. Polyester resin. iii. Catalyst ...

  13. Co-composting of livestock manure with rice straw: characterization and establishment of maturity evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoyong; Shen, Genxiang; Wang, Zhenqi; Guo, Chunxia; Liu, Yangqing; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-02-01

    Composting is considered to be a primary treatment method for livestock manure and rice straw, and high degree of maturity is a prerequisite for safe land application of the composting products. In this study pilot-scale experiments were carried out to characterize the co-composting process of livestock manure with rice straw, as well as to establish a maturity evaluation index system for the composts obtained. Two pilot composting piles with different feedstocks were conducted for 3 months: (1) swine manure and rice straw (SM-RS); and (2) dairy manure and rice straw (DM-RS). During the composting process, parameters including temperature, moisture, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), different forms of nitrogen (total, ammonia and nitrate), and humification index (humic acid and fulvic acid) were monitored in addition to germination index (GI), plant growth index (PGI) and Solvita maturity index. OM loss followed the first-order kinetic model in both piles, and a slightly faster OM mineralization was achieved in the SM-RS pile. Also, the SM-RS pile exhibited slightly better performance than the DM-RS according to the evolutions of temperature, OM degradation, GI and PGI. The C/N ratio, GI and PGI could be included in the maturity evaluation index system in which GI>120% and PGI>1.00 signal mature co-composts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plants as highly diverse sources of construction wood, handicrafts and fibre in the Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, China): the importance of minor forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin; Kang, Yongxiang; Feng, Jing; Liu, Mengying; Ji, Xiaolian; Li, Dengwu; Stawarczyk, Kinga; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2017-06-30

    Chinese rural communities living among species-rich forests have little documentation on species used to make handicrafts and construction materials originating from the surrounding vegetation. Our research aimed at recording minor wood uses in the Heihe valley in the Qinling mountains. We carried out 37 semi-structured interviews in seven villages. We documented the use of 84 species of plants. All local large canopy trees are used for some purpose. Smaller trees and shrubs which are particularly hard are selectively cut. The bark of a few species was used to make shoes, hats, steamers and ropes, but this tradition is nearly gone. A few species, mainly bamboo, are used for basket making, and year-old willow branches are used for brushing off the chaff during wheat winnowing. The traditional use of wood materials documented suggests that some rare and endangered tree species may have been selectively cut due to their valuable wood, e.g. Fraxinus mandshurica and Taxus wallichiana var. chinensis. Some other rare species, e.g. Dipteronia sinensis, are little used and little valued.

  15. Fibre Bragg grating and no-core fibre sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Daud, Suzairi

    2018-01-01

    This book focuses on the development and set-up of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and no-core fibre (NCF) sensors. It discusses the properties of the sensors and modelling of the resulting devices, which include electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and spintronic devices. In addition to providing detailed explanations of the properties of FBG and NCF sensors, it features a wealth of instructive illustrations and tables, helping to visualize the respective devices’ functions.

  16. Global food and fibre security threatened by current inefficiencies in fungal identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens severely impact global food and fibre crop security. Fungal species that cause plant diseases have mostly been recognized based on their morphology. In general, morphological descriptions remain disconnected from crucially important knowledge such as mating types, host specificity,

  17. Aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Thygesen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The potential of biocomposites in engineering applications is demonstrated by using aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites as a materials model system. The failure stress of flax fibres is measured by tensile testing of single fibres and fibre bundles. For both fibre configurations, it is found...... that failure stress is decreased by increasing the tested fibre volume. Based on two types of flax fibre preforms: carded sliver and unidirectional non-crimp fabric, aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites were fabricated with variable fibre content. The volumetric composition and tensile properties...... of the composite were measured. For composites with a fibre content of 37 % by volume, stiffness is about 20 GPa and failure stress is about 180 MPa. The tensile properties of the composites are analysed with a modified rule of mixtures model, which includes the effect of porosity. The experimental results...

  18. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Jolana Karovičová; Zlatica Kohajdová; Lucia Minarovičová; Veronika Kuchtová

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and di...

  19. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  20. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  1. Comparative studies of fibre digestion in cattle and buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, N.; Ho, Y.W.; Mahyuddin, M.; Jalaludin, S.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to compare the rumen function in swamp buffaloes and Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle fed fibrous diets. The parameters investigated involved rumen function, microbial population and urea transfer to the digestive tract. The results showed that swamp buffaloes had a higher rumen ammonia and fermentation activity than KK cattle when the two species were fed guinea grass or straw diets. Buffaloes also showed a faster rate of in situ dry matter degradation of grass and straw diets. The bacteria and fungal species involved in plant digestion were morphologically indistinguishable between the two animal species. Urea transfer to the rumen seemed to be better in buffaloes than in cattle. The superiority of buffaloes in digesting fibrous feed material could partly be explained by their ability to maintain higher rumen ammonia and a more efficient urea-N metabolism. (author). 9 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Dietary Fibres: Their Analysis in Animal Feeding, and Their Role in Rabbit Nutrition and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Gidenne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries ago Heinrich Einhof developed the so-called Weende method (crude fibre, to first deals with the fibre content of the feeds for ruminants, and proposes to isolate a residue called the "crude fibre". Then, dietary fibre concepts evolve and differ in animal feeding compared to human nutrition and health. Animal nutritionists deal with various fibre sources, often from whole plants (forages, by products of seeds processing, and recover a larger range of polysaccharidic components, including other polymers, such polyphenolic (lignins, tannins or polylipidic compounds (cutins. Dietary fibres are generally defined as polysaccharides and associated substances resistant to mammal enzyme digestion and absorption that can be partially or totally fermented in the gut. However, today this topic is still subjected to very active research, because of the complexity of the physical structure and chemical composition of the plant cell walls, and in the wide and different physiological effects of these different constituents. The importance of dietary fibre in animal feeding is due to its influence on rate of passage, mucosa functionality and its role as substrate for gut microbes performances and digestive health. This review will describe the definition and different structure of fibres and cell wall constituents and their analytical methods.

  3. Modeling of photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Barkou, Stig Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Diferent theoretical models for analysis of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed and compaired. The methods span from simple scalar approaches to full-vectorial models using different mode-field decompositions. The specific advantages of the methods are evaluated.......Diferent theoretical models for analysis of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed and compaired. The methods span from simple scalar approaches to full-vectorial models using different mode-field decompositions. The specific advantages of the methods are evaluated....

  4. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  6. Polymorphism of myofibrillar proteins of rabbit skeletal-muscle fibres. An electrophoretic study of single fibres.

    OpenAIRE

    Salviati, G; Betto, R; Danieli Betto, D

    1982-01-01

    Rabbit predominantly fast-twitch-fibre and predominantly slow-twitch-fibre skeletal muscles of the hind limbs, the psoas, the diaphragm and the masseter muscles were fibre-typed by one-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the myofibrillar proteins of chemically skinned single fibres. Investigation of the distribution of fast-twitch-fibre and slow-twitch-fibre isoforms of myosin light chains and the type of myosin heavy chains, based on peptide 'maps' published in Cleveland. Fisch...

  7. Mechanical and biotechnical fractionating of field biomasses into different fibre fractions; Peltobiomassojen mekaaninen ja biotekninen fraktiointi eri kuitujakeisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilppunen, P.; Aaltonen, H.; Sohlo, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Separation processes for energy and fibre fractions, predominantly those for seed flax, using traditional pulp classifiers and the new pressure classifier process were studied in the wet-separation part of the project. A combined plant fibre further-refining process, based on mechanical and biotechnical separation, operating on the basis of fibre length, was developed on the basis of dry and wet fraction tests. (orig.)

  8. Involvement of Fenton chemistry in rice straw degradation by the lignocellulolytic bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiangshan; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Mei; Hector, Stanton B; Liu, Bin; Tong, Chunyi; Liu, Qian; Zeng, Jiarui; Gao, Yan; Xu, Ting; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xuanming; Zhu, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulolytic bacteria have revealed to be a promising source for biofuel production, yet the underlying mechanisms are still worth exploring. Our previous study inferred that the highly efficient lignocellulose degradation by bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 might involve Fenton chemistry (Fe 2+  + H 2 O 2  + H +  → Fe 3+  + OH· + H 2 O), similar to that of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. The aim of this work is to investigate the existence of this Fenton-based oxidation mechanism in the rice straw degradation process of P. ananatis Sd-1. After 3 days incubation of unpretreated rice straw with P. ananatis Sd-1, the percentage in weight reduction of rice straw as well as its cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components reached 46.7, 43.1, 42.9, and 37.9 %, respectively. The addition of different hydroxyl radical scavengers resulted in a significant decline ( P  Fenton reagent treatment. In addition to the increased total iron ion concentration throughout the rice straw decomposition process, the Fe 3+ -reducing capacity of P. ananatis Sd-1 was induced by rice straw and predominantly contributed by aromatic compounds metabolites. The transcript levels of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase gene related to hydrogen peroxide production were significantly up-regulated (at least P  Fenton-like reactions. Our results confirmed the Fenton chemistry-assisted degradation model in P. ananatis Sd-1. We are among the first to show that a Fenton-based oxidation mechanism exists in a bacteria degradation system, which provides a new perspective for how natural plant biomass is decomposed by bacteria. This degradative system may offer an alternative approach to the fungi system for lignocellulosic biofuels production.

  9. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  10. Methane and compost from straw. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijkens, B A

    1982-01-01

    A concept is developed in which the farmer collects the straw and ferments it anaerobically to compost and methane at the farm. The methane can be used for heating and for production of mechanical energy, while the compost can be returned to the land at any suitable moment. This way of processing conserves part of the energy, present in the straw, that would otherwise be lost by the field-burning or the ploughing-in. In the meantime it solves the field-burning and environmental problems and it provides the possibility to recycle the organic matter in the humus, as well as all the fertilizing compounds K, P, Mg and nitrogen. There are indications that the arable land will need a restocking with humus that has been lost during many years of (modern) farming, leading to loss in structure and production capacity. This study collects the global technical and economical data, enabling us to indicate under which circumstances and local conditions the methane and compost concept would be feasible and would be an alternative to field-burning, ploughing-in or to the purely energetic use of the straw.

  11. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    During the past decades the building industry has had a great focus on energy consumption during the use phase of a building, but currently a more holistic view of the entire lifecycle of a building is starting to emerge. With this follows a greater interest in which building materials and techni......During the past decades the building industry has had a great focus on energy consumption during the use phase of a building, but currently a more holistic view of the entire lifecycle of a building is starting to emerge. With this follows a greater interest in which building materials...... and techniques of construction are considered. At the same time the request for a living environment free from toxins and allergenic substances, providing the basis for stress-free living and working conditions is increasingly demanded by clients for newly built homes. Since straw built houses supply a possible...... construction, and a series of qualitative interviews with a variety of stakeholders from previous straw build housing projects, results were gathered to find the most influential motives, barriers and considerations for straw build housing construction. Based on this empirical data, a design guide has been...

  12. Economic benefit analysis of cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu; Tang, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw not only can save the cultivation cost of P. ostreatus, but also can reuse the resources and protect the environment. By adding different proportion of rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus, the reasonable amount of rape straw was selected and the economic benefit of P. ostreatus cultivated with the optimum amount of rape straw was analyzed. The results showed that adding 10% to 40% rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus did not affect the yield and biological conversion rate of P. ostreatus, and the ratio of production and investment of the amount of rape straw in the range of 10% to 50% was higher than of cottonseed husk alone as the main material of the formula.

  13. [Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period.

  14. Effects of low-level radioactive soil contamination and sterilization on the degradation of radiolabeled wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrée, Bastian; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether 137 Cs and 90 Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 °C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with 137 Cs and 90 Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. - Highlights: ► We observed the impact of contamination with Cs-137 and Sr-90 on soil functions. ► Microbial community was altered slightly. ► Mineralization of wheat straw was not affected. ► Microbes growing on applied straw compete for nutrients with soil microbes.

  15. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis process of corn straw

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Wang; Shengqiang Shen; Shuhua Yang; Xinguang Shi

    2010-01-01

    The present paper was performed to analyze the pyrolysis process of corn straw. Based on the thermogravimetric analysis, the component of pyrolysis gas of corn straw was tested using the gas chromatograph analyzer. Experimental results showed that, as the reaction temperature increases, the component of H 2 and CH 4 increases, whereas the component of CO and CO 2 decreases. Finally, the mechanism of pyrolysis process of corn straw was revealed from the point of view of the molecular structure...

  16. Design and performance of a straw tube drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Wesson, D.K.; Cooke, J.; Goshaw, A.T.; Robertson, W.J.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance of the straw drift chambers used in E735 is reported. The chambers are constructed from 2.5 cm radius aluminized mylar straw tubes with wall thickness less than 0.2 mm. Also, presented are the results of tests with 2 mm radius straw tubes. The small tube has a direct detector application at the Superconducting Super Collider. (orig.)

  17. The effects of straw or straw-derived gasification biochar applications on soil quality and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Imparato, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study investig......Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study...... investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped...... long-term effects and to identify the optimum balance between straw removal and biochar application rate....

  18. Properties of Plant Fiber Yarn Polymer Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    . The thesis presents experimental investigations and modelling of the properties of aligned plant fibre composites based on textile hemp yarn and thermoplastic matrices. The textile hemp yarn has been characterised. It is high in cellulose and with fibres well separated from each other; i.e. only few fibres...... are situated in bundles. The twisting angle is low; i.e. about 15 o for the outermost fibres in the yarn. The moisture sorption capacity of the yarn fibres is much lower than that of raw hemp fibres. Stiffness and strength of the fibres as calculated from composite data are in the ranges 50-65 GPa and 530......-650 MPa respectively. These properties show that textile hemp yarn is well suited as composite reinforcement. The relationship between fibre volume fraction and porosity has been studied. A model has been developed that predicts porosity from experimentally determined parameters such as fibre lumen...

  19. Practical Hydrogen Loading of Air Silica Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2005-01-01

    A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown.......A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown....

  20. Recovery of nitrogen by spring barley following incorporation of 15N-labelled straw and catch crop material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, I.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The recovery by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) of nitrogen mineralized from N-15-labelled straw and ryegrass material was followed for 3 years in the field. The effects of separate and combined applications of straw and ryegrass were studied using cross-labelling with N-15. Reference plots re...... mineral fertilizer was in the second and third barley crop similar to the recovery of N from incorporated plant residues.......The recovery by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) of nitrogen mineralized from N-15-labelled straw and ryegrass material was followed for 3 years in the field. The effects of separate and combined applications of straw and ryegrass were studied using cross-labelling with N-15. Reference plots...... receiving (NH4NO3)-N-15-N-15 were included. Plant samples were taken every second week until maturity during the first growing season and at maturity in the two following years. Incorporation of plant material had no significant influence on the above-ground dry matter yield of the barley. The barley...

  1. Corchorus Corchorus triden L.) PLANT FIBRE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The work presented here is the production of an automotive Bumper from Lalloh. The work presented ..... pp. 1857–1868. [18] Ugoamadi, C.C. “Factors that Improve the Impact ... Conference VII ,Vacourver, British Columbia, June. 17-19, 1991.

  2. Process monitoring of fibre reinforced composites using optical fibre sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, G.F.; Degamber, B.

    2006-04-15

    The deployment of optical fibre based sensor systems for process monitoring of advanced fibre reinforced organic matrix composites is reviewed. The focus is on thermosetting resins and the various optical and spectroscopy-based techniques that can be used to monitor the processing of these materials. Following brief consideration of the manufacturing methods commonly used in the production of thermoset based composites, a discussion is presented on sensor systems that can be used to facilitate real-time chemical process monitoring. Although the focus is on thermosets, the techniques described can be adapted for chemical monitoring of organic species in general. (author)

  3. Effect of integrating straw into agricultural soils on soil infiltration and evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiansheng; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Wanjun; Guo, Yunlong

    2012-01-01

    Soil water movement is a critical consideration for crop yield in straw-integrated fields. This study used an indoor soil column experiment to determine soil infiltration and evaporation characteristics in three forms of direct straw-integrated soils (straw mulching, straw mixing and straw inter-layering). Straw mulching is covering the land surface with straw. Straw mixing is mixing straw with the top 10 cm surface soil. Then straw inter-layering is placing straw at the 20 cm soil depth. There are generally good correlations among the mulch integration methods at p soil infiltration, followed by straw mulching. Due to over-burden weight-compaction effect, straw inter-layering somehow retarded soil infiltration. In terms of soil water evaporation, straw mulching exhibited the best effect. This was followed by straw mixing and then straw inter-layering. Straw inter-layering could have a long-lasting positive effect on soil evaporation as it limited the evaporative consumption of deep soil water. The responses of the direct straw integration modes to soil infiltration and evaporation could lay the basis for developing efficient water-conservation strategies. This is especially useful for water-scarce agricultural regions such as the arid/semi-arid regions of China.

  4. Cryopreservation of boar semen in mini- and maxi-straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; de Braganca, M M; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1990-10-01

    Split ejaculates from four boars were frozen with a programmable freezing machine, in mini- (0.25 ml) and maxi- (5 ml) plastic straws with an extender at either acidic (6.3) or alkaline (7.4) pH. Glycerol (3%) was used as cryoprotectant. The freezing of the semen was monitored by way of thermocouples placed in the straws. Post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity were evaluated; the latter using phase contrast microscopy, eosin-nigrosin stain and electron microscopy. Post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher when semen was frozen in mini-straws than in maxi-straws. For the mini-straws, the motility was better when semen was exposed to an acidic environment during freezing, but this beneficial effect of the low extracellular pH was not evident when maxi-straws were thawed. The motility of the spermatozoa diminished significantly during the thermoresistance test (0 h and 2 h time) at 37 degrees C in a similar way for both straws and extracellular pH's. The freezing procedure, no matter the extracellular pH, did not cause major acrosomal damages, but significantly more normal apical ridges were present in the mini-straws than in the maxi-straws. This in vitro evaluation indicated that the freezing method employed was better for mini- than for maxi-straws since the freezing of the 5 ml volumes was not homogeneous, due to the large section area between the surface and the core of the straw.

  5. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (Ppea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin.

  6. Effect of food processing on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Vasfiye Hazal; Ötles, Semih

    2016-01-01

    Products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fibre. Diets high in dietary fibre have been associated with the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. These fibre-rich products and byproducts can also fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. Traditionally, consumers have chosen foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables as sources of dietary fibre. Recently, food manufacturers have responded to consumer demand for foods with a higher fibre content by developing products in which highfibre ingredients are used. Different food processing methods also increase the dietary fiber content of food. Moreover, its chemical and physical properties may be affected by food processing. Some of them might even improve the functionality of fibre. Therefore, they may also be applied as functional ingredients to improve physical properties like the physical and structural properties of hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity. This study was conducted to examine the effect of different food processing methods on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

  7. The effects of various sources of dietary fibre on cholesterol metabolism and colonic function in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stasse-Wolthuis, M.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of several types of dietary fibre on cholesterol metabolism and colonic function in young healthy subjects. Dietary fibre has been defined as those plant polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances) and lignin which are resistant to hydrolysis

  8. Aerosol Formation during the Combustion of Straw with Addition of Sorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Frederik Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Jørgen P.

    2007-01-01

    , calcium phosphate, Bentonite, ICA5000, and clay. The addition of chalk increased the aerosol mass concentration by 24%. Experiments in a laminar flow aerosol condenser with the six sorbents were carried out in the laboratory using a synthetic flue gas to avoid fluctuations in the alkali feeding......The influence of six sorbents on aerosol formation during the combustion of straw in a 100 MW boiler on a Danish power plant has been studied in full-scale. The following sorbents were studied: ammonium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, Bentonite, ICA5000, clay, and chalk. Bentonite and ICA5000...... are mixtures of clay minerals and consist mainly of the oxides from Fe, Al, and Si. The straw used was Danish wheat and seed grass. Measurements were also made with increased flow of primary air. The experiments showed between 46% and 70% reduction in particle mass concentrations when adding ammonium sulfate...

  9. Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: Effects of fabric type and washing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Imogen E; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-11-15

    Washing clothes made from synthetic materials has been identified as a potentially important source of microscopic fibres to the environment. This study examined the release of fibres from polyester, polyester-cotton blend and acrylic fabrics. These fabrics were laundered under various conditions of temperature, detergent and conditioner. Fibres from waste effluent were examined and the mass, abundance and fibre size compared between treatments. Average fibre size ranged between 11.9 and 17.7μm in diameter, and 5.0 and 7.8mm in length. Polyester-cotton fabric consistently shed significantly fewer fibres than either polyester or acrylic. However, fibre release varied according to wash treatment with various complex interactions. We estimate over 700,000 fibres could be released from an average 6kg wash load of acrylic fabric. As fibres have been reported in effluent from sewage treatment plants, our data indicates fibres released by washing of clothing could be an important source of microplastics to aquatic habitats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon fibre material for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini Noorsal; Mohd Ariff Baharom

    2010-01-01

    As science and technology continue to cross boundaries of known practices, materials and manufacturing techniques and into the frontiers of new materials, environment and applications, the opportunities for research in materials in general will inevitably increase. The unique properties of carbon fibre which combines low weight and high stiffness, makes it in ever greater demand as substitutes for traditional materials. This is due to the rising costs of raw materials and energy and the necessity to reduce carbon dioxide emission. The carbon fibres produced are particularly of high standard in terms of quality and processing characteristics especially when it is designed in structural components in the aerospace and defence industries. This results in a well structured organisation in producing the fibre starting from its raw material to the final composite products. In achieving this effort, research and communication of the progress takes a fundamental role. (author)

  11. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  12. EFFECTS OF POLYTHENE FIBRES ON SELECTED PROPERTIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ABSTRACT. The aim of this study is to explore the possibility of using polythene fibres to increase the strength of sandcrete ... Polythene fibres were got from shredded sachet water bags. .... degradable waste is more of a problem than the bio-.

  13. Biogenic silica fibre promotes carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, T; Coombs, M; O'Neill, C

    1984-10-15

    Silica fibres derived from plants are common contaminants of human diet in certain regions of the world where oesophageal cancer reaches extremely high incidences. We show here that one of these types of fibre (derived from Phalaris canariensis L) promotes the occurrence of tumours in the skin of mice initiated with a polycyclic carcinogen. Three experiments are described. In the first, the grain which bears these fibres was added to the diet. This did not result in any abnormality in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but there was a significant induction of tumours in the skin around the mouth and nose; these were the areas of the body surface which most frequently came into contact with the grain. In the second experiment, the mice were separated from the grain by an intervening wire gauze barrier; a similar number of tumours appeared on initiated mice treated in this way. In this case, contact now occurred most frequently on the dorsal surface, which was rubbed against the gauze barrier, and it was on this surface that the tumours appeared. No tumours appeared if the grain was removed. In the third experiment, pure fibres were isolated from the surface of the grain and boiled in strong nitric acid so as to remove any organic material. When these acid-cleaned fibres were applied to the initiated skin with light pressure, they promoted carcinogenesis in the same way as croton oil. In each experiment the majority of tumours produced were benign neoplasms, together with at least one squamous carcinoma. It seems possible that the size and shape of these fibres are the critical properties determining their promoting activity. Their mean diameter is 15 microns, their modal length close to 200 microns, and they are sharply pointed with a tip diameter of 0.5 micron.

  14. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  15. Photonic crystal fibres and effective index approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres.......Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres....

  16. Extraction of High Quality RNA from Cannabis sativa Bast Fibres: A Vademecum for Molecular Biologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Guerriero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants there is no universal protocol for RNA extraction, since optimizations are required depending on the species, tissues and developmental stages. Some plants/tissues are rich in secondary metabolites or synthesize thick cell walls, which hinder an efficient RNA extraction. One such example is bast fibres, long extraxylary cells characterized by a thick cellulosic cell wall. Given the economic importance of bast fibres, which are used in the textile sector, as well as in biocomposites as green substitutes of glass fibres, it is desirable to better understand their development from a molecular point of view. This knowledge favours the development of biotechnological strategies aimed at improving specific properties of bast fibres. To be able to perform high-throughput analyses, such as, for instance, transcriptomics of bast fibres, RNA extraction is a crucial and limiting step. We here detail a protocol enabling the rapid extraction of high quality RNA from the bast fibres of textile hemp, Cannabis sativa L., a multi-purpose fibre crop standing in the spotlight of research.

  17. Selected parameters of maize straw briquettes combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraszkiewicz Artur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the process of burning briquettes made of maize straw was performed. A number of traits have been evaluated, including physical characteristics of the fuel through parameters describing combustion kinetics as well as products and combustion efficiency. The study was conducted in a grate boiler, during which the differentiating factor was the air velocity flowing to the boiler. It was observed that the obtained values of the considered parameters were different, particularly temperature of the flue gas and the amount of CO and SO2 in the flue gas.

  18. Operating properties of straw-tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Bonyushkin, Yu.E.; Korytov, A.V.; Malyshev, V.L.

    1990-01-01

    The initial results of the study of thin-wall mylar tubes (called straws) made under the laboratory conditions are presented. The maximal avalanche charge allowing the reliable detector operation is ∼ 10 pC, the spatial accuracy σ x near the anode wire at 3 atm of pure isobutane is ≅ 45 μm. The good separation of charge signals from electrons and X-rays was obtained with the Xe:iso-C 4 H 10 = 94:6 gas mixture. Tubes 5 mm in diameter withstand the pressure of 8-12 atm. 11 refs.; 5 figs

  19. Thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw were investigated using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The study included both natural and solvent extracted wheat straw, in moist (8–9% water content) and dry conditions, and was compared to spruce samples. Under...

  20. Coffee Stirrers and Drinking Straws as Disposable Spatulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turano, Morgan A.; Lobuono, Cinzia; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Although metal spatulas are damaged through everyday use and become discolored and corroded by chemical exposure, plastic drinking straws are inexpensive, sterile, and disposable, reducing the risk of cross-contamination during laboratory procedures. Drinking straws are also useful because they come in a variety of sizes; narrow sample containers…

  1. Emergy Evaluation of Different Straw Reuse Technologies in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxian Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Open burning of straw in China has degraded agricultural environments and has become a contributor to air pollution. Development of efficient straw-reuse technologies not only can yield economic benefits but also can protect the environment and can provide greater benefit to society. Thus, the overall benefits of straw-reuse technologies must be considered when making regional development planning and enterprise technology decisions. In addition, agricultural areas in China cross several climatic zones and have different weather characteristics and cultural conditions. In the present study, we assessed five types of straw-reuse technologies (straw-biogas production, -briquetting, -based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production, using emergy analysis, in northeast China. Within each type, five individual cases were investigated, and the highest-performing cases were used for comparison across technologies. Emergy indices for comprehensive benefits for each category, namely, EYR, ELR, and ESI were calculated. Calculated indices suggest that straw-briquetting and -biogas production are the most beneficial technologies in terms of economy, environmental impact, and sustainability compared to straw-based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production technologies. These two technologies can thus be considered the most suitable for straw reuse in China.

  2. Decomposition characteristics of maize ( Zea mays . L.) straw with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decomposition of maize straw incorporated into soil with various nitrogen amended carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios under a range of moisture was studied through a laboratory incubation trial. The experiment was set up to simulate the most suitable C/N ratio for straw carbon (C) decomposition and sequestering in the soil.

  3. Nutritional evaluation of treated canola straw for ruminants using in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... value of molasses treated with canola straw using in vitro gas production technique with Taleshi native ... As straw is poorly fermented, it has low rates of ... Gas production was measured as the volume of gas in the calibrated syringes and was recorded before incubation and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24,. 48, 72 and 96 ...

  4. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STRAW-BALE BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Brojan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on general properties of straw bale as a building material which has been proven by buildings throughout the world to be an appropriate material choice. Still, there are many hesitations about using this alternative building material. The building techniques are relatively easy to learn and the performance of straw bale structures has a high value in terms of several aspects as long as general requirements are followed. The primary benefit of straw bale as a building material is its low embodied energy. It also has high thermal and sound insulation properties. Many previous research studies on straw bale building have been focused on structural stability, fire resistance and assessing moisture content in straw bales which is one of the major issues. Therefore, special attention needs to be devoted to details to insure proper building safety. Render selection is especially crucial and an extremely important step in straw bale building, not only in matters concerning moisture but also structural capacity and fire protection. A major disadvantage of straw bale construction is its lack of material research. The paper is divided into three parts in which advantages and disadvantages of such a building are discussed. In the third part, results are presented for a survey in which correspondents emphasized the advantages and disadvantages of living in a straw bale building.

  5. Fibre optic networks for safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.G.R.; Chare, P.; Barrier, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Euratom Safeguards Directorate has recently installed a fibre optic network in a new large scale nuclear facility in the European Communities. The selection, installation and commissioning of the fibre optic network is discussed from the viewpoint of network topology, physical testing, trouble shooting and authentication. The future use of fibre optic networks for safeguards applications is discussed

  6. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jute fibre; laminated paper composite; plastic bag pollution. Abstract. Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate ...

  7. Effect of increasing amounts of straw on pigs’ explorative behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Herskin, Mette S.; Forkman, Björn

    2015-01-01

    According to European legislation, pigs must have permanent access to sufficient quantity of materialto enable manipulation activities. However, few studies have quantified how much straw is needed tofulfil the requirements of growing pigs. We investigated the effect of increasing amount of straw...... on pigs’manipulation of the straw, and hypothesised that after a certain point increasing straw amount will nolonger increase oral manipulation further. From 30 to 80 kg live weight, pigs were housed in 90 groups of18 pigs in pens (5.48 m × 2.48 m) with partly slatted concrete floor and daily provided...... with the percentage ofpigs manipulating straw simultaneously. This was recorded in three 1-h intervals (1 h before and 1 h afterstraw allocation in the morning, as well as from 17 to 18 h in the afternoon). With increasing quantity ofstraw provided, we found a curvilinear (P increase in the time spent in oral...

  8. PADI ASIC for straw tube read-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietraszko, Jerzy; Traeger, Michael; Fruehauf, Jochen; Schmidt, Christian [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Ciobanu, Mircea [ISS, Bucharest (Romania); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A prototype of the CBM MUCH straw tube detector consisting of six individual straws of 6mm inner diameter and 220 mm length filled with Ar/CO{sub 2} gas mixture has been tested at the COSY accelerator in Juelich. The straw tubes were connected to the FEET-PADI6-HDa PCB equipped with PADI-6 fast amplifier/discriminator ASIC. As a reference counter in this measurement the scCVD diamond detector has been used delivering excellent timing, time resolution below 100 ps (sigma), and very precise position information, below 50 μm. The demonstrated position resolution of about 160 μm of the straw tube read out with PADI-6 ASIC confirms the capability of the PADI chip and puts this development as a very attractive readout option for straw tubes and wire chambers.

  9. Hydration properties of briquetted wheat straw biomass feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng; Fredriksson, Maria; Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Biomass densification elevates the bulk density of the biomass, providing assistance in biomass handling, transportation, and storage. However, the density and the chemical/physical properties of the lignocellulosic biomass are affected. This study examined the changes introduced by a briquetting...... process with the aim of subsequent processing for 2nd generation bioethanol production. The hydration properties of the unprocessed and briquetted wheat straw were characterized for water absorption via low field nuclear magnetic resonance and sorption balance measurements. The water was absorbed more...... rapidly and was more constrained in the briquetted straw compared to the unprocessed straw, potentially due to the smaller fiber size and less intracellular air of the briquetted straw. However, for the unprocessed and briquetted wheat straw there was no difference between the hygroscopic sorption...

  10. Pulverized straw combustion in a low-NOx multifuel burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen

    2010-01-01

    A CFD simulation of pulverized coal and straw combustion using a commercial multifuel burner have been undertaken to examine the difference in combustion characteristics. Focus has also been directed to development of the modeling technique to deal with larger non-spherical straw particles...... and to determine the relative importance of different modeling choices for straw combustion. Investigated modeling choices encompass the particle size and shape distribution, the modification of particle motion and heating due to the departure from the spherical ideal, the devolatilization rate of straw......, the influence of inlet boundary conditions and the effect of particles on the carrier phase turbulence. It is concluded that straw combustion is associated with a significantly longer flame and smaller recirculation zones compared to coal combustion for the present air flow specifications. The particle size...

  11. Stress concentrations in an impregnated fibre bundle with random fibre packing

    OpenAIRE

    Swolfs, Y.; Gorbatikh, L.; Romanov, V.; Orlova, S.; Lomov, S. V.; Verpoest, I.

    2013-01-01

    The stress redistribution after a single fibre break is a fundamental issue in longitudinal strength models for unidirectional composites. Current models assume hexagonal or square fibre packings. In the present work, random fibre packings were modelled using 3D finite element analysis and compared to ordered fibre packings. Significant differences in the stress redistribution are found. Compared to square and hexagonal packings, random fibre packings result in smaller stress concentration fa...

  12. Mechanical processing of bast fibres: The occurrence of damage and its effect on fibre structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, Tuomas; Thygesen, Anders; Mehmood, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Currently, separation processes used for natural fibres for composite reinforcing textiles cause a significant amount of damage to the fibres. Microscopic analysis showed that industrially processed flax (Linum usitassimium L.) fibres contained significantly more defects than green or retted ones...... to heterogeneous reactivity. Analogous findings were observed in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) fibre damaged in the laboratory under controlled conditions, emphasising the need to develop extraction and separation processes that minimise mechanical damage to the fibres....

  13. Decomposition of 14C-15N straw incorporated at three depths in a red-yellow latosol at Pernambuco State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, E.V.S.; Salcedo, I.H.; Bettany, J.

    1990-01-01

    The decomposition of 14 C- 15 N labelled straw, incorporated at three depths in a Red-yellow Latosol from the humid, coastal zone of Pernambuco State, Brazil, was measured during two years. The straw was ground, mixed with soil portions and placed in 400-mesh bags and replaced into the original field sites at 10, 30 and 60cm depth. The decomposition was also followed in the laboratory using soil from the superficial layer. Straw carbon losses in the field reached 52% during the first month and about 80% after two years. In the first 4 months mineralization was faster in the superficial layer, with no differences thereafter. In the laboratory, mineralization was slower than in the field, reaching 34 and 50% after one month and two years, respectively. During the first month, most of the soil microbial biomass was apparently formed from straw derived material but the contribution from the straw decrease to 15-30% after two months and to less than 1% after two years. Straw N losses reached 25% in the first month and 40-50% after two years, with significant differences among soil depths in the first six months when losses were higher in the deeper layers. There were no plants to absorb the mineral N which accumulated in the soil to a concentration of up to 32μg/g soil. The contribution of straw N to this mineral N decreased with incubation period but was always less than 12%. The C:N ratio of straw derived material ( 14 C- 15 N) decreased from 22:1 to 8-10:1, at all depths. (author)

  14. [Soil quality assessment under different cropping system and straw management in farmland of arid oasis region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng Peng; Pu, Xiao Zhen; Zhang, Wang Feng

    2018-03-01

    To reveal the regulatory mechanism of agricultural management practices on soil quality, an experiment was carried out to study the different cropping system and straw management on soil organic carbon and fractions and soil enzyme activity in farmland of arid oasis region, which would provide a scientific basic for enhancing agricultural resources utilization and sustainable development. In crop planting planning area, we took the mainly crop (cotton, wheat, maize) as research objects and designed long-term continues cropping and crop rotation experiments. The results showed that the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil microbial biomass C, labile C, water-soluble organic C, and hot-water-soluble organic C content were increased by 3.6%-9.9%, 41.8%-98.9%, 3.3%-17.0%, 11.1%-32.4%, 4.6%-27.5% by crop rotation compared to continues cropping, and 12%-35.9%, 22.4%-49.7%, 30.7%-51.0%, 10.6%-31.9%, 41.0%-96.4% by straw incorporated compared to straw removed, respectively. The soil catalase, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, invertase glucose, cellulase glucose activity were increased by 6.4%-10.9%, 6.6%-18.8%, 5.9%-15.3%, 10.0%-27.4%, 28.1%-37.5% by crop rotation compared to continues cropping, and 31.4%-47.5%, 19.9%-46.6%, 13.8%-20.7%, 19.8%-55.6%, 54.1%-70.9% by straw incorporated compared to straw removed, respectively. There were significant positive linear correlations among SOC, labile SOC fractions and soil enzyme. Therefore, we concluded that labile SOC fractions and soil enzyme were effective index for evaluating the change of SOC and soil quality. Based on factor analysis, in arid region, developing agricultural production using cropland management measures, such as straw-incorporated and combined short-term continues cotton and crop rotation, could enhance SOC and labile SOC fractions contents and soil enzyme activity, which could improve soil quality and be conducive to agricultural sustainable development.

  15. Flow diagnostics using fibre optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hypersonic vehicle with a 2-component fibre-optic strain-gauge balance. ... ment suffers a fall in accuracy to uncomfortable levels (more than 5%) and the measurement .... 15 kW motor with an associated thyristor speed-control system.

  16. Nonlinear microstructured polymer optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch

    is potentially the case for microstructured polymer optical fibres (mPOFs). Another advantage is that polymer materials have a higher biocompatibility than silica, meaning that it is easier to bond certain types of biosensor materials to a polymer surface than to silica. As with silica PCFs, it is difficult...

  17. Connections on discrete fibre bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manton, N.S.; Cambridge Univ.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to gauge fields on a discrete space-time is proposed, in which the fundamental object is a discrete version of a principal fibre bundle. If the bundle is twisted, the gauge fields are topologically non-trivial automatically. (orig.)

  18. Cool application for Optical Fibres

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    In a new first for CERN, optical fibres have been put on test to measure very low temperatures. If these tests prove successful, this new technology could lead to important cost-saving changes in the way the temperatures of superconducting magnets are measured. There was excitement in the air last March when the team led by Walter Scandale and Luc Thévenaz tested very low temperature measurement using optical fibres. This spring in CERN's Cryogenics lab an idea was put to the test as a new kind of low-temperature thermometry using optical fibres was tested down to 2 Kelvin (around 300 degrees below room temperature), and the first results are looking good. Optical fibres are well known for their ability to carry large amounts of data around the world, but it is less well known that they can be used for measuring temperatures. The intuition that they might be able to measure very low temperatures - such as those of the LHC magnets - came to the attention of CERN's Walter Scandale at the Optical Fi...

  19. Production of Biocellulosic Ethanol from Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant lignocellulosic feedstock in many parts of the world, and has been selected for producing ethanol in an economically feasible manner. It contains a mixture of sugars (hexoses and pentoses.Two-stage acid hydrolysis was carried out with concentrates of perchloric acid, using wheat straw. The hydrolysate was concentrated by vacuum evaporation to increase the concentration of fermentable sugars, and was detoxified by over-liming to decrease the concentration of fermentation inhibitors. After two-stage acid hydrolysis, the sugars and the inhibitors were measured. The ethanol yields obtained from by converting hexoses and pentoses in the hydrolysate with the co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites were higher than the ethanol yields produced with a monoculture of S. cerevisiae. Various conditions for hysdrolysis and fermentation were investigated. The ethanol concentration was 11.42 g/l in 42 h of incubation, with a yield of 0.475 g/g, productivity of 0.272 gl ·h, and fermentation efficiency of 92.955 %, using a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites

  20. Influence of the sowing depth and amount of sugarcane straw on the emergence of Chloris polydactyla and Eleusine indica and their control by herbicides applied pre-emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rafael Malardo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the sowing depth and amount of sugarcane straw on the soil on the emergence of Chloris polydactyla (‘capim-branco’ and Eleusine indica (Indian goosegrass and to determine the efficacy of herbicides applied pre-emergence in the control of these species under different straw amount and rainfall regime conditions. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. In the first experiment, the effects of six sowing depths (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 cm and six sugarcane straw amounts (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 t ha -1 were assessed on the emergence of Indian goosegrass and ‘capim-branco’ in a 6 x 6 factorial arrangement. In the second experiment, the efficacy in the control of these species was evaluated for one control without herbicide and five treatments (indaziflam, metribuzin, tebuthiuron, indaziflam + metribuzin, and indaziflam + tebuthiuron applied pre-emergence over four straw amounts (0, 1, 2, and 4 t ha-1 in a 6 x 4 factorial arrangement. This experiment was evaluated under two rainfall regimes in separate experiments (simulation of 20 mm of rainfall 1 or 10 days after herbicide application. The ‘capim-branco’ showed a marked reduction in emergence beginning at 2 t ha-1 of straw and a 2 cm sowing depth. For the Indian goosegrass, the decline in emergence mainly occurred beginning at 4 t ha-1 of straw and a 4 cm sowing depth. Only some of the Indian goosegrass plants emerged at the greater sowing depths (8 and 10 cm and straw amounts (8 and 10 t ha-1, whereas no emergence of the ‘capim-branco’ was observed under these conditions. The treatments with sowing at a 1 cm depth and with 0, 1, 2, and 4 t ha-1 of straw provided the highest emergence percentage for the species. Application of the herbicide indaziflam alone was the only ineffective treatment for the control of the weeds regardless of the amount of straw and the water regime used

  1. Laser–fibre vibrometry at 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waz, A T; Kaczmarek, P R; Abramski, K M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents new solutions for laser vibrometry, which are based on fibre vibrometry in the third telecommunication window. The scattered laser beam from a vibrating object is guided by a fibre collimator and coherently detected through heterodyning it with an acousto-optical frequency-shifted reference beam. The concept of measuring vibration parameters from many points of the vibrating object has been inspired by wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in fibre telecommunications. The N-independent WDM separated 15XX nm fibre-coupled laser diodes (used for optical fibre telecommunications) form a system of sources for multipoint vibration measurement according to the rule 'one wavelength–one point'

  2. Fibre optic cable in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Berwyn

    1987-01-01

    The uses of optical fibre cables to transmit light signals include medical applications and telecommunications. In the nuclear industry the applications include process control and monitoring, conventional datacoms, security fencing and sensors. Time division multiplexing is described and currently available fibre optic multipexers are listed and explained. Single and multimode fibres are mentioned. Fibre optics are also used in cryogenics, to monitor the integrity of the storage vessels for cryogenic liquids. The uses of fibre optics at Hartlepool, Heysham I and Torness are mentioned in particular. (UK)

  3. Effects of Molasses on the Fermentation Quality of Wheat Straw and Poultry Litter Ensiled with Citrus Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migwi, P.K; Gallanga, J.R; Barneveld, R.J

    1999-01-01

    Studies were conducted to find out whether inclusion of molasses had any effect on the fermentation quality and potential nutritive value of silage when wheat straw and poultry litter were ensiled with citrus pulp. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four treatments (T) containing wheat straw, poultry litter and citrus pulp respectively on DM basis with 0 and 5% molasses, were prepared as follows-: T1 (75:25:0); T2 (60:25:15); T3 (45:25:30) and T4 (30:25:45). For each treatment in triplicate between 5-10 kg of thoroughly mixed material were ensiled for for a period of 60 days in 20-l hard plastic container laboratory silos, lined with a double layer of polythene bags. Inclusion of 5% molasses when ensiling wheat straw and poultry litter with 0, 15, 30 and 45% citrus pulp had no significant effect on pH, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and in vitro OM digestibility. However, molasses resulted in a significant decrease in volatile fatty acids including N-butyric acid. There was a complete elimination of coliforms in all treatments, except in the silage that had neither molasses nor citrus pulp. There was a significant difference in titratable acidity levels between silage with 0 and 5% molasses, but this was only in silage with 30% citrus pulp. As the proportion of citrus pulp in silage increased from 0 to 45%, there was significant increase in silage acidity and also an increase in pH. However, there was no significant difference in pH between silage with 30 and 45% citrus pulp. There was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in in vitro OM digestibility from 0.33 to about 0.56 for silage with 0 and 45% citrus pulp respectively. It is concluded that when wheat straw and poultry litter are ensiled with citrus pulp, use of molasses offers no significant benefit inspite of the cost associated with its use. However, when no citrus pulp is included in the pre-mix, addition of some

  4. Microbial Activity and Silica Degradation in Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther Jin-kyung

    Abundantly available agricultural residues like rice straw have the potential to be feedstocks for bioethanol production. Developing optimized conditions for rice straw deconstruction is a key step toward utilizing the biomass to its full potential. One challenge associated with conversion of rice straw to bioenergy is its high silica content as high silica erodes machinery. Another obstacle is the availability of enzymes that hydrolyze polymers in rice straw under industrially relevant conditions. Microbial communities that colonize compost may be a source of enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to products because composting systems operate under thermophilic and high solids conditions that have been shown to be commercially relevant. Compost microbial communities enriched on rice straw could provide insight into a more targeted source of enzymes for the breakdown of rice straw polysaccharides and silica. Because rice straw is low in nitrogen it is important to understand the impact of nitrogen concentrations on the production of enzyme activity by the microbial community. This study aims to address this issue by developing a method to measure microbial silica-degrading activity and measure the effect of nitrogen amendment to rice straw on microbial activity and extracted enzyme activity during a high-solids, thermophilic incubation. An assay was developed to measure silica-degrading enzyme or silicase activity. This process included identifying methods of enzyme extraction from rice straw, identifying a model substrate for the assay, and optimizing measurement techniques. Rice straw incubations were conducted with five different levels of nitrogen added to the biomass. Microbial activity was measured by respiration and enzyme activity. A microbial community analysis was performed to understand the shift in community structure with different treatments. With increased levels of nitrogen, respiration and cellulose and hemicellulose degrading activity

  5. Optical fibre laser velocimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrett, Thomas O H; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2012-01-01

    The applications of optical fibre technology to laser velocimetry are diverse and often critical to their successful implementation, particularly in harsh environments. Applications range from the use of optical fibres for beam delivery and scattered light collection, aiding the miniaturization of instrument probes, to the use of imaging fibre bundles for imaging the flow field in planar velocimetry systems. Optical fibre techniques have also been used in signal processing, for example fibre frequency shifters, and optical fibre devices such as amplifiers and lasers have been exploited. This paper will review the use of optical fibres in point-wise laser velocimetry techniques such as laser Doppler velocimetry and laser transit anemometry, as well as in planar measurement techniques such as particle imaging velocimetry and planar Doppler velocimetry. (topical review)

  6. TG-FTIR Study of the Influence of potassium Chloride on Wheat Straw Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wójtowicz, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    of products into char, tar and gas. In this work, a combination of thermogravimetry and evolved gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared analysis (TG-FTIR) has been applied to study the influence of potassium chloride (KCl) on wheat straw pyrolysis. Raw straw, washed straw and washed straw impregnated...

  7. Soil bacterial community shifts associated with sugarcane straw removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Laisa; Gumiere, Thiago; Andreote, Fernando; Cerri, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Brazil, the adoption of the mechanical unburned sugarcane harvest potentially increase the quantity of residue left in the field after harvesting. Economically, this material has a high potential for second generation ethanol (2G) production. However, crop residues have an essential role in diverse properties and processes in the soil. The greater part of the uncertainties about straw removal for 2G ethanol production is based on its effects in soil microbial community. In this sense, it is important to identify the main impacts of sugarcane straw removal on soil microbial community. Therefore, we conducted a field study, during one year, in Valparaíso (São Paulo state - Brazil) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial community. Specifically, we wanted: i) to compare the rates of straw removal and ii) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial groups over one year. The experiment was in a randomized block design with treatments arranged in strip plot. The treatments are different rates of sugarcane straw removal, namely: no removal, 50, 75 and 100% of straw removal. Soil sampling was carried out at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months after the sugarcane harvest (August 2015). Total DNA was extracted from soil using the PowersoilTM DNA Isolation kit. And the abundance of bacterial in each soil sample was estimated via quantification of 16S rRNA gene. The composition of the bacterial communities was estimated via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, and the T-RF sizes were performed on a 3500 Genetic Analyzer. Finally, the results were examined with GeneMapper 4.1 software. There was bacterial community shifts through the time and among the rates of sugarcane straw removal. Bacterial community was firstly determined by the time scale, which explained 29.16% of total variation. Rates of straw removal explained 11.55% of shifts on bacterial community. Distribution through the time is an important

  8. Long term deactivation test of high dust SCR catalysts by straw co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigang Lin; Degn Jensen, A.; Bjerkvig, J.

    2009-12-15

    The consequences of carbon dioxide induced global warming cause major concern worldwide. The consumption of energy produced with fossil fuels is the major factor that contributes to the global warming. Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has a nature of CO{sub 2} neutrality. Co-combustion of biomass in existing coal fired power plants can maintain high efficiency and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} at same time. However, one of the problems faced by co-firing is deactivation of the SCR catalysts. Understanding of the mechanisms of deactivation of the catalyst elements at co-firing conditions is crucial for long term runs of the power plants. Twenty six SCR catalyst elements were exposed at two units (SSV3 and SSV4) in the Studstrup Power Plant for a long period. Both units co-fire coal and straw with a typical fraction of 8-10% straw on an energy basis during co-firing. SSV4 unit operated in co-firing mode most of the time; SSV3 unit co-fired straw half of the operating time. The main objective of this PSO-project is to gain knowledge of a long term influence on catalyst activity when co-firing straw in coal-fired power plants, thus, to improve the basis for operating the SCR-plants for NO{sub x}-reduction. The exposure time of the applied catalyst elements (HTAS and BASF) varied from approximately 5000 to 19000 hours in the power plant by exchanging the element two times. The activity of all elements was measured before and after exposure in a bench scale test rig at the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The results show that the activity, estimated by exclusion of channel clogging of the elements, decreases gradually with the total exposure time. It appears that the exposure time under co-firing condition has little effect on the deactivation of the catalyst elements and no sharp decrease of the activity was observed. The average deactivation rate of the catalyst elements is 1.6 %/1000 hours. SEM

  9. Study of straw chamber lifetime with argon ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cheu, E.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Odian, A.; Pitman, D.; Stockhausen, W.; Toki, W.; Wadley, W.; Wood, C.; Mir, R.

    1989-01-01

    We present detailed laboratory measurements of the lifetime of a small test chamber, simulating the Mark III straw vertex chamber conditions. The tests were carried out with an argon-ethane 50/50 gas mixture at 3 atm absolute pressure and 3.9 kV applied to the wires. After the accumulation of ≅ 0.02 C/cm on a single straw, continuous discharges began. The addition of alcohol or water vapor to the gas mixture was found to extend the lifetime of the straws. Continuous flow of the gas mixture with water vapor through the straws prolonged the lifetime significantly. We present results on the effects of changing the gas mixture inside the straws at regular time intervals. Adding a small percentage of water vapor to the argon-ethane gas and flowing the gas mixture in the straws can improve the lifetime by more than an order of magnitude. An accumulated charge of 1.0 C/cm on a single straw has been obtained. (orig.)

  10. Tracking with Straw Tubes in the PANDA Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragadireanu M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The PANDA spectrometer will be built at the FAIR facility at Darmstadt (Germany to perform accurate tests of the strong interaction through ¯pp and ¯pA annihilation studies. The charged particle tracking at PANDA will be done using both solid state and gaseous detectors. Among the latter, two straw tube detector systems will be built [1]. The cylindrical, central straw tube tracker features a high spatial and momentum resolution for a wide range of particle momenta from about 8 GeV/c down to a few 100 MeV/c, together with particle identification in the momentum region below about 1 GeV/c by measuring the specific energy-loss. A new technique, based on self-supporting straw double layers with intrinsic wire tension developed for the COSY-TOF straw tracker [2], has been adopted for the PANDA trackers. The development of the readout electronics for the straw tubes is ongoing. Prototypes have been produced and used to instrument straw tube modules that have been tested with cosmic rays and proton beams. Design issues of the PANDA straw tubes, together with the results of the prototype tests are presented.

  11. Effect of vitrification on number of inner cell mass in mouse blastocysts in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasem, S.; Negar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of using open and closed carriers on count of inner cell mass in vitrified mouse blastocyst after warming. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran, from April to September 2010. Forty female NMRI (Naval Medical Research Institute, USA) mice were injected with pregnant mares serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin in order to induce super ovulation. Following the latter injection, two or three females were caged with the same-breed male mice. The presence of vaginal plug was examined the following morning. To collect blastocyst embryos, the pregnant females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 88-90 hours after the injection and dissected. Blastocysts were collected in phosphate-buffered saline and allocated to four groups: vitrification in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop. The vitrification solution was ethylene glycol, Ficol and sucrose (EFS) 20% and 40%. After storage for 1 month in liquid nitrogen, the blastocysts were thawed in 0.5 M sucrose then cultured in M16 medium. After 6 hours of culture, the number of expanded blastocysts was recorded and stained by double-dye technique. After staining, the number of total cell and inner cell mass was calculated. Results: The re-expansion rate of blastocysts in the cryoloop group (n=90; 78.26%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than open pulled straw (n=83; 69.16%), closed pulled straw (n=68; 54.83%) and conventional straws (n=63; 51.21%) groups. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the number of inner cell mass in blastocysts vitrified in open pulled straws, closed straws and cryoloop with blastocysts cryopreserved in conventional straws. Conclusion: The re-expansion rate and total cell number of mouse blastocysts vitrified using open system had a better result compared with the closed system. The value of cryoloop and open pulled straws as carriers in

  12. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-07-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.

  13. A feasibility study of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for multi-production of solid fuel and liquid fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnang, S.; Prawisudha, P.; Pasek, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    Energy use has increased steadily over the last century due to population and industry increase. With the growing of GHG, biomass becomes an essential contributor to the world energy need. Indonesia is the third rice producer in the world. Rice straw has been converted to solid fuel by Hydrothermal Treatment (HT) for electricity generation. HT is a boiling solid organic or inorganic substance in water at high pressure and temperature within a holding time. HT converts high moisture content biomass into dried, uniform, pulverized, and higher energy density solid fuels. HT can effectively transport nutrient components in biomass into a liquid product known as fertilizer. This paper deals with an evaluation of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for solid fuel and liquid fertilizer. An investigation of rice straw characteristics were completed for Bandung rice straw with various condition of temperature, biomass-water ratio, and holding time in the purpose to find the changes of calorific value for solid product and (N, P, K, and pH) for liquid product. The results showed that solid product at 225 °C and 90 min consists in a heating value 13.8 MJ/kg equal to lignite B. Liquid product at 225 °C and 90 min had the NPK content similar to that of micronutrients compound liquid fertilizer. The dried solid product should be useful for Coal Fire Power Plant, and the liquid product is suitable for plants. This research proves that hydrothermal process can be applied to rice straw to produce solid fuel and liquid fertilizer with adequate quality.

  14. Performance of long straw tubes using dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Guaraldo, C.; Lanaro, A.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.

    1995-01-01

    A cylindrical tracking detector with an inner radius of one meter employing straw tubes is being envisaged for the FINUDA experiment aimed at hyper-nuclear physics at DAΦNE, the Frascati φ-factory. A prototype using several 10 mm and 20 mm diameter, two meter long aluminized mylar straws has been assembled and tested with a one GeV/c pion beam. While operating with dimethyl ether, gas gain, space resolution, and device systematics have been studied. A simple method of correction for systematics due to straw eccentricity has been developed and, once applied, a space resolution better than 40 μm can be reached. (orig.)

  15. Study on the Pretreating Approaches for the Potato Straws

    OpenAIRE

    An Yumin; Wang Jukui; Huang Ye; Xu Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to pretreat the potato straws. Specifically, potato straws are handled using various kinds of chemical solutions, including HCI, H2SO4, NaOH and NaOH+H2O2, under different concentrations. For each kind of solution, particular indicators, such as the cellulose content as well as scarification ratio of the treated straws, are studied in the paper. Based on orthogonal experiments, the best pretreatment effect is obtained by using the solution of 4% NaOH under temp...

  16. The straw tube technology for the LHCb outer tracking system

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, S; Bagaturia, I; Deppe, H; Eisele, F; Haas, T; Hajduk, L; Langenegger, U; Michalowski, J; Nawrot, A; Polok, G; Pellegrino, A; Schuijlenburg, H; Schwierz, R; Sluijk, T; Spelt, J

    2004-01-01

    For the outer tracking system of the LHCb spectrometer 53.760 straws of 2.5 m length will be used. They are arranged in detector modules of 5 m length and 0.34 m width. The envisaged spatial resolution over the entire active area is 200$mu$m resulting in stringent requirements on the accuracy for the module construction. In this paper we discuss the optimisation of the straws, design and construction of detector modules. The long term operation properties of straws in two different counting g...

  17. Prospects in straw disintegration for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroušek, Josef

    2013-10-01

    The pretreatment methods for enhancing biogas production from oat straw under study include hot maceration, steam explosion, and pressure shockwaves. The micropore area (9, 55, and 64 m(2) g(-1)) inhibitor formations (0, 15, and 0 mL L(-1)) as well as the overall methane yields (67, 179, and 255 CH4 VS t(-1)) were robustly analyzed. It was confirmed that the operating conditions of the steam explosion must be precisely tailored to the substrate. Furthermore, it was beneficial to prepend the hot maceration before the steam explosion and the pressure shockwaves. The second alternative may give increased methane yields (246 in comparison to 273 CH4 VS t(-1)); however, the application of pressure shockwaves still faces limitations for deployment on a commercial scale.

  18. Straw combustion on slow-moving grates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2005-01-01

    Combustion of straw in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively poor fuel burnout. A numerical grate combustion model was developed to assist in improving the combustion performance of these boilers. The model is based on a one-dimensional ‘‘walking......-column’’ approach and includes the energy equations for both the fuel and the gas accounting for heat transfer between the two phases. The model gives important insight into the combustion process and provides inlet conditions for a computational fluid dynamics analysis of the freeboard. The model predictions...... indicate the existence of two distinct combustion modes. Combustion air temperature and mass flow-rate are the two parameters determining the mode. There is a significant difference in reaction rates (ignition velocity) and temperature levels between the two modes. Model predictions were compared...

  19. Fundamentals of fibre-reinforced soil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a one-stop reference on fibre-reinforced soils. Over the past 30-35 years, the engineering behaviour of randomly distributed/oriented fibre-reinforced soil, also called simply fibre-reinforced soil, has been investigated in detail by researchers and engineers worldwide. Waste fibres (plastic waste fibres, old tyre fibres, etc.) create disposal and environmental problems. Utilization of such fibres in construction can help resolve these concerns. Research studies and some field applications have shown that the fibres can be utilized in large quantities in geotechnical and civil engineering applications in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. This book covers a complete description of fibres, their effects when included within a soil or other similar materials such as the fly ash, and their field applications. It gives a detailed view of fibre-reinforced soil engineering. The book will be useful to students, professional, and researchers alike, and can also ser...

  20. Fibre cables in the lacunae of Typha leaves contribute to a tensegrity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witztum, Allan; Wayne, Randy

    2014-04-01

    Cables composed of long, non-lignified fibre cells enclosed in a cover of much shorter thin-walled, crystal-containing cells traverse the air chambers (lacunae) in leaves of the taller species of Typha. The non-lignified fibre cables are anchored in diaphragms composed of stellate cells of aerenchyma tissue that segment the long air chambers into smaller compartments. Although the fibre cables are easily observed and can be pulled free from the porous-to-air diaphragms, their structure and function have been ignored or misinterpreted. Leaves of various species of Typha were dissected and fibre cables were pulled free and observed with a microscope using bright-field and polarizing optics. Maximal tensile strength of freshly removed cables was measured by hanging weights from fibre cables, and Instron analysis was used to produce curves of load versus extension until cables broke. Polarized light microscopy revealed that the cellulose microfibrils that make up the walls of the cable fibres are oriented parallel to the long axis of the fibres. This orientation ensures that the fibre cables are mechanically stiff and strong under tension. Accordingly, the measured stiffness and tensile strength of the fibre cables were in the gigapascal range. In combination with the dorsal and ventral leaf surfaces and partitions that contain lignified fibre bundles and vascular strands that are strong in compression, the very fine fibre cables that are strong under tension form a tensegrity structure. The tensegrity structure creates multiple load paths through which stresses are redistributed throughout the 1-3 m tall upright leaves of Typha angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. × glauca, T. domingensis and T. shuttleworthii. The length of the fibre cables relative to the length of the leaf blades is reduced in the last-formed leaves of flowering individuals. Fibre cables are absent in the shorter leaves of Typha minima and, if present, only extend for a few centimetres from the sheath

  1. Different organic loading rates on the biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of rice straw: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yu, Qing; Yong, Xiaoyu; Xie, Xinxin; Zhang, Lijuan; Wei, Ping; Jia, Honghua

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mesophilic methane fermentation of rice straw at different organic loading rates (OLRs) in a 300m 3 bioreactor. It was found that biogas production increased when the OLR was below 2.00kg VS substrate /(m 3 ·d). The average volumetric biogas production reached 0.86m 3 /(m 3 ·d) at an OLR of 2.00kg VS substrate /(m 3 ·d). Biogas production rate was 323m 3 /t dry rice straw over the whole process. The pH, chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acid, and NH 4 + -N concentrations were all in optimal range at different OLRs. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that Firmicutes, Fibrobacteres, and Spirochaetes predominated in straw samples. Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Planctomycetes were more abundant in the slurry. The hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main biochemical pathway of methanogenesis in the reactor. This study provides new information regarding the OLR and the differences in the spatial distribution of specific microbiota in a rice straw biogas plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...

  3. Comparison of plant nutrient contents in vermicompost from selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this experiment, earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae was fed with different plant residues: grass clippings, sago waste and rice straw. These organic wastes were also left to decompose naturally as the control. Analysis on samples vermicompost showed that humic acid content was highest in rice straw, followed by grass ...

  4. CCD technology beyond fibre optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuffen, J.

    1988-01-01

    For the past 25 years the accepted method of viewing inside industrial components, or indeed the human body, has been by the use of either flexible or rigid fibre optics. In the last five years however, many developments have enabled television cameras to reduce to a size small enough to allow internal viewing of an object, without prior dismantling. This concept was achieved five years ago, with the Welch Allyn Videoprobe 2000, a charge coupled device. (author)

  5. A discrete fibre dispersion method for excluding fibres under compression in the modelling of fibrous tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kewei; Ogden, Ray W; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2018-01-01

    Recently, micro-sphere-based methods derived from the angular integration approach have been used for excluding fibres under compression in the modelling of soft biological tissues. However, recent studies have revealed that many of the widely used numerical integration schemes over the unit sphere are inaccurate for large deformation problems even without excluding fibres under compression. Thus, in this study, we propose a discrete fibre dispersion model based on a systematic method for discretizing a unit hemisphere into a finite number of elementary areas, such as spherical triangles. Over each elementary area, we define a representative fibre direction and a discrete fibre density. Then, the strain energy of all the fibres distributed over each elementary area is approximated based on the deformation of the representative fibre direction weighted by the corresponding discrete fibre density. A summation of fibre contributions over all elementary areas then yields the resultant fibre strain energy. This treatment allows us to exclude fibres under compression in a discrete manner by evaluating the tension-compression status of the representative fibre directions only. We have implemented this model in a finite-element programme and illustrate it with three representative examples, including simple tension and simple shear of a unit cube, and non-homogeneous uniaxial extension of a rectangular strip. The results of all three examples are consistent and accurate compared with the previously developed continuous fibre dispersion model, and that is achieved with a substantial reduction of computational cost. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Fatigue Damage Evolution in Fibre Composites for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristine Munk

    on the micro-scale in the non-crimp fabric based composites used for wind turbine blades. The results show that fibre fractures in the unidirectional (UD) load carrying fibre bundles initiate from off-axis cracks in the thin supporting backing fibre bundles. With an increasing number of fatigue load cycles......, the UD fibre fractures progress gradually into the thickness direction of the UD fibre bundles, which eventually results in final fracture of the fibre composite. It is also found that the UD fibre fracture regions generally grow larger and initiate earlier at cross-over regions of the backing fibre...... bundles than at single backing fibre bundle regions. Furthermore, UD Fibre fractures are only observed to initiate at locations where the backing fibre bundles are ‘in contact’ with a UD fibre bundle. By observing the damage progression in 3D, it is also clear that the UD fibre fractures initiated...

  7. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... Key words: Agaricus bisporus, wheat straw, waste tea leaves, wheat chaff, pin head formation, compost temperature .... kg then filled into plastic bags as 7 kg wet weight basis. ..... substrate environment for mushroom growing.

  8. Discussion on the electronic problems of straw vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of the characteristic time of the output waveform of straw vertex detector, the design of its high resolution and high counting rate readout system and the problems of the charge and time calibrations are discussed

  9. Lignin derivatives from desilicated rice straw soda black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taraboulsi, M A; Nasser, M M

    1979-01-01

    Carboxymethyl lignin, cyanoethyl lignin, carboxyethyl lignin, and aminopropyl lignin were prepared from alkali lignin of rice straw black liquor (after disilication by storage for 1 wk to 1 yr) and used as sizes for paper, drilling fluid additives and flocculants.

  10. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts and locally available casing materials Part III: Dry matter, protein, and carbohydrate contents of Agaricus bisporus.

  11. Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using supplements of some locally available peats and their mixture with some secondary casing materials.

  12. Bioconversion process of rice straw by thermotolerant cellulolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    state fermentation for bioethanol production is a focus of current attention. ... Optimization of fermentation conditions showed highest cellulolytic enzymes ... using dilute acid pretreated rice straw hydrolysate with initial soluble ...

  13. Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1999-01-01

    Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete with 2.5-4.2% air and 6-9% air (% by volume in fresh concrete) casted in the laboratory and in-situ is compared. Steel fibres with hooked ends (ZP, length 30 mm) and polypropylene fibres (PP, CS, length 12 mm) are applied. It is shown that· addition...... of 0.4-1% by volume of fibres cannot replace air entrainment in order to secure a frost resistant concrete; the minimum amount of air needed to make the concrete frost resistant is not changed when adding fibres· the amount of air entrainment must be increased when fibres are added to establish...

  14. Theorem of comparative sensitivity of fibre sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belovolov, M. I.; Paramonov, V. M.; Belovolov, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    We report an analysis of sensitivity of fibre sensors of physical quantities based on different types of interferometers. We formulate and prove the following theorem: under the time-dependent external physical perturbations at nonzero frequencies (i.e., except the static and low-frequency ones) on the sensitive arms of an interferometer in the form of multiturn elements (coils), there exist such lengths L of the measuring arms of the fibre interferometers at which the sensitivity of sensors based on the Sagnac fibre interferometers can be comparable with the sensitivity of sensors based on Michelson, Mach - Zehnder, or Fabry - Perot fibre interferometers, as well as exceed it under similar other conditions (similar-type perturbations, similar arm lengths and single-mode fibre types). The consequences that follow from the theorem, important for practical implementation of arrays of fibre sensors for measurement purposes and the devices with stable metrological properties, are discussed.

  15. Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fibre Comprising a Fibre Grating in the Cladding and its Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An optical fibre is provided having a fibre cladding around a longitudinally extending optical propagation core. The cladding has a reflection region of a varying refractive index in the longitudinal direction....

  16. Multichannel prototype of coordinate detector based on segmented straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusakov, Yu.V.; Davkov, V.I.; Davkov, K.I.; Zhukov, I.A.; Lutsenko, V.M.; Myalkovskij, V.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Savenkov, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The design and assembly technology of a detector prototype based on segmented straws is considered. The granularity of the prototype is 4 cm 2 . The prototype has a sensitive area of 400 x 200 mm, and contains two straw planes displaced against each other by 2 mm. The number of registration channels is 360. Preliminary results of the bench study of the prototype are presented

  17. Additives on in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics of rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Peripolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mineral and protein-energy (MPES, exogenous fibrolytic enzyme supplements (ES, combination of MPES + ES, and straw without supplement (WS on digestibility, fermentation kinetic parameters, cumulative gas production, methane, CO2 production, and volatile fatty acid concentration of rice straw of low and high nutritional value, estimated by in vitro techniques. The experimental design was randomized and factorial 2 × 4: two straws (low and high nutritional value incubated with four supplements (MPES, ES, MPES + ES, and WS and their interactions. Four experimental periods were used, totaling four replications per treatment over time. Data were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS. The in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of the rice straw with high nutritional value was improved by MPES, while the combination of MPES + ES supplements inhibited the digestibility of this straw. Dietary carbohydrate and nitrogen increased through MPES and MPES + ES supplements resulted in an increase in NH3-N concentration and a decrease in CO2 production due to the microbial mass formation. However, this increase was not enough to improve organic matter degradability parameters, cummulative gas production, gas production kinetics, and acetate:propionate ratio and reduce methane emissions. The straw with high nutritional value showed greater content of nitrogen fraction a, effective degradability, cummulative gas production, and methane and CO2 productions comparing with low-nutritional value straw. The use of MPES and MPES + ES supplements can be used as strategy to mitigate CO2 in ruminant production systems that use rice straw.

  18. High precision straw tube chamber with cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Golutvin, I.A.; Ershov, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The high precision straw chamber with cathode readout was constructed and investigated. The 10 mm straws were made of aluminized mylar strip with transparent longitudinal window. The X coordinate information has been taken from the cathode strips as induced charges and investigated via centroid method. The spatial resolution σ=120 μm has been obtained with signal/noise ratio about 60. The possible ways for improving the signal/noise ratio have been described. 7 refs.; 8 figs

  19. A high precision straw tube chamber with cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Golutvin, I.A.; Ershov, Yu.V.; Zubarev, E.V.; Ivanov, A.B.; Lysiakov, V.N.; Makhankov, A.V.; Movchan, S.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Preda, T.

    1993-01-01

    The high precision straw chamber with cathode readout was constructed and investigated. The 10 mm diameter straws were made of aluminized Mylar with transparent longitudinal window. The X-coordinate information has been taken from cathode strips as induced charges and investigated with the centroid method. The spatial resolution σ x =103 μm was obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio of about 70. The possible ways to improve the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Influence of fibre orientation on the performance of steel fibre-reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Grünewald, Steffen; Laranjeira de Oliveira, Filipe; Walraven, Joost; Aguado de Cea, Antonio; Molins i Borrell, Climent

    2012-01-01

    The performance of fibre-reinforced materials in the hardened state depends on the material behaviour, the production method and influences related to the structure. The position and the orientation of fibres in a structure can differ from the homogenous distribution and the random orientation in a mixer. Due to the flow of the concrete, fibres are able to orient which makes the prediction of the structural behaviour of fibre-reinforced concrete more complex, but it also offers the potential ...

  1. OPTICAL FIBRES AND FIBREOPTIC SENSORS: Polarisation reflectometry of anisotropic optical fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Yurii A.; Kryukov, Igor'I.; Pervadchuk, Vladimir P.; Toroshin, Andrei Yu

    2009-11-01

    Anisotropic, polarisation-maintaining fibres have been studied using a reflectometer and integrated optic polariser. Linearly polarised pulses were launched into the fibre under test at different angles between their plane of polarisation and the main optical axis of the fibre. A special procedure for the correlation analysis of these reflectograms is developed to enhance the reliability of the information about the longitudinal optical uniformity ofanisotropic fibres.

  2. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Irnis Azura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA with food waste (FW and effective microorganisms (EM in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content. RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, ‘tempe’ and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C, RSA (400°C, RSA (500°C and control (raw rice straw with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  3. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azura Zakarya, Irnis; Baya Khalib, Siti Noor; Ramzi, Norhasykin Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA) with food waste (FW) and effective microorganisms (EM) in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content). RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, `tempe' and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C), RSA (400°C), RSA (500°C) and control (raw rice straw) with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  4. Biodegradation of wheat straw by different isolates of Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Astaraei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of agricultural wastes due to their recycling and possible production of cost effective materials, have economic and ecological advantages. A biological method used for degrading agricultural wastes is a new method for improving the digestibility of these materials and favoring the ease of degradation by other microorganisms. This research was carried out to study the possible biodegradation of wheat straw by different species and isolates of Trichoderma fungi. Two weeks after inoculation of wheat straw by different isolates, oven drying in 75◦C, the samples were weighted and (Acid Detergent Fiber ADF and NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber reductions of each sample under influence of fungal growth were compared with their controls. The results showed that biodegradation of wheat straw were closely related to fungi species and also its isolates. The Reductions in NDF and ADF of wheat straw by T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum were more pronounced compared to others, although T. reesei was superior in ADF of wheat straw reduction. It is concluded that for improving in digestibility and also shortening the timing of composting process, it is recommended to treat the wheat straw with Trichoderma fungi and especially with T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum that performed well and had excellent efficiencies.

  5. Impact of straw and rock-fragment mulches on soil moisture and early growth of holm oaks in a semiarid area

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. N. Jimenez; J. R. Pinto; M. A. Ripoll; A. Sanchez-Miranda; F. B. Navarro

    2017-01-01

    Planted seedlings and saplings usually exhibit low survival and growth rates under dry Mediterranean environments, especially late-successional species such as Quercus. In this work, we studied the effects of straw and rock fragment mulches on the establishment conditions of holm oak (Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Def.) Samp.) in SE Spain. Soil moisture was...

  6. Two-Dimensional NMR Evidence for Cleavage of Lignin and Xylan Substituents in Wheat Straw Through Hydrothermal Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; Prasad Kaparaju; Christopher G. Hunt; Kolby Hirth; Hoon Kim; John Ralph; Claus Felby

    2012-01-01

    Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of plant cell walls is a powerful tool for characterizing changes in cell wall chemistry during the hydrothermal pretreatment process of wheat straw for second-generation bioethanol production. One-bond 13C-1H NMR correlation spectroscopy, via...

  7. Fibre optic power meter calibration uncertainties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available the patch cord, alternatively feeding into the standard or UUT is labelled ‘reference patch cord’. It is preferred to use a patch cord with a ceramic fibre tip (not metal fibre tip) to reduce reflections between the fibre tip and the detector... tightening effect To empirically quantify the effect of connector tightening, two readings are taken at each measurement, which for briefness are labelled "tight" and "un-tight". A "tight" connection is when the fibre connector is tightened...

  8. Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites and comparison with jute and flax fibre PP composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites were fabricated with different fibre loadings (20, 30, 40, 50wt% and in some cases 35 and 45 wt%. Flax and jute fibre reinforced PP composites were also fabricated with 30 wt% fibre loading. The mechanical properties, odour emission and structure properties were investigated for those composites. Tensile, flexural and Charpy impact strengths were found to increase for fibre loadings up to 40 wt% and then decreased. Falling weight impact tests were also carried out and the same tendency was observed. Owing to the addition of coupling agent (maleated polypropylene -MAH-PP, the tensile, flexural and falling weight impact properties were found to increase in between 30 to 80% for different fibre loadings. When comparing jute and flax fibre composites with abaca fibre composites, jute fibre composites provided best tensile properties but abaca fibre polypropylene composites were shown to provide best notch Charpy and falling weight impact properties. Odours released by flax fibre composites were smaller than jute and abaca fibre composites.

  9. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; van Haag, J.; Schöngart, M.

    2015-05-01

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material's properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.

  10. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Haag, J. van; Schöngart, M.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material’s properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA

  11. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Haag, J. van; Schöngart, M. [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Pontstr. 49, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material’s properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.

  12. Non-Linear Fibres for Widely Tunable Femtosecond Fibre Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard

    and numerically. For the intermodal four-wave mixing experiment an alternative version of the Generalised Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation is derived, which includes the correct dispersion of the transverse field. It is observed that the alternative version of the Generalised Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation......, as opposed to the commonly used version, is able to reproduce the intermodal four-wave mixing experiment. The relation between the intramodal self-phase modulation and the intramodal Raman effect is determined from experimental measurements on a number of step-index fibres. The Raman fraction is found...

  13. Straw-to-soil or straw-to-energy? An optimal trade off in a long term sustainability perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, Massimo; Cammerino, Anna Rita Bernadette; Garofalo, Pasquale; Delivand, Mitra Kami

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy balance and GHG savings of a straw-to-electricity value chain were determined. • An “expanded” LCA was performed, from farm field to electricity delivery. • Both direct and indirect factors of land use change have been considered in the analysis. • No-tillage and crop rotation significantly improved the system performance. • A win–win, sustainable solution for the energy use of straw has been identified. - Abstract: This study examined some management strategies of wheat cultivation system and its sustainability in using straw as an energy feedstock. According to the EU regulatory framework on biofuels, no GHG emissions should be assigned to straws when they are used for energy. Given this relevance in the current energy policy, it is advisable to include all possible marginal effects related to land use, resource utilization and management changes in the comparison of different biomass options. Coherently, an expanded life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to include the upstream cultivation phase and to make a comparison between “straw to soil” and “straw to energy”. Different crop management conditions in Southern Italy were simulated, by using the CropSyst model, to estimate the long-term soil organic carbon and annual N 2 O soil emissions. Three wheat cropping systems were considered: the conventional single wheat system without straw removal (W0) and with partial straw removal (W1), together with a no-tillage “wheat-wheat-herbage” rotation system with partial straw removal (W2). The results of the simulations were integrated in the LCA to compare fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of straw-to-electricity with respect to the fossil-based electricity system. The “improved” rotational wheat cropping system (W2) gave the best performance in terms both of GHG savings and fossil displacement, thus stressing that straw use for energy generation in parallel with the optimization of the

  14. Determining In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics and Methane Production of Wheat Straw and Soybean Straw Pelleted with Different Additives

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLEÇYÜZ, Emre; KILIÇ, Ünal

    2018-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed todetermine the effects of pelletting on the invitro gas productions (IVGP), invitro digestibilities and methane productions of wheat straw and soy strawpelletted with different additives such as molasses, guar meal and sepolite. Inthe study, 2x2x4 factorial experimental design was used and total 16 groups (2straws (wheat-soybean), 2 different sepiolite applications (absent-present) and4 additives (control, guar meal,molasses and guar meal +molasses) wereformed.The...

  15. Blast Resistance of Slurry Infiltrated Fibre Concrete with Waste Steel Fibres from Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drdlová Martina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste steel fibres (coming from the recycling process of the old tires in production of blast resistant cement based panels was assessed. Waste fibres were incorporated in slurry infiltrated fibre concrete (SIFCON, which is a special type of ultra-highperformance fibre reinforced concrete with high fibre content. The technological feasibility (i.e. suitability of the waste fibres for SIFCON technology was assessed using homogeneity test. Test specimens were prepared with three volume fractions (5; 7.5 and 10 % by vol. of waste unclassified fibres. SIFCON with industrial steel fibres (10% by vol. and ultra-highperformance fibre concrete with industrial fibres were also cast and tested for comparison purposes. Quasi-static mechanical properties were determined. Real blast tests were performed on the slab specimens (500x500x40 mm according to the modified methodology M-T0-VTU0 10/09. Damage of the slab, the change of the ultrasound wave velocity propagation in the slab specimen before and after the blast load in certain measurement points, the weight of fragments and their damage potential were evaluated and compared. Realized tests confirmed the possibility of using the waste fibres for SIFCON technology. The obtained results indicate, that the usage of waste fibres does not significantly reduce the values of SIFCON flexural and compressive strength at quasi-static load - the values were comparable to the specimens with industrially produced fibres. With increasing fibre content, the mechanical parameters are increasing as well. Using of the waste fibres reduces fragmentation of SIFCON at blast load due to the fibre size parameters. Using of low diameter fibres means more fibres in the matrix and thus better homogeneity of the whole composite with less unreinforced areas. Regarding the blast tests, the specimen with waste steel fibres showed the best resistance and outperformed also the specimen with commercial fibres. Using of

  16. Investigation on effect of fibre hybridization and orientation on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... for fibres to assess their efficiency. The first ... alternative to flax spun yarns. Bledzki et al ... Natural fibre composite are renewable, light in weight with ..... absorbs more energy due to hybridization of abaca and neem fibres.

  17. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Buendía, Angel M., E-mail: buendia@uv.es [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Benjamin Franklin 17, 46380 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain); Climent, Verónica [Lafarge Cementos, Polígono Sepes, Isaac Newton s/n, 46500 Sagunto, Valencia (Spain); Guillem, Celia [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  18. Adsorptive Removal of Toxic Chromium from Waste-Water Using Wheat Straw and Eupatorium adenophorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagang Song

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution with heavy metals is a serious issue worldwide posing threats to humans, animals and plants and to the stability of overall ecosystem. Chromium (Cr is one of most hazardous heavy metals with a high carcinogenic and recalcitrant nature. Aim of the present study was to select low-cost biosorbent using wheat straw and Eupatorium adenophorum through simple carbonization process, capable of removing Cr (VI efficiently from wastewater. From studied plants a low cost adsorbent was prepared for removing Cr (VI from aqueous solution following very simple carbonization method excluding activation process. Several factors such as pH, contact time, sorbent dosage and temperature were investigated for attaining ideal condition. For analysis of adsorption equilibrium isotherm data, Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were used while pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, external diffusion and intra-particle diffusion models were used for the analysis of kinetic data. The obtained results revealed that 99.9% of Cr (VI removal was observed in the solution with a pH of 1.0. Among all the tested models Langmuir model fitted more closely according to the data obtained. Increase in adsorption capacity was observed with increasing temperature revealing endothermic nature of Cr (VI. The maximum Cr (VI adsorption potential of E. adenophorum and wheat straw was 89.22 mg per 1 gram adsorbent at 308K. Kinetic data of absorption precisely followed pseudo-second-order model. Present study revealed highest potential of E. adenophorum and wheat straw for producing low cost adsorbent and to remove Cr (VI from contaminated water.

  19. Contribution of rice straw carbon to CH4 emission from rice paddies using 13C-enriched rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Yoshida, Mariko; Kimura, Makoto

    1998-04-01

    It is generally recognized that the application of rice straw (RS) increases CH4 emission from rice paddies. To estimate the contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission, a pot experiment was conducted using 13C-enriched RS. The percentage contributions of RS carbon to CH4 emission throughout the rice growth period were 10±1, 32±3, and 43±3% for the treatments with RS applied at the rates of 2, 4, and 6 g kg-1 soil, respectively. The increase in the rate of application of RS increased CH4 emission derived from both RS carbon and other carbon sources. The percentage contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission was larger in the earlier period (maximum 96%) when the decomposition rate of RS was larger. After RS decomposition had slowed, CH4 emission derived from RS carbon decreased. However, the δ13C values of CH4 emitted from the pots with 13C-enriched RS applied at rates of 4 and 6 g kg-1 soil were significantly higher than those from the pots with natural RS until the harvesting stage. An increased atom-13C% of roots of rice plants growing in the pots with 6 g kg-1 of 13C-enriched RS at around the maximum tiller number stage and a decrease during the following 2 months suggested that rice plants assimilated RS carbon once and then released a portion of it. This supply of RS carbon from roots may be one of the sources of CH4 in the late period of rice growth.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON LIGHT TRANSMITTING CONCRETE BY USING OPTICAL FIBRE

    OpenAIRE

    S. Suganya; S. Minu Gopika

    2017-01-01

    Light transmitting concrete is one of the fibre reinforced concrete which is mainly used for aesthetic application by incorporating the optical fibres in concrete. Optical fibres help to transmit the light through the fibres and the end-light type of fibre is used to increase the aesthetic appearance of the concrete which is like a transparent concrete. Fibres are arranged in different layers, to increase the load carrying capacity and also the pattern can be created to make the concrete deco...

  1. Scintillating fibre tracking neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Joakim.

    1995-04-01

    A detector for measurements of collimated fluxes of neutrons in the energy range 2-20 MeV is proposed. It utilizes (n.p) elastic scattering in scintillating optical fibres placed in successive orthogonal layers perpendicular to the neutron flux. A test module has been designed, constructed and tested with respect to separation of neutron and gamma events. The pulse height measurements show the feasibility to discriminate between neutron, gamma and background events. Application to measurements of fusion neutrons is considered. 18 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Stability Analysis of a High Fibre Yield and Low Lignin Content “Thick Stem” Mutant in Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aninda Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A “thick stem” mutant of Corchorus olitorius L. was induced at M2 (0.50%, 4 h, EMS and the true breeding mutant is assessed across generations (M5 to M7 considering morphometric traits as well as SEM analysis of pollen grains and raw jute fibres, stem anatomy, cytogenetical attributes, and lignin content in relation to control. Furthermore, single fibre diameter and tensile strength are also analysed. The objective is to assess the stability of mutant for its effective exploration for raising a new plant type in tossa jute for commercial exploitation and efficient breeding. The mutant trait is monogenic recessive to normal. Results indicate that “thick stem” mutant is stable across generations (2n=14 with distinctive high seed and fibre yield and significantly low lignin content. Stem anatomy of the mutant shows significant enhancement in fibre zone, number of fibre pyramids and fibre bundles per pyramid, and diameter of fibre cell in relation to control. Moreover, tensile strength of mutant fibre is significantly higher than control fibre and the trait is inversely related to fibre diameter. However the mutant is associated with low germination frequency, poor seed viability, and high pollen sterility, which may be eliminated through mutational approach followed by rigorous selection and efficient breeding.

  3. Commercialization Development of Crop Straw Gasification Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop straw gasification technologies are the most promising biomass gasification technologies and have great potential to be further developed in China. However, the commercialization development of gasification technology in China is slow. In this paper, the technical reliability and practicability of crop straw gasification technologies, the economic feasibility of gas supply stations, the economic feasibility of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises and the social acceptability of crop straw gasification technologies are analyzed. The results show that presently both the atmospheric oxidation gasification technology and the carbonization pyrolysis gasification technology in China are mature and practical, and can provide fuel gas for households. However, there are still a series of problems associated with these technologies that need to be solved for the commercialization development, such as the high tar and CO content of the fuel gas. The economic feasibility of the gas supply stations is different in China. Parts of gas supply stations are unprofitable due to high initial investment, the low fuel gas price and the small numbers of consumers. In addition, the commercialization development of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises is hindered for the low market demand for gasification equipment which is related to the fund support from the government. The acceptance of the crop straw gasification technologies from both the government and the farmers in China may be a driving force of further commercialization development of the gasification technologies. Then, the crop straw gasification technologies in China have reached at the stage of pre-commercialization. At this stage, the gasification technologies are basically mature and have met many requirements of commercialization, however, some incentives are needed to encourage their further development.

  4. Winding of fibre composites; Vikling af fiberkompositter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lystrup, Aage

    2006-01-01

    Within the project 'Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure vessels' under the PSO-R AND D 2005 program one of the tasks is to describe the technology, which is used for manufacturing of fibre reinforced pressure vessels. Fibre reinforced pressure vessels for high pressures are manufactured by winding structural load bearing fibres around a mandrel or an internal liner. There are two different types of cylindrical pressure vessels: 1) Cylinders with thick metal liner, where only the cylindrical part is over wrapped with hoop windings, and 2) cylinders with a thin metal or polymer liner, where both the cylindrical part and the end domes are over wrapped with more layers with different fibre orientations (helical and hoop windings). This report describes the fundamental principles for filament winding of fibre reinforced polymer composites. After a short introduction to the advanced fibre composites, their properties and semi-raw materials used for fibre composites, the focus is on the process parameters, which have influence on the material quality of filament wound components. The report is both covering winding of fibre reinforced thermo-setting polymers as well as thermoplastic polymers, and there are references to vendors of filament winding machines, accessory equipment and computer software for design and manufacturing of filament wound components. (au)

  5. Step index fibre using laser interferometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-04

    Mar 4, 2014 ... We propose the following model to describe the cladded fibre placed inside a liquid wedge interferometer. For simplicity, we assume square interferometer plates of dimensions 2a,. 2b and refractive index μL. The fibre radius is rf and the core radius is rc with skin and core indices μs, μc respectively. Hence ...

  6. Fibre digestion in the hyra;r

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dried samples by calorimeter combustion. The fibre con- tent was determined by the method of Van Soest (1964) us- ing a Fibretec 1020 hot extraction apparatus. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between the two most important fibre digesting gut regions, the sac- culation and caeca. Results.

  7. Mohair, cashmere and other animal hair fibres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although luxury animal fibres, excluding silk, represent far less than 0.1% of global fibre production, they play a very significant role in the luxury, high value-added end of the market, notably the apparel market, being renowned for their special...

  8. Mohair, cashmere and other animal hair fibres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available and mostly unique features, such as comfort and softness. This chapter covers the production, properties, processing and end-uses of the various luxury animal fibres, with the exclusion of silk, with the main focus on the down (undercoat) fibres of those...

  9. Insertion of optic fibre for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The MicroJET system uses high pressure to carefully put the optical fibres into their protective tubes. These fibres are vital for rapid data transfer, but are also very delicate and, if damanged, may not work at the required efficiency. Similiar methods are used to install cables for the telecommunications industry.

  10. Deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.

    2007-01-01

    Deformation quantization is an algebraic but still geometrical way to define noncommutative spacetimes. In order to investigate corresponding gauge theories on such spaces, the geometrical formulation in terms of principal fibre bundles yields the appropriate framework. In this talk I will explain what should be understood by a deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles and how associated vector bundles arise in this context. (author)

  11. Microstructural characterization of stone wool fibre network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie; Brøndsted, Povl; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of fibrous network as complex as stone wool materials requires a relevant description of their microstructure and architecture. In this study, different methods have been proposed to characterize the fibre orientation, diameter and length of fibres as well...

  12. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  13. Fibre optic cables for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    These thin fibres will transmit the signal received in detectors at the ALICE experiment when it starts up with the LHC in 2008. The analogue signals produced in the detectors are first converted into digital pulse, which are transported in light down such fibres. Computers then read this digital signal to produce the final set of data.

  14. Thermally induced structural changes in Nomex fibres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Thermally aged Nomex fibres manifest several residual effects viz. reduction in X-ray crystallinity, weight loss and deterioration in tensile characteristics. Surface damages in the form of longi- tudinal openings, holes, material deposits etc have also been observed. Based on the data from thermally exposed fibres ...

  15. Strength variability of single flax fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Chinga-Carrasco, G.; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2011-01-01

    (linear and nonlinear) of the fibres are found to be correlated with the amount of defects. The linear stress–strain curves tend to show a higher tensile strength, a higher Young’s modulus, and a lower strain to failure than the nonlinear curves. Finally, the fibres are found to fracture by a complex...

  16. Durability of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1996-01-01

    The planned research will indicate, whether fibre reinforced concrete has better or worse durability than normal concrete. Durability specimens will be measured on cracked as well as uncracked specimens. Also the pore structure in the concrete will be characterized.Keywords: Fibre reinforced...... concrete, durability, pore structure, mechanical load...

  17. Selective filling of Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Noordegraaf, Danny; Sørensen, Thorkild

    2005-01-01

    A model for calculating the time necessary for filling one or more specific holes in a photonic crystal fibre is made. This model is verified for water, and its enabling potential is illustrated by a polymer application. Selective filling of the core in an air-guide photonic crystal fibre...

  18. Characterization of lignin during oxidative and hydrothermal pre-treatment processes of wheat straw and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Felby, Claus

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize and map changes in lignin during hydrothermal and wet explosion pre-treatments of wheat straw and corn stover. Chemical composition, microscopic (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopic (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR) analyses were performed. Results showed that both pre-treatments improved the cellulose and lignin content with substantial removal of hemicellulose in the pre-treated biomasses. These values were slightly higher for hydrothermal compared to wet explosion pre-treatment. ATR-FTIR analyses also confirmed these results. Microscopic analysis showed that pre-treatments affected the biomass by partial difibration. Lignin deposition on the surface of the hydrothermally pre-treated fibre was very distinct while severe loss of fibril integrity was noticed with wet exploded fibre. The present study thus revealed that the lignin cannot be removed by the studied pre-treatments. However, both pre-treatments improved the accessibility of the biomass towards enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel micro-straw for cryopreservation of small number of human spermatozoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of few spermatozoa is still a major challenge for male fertility preservation. This study reports use a new micro-straw (LSL straw for freezing few spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Semen samples from 22 fertile donors were collected, and each semen sample was diluted and mixed with cryoprotectant in a ratio of 1:1, and then frozen using three different straws such as LSL straw (50-100 μl, traditional 0.25 ml and 0.5 ml straws. For freezing, all straws were fumigated with liquid nitrogen, with temperature directly reducing to −130-−140°C. Sperm concentration, progressive motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, and DNA fragmentation index were evaluated before and after freezing. After freezing-thawing, LSL straw group had significantly higher percentage of sperm motility than traditional 0.25 ml and 0.5 ml straw groups (38.5% vs 27.4% and 25.6%, P 0.05. As LSL straws were thinner and hold very small volume, the freezing rate of LSL straw was obviously faster than 0.25 ml straw and 0.5 ml straws. In conclusion, LSL micro-straws may be useful to store few motile spermatozoa with good recovery of motility for patients undergoing ICSI treatment.

  20. Laser self-mixing interference fibre sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Zhao Yan; Jin Guofan

    2008-01-01

    Fibre sensors exhibit a number of advantages over other sensors such as high sensitivity, electric insulation, corrosion resistance, interference rejection and so on. And laser self-mixing interference can accurately detect the phase difference of feedback light. In this paper, a novel laser self-mixing interference fibre sensor that combines the advantages of fibre sensors with those of laser self-mixing interference is presented. Experimental configurations are set up to study the relationship between laser power output and phase of laser feedback light when the fibre trembles or when the fibre is stretched or pressed. The theoretical analysis of pressure sensors based on laser self-mixing interference is indicated to accord with the experimental results. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  1. Analysing the nanoporous structure of aramid fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauw, Brian Richard; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Mortensen, Kell

    2010-01-01

    After consideration of the applicability of classical methods, a novel analysis method for the characterization of fibre void structures is presented, capable of fitting the entire anisotropic two-dimensional scattering pattern to a model of perfectly aligned, polydisperse ellipsoids. It is tested...... for validity against the computed scattering pattern for a simulated nanostructure, after which it is used to fit the scattering from the void structure of commercially available heat-treated poly(p-phenylene terephtalamide) fibre and its as-spun precursor fibre. The application shows a reasonable fit...... scattering on the scattering pattern. The fit to the scattering pattern of as-spun aramid fibre is improved by the introduction of the large scatterers, while the fit to the scattering pattern obtained from the heat-treated fibre improves when an orientation distribution is taken into account...

  2. Distributed acoustic fibre optic sensors for condition monitoring of pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussels, Maria-Teresa; Chruscicki, Sebastian; Habib, Abdelkarim; Krebber, Katerina

    2016-05-01

    Industrial piping systems are particularly relevant to public safety and the continuous availability of infrastructure. However, condition monitoring systems based on many discrete sensors are generally not well-suited for widespread piping systems due to considerable installation effort, while use of distributed fibre-optic sensors would reduce this effort to a minimum. Specifically distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) is employed for detection of third-party threats and leaks in oil and gas pipelines in recent years and can in principle also be applied to industrial plants. Further possible detection routes amenable by DAS that could identify damage prior to emission of medium are subject of a current project at BAM, which aims at qualifying distributed fibre optic methods such as DAS as a means for spatially continuous monitoring of industrial piping systems. Here, first tests on a short pipe are presented, where optical fibres were applied directly to the surface. An artificial signal was used to define suitable parameters of the measurement system and compare different ways of applying the sensor.

  3. Fibre-Matrix Interaction in Soft Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zaoyang

    2010-01-01

    Although the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue has been extensively studied, the interaction between the collagen fibres and the ground matrix has not been well understood and is therefore ignored by most constitutive models of soft tissue. In this paper, the human annulus fibrosus is used as an example and the potential fibre-matrix interaction is identified by careful investigation of the experimental results of biaxial and uniaxial testing of the human annulus fibrosus. First, the uniaxial testing result of the HAF along the axial direction is analysed and it is shown that the mechanical behaviour of the ground matrix can be well simulated by the incompressible neo-Hookean model when the collagen fibres are all under contraction. If the collagen fibres are stretched, the response of the ground matrix can still be described by the incompressible neo-Hookean model, but the effective stiffness of the matrix depends on the fibre stretch ratio. This stiffness can be more than 10 times larger than the one obtained with collagen fibres under contraction. This phenomenon can only be explained by the fibre-matrix interaction. Furthermore, we find that the physical interpretation of this interaction includes the inhomogeneity of the soft tissue and the fibre orientation dispersion. The dependence of the tangent stiffness of the matrix on the first invariant of the deformation tensor can also be explained by the fibre orientation dispersion. The significant effect of the fibre-matrix interaction strain energy on mechanical behaviour of the soft tissue is also illustrated by comparing some simulation results.

  4. Insulation Characteristics of Sisal Fibre/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shalwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using natural fibres in civil engineering is the aim of many industrial and academics sectors to overcome the impact of synthetic fibres on environments. One of the potential applications of natural fibres composites is to be implemented in insulation components. Thermal behaviour of polymer composites based on natural fibres is recent ongoing research. In this article, thermal characteristics of sisal fibre reinforced epoxy composites are evaluated for treated and untreated fibres considering different volume fractions of 0–30%. The results revealed that the increase in the fibre volume fraction increased the insulation performance of the composites for both treated and untreated fibres. More than 200% insulation rate was achieved at the volume fraction of 20% of treated sisal fibres. Untreated fibres showed about 400% insulation rate; however, it is not recommended to use untreated fibres from mechanical point of view. The results indicated that there is potential of using the developed composites for insulation purposes.

  5. Rare-Earth Doped Photonic Crystal Fibre Lasers and Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, a theoretical and numerical study of the use of rare-earthdoped photonic crystal fibres as optical amplifiers and lasers, has been performed. Photonic crystal fibres or microstructured optical fibres is a new kind of optical fibre in which the cladding region typically consist....... Their novel properties allow for design of optical fibre amplifiers and fibre lasers with superior performance, compared to solutions based on conventional fibres. The primary applications considered are high efficiency fibre amplifiers based on index guiding photonic crystal fibres, and cladding pumped....... The thesis also presents the basic properties of optical amplification, and describes the numerical model developed to model the behaviour of lasers and amplifiers based on photonic crystal fibres. The developed numerical tools are then used to investigate specific applications of photonic crystal fibres...

  6. Improving retting of fibre through genetic modification of flax to express pectinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musialak, Magdalena; Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Starzycka, Eligia; Szopa, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a raw material used for important industrial products. Linen has very high quality textile properties, such as its strength, water absorption, comfort and feel. However, it occupies less than 1% of the total textile market. The major reason for this is the long and difficult retting process by which linen fibres are obtained. In retting, bast fibre bundles are separated from the core, the epidermis and the cuticle. This is accomplished by the cleavage of pectins and hemicellulose in the flax cell wall, a process mainly carried out by plant pathogens like filamentous fungi. The remaining bast fibres are mainly composed of cellulose and lignin. The aim of this study was to generate plants that could be retted more efficiently. To accomplish this, we employed the novel approach of transgenic flax plant generation with increased polygalacturonase (PGI ) and rhamnogalacturonase (RHA) activities. The constitutive expression of Aspergillus aculeatus genes resulted in a significant reduction in the pectin content in tissue-cultured and field-grown plants. This pectin content reduction was accompanied by a significantly higher (more than 2-fold) retting efficiency of the transgenic plant fibres as measured by a modified Fried's test. No alteration in the lignin or cellulose content was observed in the transgenic plants relative to the control. This indicates that the over-expression of the two enzymes does not affect flax fibre composition. The growth rate and soluble sugar and starch contents were in the range of the control levels. It is interesting to note that the RHA and PGI plants showed higher resistance to Fusarium culmorum and F. oxysporum attack, which correlates with the increased phenolic acid level. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time that over-expression of the A. aculeatus genes results in flax plants more readily usable for fibre production. The biochemical parameters of the cell wall components indicated that

  7. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical modification of straw by alkaline treatment. [Trolmen process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    In straw from 9 Swedish cereal cultivars of barley, oats, wheat, and rye, low molecular weight carbohydrates constituted only 0.3-1.4% of the straw with sucrose, glucose, fructose, and the sugar alcohols arabinitol and mannitol as main constituents. Hemicellulose (18-24%), cellulose (27-37%) and Klason-lignin (19-24%) were the main constituents. The ash (3-12%) and silica (0.5-3%) values showed rather high variations. After the Trolmen process, a wet closed NaOH treatment method, there was a slight enrichment of carbohydrates and ash and a decrease of Klason-lignin in the treated straw. About 1% of phenolic acids, mainly alpha ..beta.. -dihydro-p-coumatic, trans-p-coumaric, alpha ..beta.. -dihydroferulic and trans-ferulic acids, were quantified in the black liquid from the Trolmen process. These acids were probably ester-linked to the hemicellulose in the native straw and released during alkali treatment.HOAc, probably from Ac groups in xylan, and some of the silica were also released during the process. Although the amount of dissolved lignin was small, linkages between lignin and hemicellulosic polymers, perhaps also to cellulose, may be broken during the treatment. Linkages of these types may block the carbohydrates from enzymic action and reduce the digestibility. The higher digestibility of alkali-treated straw is probably due both to breaking of such linkages and to swelling of the polysaccharides rather than removal of any large amounts of undigestible components as lignin and silica.

  9. Heating with straw. Cost structure of the agricultural heat production; Heizen mit Stroh. Kostenstruktur der landwirtschaftlichen Waermeerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietze, Matthias; Heilmann, Hubert [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenproduktion und Betriebswirtschaft

    2012-07-01

    In the present investigation the economy of straw heating is compared to an oil heating for pigs and poultry farms. High requirements in terms of the raw material and the high workloads during grain harvest make an appropriate mechanization necessary. The costs of the straw salvage vary between 50 and 100 Euro per ton. They depend on the grade of machine utilization, the transport distance, necessary investments in stockroom and the price for plant nutrients. Related to the energy content the costs amount on 1,25 to 2,5 Eurocent per kilowatt-hour. The energetically use of agricultural residuals has a great economical potential. But most important is to achieve a positive humus balance. (orig.)

  10. Phosphate dynamics on the application of rice straw compost-biochar and phosphate fertilization in rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ania Citraresmini; Taufiq Bachtiar

    2016-01-01

    Soil productivity is determined by soil characteristics itself, which consist of physical, chemical and biological character. The linkage between these three properties can be represented by a single indicator, namely the carbon content in the soil. One of the effects of soil organic matter fulfillment is the availability of soil nutrients, especially to the nutrient that limits the lowland rice production. In this case, P (phosphorus) nutrient become a limiting factor because their numbers are often in abundance but in a form that can not be used by plants. Experiments were carried out with the aim of studying the impact of straw compost application that integrates with Biochar, to the availability of P in lowland soil. The interaction of straw compost + Biochar with PSB inoculation and P sources, become the treatment that being tested in the experiment. Randomized Block Design with factorial pattern is applied as design experiment. As the first factor is the application dose of straw compost + Biochar, consists of 5 levels of treatment : 0; 1; 2; 3; 4 t ha -1 . Second factor is several sources of P, consist of 5 levels of treatment : without P sources (p 0 ); 100 kg ha -1 SP-36 fertilizer (p1); rock phosphate at the dose of 163 kg ha -1 (p 2 ); PSB inoculation at the inoculation dose of 2 kg ha -1 (p 3 ); and rock phosphate inoculated with PSB (p 4 ). The experiment done in the green house of PAIR-BATAN experimental station, Jakarta, on March-July 2014. Phosphorus dynamic as a result of the tested treatments, determined by using radioisotope 32 P technology at the activity of 30 mCi and described clearly on the plant P uptake data of Sidenuk rice plant variety. The experiment result showed that the treatments applied is causing significantly different response on the soil C-organic, the number of PSB populations, 32 P plant counting and plant P uptake derived from several P sources in the plant. (author)

  11. Knowledge about dietary fibre: a fibre study framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Ferreira, Manuela; Correia, Paula; Duarte, João; Leal, Marcela; Rumbak, Ivana; Barić, Irena C; Komes, Drazenka; Satalić, Zvonimir; Sarić, Marijana M; Tarcea, Monica; Fazakas, Zita; Jovanoska, Dijana; Vanevski, Dragoljub; Vittadini, Elena; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Szűcs, Viktória; Harangozó, Júlia; El-Kenawy, Ayman; El-Shenawy, Omnia; Yalçın, Erkan; Kösemeci, Cem; Klava, Dace; Straumite, Evita

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this work was to study the degree of knowledge about dietary fibre (DF), as influenced by factors such as gender, level of education, living environment or country. For this, a descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken on a non-probabilistic sample of 6010 participants from 10 countries in different continents (Europe, Africa and America). The results showed that the participants revealed on average a positive but still low global level of knowledge, which alerts for the need to take some actions to further inform the population about DF and its role as a component of a healthy diet. The results also indicated differences between genders, levels of education, living environments and countries. The highest level of knowledge was revealed by the participants from female gender, with higher education and living in urban areas. Concerning the country, the best informed were the participants from Romania, followed by those from Portugal and Turkey while the least informed were from Egypt.

  12. Emission of asbestos fibres from natural-draught cooling towers. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, G.; Althaus, E.; Karotke, E.; Grimm, K.; Heumann, H.G.; Rueckert, G.

    1985-01-01

    Sampling for the studies reported has been done in a relatively new nuclear power plant with natural-draught, wet cooling tower, and in an older, brown-coal fired power plant with the same type of cooling towers, both towers equipped with internal structures made of asbestos cement. Samples have been taken from the plumes, air in the environment, cooling water receiving tank, make-up water. The samples have been primarily examined for their content of asbestos fibres. The results show that relatively few asbestos is found in the environmental air and in the cooling water receiving tank. Putting it continuously, it can be said that the cooling water entrains only little amounts of the asbestos of the internal structures. The plume samples indicate emission of some thousand asbestos fibres per m 3 , or less than 1 ng. Taking into account one sample exhibiting an extremely high amount of asbestos, the average emission of asbestos fibres with the plumes is 10 6 fibres per m 3 , or 100 ng/m 3 of plume. The maximum air pollution thus calculated in accordance with TA Luft (Clean Air Technical Directive), for the less favourable weather conditions at a hight of 2 m above ground, is 10 fibres per one m 3 of air; including the extreme data of the single sample mentioned above, the result is some thousand fibres per m 3 . The data are far below the TRK data (Technical guiding data for maximum concentration at the place of work), which state a maximum of 10 6 fibres per m 3 . (orig.) [de

  13. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw...

  14. Development and performance of resistive seamless straw-tube gas chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takubo, Y.; Aoki, M.; Ishihara, A.; Ishii, J.; Kuno, Y.; Maeda, F.; Nakahara, K.; Nosaka, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Terai, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Yokoi, T.

    2005-01-01

    A new straw-tube gas chamber which is made of seamless straw-tubes, instead of ordinary wound-type straw-tubes is developed. Seamless straw-tubes have various advantages over ordinary wound-type ones, in particular, in terms of mechanical strength and lesser wall thickness. Our seamless straw-tubes are fabricated to be resistive so that the hit positions along the straw axis can be read by cathode planes placed outside the straw-tube chambers, where the cathode strips run transverse to the straw axis. A beam test was carried out at KEK to study their performance. As a result of the beam test, the position resolution of the cathode strips of 220μm is achieved, and an anode position resolution of 112μm is also obtained

  15. Sorption of selected pesticides on soils, sediment and straw from a constructed agricultural drainage ditch or pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Romain; Dousset, Sylvie; Billet, David; Benoit, Marc

    2014-04-01

    Buffer zones such as ponds and ditches are used to reduce field-scale losses of pesticides from subsurface drainage waters to surface waters. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of these buffer zones, in particular constructed wetlands, focusing specifically on sorption processes. We modelled the sorption processes of three herbicides [2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-MCPA), isoproturon and napropamide] and three fungicides (boscalid, prochloraz and tebuconazole) on four substrates (two soils, sediment and straw) commonly found in a pond and ditch in Lorraine (France). A wide range of Freundlich coefficient (K fads) values was obtained, from 0.74 to 442.63 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1), and the corresponding K foc values ranged from 56 to 3,725 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1). Based on potential retention, the substrates may be classified as straw > sediments > soils. These results show the importance of organic carbon content and nature in the process of sorption. Similarly, the studied pesticides could be classified according to their adsorption capacity as follows: prochloraz > tebuconazole-boscalid > napropamide > MCPA-isoproturon. This classification is strongly influenced by the physico-chemical properties of pesticides, especially solubility and K oc. Straw exhibited the largest quantity of non-desorbable pesticide residues, from 12.1 to 224.2 mg/L for all pesticides. The presence of plants could increase soil-sediment sorption capacity. Thus, establishment and maintenance of plants and straw filters should be promoted to optimise sorption processes and the efficiency of ponds and ditches in reducing surface water pollution.

  16. Carbon stock and humification index of organic matter affected by sugarcane straw and soil management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Segnini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. straw on a soil surface increases the soil carbon (C stocks, but at lower rates than expected. This fact is probably associated with the soil management adopted during sugarcane replanting. This study aimed to assess the impact on soil C stocks and the humification index of soil organic matter (SOM of adopting no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT for sugarcane replanting. A greater C content and stock was observed in the NT area, but only in the 0-5 cm soil layer (p < 0.05. Greater soil C stock (0-60 cm was found in soil under NT, when compared to CT and the baseline. While C stock of 116 Mg ha-1 was found in the baseline area, in areas under CT and NT systems the values ranged from 120 to 127 Mg ha-1. Carbon retention rates of 0.67 and 1.63 Mg C ha-1 year-1 were obtained in areas under CT and NT, respectively. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy showed that CT makes the soil surface (0-20 cm more homogeneous than the NT system due to the effect of soil disturbance, and that the SOM humification index (H LIF is larger in CT compared to NT conditions. In contrast, NT had a gradient of increasing H LIF, showing that the entry of labile organic material such as straw is also responsible for the accumulation of C in this system. The maintenance of straw on the soil surface and the adoption of NT during sugarcane planting are strategies that can increase soil C sequestration in the Brazilian sugarcane sector.

  17. Influence of Cellulosic Fibres on the Physical Properties of Fibre Cement Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarova, V.; Stevulova, N.; Vaclavik, V.; Dvorsky, T.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, there are new approaches directing to processing of non-conventional fibre-cement composites for application in the housing construction. Vegetable cellulosic fibres coming from natural resources used as reinforcement in cost-effective and environmental friendly building products are in the spotlight. The applying of natural fibres in cement based composites is narrowly linked to the ecological building sector, where a choice of materials is based on components including recyclable, renewable raw materials and low-resource manufacture techniques. In this paper, two types of cellulosic fibres coming from wood pulp and recycled waste paper with 0.2%; 0.3% and 0.5% of fibre addition into cement mixtures were used. Differences in the physical characteristics (flowability, density, coefficient of thermal conductivity and water absorbability) of 28 days hardened fibre-cement composites are investigated. Addition of cellulosic fibres to cement mixture caused worsening the workability of fresh mixture as well as absorbability of hardened composites due to hydrophilic nature of biomaterial, whereas density and thermal conductivity of manufactured cement based fibre plaster are enhanced. The physical properties of cement plasters based on cellulosic fibres depend on structural, physical characteristics of cellulosic fibres, their nature and processing.

  18. Rapid estimation of sugar release from winter wheat straw during bioethanol production using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Lindedam, Jane; Peltre, Clément

    2015-01-01

    Complexity and high cost are the main limitations for high-throughput screening methods for the estimation of the sugar release from plant materials during bioethanol production. In addition, it is important that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which different chemical components...... are affecting the degradability of plant material. In this study, Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was combined with advanced chemometrics to develop calibration models predicting the amount of sugars released after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw during...

  19. Effects of Some Additives on In Vitro True Digestibility of Wheat and Soybean Straw Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıc Unal; Gulecyuz Emre

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to explore the nutrient content, relative feed values (RFV) and in vitro true digestibilities (IVTD) of wheat straw and soybean straw pellets produced with the addition of molasses, guar meal and sepiolite. In this experiment, 16 groups were created for 2 different straws (wheat/soybean straws), 2 different sepiolite applications (available/not available) and 4 different applications (control, guar meal, molasses, guar meal+molasses) in accordance with the 2×2×4 factorial...

  20. Generating a positive energy balance from using rice straw for anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    The net energy of the rice straw supply chain for biogas generation through AD is 3,500 MJ per ton of straw. This rice straw management option can provide a 70% net output energy benefit. The research highlighted the potential of rice straw as a clean fuel source with a positive energy balance, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared with the existing practice of burning it in the field.

  1. Organic dyes removal using magnetically modified rye straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldikova, Eva, E-mail: baldie@email.cz [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Safarikova, Mirka [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Rye straw, a very low-cost material, was employed as a biosorbent for two organic water-soluble dyes belonging to different dye classes, namely acridine orange (acridine group) and methyl green (triarylmethane group). The adsorption properties were tested for native and citric acid–NaOH modified rye straw, both in nonmagnetic and magnetic versions. The adsorption equilibrium was reached in 2 h and the adsorption isotherms data were analyzed using the Langmuir model. The highest values of maximum adsorption capacities were 208.3 mg/g for acridine orange and 384.6 mg/g for methyl green. - Highlights: • Rye derivatives can be considered as efficient adsorbents for organic dyes. • Magnetic modification of straw by microwave-synthesized magnetic iron oxides. • Citric acid–NaOH modification increased the maximum adsorption capacities.

  2. Heat Transfer in a Fixed Bed of Straw Char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Anker

    2003-01-01

    A model for the thermal conductivity of a straw char bed has been developed. The model extends the work of Yagi and Kunii to describe heat transfer in a bed of cylinders, using a relationship between the interparticle distance and the external porosity. To verify the model, thermal conductivity...... the experimental uncertainty over the range of conditions investigated. The heat transfer model was used in a parametric study to evaluate the effect of gas flow rate, particle diameter, porosity, and temperature on the thermal conductivity in a straw char bed....... experiments were performed on shredded and un-shredded straw char samples, varying particle size, bed packing (loose or dense), and temperature. Predictions with the model, using the measured external porosity and particle diameter as input parameters, are in agreement with measurements within...

  3. Ozone pretreatment and fermentative hydrolysis of wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben'ko, E. M.; Chukhchin, D. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    Principles of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw for subsequent fermentation into sugars are investigated. The optimum moisture contents of straw in the ozonation process are obtained from data on the kinetics of ozone absorbed by samples with different contents of water. The dependence of the yield of reducing sugars in the fermentative reaction on the quantity of absorbed ozone is established. The maximum conversion of polysaccharides is obtained at ozone doses of around 3 mmol/g of biomass, and it exceeds the value for nonozonated samples by an order of magnitude. The yield of sugar falls upon increasing the dose of ozone. The process of removing lignin from the cell walls of straw during ozonation is visualized by means of scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  5. Cofiring of rice straw and coal in a coal-fired utility boiler: thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Cofiring combustion of biomass and coal is a near-term, low cost alternative for reduction fossil greenhouse gas emissions in coal fired power plants. Recent reviews identified over 288 applications in over 16 countries with promising results for different coal and biomass combinations. In Brazil, there is no previous experience of cofiring biomass and coal, resulting in new challenges to fuel handling and boiler operation. A first experience is now proposed into an existing coal power plant, using rice straw as biomass fuel. A thermodynamic model was developed in order to predict operating and emissions data, which should be used in cofiring system design. For 10% of biomass input, the total CO{sub 2} emission is expected to slightly increase. However, considering only the coal CO{sub 2} emission, it is expected to decrease in about 10%. Also, the corresponding SO{sub 2} emission decreases in about 8%. (author)

  6. [The influence of straw, particularly rice straw, together with calcium-cyanamide on the microbiological activity of two Portuguese soils (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glathe, H; El Din, A; Scheuer, A

    1976-01-01

    The influence of calcium-cyanamide upon the microbiological activity was tested in pot experiments under controlled conditions in two Portuguese soils (sandy and loamy) after the addition of rice or wheat straw (rice straw 0.275% N, wheat straw 0.307% N). The amount of straw was equalled to 100 dz/ha, the application of calcium-cyanamide to 25, 50 and 100 kg N/ha. In the containers treated with straw the total amount of microorganisms (Koch-method) was higher in sandy than in loamy soil after 30 days, but after 70 days it was higher in loamy soil. The content of active nitrogen (NH4 + NO3) increased, when calcium-cyanamide was added, but decreased after the application of straw. After 70 days sandy soil again showed an increase of active nitrogen. Straw increased the rates of CO2-production considerably, wheat straw was superior to rice straw. Calcium-cyanamide increased the CO2-production more in sandy than in loamy soil or German loess, which was also used for this experiment. Only in the case of rice straw higher doses of calcium-cyanamide had a positive effect. After 70 days the CO2-production rose only when rice straw was applied. The dehydrogenase-activity was increased in both soils, but a superiority of wheat straw occurred in sandy soil only. The microbiological activity in the pots with straw was higher in sandy than in loamy soil, the addition of calcium-cyanamide accelerated it. Doses of 25-50 kg N/ha are sufficient generally. The period of the formation of insoluble organic N-compounds, usually connected with the application of organic matter with a wide N:C-ratio, seems to be reduced by the addition of calcium-cyanamide.

  7. Oxidation of lignin in hemp fibres by laccase: effects on mechanical properties of hemp fibres and unidirectional fibre/epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Baum, Andreas; Odermatt, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Laccase activity catalyzes oxidation and polymerization of phenols. The effect of laccase treatment on the mechanical properties of hemp fibres and hemp fibre/epoxy composites was examined. Laccase treatment on top of 0.5% EDTA + 0.2% endo-polygalacturonase (EPG) treatments increased the mechanical...... properties of hemp fibres and fibre/epoxy composites. Comparing all fibre treatments, composites with 0.5% EDTA + 0.2% EPG + 0.5% laccase treated fibres had highest stiffness of 42 GPa and highest ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 326 MPa at a fibre volume content of 50%. The thermal resistance of hemp...... hemp fibres and their composites were due to laccase catalyzed polymerization of lignin moieties in hemp fibres....

  8. Passively Aerated Composting of Straw-Rich Pig Manure : Effect of Compost Bed Porosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Straw-rich manure from organic pig farming systems can be composted in passively aerated systems as the high application of straw results in a compost bed with good structure and porosity. The passively aerated composting process was simulated in one-dimensional reactors of 2 m3 for straw-rich

  9. Urea-ensiled rice straw as a feed for cattle in Thailand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    straw. Rice straw contains about 3% crude protein (air- dry basis), 35% crude fiber and 1900kcal DE/kg of straw. Because of its low energy and protein content, ... corn, 9,4 kg soybean meal, 10 kg coconut meal, 2 kg mineral, 2 kg bone meal and 1 kg salt. Table 3 Performance of crossbred heifers fed with different roughages.

  10. Selected properties of particleboard panels manufactured from rice straws of different geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Jerrold E. Winandy; Altaf H. Basta

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the primary mechanical and physical properties of particleboard made from hammer-milled rice straw particles of six different categories and two types of resins. The results show the performance of straw particleboards is highly dependent upon the straw particle size controlled by the opening size of the perforated plate inside the hammer-...

  11. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw Tube-Microstrip Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.; Paolozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Pucci, C.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.; Casali, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Bianconi, D.; Baruffaldi, F.; Perilli, E.; Massa, F.

    2006-06-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell/spl reg/ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported as well.

  12. A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw tube-Microstrip Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, E.; Bellucci, F.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M. A.; Colonna, D.; Di Falco, F.; Fabbri, F. L.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Mensitieri, G.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell $^{\\circledR}$ lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.

  13. Wheat-straw as roughage component in finishing diets of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to use wheat-straw in diets, this study was conducted (i) to determine the degree whereto the inclusion of wheat-straw in finishing diets for lambs affected digestibility, N retention and animal performance, and (ii) to evaluate ammoniated wheat straw as roughage component in a balanced diet, containing. >60% concentrates ...

  14. Hunger in pregnant sows: Effects of a fibrous diet and free access to straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    of metabolites and hormones in pregnant sows. Ten groups of three pregnant sows were housed in pens with concrete floor where a limited amount of chopped straw (approx. 330 g/sow) was provided daily. In 5 of the 10 groups sows had free access to uncut straw in racks in addition to the chopped straw (Ad libitum...

  15. Iron and manganese oxides modified maize straw to remove tylosin from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongyuan; Guo, Xuetao; Peng, Dan

    2018-08-01

    Maize straw modified by iron and manganese oxides was synthesized via a simple and environmentally friendly method. Three maize straw materials, the original maize straw, maize straw modified by manganese oxides and maize straw modified by iron and manganese oxides, were detected by SEM, BET, XPS, XRD and FTIR. The results showed that maize straw was successfully modified and maize straw modified by iron and manganese oxides has a larger surface area than MS. According to the experimental data, the sorption trend could conform to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well, and the sorption ability of tylosin on sorbents followed the order of original maize straw oxides iron and manganese oxides. The study indicated that manganese oxides and iron-manganese oxides could significantly enhance the sorption capacity of original maize straw. The sorption isotherm data of tylosin on original maize straw fit a linear model well, while Freundlich models were more suitable for maize straw modified by manganese oxides and maize straw modified by iron and manganese oxides. The pH, ionic strength and temperature can affect the sorption process. The sorption mechanisms of tylosin on iron and manganese oxides modified maize straw were attribute to the surface complexes, electrostatic interactions, H bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary fibre: new frontiers for food and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamp, J. W. van der

    2010-01-01

    ... papers of the Dietary fibre analysis workshop and the HEALTHGRAIN Symposium Cereal grain fibre and health , both held in conjunction with DF09. This book is titled Dietary fibre- new frontiers for food and health . With the adoption - after decades of debate - of almost identical definitions of dietary fibre by Codex Alimentarius and the European Un...

  17. Comparison of two novel approaches to model fibre reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radtke, F.K.F.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present two approaches to model fibre reinforced concrete. In both approaches, discrete fibre distributions and the behaviour of the fibre-matrix interface are explicitly considered. One approach employs the reaction forces from fibre to matrix while the other is based on the partition of unity

  18. Potential of Kapok Fibre as a Substitute of Cotton in Textiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kapok fibre, commonly known in Kiswahili as 'sufi\\' is obtained from kapok plant, Ceiba pentandra. The conventional end uses of kapok include mattress/pillow stuffing, upholstery and thermal insulation. The market for kapok in these traditional uses has declined considerably over the past 30 years, due to the developments ...

  19. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  20. Effect of sterilization on mineralization of straw and black carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Bobul'ská, Lenka; Bruun, Sander; Fazekašová, Danica

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the role of microorganisms in the degradation of BC (black carbon). CO evolution was measured under sterilized and non-sterilized soil using BC and straw amendments. Black carbon and straw were produced from homogenously C labelled roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) with a specific activity 2.9 MBq g C. Production of BC was implemented at 300 °C for 24 h in a muffle oven, incubated in soil and C in the evolved CO was measured after 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 26 a...

  1. Analysis of energetic exploitation of straw in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Popov, Stevan D.; Zekic, Vladislav N.; Rodic, Vesna O.; Tica, Nedeljko Lj.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in the Republic of Serbia. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The average yearly quantity of the cellulose wastes in Vojvodina amounts to about 9 millions tons barely in the agriculture, and the same potential on the level of Serbia estimates to almost 13 million tons. This study gives the analysis of energetic exploitation of straws from stubble cereals processed in different forms. Costs for the equipment that uses biomass in the EU are approximately two times higher with respect to those for the equipment for combustion of natural gas or of fuel oil. Costs of investments for combustion of biomass in Vojvodina if compared with the cited data are approximately for 40-50% lower. The difference of the investment costs for the construction of such units is because units for straw combustion designed and constructed in our country, have neither the complicated devices for manipulation of fuels, nor the devices for the waste gasses processing. The definite conclusions about the economic justification of the energetic exploitation of stubble straws can be obtained only by comparison of costs of the so obtained energy, with the costs of energy obtained through the combustion of classical fuels. Previous comparisons were the most often based on the comparisons of value of prices of the equivalent straw quantity with the process of fuel oil of other classical fuels. Such the comparisons leaded to the very positive evaluations of the economical effects of straws, without taking into account the realizability of the named method. Namely, comparisons of straw and fuel oil hardly could lead to the conclusion that these two fuels are mutually substitutable. According to its physical properties, straw is most similar to firewood, but the preciousness and lacking of this the very resource excludes it from the comparative analysis, so

  2. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  3. Environmentally friendly education: A passive solar, straw-bale school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, L.; Dickinson, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Waldorf students in the Roaring Fork Valley of western Colorado are learning their reading, writing and arithmetic in the cozy confines of a solar heated, naturally lit, straw-bale school. The Waldorf education system, founded in 1919 by Austrian Rudolph Steiner, stresses what's appropriate for the kids, not what's easiest to teach. In constructing a new school, the Waldorf community wanted a building that would reflect their philosophy. There was a long list of requirements: natural, energy efficient, light, warm, alive, and earthy. Passive solar straw-bale construction brought together all those qualities.

  4. Decomposition of Straw in Soil after Stepwise Repeated Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1979-01-01

    after the first repeated addition of labelled straw the soils were subjected to a number of “stress” treatments: addition of unlabelled glucose, air-drying, oven-drying, grinding and fumigation with vapour of chloroform, respectively. The CO2 that developed during the first 10 days after the treatments......, grinding the most. The effect of each treatment declined with an increasing number of successive additions of straw. The ratio between CO2 evolved after grinding and fumigation, respectively, revealed that grinding also exposed non-biomass material to accelerated decomposition. The effects of the stress...

  5. Drinking-Straw Microbalance and Seesaw: Stability and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter; Glasser, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    The mechanics of a beam balance are little appreciated and seldom understood. We here consider the conditions that result in a stable balance, with center of gravity below the fulcrum (pivot point), while an unstable balance results when the center of gravity is above the fulcrum. The highly sensitive drinking-straw microbalance, which uses a plastic drinking straw as a rigid beam, is briefly described with some slight convenient modifications. Different placements of the center of gravity are considered analytically to explain the equilibrium neutrality, stability, and instability of such beam balances as the microbalance, the playground "seesaw" or "teeter-totter," the "dipping bird," and other toys and magic tricks.

  6. The large size straw drift chambers of the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bychkov, V N; Dünnweber, W; Faessler, Martin A; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Geyer, R; Gousakov, Yu V; Grünemaier, A; Heinsius, F H; Ilgner, C; Ivanchenko, I M; Kekelidze, G D; Königsmann, K C; Livinski, V V; Lysan, V M; Marzec, J; Matveev, D A; Mishin, S V; Mialkovski, V V; Novikov, E A; Peshekhonov, V D; Platzer, K; San, M; Schmid, T; Shokin, V I; Sissakian, A N; Viriasov, K S; Wiedner, U; Zaremba, K; Zhukov, I A; Zlobin, Y L; Zvyagin, A

    2005-01-01

    Straw drift chambers are used for the Large Area Tracking (LAT) of the Common Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) at CERN. An active area of 130 m2 in total is covered by 12 440 straw tubes, which are arranged in 15 double layers. The design has been optimized with respect to spatial resolution, rate capability, low material budget and compactness of the detectors. Mechanical and electrical design considerations of the chambers are discussed as well as new production techniques. The mechanical precision of the chambers has been determined using a CCD X-ray scanning apparatus. Results about the performance during data taking in COMPASS are described.

  7. Signal propagation in straw tubes with resistive cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, J.; Zaremba, K.; Pawlowski, Z.; Konarzewski, B.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis presented in this paper is part of the research performed by the authors for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. They have developed a theoretical model of the signal transmission in a straw tube. In contrast to commonly used simplified models, their approach takes into account the energy losses in the cathode resistance. This model allows determination of the main electrical parameters, such as characteristic impedance and signal attenuation, as well as a detailed simulation of the pulse shape dependent on the point of the charge injection. Simulation results have been compared with the results of experimental measurements of different types of the straw detectors

  8. Signal propagation in straw tubes with resistive cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, J.; Zaremba, K.; Pawlowski, Z.; Konarzewski, B.

    2000-02-01

    The analysis presented in this paper is part of the research performed by the authors for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. They have developed a theoretical model of the signal transmission in a straw tube. In contrast to commonly used simplified models, their approach takes into account the energy losses in the cathode resistance. This model allows determination of the main electrical parameters, such as characteristic impedance and signal attenuation, as well as a detailed simulation of the pulse shape dependent on the point of the charge injection. Simulation results have been compared with the results of experimental measurements of different types of the straw detectors.

  9. Signal propagation in straw tubes with resistive cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Marzec, J; Pawlowski, Z; Konarzewski, B

    2000-01-01

    The analysis presented in this paper is part of the research performed by the authors for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. We have developed a theoretical model of the signal transmission in a straw tube. In contrast to commonly used simplified models, our approach takes into account the energy losses in the cathode resistance. This model allows determination of the main electrical parameters, such as characteristic impedance and signal attenuation, as well as a detailed simulation of the pulse shape dependent on the point of the charge injection. Simulation results have been compared with the results of experimental measurements of different types of the straw detectors. (7 refs).

  10. Higher order modes of coupled optical fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeyev, C N; Yavorsky, M A; Boklag, N A

    2010-01-01

    The structure of hybrid higher order modes of two coupled weakly guiding identical optical fibres is studied. On the basis of perturbation theory with degeneracy for the vector wave equation expressions for modes with azimuthal angular number l ≥ 1 are obtained that allow for the spin–orbit interaction. The spectra of polarization corrections to the scalar propagation constants are calculated in a wide range of distances between the fibres. The limiting cases of widely and closely spaced fibres are studied. The obtained results can be used for studying the tunnelling of optical vortices in directional couplers and in matters concerned with information security

  11. Interfaces between a fibre and its matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2017-01-01

    in polyester matrix. The analysis of existing experimental literature data is demonstrated for steel fibres in epoxy matrix and for tungsten wires in copper matrix. These latter incomplete analyses show that some results can be obtained even if all three experimental parameters are not recorded....... parameters (applied load, debond length and relative fibre/matrix displacement) are rather similar for these test modes. A simplified analysis allows the direct determination of the three interface parameters from two plots for the experimental data. The complete analysis is demonstrated for steel fibres...

  12. Characterisation of Flax Fibres and Flax Fibre Composites. Being cellulose based sources of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa

    -melting temperature polyethylene terephthalate (LPET) filaments were aligned in assemblies of different fibre weight fractions in the range 0.24 to 0.83 to manufacture unidirectional composites using two different consolidation pressures of 1.67 and 4.10 MPa. The maximum attainable fibre volume fraction is found...... to be 47% for the low pressure composites, whereas it is found to be 60% for the high pressure composites. The stiffness of the flax fibre/LPET composites is measured to be in the range 16 to 33 GPa depending on the volumetric composition of the composites. The high pressure composites are found to have...... a similar microstructure at low fibre weight fractions. However, when the fibre content is increased, a difference in porosity content can be observed from the composite cross sections. The nominal tensile strength of the unidirectional flax fibre/LPET composites is measured in the range 180 to 340 MPa...

  13. A target fibre study on seats in public houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E; Griffin, R M

    1998-01-01

    A target fibre survey was conducted to assess the random occurrence of a blue wool fibre on seats in public houses throughout the United Kingdom. Fibre tape lifts were taken from 80 seats. Four seats yielded matching fibres and five of these were found on one seat. A total of 292 fibres were identified; nine fibres proved indistinguishable from the target after comparison microscopy, microspectro-photometry and attempts at thin layer chromatography, and two of these fibres were still apparently indistinguishable after TLC analysis although only one dye component was visible.

  14. Methodology for characterisation of glass fibre composite architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Larsen, J.B.; Østergaard, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    of the fibres. The information is used for different analyses to investigate and characterise the fibre architecture. As an example, the methodology is applied to glass fibre reinforced composites with varying fibre contents. The different fibre volume fractions (FVFs) affect the number of contact points per......The present study outlines a methodology for microstructural characterisation of fibre reinforced composites containing circular fibres. Digital micrographs of polished cross-sections are used as input to a numerical image processing tool that determines spatial mapping and radii detection...... fibre, the communal fibre distance and the local FVF. The fibre diameter distribution and packing pattern remain somewhat similar for the considered materials. The methodology is a step towards a better understanding of the composite microstructure and can be used to evaluate the interconnection between...

  15. Corrosion and Materials Performance in biomass fired and co-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH; Biede, O

    2003-01-01

    not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10...... and 20% energy basis) with coal has shown corrosion rates lower than those in straw-fired plants. With both 10 and 20% straw, no chlorine corrosion was seen. This paper will describe the results from in situ investigations undertaken in Denmark on high temperature corrosion in biomass fired plants....... Results from 100% straw-firing, woodchip and co-firing of straw with coal will be reported. The corrosion mechanisms observed are summarized and the corrosion rates for 18-8 type stainless steels are compared....

  16. Method for covering a spme fibre with carbon nanotubes and resulting spme fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrán, Enric; Jover Comas, Eric; García Céspedes, Jordi; Bayona Termens, Josep María

    2010-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for covering solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres with carbon nanotubes (CNT), comprising the following operations: (i) depositing a layer of a metal material on the SPME fibre; (ii) applying a heat treatment in order to form catalytic metal nanoparticles in a reducing atmosphere; and (iii) applying carbon using chemical deposition techniques, thereby forming CNT on top ofthe metal nanoparticles. The invention also relates to a fibre obtain...

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions from sugarcane straw left on the soil surface in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, M. V.; Cerri, C. E.; Carvalho, J. L.; Cerri, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the largest exporter of ethanol from sugarcane in the world, burning the dry leaves and tops in order to facilitate the harvest and transportation of the stalks is still a common practice. Burning plant residues causes emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, besides the release of charcoal particles into the atmosphere. Due to a combination of pressure from changes in the public opinion and economical reasons, in Brazil sugarcane harvest is changing from a burned into an unburned system. Since manual harvest of sugarcane without burning is not economically feasible, mechanical harvesters have been developed that can take the stalk and leave the residues on the field, forming a mulch, in a system called green cane management. It is expected that 80% of the cane harvested in the main producing regions in Brazil will be harvested without burning by 2014. The conversion from burning sugarcane to green management of sugarcane will have impacts on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the plant soil system. The green cane management results in the deposition of large amounts of plant litter on the soil surface after harvest, ranging from 10 to 20 tons per hectare, which impact the whole production process of sugarcane, influencing yields, fertilizer management and application, soil erosion, soil organic matter dynamics as well as greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4). From a GHG perspective, the conservation of sugarcane residues prevents emissions from the burning process, may promote carbon sequestration in soils and releases nitrogen during the decomposition process replacing the need for, and GHG emissions from, fossil fuel based nitrogen fertilizer sources. Measurements of soil C and N stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the burned and unburned sugarcane systems and in the sugarcane expansion areas are still scarce. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to quantify the nitrous oxide

  18. Numerical investigation of a straw combustion boiler – Part I: Modelling of the thermo-chemical conversion of straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dernbecher Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a European project, a straw combustion boiler in conjunction with an organic Rankine cycle is developed. One objective of the project is the enhancement of the combustion chamber by numerical methods. A comprehensive simulation of the combustion chamber is prepared, which contains the necessary submodels for the thermo-chemical conversion of straw and for the homogeneous gas phase reactions. Part I introduces the modelling approach for the thermal decomposition of the biomass inside the fuel bed, whereas part II deals with the simulation of the gas phase reactions in the freeboard.

  19. Biological durability and oxidative potential of a stonewool mineral fibre compared to crocidolite asbestos fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippeli, S. [Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie, Labor fuer Biochemische Toxikologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen-Weihenstephan, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Dornisch, K. [Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie, Labor fuer Biochemische Toxikologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen-Weihenstephan, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Kaiser, S. [Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie, Labor fuer Biochemische Toxikologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen-Weihenstephan, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Draeger, U. [Deutsche Rockwool Mineralwoll GmbH, Karl-Schneider-Strasse 14-18, D-45966 Gladbeck (Germany); Elstner, E.F. [Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie, Labor fuer Biochemische Toxikologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen-Weihenstephan, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Experiments are described concerning the differences in redox properties and biodurability of natural asbestos fibres and an experimental stonewool fibre incubated in Gamble solution and reconstructed surfactant fluid. Crocidolite exhibits a significantly higher oxidative potential compared to the tested stonewool fibres. The oxidative acitivity of both types of fibres is not constant during incubation over several weeks, but rather shows a sinoidal curve including reactivities much higher than those at the beginning of the incubation. A continuous loss of mass is concluded not to be definitively connected with a continuous loss of toxicity. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  20. Shrinkage Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete with Recycled Tyre Polymer Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of fibres are often used in concrete to prevent microcracking due to shrinkage, and polypropylene fibres are among the most often used ones. If not prevented, microcracks can lead to the development of larger cracks as drying shrinkage occurs, enabling penetration of aggressive substances from the environment and reducing durability of concrete structures. The hypothesis of the present research is that polypropylene fibres, used in concrete for controlling formation of microcracks due to shrinkage, can be replaced with recycled polymer fibres obtained from end-of-life tyres. To test the hypothesis, concrete mixtures containing polypropylene fibres and recycled tyre polymer fibres were prepared and tested. Experimental programme focused on autogenous, free, and restrained shrinkage. It was shown that PP fibres can be substituted with higher amount of recycled tyre polymer fibres obtaining concrete with similar shrinkage behaviour. The results indicate promising possibilities of using recycled tyre polymer fibres in concrete products. At the same time, such applications would contribute to solving the problem of waste tyre disposal.