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Sample records for fiber reinforced high-performance

  1. High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites 6 HPFRCC 6

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Hans; Naaman, A

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites (HPFRCC) represent a class of cement composites whose stress-strain response in tension undergoes strain hardening behaviour accompanied by multiple cracking, leading to a high strain prior to failure. The primary objective of this International Workshop was to provide a compendium of up-to-date information on the most recent developments and research advances in the field of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. Approximately 65 contributions from leading world experts are assembled in these proceedings and provide an authoritative perspective on the subject. Special topics include fresh and hardening state properties; self-compacting mixtures; mechanical behavior under compressive, tensile, and shear loading; structural applications; impact, earthquake and fire resistance; durability issues; ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete; and textile reinforced concrete. Target readers: graduate students, researchers, fiber producers, desi...

  2. Design of Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete Shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Michael S.; Lambertsen, Søren Heide; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Fiber Reinforced Concrete shell. The major challenge in the design phase has been securing sufficient stiffness of the structure while keeping the weight at a minimum. The weight/stiffness issue has been investigated by means of the finite element method, to optimize the structure regarding overall......The paper treats the redesign of the float structure of the Wavestar wave energy converter. Previously it was designed as a glass fiber structure, but due to cost reduction requirements a redesign has been initiated. The new float structure will be designed as a double curved Ultra High Performance...

  3. Development of high performance fiber reinforced cement composites (HPFRCC for application as a transition layer of reinforced beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. Ferrari

    Full Text Available This study presents the development and behavior analysis of high performance fiber reinforced cement composites (HPFRCC. The describedmaterials were specifically developed for application as a transition layer: a repair layer that constitutes the stressed chord of reinforcedconcrete beams strengthened in flexure with carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP. Nineteen different composites were produced by thehybridization process, varying the conventional short steel fiber and steel microfiber (manufactured exclusively for this research contentsto modify the microstructure of the material, thus enhancing the stress transfer process from the cement matrix to the fibers. To analyze theresponse to flexural loading, the composites underwent three point bending tests in notched prism specimens. The response of the materialwas obtained considering strength and tenacity parameters (flexural and fracture. There was evidence of high performance by the composites with a pseudo-hardening behavior.

  4. Characteristics and applications of high-performance fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Philip

    Steel fiber reinforced asphalt concrete (SFRAC) is suggested in this research as a multifunctional high performance material that can potentially lead to a breakthrough in developing a sustainable transportation system. The innovative use of steel fibers in asphalt concrete is expected to improve mechanical performance and electrical conductivity of asphalt concrete that is used for paving 94% of U. S. roadways. In an effort to understand the fiber reinforcing mechanisms in SFRAC, the interaction between a single straight steel fiber and the surrounding asphalt matrix is investigated through single fiber pull-out tests and detailed numerical simulations. It is shown that pull-out failure modes can be classified into three types: matrix, interface, and mixed failure modes and that there is a critical shear stress, independent of temperature and loading rate, beyond which interfacial debonding will occur. The reinforcing effects of SFRAC with various fiber sizes and shapes are investigated through indirect tension tests at low temperature. Compared to unreinforced specimens, fiber reinforced specimens exhibit up to 62.5% increase in indirect tensile strength and 895% improvements in toughness. The documented improvements are the highest attributed to fiber reinforcement in asphalt concrete to date. The use of steel fibers and other conductive additives provides an opportunity to make asphalt pavement electrically conductive, which opens up the possibility for multifunctional applications. Various asphalt mixtures and mastics are tested and the results indicate that the electrical resistivity of asphaltic materials can be manipulated over a wide range by replacing a part of traditional fillers with a specific type of graphite powder. Another important achievement of this study is development and validation of a three dimensional nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model that is capable of simulating both linear and nonlinear viscoelasticity of asphaltic materials. The

  5. Synthesis of high performance ceramic fibers by chemical vapor deposition for advanced metallics reinforcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revankar, Vithal; Hlavacek, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis of fibers capable of effectively reinforcing intermetallic matrices at elevated temperatures which can be used for potential applications in high temperature composite materials is described. This process was used due to its advantage over other fiber synthesis processes. It is extremely important to produce these fibers with good reproducible and controlled growth rates. However, the complex interplay of mass and energy transfer, blended with the fluid dynamics makes this a formidable task. The design and development of CVD reactor assembly and system to synthesize TiB2, CrB, B4C, and TiC fibers was performed. Residual thermal analysis for estimating stresses arising form thermal expansion mismatch were determined. Various techniques to improve the mechanical properties were also performed. Various techniques for improving the fiber properties were elaborated. The crystal structure and its orientation for TiB2 fiber is discussed. An overall view of the CVD process to develop CrB2, TiB2, and other high performance ceramic fibers is presented.

  6. Dynamic Mechanical Behaviour of Ultra-high Performance Fiber Reinforced Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Jianzhong; SUN Wei

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concretes (UHPFRC) were prepared by replacing 60% of cement with ultra-fine industrial waste powder.The dynamic mechanical behaviour of UHPFRC with different fiber volume fraction was researched on repeated compressive impact in four kinds of impact modes through split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB).The experimental results show that the peak stress and elastic modulus decrease and the strain rate and peak strain increase gradually with the increasing of impact times.The initial material damage increases and the peak stress of the specimen decreases from the second impact with the increasing of the initial incident wave.Standard strength on repeated impact is defined to compare the ability of resistance against repeated impact among different materials.The rate of reduction of standard strength is decreased by fiber reinforcement under repeated impact.The material damage is reduced and the ability of repeated impact resistance of UHPFRC is improved with the increasing of fiber volume fraction.

  7. Dynamic Stress-Strain Behaviour of Steel Fiber Reinforced High-Performance Concrete with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chien Yet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of steel fibers into concrete mix can significantly improve the engineering properties of concrete. The mechanical behaviors of steel fiber reinforced high-performance concrete with fly ash (SFRHPFAC are studied in this paper through both static compression test and dynamic impact test. Cylindrical and cube specimens with three volume fractions of end-hooked steel fibers with volume fraction of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% (39.25, 78.50, and 117.75 kg/m3 and aspect ratio of 64 are used. These specimens are then tested for static compression and for dynamic impact by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB at strain rate of 30–60 s−1. The results reveal that the failure mode of concrete considerably changes from brittle to ductile with the addition of steel fibers. The plain concrete may fail under low-strain-rate single impact whereas the fibrous concrete can resist impact at high strain rate loading. It is shown that strain rate has great influence on concrete strength. Besides, toughness energy is proportional to the fiber content in both static and dynamic compressions.

  8. Novel hybrid columns made of ultra-high performance concrete and fiber reinforced polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrevand, Pedram

    The application of advanced materials in infrastructure has grown rapidly in recent years mainly because of their potential to ease the construction, extend the service life, and improve the performance of structures. Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) is one such material considered as a novel alternative to conventional concrete. The material microstructure in UHPC is optimized to significantly improve its material properties including compressive and tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, durability, and damage tolerance. Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite is another novel construction material with excellent properties such as high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios and good corrosion resistance. Considering the exceptional properties of UHPC and FRP, many advantages can result from the combined application of these two advanced materials, which is the subject of this research. The confinement behavior of UHPC was studied for the first time in this research. The stress-strain behavior of a series of UHPC-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes with different fiber types and thicknesses were tested under uniaxial compression. The FRP confinement was shown to significantly enhance both the ultimate strength and strain of UHPC. It was also shown that existing confinement models are incapable of predicting the behavior of FRP-confined UHPC. Therefore, new stress-strain models for FRP-confined UHPC were developed through an analytical study. In the other part of this research, a novel steel-free UHPC-filled FRP tube (UHPCFFT) column system was developed and its cyclic behavior was studied. The proposed steel-free UHPCFFT column showed much higher strength and stiffness, with a reasonable ductility, as compared to its conventional reinforced concrete (RC) counterpart. Using the results of the first phase of column tests, a second series of UHPCFFT columns were made and studied under pseudo-static loading to study the effect of column

  9. Effect of Chopped Basalt Fibers on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehmina Ayub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the high performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC containing up to 3% volume fraction of chopped Basalt fibers. Three types of the concrete were prepared, out of which, the first type was prepared by utilizing 100% cement content. The other two types of the concrete were prepared by replacing 10% cement content with silica fume and the locally produced metakaolin. Using each concrete type, four mixes were prepared in which Basalt fibers were added in the range of 0–3%; that is, total twelve mixes of the HPFRC concrete were prepared. From each of the twelve concrete mixes, total twelve specimens were cast to determine the mechanical properties of the HPFRC including compressive strength (cube and cylinder, splitting tensile strength, and the flexural strength. In this way, a total of 108 specimens were cast and tested in this study. Test results showed that the addition of the Basalt fibers significantly increased the tensile splitting strength and the flexural strength of the HPFRC, while there was slight improvement in the compressive strength with the addition of Basalt fibers. The microstructure of HPFRC was examined to determine the interfacial transition zone (ITZ between the aggregates and the paste by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, which showed the improvement of the ITZ due to the addition of the Basalt fibers.

  10. A lattice-particle approach for the simulation of fracture processes in fiber-reinforced high-performance concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montero-Chacón, F.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Medina, F.

    2013-01-01

    The use of fiber-reinforced high-performance concrete (FRHPC) is becoming more extended; therefore it is necessary to develop tools to simulate and better understand its behavior. In this work, a discrete model for the analysis of fracture mechanics in FRHPC is presented. The plain concrete matrix,

  11. PREDICTION OF MAXIMUM CREEP STRAIN OF HIGH PERFORMANCE STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishina Alexandra Vasil'evna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The strongest research potential is demonstrated by the areas of application of high performance steel fiber reinforced concrete (HPSFRC. The research of its rheological characteristics is very important for the purposes of understanding its behaviour. This article is an overview of an experimental study of UHSSFRC. The study was carried out in the form of lasting creep tests of HPSFRC prism specimen, loaded by stresses of varied intensity. The loading was performed at different ages: 7, 14, 28 and 90 days after concreting. The stress intensity was 0.3 and 0.6 Rb; it was identified on the basis of short-term crush tests of similar prism-shaped specimen, performed on the same day. As a result, values of ultimate creep strains and ultimate specific creep of HPSFRC were identified. The data was used to construct an experimental diagramme of the ultimate specific creep on the basis of the HPSFRC loading age if exposed to various stresses. The research has resulted in the identification of a theoretical relationship that may serve as the basis for the high-precision projection of the pattern of changes in the ultimate specific creep of HPSFRC, depending on the age of loading and the stress intensity.

  12. Spalling and Mechanical Properties of Fiber Reinforced High-performance Concrete Subjected to Fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiangjun; DING Yining; WANG Tianfeng

    2008-01-01

    Spalling and mechanical properties of FRHPC subjected to fire were tested on notched beams. The results confirm that the internal vapor pressure is the leading reason for spalling of high-performance concrete (HPC). At the same time, the temperature-increasing velocity and constrained conditions of concrete element also play significant roles in spalling. Steel fibers cannot reduce the risk of spalling, although they have obvious beneficial effects on the mechanical properties of concrete before and after exposure to fire. Polypropylene (PP) fibers are very useful in preventing HPC from spalling, however, they have negative effects on the strengths. By using hybrid fibers (steel fibers+PP fibers), both good anti-spalling performance and improved mechanical properties come true, which may provide necessary safe guarantee for the rescue work and structure repair after fire disaster.

  13. High-Performance Steel Bars and Fibers as Concrete Reinforcement for Seismic-Resistant Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Lepage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data are presented for six concrete specimens subjected to displacement reversals. Two specimens were reinforced longitudinally with steel bars Grade 410 (60 ksi, two with Grade 670 (97 ksi, and two with Grade 830 (120 ksi. Other experimental variables included axial load (0 or 0.2 fc′  Ag and volume fraction of hooked steel fibers (0 or 1.5%. All transverse reinforcement was Grade 410, and the nominal concrete compressive strength was 41 MPa (6 ksi. The loading protocol consisted of repeated cycles of increasing lateral displacement reversals (up to 5% drift followed by a monotonic lateral push to failure. The test data indicate that replacing conventional Grade-410 longitudinal reinforcement with reduced amounts of Grade-670 or Grade-830 steel bars did not cause a decrease in usable deformation capacity nor a decrease in flexural strength. The evidence presented shows that the use of advanced high-strength steel as longitudinal reinforcement in frame members is a viable option for earthquake-resistant construction.

  14. Mechanical Characterization of High-Performance Steel-Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites with Self-Healing Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Joo Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack self-healing behavior of high-performance steel-fiber reinforced cement composites (HPSFRCs was investigated. High-strength deformed steel fibers were employed in a high strength mortar with very fine silica sand to decreasing the crack width by generating higher interfacial bond strength. The width of micro-cracks, strongly affected by the type of fiber and sand, clearly produced the effects on the self-healing behavior. The use of fine silica sand in HPSFRCs with high strength deformed steel fibers successfully led to rapid healing owing to very fine cracks with width less than 20 µm. The use of very fine silica sand instead of normal sand produced 17%–19% higher tensile strength and 51%–58% smaller width of micro-cracks.

  15. Assesment risk of fracture in thin-walled fiber reinforced and regular High Performance Concretes sandwich elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Concrete Sandwich Elements (HPCSE) are an interesting option for future low or plus energy building construction. Recent research and development work, however, indicate that such elements are prone to structural cracking due to the combined effect of shrinkage and high temperature...... load. Due to structural restraints, autogenous shrinkage may lead to high self-induced stresses. Therefore autogenous shrinkage plays important role in design of HPCSE. The present paper assesses risk of fracture due to autogenous shrinkage-induced stresses in three fiber reinforced and regular High...

  16. Recycling high-performance carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites using sub-critical and supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Chase C.

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are composite materials that consist of carbon fibers embedded in a polymer matrix, a combination that yields materials with properties exceeding the individual properties of each component. CFRP have several advantages over metals: they offer superior strength to weight ratios and superior resistance to corrosion and chemical attack. These advantages, along with continuing improvement in manufacturing processes, have resulted in rapid growth in the number of CFRP products and applications especially in the aerospace/aviation, wind energy, automotive, and sporting goods industries. Due to theses well-documented benefits and advancements in manufacturing capabilities, CFRP will continue to replace traditional materials of construction throughout several industries. However, some of the same properties that make CFRP outstanding materials also pose a major problem once these materials reach the end of service life. They become difficult to recycle. With composite consumption in North America growing by almost 5 times the rate of the US GDP in 2012, this lack of recyclability is a growing concern. As consumption increases, more waste will inevitably be generated. Current composite recycling technologies include mechanical recycling, thermal processing, and chemical processing. The major challenge of CFRP recycling is the ability to recover materials of high-value and preserve their properties. To this end, the most suitable technology is chemical processing, where the polymer matrix can be broken down and removed from the fiber, with limited damage to the fibers. This can be achieved using high concentration acids, but such a process is undesirable due to the toxicity of such materials. A viable alternative to acid is water in the sub-critical and supercritical region. Under these conditions, the behavior of this abundant and most environmentally friendly solvent resembles that of an organic compound, facilitating the breakdown

  17. Effect of Expansive Admixtures on the Shrinkage and Mechanical Properties of High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cement Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Chang Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites (HPFRCCs are characterized by strain-hardening and multiple cracking during the inelastic deformation process, but they also develop high shrinkage strain. This study investigates the effects of replacing Portland cement with calcium sulfoaluminate-based expansive admixtures (CSA EXAs to compensate for the shrinkage and associated mechanical behavior of HPFRCCs. Two types of CSA EXA (CSA-K and CSA-J, each with a different chemical composition, are used in this study. Various replacement ratios (0%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14% by weight of cement of CSA EXA are considered for the design of HPFRCC mixtures reinforced with 1.5% polyethylene (PE fibers by volume. Mechanical properties, such as shrinkage compensation, compressive strength, flexural strength, and direct tensile strength, of the HPFRCC mixtures are examined. Also, crack width and development are investigated to determine the effects of the EXAs on the performance of the HPFRCC mixtures, and a performance index is used to quantify the performance of mixture. The results indicate that replacements of 10% CSA-K (Type 1 and 8% CSA-J (Type 2 considerably enhance the mechanical properties and reduce shrinkage of HPFRCCs.

  18. Multi-physics corrosion modeling for sustainability assessment of steel reinforced high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepech, M.; Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Using a newly developed multi-physics transport, corrosion, and cracking model, which models these phenomena as a coupled physiochemical processes, the role of HPFRCC crack control and formation in regulating steel reinforcement corrosion is investigated. This model describes transport of water...... tension-softening cementitious composites. Finally, these results are extended to provide greater insight into the assessment and design of more sustainable steel reinforced HPFRCC structures....

  19. Flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with carbon fibers reinforced polymer (CFRP sheet bonded to a transition layer of high performance cement-based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. Ferrari

    Full Text Available Resistance to corrosion, high tensile strength, low weight, easiness and rapidity of application, are characteristics that have contributed to the spread of the strengthening technique characterized by bonding of carbon fibers reinforced polymer (CFRP. This research aimed to develop an innovate strengthening method for RC beams, based on a high performance cement-based composite of steel fibers (macro + microfibers to be applied as a transition layer. The purpose of this transition layer is better control the cracking of concrete and detain or even avoid premature debonding of strengthening. A preliminary study in short beams molded with steel fibers and strengthened with CFRP sheet, was carried out where was verified that the conception of the transition layer is valid. Tests were developed to get a cement-based composite with adequate characteristics to constitute the layer transition. Results showed the possibility to develop a high performance material with a pseudo strain-hardening behavior, high strength and fracture toughness. The application of the strengthening on the transition layer surface had significantly to improve the performance levels of the strengthened beam. It summary, it was proven the efficiency of the new strengthening technique, and much information can be used as criteria of projects for repaired and strengthened structures.

  20. A novel extraction technique based on carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid microextraction for the measurement of piroxicam and diclofenac combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yue; Shi, Yan-Ping; Chen, Juan

    2012-10-15

    A novel design of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction (CNTs-HF-SLPME) was developed to determine piroxicam and diclofenac in different real water samples. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were held in the pores of hollow fiber with sol-gel technology. The pores and lumen of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber were subsequently filled with a μL volume of organic solvent (1-octanol), and then the whole assembly was used for the extraction of the target analytes in direct immersion sampling mode. The target analytes were extracted from the sample by two extractants, one of which is organic solvent placed inside the pores and lumen of hollow fiber and the other one is CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber. After extraction, the analytes were desorbed in acetonitrile and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. This novel extraction mode showed more excellent extraction performance in comparison with conventional hollow fiber liquid microextraction (without adding CNTs) and carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid microextraction (CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber, but no organic solvents placed inside the lumen of hollow fiber) under the respective optimum conditions. This method provided 47- and 184-fold enrichment factors for piroxicam and diclofenac, respectively, good inter-fiber repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility. Linearity was observed in the range of 20-960 μg L(-1) for piroxicam, and 10-2560 μg L(-1) for diclofenac, with correlation coefficients of 0.9985 and 0.9989, respectively. The limits of detection were 4.58 μg L(-1) for piroxicam and 0.40 μg L(-1) for diclofenac.

  1. Toward high performance graphene fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; He, Yuling; Chai, Songgang; Qiang, Hong; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2013-07-07

    Two-dimensional graphene and graphene-based materials have attracted tremendous interest, hence much attention has been drawn to exploring and applying their exceptional characteristics and properties. Integration of graphene sheets into macroscopic fibers is a very important way for their application and has received increasing interest. In this study, neat and macroscopic graphene fibers were continuously spun from graphene oxide (GO) suspensions followed by chemical reduction. By varying wet-spinning conditions, a series of graphene fibers were prepared, then, the structural features, mechanical and electrical performances of the fibers were investigated. We found the orientation of graphene sheets, the interaction between inter-fiber graphene sheets and the defects in the fibers have a pronounced effect on the properties of the fibers. Graphene fibers with excellent mechanical and electrical properties will yield great advances in high-tech applications. These findings provide guidance for the future production of high performance graphene fibers.

  2. A facile approach to make high performance nano-fiber reinforced composite separator for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosong

    2016-08-01

    The separator is a porous membrane located between the negative and the positive electrodes. In this work, a nano-fiber reinforced composite separator was developed. Compared with the commercial polyolefin separator, the composite separator showed superior (a) dimensional stability at elevated temperatures relative to conventional separators and (b) wettability by the liquid electrolyte. After being saturated with a commercial LiPF6-ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate electrolyte, the composite separator enabled a high effective ionic conductivity (σeff) of 1.25 mS/cm. A stable cycle performance and an improved rate capability have been observed in the coin cells with the composite separator. This initial study shows that this type of composite membranes can be a promising alternative separator for lithium ion batteries.

  3. High performance polyethylene nanocomposite fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dorigato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A high density polyethylene (HDPE matrix was melt compounded with 2 vol% of dimethyldichlorosilane treated fumed silica nanoparticles. Nanocomposite fibers were prepared by melt spinning through a co-rotating twin screw extruder and drawing at 125°C in air. Thermo-mechanical and morphological properties of the resulting fibers were then investigated. The introduction of nanosilica improved the drawability of the fibers, allowing the achievement of higher draw ratios with respect to the neat matrix. The elastic modulus and creep stability of the fibers were remarkably improved upon nanofiller addition, with a retention of the pristine tensile properties at break. Transmission electronic microscope (TEM images evidenced that the original morphology of the silica aggregates was disrupted by the applied drawing.

  4. Failure analysis of high performance ballistic fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Spatola, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    High performance fibers have a high tensile strength and modulus, good wear resistance, and a low density, making them ideal for applications in ballistic impact resistance, such as body armor. However, the observed ballistic performance of these fibers is much lower than the predicted values. Since the predictions assume only tensile stress failure, it is safe to assume that the stress state is affecting fiber performance. The purpose of this research was to determine if there are failure mo...

  5. Failure analysis of high performance ballistic fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Spatola, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    High performance fibers have a high tensile strength and modulus, good wear resistance, and a low density, making them ideal for applications in ballistic impact resistance, such as body armor. However, the observed ballistic performance of these fibers is much lower than the predicted values. Since the predictions assume only tensile stress failure, it is safe to assume that the stress state is affecting fiber performance. The purpose of this research was to determine if there are failure mo...

  6. Fiber-reinforced ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belcheva, D. [Technological University `Prof. A. Zlatarov`, Bourgas (Bulgaria); Lubchev, L.; Jelezkov, G.; Georgiev, W.

    1995-03-01

    The possibilities for preparation of reinforced composite materials were studied. Test specimens based on different types of alumina matrices, plasticized with formaldehyde oligomer and polyvinyl alcohol, and reinforced with carbon and mullite fibers were prepared and investigated. The results confirmed that reinforced composite materials with valuable properties such as high thermal shock resistance, chemical resistance and mechanical strength can be produced. The density of technical alumina materials is lower, compared with that of pure alumina. The density can also be influenced by the type and quantity of the plasticizers used. By increasing the fiber content, the density of the material decreases. The shrinkage is influcenced by the type and the quantity of the reinforcing material. (orig.)

  7. Short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchev, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates the potential of short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends, a combination of an immiscible polymer blend and a short fiber reinforced composite, to integrate the easy processing solutions available for short fiber reinforced composites with the high mechanical perfo

  8. Short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchev, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates the potential of short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends, a combination of an immiscible polymer blend and a short fiber reinforced composite, to integrate the easy processing solutions available for short fiber reinforced composites with the high mechanical perfo

  9. Fiber reinforced polypropylene nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to assess the feasibility of integrating nanoparticles into glass fiber (GF) reinforced isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites via existing thermoplastic processing routes, and to investigate whether this results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the final composites. A longer term aim will be to extend the approach to the preparation of hybrid composites with added non-structural functionality. However, the nanoparticles that have provide...

  10. Fiber reinforced polypropylene nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to assess the feasibility of integrating nanoparticles into glass fiber (GF) reinforced isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites via existing thermoplastic processing routes, and to investigate whether this results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the final composites. A longer term aim will be to extend the approach to the preparation of hybrid composites with added non-structural functionality. However, the nanoparticles that have provide...

  11. 混杂纤维增强超高性能混凝土弯曲韧性与评价方法%Flexural toughness and characterization method of hybrid fibers reinforced ultra-high performance concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宗才

    2016-01-01

    为了研究混掺纤维对超高性能混凝土(UHPC)的增韧效果,通过161个三点弯曲梁的断裂试验,测定了4种纤维和不同掺量下各 UHPC试件的载荷-裂口张开位移(CMOD)曲线和载荷-挠度曲线。将素 UHPC 峰值载荷对应的CMOD视为混杂纤维增强 UHPC的初裂CMOD值,基于载荷-CMOD曲线提出了等效断裂韧度的韧性评价方法,该方法具有明确的物理含义,可用于分析混掺纤维品种和掺量对 UHPC 断裂韧性的影响规律。研究发现:在小变形(小于50倍素 UHPC峰值载荷对应的 CMOD值)时,UHPC 韧性取决于钢纤维的掺率;粗合成纤维主要在中等变形和大变形阶段(大于50倍素 UHPC峰值载荷对应的CMOD值)发挥其增韧效用。%In order to research the toughness characteristics of hybrid fiber on ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC),161 specimens of three-point bending beam fracture testing of UHPC reinforced with four type fibers and various contents have been conducted.The load-crack mouth open displacement (CMOD)curves and load-deflection curves were measured.We took the peak-load CMOD of plain UHPC as the reference initial CMOD value of hybrid fibers reinforced UHPC.Based on the load-CMOD curves,a characterization method of equivalent fracture tough-ness was proposed.This new method has clear physical meaning,and unveils the influence rule of hybrid fibers type and contents to fracture toughness of UHPC.The research shows that the toughness of UHPC depends on the con-tent of steel fiber in small deformation stage (less than the 50 times CMOD value of plain UHPC at peak load)and macro-synthetic fiber plays toughening effect in middle deformation and large deformation stage (larger than the 50 times CMOD value of plain UHPC at peak load).

  12. Machining of fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanduri, Ranga; Zhang, Bi; Vissa, Chandra M.

    Factors involved in machining of fiber-reinforced composites are reviewed. Consideration is given to properties of composites reinforced with boron filaments, glass fibers, aramid fibers, carbon fibers, and silicon carbide fibers and to polymer (organic) matrix composites, metal matrix composites, and ceramic matrix composites, as well as to the processes used in conventional machining of boron-titanium composites and of composites reinforced by each of these fibers. Particular attention is given to the methods of nonconventional machining, such as laser machining, water jet cutting, electrical discharge machining, and ultrasonic assisted machining. Also discussed are safety precautions which must be taken during machining of fiber-containing composites.

  13. High-Performance Synthetic Fibers for Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    required wastewater treatment . In short, this new process can easily produce the current standard high-quality precursor fiber, but it also has the...FMI Composites LTD); Formation of fibergLass\\preform for composite coupling shaft; Undulating ribbon structure of graphene layers for a PAN-based c...ongoing research and development in areas that are of general importance to fiber science and technology (surface properties and treatments , fiber-matrix

  14. Effects of fibers on mechanical properties of high-performance concrete subjected to elevated temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiang-jun; DING Yi-ning; CAO Ling-jian

    2008-01-01

    The compressive strength and flexural toughness as well as fracture energy of fiber reinforced high performance concrete(FRHPC)subjected to different high temperatures were studied.The results showed that after exposure at 300,600 and 900℃,the concrete mixes retained 88.1%.41.3% and 10.2% of the original compressive strength on average,respectively.Steel fiber and polypropyhne(PP)fiber were both effective in minimizing the damage effect of high temperatures on the compressive strength.The HPC reinforced with steel fibers showed higher flexural toughness and fracture energy before and after the high-temperature exposures.In comparison,PP fibers had minor beneficial effects on the flexural toughness and fracture energy.The mechanical properties of HPC reinforced with hybrid fibers(steel fiber+PP fiber)were equivalent to or better than those of HPC reinforced with steel fibers alone.In addition,the failure pattern of FRHPC beams changed from pull-out of steel fibers at lower temperatures(20,300 and 600 ℃)to tensile failure of steel fibers at higher temperature(900℃).

  15. Biodegradation of pitch-based high performance carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. (Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi, (Japan). Faculty of Education)

    1992-09-10

    Although carbon fibers are widely used in various purposes because of their excellent mechanical properties, their behavior under biodegradation by microorganisms has not been elucidated. To elucidate the process of biodegradation of carbon fibers is important for understanding thoroughly the durability and the functionality of the fibers. In this article, a study has been made on biodegradation of pitch-based high performance carbon fibers by microorganisms. The fiber which was degraded has been examined with a scanning electron microscope. Aspergillus flavus has broken surface areas of high performance carbon fibers in 60 days and the fibril structure under the surface layer of the fiber has been exfoliated by degradation. The fibrils on the second layer have been 100-110nm wide. The fibrils have been in line nearly parallel to the fiber axis. The above carbon fibers are carbon type, but in case of graphite type high performance carbon fibers, its broken areas have not been shown and they have shown much stronger resistance against microbial attacks. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Current State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    strength between 190 to 240 MPa and is broadly characterized as a reactive powder concrete (RPC). RPCs have fine aggregates and powders but do not...ER D C/ G SL T R- 17 -1 9 Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber-Reinforced Concrete : Current State-of-the-Art G eo te...Discontinuous Fibers in Ultra-High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete : Current State-of-the-Art Charles A. Burchfield Geotechnical and

  17. Fiber-reinforced cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindess, S. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (CA)); Skalny, J. (W.R. Grace and Co., Columbia, MD (US))

    1991-01-01

    There were five main themes: toughening mechanisms; synthetic and glass fibers; cracking under static and impact loading; new fibers and processing techniques; and applications. The lively exchange of ideas that occurred during the discussions made it clear that the development of high-performance, durable fiber cements and concretes is well advanced. Most of the papers presented at the symposium are included in this volume.

  18. Sensored fiber reinforced polymer grate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Michael P.; Mack, Thomas Kimball

    2017-08-01

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a sensored grate that can be utilized for various security fencing applications. The sensored grate includes a grate framework and an embedded optical fiber. The grate framework is formed of a molded polymer such as, for instance, molded fiber reinforced polymer. Further, the grate framework includes a set of elongated elements, where the elongated elements are spaced to define apertures through the grate framework. The optical fiber is embedded in the elongated elements of the grate framework. Moreover, bending or breaking of one or more of the elongated elements can be detected based on a change in a characteristic of input light provided to the optical fiber compared to output light received from the optical fiber.

  19. 高性能纤维增强水泥基复合材料的力学性能试验研究%Experimental study on the mechanical properties of high performance polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘界鑫; 杨树桐

    2015-01-01

    采用聚乙烯醇纤维( Polyvinyl Alcohol,简称PVA纤维)制备高性能纤维增强水泥基复合材料( PVA-ECC),通过立方体抗压强度和梁四点弯曲试验分别研究不同PVA纤维体积掺入量、不同砂胶比以及粉煤灰掺入量对PVA-ECC材料的抗压强度与弯曲性能的影响。结果表明:随着纤维掺入量的增加PVA-ECC抗压强度逐渐降低,但弯曲延性增强。砂胶比的降低使得纤维更好的分散,延性效果得到明显改善。粉煤灰掺量的增加改善了PVA-ECC搅拌时的流动度,梁的抗弯承载力有所降低,但延性提高。%High performance fiber-reinforced cement-based composites(PVA-ECC)were produced based on polyvinyl alcohol fi-bers( PVA). The influences of the fiber volume content,sand-binder ratio and fly ash contenton the compressive strength and bending performance of the PVA-ECC material by using cubic compression test and four-point bending test. The results show that the com-pressive strength gradually decreases with an increase in fiber volume content. But the ductility is improved. The lower sand-binder ra-tio can help to improve fiber dispersion,and the ductility is obviously improved. An increase in the fly ash content improves PVA-ECC mixing flowability,reduces the flexural strength,and increases the ductility.

  20. A novel surface modification of carbon fiber for high-performance thermoplastic polyurethane composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yizhen; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xinling; Yang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Properties of carbon fiber (CF) reinforced composites depend largely on the interfacial bonding strength between fiber and the matrix. In the present work, CF was grafted by 4,4‧-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) molecules after electrochemical oxidation treatment. The existence of functional groups introduced to the fiber surface and the changes of surface roughness were confirmed by FTIR, AFM, XPS, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. To evaluate the possible applications of this surface modification of carbon fiber, we examined the mechanical properties as well as the friction and wear performance of pristine CF and MDI-CF reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites with 5-30 wt.% fiber contents, and found that the mechanical properties of TPU composites were all significantly improved. It is remarkable that when fiber content was 30 wt.%, the tensile strength of TPU/MDI-CF was increased by 99.3%, which was greater than TPU/CF (53.2%), and the friction loss of TPU/MDI-CF was decreased by 49.09%. The results of DMA and SEM analysis indicated the positive effects of MDI modification on the interfacial bonding between fibers and matrix. We believed that this simple and effective method could be used to the development of surface modified carbon fiber for high-performance TPU.

  1. Flex Fatigue Property and Fractography of High Performance Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua-peng; LIU Xiao-yan; SHI Mei-wu; ZHANG Jian-chun; LAI Kan; WANG Shan-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The effects of pre-stress and bending angle on the flex fatigue lifetimes of para- aramds have been studied choosing the Twaron 2000 high performance filament as the studying subject by use of the self-developed flex fatigue apparatus. The fractography of the fatiguebreaking end of the single filaments has been obtained and the fatigue-breaking mechanisms have been analyzed using the LM and SEM. The differences of the fatigue properties and fractography of a variety of high performance fibers such as Kevlar 129, Kevlar 29 and UHMW PE have been discussed.

  2. Flexural Strength Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Members with Ultra High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek-Il Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexural strength evaluation models for steel fiber reinforced ultra high strength concrete were suggested and evaluated with test results. Suggested flexural strength models were composed of compression stress blocks and tension stress blocks. Rectangular stress block, triangular stress block, and real distribution shape of stress were used on compression side. Under tension, rectangular stress block distributed to whole area of tension side and partial area of tension side was used. The last model for tension side is realistic stress distribution. All these models were verified with test result which was carried out in this study. Test was conducted by four-point loading with 2,000 kN actuator for slender beam specimen. Additional verifications were carried out with previous researches on flexural strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete or ultra high strength concrete. Total of 21 test specimens were evaluated. As a result of comparison for flexural strength of section, neutral axis depth at ultimate state, models with triangular compression stress block, and strain-softening type tension stress block can be used as exact solution for ultra high performance concrete. For the conservative and convenient design of section, modified rectangular stress block model can be used with strain softening type tension stress block.

  3. Mechanical characterization of fiber reinforced Polymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marciano Laredo dos Reis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between epoxy Polymer Concrete plain, reinforced with carbon and glass fibers and commercial concrete mixes was made. The fibers are 6 mm long and the fiber content was 2% and 1%, respectively, in mass. Compressive tests were performed at room temperature and load vs. displacement curves were plotted up to failure. The carbon and glass fibers reinforcement were randomly dispersed into the matrix of polymer concrete. An increase in compressive properties was observed as function of reinforcement. The comparison also showed that Polymer Concrete, plain and reinforced, has a better performance than regular market concrete, suggesting that PC is a reliable alternative for construction industry.

  4. Lignocellulosic fiber reinforced rubber composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info John_d1_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 43167 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name John_d1_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 -252- CHAPTER 10: LIGNOCELLULOSIC... FIBER REINFORCED RUBBER COMPOSITES Maya JACOB JOHN1 Rajesh D. ANANDJIWALA2 (1)CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Fibres and Textiles Competence Area, P.O. Box 1124, Port Elizabeth 6000, South Africa, E-mail: mjohn@csir.co.za (2) Department...

  5. Machining fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanduri, Ranga

    1993-04-01

    Compared to high tool wear and high costs of tooling of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs), noncontact material-removal processes offer attractive alternative. Noncontact machining methods can also minimize dust, noise, and extensive plastic deformation and consequent heat generation associated with conventional machining of FRCs, espacially those with an epoxy matrix. The paper describes the principles involved in and the details of machining of FRCs by laser machining, water jet-cutting and abrasive water jet-cutting, and electrical discharge machining of composites, as well as the limitations of each method.

  6. Nanoclay Reinforced Fibers and Nonwovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan Bhat, Ph.D.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, polypropylene fibers and nonwoven samples were produced with the commercial samples of nanoclay additives in semi-commercial processing machinery. Influence of two different types of nanoclay additives, at different add on levels on processing, structure and morphology of nonwovens is studied. The WAXD and DSC data showed some change in crystallinity and melting behavior indicating changes in the fiber morphology towards improved mechanical properties. Presence and extent of exfoliation of nanoclay in the polymer was verified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. TEM image reveals intercalated and exfoliated morphology of nanocomposites. About 10 to 20 % increase in tensile strength and modulus in both machine and cross directions is observed. This increase in strength is not accompanied by a decrease in breaking elongation as is the case for most of the fibers. Similarly 10 to 25 % increase in web stiffness and 20 to 80 % increase in web burst strength was observed. Furthermore there is improvement in other performance properties of the spunbond nonwovens. SEM images showed improved thermal bonding in the presence of nanoclay additives. The main advantage of this process is that these fabrics can be produced without any need for change in the processing equipment. This study has shown that by using a suitable compounding method, nanoparticle reinforced fibers and fibrous products with improved performance properties can be produced using conventional production machinery.

  7. Carbon Fiber Reinforced, Zero CME Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technical Abstract: This project proposes to develop moisture insensitive, high performance, carbon fiber laminates for future missions. Current space-qualified...

  8. DUCTILITY BEHAVIOR FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH EXTERNALLY BONDED GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariappan Mahalingam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted on Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC beams with externally bonded Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP laminates with a view to study their strength and ductility. A total of ten beams, 150×250 mm in cross-section were tested in the laboratory over an effective span of 2800 mm. Three fiber reinforced concrete beams were used as reference beams. Six fiber reinforced concrete beams were provided with externally bonded GFRP laminates. One concrete beam was left virgin without any fiber reinforcement and external GFRP laminates. All the beams were tested until failure. The variables considered included volume fraction of fiber reinforcement and stiffness of GFRP laminates. The static responses of all the beams were evaluated in terms of strength, stiffness and ductility. The test results show that the beams provided with externally bonded GFRP laminates exhibit improved performance over the beams with internal fiber reinforcement.

  9. Influence of Basalt FRP Mesh Reinforcement on High-Performance Concrete Thin Plates at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Lauridsen, Dan H.; Hodicky, Kamil;

    2015-01-01

    A basalt fiber–reinforced polymer (BFRP) mesh was introduced as reinforcement in high-performance concrete (HPC) thin plates (20–30 mm) for implementation in precast sandwich panels. An experimental program studied the BFRP mesh influence on HPC exposed to high temperature. A set of standard furn...

  10. Carbon nanotube reinforced polyacrylonitrile and poly(etherketone) fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul

    stability with almost no weight loss up to 500°C and negligible thermal shrinkage up to 200°C. The PEK based fibers showed high toughness which surpassed many of the high-performance fibers like KevlarRTM and Zylon RTM. The 10% FWNT containing fiber is unique in terms of high electrical conductivity and high toughness. The CNT based fibers may be used as structural material, fire-barrier/protection textile, electrode for electrochemical capacitor or fuel cells, and as a template for directional growth of tissues.

  11. Fatigue Performance of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jun, Zhang; Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to obtain basic data of fibre reinforced concrete under fatigue load and to set up a theoretical model based on micromechanics. In this study, the bridging stress in fiber reinforced concrete under cyclic tensile load was investigted in details. The damage...... mechanism of the interface between fiber and matrix was proposed and a rational model given. Finally, the response of a steel fiber reinforced concrete beam under fatigue loading was predicted based on this model and compared with experimental results....

  12. 高性能混杂纤维增强膨胀混凝土在硫酸镁溶液中的抗腐蚀性能%Resistance of High Performance Hybrid Fibers Reinforced Expansive Concrete Exposed to Magnesium Sulfate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨礼明; 余红发; 麻海燕; 白康; 曹文涛

    2011-01-01

    采用自然浸泡和于湿循环的方法,研究了粉煤灰混凝土(FAC)、高性能混凝土(HPc)和高性能混杂纤维增强膨胀混凝土(mPHFREC)在5%硫酸镁溶液中的相对动弹性模量变化和质量损失规律.实验结果表明:硫酸镁环境对混凝土具有严重腐蚀性;干湿循环加速混凝土的表面剥落,对混凝土的抗硫酸镁腐蚀性能有劣化作用.在5%硫酸镁中自然浸泡,HPHFREC2具有优良的抗腐蚀性能,三元纤维混杂起到良好的增韧阻裂作用;在干湿循环+硫酸镁双重破坏因素作用下,HPC有较好的抗腐蚀性能,而HPHFREC的纤维增强效果不佳,表面剥落严重,抗腐蚀性能不理想.%In this paper, the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity (RDME) and mass loss of fly ash concrete (FAC), high performance concrete ( HPC), and high performance hybrid fibers reinforced expansive concrete (HPHFREC) exposed to 5% magnesium sulfate solution was investigated. Two corrosion regimes were conducted in natural immersion and dry-wet cycles. The results show that the erosion of concrete in magnesium sulfate environment is severe and the dry-wet cycles accelerates the surface peeling of concrete and has the negative effect to the resistance of concrete to magnesium sulfate attack. HPHFREC2 shows the outstanding resistance of concrete in the natural immersion of 5% magnesium solution and gets an obvious reinforced effect of three type hybrid fiber. Subjected to the combined action of dry-wet cycles and magnesium sulfate, HPC has the best resistance, oppositely, the resistance of HPHFREC is unexpected of which the surface peeling is severe and the reinforced effect of the fiber is not available.

  13. Single fiber pullout from hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovich, I.; Van Mier, J.G.M.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid fiber reinforcement can be very efficient for improving the tensile response of the composite. In such materials, fibers of different geometries can act as bridging mechanisms over cracks of different widths. The fiber bridging efficiency depends on the interface properties, which makes inter

  14. Carbon nanotube reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction: a novel extraction technique for the measurement of caffeic acid in Echinacea purpurea herbal extracts combined with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es'haghi, Zarrin; Golsefidi, Mazyar Ahmadi; Saify, Ali; Tanha, Ali Akbar; Rezaeifar, Zohre; Alian-Nezhadi, Zahra

    2010-04-23

    A new design of hollow fiber solid-liquid phase microextraction (HF-SLPME) was developed for the determination of caffeic acid in medicinal plants samples as Echinacea purpure. The membrane extraction with sorbent interface used in this research is a three-phase supported liquid membrane consisting of an aqueous (donor phase), organic solvent/nano sorbent (membrane) and aqueous (acceptor phase) system operated in direct immersion sampling mode. The multi-walled carbon nanotube dispersed in the organic solvent is held in the pores of a porous membrane supported by capillary forces and sonification. It is in contact with two aqueous phases: the donor phase, which is the aqueous sample, and the acceptor phase, usually an aqueous buffer. All microextraction experiments were supported using an Accurel Q3/2 polypropylene hollow fiber membrane (600 microm I.D., 200 microm wall thicknesses, and 0.2 microm pore size). The experimental setup is very simple and highly affordable. The hollow fiber is disposable, so single use of the fiber reduces the risk of cross-contamination and carry-over problems. The proposed method allows the very effective and enriched recuperation of an acidic analyte into one single extract. In order to obtain high enrichment and extraction efficiency of the analyte using this novel technique, the main parameters were optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity (0.0001-50 microg/L), repeatability, low limits of detection (0.00005 microg/L) and excellent enrichment (EF=2108). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fracture Toughness of Fiber Reinforced Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    14, 1979, pp. 443-449. 5 Mindess , S., Lawrence, F. V., and Kesler, C. E., "The J-Integral as a Fracture Criterion for Fiber Reinforced Concrete...34 Cement and Con- crete Research, Vol. 7, 1977 , pp. 731-742. 6 Velazco, G., Visalvanich, K., and Shah, S. P., "Fracture Behavior and Analysis of Fiber

  16. Micromechanical failure in fiber-reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashouri Vajari, Danial

    Micromechanical failure mechanisms occurring in unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites are studied by means of the finite element method as well as experimental testing. This study highlights the effect of micro-scale features such as fiber/matrix interfacial debonding, matrix cracking and mi...

  17. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization...

  18. Effect of hybrid fiber reinforcement on the cracking process in fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous use of different types of fibers as reinforcement in cementitious matrix composites is typically motivated by the underlying principle of a multi-scale nature of the cracking processes in fiber reinforced cementitious composites. It has been hypothesized that while undergoing...... tensile deformations in the composite, the fibers with different geometrical and mechanical properties restrain the propagation and further development of cracking at different scales from the micro- to the macro-scale. The optimized design of the fiber reinforcing systems requires the objective...... assessment of the contribution of each type of fiber to the overall tensile response. Possible synergistic effects resulting from particular combinations of fibers need to be clearly identified. In the present study, the evaluation of the response of different fiber reinforced cementitious composite...

  19. Reinforcement of RC structure by carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissi B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to the increased spending on building maintenance work and restoration of built works. In all cases, it is essential to carry out methods of reinforcement or maintenance of structural elements, following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. This research focuses on the calculation of the necessary reinforcement sections of carbon fiber for structural elements with reinforced concrete in order to improve their load bearing capacity and rigidity. The different results obtained reveal a considerable gain in resistance and deformation capacity of reinforced sections without significant increase in the weight of the rehabilitated elements.

  20. High-Performance LSPR Fiber Sensor Based on Nanometal Rings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yue Jing He

    2014-01-01

    .... It was examined that the current metallic patterns in the fiber sensor can trigger the LSPR by the electric field Er of the core mode HE11, and this is the main reason why this novel fiber sensor can...

  1. Acceleration Life Test and Microscopic Mechanism of High Performance Glass Fiber Reinforced Magnesium Oxychloride Cement%高性能玻璃纤维增强氯氧镁水泥的加速寿命试验与微观机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红发; 董金美; 刘倩倩; 李颖; 林启红

    2012-01-01

    利用SIC( strand in cement)试验方法,测定了玻璃纤维增强氯氧镁水泥(glass fiber reinforced magnesium oxychloride cement,GRMC)板材在80℃热水加速老化试验条件下的弯曲强度变化,研究了其加速试验寿命,并运用XRD、DSC -TG、FT-IR和SEM分析其水化产物组成和微观结构形貌,观察了玻璃纤维在氯氧镁水泥基体中的腐蚀特征.结果表明:未添加任何改性剂的普通GRMC在80℃热水加速老化2.5d后,其主要水化产物5·1 ·8大量分解,物相以叶片状的Mg( OH)2为主,促使玻璃纤维被基体腐蚀,导致力学性能急剧下降,预期使用寿命不超过4y.掺加复合抗水外加剂和矿渣的高性能GRMC由于5·1 ·8相的稳定存在和玻璃纤维不被腐蚀,在加速老化试验条件下的强度保留率高达60%以上,预期使用寿命超过了50 y.因此,5·1 ·8的稳定存在是保证高性能GRMC的玻璃纤维稳定性和长期耐久性的重要基础.%Bending strength change of glass fiber reinforced magnesium oxychloride cement (GRMC) board at 80 °C hot water accelerated aging was tested by the strand-in-cement ( SIC) method. Hydration product component, microscopic structure and corrosion feature of glass fibers in the oxychloride magnesium cement matrix were observed by XRD, DSC-TG, FT-IR and SEM. The results showed that its main hydration product 5·1·8 was hydrolysed and Mg(OH)2 became the main phase for common GRMC board after accelerated aging 2. 5 d at 80 °C. Hot water which led to the corrosion of glass fiber caused by matrix and rapid degradation of mechanical property , so the expected service life was not more than 4 years. For high performance GRMC board doped with compound water-repellent admixtures and slag,strength retention was higher than 60% at accelerated aging state because of the stability of 5 · 1 · 8 and noncorrision of glass fiber. Its expected service life exceeded 50 years. So, the stability of 5 · 1 · 8 was the important factor

  2. Feasibility of Using High-Performance Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete for Simplifying Reinforcement Details of Critical Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Joon Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the effects of hooked-end steel fibre contents on the mechanical properties of high-performance concrete (HPC and investigates the feasibility of utilizing steel fibres to simplify the complicated reinforcement detailing of critical HPC members under high shear stress. Mechanical properties of HPCs with specified compressive strength of 60 and 100 MPa include the flow, air content, compressive strength, and flexural strength. The effectiveness of 1.50% steel fibre content on the shear behaviour of diagonally reinforced concrete coupling beam without additional transverse reinforcement was investigated to alleviate complex reinforcing details for the full section confinement of diagonal bar groups. The test results revealed the incorporation of steel fibres significantly affected the mechanical properties of the HPCs. For diagonally reinforced coupling beam (SFRCCB without additional transverse reinforcement, the addition of 1.5% steel fibre content into 60 MPa HPC coupling beam provides similar cracking and structural behaviours compared to those of diagonally reinforced coupling beam (CCB with full section confinement details. However, the ductility of SFRCCB was less than that of CCB. It is recommended that both stirrups and steel fibre should be used for fully confining the diagonal bar groups of coupling beams to achieve the ductile behaviour.

  3. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization of the matrix and the fibers.

  4. External reinforcing of fiber concrete constructions by carbon fiber tapes

    OpenAIRE

    S.V. Klyuyev; Yu.V. Guryanov

    2013-01-01

    Strengthening the concrete and reinforced concrete structures with carbon fiber tapes is very actively applied in Europe nowadays. In Russia composites based on carbon fiber have also widely spread recently. The main advantages of these materials for strengthening structures are its high specific strength (strength-weight ratio) and strength-to-density ratio.Experimental studies on strengthening and restoration of the constructions were held. Flexible fiber concrete constructions based on man...

  5. Feasibility of Using High-Performance Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete for Simplifying Reinforcement Details of Critical Members

    OpenAIRE

    Seok-Joon Jang; Dae-Hyun Kang; Kyung-Lim Ahn; Wan-Shin Park; Sun-Woong Kim; Hyun-Do Yun

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of hooked-end steel fibre contents on the mechanical properties of high-performance concrete (HPC) and investigates the feasibility of utilizing steel fibres to simplify the complicated reinforcement detailing of critical HPC members under high shear stress. Mechanical properties of HPCs with specified compressive strength of 60 and 100 MPa include the flow, air content, compressive strength, and flexural strength. The effectiveness of 1.50% steel fibre conten...

  6. High Performance Fiber-Optic Sensor for Environmental Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a low-cost, compact, lightweight, rugged and easy-to-use environmental monitoring optical fiber sensor device based on...

  7. Polypropylene matrix composites reinforced with coconut fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Virginia Gelfuso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene matrix composites reinforced with treated coconut fibers were produced. Fibers chemically treated (alkalization-CCUV samples or mechanically treated (ultrasonic shockwave-CMUV samples were dried using UV radiation. The goal was to combine low cost and eco-friendly treatments to improve fiber-matrix adhesion. Composite samples containing up to 20 vol. (% of untreated and treated coconut fibers were taken from boxes fabricated by injection molding. Water absorption and mechanical properties were investigated according to ASTM D570-98 and ASTM D638-03, respectively. Electrical characterizations were carried out to identify applications of these composites in the electrical sector. NBR 10296-Electrical Tracking Standard (specific to industry applications and conductivity measurements were obtained applying 5 kV DC to the samples. CMUV samples containing 5 vol. (% fiber presented superior tensile strength values (σ~28 MPa compared to the untreated fibers composite (σ~22 MPa or alkali treatment (σ~24 MPa. However, CMUV composites containing 10 vol. (% fiber presented best results for the electrical tracking test and electrical resistivity (3 × 10(7 Ω.m. The results suggest that composites reinforced with mechanically treated coconut fibers are suitable for electrical applications.

  8. Nano polypeptide particles reinforced polymer composite fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiashen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Li, Gang; Liu, Xuan; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xuqing; Han, Yanxia; Zhao, Zheng

    2015-02-25

    Because of the intensified competition of land resources for growing food and natural textile fibers, there is an urgent need to reuse and recycle the consumed/wasted natural fibers as regenerated green materials. Although polypeptide was extracted from wool by alkaline hydrolysis, the size of the polypeptide fragments could be reduced to nanoscale. The wool polypeptide particles were fragile and could be crushed down to nano size again and dispersed evenly among polymer matrix under melt extrusion condition. The nano polypeptide particles could reinforce antiultraviolet capability, moisture regain, and mechanical properties of the polymer-polypeptide composite fibers.

  9. High Performance Large Mode-Area Ytterbium-doped Photonic Crystal Fiber for Fiber Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wei; Lu Peixiang [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Li Shiyu; Wang Dongxiang, E-mail: chenwei@fiberhome.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optical Communication Technologies and Networks, Fiberhome Telecommunication Technologies Co. Ltd, 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In this letter, large-mode-area double-cladding ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber was designed in theory and fabricated in practice. This fiber we have fabricated successfully has endless single mode operation performance and large inner-cladding numerical aperture of more than 0.75. The struts width between large air-holes in the outer-cladding is about 0.22 {mu}m. The photonic crystal fiber has a mode-area about 1465.7{mu}m{sup 2}. Due to the material being pure silica and air, such structures have excellent capacity to with-stand high temperature. The laser light can have very good beam quality, even diffraction-limited beam quality because of the single-mode core. This fabrication technical breakthrough of novelty high performance double-cladding ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fibers will give contributions to the high power fiber lasers and promote the progress of technology in the fields of high power lasers.

  10. High-Performance Fiber Compound Material to be Industrialized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James H.Zhao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chinese top planner-State Development and Reform Commission,has decided to organize and coordinate an implementation of a special project for htgh tech industrialization of fiber-feinforced compound materials in 2008 up to 2009.The decision has recently been issued in its national circular(doc.3177,Yr.2007)to call for local enterprises to apply for this special project support.

  11. Hybrid Effect Evaluation of Steel Fiber and Carbon Fiber on the Performance of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Weimin Song; Jian Yin

    2016-01-01

    Fiber reinforcement is an important method to enhance the performance of concrete. In this study, the compressive test and impact test were conducted, and then the hybrid effect between steel fiber (SF) and carbon fiber (CF) was evaluated by employing the hybrid effect index. Compressive toughness and impact toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) and hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) were explored at steel fiber volume fraction 0.5%,...

  12. Behaviour of fibre-reinforced high-performance concrete in exterior beam-column joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthupriya, P.; Boobalan, S. C.; Vishnuram, B. G.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the effect of reinforced high performance concrete (HPC) in exterior beam-column joint with and without fibre under monotonic loading. In this experimental investigation, cross-diagonal bars have been provided at the joint for reducing the congestion of reinforcement in joints, and also M75 grade of concrete with optimum mix proportion of 10 % silica fume and 0.3 % glass fibre was used. Four exterior beam-column joint sub-assemblages were tested. The specimens were divided into two types based on the reinforcement detailing. Type A comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per construction code of practice in India (IS 456-2000), and Type B comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per ductile detailing code of practice in India (IS 13920-1993). In each group there was one specimen of control mix and the remaining one specimen of fibre-reinforced mix. All the test specimens were designed to satisfy the strong column-weak beam concept. The performances of specimens were compared with the control mix and the fibre-reinforced mix. The results show that exterior beam-column joint specimens with silica fume and glass fibre in the HPC mix showed better performance.

  13. High performance fiber-based optical coherent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youming

    The sensitivity of signal detection is of major interest for optical high speed communication systems and LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar) systems. Sensitive receivers in fiber-optical networks can reduce transmitter power or amplifier amplification requirements and extend link spans. High receiver sensitivity allows links to be established over long distances in deep space satellite communication systems and large atmospheric attenuation to be overcome in terrestrial free space communications. For lidar systems, the sensitivity of signal detection determines how far and how accurately the lidar can detect the remote objects. Optical receivers employ either coherent or direct detection. In addition to amplitude, coherent detection extracts frequency and phase information from received signals, whereas direct detection extracts the received pulse amplitude only. In theory, coherent detection should yield the highest receiver sensitivity. Another possible technique to improve detection sensitivity is to employ a fiber preamplifier. This technique has been successfully demonstrated in direct detection systems but not in the coherent detection systems. Due to the existence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) inside the amplifier, the sensitivity of coherent detection varies with the data rate or pulse rate. For this reason, optically preamplified coherent detection is not used in applications as commonly as optically preamplified direct detection. We investigate the performance of coherent detection employing a fiber amplifier and time-domain-filter. The fiber amplifier is used as the optical preamplifier of the coherent detection system. To reduce the noise induced by the preamplifier to a maximum extent, we investigate the noise properties for both a single pass amplifier and a double pass amplifier. The relative intensity noise and linewidth broadening caused by ASE have been experimentally characterized. The results show that the double pass amplifier has

  14. Evaluation of Shear Resisting Capacity of a Prestressed Concrete Containment Building with Steel or Polyamide Fiber Reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Youngsun; Park, Junhee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Conventional reinforced concrete (RC) members generally show a rapid deterioration in shear resisting mechanisms under a reversed cyclic load. However, the use of high-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites provides excellent damage tolerance under large displacement reversals compared with regular concrete. Previous experimental studies have indicated that the use of fibers in conventional RC can enhance the structural and functional performance of prestressed concrete containment buildings (PCCBs) in nuclear power plants. This study evaluates the shear resisting capacity for a PCCB constructed using steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) or polyamide fiber reinforced concrete (PFRC). The effects of steel and polyamide fibers on the shear performance of a PCCB were investigated. It was revealed that steel fibers are more effective to enhance the shear resisting capacity of a PCCB than polyamide fibers. The ductility and energy dissipation increase significantly in fiber reinforced PCCBs.

  15. Single Straight Steel Fiber Pullout Characterization in Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Valerie Mills

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents results of an experimental investigation to characterize single straight steel fiber pullout in Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC). Several parameters were explored including the distance of fibers to the edge of specimen, distance between fibers, and fiber volume in the matrix. The pullout load versus slip curve was recorded, from which the pullout work and maximum pullout load for each series of parameters were obtained. The curves were fitted to an e...

  16. FLEXURAL TOUGHNESS OF STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmi ÇİVİCİ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Fiber concrete is a composite material which has mechanical and physical characteristics unlike plain concrete. One of the important mechanical characteristics of fiber concrete is its energy absorbing capability. This characteristics which is also called toughness, is defined as the total area under the load-deflection curve. A number of composite characteristics such as crack resistance, ductility and impact resistance are related to the energy absorbtion capacity. According to ASTM C 1018 and JSCE SF-4 the calculation of toughness is determined by uniaxial flexural testing. Fiber concrete is often used in plates such as bridge decks, airport pavements, parking areas, subjected to cavitation and erosion. In this paper, toughness has been determined according to ASTM C 1018 and JSCE SF-4 methods by testing beam specimens. Energy absorbing capacities of plain and steel fiber reinforced concrete has been compared by evaluating the results of two methods. Also plain and steel fiber reinforced plate specimens behaviors subjected to biaxial flexure are compared by the loaddeflection curves of each specimen.

  17. Performance of steel-making slag concrete reinforced with fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-López Vanesa; Fuente-Alonso José Antonio; Skaf Marta; Santamaría Amaia; Aragón Ángel; Manso Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the possibility of making concrete reinforced with fibers and manufactured with recycled aggregates from carbon steel production was explored. Electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) was used as coarse and medium aggregate, and part of the sand sizes. Metallic and synthetic fibers were added in different amounts. Initially, the properties of EAFS and their suitability to be used in the manufacture fiber reinforced concrete were analysed. Then, a series of fiber reinforced concrete ...

  18. Design and analysis of reinforced fiber composites

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagata, Nobuki

    2016-01-01

    The papers in this volume present a broad range of applications for reinforced fiber composites - from thin shell structures to tires. Linear and nonlinear structural behavior (from linear buckling to nonlinear yelding and fracture) are discussed as well as different materials are presented. Latest developments in computational methods for constructíons are presented which will help to save money and time. This is an edited collection of papers presented at a symposium at the WCCM, Barcelona, 2014.

  19. Fiber-reinforced sand strength and dilation characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Eldesouky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Randomly distributed fiber reinforcement is used to provide an isotropic increase in the sand shear strength. The previous studies were not consistent regarding the fibers effect on the volumetric change behavior of fiber-reinforced sand. In this paper, direct shear tests are conducted on 108 specimens to investigate the effects of the fibers content, relative density, normal stress and moisture content on the shear strength and volumetric change behaviors of fiber-reinforced sand. The study investigates also the possibility of using dry fiber-reinforced sand as an alternative to heavily compacted unreinforced moist sand. The results indicate that the fibers inclusion increases the shear strength and dilation of sand. Moisture suppresses the fibers effect on the peak and post-peak shear strengths, and dilation. Dry loose fiber-reinforced sand achieves the same shear strength of heavily compacted unreinforced moist sand, yet at more than double the horizontal displacement.

  20. Fiber reinforced polymer composites for bridge structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra CANTORIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in construction materials technology have led to the emergence of new materials with special properties, aiming at safety, economy and functionality of bridges structures. A class of structural materials which was originally developed many years ago, but recently caught the attention of engineers involved in the construction of bridges is fiber reinforced polymer composites. This paper provides an overview of fiber reinforced polymer composites used in bridge structures including types, properties, applications and future trends. The results of this study have revealed that this class of materials presents outstanding properties such as high specific strength, high fatigue and environmental resistance, lightweight, stiffness, magnetic transparency, highly cost-effective, and quick assembly, but in the same time high initial costs, lack of data on long-term field performance, low fire resistance. Fiber reinforced polymer composites were widely used in construction of different bridge structures such as: deck and tower, I-beams, tendons, cable stands and proved to be materials for future in this field.

  1. Effect of Fiber Reinforcement on the Response of Structural Members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Gregor; Li, Victor

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a series of investigations on the effect of fiber reinforcement on the response of structural members in direct tension and flexure under reversed cyclic loading conditions. The design approach of the fiber reinforced cementitious composite is based on fracture mechanics prin...... to conventional reinforced concrete include improved composite integrity, energy dissipation, ductility, and damage tolerance....

  2. Asphalt mix reinforced with vegetable fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The use of a larger share of renewable materials in road construction is a trend that in the long term cannot be avoided. In some cases, due to this pressure, new innovative opportunities are generated. This article attempts to outline and bring one of such opportunity. The article describes selection and the use of special natural fibers from renewable natural resources adapted for use in various types of asphalt mixtures to improve the range of properties. Experimental results showed an improvement in stiffness modulus, indirect tensile strength (ITS) and good resistance to permanent deformation of blends containing vegetable fibers. This is a new topic in the road construction. But the results have so far proven that the used type of fibers can be a perspective way, as simple and in line with the policy of sustainable development, to improve the properties (reinforce) of the asphalt mixtures.

  3. Continuous fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R. A.; Brindley, P. K.; Froes, F. H.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the fabrication techniques, microstructural characteristics, and mechanical behavior of a lightweight, high service temperature SiC-reinforced alpha-2 Ti-14Al-21Nb intermetallic-matrix composite. Fabrication techniques under investigation to improve the low-temperature ductility and environmental resistance of this material system, while reducing manufacturing costs to competitive levels, encompass powder-cloth processing, foil-fiber-foil processing, and thermal-spray processing. Attention is given to composite microstructure problems associated with fiber distribution and fiber-matrix interfaces, as well as with mismatches of thermal-expansion coefficient; major improvements are noted to be required in tensile properties, thermal cycling effects, mechanical damage, creep, and environmental effects.

  4. Influence of different glass fiber reinforcements on denture base polymer strength (Fiber reinforcements of dental polymer)

    OpenAIRE

    Ketij Mehulić,; Asja Čelebić,; Zdravko Schauperl,; Dragutin Komar,; Denis Vojvodić,; Domagoj Žabarović

    2009-01-01

    Aim Assessment of flexural strength values of dental base polymersreinforced with different glass fibers (“dental” and “industrial”origin) after performed artificial ageing procedures.Methods Three hundred specimens (dimensions 18 x 10 x 3 mm)were produced of denture base polymers reinforced with differentglass fibers. The “short beam” testing method was used to determinethe flexural strength of the specimens after polymerization,immersion in water of temperature 37oC for 28 days, and thermoc...

  5. SOVIET TRENDS IN ORIENTED GLASS-FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLASS TEXTILES, *PLASTICS, *REINFORCING MATERIALS, ADHESION, BINDERS, DEFORMATION, ELASTIC PROPERTIES, EPOXY RESINS , FIBERS, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, POLYMERS, PROCESSING, SILICATES, STYRENES, TEXTILES, VISCOSITY

  6. Flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams: Comparative analysis between high-performance concrete and ordinary concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamrat Mostefa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the flexural strength of reinforced concrete beams made with high performance concrete (HPC and ordinary concrete (OC. We are carried an experimental campaign aimed comes in three points: 1- the study of the law of behavior of the two materials (OC and HPC, 2- the influence of the compressive strength of concrete and the rate of longitudinal reinforcement on the loaddeflection behavior and ductility index, 3- comparative analysis (ACI318, Eurocode 2 and BS8110 against the crack opening. Test results showed that the capacity of the beams in HPC is higher (6% to 20 % than the beams in OC. The use of HPC is more efficient than the OC to delay the first cracking. The average value of the ductility index for the beams in HPC is 1.30 times those beams in OC. The formula for calculating the crack opening derived of the Eurocode 2 gives the best prediction the crack width of beams (for both types of concrete.

  7. Friction and wear behavior of carbon fiber reinforced brake materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du-qing CHENG; Xue-tao WANG; Jian ZHU; Dong-bua QIU; Xiu-wei CHENG; Qing-feng GUAN

    2009-01-01

    A new composite brake material was fabri-cated with metallic powders, barium sulphate and modified phenolic resin as the matrix and carbon fiber as the reinforced material. The friction, wear and fade character-istics of this composite were determined using a D-MS friction material testing machine. The surface structure of carbon fiber reinforced friction materials was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Glass fiber-reinforced and asbestos fiber-reinforced composites with the same matrix were also fabricated for comparison. The carbon fiber-reinforced friction materials (CFRFM) shows lower wear rate than those of glass fiber- and asbestos fiber-reinforced composites in the temperature range of 100℃-300℃. It is interesting that the frictional coefficient of the carbon fiber-reinforced friction materials increases as frictional temperature increases from 100℃ to 300℃, while the frictional coefficients of the other two composites decrease during the increasing temperatures. Based on the SEM observation, the wear mechanism of CFRFM at low temperatures included fiber thinning and pull-out. At high temperature, the phenolic matrix was degraded and more pull-out enhanced fiber was demonstrated. The properties of carbon fiber may be the main reason that the CFRFM possess excellent tribological performances.

  8. Electromagnetic Shielding and Absorption Properties of Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiuzhi; SUN Wei

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (SE) and absorbing properties of fiber reinforced concrete,steel fiber,carbon fiber and synthetic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber reinforced concrete were researched.The results show that with the increase of fiber volume fraction,the SE and trend of frequency change of corresponding fiber reinforced concrete are enhanced.When the volume content of steel fiber is 3%,the SE of concrete is above 50 dB and its frequency is above 1.8 GHz.Moreover,in the range of 8-18 GHz,steel fiber,carbon fiber and PVA fiber all can improve the microwave absorption properties of concrete.The concrete with 0.5% carbon fiber can achieve the best absorbing property,the minimum reflectivity is about -7 dB; while steel fiber optimal volume fraction is 2%.The reflectivity curve of PVA fiber reinforced concrete fluctuates with the frequency,and the minimum value of the reflectivity is below -10 dB.The results show that fiber reinforced concrete could be used as EMI(electromagnetic interference) prevention buildings by attenuating and reflecting electromagnetic wave energy.

  9. Nano-Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Edmund B.; Frances, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Closed cell polyurethane and, particularly, polyisocyanurate foams are a large family of flexible and rigid products the result of a reactive two part process wherein a urethane based polyol is combined with a foaming or "blowing" agent to create a cellular solid at room temperature. The ratio of reactive components, the constituency of the base materials, temperature, humidity, molding, pouring, spraying and many other processing techniques vary greatly. However, there is no known process for incorporating reinforcing fibers small enough to be integrally dispersed within the cell walls resulting in superior final products. The key differentiating aspect from the current state of art resides in the many processing technologies to be fully developed from the novel concept of milled nano pulp aramid fibers and their enabling entanglement capability fully enclosed within the cell walls of these closed cell urethane foams. The authors present the results of research and development of reinforced foam processing, equipment development, strength characteristics and the evolution of its many applications.

  10. Production of High Performance Bioinspired Silk Fibers by Straining Flow Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurga, Rodrigo; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Plaza, Gustavo R; Guinea, Gustavo V; Elices, Manuel; Pérez-Rigueiro, José

    2017-04-10

    In the last years, there has been an increasing interest in bioinspired approaches for different applications, including the spinning of high performance silk fibers. Bioinspired spinning is based on the natural spinning system of spiders and worms and requires combining changes in the chemical environment of the proteins with the application of mechanical stresses. Here we present the novel straining flow spinning (SFS) process and prove its ability to produce high performance fibers under mild, environmentally friendly conditions, from aqueous protein dopes. SFS is shown to be an extremely versatile technique which allows controlling a large number of processing parameters. This ample set of parameters allows fine-tuning the microstructure and mechanical behavior of the fibers, which opens the possibility of adapting the fibers to their intended uses.

  11. Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.C.; DePoorter, G.L.; Munoz, D.R.

    1991-02-01

    We have initiated a three phase investigation of the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer usable lifetimes. This report presents the results of the first phase of the study, performed from Aug. 1989 through Feb. 1991, which shows that significant energy saving are possible through the use of high temperature insulating fibers that better retain their efficient insulating properties during the service lifetime of the fibers. The remaining phases of this program include the pilot scale development and then full scale production feasibility development and evaluation of enhanced high temperature refractory insulting fibers. This first proof of principle phase of the program presents a summary of the current use patterns of refractory fibers, a laboratory evaluation of the high temperature performance characteristics of selected typical refractory fibers and an analysis of the potential energy savings through the use of enhanced refractory fibers. The current use patterns of refractory fibers span a wide range of industries and high temperature furnaces within those industries. The majority of high temperature fiber applications are in furnaces operating between 2000 and 26000{degrees}F. The fibers used in furnaces operating within this range provide attractive thermal resistance and low thermal storage at reasonable cost. A series of heat treatment studies performed for this phase of the program has shown that the refractory fibers, as initially manufactured, have attractive thermal conductivities for high temperature applications but the fibers go through rapid devitrification and subsequent crystal growth upon high temperature exposure. Development of improved fibers, maintaining the favorable characteristics of the existing as-manufactured fibers, could save between 1 and 4% of the energy consumed in high temperature furnaces using refractory fibers.

  12. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened in bending with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. VIEIRA

    Full Text Available The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP has been widely used for the reinforcement of concrete structures due to its practicality and versatility in application, low weight, high tensile strength and corrosion resistance. Some construction companies use CFRP in flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, but without anchor systems. Therefore, the aim of this study is analyze, through an experimental program, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams flexural strengthened by CFRP without anchor fibers, varying steel reinforcement and the amount of carbon fibers reinforcement layers. Thus, two groups of reinforced concrete beams were produced with the same geometric feature but with different steel reinforcement. Each group had five beams: one that is not reinforced with CFRP (reference and other reinforced with two, three, four and five layers of carbon fibers. Beams were designed using a computational routine developed in MAPLE software and subsequently tested in 4-point points flexural test up to collapse. Experimental tests have confirmed the effectiveness of the reinforcement, ratifying that beams collapse at higher loads and lower deformation as the amount of fibers in the reinforcing layers increased. However, the increase in the number of layers did not provide a significant increase in the performance of strengthened beams, indicating that it was not possible to take full advantage of strengthening applied due to the occurrence of premature failure mode in the strengthened beams for pullout of the cover that could have been avoided through the use of a suitable anchoring system for CFRP.

  13. Intracanal reinforcement fiber in pediatric dentistry: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira; das Neves, Lucimara Teixeira; Marotti, Noely Regina; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla; Corrêa, Maria Salete Nahás Pires

    2004-04-01

    A technique for the restoration of carious primary maxillary incisors using indirect resin composite crowns and intracanal reinforcement fiber is described. Endodontic treatment was previously performed on each tooth. The advantages of using an intracanal reinforcement fiber include resin composite crown reinforcement, translucency, and relative manipulation facility. In addition, the use of indirect resin composite crowns provides good shape and esthetics, as well as reduced chair time for the child. The technique is illustrated in a case report in which indirect resin composite crowns and an intracanal reinforcement fiber are placed in a 3-year-old girl.

  14. Application of cold plasma technology in fiber-reinforced composite materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A study is presented concerning a cold plasma technique for improving the bondability of highstrength high-modulus multi-filament polyethylene fibers to polymer matrices and the fibers impregnation with the objective to fabricate composite materials (CMs). Strong bonding between the matrixes and reinforcing fibers during the production of composites appears in the case if interaction is chemical. The value of the activation energy of the chemical interaction for very high performance polyethylene fiber was estimated. It was 1.14 eV. This allows using the cold plasma technique for producing CMs. In order to understand the effect of cold plasma treatment treated and untreated fibers were used to fabricate CMs. The strong bond between the matrix and plasma-activated fibers affects both the properties and failure mode of composite. The properties and failure modes were compared to those of CMs reinforced with untreated fibers. After plasma treatment the properties of CMs are increased. CMs are broken as a unit whole under tension. The ideas of the activating the fibers by cold plasma treatment above the activation energy of the chemical interaction may be extended over other types of the fibers and matrices to produce new types of fiber-reinforced composite materials with high physicomechanical indices.

  15. Molecular Dynamics and Morphology of High Performance Elastomers and Fibers by Solid State NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Fibers by Solid-State NMR The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an...ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 PBO fiber; environmental degradation; solid-state NMR ...non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Molecular Dynamics and Morphology of High-Performance Elastomers and Fibers by Solid-State NMR Report Title

  16. Hybrid fiber and nanopowder reinforced composites for wind turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloz M. Chikhradze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation into the production of wind turbine blades manufactured using polymer composites reinforced by hybrid (carbon, basalt, glass fibers and strengthened by various nanopowders (oxides, carbides, borides are presented. The hybrid fiber-reinforced composites (HFRC were manufactured with prepreg technology by molding pre-saturated epoxy-strengthened matrix-reinforced fabric. Performance of the manufactured composites was estimated with values of the coefficient of operating condition (COC at a moderate and elevated temperature.

  17. Recycling and Utilization of Waste Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yan-chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly introduced the recovery method, classification and comprehensive utilization process of waste glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP. Among the current methods of utilization, the physical method is most promising. After pre-processing of waste GFRP, the short glass fiber can be used in gypsum block to improve the anti-cracking and operation performance of the material; waste GFRP powder can be used in plastic fiber reinforced manhole covers to increase the mechanical strength, and the products conformed to JC 1009-2006. Based on these studies, we also point out some problems concerning the utilization of waste glass fiber reinforced plastics.

  18. LYOCELL AND COTTON FIBERS AS REINFORCEMENTS FOR A THERMOSET POLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Frollini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibers obtained from the textile industry (lyocell were investigated as a potential reinforcement for thermoset phenolic matrices, to improve their mechanical properties. Textile cotton fibers were also considered. The fibers were characterized in terms of their chemical composition and analyzed using TGA, SEM, and X-ray. The thermoset (non-reinforced and composites (phenolic matrices reinforced with randomly dispersed fibers were characterized using TG, DSC, SEM, DMTA, the Izod impact strength test, and water absorption capacity analysis. The composites that were reinforced with lyocell fibers exhibited impact strengths of nearly 240 Jm-1, whereas those reinforced with cotton fibers exhibited impact strengths of up to 773 Jm-1. In addition to the aspect ratio, the higher crystallinity of cotton fibers compared to lyocell likely plays a role in the impact strength of the composite reinforced by the fibers. The SEM images showed that the porosity of the textile fibers allowed good bulk diffusion of the phenolic resin, which, in turn, led to both good adhesion of fiber to matrix and fewer microvoids at the interface.

  19. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  20. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Ken [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  1. Effects of Fiber Reinforcement on Clay Aerogel Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Finlay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel, low density structures which combine biologically-based fibers with clay aerogels are produced in an environmentally benign manner using water as solvent, and no additional processing chemicals. Three different reinforcing fibers, silk, soy silk, and hemp, are evaluated in combination with poly(vinyl alcohol matrix polymer combined with montmorillonite clay. The mechanical properties of the aerogels are demonstrated to increase with reinforcing fiber length, in each case limited by a critical fiber length, beyond which mechanical properties decline due to maldistribution of filler, and disruption of the aerogel structure. Rather than the classical model for reinforced composite properties, the chemical compatibility of reinforcing fibers with the polymer/clay matrix dominated mechanical performance, along with the tendencies of the fibers to kink under compression.

  2. Dynamic Properties of Fiber Reinforced Cement Mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐志平; 徐松林; 胡晓军; 廖香丽; 蔡建

    2004-01-01

    Based on the shear wave tracing(SWT) technique proposed by Tang Z P, particle velocity gauge and the dual internal measurement for pressure and shear waves (IMPS) system are applied to investigate the responses of fiber reinforced cement subjected to impact loading. Series of experiments are conducted. The results show that there exist four critical points, A, B, C, D, in p-V Hugoniot curves. They correspond to the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of the material, the critical point for shear strength limit and transition from damage state to failure state, void collapse, and solid compression, respectively. The critical point B is difficult to be aware of and never reported. However, it can be clearly disclosed with SWT method. Based on the analyses of shear strength, it can be concluded that the transversal wave, especially the unloading transversal wave, is especially important for the dynamic damage investigation of brittle materials.

  3. Interface study of fiber reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacios, A.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In a composite material that uses fibers as reinforcement, the breakage of the matrix is produced jointly with the separation of the fiber from the matrix. The mechanical behavior of the interface describes how fibers can work stabilizing the cracking process. The interface is the medium that puts the fiber on load, being the mechanical behavior of the interface and the strength of the fiber two important parameters to consider to characterize the general behavior of the composite. The present work studies the effect of several parameters on the behavior of the interface. Those parameters are the type of fiber, its geometry and dimension and the modified matrix and loading rate. An experimental technique was designed to allow testing the same set-up for pull-out tests in a quasistatic machine and Charpy pendulum. Modifications of the matrix by adding a mineral admixture improve the behavior of the interface as much as a 100%. It has been observed that combining the two actions, an improved matrix with crimped fibers, the type of failure can be modified. In this new type of failure, the fiber breaks consequently toughness decreases. Other parameters, as the loading rate and inclination of the fiber also affect the behavior of the interface.

    En un material compuesto que utiliza fibras como refuerzo, la rotura de la matriz se produce conjuntamente con la separación de la fibra de la matriz, por lo que el comportamiento mecánico de la interfase describe hasta que punto las fibras pueden trabajar como estabilizadores en el proceso defisuración. La interfase es el medio que pone en carga a la fibra y, por ello, la resistencia mecánica de la interfase y de la fibra son dos parámetros importantes a considerar para caracterizar el comportamiento general del composite. Este trabajo investiga el efecto de la variación del tipo de fibra, geometría y dimensión de las mismas y las modificaciones de la matriz y la velocidad de desplazamiento

  4. CREATION OF MUSIC WITH FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hayato; Takeuchi, Masaki; Ogura, Naoyuki; Kitahara, Yukiko; Okamoto, Takahisa

    This research focuses on the Fiber Reinforcement Concrete(FRC) and its performance on musical tones. Thepossibility of future musical instruments made of this concrete is discussed. Recently, the technical properties of FRC had been improved and the different production styles, such as unit weight of binding material and volume of fiber in the structure, hardly affects the results of the acoustics. However, the board thickness in the FRC instruments is directly related with the variety of musical tone. The FRC musical effects were compared with those produced with wood on wind instruments. The sounds were compared with those produced with woodwind instruments. The sound pressure level was affected by the material and it becomes remarkably notorious in the high frequency levels. These differences had great influence on the spectrum analysis of the tone in the wind instruments and the sensory test. The results from the sensory test show dominant performances of brightness, beauty and power in the FRC instruments compared with those made of wood.

  5. Normal Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Explosive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alias Yusof

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the behavior of plain reinforced concrete and Normal strength steel fiber reinforced concrete panels (SFRC subjected to explosive loading. The experiment were performed by the Blast Research Unit Faculty of Engineering, University Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia A total of 8 reinforced concrete panels of 600mm x 600mm x 100mm were tested. The steel fiber reinforced concrete panels incorporated three different volume fraction, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% of hooked end steel fibers. The panels were subjected to explosive loading generated by the detonation of 1kg of explosive charge located at a 0.6m standoff. This investigation indicates that the steel fiber reinforced concrete panel containing of 1.5% volume fraction gave the best performance under explosive loading.

  6. Conifer fibers as reinforcing materials for polypropylene-based composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Chengzhi, Chuai; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2001-01-01

    Conifer fibers were used to reinforce polypropylene (PP). To improve the compatibility between the conifer fibers and the PP matrix, the fibers were either grafted with maleated PP (MAPP), treated by adding MAPP, or mixed with ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer (EPDM). The treatments resulted in...

  7. Single Fibre Pullout from Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovich, I.; Van Mier, J.G.M.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid fiber reinforcement can be very efficient for improving the tensile response of the composite. In such materials, fibers of different geometries can act as bridging mechanisms over cracks of different widths. The fiber bridging efficiency depends on the interface properties, which makes inter

  8. Modeling of properties of fiber reinforced cement composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Dragica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of authors' laboratory testing of the influence of steel fibers as fiber reinforcement on the change of properties of cement composite mortar and concrete type materials. Mixtures adopted - compositions of mortars had identical amounts of components: cement, sand and silica fume. The second type of mortar contained 60 kg/m3 of fiber reinforcement, as well as the addition of the latest generation of superplasticizer. Physical and mechanical properties of fiber reinforced mortars and etalon mixtures (density, flexural strength, compressive strength were compared. Tests on concrete type cement composites included: density, mechanical strengths and the deformation properties. The tests showed an improvement in the properties of fiber reinforced composites.

  9. Hybrid fiber reinforcement and crack formation in Cementitious Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, E.B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, J.A.O.

    2011-01-01

    reinforcement systems. The research described in this paper shows that the multi-scale conception of cracking and the use of hybrid fiber reinforcements do not necessarily result in an improved tensile behavior of the composite. Particular material design requirements may nevertheless justify the use of hybrid......The use of different types of fibers simultaneously for reinforcing cementitious matrices is motivated by the concept of a multi-scale nature of the crack propagation process. Fibers with different geometrical and mechanical properties are used to bridge cracks of different sizes from the micro......- to the macroscale. In this study, the performance of different fiber reinforced cementitious composites is assessed in terms of their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The results obtained from this investigation allow a direct quantitative comparison of the behavior obtained from the different fiber...

  10. Tensile Strength of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Awang, Muhd. Khairudin; Sa'at, Mohd Hisham

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays, increasing awareness of replacing synthetic fiber such as glass fiber has emerged due to environmental problems and pollutions. Automotive manufacturers also seek new material especially biodegradable material to be non-load bearing application parts. This present work discussed on the effect of silane treatment on coir fiber reinforced composites. From the results of tensile tests, fibers treated with silane have attained maximum material stiffness. However, to achieve maximum ultimate tensile strength and strain at failure performances, untreated fibers work very well through fiber bridging and internal friction between fiber and polymeric matrix. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations have coincided with these results.

  11. Magneto-carbonization method for production of carbon fiber, and high performance carbon fibers made thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Ozcan, Soydan; Eberle, Claude C.; Abdallah, Mohamed Gabr; Mackiewicz, Ludtka Gail; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Paulauskas, Felix Leonard; Rivard, John Daniel Kennedy

    2017-08-08

    Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from fiber precursor, wherein the fiber precursor is subjected to a magnetic field of at least 3 Tesla during a carbonization process. The carbonization process is generally conducted at a temperature of at least 400.degree. C. and less than 2200.degree. C., wherein, in particular embodiments, the carbonization process includes a low temperature carbonization step conducted at a temperature of at least or above 400.degree. C. or 500.degree. C. and less than or up to 1000.degree. C., 1100.degree. C., or 1200.degree. C., followed by a high temperature carbonization step conducted at a temperature of at least or above 1200.degree. C. In particular embodiments, particularly in the case of a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber precursor, the resulting carbon fiber may possess a minimum tensile strength of at least 600 ksi, a tensile modulus of at least 30 Msi, and an ultimate elongation of at least 1.5%.

  12. Hybrid fiber reinforcement and crack formation in Cementitious Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, E.B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, J.A.O.

    2011-01-01

    reinforcement systems. The research described in this paper shows that the multi-scale conception of cracking and the use of hybrid fiber reinforcements do not necessarily result in an improved tensile behavior of the composite. Particular material design requirements may nevertheless justify the use of hybrid......- to the macroscale. In this study, the performance of different fiber reinforced cementitious composites is assessed in terms of their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The results obtained from this investigation allow a direct quantitative comparison of the behavior obtained from the different fiber...

  13. Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for future automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K.

    2016-05-01

    After a brief introduction to polymer composite properties and markets, the state of the art activities in the field of manufacturing of advanced composites for automotive applications are elucidated. These include (a) long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) for secondary automotive components, and (b) continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites for car body applications. It is followed by future possibilities of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for e.g. (i) crash elements, (ii) racing car seats, and (iii) production and recycling of automotive fenders.

  14. Bond of reinforcing bars in self-compacting steel fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, P.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.; Braam, C.R.; Uijl, J.A. den; Walraven, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Pull-out tests were performed on 10 mm diameter ribbed bars embedded along three times the bar diameter in 200 mm cubes made of plain and steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) of normal strength (B45). The fiber content was 60 and 120 kg/m3, respectively, the aspect ratio of the fibers was 45 and 8

  15. The Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bei-xing; CHEN Ming-xiang; CHENG Fang; LIU Lu-ping

    2004-01-01

    The compressive, shear strengths and abrasion-erosion resistance as well as flexural properties of two polypropylene fiber reinforced concretes and the comparison with a steel fiber reinforced concrete were reported.The exprimental results show that a low content of polypropylene fiber (0.91kg/m3 of concrete) slightly decreases the compressive and shear strengths, and appreciably increased the flexural strength, but obviously enhances the toughness index and fracture energy for the concrete with the same mix proportion, consequently it plays a role of anti-cracking and improving toughness in concrete. Moreover, the polypropylene mesh fiber is better than the polypropylene monofilament fiber in improving flexural strength and toughness of concrete, but the two types of polypropylene fibers are inferior to steel fiber. All the polypropylene and steel fibers have no great beneficial effect on the abrasion-erosion resistance of concrete.

  16. Mechanical recycling of continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritzer, Elmar; Heiderich, Gilmar

    2016-03-01

    This contribution examines possible material recycling of offcuts generated during the production of continuous-fiber-reinforced composite sheets. These sheets consist of a polyamide 6 matrix and glass fiber fabric. In the initial step, the offcut is shredded to obtain particles; following that, the particles are processed in a twin-screw process to produce fiber-reinforced plastic pellets with varying fiber contents. These pellets are intended for use in injection molding processes as a substitution for new raw materials. This investigation centers on the mechanical properties which can be achieved with the recycled material after both the twin-screw process and injection molding.

  17. Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovitigala, Thilan

    The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams

  18. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths (τ (app)) and slip coefficient (β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle (ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  19. All-round joining method with carbon fiber reinforced interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Noriyoshi; Tanaka, Kazunori; Kamiya, Yoshiko; Nishi, Yoshitake

    2008-08-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) has been recently applied to not only wing, but also fan blades of turbo fan engines. To prevent impact force, leading edge of titanium was often mounted on the CFRP fan blades with adhesive force. In order to enhance the joining strength, a joining method with carbon fiber reinforced interface has been developed. By using nickel-coated carbon fibers, a joining sample with carbon fiber-reinforced interface between CFRP and CFRM has been successfully developed. The joining sample with nickel-coated carbon fiber interface exhibits the high tensile strength, which was about 10 times higher than that with conventional adhesion. On the other hand, Al-welding methods to steel, Cu and Ti with carbon fiber reinforced interface have been successfully developed to lighten the parts of machines of racing car and airplane. Carbon fibers in felt are covered with metals to protect the interfacial reaction. The first step of the welding method is that the Al coated felt is contacted and wrapped with molten aluminum solidified under gravity pressure, whereas the second step is that the felt with double layer of Ni and Al is contacted and wrapped with molten steel (Cu or Ti) solidified under gravity pressure. Tensile strength of Al-Fe (Cu or Ti) welded sample with carbon fiber reinforced interface is higher than those of Al-Fe (Cu or Ti) welded sample.

  20. Experimental Study on Electric Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the phenomenon that the physical properties have a great effect on the electric capability of carbon fiber reinforced concrete, the author researched the relationship between DC resistance of carbon fiber reinforced concrete and curing age using the two-probe method. Then the effect of insulative area,location and quantity on DC resistance of carbon fiber reinforced concrete was investigated at different curing age with analysis of hydration. The results suggest that DC resistance increases greatly with its curing age, which illustrates the relationship like Gaussian curve. In every curing ages the electric capability of carbon fiber reinforced concrete weakenes with the increase of insulative area. In same curing ages, section and insulative area, the more the quantity of insulation, the stronger the conductibility. The insulative location in optimal position can only result in optimal conductibility.

  1. Drastic Improvements in Bonding of Fiber Reinforced Multifunctional Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Achievement of a dramatic increase in the bond strength in the adhesive and composite/adhesive interfaces of existing fiber reinforced composite material joints and...

  2. Drastic Improvements in Bonding of Fiber Reinforced Multifunctional Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Achievement of a dramatic increase in the bond strength in the composite/adhesive interfaces of existing fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite material joints and...

  3. Machining of glass fiber reinforced polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The machinability of a 30 wt% glass fiber reinforced polyamide (PA was investigated by means of drilling tests. A disk was cut from an extruded rod and drilled on the flat surface: thrust was acquired during drilling at different drilling speed, feed rate and drill diameter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and indentation were used to characterize PA so as to evaluate the intrinsic lack of homogeneity of the extruded material. In conclusion, it was observed that the chip formation mechanism affects the thrust dependence on the machining parameters. A traditional modeling approach is able to predict thrust only in presence of a continuous chip. In some conditions, thrust increases as drilling speed increases and feed rate decreases; this evidence suggests not to consider the general scientific approach which deals the machining of plastics in analogy with metals. Moreover, the thrust can be significantly affected by the workpiece fabrication effect, as well as by the machining parameters; therefore, the fabrication effect is not negligible in the definition of an optimum for the machining process.

  4. CODIFICATION OF FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITE PIPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawls, G.

    2012-10-10

    The goal of the overall project is to successfully adapt spoolable FRP currently used in the oil industry for use in hydrogen pipelines. The use of FRP materials for hydrogen service will rely on the demonstrated compatibility of these materials for pipeline service environments and operating conditions. The ability of the polymer piping to withstand degradation while in service, and development of the tools and data required for life management are imperative for successful implementation of these materials for hydrogen pipeline. The information and data provided in this report provides the technical basis for the codification for fiber reinforced piping (FRP) for hydrogen service. The DOE has invested in the evaluation of FRP for the delivery for gaseous hydrogen to support the development of a hydrogen infrastructure. The codification plan calls for detailed investigation of the following areas: System design and applicable codes and standards; Service degradation of FRP; Flaw tolerance and flaw detection; Integrity management plan; Leak detection and operational controls evaluation; Repair evaluation. The FRP codification process started with commercially available products that had extensive use in the oil and gas industry. These products have been evaluated to assure that sufficient structural integrity is available for a gaseous hydrogen environment.

  5. Micromechanical modeling of strength and damage of fiber reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishnaevsky, L. Jr.; Broendsted, P.

    2007-03-15

    The report for the first year of the EU UpWind project includes three parts: overview of concepts and methods of modelling of mechanical behavior, deformation and damage of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites, development of computational tools for the automatic generation of 3D micromechanical models of fiber reinforced composites, and micromechanical modelling of damage in FRC, and phenomenological analysis of the effect of frequency of cyclic loading on the lifetime and damage evolution in materials. (au)

  6. Stable and high-performance multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on fiber delay interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang LIU; Junqiang SUN; Ping SHUM

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a novel scheme to realize the multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers. By adding a length of dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) in the ring cavity, we can suppress the cavity mode competition resulting from homogeneous line broadening (HLB) effect. In addition, a comb filter based on fiber delay inter-ferometer (DI) is used for frequency selecting. To enhance the extinction ratio while maintaining the free space range (FSR), the proposed isolator-assisted double-pass DI is utilized into the laser cavity, and a stable 7-wavelength simultaneous lasing spaced at 21.5GHz is accordingly achieved with an extinction ratio of higher than 40 dB. The lasers are stable with a maximum power fluctuation per channel of less than 0.6 dB during an hour test.

  7. Mechanical strength of additive manufactured carbon fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumaevskii, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Filippov, A. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.; Rubtsov, V. E.; Eliseev, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical properties of both pure and chopped carbon fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone samples have been carried out. It was shown that the reinforcement resulted in increasing the elasticity modulus, compression and tensile ultimate strength by a factor of 3.5, 2.9 and 2.8, respectively. The fracture surfaces have been examined using both optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Fiber-reinforced composites in fixed partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallittu P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRC prostheses offer the advantages of good esthetics, minimal invasive treatment, and an ability to bond to the abutment teeth, thereby compensating for less-than-optimal abutment tooth retention and resistance form. These prostheses are composed of two types of composite materials: fiber composites to build the framework and hybrid or microfill particulate composites to create the external veneer surface. This review concentrates on the use of fiber reinforcement in the fabrication of laboratory or chairside-made composite-fixed partial dentures of conventional preparation. Other applications of FRC in dentistry are briefly mentioned. The possibilities fiber reinforcement technology offers must be emphasized to the dental community. Rather than limiting discussion to whether FRC prostheses will replace metal-ceramic or full-ceramic prostheses, attention should be focused on the additional treatment options brought by the use of fibers. However, more clinical experience is needed.

  9. Evaluation of statistical strength of bamboo fiber and mechanical properties of fiber reinforced green composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 吴义强

    2008-01-01

    Green composites made from bamboo fibers and biodegradable resins were fabricated with press molding.On the basis of the Weibull distribution and the weakest-link theory,the statistical strength and distribution of bamboo fiber were analyzed,and the tensile strength of green composites was also investigated.The result confirms that the tensile statistical strength of fiber fits well with two-parameter Weibull distribution.In addition,the tensile strength of bamboo fiber reinforced composites is about 330 MPa with the fiber volume fraction of 70%.This value is close to or higher than that of other natural fiber reinforced green composites.

  10. Influence of loading-rate and steel fibers on the shear strength of ultra high performance concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratislav Lukic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes quasi-static and dynamic experimental methods used to examine the confined shear strength of an Ultra High Performance Concrete, with and without the presence of steel fibers in the concrete composition. An experimental setup was created to investigate the concrete shear strength under quasi-static loading regime using a hydraulic press Schenk while dynamic shear strength was characterized by subjecting concrete samples to dynamic loading through a modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. Both methods are based on a Punch Through Shear (PTS test with a well-instrumented aluminum passive confinement ring that allows measuring the change of radial stress in the shear ligament throughout the test. Firstly, four equally distributed radial notches have been performed in order to deduce the radial stress by suppressing a self-confinement of the sample peripheral part. However, by analyzing the strain gauge data from the confinement ring, it has been noticed that these were apparently insufficient, especially for fiber-reinforced samples, resulting in subsequently practicing eight radial notches through the sample peripheral part. The results obtained from both procedures are reported and discussed.

  11. Influence of loading-rate and steel fibers on the shear strength of ultra high performance concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratislav, Lukic; Pascal, Forquin

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes quasi-static and dynamic experimental methods used to examine the confined shear strength of an Ultra High Performance Concrete, with and without the presence of steel fibers in the concrete composition. An experimental setup was created to investigate the concrete shear strength under quasi-static loading regime using a hydraulic press Schenk while dynamic shear strength was characterized by subjecting concrete samples to dynamic loading through a modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. Both methods are based on a Punch Through Shear (PTS) test with a well-instrumented aluminum passive confinement ring that allows measuring the change of radial stress in the shear ligament throughout the test. Firstly, four equally distributed radial notches have been performed in order to deduce the radial stress by suppressing a self-confinement of the sample peripheral part. However, by analyzing the strain gauge data from the confinement ring, it has been noticed that these were apparently insufficient, especially for fiber-reinforced samples, resulting in subsequently practicing eight radial notches through the sample peripheral part. The results obtained from both procedures are reported and discussed.

  12. Studies on natural fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. H.; Kapatel, P. M.; Machchhar, A. D.; Kapatel, Y. A.

    2016-05-01

    Natural fiber reinforced composites show increasing importance in day to days applications because of their low cost, lightweight, easy availability, non-toxicity, biodegradability and environment friendly nature. But these fibers are hydrophilic in nature. Thus they have very low reactivity and poor compatibility with polymers. To overcome these limitations chemical modifications of the fibers have been carried out. Therefore, in the present work jute fibers have chemically modified by treating with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. These treated jute fibers have been used to fabricate jute fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength have been found out. Alkali treated composites show better properties compare to untreated composites.

  13. FLOAT - development of new flexible UHPC. Final report. [Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The current project is a preliminary study intended to clarify the background and give a better basis for an evaluation of the risks and possible rewards of funding a full project with the overall purpose of developing and testing a new concept for wave energy floaters, made of Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPC), as an enabling technology for the establishment of competitive wave energy production (FLOAT). As an initial step for this preliminary study of FLOAT an investigation has been undertaken in relation to preliminary design of 2 types of floaters, essential properties of UHPFRC - and identification of necessary developments, compilation of existing data from off shore applications and analysis of effect on Cost Of Energy. Preliminary float design and economical considerations - is a theoretical and numerical study including preliminary float designs and cost estimates. It aims at making a first comparison between the different materials options for DEXA and Wave Star floats and giving a first judgement about the suitability of CRC concrete. This is done through a qualitative assessment of pros and cons of different materials for both types of floats and a design study of the Dexa Wave float. It is concluded that the requirements for the Dexa Wave float are so that CRC is not able to compete with conventional concrete for the best and most cost effective solution. The good durability (leading to low maintenance costs), the mechanical properties and the ductility of CRC are not important enough to offset the increased cost for this float. For Wave Star on the other hand, there are significant advantages in using CRC as the only other option in this case is fibre glass, which is a much more expensive product. An investigation was made of methods of optimizing the properties of CRC - customizing them for particular applications in WEC's. The method of optimization has been to change the types of fibres in the mix, and it is demonstrated

  14. Fused Deposition Technique for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Paolo; Alitta, Gianluca; Sala, Giuseppe; Di Landro, Luca

    2017-02-01

    A simple technique for the production of continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic by fused deposition modeling, which involves a common 3D printer with quite limited modifications, is presented. An adequate setting of processing parameters and deposition path allows to obtain components with well-enhanced mechanical characteristics compared to conventional 3D printed items. The most relevant problems related to the simultaneous feeding of fibers and polymer are discussed. The properties of obtained aramid fiber reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) in terms of impregnation quality and of mechanical response are measured.

  15. Fused Deposition Technique for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Paolo; Alitta, Gianluca; Sala, Giuseppe; Di Landro, Luca

    2016-12-01

    A simple technique for the production of continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic by fused deposition modeling, which involves a common 3D printer with quite limited modifications, is presented. An adequate setting of processing parameters and deposition path allows to obtain components with well-enhanced mechanical characteristics compared to conventional 3D printed items. The most relevant problems related to the simultaneous feeding of fibers and polymer are discussed. The properties of obtained aramid fiber reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) in terms of impregnation quality and of mechanical response are measured.

  16. Hybrid Effect Evaluation of Steel Fiber and Carbon Fiber on the Performance of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforcement is an important method to enhance the performance of concrete. In this study, the compressive test and impact test were conducted, and then the hybrid effect between steel fiber (SF and carbon fiber (CF was evaluated by employing the hybrid effect index. Compressive toughness and impact toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC, carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC and hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC were explored at steel fiber volume fraction 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and carbon fiber 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%. Results showed that the addition of steel fiber and carbon fiber can increase the compressive strength. SF, CF and the hybridization between them could increase the compressive toughness significantly. The impact test results showed that as the volume of fiber increased, the impact number of the first visible crack and the ultimate failure also increased. The improvement of toughness mainly lay in improving the crack resistance after the first crack. Based on the test results, the positive hybrid effect of steel fiber and carbon fiber existed in hybrid fiber reinforced concrete. The relationship between the compressive toughness and impact toughness was also explored.

  17. [Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics as implant materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, R; Steinhauser, E; Rechl, H; Siebels, W; Mittelmeier, W; Gradinger, R

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics have been used clinically as an implant material for different applications for over 20 years.A review of technical basics of the composite materials (carbon fibers and matrix systems), fields of application,advantages (e.g., postoperative visualization without distortion in computed and magnetic resonance tomography), and disadvantages with use as an implant material is given. The question of the biocompatibility of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics is discussed on the basis of experimental and clinical studies. Selected implant systems made of carbon composite materials for treatments in orthopedic surgery such as joint replacement, tumor surgery, and spinal operations are presented and assessed. Present applications for carbon fiber reinforced plastics are seen in the field of spinal surgery, both as cages for interbody fusion and vertebral body replacement.

  18. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer with Shredded Fibers: Quasi-Isotropic Material Properties and Antenna Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Artner; Philipp K. Gentner; Johann Nicolics; Mecklenbräuker, Christoph F.

    2017-01-01

    A carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate, with the top layer consisting of shredded fibers, is proposed and manufactured. The shredded fibers are aligned randomly on the surface to achieve a more isotropic conductivity, as is desired in antenna applications. Moreover, fiber shreds can be recycled from carbon fiber composites. Conductivity, permittivity, and permeability are obtained with the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method from material samples measured inside rectangular waveguides in the...

  19. Stochastic Simulation of Progressive Fiber Breaking in Longitudinally Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Wu,Yi

    2012-01-01

    Statistics has a wide application in science and engineering fields. This research work is aim to study the progressive fiber breaking evolution in the longitudinally reinforced composites from a statistical perspective. First of all, the fiber breaking evolution in a single fiber composite is studied. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test is performed on the experimental data to characterize the damage pattern of the fiber in a single fiber composite. The results indicate that the frag...

  20. Background data for modulus mapping high-performance polyethylene fiber morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawhecker, Kenneth E; Sandoz-Rosado, Emil J; Stockdale, Taylor A; Laird, Eric D

    2017-02-01

    The data included here provides a basis for understanding "Interior morphology of high-performance polyethylene fibers revealed by modulus mapping" (K.E. Strawhecker, E.J. Sandoz-Rosado, T.A. Stockdale, E.D. Laird, 2016) [1], in specific: the multi-frequency (AMFM) atomic force microscopy technique and its application to ultra-high-molecular-weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers. Furthermore, the data suggests why the Hertzian contact mechanics model can be used within the framework of AMFM theory, simple harmonic oscillator theory, and contact mechanics. The framework is first laid out followed by data showing cantilever dynamics, force-distance spectra in AC mode, and force-distance in contact mode using Polystyrene reference and UHMWPE. Finally topography and frequency shift (stiffness) maps are presented to show the cases where elastic versus plastic deformation may have occurred.

  1. Background data for modulus mapping high-performance polyethylene fiber morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Strawhecker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data included here provides a basis for understanding “Interior morphology of high-performance polyethylene fibers revealed by modulus mapping” (K.E. Strawhecker, E.J. Sandoz-Rosado, T.A. Stockdale, E.D. Laird, 2016 [1], in specific: the multi-frequency (AMFM atomic force microscopy technique and its application to ultra-high-molecular-weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE fibers. Furthermore, the data suggests why the Hertzian contact mechanics model can be used within the framework of AMFM theory, simple harmonic oscillator theory, and contact mechanics. The framework is first laid out followed by data showing cantilever dynamics, force-distance spectra in AC mode, and force-distance in contact mode using Polystyrene reference and UHMWPE. Finally topography and frequency shift (stiffness maps are presented to show the cases where elastic versus plastic deformation may have occurred.

  2. Performance of steel-making slag concrete reinforced with fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-López Vanesa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the possibility of making concrete reinforced with fibers and manufactured with recycled aggregates from carbon steel production was explored. Electric arc furnace slag (EAFS was used as coarse and medium aggregate, and part of the sand sizes. Metallic and synthetic fibers were added in different amounts. Initially, the properties of EAFS and their suitability to be used in the manufacture fiber reinforced concrete were analysed. Then, a series of fiber reinforced concrete mixtures were developed incorporating EAFS, and they were compared with the reference mixtures, made with conventional components plus fibers and made with EAFS without fibers. A series of tests were performed, including concepts such as consistency, compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength, resistance to water penetration or toughness. The results show that it is possible to make a suitable steel-slag concrete reinforced with fibers, complying with the standard requirements for it use in pavements and slab, and improving their proprieties respect to the control mixtures.

  3. Nano-Fiber Reinforced Enhancements in Composite Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2009-01-01

    Nano-fibers are used to reinforce polymer matrices to enhance the matrix dependent properties that are subsequently used in conventional structural composites. A quasi isotropic configuration is used in arranging like nano-fibers through the thickness to ascertain equiaxial enhanced matrix behavior. The nano-fiber volume ratios are used to obtain the enhanced matrix strength properties for 0.01,0.03, and 0.05 nano-fiber volume rates. These enhanced nano-fiber matrices are used with conventional fiber volume ratios of 0.3 and 0.5 to obtain the composite properties. Results show that nano-fiber enhanced matrices of higher than 0.3 nano-fiber volume ratio are degrading the composite properties.

  4. Effect of Sisal Fiber Surface Treatment on Properties of Sisal Fiber Reinforced Polylactide Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqian Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of composites are strongly influenced by the quality of the fiber/matrix interface. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of polylactide (PLA composites as a function of modification of sisal fiber with two different macromolecular coupling agents. Sisal fiber reinforced polylactide composites were prepared by injection molding, and the properties of composites were studied by static/dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The results from mechanical testing revealed that surface-treated sisal fiber reinforced composite offered superior mechanical properties compared to untreated fiber reinforced polylactide composite, which indicated that better adhesion between sisal fiber and PLA matrix was achieved. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM investigations also showed that surface modifications improved the adhesion of the sisal fiber/polylactide matrix.

  5. Properties of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Bărbuţă

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer concrete is a composite material realized with resin and aggregates. In the present study the epoxy resin was used for binding the aggregates. In the composition were introduced near the fly ash, used as filler, the cellulose fibers. The mechanical characteristics such as compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength of polymer concrete with fibers were investigated. The fiber percentage was constant, the epoxy resin and the filler dosages were varied. The cellulose fiber had not improved the mechanical characteristics of the polymer concrete in comparison to that of polymer concrete without cellulose fibers.

  6. Effect of Fiber Layers on the Fracture Resistance of Fiber Reinforced Composite Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Fazel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to introduce the fiber reinforced composite bridges and evaluate the most suitable site and position for placement of fibers in order to get maximum strength. Methods: The study included 20 second premolars and 20 second molars selected for fabricating twenty fiber reinforced composite bridges. Twenty specimens were selected for one fiber layer and the remaining teeth for two fiber layers. In the first group, fibers were placed in the inferior third and in the second group, fibers were placed in both the middle and inferior third region. After tooth preparation, the restorations were fabricated, thermocycled and then loaded with universal testing machine in the middle of the pontics with crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Data was analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Independent sample t test and Kaplan-Meier test. Mode of failure was evaluated using stereomicroscope. Results: Mean fracture resistance for the first and second groups was 1416±467N and 1349±397N, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the groups (P>0.05.In the first group, 5 specimens had delamintation and 5 specimens had detachment between fibers and resin composite. In the second group, there were 4 and 6 delaminations and detachments, respectively. There was no fracture within the fiber. Conclusion: In the fiber reinforced fixed partial dentures, fibers reinforce the tensile side of the connectors but placement of additional fibers at other sites does not increase the fracture resistance of the restoration.

  7. Flexural Strength and Behavior of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The strength and deformation characteristics of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete (PFRC) beams were investigated by four-point bending procedures in this paper.Two kinds of polypropylene fibers with different fiber contents (0.2%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) by volume were used in the beam, which measured 100×100 mm with a span of 300 mm.It was found that the strength of the reinforced concrete beams was significantly decreased,whereas the flexural toughness was improved,compared to those unreinforced concrete beams.Geometry properties and volume contents of polypropylene fiber were considered to be important factors for improving the flexural toughness.Moreover,the composite mechanism between polypropylene fiber and concrete was analyzed and discussed.

  8. Electromechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced dielectric elastomer membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on its large deformation, light weight, and high energy density, dielectric elastomer (DE has been used as driven muscle in many areas. We design the fiber-reinforced DE membrane by adding fibers in the membrane. The deformation and driven force direction of the membrane can be tuned by changing the fiber arrangements. The actuation in the perpendicular direction of the DE membrane with long fibers first increases and then decreases by the increasing of the fiber spacing in the perpendicular direction. The horizontal actuation of the membrane decreases by decreasing the spacing of short fibers. In the membrane-inflating structure, the radially arranged fibers will break the axisymmetric behavior of the structure. The top area of the inflated balloon without fiber will buckle up when the voltage reaches a certain level. Finite element simulations based on nonlinear field theory are conducted to investigate the effects of fiber arrangement and verify the experimental results. This work can guide the design of fiber-reinforced DE.

  9. Formable woven preforms based on in situ reinforced thermoplastic fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, C.G.; Souza, J.P. de; Baird, D.G. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Blends of Vectra B950 (VB) and polypropylene (PP) were spun into fibers utilizing a dual extrusion process for use in formable fabric prepregs. Fibers of 50/50 weight composition were processed up to fiber draw ratios of 106. The tensile modulus of these fibers showed positive deviation from the rule of mixtures for draw ratios greater than 40, and the tensile modulus and strength properties did not level off within the range of draw ratios investigated. The fibers, pre-wetted with polypropylene, were woven into fabrics that were subsequently impregnated with polypropylene sheet to form composites. The tensile mechanical properties of these composites were nearly equivalent to those of long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene. At temperatures between 240 and 280{degrees}C, composites of 6.3 wt.% VB proved formable with elongation to break values in excess of 20%. Impregnated fabric composites were successfully thermoformed without noticeable fiber damage, and a combined fabric impregnation / thermoforming process was developed.

  10. Suppression of electromechanical instability in fiber-reinforced dielectric elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The electromechanical instability of dielectric elastomers has been a major challenge for the application of this class of active materials. In this work, we demonstrate that dielectric elastomers filled with soft fiber can suppress the electromechanical instability and achieve large deformation. Specifically, we developed a constitutive model to describe the dielectric and mechanical behaviors of fiber-reinforced elastomers. The model was applied to study the influence of stiffness, nonlinearity properties and the distribution of fiber on the instability of dielectric membrane under an electric field. The results show that there exists an optimal fiber distribution condition to achieve the maximum deformation before failure.

  11. Bending Mechanical Behavior of Polyester Matrix Reinforced with Fique Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoé, Giulio Rodrigues; Netto, Pedro Amoy; Barcelos, Mariana; Gomes, André; Margem, Frederico Muylaert; Monteiro, Sergio Neves

    Environmentally correct composites, made from natural fibers, are among the most investigated and applied today. In this paper, we investigate the mechanical behavior of polyester matrix composites reinforced with continuous fique fibers, through bending tensile tests. Specimens containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% in volume of fique fiber were aligned along the entire length of a mold to create plates of these composites, those plates were cut following the ASTM standard to obtained bending tests specimens. The test was conducted in a Instron Machine and the fractured specimens were analyzed by SEM, the results showed the increase in the materials tensile properties with the increase of fiber amount.

  12. Crack widths in concrete with fibers and main reinforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frede; Ulfkjær, Jens Peder; Brincker, Rune

    the ductility of the fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is set up and experimental work is conducted in order to verify the crack width model. The ductility of the FRC is taken into account by using the stress crack width relation. The constitutive model for the FRC is based on the idea that the initial part......The main object of the research work presented in this paper is to establish design tools for concrete structures where main reinforcement is combined with addition of short discrete steel fibers. The work is concerned with calculating and measuring crack widths in structural elements subjected...... to bending load. Thus, the aim of the work is to enable engineers to calculate crack widths for flexural concrete members and analyze how different combinations of amounts of fibers and amounts of main reinforcement can meet a given maximum crack width requirement. A mathematical model including...

  13. Automobile materials competition: energy implications of fiber-reinforced plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings-Saxton, J.

    1981-10-01

    The embodied energy, structural weight, and transportation energy (fuel requirement) characteristics of steel, fiber-reinforced plastics, and aluminum were assessed to determine the overall energy savings of materials substitution in automobiles. In body panels, a 1.0-lb steel component with an associated 0.5 lb in secondary weight is structurally equivalent to a 0.6-lb fiber-reinforced plastic component with 0.3 lb in associated secondary weight or a 0.5-lb aluminum component with 0.25 lb of secondary weight. (Secondary weight refers to the combined weight of the vehicle's support structure, engine, braking system, and drive train, all of which can be reduced in response to a decrease in total vehicle weight.) The life cycle transportation energy requirements of structurally equivalent body panels (including their associated secondary weights) are 174.4 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 104.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. The embodied energy requirements are 37.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 22.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. These results can be combined to yield total energy requirements of 211.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 126.7 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 174.3 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. Fiber-reinforced plastics offer the greatest improvements over steel in both embodied and total energy requirements. Aluminum achieves the greatest savings in transportation energy.

  14. Reusing recycled fibers in high-value fiber-reinforced polymer composites: Improving bending strength by surface cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jian; Bao, Limin; Kobayashi, Ryouhei; Kato, Jun; Kemmochi, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites were recycled using superheated steam. Recycled glass fibers (R-GFs) and recycled carbon fibers (R-CFs) were surface treated for reuse as fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Treated R-GFs (TR-GFs) and treated R-CFs (TR-CFs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and remanufactured by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Most residual resin impurities were ...

  15. Reusing recycled fibers in high-value fiber-reinforced polymer composites: Improving bending strength by surface cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jian; Bao, Limin; Kobayashi, Ryouhei; Kato, Jun; Kemmochi, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites were recycled using superheated steam. Recycled glass fibers (R-GFs) and recycled carbon fibers (R-CFs) were surface treated for reuse as fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Treated R-GFs (TR-GFs) and treated R-CFs (TR-CFs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and remanufactured by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Most residual resin impurities were ...

  16. Advance study of fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironova, M., E-mail: mirona@imbm.bas.bg; Ivanova, M., E-mail: magdalena.ivanova@imbm.bas.bg; Naidenov, V., E-mail: valna53@mail.bg [Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 4, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Georgiev, I., E-mail: ivan.georgiev@parallel.bas.bg [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies & Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Stary, J., E-mail: stary@ugn.cas.cz [Institute of Geonics Czech Academy of Sciences, Studentska str., Ostrava 1768 (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-28

    Incorporation in concrete composition of steel macro- and micro – fiber reinforcement with structural function increases the degree of ductility of typically brittle cement-containing composites, which in some cases can replace completely or partially conventional steel reinforcement in the form of rods and meshes. Thus, that can reduce manufacturing, detailing and placement of conventional reinforcement, which enhances productivity and economic efficiency of the building process. In this paper, six fiber-reinforced with different amounts of steel fiber cement-containing self-compacting compositions are investigated. The results of some of their main strength-deformation characteristics are presented. Advance approach for the study of structural and material properties of these type composites is proposed by using the methods of industrial computed tomography. The obtained original tomography results about the microstructure and characteristics of individual structural components make it possible to analyze the effective macro-characteristics of the studied composites. The resulting analytical data are relevant for the purposes of multi-dimensional modeling of these systems. Multifactor structure-mechanical analysis of the obtained with different methods original scientific results is proposed. It is presented a conclusion of the capabilities and effectiveness of complex analysis in the studies to characterize the properties of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete.

  17. Fiber-reinforced bioactive and bioabsorbable hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, Mikko; Godinho, Pedro; Kellomaeki, Minna [Tampere University of Technology, Institute of Biomaterials, Hermiankatu 12, PO Box 589, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Toermaelae, Pertti [Bioretec Ltd, Hermiankatu 22, PO Box 135, FI-33721 Tampere (Finland)], E-mail: mikko.huttunen@tut.fi

    2008-09-01

    Bioabsorbable polymeric bone fracture fixation devices have been developed and used clinically in recent decades to replace metallic implants. An advantage of bioabsorbable polymeric devices is that these materials degrade in the body and the degradation products exit via metabolic routes. Additionally, the strength properties of the bioabsorbable polymeric devices decrease as the device degrades, which promotes bone regeneration (according to Wolff's law) as the remodeling bone tissue is progressively loaded. The most extensively studied bioabsorbable polymers are poly-{alpha}-hydroxy acids. The major limitation of the first generation of bioabsorbable materials and devices was their relatively low mechanical properties and brittle behavior. Therefore, several reinforcing techniques have been used to improve the mechanical properties. These include polymer chain orientation techniques and the use of fiber reinforcements. The latest innovation for bioactive and fiber-reinforced bioabsorbable composites is to use both bioactive and bioresorbable ceramic and bioabsorbable polymeric fiber reinforcement in the same composite structure. This solution of using bioactive and fiber-reinforced bioabsorbable hybrid composites is examined in this study.

  18. Advance study of fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, M.; Ivanova, M.; Naidenov, V.; Georgiev, I.; Stary, J.

    2015-10-01

    Incorporation in concrete composition of steel macro- and micro - fiber reinforcement with structural function increases the degree of ductility of typically brittle cement-containing composites, which in some cases can replace completely or partially conventional steel reinforcement in the form of rods and meshes. Thus, that can reduce manufacturing, detailing and placement of conventional reinforcement, which enhances productivity and economic efficiency of the building process. In this paper, six fiber-reinforced with different amounts of steel fiber cement-containing self-compacting compositions are investigated. The results of some of their main strength-deformation characteristics are presented. Advance approach for the study of structural and material properties of these type composites is proposed by using the methods of industrial computed tomography. The obtained original tomography results about the microstructure and characteristics of individual structural components make it possible to analyze the effective macro-characteristics of the studied composites. The resulting analytical data are relevant for the purposes of multi-dimensional modeling of these systems. Multifactor structure-mechanical analysis of the obtained with different methods original scientific results is proposed. It is presented a conclusion of the capabilities and effectiveness of complex analysis in the studies to characterize the properties of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete.

  19. Comparison between the preparation, structure and mechanical properties of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics and short fiber reinforced thermoplastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Kun; Yang Jie; Wu Sizhu; Li Mei; Ma Mingtu

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the comparison between the preparation, structure and mechanical properties of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) and short fiber reinforced thermoplastics (SFT). Both of the experiment and theory results showed that the mechanical properties of long glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics pellets (LGFRT) have been enhanced better than that of short glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics pellets (SGFRT) manufactured by molding procession. After regulation of the relative humidity by 50 % , the mechanical properties of 30 % ( weight percent) short glass fiber content in SFT ( SFT-PA6-SGF30 ) are similar to that of 40 % long glass fiber content in LFT. Howev- er, the density of the latter is about 17 % lower than that of the former. Thus, the corresponding weight of products is reduced by 13 % ;output rate is increased by 21% , and the cost is therefore significantly lowered. And it has the fol- lowing advantages: impact strength is increased by 87 % ; the proportion is reduced by 20 % ; molding cycle is short- ened by 10 % ;materials cost is saved by 20 % -30 % and the final total cost is saved by 30 % -40 %. So LFT (LFT-PP-LGF40) can replace SFT (SFT-PA6-SGF30) with the similar basic mechanical properties under normal tem- perature or 160 ℃ lower.

  20. Spalling behavior and residual resistance of fibre reinforced Ultra-High performance concrete after exposure to high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong, Ming-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of spalling and residual mechanical properties of ultra-high performance concrete after exposure to high temperatures are presented in this paper. The compressive strength of the ultra-high performance concrete ranged from 160 MPa~185 MPa. This study aimed to discover the effective way to prevent spalling for the ultra-high performance concrete and gauge its mechanical properties after it was subjected to fire. The effects of fiber type, fiber dosage, heating rate and curing condition were investigated. Test results showed that the compressive strength and elastic modulus of the ultra-high performance concrete declined slower than those of normal strength concrete after elevated temperatures. Polypropylene fiber rather than steel fiber was found effective to prevent spalling but affected workability. The effective fiber type and dosage were recommended to prevent spalling and ensure sufficient workability for casting and pumping of the ultra-high performance concrete.En este trabajo se presentan los resultados más relevantes del trabajo experimental realizado para valorar la laminación y las propiedades mecánicas residuales de hormigón de ultra-altas prestaciones tras su exposición a altas temperaturas. La resistencia a la compresión del hormigón de ultra-altas prestaciones osciló entre 160 MPa~185 MPa. El objetivo de este estudio fue descubrir una manera eficaz de prevenir desprendimientos y/o laminaciones en este hormigón y medir sus propiedades mecánicas después de ser sometido al fuego. Las variables estudiadas fueron la presencia y dosificación de fibras, velocidad de calentamiento y condiciones de curado. Los resultados mostraron, tras la exposición a altas temperaturas, que la resistencia a compresión y el módulo de elasticidad del hormigón de ultra-altas prestaciones disminuían más lento que las de un hormigón con resistencia normal. La fibra de polipropileno resultó más eficaz para prevenir

  1. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Probst, K.J.; Anderson, T.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Silicon carbide-based heat exchanger tubes are of interest to energy production and conversion systems due to their excellent high temperature properties. Fiber-reinforced SiC is of particular importance for these applications since it is substantially tougher than monolithic SiC, and therefore more damage and thermal shock tolerant. This paper reviews a program to develop a scaled-up system for the chemical vapor infiltration of tubular shapes of fiber-reinforced SiC. The efforts include producing a unique furnace design, extensive process and system modeling, and experimental efforts to demonstrate tube fabrication.

  2. Structural Analysis of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Plastic Wind Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengal Ali Nawaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Basalt fiber reinforced plastic (BFRP wind turbine blade was analyzed and compared with Glass fiber reinforced plastic blade (GFRP. Finite element analysis (FEA of blade was carried out using ANSYS. Data for FEA was obtained by using rule of mixture. The shell element in ANSYS was used to simulate the wind turbine blade and to conduct its strength analysis. The structural analysis and comparison of blade deformations proved that BFRP wind turbine blade has better strength compared to GFRP wind turbine blade.

  3. Fiber-reinforced technology in multidisciplinary chairside approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arhun Neslihan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand to improve dentofacial esthetics in the adult population. This demand usually requires a close collaboration within the various disciplines of dentistry and the patient at every stage of the therapy. The materials and techniques used by these interdisciplinary clinicians must be conservative and minimally invasive. Fiber-reinforced composite technology offers such solutions for chairside applications. This case report presents two cases where fiber-reinforced ribbon and composite complex was used in a multidisciplinary approach to improve esthetics.

  4. Fracture of fiber-reinforced composites analyzed via acoustic emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereifej, Nadia S; Oweis, Yara G; Altarawneh, Sandra K

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the fracture resistance of composite resins using a three-point bending test and acoustic emission (AE) analysis. Three groups of specimens (n=15) were prepared: non-reinforced BelleGlass HP composite (NRC), unidirectional (UFRC) and multidirectional (MFRC) fiber-reinforced groups which respectively incorporated unidirectional Stick and multidirectional StickNet fibers. Specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine while an AE system was used to detect audible signals. Initial fracture strengths and AE amplitudes were significantly lower than those at final fracture in all groups (pcomposite resin materials and the monitoring of acoustic signals revealed significant information regarding the fracture process.

  5. HiPer-tex{sup TM} WindStrand{sup TM}: A new generation of high performance reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.; Adolphs, G. [Owens Corning S and T, Battice (Belgium); Bech, J.I.; Broendsted, P. [Risoe National Lab., Material Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-07-01

    Owens Corning has recently introduced the HiPer-texTM family of high performance reinforcements of which WindStrandTM is engineered to specific customer process requirements of resin infusion and prepregs for Wind Turbine blades manufacture. The new HiPer-tex technology platform enables up to 35% higher strength, 17% higher modulus, better impact, corrosion and high temperature resistance and significantly better fatigue properties versus traditional E Glass laminates. These attributes have been measured with various laminates types and are presented in this paper. These better performances are needed in markets such as Wind Energy, pressure vessels, armour, aerospace and light weight structural component. (au)

  6. Physical behaviors of fiber reinforcement as applied to tooth stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudo, D N; Karbhari, V M

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an understanding of the mechanical response of polymer matrix composite materials that are reinforced with fibers that have high levels of failure strain. Also discussed are the basic principles for the use of the materials and techniques to optimize the clinical success for the applications in which these fibers are used to restore and maintain form and function to the masticatory structures.

  7. Flexural retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures using Green Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Ignacio

    An experimental study will be carried out to determine the suitability of Green Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer plates (GNFRP) manufactured with hemp fibers, with the purpose of using them as structural materials for the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Four identical RC beams, 96 inches long, are tested for the investigation, three control beams and one test beam. The first three beams are used as references; one unreinforced, one with one layer of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP), one with two layers of CFRP, and one with n layers of the proposed, environmental-friendly, GNFRP plates. The goal is to determine the number of GNFRP layers needed to match the strength reached with one layer of CFRP and once matched, assess if the system is less expensive than CFRP strengthening, if this is the case, this strengthening system could be an alternative to the currently used, expensive CFRP systems.

  8. Hard Carbon Fibers Pyrolyzed from Wool as High-Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Li, Qian; Qiu, Shen; Liu, Xiaoling; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we first demonstrate that the wool from worn-out clothes can serve as a low-cost and easy-to-collect precursor to preparing high-performance hard carbons for Na-ion batteries. Morphological characterizations demonstrate that this wool-derived hard carbon presents well-defined and homogeneously dispersed fiber networks. X-ray diffraction results combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis reveal that the interlayer space (d(002)) of the graphitic layers is 0.376 nm, sufficient for Na insertion into the stacked graphene layers. Electrochemical results show that the wool-derived hard carbon can deliver a high capacity of 303 mAh g-1 and excellent cycle stability over 80 cycles. This satisfactory electrochemical performance and easy synthetic procedure make it a promising anode material for practical SIBs.

  9. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that fiber orientations greatly affected the ultimate tensile strength but it is not for modulus of elasticity for both types of layers. It is estimated that the reductions of both ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus are in the range of 27.7-30.9% and 2.4-3.7% respectively, if the inclined fibers are used with respect to the principal axis.

  10. Micromechanical Models of Mechanical Response of High Performance Fibre Reinforced Cement Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, V. C.; Mihashi, H.; Alwan, J.;

    1996-01-01

    generation of FRC with high performance and economical viability, is in sight. However, utilization of micromechanical models for a more comprehensive set of important HPFRCC properties awaits further investigations into fundamental mechanisms governing composite properties, as well as intergrative efforts......The state-of-the-art in micromechanical modeling of the mechanical response of HPFRCC is reviewed. Much advances in modeling has been made over the last decade to the point that certain properties of composites can be carefully designed using the models as analytic tools. As a result, a new...

  11. Aspects regarding wearing behaviour in case of aluminium composite materials reinforced with carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliman, R.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a study regarding wear comportment of sintered composite materials obtained by mixture of aluminium with short carbon fibers. The necessity to satisfying more and more the specific functions during design of high performance structures leads to perform multi-materials such as reinforced composite parts. The wear tests were made on three different orientations of fibers on a standard machine of tribology, pin disk type. Counter-disk was made of cast iron with a superficial hardness of 92 HB. The wear rate and friction coefficient decreased exponentially with time of friction and reached a stationary value. This behaviour was attributed to the development of a lubricating film on the friction surface. To conduct this work was performed measurements on samples from the Al matrix composites and carbon fiber 43%, wear mechanism was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. In addition to fiber orientation, the tribological behaviour of metal matrix composites reinforced with fiber is influenced by the interfacial reaction of fiber-matrix. The characteristics and the dimensions of the interface depend on the cycle of temperature and time at which the material has been subjected during the manufacturing process and thereafter.

  12. The assessment of metal fiber reinforced polymeric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wenchiang R.

    1990-01-01

    Because of their low cost, excellent electrical conductivity, high specific strength (strength/density), and high specific modulus (modulus/density) short metal fiber reinforced composites have enjoyed a widespread use in many critical applications such as automotive industry, aircraft manufacturing, national defense, and space technology. However, little data has been found in the study of short metal fibrous composites. Optimum fiber concentration in a resin matrix and fiber aspect ratio (length-to-diameter ratio) are often not available to a user. Stress concentration at short fiber ends is the other concern when the composite is applied to a load-bearing application. Fracture in such composites where the damage will be initiated or accumulated is usually difficult to be determined. An experimental investigation is therefore carefully designed and undertaken to systematically evaluate the mechanical properties as well as electrical properties. Inconel 601 (nickel based) metal fiber with a diameter of eight microns is used to reinforce commercially available thermoset polyester resin. Mechanical testing such as tensile, impact, and flexure tests along with electrical conductivity measurements is conducted to study the feasibility of using such composites. The advantages and limitations of applying chopped metal fiber reinforced polymeric composites are also discussed.

  13. High-Performance Polymeric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-07

    interactions, Chain packing, Polybenzobisoxazoles Electrical conductivity Polybenzobisthiazoles Ceramic particles Chain flexibility Elastomer reinforcement...structures for the polybenzobisoxazole (PBO) and polybenzobisthiazole (PBT) chains originally synthesized and much studied because of their utility as...high-performance fibers and films. For cts-PBO, trans-PBO. and trans-PBT chains in their coplanar conformations, the band gaps in the axial direction

  14. Assessment of microcapsule—catalyst particles healing system in high performance fibre reinforced polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolimowski, P. A.; Wass, D. F.; Bond, I. P.

    2016-08-01

    Autonomous self-healing in carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) is demonstrated using epoxy resin filled microcapsules and a solid-state catalyst. Microcapsules filled with oligomeric epoxy resin (20-450 μm) and particles of Sc(OTf)3 are embedded in an interleave region of a unidirectional CFRP laminate and tested under mode I loading. Double cantilever beam (DCB) test specimens containing variable concentrations of microcapsules and catalyst were prepared, tested and compared to those healed by manual injection with corresponding healing resin formulation. The healing efficiency was evaluated by comparing the maximum peak load recorded on load-displacement curves for pristine and healed specimens. A 44% maximum recovery was observed for specimens containing 10 wt% of solid phase catalyst and 11 wt% of epoxy microcapsules. However, a significant (80%) decrease in initial strain energy release rate (G IC) was observed for specimens with the embedded healing chemistries.

  15. Investigation on Reinforced Mechanism of Fiber Reinforced Asphalt Concrete Based on Micromechanical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short fibers have been widely used to prepare the fiber reinforced asphalt concrete (FRAC. However, internal interactions between fiber and other phases of asphalt concrete are unclear although experimental methods have been used to design the FRAC successfully. In this paper, numerical method was used to investigate the reinforced mechanism of FRAC from microperspective. 2D micromechanical model of FRAC was established based on Monte Carlo theory. Effects of fiber length and content on stress state of asphalt mortar, effective modulus, and viscoelastic deformation of asphalt concrete were investigated. Indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM test and uniaxial creep test were carried out to verify the numerical results. Results show that maximum stress of asphalt mortar is lower compared to the control concrete when the fiber length is longer than 12 mm. Fiber reduces the stress level of asphalt mortar significantly. Fiber length has no significant influence on the effective modulus of asphalt concrete. Fiber length and content both have notable impacts on the viscoelastic performance of FRAC. Fiber length should be given more attention in the future design of FRAC except the content.

  16. Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittenber, David B.

    The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination

  17. Chemically Crushed Wood Cellulose Fiber towards High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei; Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Wan, Jiayu; Zhou, Lihui; Dai, Jiaqi; Zhao, Bin; Han, Xiaogang; Fu, Kun; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-10-21

    Carbon materials have attracted great interest as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to their high performance and low cost. Here, we studied natural wood fiber derived hard carbon anodes for SIBs considering the abundance and low cost of wood. We discovered that a thermal carbonization of wood fiber led to a porous carbon with a high specific surface area of 586 m(2) g(-1), while a pretreatment with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) could effectively decrease it to 126 m(2) g(-1). When evaluating them as anodes for SIBs, we observed that the low surface area carbon resulted in a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 72% compared to 25% of the high surface area carbon. More importantly, the low surface area carbon exhibits an excellent cycling stability that a desodiation capacity of 196 mAh g(-1) can be delivered over 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), indicating a promising anode for low-cost SIBs.

  18. STRAIN REGULARITY IN REINFORCERS OF SHORT-FIBER/ WHISKER REINFORCED COMPOSITE AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the study of strain distribution in short-fiber/whisker reinforced metal matrix composites, a deformation characteristic parameter λ is defined as the ratio of the root-mean-square strain of reinforcers to the macro-linear strain along the same direction. Quantitative relation between λ and microstructure parameters of the composite is obtained. As an example of applying and verifying λ, the stress-strain curve of [AlBO]w/Al composite under tensile loading is predicted and favorably compared with experiments. By using λ, the stiffness modulus of the composite with arbitrary reinforcer orientation under any loading condition is predicted from the microstructure parameters of material.

  19. Micromechanisms of damage in unidirectional fiber reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Brøndsted, Povl

    2009-01-01

    Numerical micromechanical investigations of the mechanical behavior and damage evolution of glass fiber reinforced composites are presented. A program code for the automatic generation of 3D micromechanical unit cell models of composites with damageable elements is developed, and used in the nume...

  20. An Assessment of Self-Healing Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Several reviews and books have been written concerning self-healing polymers over the last few years. These have focused primarily on the types of self-healing materials being studied, with minor emphasis given to composite properties. The purpose of this review is to assess the self-healing ability of these materials when utilized in fiber reinforced composites

  1. Apatite bone cement reinforced with calcium silicate fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motisuke, Mariana; Santos, Verônica R; Bazanini, Naiana C; Bertran, Celso A

    2014-10-01

    Several research efforts have been made in the attempt to reinforce calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) with polymeric and carbon fibers. Due to their low compatibility with the cement matrix, results were not satisfactory. In this context, calcium silicate fibers (CaSiO3) may be an alternative material to overcome the main drawback of reinforced CPCs since, despite of their good mechanical properties, they may interact chemically with the CPC matrix. In this work CaSiO3 fibers, with aspect ratio of 9.6, were synthesized by a reactive molten salt synthesis and used as reinforcement in apatite cement. 5 wt.% of reinforcement addition has increased the compressive strength of the CPC by 250% (from 14.5 to 50.4 MPa) without preventing the cement to set. Ca and Si release in samples containing fibers could be explained by CaSiO3 partial hydrolysis which leads to a quick increase in Ca concentration and in silica gel precipitation. The latter may be responsible for apatite precipitation in needle like form during cement setting reaction. The material developed presents potential properties to be employed in bone repair treatment.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Layered Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hai-qing; CHEN Jing-tao; ZHU Ji-dong

    2003-01-01

    To improve the mechanical properties of concrete,Layered Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete (LHFRC) was developed in this paper.Through comparative tests,the effects of layered hybrid fibers on a series of mechanical properties of concrete were discussed.The mechanical properties include compressive strength,tensile strength,flexural strength,compressive stress-strain relationship,flexural toughness and cracking resistance of concrete.The testing results and analysis demonstrate that layered hybrid fibers can significantly improve the flexural strength,toughness and cracking resistance of concrete while the cost of concrete increases slightly.

  3. Characteristics of Resistivity-temperature for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The resistance response to temperature change of carbon fiber reinforced cement-based composites (CFRC) is reported, which shows some outstanding phenomena of positive temperature coefficient (PTC) of resistance and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) of resistance during the temperature rising.The influences of carbon fiber, cement-based matrix and thermal cycles on the characteristics of temperature-resistivity for the system were also discussed.Because of the special characteristics for temperature resistivity, carbon fiber cement based composites can be useful in structure with the function of alarm for fire.

  4. Effects of moisture on glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzamora Guzman, Vladimir Joel; Brøndsted, Povl

    2015-01-01

    performance of wind turbine blades over their lifetime. Here, environmental moisture conditions were simulated by immersing glass fiber-reinforced polymer specimens in salt water for a period of up to 8 years. The mechanical properties of specimens were analyzed before and after immersion to evaluate...... the degradation mechanisms. Single-fiber tensile testing was also performed at different moisture conditions. The water-diffusion mechanism was studied to quantify the diffusion coefficients as a function of salt concentration, sample geometry, and fiber direction. Three degradation mechanisms were observed...

  5. Evaluating plastic shrinkage and permeability of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Sadiqul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plastic concrete is susceptible to develop cracks due to shrinkage in dry and windy conditions. Addition of fibers could reduce propagation of this crack. On the other hand, permeability determines the durability properties of concrete. This study evaluated strength, plastic shrinkage and permeability (gas and water of concrete incorporating ‘polypropylene’ fiber (aspect ratio 300 in various proportions (viz. 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.2%, 0.25% and 0.3% by volume of concrete. Plane concrete samples were also prepared and tested for reference purpose. Inclusion of 0.1% fiber gave minor reduction (2% in compressive strength while the tensile strength increased by 39% with same fiber content compared to the plain concrete. A significant reduction in crack generation, appearance period of first crack and crack area between plane concrete and fiber reinforced concretes was found. The experimental result with inclusion of 0.1–0.3% fiber in concrete indicated that plastic shrinkage cracks were reduced by 50–99% compared to the plain concrete. For reference concrete (without fiber, test within the high temperature and controlled humidity chamber gave higher crack width than the acceptable limit (3 mm specified by the ACI 224. With the inclusion of 0.1% fiber reduced the crack width down to 1 mm and the trend was continued with the addition of more fibers. However, results showed that with the addition of polypropylene fiber both water and gas permeability coefficient was increased. Therefore, it is concluded that the fiber reinforced concrete would work better for plastic shrinkage susceptible structural elements (flat elements such as slab; however, it requires careful judgement while applying to a water retaining structures.

  6. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  7. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Zaida; Morón, Moisés; Monzón, Mario D.; Badalló, Pere; Paz, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight) at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production. PMID:28773490

  8. Preparation of SiC Fiber Reinforced Nickel Matrix Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhang; Nanlin Shi; Jun Gong; Chao Sunt

    2012-01-01

    A method of preparing continuous(Al+Al2O3)-coated SiC fiber reinforced nickel matrix composite was presented,in which the diffusion between SiC fiber and nickel matrix could be prevented.Magnetron sputtering is used to deposit Ni coating on the surface of the(Al+Al2O3)-coated SiC fiber in preparation of the precursor wires.It is shown that the deposited Ni coating combines well with the(Al+Al2O3) coating and has little negative effect on the tensile strength of(Al+Al2O3)-coated SiC fiber.Solid-state diffusion bonding process is employed to prepare the(Al+Al2O3)-coated SiC fiber reinforced nickel matrix with 37% fibers in volume.The solid-state diffusion bonding process is optimized and the optimum parameters are temperature of 870,pressure of 50 MPa and holding time of 2 h.Under this condition,the precursor wires can diffuse well,composite of full density can be formed and the(Al+Al2O3) coating is effective to restrict the reaction between SiC fiber and nickel matrix.

  9. Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Mechanical Properties Enhancement by Adhesion Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Etcheverry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass fibers (GF are the reinforcement agent most used in polypropylene (PP based composites, as they have good balance between properties and costs. However, their final properties are mainly determined by the strength and stability of the polymer-fiber interphase. Fibers do not act as an effective reinforcing material when the adhesion is weak. Also, the adhesion between phases can be easily degraded in aggressive environmental conditions such as high temperatures and/or elevated moisture, and by the stress fields to which the material may be exposed. Many efforts have been done to improve polymer-glass fiber adhesion by compatibility enhancement. The most used techniques include modifications in glass surface, polymer matrix and/or both. However, the results obtained do not show a good costs/properties improvement relationship. The aim of this work is to perform an accurate analysis regarding methods for GF/PP adhesion improvement and to propose a new route based on PP in-situ polymerization onto fibers. This route involves the modification of fibers with an aluminum alkyl and hydroxy-α-olefin and from there to enable the growth of the PP chains using direct metallocenic copolymerization. The adhesion improvements were further proved by fragmentation test, as well as by mechanical properties measurements. The strength and toughness increases three times and the interfacial strength duplicates in PP/GF composites prepared with in-situ polymerized fibers.

  10. Banana fiber-reinforced biodegradable soy protein composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rakesh Kumar; Veena Choudhary; Saroj Mishra; Ik Varma

    2008-01-01

    Banana fiber,a waste product of banana cultivation,has been used to prepare banana fiber reinforced soy protein composites. Alkali modified banana fibers were characterized in terms of density,denier and crystallinity index. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also performed on the fibers. Soy protein composites were prepared by incorporating different volume fractions of alkali,treated and untreated fibers into soy protein isolate (SPI) with different amounts of glycerol (25%,50%) as plasticizer.Composites thus prepared were characterized in terms of mechanical properties,SEM and water resistance.The results indicate that at 0.3 volume fraction,tensile strength and modulus of alkali treated fiber reinforced soy protein composites increased to 82% and 963%,respectively,compared to soy protein film without fibers.Water resistance of the composites increased significantly with the addition of glutaraldehyde which acts as crosslinking agent. Biodegradability of the composites has also been tested in the contaminated environment and the composites were found to be 100% biodegradable.

  11. Nondestructive testing of externally reinforced structures for seismic retrofitting using flax fiber reinforced polymer (FFRP) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Sfarra, S.; Paoletti, D.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.

    2013-05-01

    Natural fibers constitute an interesting alternative to synthetic fibers, e.g. glass and carbon, for the production of composites due to their environmental and economic advantages. The strength of natural fiber composites is on average lower compared to their synthetic counterparts. Nevertheless, natural fibers such as flax, among other bast fibers (jute, kenaf, ramie and hemp), are serious candidates for seismic retrofitting applications given that their mechanical properties are more suitable for dynamic loads. Strengthening of structures is performed by impregnating flax fiber reinforced polymers (FFRP) fabrics with epoxy resin and applying them to the component of interest, increasing in this way the load and deformation capacities of the building, while preserving its stiffness and dynamic properties. The reinforced areas are however prompt to debonding if the fabrics are not mounted properly. Nondestructive testing is therefore required to verify that the fabric is uniformly installed and that there are no air gaps or foreign materials that could instigate debonding. In this work, the use of active infrared thermography was investigated for the assessment of (1) a laboratory specimen reinforced with FFRP and containing several artificial defects; and (2) an actual FFRP retrofitted masonry wall in the Faculty of Engineering of the University of L'Aquila (Italy) that was seriously affected by the 2009 earthquake. Thermographic data was processed by advanced signal processing techniques, and post-processed by computing the watershed lines to locate suspected areas. Results coming from the academic specimen were compared to digital speckle photography and holographic interferometry images.

  12. Thermoforming continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiang.

    1990-01-01

    In this research the forming process was first decomposed into basic deformation elements with simple geometries, and models were then developed for these elements. A series-parallel model was developed for predicting the upper and lower bounds of composite shear modulus at forming temperature based on the fiber content, fiber distribution, and matrix shear modulus. A shear-flexure model was proposed to describe the initial load-deflection behavior of thermoplastic composites in bending. A ply buckling model was developed which included the contributions from both a surface tension term and a ply buckling term.

  13. Analysis of the strength and stiffness of timber beams reinforced with carbon fiber and glass fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis of pinewood beams (Pinus caribea var hondurensis reinforced with glass and/or carbon fibers is discussed. The theoretical model employed to calculate the beam's bending strength takes into account the timber's ultimate limit states of tensile strength and failure by compression, considering a model of fragile elastic tension and plastic elastic compression. The validity of the theoretical model is confirmed by a comparison of the theoretical and experimental results, while the efficiency of the fiber reinforcement is corroborated by the increased strength and stiffness of the reinforced timber beams.

  14. MICROWAVE INDUCED DEGRADATION OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYESTER FOR FIBER AND RESIN RECOVERY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucar, Hülya; Nielsen, Rudi Pankratz; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen;

    A solvolysis process to depolymerize the resin in glass fiber reinforced composites and recover the glass fibers has been investigated using microwave induced irradiation. The depolymerization was carried out in HNO3 with concentrations in the range of 1M-7M and in KOH with concentrations ranging...

  15. Applications of Fiber-Reinforced Polymers in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    and Young's modulus. Key challenges in the field, as of now, are proper fiber placement, fiber seizing, an increased knowledge in the used materials and how they are applied into engineering solutions through proper control of the additive manufacturing process. The aim of this research is the improved...... understanding of fiber-reinforcement in additive manufacturing in terms of production and application. Vat polymerization and material extrusion techniques for composite additive manufacturing were investigated with respect of increasing adhesion between the matrix material and the fibers. Process optimization......Additive manufacturing technologies are these years entering the market of functional final parts. Initial research has been performed targeting the integration of fibers into additive manufactured plastic composites. Major advantages, among others, are for example increased tensile strength...

  16. Modeling oxidation damage of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Peng Yang; Gui-Qiong Jiao; Bo Wang

    2011-01-01

    For fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), oxidation of the constituents is a very important damage type for high temperature applications. During the oxidizing process, the pyrolytic carbon interphase gradually recesses from the crack site in the axial direction of the fiber into the interior of the material. Carbon fiber usually presents notch-like or local neck-shrink oxidation phenomenon, causing strength degradation. But, the reason for SiC fiber degradation is the flaw growth mechanism on its surface. A micromechanical model based on the above mechanisms was established to simulate the mechanical properties of CMCs after high temperature oxidation. The statistic and shearlag theory were applied and the calculation expressions for retained tensile modulus and strength were deduced, respectively. Meanwhile, the interphase recession and fiber strength degradation were considered. And then, the model was validated by application to a C/SiC composite.

  17. Fiber-reinforced composites materials, manufacturing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, P K

    2007-01-01

    The newly expanded and revised edition of Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design presents the most up-to-date resource available on state-of-the-art composite materials. This book is unique in that it not only offers a current analysis of mechanics and properties, but also examines the latest advances in test methods, applications, manufacturing processes, and design aspects involving composites. This third edition presents thorough coverage of newly developed materials including nanocomposites. It also adds more emphasis on underlying theories, practical methods, and problem-solving skills employed in real-world applications of composite materials. Each chapter contains new examples drawn from diverse applications and additional problems to reinforce the practical relevance of key concepts. New in The Third Edition: Contains new sections on material substitution, cost analysis, nano- and natural fibers, fiber architecture, and carbon-carbon composites Provides a new chapter on poly...

  18. Novel modified nanocellulose applicable as reinforcement in high-performance nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusmirović, Jelena D; Ivanović, Jasna Z; Pavlović, Vladimir B; Rakić, Vesna M; Rančić, Milica P; Djokić, Veljko; Marinković, Aleksandar D

    2017-05-15

    The influence of modification and vacuum/supercritical CO2 (scCO2) drying methods on the surface properties, morphology and thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals (NC) was presented in this study. Introduction of reactive vinyl groups on NC surface was performed by either direct esterification with oleic acid, linseed or sunflower oil fatty acids; or by amidation of maleic acid/ethylene diamine with methyl ester of fatty acid. Obtained modified NC (m-NC) were characterized using FTIR and Raman spectroscopy; and by determination of acid, iodine and ester values. Structural analysis of m-NC showed varieties of forms, from spongy to nanostructural non-uniform layered morphology with observable agglomeration, which confirmed morphology dependence on modification/processing methods Thermogravimetry-MS spectrometry showed different thermal stability and degradation pathways of NC/m-NC. Incorporation of 1 wt% of reactive m-NC in unsaturated polyester lead to high performance nanocomposites and contributed to increase of stress at break in the range from 76 to 93%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reinforced Sisal Fiber with Ferric Nitrate Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Jehan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferric oxide synthesized through annealing route. The present research work deals with ferrite composite prepared using chemical reactions. Ferric nitrates and ammonium chloride doped with sisal fiber has been prepared. The structural behavior of aluminum oxide was studied in XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR & dielectric measurement. This behavior showed ferrite nature of the sample.

  20. Curaua fiber reinforced high-density polyethylene composites: effect of impact modifier and fiber loading

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Albano de Morais; Renan Gadioli; Marco-Aurelio De Paoli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Short fibers are used in thermoplastic composites to increase their tensile and flexural resistance; however, it often decreases impact resistance. Composites with short vegetal fibers are not an exception to this behavior. The purpose of this work is to produce a vegetal fiber reinforced composite with improved tensile and impact resistance in relation to the polymer matrix. We used poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), EVA, to recover the impact resistance of high density polyethylene, ...

  1. Research on Flax Fiber Reinforced Polylactide Environmental Friendly Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-hong; WANG Rui; LIU Ming; SHEN Lu; BIAN Dong-cai

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradable polylactide acid (PLA) resin can be combined with flax fibers to produce biodegradable composite materials. In our study, commercial PLA fibers were mixed with flax fibers by a non-woven method so as to make nonwoven pre-forms, which can be generated into flax fiber reinforced PLA environmental friendly composites by heat pressing technology. The tensile, flexural and impact properties are tested in order to evaluate the basic physical properties of the composites, and the influenced factors listed as making technology of the pre-forms, weight ratio of flax fibers and heat pressing technology are discussed and optimized, which can be described as weight ratio of flax fibers and PLA fibers is 50/50, heating temperature, time and pressure are respectively 195℃, 20 min and 12.5 Mpa.Preliminary results show that mechanical properties of the flax/PLA composites are quite promising compared with flax/PP composites in common commercial automotive use.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to analyze the tensile specimen fracture surfaces, which shows voids and gaps occurring between flax fibers and PLA matrix and sign of fiber pull-out, the strength of flax/PLA interface can be further improved.

  2. Moment redistribution in continuous reinforced concrete beams strengthened with carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, M. A.; Valente, L.; Rizzo, A.

    2007-09-01

    The results of tests on continuous steel-fiber-reinforced concrete (RC) beams, with and without an external strengthening, are presented. The internal flexural steel reinforcement was designed so that to allow steel yielding before the collapse of the beams. To prevent the shear failure, steel stirrups were used. The tests also included two nonstrengthened control beams; the other specimens were strengthened with different configurations of externally bonded carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates. In order to prevent the premature failure from delamination of the CFRP strengthening, a wrapping was also applied. The experimental results obtained show that it is possible to achieve a sufficient degree of moment redistribution if the strengthening configuration is chosen properly, confirming the results provided by two simple numerical models.

  3. Flexible nanocrystal-coated glass fibers for high-performance thermoelectric energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Daxin; Yang, Haoran; Finefrock, Scott W; Wu, Yue

    2012-04-11

    Recent efforts on the development of nanostructured thermoelectric materials from nanowires (Boukai, A. I.; et al. Nature 2008, 451, (7175), 168-171; Hochbaum, A. I.; et al. Nature 2008, 451, (7175), 163-167) and nanocrystals (Kim, W.; et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006, 96, (4), 045901; Poudel, B.; et al. Science 2008, 320, (5876), 634-638; Scheele, M.; et al. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2009, 19, (21), 3476-3483; Wang, R. Y.; et al. Nano Lett. 2008, 8, (8), 2283-2288) show the comparable or superior performance to the bulk crystals possessing the same chemical compositions because of the dramatically reduced thermal conductivity due to phonon scattering at nanoscale surface and interface. Up to date, the majority of the thermoelectric devices made from these inorganic nanostructures are fabricated into rigid configuration. The explorations of truly flexible composite-based flexible thermoelectric devices (See, K. C.; et al. Nano Lett. 2010, 10, (11), 4664-4667) have thus far achieved much less progress, which in principle could significantly benefit the conversion of waste heat into electricity or the solid-state cooling by applying the devices to any kind of objects with any kind of shapes. Here we report an example using a scalable solution-phase deposition method to coat thermoelectric nanocrystals onto the surface of flexible glass fibers. Our investigation of the thermoelectric properties yields high performance comparable to the state of the art from the bulk crystals and proof-of-concept demonstration also suggests the potential of wrapping the thermoelectric fibers on the industrial pipes to improve the energy efficiency.

  4. Material and Flexural Properties of Fiber-reinforced Rubber Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminger, Nicholas P.

    The purpose of this research is to determine the material properties of rubber concrete with the addition of fibers, and to determine optimal mixture dosages of rubber and fiber in concrete for structural applications. Fiber-reinforced concrete and rubberized concrete have been researched separately extensively, but this research intends to combine both rubber and fiber in a concrete matrix in order to create a composite material, fiber-reinforced rubber concrete (FRRC). Sustainability has long been important in engineering design, but much of the previous research performed on sustainable concrete does not result in a material that can be used for practical purposes. While still achieving a material that can be used for structural applications, economical considerations were given when choosing the proportions and types of constituents in the concrete mix. Concrete mixtures were designed, placed, and tested in accordance with common procedures and standards, with an emphasis on practicality. Properties that were investigated include compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility. The basis for determining the optimal concrete mixture is one that is economical, practical, and exhibits ductile properties with a significant strength. Results show that increasing percentages of rubber tend to decrease workability, unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity while the toughness is increased. The addition of steel needle fibers to rubber concrete increases unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility of the composite material.

  5. Tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composites: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdanels, David L.

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix (W/Cu) composites have served as an ideal model system with which to analyze the properties of metal matrix composites. A series of research programs were conducted to investigate the stress-strain behavior of W/Cu composites; the effect of fiber content on the strength, modulus, and conductivity of W/Cu composites; and the effect of alloying elements on the behavior of tungsten wire and of W/Cu composites. Later programs investigated the stress-rupture, creep, and impact behavior of these composites at elevated temperatures. Analysis of the results of these programs as allows prediction of the effects of fiber properties, matrix properties, and fiber content on the properties of W/Cu composites. These analyses form the basis for the rule-of-mixtures prediction of composite properties which was universally adopted as the criteria for measuring composite efficiency. In addition, the analyses allows extrapolation of potential properties of other metal matrix composites and are used to select candidate fibers and matrices for development of tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composite materials for high temperature aircraft and rocket engine turbine applications. The W/Cu composite efforts are summarized, some of the results obtained are described, and an update is provided on more recent work using W/Cu composites as high strength, high thermal conductivity composite materials for high heat flux, elevated temperature applications.

  6. STUDY THE CREEP OF TUBULAR SHAPED FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat J. Saleh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Inpresent work tubular –shaped fiber reinforced composites were manufactured byusing two types of resins ( Epoxy and unsaturated polyester and separatelyreinforced with glass, carbon and kevlar-49 fibers (filament and woven roving,hybrid reinforcement composites of these fibers were also prepared. The fiberswere wet wound on a mandrel using a purposely designed winding machine,developed by modifying an ordinary lathe, in winding angle of 55° for filament. A creep test was made of either the fulltube or specimens taken from it. Creep was found to increase upon reinforcementin accordance to the rule of mixture and mainly decided by the type of singleor hybridized fibers. The creep behavior, showed that the observed strain tendsto appear much faster at higher temperature as compared with that exhibited atroom temperate. The creep rate also found to be depending on fiber type, matrixtype, and the fiber /matrix bonding. The creep energy calculated fromexperimental observations was found to exhibit highest value for hybridizedreinforcement.

  7. Reinforcement of Recycled Foamed Asphalt Using Short Polypropylene Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of short polypropylene fibers on recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixture. Short polypropylene fibers of 10 mm length with a 0.15% by weight mixing ratio of the fiber to the asphalt binder were used. The Marshall stability test, the indirect tensile strength test, the resilient modulus test, and wheel tracking test of the RFA mixtures were conducted. The test results were compared to find out the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of the fiber and the other mixtures, which included the conventional recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixtures; the cement reinforced recycled foamed asphalt (CRFA mixtures; the semihot recycled foamed asphalt (SRFA mixtures; and recycled hot-mix asphalt (RHMA mixtures. It is found that the FRFA mixture shows higher Marshall stability than the RFA and SRFA mixtures, higher indirect tensile strength than the RFA mixture, and higher rut resistance than the RFA, SRFA, and RHMA mixtures as seen from the wheel tracking test.

  8. Correlations Between Mechanical Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Julián

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tension strength and post-cracking deformation capacities that exhibits steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC stimulate its use in elements governed by shear deformations. Aimed at developing design aids that promote the use of SFRC as web shear reinforcement of concrete walls for low-rise economic housing (LEH, an experimental study for describing the mechanical properties of SFRC was carried out. The experimental program included testing of 128 cylinder- and beam-type specimens. According to requirements specified by ACI-318, to thickness of walls used in LEH, and to results of previous studies, three Dramix fibers with length-diameter ratios of 55, 64 and 80 were selected. Fiber dosage was expressed in terms of the minimum fiber dosage specified by ACI-318 for replacing the minimum area of conventional shear reinforcement in beams (60 kg/m3. Therefore, five dosages were used: 0, 40, 45, 60 and 75 kg/m3. Mechanical properties of SFRC under compressive, tensile and flexural stresses were evaluated in this study. Based on trends of experimental results, numerical correlations for estimating both basic mechanical properties and properties that describe flexural performance of SFRC are proposed.

  9. Cellulose fiber reinforced nylon 6 or nylon 66 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolin

    Cellulose fiber was used to reinforce higher melting temperature engineering thermoplastics, such as nylon 6 and nylon 66. The continuous extrusion - direct compression molding processing and extrusion-injection molding were chosen to make cellulose fiber/nylon 6 or 66 composites. Tensile, flexural and Izod impact tests were used to demonstrate the mechanical properties of the composites. The continuous extrusion-compression molding processing can decrease the thermal degradation of cellulose fiber, but fiber doesn't disperse well with this procedure. Injection molding gave samples with better fiber dispersion and less void content, and thus gave better mechanical properties than compression molding. Low temperature compounding was used to extrude cellulose fiber/nylon composites. Plasticizer and a ceramic powder were used to decrease the processing temperature. Low temperature extrusion gave better mechanical properties than high temperature extrusion. The tensile modulus of nylon 6 composite with 30% fiber can reach 5GPa; with a tensile strength of 68MPa; a flexural modulus of 4GPa, and a flexural strength of 100MPa. The tensile modulus of nylon 66 composites with 30% fiber can reach 5GPa; with a flexural modulus of 5GPa; a tensile strength of 70MPa; and a flexural strength of 147MPa. The effect of thermal degradation on fiber properties was estimated. The Halpin-Tsai model and the Cox model were used to estimate the composite modulus. The Kelly-Tyson model was used to estimate the composite strength. The result indicates that the change of fiber properties determines the final properties of composites. Fiber length has a minor affect on both modulus and strength as long as the fiber length is above the critical length.

  10. Anomalous enhancement of drilling rate in carbon fiber reinforced plastic using azimuthally polarized CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masamori; Araya, Naohiro; Kurokawa, Yuki; Uno, Kazuyuki

    2016-09-01

    We developed an azimuthally polarized pulse-periodic CO2 laser for high-performance drilling applications. We discovered an anomalous enhancement in the drilling rate with the azimuthally polarized beam compared to that with radially or randomly polarized beams. We drilled 0.45 mm-thick carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) using a focusing lens with a focal length of 50 mm and a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.09. The conditions other than polarization states were identical for all the experiments. The azimuthally polarized beam exhibited a drilling rate more than 10 times greater on average than those of the other two polarizations.

  11. STRAIN REGULARITY IN REINFORCERS OFSHORT-FIBER/ WHISKER REINFORCED COMPOSITE AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    If the reinforcers were spheroids or ellipsoids, and their volume fraction was no more than 10%, their interactions could be neglected so that the elastic modulus of the composites could be predicted accurately[1~4]. However, in practical short-fiber/whisker reinforced metal matrix composites, the volume fraction of reinforcers is as high as 15%~40%. Additionally, the shape of reinforcers is usually far much more complicated than that of spheroids or ellipsoids and their distribution is irregular. The distance between reinforcers is usually as small as their diameter, so that it is difficult to cut out a unit cell with only a singular reinforcer included. For this kind of engineering composites, accurate prediction of effective elastic moduli is still an open problem until now[5].  In Refs.[6, 7], based on the study of strain distribution in whisker reinforced composites, the ratio of the root-mean-square strain of reinforcers to the macro linear strain along the same direction is defined as deformation characteristic parameter λf. An explicit precise stiffness tensor is derived by introducing λf and distribution density function of reinforcers, which is able to predict the stiffness modulus of composites with arbitrary whisker orientation under any loading condition. However, accurate prediction of the present theory depends on the value of λf.  In the present paper, the relation between λf and the microstructure geometrical and physical parameters of the composite will be investigated with a shear lag model[8] and network model[9] in order to derive a regressive formula for λf. As an example of verification, the tensile stress-strain curve of a whisker reinforced metal matrix composite will be predicted and compared with experiments.

  12. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF BREAKAGE OF SINGLE FIBER ON CREEP BEHAVIOR OF FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.J. Shao; Y.P. Jiang; Z. F. Yue

    2004-01-01

    A 3-D micro cell model with multi-fibers has been presented to study the effects of breakage of single fiber on the whole creep behavior of fiber reinforced composites by finite element method (FEM). Before the fiber breakage, the stresses of all fibers are identical. With the creep time increasing, stress in fiber increases but stress in matrix decreases. It is assumed that the fiber breakage occurs when the stress in fiber reaches a critical value. The stress redistribution resulted from the breakage of fiber has been obtained. The influence on the axial stress of the broken fiber is local. The stress in the all fiber sections is not uniform. There is a local stress concentration in the matrix. And this stress concentration in the matrix is more and more serious with the creep deformation. The stress transference of the loading due to the fiber breakage has been studies numerically. It is found that the fibers near to the broken fiber will take over more loading.

  13. Seebeck effect in carbon fiber-reinforced cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, S.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1999-12-01

    The Seebeck effect in carbon fiber-reinforced cement paste was found to involve electrons from the cement matrix and holes from the biers. The two contributions were equal at the percolation threshold, with a fiber content between 0.5 and 1.0% by mass of cement. The hole contribution increased monotonically with increasing fiber content below and above the percolation threshold. The fiber addition increased the linearity and reversibility of the Seebeck effect. Silica fume and latex as admixtures had minor influence on the Seebeck effect. The Seebeck effect in concrete is of interest because it gives the concrete the ability to sense its own temperature. No attached or embedded sensor is needed since the concrete itself is the sensor. This means low cost, high durability, large sensing volume, and absence of mechanical property degradation due to embedded sensors. As the temperature affects the performance and reliability of concrete, its detection is valuable.

  14. Processing and Performance of Alumina Fiber Reinforced Alumina Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Y.Lee; T.Uchijima; T.Yano

    2003-01-01

    Processing of alumina fiber-reinforced alumina matrix composites by hot-pressing was described. The mechanical properties of the composites fabricated by different sintering conditions including temperature and pressure have been investigated. The results indicated that the higher sintering temperature and pressure corresponded to the higher bulk density and higher maximum strength of the composite, whereas the pseudo-ductility of the composite was lower. The preliminary results of the composite with monazite-coated fibers showed that maximum strength could be improved up to 35% compared with the noncoated fiber composite in the same sintering condition. Moreover, the fracture behavior of the composite changed from completely brittle fracture to non-brittle fracture under the suitable sintering conditions. SEM observation of the fracture surface indicated that the coating worked as a protective barrier and avoided sintering of the fibers together even at high temperature and pressure during densification process.

  15. Strength and Deformability of Fiber Reinforced Cement Paste on the Basis of Basalt Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Barabanshchikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research object of the paper is cement paste with the particulate reinforcement of basalt fiber. Regardless of fibers’ length at the same fiber cement mix workability and cement consumption equality compressive solidity of the specimens is reduced with increasing fiber content. This is due to the necessity to increase the water-cement ratio to obtain a given workability. The flexural stability of the specimens with increasing fiber content increments in the same conditions. There is an optimum value of the fibers’ dosage. That is why stability has a maximum when crooking. The basaltic fiber particulate reinforcement usage can abruptly increase the cement paste level limiting extensibility, which is extremely important in terms of crack resistance.

  16. Axial shear modulus of a fiber-reinforced composite with random fiber cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Bose

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the effective axial shear modulus of a fiber reinforced material with random fiber cross-sections so that the micromechanics is governed by stochastic differential equations. A coarse-graining procedure is adopted to investigate the macroscopic behavior of the material. This analysis leads to the formula for the effective axial shear modulus μ∗=μ1/{1−2c(μ2−μ1/(μ2+μ1},where μ1 and μ2 are the shear modulus of the matrix and fibers respectively and c is the concentration of the fibers less that 0.5. For c>0.5, the fiber and matrix moduli are to be interchanged and c is to be replaced by 1−c. The results of this study are compared with those of the theory of fibre reinforced materials. Finally, a numerical example is presented with graphical representation.

  17. Anomaly detection of microstructural defects in continuous fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Stephen; Simmons, J. P.; Przybyla, Craig; Hardie, Russell

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) with continuous fiber reinforcements have the potential to enable the next generation of high speed hypersonic vehicles and/or significant improvements in gas turbine engine performance due to their exhibited toughness when subjected to high mechanical loads at extreme temperatures (2200F+). Reinforced fiber composites (RFC) provide increased fracture toughness, crack growth resistance, and strength, though little is known about how stochastic variation and imperfections in the material effect material properties. In this work, tools are developed for quantifying anomalies within the microstructure at several scales. The detection and characterization of anomalous microstructure is a critical step in linking production techniques to properties, as well as in accurate material simulation and property prediction for the integrated computation materials engineering (ICME) of RFC based components. It is desired to find statistical outliers for any number of material characteristics such as fibers, fiber coatings, and pores. Here, fiber orientation, or `velocity', and `velocity' gradient are developed and examined for anomalous behavior. Categorizing anomalous behavior in the CMC is approached by multivariate Gaussian mixture modeling. A Gaussian mixture is employed to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of the features in question, and anomalies are classified by their likelihood of belonging to the statistical normal behavior for that feature.

  18. Rigid Polyurethane Foam Reinforced Coconut Coir Fiber Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azham Azmi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work studied the properties of composite foam panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane (PU foam in order to increase the properties of foam. This composite foam panels were fabricated by using polyurethane molded method. The polyurethane foam panels reinforced from 5 to 20wt% coconut coir were produced to investigate the physical and mechanical test via density test and three point bending test respectively. It was found that the density test results show the composite foam panel density decreases as fiber content increased. The composite foam panels with 15 wt% coconut coir fibers offered less density with average value of 76.78 kg/m3. Result from mechanical test shows that the flexural properties were increased at 5wt % of coconut coir fiber with average value of maximum force and shear stress at 88N and 60 KPa.  It was revealed that the coconut coir fibers at 5wt% significantly increased the physical and mechanical properties of composites foam panel.

  19. Fiber reinforced silicon-containing arylacetylene resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A silicon-containing arylacetylene resin (SAR, a poly(dimethylsilyleneethynylene phenyleneethynylene (PMSEPE, was synthesized. The PMSEPE is a solid resin at ambient temperature with a softening temperature about 60°C and soluble in some solvents like tetrahydrofuran. The melt viscosity of the PMSEPE resin is less than 1 Pa•s. The resin could cure at the temperature of lower than 200°C. Fiber reinforced PMSEPE composites were prepared from prepregs which were made by the impregnation of fibers in PMSEPE resin solution. The composites exhibit good mechanical properties at room temperature and 250°C. The observation on fracture surfaces of the composites reinforced by glass fibers and carbon fibers demonstrates that the adhesion between the fibers and resin is good. The results from an oxyacetylene flame test show that the composites have good ablation performance and XRD analyses indicate that SiC forms in the residues during the ablation of the composites.

  20. Micro-Mechanical Modeling of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) on the micro- the meso- as well as the macro-level, i.e. modeling aspects of fiber-matrix interaction, overall constitutive modeling and structural modeling. Emphasis is placed on the micro- and meso-aspects, however, some basic results on the macro-level are also......The paper is a contribution to the course Cement-Based Composites for the Building Industry, organized by POA Foundation for Postgraduate Studies in Civil Engineering in cooperation with Priority Programme Material Research (PPM) in the Netherlands. The text deals with mechanical modeling aspects...

  1. SERIAL SECTIONS THROUGH A CONTINUOUS FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bizet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of a unidirectional glass-fiber composite material is described seeking especially for the influence of the stitching perpendicular to the reinforcement. Serial cuts are performed through the composite and the microstructure is quantified using global parameters and linear morphological analysis. A key result is that the stitching induces variations in fibers spacing within the yarns and in the matrix volume between the yarns. This can affect noticeably the flow of the resin during the manufacturing process and also the mechanical properties of the composite.

  2. Steel fiber reinforced concrete behavior, modelling and design

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harvinder

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses design aspects of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) members, including the behavior of the SFRC and its modeling. It also examines the effect of various parameters governing the response of SFRC members in detail. Unlike other publications available in the form of guidelines, which mainly describe design methods based on experimental results, it describes the basic concepts and principles of designing structural members using SFRC as a structural material, predominantly subjected to flexure and shear. Although applications to special structures, such as bridges, retaining walls, tanks and silos are not specifically covered, the fundamental design concepts remain the same and can easily be extended to these elements. It introduces the principles and related theories for predicting the role of steel fibers in reinforcing concrete members concisely and logically, and presents various material models to predict the response of SFRC members in detail. These are then gradually extended to d...

  3. Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Xu, Jin-Yu; Li, Weimin

    2015-09-01

    Basalt fiber reinforced porous aggregates-geopolymer based cellular material (BFRPGCM) was prepared. The stress-strain curve has been worked out. The ideal energy-absorbing efficiency has been analyzed and the application prospect has been explored. The results show the following: fiber reinforced cellular material has successively sized pore structures; the stress-strain curve has two stages: elastic stage and yielding plateau stage; the greatest value of the ideal energy-absorbing efficiency of BFRPGCM is 89.11%, which suggests BFRPGCM has excellent energy-absorbing property. Thus, it can be seen that BFRPGCM is easy and simple to make, has high plasticity, low density and excellent energy-absorbing features. So, BFRPGCM is a promising energy-absorbing material used especially in civil defense engineering.

  4. Experimental study on fire protection methods of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kexu; HE Guisheng; LU Fan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,two reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP)and attached with thick-painted fire resistant coating were tested for fire resistance following the standard fire testing procedures.The experimental results show that the specimen pasted with the insulated layer of 50 mm in thickness could resist fire for 2.5 h.It is also demonstrated that the steel wire mesh embedded in the insulated layer can effectively prevent it from cracking and eroding under firing.

  5. Reinforced by Kenaf and Caroà Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Persico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of environmental friendly composites were prepared based on sustainable matrices, respectively, defatted cross-linked soy flour and thermoplastic polyhydroxybutyrate cohydroxyvalerate, reinforced by natural fibers from Caroà and Kenaf plants. The obtained composites were compared in terms of moisture tolerance, thermal and mechanical properties, and thermoregulation ability. It was found that this ecofriendly systems have suitable properties for indoor applications in housing and transportation.

  6. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  7. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  8. Basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites: Processing and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang

    A high efficiency rig was designed and built for in-plane permeability measurement of fabric materials. A new data derivation procedure to acquire the flow fluid pattern in the experiment was developed. The measurement results of the in-plane permeability for basalt twill 31 fabric material showed that a high correlation exists between the two principal permeability values for this fabric at 35% fiber volume fraction. This may be the most important scientific contribution made in this thesis. The results from radial measurements corresponded quite well with those from Unidirectional (UD) measurements, which is a well-established technique. No significant differences in mechanical properties were found between basalt fabric reinforced polymer composites and glass composites reinforced by a fabric of similar weave pattern. Aging results indicate that the interfacial region in basalt composites may be more vulnerable to environmental damage than that in glass composites. However, the basalt/epoxy interface may have been more durable than the glass/epoxy interface in tension-tension fatigue because the basalt composites have significantly longer fatigue life. In this thesis, chapter I reviews the literature on fiber reinforced polymer composites, with concentration on permeability measurement, mechanical properties and durability. Chapter II discusses the design of the new rig for in-plane permeability measurement, the new derivation procedure for monitoring of the fluid flow pattern, and the permeability measurement results. Chapter III compares the mechanical properties and durability between basalt fiber and glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Lastly, chapter IV gives some suggestions and recommendations for future work.

  9. Fracture morphology of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Srinivasa; Vinay Shivakumar; Vinay Nayaka; Sunil Jagadeeshaiaih; Murali Seethram; Raghavendra Shenoy; Abdelhakim Nafidi

    2010-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites have been extensively used in fabrication of primary structures for aerospace, automobile and other engineering applications. With continuous and widespread use of these composites in several advanced technology, the frequency of failures is likely to increase. Therefore, to establish the reasons for failures, the fracture modes should be understood thoroughly and unambiguously. In this paper, CFRP composite have been tested in tension, compre...

  10. Chairside fabricated fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial denture

    OpenAIRE

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2007-01-01

    The advances in the materials and techniques for adhesive dentistry have allowed the development of non-invasive or minimally invasive approaches for replacing a missing tooth in those clinical situations when conservation of adjacent teeth is needed. Good mechanical and cosmetic/aesthetic properties of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC), with good bonding properties with composite resin cement and veneering composite are needed in FRC devices. Some recent studies have shown that adhesives of c...

  11. Durability of Cement Composites Reinforced with Sisal Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianqiang

    This dissertation focuses mainly on investigating the aging mechanisms and degradation kinetics of sisal fiber, as well as the approaches to mitigate its degradation in the matrix of cement composites. In contrast to previous works reported in the literature, a novel approach is proposed in this study to directly determine the fiber's degradation rate by separately studying the composition changes, mechanical and physical properties of the embedded sisal fibers. Cement hydration is presented to be a crucial factor in understanding fiber degradation behavior. The degradation mechanisms of natural fiber consist of mineralization of cell walls, alkali hydrolysis of lignin and hemicellulose, as well as the cellulose decomposition which includes stripping of cellulose microfibrils and alkaline hydrolysis of amorphous regions in cellulose chains. Two mineralization mechanisms, CH-mineralization and self-mineralization, are proposed. The degradation kinetics of sisal fiber in the cement matrix are also analyzed and a model to predict the degradation rate of cellulose for natural fiber embedded in cement is outlined. The results indicate that the time needed to completely degrade the cellulose in the matrix with cement replacement by 30wt.% metakaolin is 13 times longer than that in pure cement. A novel and scientific method is presented to determine accelerated aging conditions, and to evaluating sisal fiber's degradation rate and durability of natural fiber-reinforced cement composites. Among the static aggressive environments, the most effective approach for accelerating the degradation of natural fiber in cement composites is to soak the samples or change the humidity at 70 °C and higher temperature. However, the dynamic wetting and drying cycling treatment has a more accelerating effect on the alkali hydrolysis of fiber's amorphous components evidenced by the highest crystallinity indices, minimum content of holocellulose, and lowest tensile strength. Based on the

  12. Strain Sharing Assessment in Woven Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanini, Roberto; Recupero, Antonino; De Domenico, Fabrizio; Freni, Fabrizio

    2016-09-22

    Embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors have been extensively used worldwide for health monitoring of smart structures. In civil engineering, they provide a powerful method for monitoring the performance of composite reinforcements used for concrete structure rehabilitation and retrofitting. This paper discusses the problem of investigating the strain transfer mechanism in composite strengthened concrete beams subjected to three-point bending tests. Fiber Bragg grating sensors were embedded both in the concrete tensioned surface and in the woven fiber reinforcement. It has been shown that, if interface decoupling occurs, strain in the concrete can be up to 3.8 times higher than that developed in the reinforcement. A zero friction slipping model was developed which fitted very well the experimental data.

  13. Development of Glass/Jute Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites play significant role as engineering material and their use has been increasing day by day due to their specific properties such as high strength to weight ratios, high modulus to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. In present work, an attempt is made to hybridize the material using synthetic (glass as well as natural fibres (chemically treated jute, such that to reduce the overall use of synthetic reinforcement, to reduce the overall cost, and to enhance the mechanical properties. All composite specimens with different weight percentages of fibres were manufactured using hand lay-up process and testing was done by using ASTM standards. Experimental results revealed that hybridization of composite with natural and synthetic fibres shows enhanced tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact strength. The content of natural reinforcement was found to be in the range of 25–33.3% for best results. The effect of treated jute on flexural properties was more than that on tensile properties, which was due to greater stiffness of jute fibers. Chemical treatment of jute fibers lowers the water absorption and results were comparable to glass fiber reinforced polyester composites. The addition of jute also reduced the overall cost by 22.18%.

  14. Areca Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites: Effect of Chemical Treatments on Impact Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhanalakshmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, impact strength of untreated, alkali treated, potassium permanganate treated, benzoyl chloride treated and acrylic acid treated areca fiber reinforced epoxy composites were studied under 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% fiber loadings. Impact strength increased with increase in fiber loading up to 60% and then showed a decline for all untreated and chemically treated areca fiber reinforced epoxy composites. The acrylic acid treated areca fiber reinforced epoxy composites with 60% fiber loading showed highest impact strength of 28.28 J/mm2 amongst all untreated and chemically treated areca/epoxy composites with same 60% fiber loading.

  15. Cellular fiber–reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Isachenko S.; Kodzoev M.

    2016-01-01

    Methods disperse reinforcement of concrete matrix using polypropylene, glass, basalt and metal fibers allows to make the construction of complex configuration, solve the problem of frost products. Dispersed reinforcement reduces the overall weight of the structures. The fiber replaces the secondary reinforcement, reducing the volume of use of structural steel reinforcement. Cellular Fiber concretes are characterized by high-performance properties, especially increased bending strength and...

  16. Compressive Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with End-Hooked Steel Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Cheol Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the compressive behavior of fiber-reinforced concrete with end-hooked steel fibers has been investigated through a uniaxial compression test in which the variables were concrete compressive strength, fiber volumetric ratio, and fiber aspect ratio (length to diameter. In order to minimize the effect of specimen size on fiber distribution, 48 cylinder specimens 150 mm in diameter and 300 mm in height were prepared and then subjected to uniaxial compression. From the test results, it was shown that steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC specimens exhibited ductile behavior after reaching their compressive strength. It was also shown that the strain at the compressive strength generally increased along with an increase in the fiber volumetric ratio and fiber aspect ratio, while the elastic modulus decreased. With consideration for the effect of steel fibers, a model for the stress–strain relationship of SFRC under compression is proposed here. Simple formulae to predict the strain at the compressive strength and the elastic modulus of SFRC were developed as well. The proposed model and formulae will be useful for realistic predictions of the structural behavior of SFRC members or structures.

  17. Compressive Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with End-Hooked Steel Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Cheol; Oh, Joung-Hwan; Cho, Jae-Yeol

    2015-03-27

    In this paper, the compressive behavior of fiber-reinforced concrete with end-hooked steel fibers has been investigated through a uniaxial compression test in which the variables were concrete compressive strength, fiber volumetric ratio, and fiber aspect ratio (length to diameter). In order to minimize the effect of specimen size on fiber distribution, 48 cylinder specimens 150 mm in diameter and 300 mm in height were prepared and then subjected to uniaxial compression. From the test results, it was shown that steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) specimens exhibited ductile behavior after reaching their compressive strength. It was also shown that the strain at the compressive strength generally increased along with an increase in the fiber volumetric ratio and fiber aspect ratio, while the elastic modulus decreased. With consideration for the effect of steel fibers, a model for the stress-strain relationship of SFRC under compression is proposed here. Simple formulae to predict the strain at the compressive strength and the elastic modulus of SFRC were developed as well. The proposed model and formulae will be useful for realistic predictions of the structural behavior of SFRC members or structures.

  18. High Performance Spatial Filter Array Based on Single Mode Fiber Bundle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I project, by leveraging on Agiltron's experience in optical fiber components and our unique fabrication procedure of fiber array, we successfully designed...

  19. High Performance Spatial Filter Array Based on Signal Mode Fiber Bundle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Loveraging on Agiltron's experience in optical fiber components, Agiltron proposed a coherent single-mode fiber (SMF) spatial filter array (SFA) with a gradient...

  20. Development of Ceramic Fibers for Reinforcement in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, L. E.; Lent, W. E.; Teague, W. T.

    1961-01-01

    the. testing apparatus for single fiber tensile strength increased the precision. of tests conducted on nine fibers. The highest mean tensile strength, a value of 295,000 pounds per square inch, was obtained with R-141 fibers. Treatment of R-74 fibers with anhydrous Linde A-1100 silane finish improved its mean fiber tensile strength by 25 percent. The lapse of time after fiber formation had no measurable effect on tensile strength. A static heating test conducted with various high melting fibers indicated that Fiberfrax and R-108 underwent no significant changes in bulk volume or resiliency on exposure to 2750 degrees Fahrenheit (1510 degrees Centigrade) in an oxidizing atmosphere. For fiber-resin composition fabrication, ten fiber materials were selected on the bases of high fiber yield, fusion temperature, and type of composition. Fiberfrax, a commercial ceramic fiber, was included for comparison. A new, more effective method of removing pellets from blown fibers was developed. The de-pelletized fibers were treated with a silane finish and felted into ten-inch diameter felts prior to resin impregnation. Composites containing 30 percent by weight of CTL 91-LD phenolic resin were molded under high pressure from the impregnated felts and post-cured to achieve optimum properties. Flexural strength, flexural modules of elasticity, and punch shear strength tests were conducted on the composite specimens. The highest average flexural strength obtained was 19,958 pounds per square inch with the R-74-fiber-resin composite. This compares very favorably with the military specification of 13,000 pounds per square inch flexural strength for randomly oriented fiber reinforced composites. The highest punch shear strength (11,509 pounds per square inch) was obtained with the R-89 fiber-resin composite. The effects of anhydrous fiber finishes on composite strength were not clearly indicated. Plasma arc tests at a heat flux of 550 British Thermal Units per square foot per second on

  1. Evaluation Study of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester and Kevlar Reinforced Polyester by Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Sultan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation two different types of fiber reinforced polymer composites were prepared by hand lay-up method using three different parameters (curing temperature, pressing load and fiber volume fraction. These composites were prepared from the polyester resin as the matrix material reinforced with glass fibers as first group of samples and mat Kevlar fibers as the second group, both with different volume fractions (4%, 8%, and 12% of fibers. They were then tested by tensile strength and impact strength. The main objective in this study is to use Taguchi method for predicting the better parameters that give the better tensile and impact strength to the composites, and then preparing composites at these parameters and comparing them with the randomly used once. The experimental and analytical results showed that the Taguchi method was successful in optimizing the parameters that give the highest properties and it can find the most influential parameter regardless of the material used. Also it showed that the volume fraction was the most influential parameter on the tensile and impact strength. The difference between these composites was in the properties values and that the Kevlar composites have higher tensile and impact strength.

  2. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Botta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid (PLA-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanical tests. The morphology of the fracture surfaces was analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Moreover, a theoretical model, i.e., Hill’s method, was used to fit the experimental Young’s modulus of the biocomposites. The quasi-static tensile tests revealed that the modulus of UNID composites is significantly higher than that of the neat PLA (i.e., ~40%. Moreover, the tensile strength is slightly higher than that of the neat matrix. The other way around, the stiffness of RANDOM composites is not significantly improved, and the tensile strength decreases in comparison to the neat PLA.

  3. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, N., E-mail: norlailiamir@petronas.com.my; Othman, W. M. S. W., E-mail: wamosa@gmail.com; Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Fiber Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Containing Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Jae Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced aerated lightweight concrete (FALC was developed to reduce concrete's density and to improve its fire resistance, thermal conductivity, and energy absorption. Compression tests were performed to determine basic properties of FALC. The primary independent variables were the types and volume fraction of fibers, and the amount of air in the concrete. Polypropylene and carbon fibers were investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% volume ratios. The lightweight aggregate used was made of expanded clay. A self-compaction agent was used to reduce the water-cement ratio and keep good workability. A surfactant was also added to introduce air into the concrete. This study provides basic information regarding the mechanical properties of FALC and compares FALC with fiber reinforced lightweight concrete. The properties investigated include the unit weight, uniaxial compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and toughness index. Based on the properties, a stress-strain prediction model was proposed. It was demonstrated that the proposed model accurately predicts the stress-strain behavior of FALC.

  5. Fiber-Reinforced Reactive Nano-Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-01-01

    An ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene/ matrix interface based on the fabrication of a reactive nano-epoxy matrix with lower surface energy has been improved. Enhanced mechanical properties versus pure epoxy on a three-point bend test include: strength (25 percent), modulus (20 percent), and toughness (30 percent). Increased thermal properties include higher Tg (glass transition temperature) and stable CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). Improved processability for manufacturing composites includes faster wetting rates on macro-fiber surfaces, lower viscosity, better resin infusion rates, and improved rheological properties. Improved interfacial adhesion properties with Spectra fibers by pullout tests include initial debonding force of 35 percent, a maximum pullout force of 25 percent, and energy to debond at 65 percent. Improved mechanical properties of Spectra fiber composites (tensile) aging resistance properties include hygrothermal effects. With this innovation, high-performance composites have been created, including carbon fibers/nano-epoxy, glass fibers/nano-epoxy, aramid fibers/ nano-epoxy, and ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE).

  6. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  7. Smart Behavior of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Cement-based Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of cement-based material can be remarkably improved by the addition of short carbon fibers.Carbon fiber reinforced cement composite (CFRC) is an intrinsically smart material that can sense not only the stress andstrain, but also the temperature. In this paper, variations of electrical resistivity with external applied load, and relationof thermoelectric force and temperature were investigated. Test results indicated that the electrical signal is related to theincrease in the material volume resistivity during crack generation or propagation and the decrease in the resistivity duringcrack closure. Moreover, it was found that the fiber addition increased the linearity and reversibility of the Seebeck effect inthe cement-based materials. The change of electrical characteristics reflects large amount of information of inner damage andtemperature differential of composite, which can be used for stress-strain or thermal self-monitoring by embedding it in theconcrete structures.

  8. Flexural analysis of palm fiber reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Raghav, Dasarath; Santhosh Kiran, R.; Mahesh, Bhargav; Kumar, Krishna

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainty in availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

  9. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  10. OBSERVATIONS ON DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF HIGH PERFORMANCE FIBERS BY POLARIZING OPTICAL MICROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-fa Xiao; Yu-feng Zhang

    2000-01-01

    By means of polarizing optical microscopy (POM), deformation behavior of four kinds of fibers, i.e. ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) fiber, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber,and wholly aromatic (p-hydroxybenzoic acid/2-hydroxy-6-naphthoic acid) copolyester [P(HBA/HNA)]/PET (ACPET blend) fiber, in axial compression, axial impacting, and bending was observed. In compression, kink bands formed at an angle of 55~60° to the fiber axis in 10-times-drawn UHMW-PE fiber, 75~80° in 40-times-drawn sample, 80° in PVA fiber, and 90°in the ACPET blend fiber. In impacting and bending, band angles of UHMW-PE, PVA and PET fibers are nearly the same as those formed in compression, indicating that slip systems do not change. For any of the four kinds of fiber, band spacing exhibits great differences in compression, in impacting, and in bending, which may be attributed to the differences in the degrees of strain or stress concentration.

  11. Hybrid Composites Based on Carbon Fiber/Carbon Nanofilament Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Tehrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofilament and nanotubes (CNTs have shown promise for enhancing the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites (FRPs and imparting multi-functionalities to them. While direct mixing of carbon nanofilaments with the polymer matrix in FRPs has several drawbacks, a high volume of uniform nanofilaments can be directly grown on fiber surfaces prior to composite fabrication. This study demonstrates the ability to create carbon nanofilaments on the surface of carbon fibers employing a synthesis method, graphitic structures by design (GSD, in which carbon structures are grown from fuel mixtures using nickel particles as the catalyst. The synthesis technique is proven feasible to grow nanofilament structures—from ethylene mixtures at 550 °C—on commercial polyacrylonitrile (PAN-based carbon fibers. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy were employed to characterize the surface-grown carbon species. For comparison purposes, a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD technique was also utilized to grow multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs on carbon fiber yarns. The mechanical characterization showed that composites using the GSD-grown carbon nanofilaments outperform those using the CCVD-grown CNTs in terms of stiffness and tensile strength. The results suggest that further optimization of the GSD growth time, patterning and thermal shield coating of the carbon fibers is required to fully materialize the potential benefits of the GSD technique.

  12. Modeling and simulation of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bheemreddy, Venkata

    Finite element modeling framework based on cohesive damage modeling, constitutive material behavior using user-material subroutines, and extended finite element method (XFEM), are developed for studying the failure behavior of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CFCCs) by the example of a silicon carbide matrix reinforced with silicon carbide fiber (SiC/SiCf) composite. This work deals with developing comprehensive numerical models for three problems: (1) fiber/matrix interface debonding and fiber pull-out, (2) mechanical behavior of a CFCC using a representative volume element (RVE) approach, and (3) microstructure image-based modeling of a CFCC using object oriented finite element analysis (OOF). Load versus displacement behavior during a fiber pull-out event was investigated using a cohesive damage model and an artificial neural network model. Mechanical behavior of a CFCC was investigated using a statistically equivalent RVE. A three-step procedure was developed for generating a randomized fiber distribution. Elastic properties and damage behavior of a CFCC were analyzed using the developed RVE models. Scattering of strength distribution in CFCCs was taken into account using a Weibull probability law. A multi-scale modeling framework was developed for evaluating the fracture behavior of a CFCC as a function of microstructural attributes. A finite element mesh of the microstructure was generated using an OOF tool. XFEM was used to study crack propagation in the microstructure and the fracture behavior was analyzed. The work performed provides a valuable procedure for developing a multi-scale framework for comprehensive damage study of CFCCs.

  13. Self-healing in single and multiple fiber(s reinforced polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woldesenbet E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available You Polymer composites have been attractive medium to introduce the autonomic healing concept into modern day engineering materials. To date, there has been significant research in self-healing polymeric materials including several studies specifically in fiber reinforced polymers. Even though several methods have been suggested in autonomic healing materials, the concept of repair by bleeding of enclosed functional agents has garnered wide attention by the scientific community. A self-healing fiber reinforced polymer composite has been developed. Tensile tests are carried out on specimens that are fabricated by using the following components: hollow and solid glass fibers, healing agent, catalysts, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and a polymer resin matrix. The test results have demonstrated that single fiber polymer composites and multiple fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites with healing agents and catalysts have provided 90.7% and 76.55% restoration of the original tensile strength, respectively. Incorporation of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the healing medium of the single fiber polymer composite has provided additional efficiency. Healing is found to be localized, allowing multiple healing in the presence of several cracks.

  14. Self-healing in single and multiple fiber(s) reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldesenbet, E.

    2010-06-01

    You Polymer composites have been attractive medium to introduce the autonomic healing concept into modern day engineering materials. To date, there has been significant research in self-healing polymeric materials including several studies specifically in fiber reinforced polymers. Even though several methods have been suggested in autonomic healing materials, the concept of repair by bleeding of enclosed functional agents has garnered wide attention by the scientific community. A self-healing fiber reinforced polymer composite has been developed. Tensile tests are carried out on specimens that are fabricated by using the following components: hollow and solid glass fibers, healing agent, catalysts, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and a polymer resin matrix. The test results have demonstrated that single fiber polymer composites and multiple fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites with healing agents and catalysts have provided 90.7% and 76.55% restoration of the original tensile strength, respectively. Incorporation of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the healing medium of the single fiber polymer composite has provided additional efficiency. Healing is found to be localized, allowing multiple healing in the presence of several cracks.

  15. Determination of Selected Colored Smokes on Glass Fiber Discs by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) F F_ n.ipl’prifl. Alan R...GROUP SUB-GROUP High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Analytical IMethod, 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone, 2-(2 - _ quinolinyl)-1,3...weights, low vapor pressures and low thermal stability. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) appears to be the analytical method of choice

  16. Lateral Response Comparison of Unbonded Elastomeric Bearings Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Mesh and Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimzadeh Naghshineh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical and horizontal stiffness used in design of bearings have been established in the last few decades. At the meantime, applicability of the theoretical approach developed to estimate vertical stiffness of the fiber-reinforced bearings has been verified in different academic studies. The suitability of conventional horizontal stiffness equation developed for elastomeric material, mainly for steel-reinforced elastomeric bearings, has not been tested in detail for use of fiber-reinforced elastomeric bearings. In this research, lateral response of fiber mesh-reinforced elastomeric bearings has been determined through experimental tests and the results have been compared by corresponding values pertaining to the steel-reinforced bearings. Within the test program, eight pairs of fiber mesh-reinforced bearings and eight pairs of steel-reinforced bearings are subjected to different levels of compressive stress and cyclic shear strains. Fiber-reinforced elastomeric bearings may be more favorable to be used in seismic regions due to lower horizontal stiffness that can result in mitigation of seismic forces for levels of 100% shear strain. Damping properties of these types of fiber mesh-reinforced bearings depend mostly on the selection of elastomeric material compounds. Suggestions have been made for the lateral response of fiber-reinforced elastomeric bearings. It has also been determined that the classical equation for lateral stiffness based on linear elastic behavior assumptions developed for elastomeric bearings does not always apply to the fiber-reinforced ones.

  17. Glass fiber reinforcement in repaired acrylic resin removable dentures: preliminary results of a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallittu, P K

    1997-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of continuous E-glass partial fiber reinforcement of acrylic resin removable dentures was evaluated an average 13 months after the insertion of the fibers. Twelve removable complete dentures and ten removable partial dentures with a history of recurrent fracture were selected for this study. The partial fiber reinforcement was incorporated into the denture at the time of repair. One complete denture and one removable partial denture fractured in the region of reinforcement during the examination period. These fractures were most likely caused by faulty placement of the fiber reinforcement in the denture in the dental laboratory. In six dentures, new fractures occurred in regions without partial fiber reinforcement. The results revealed the importance of both the correct positioning of the partial fiber reinforcement in the denture and the use of accurate laboratory techniques.

  18. Fatigue fracture of fiber reinforced polymer honeycomb composite sandwich structures for gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikhamkin, Mikhail; Sazhenkov, Nikolai; Samodurov, Danil

    2017-05-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer honeycomb composite sandwich structures are commonly used in different industries. In particular, they are used in the manufacture of gas turbine engines. However, fiber reinforced polymer honeycomb composite sandwich structures often have a manufacturing flaw. In theory, such flaws due to their rapid propagation reduce the durability of fiber reinforced polymer honeycomb composite sandwich structures. In this paper, bending fatigue tests of fiber reinforced polymer honeycomb composite sandwich structures with manufacturing flaws were conducted. Comparative analysis of fatigue fracture of fiber reinforced polymer honeycomb composite sandwich specimens was conducted before and after their bending fatigue tests. The analysis was based on the internal damage X-ray observation of fiber reinforced polymer honeycomb composite sandwich specimens.

  19. Solidification microstructures in a short fiber reinforced alloy composite containing different fiber fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JING Qing-xiu

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The solidification microstructures and micro-segregation of a fiber reinforced Al-9 Cu alloy, containing different volume fractions of Al2O3 short fibers about 6 μm diameter and made by squeeze casting have been studied. The results indicate that as volume fraction of fiber Vf increases, the size of final grains becomes finer in the matrix. If λf /λ>1, the fibers have almost no influence on the solidification behavior of the matrix, so the final grains grow coarse, where λf is the average inter-fiber spacing and λ is the secondary dendrite arm spacing. While if λf /λ<1, the growth of crystals in the matrix is affected significantly by the fibers and the grain size is reduced to the value of the inter-fiber spacing. The fibers influence the average length of a solidification volume element L of the matrix and also influence the solidification time θt of the matrix. As a result of fibers influencing L and θt, the micro-segregation in the matrix is improved when the composite contains more fibers, although the level of the improvement is slight. The Clyne-Kurz model can be used to semi-quantitatively analyze the relationship between Vf and the volume fraction fe of the micro-segregation eutectic structure.

  20. Solidification microstructures in a short fiber reinforced alloy composite containing different fiber fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The solidification microstructures and micro-segregation of a fiber reinforced Al-9 Cu alloy, containing different volurne fractions of Al2O3 short fibers about 6μm diameter and made by squeeze casting have been studied. The results indicate that as volume fraction of fiber Vf increases, the size of final grains becomes finer in the matrix. If λf/λ> 1, the fibers have almost no influence on the solidification behavior of the matrix, so the final grains grow coarse, where λf is the average inter-fiber spacing and λ is the secondary dendrite arm spacing. While if λf/λ< 1, the growth of crystals in the matrix is affected significantly by the fibers and the grain size is reduced to the value of the inter-fiber spacing. The fibers influence the average length of a solidification volume element L of the matrix and also influence the solidification time θt of the matrix. As a result of fibers influencing L and θt, the micro-segregation in the matrix is improved when the composite contains more fibers, although the level of the improvement is slight. The Clyne-Kurz model can be used to semi-quantitatively analyze the relationship between Vf and the volume fraction fe of the micro-segregation eutectic structure.

  1. Strengthening reinforced concrete beams using prestressed glass fiber-reinforced polymer-Part Ⅰ: Experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yue-lin; WU Jong-hwei; YEN Tsong; HUNG Chien-hsing; LIN Yiching

    2005-01-01

    This work is aimed at studying the strengthening of reinforced concrete (R. C.) beams using prestressed glass fiber-reinforced polymer (PGFRP). Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) has recently become popular for use as repair or rehabilitation material for deteriorated R. C. structures, but because CFRP material is very stiff, the difference in CFRP sheet and concrete material properties is not favorable for transferring the prestress from CFRP sheets to R. C. members. Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheets with Modulus of Elasticity quite close to that of concrete was chosen in this study. The load-carrying capacities (ultimate loads) and the deflections of strengthened R. C. beams using GFRP and PGFRP sheets were tested and compared. T- and ⊥-shaped beams were used as the under-strengthened and over-strengthened beams. The GFRP sheets were prestressed to one-half their tensile capacities before being bonded to the T- and l-shaped R. C. beams. The prestressed tension in the PGFRP sheets caused cambers in the R. C. beams without cracks on the tensile faces. The PGFRP sheets also enhanced the load-carrying capacity. The test results indicated that T-shaped beams with GFRP sheets increased in load-carrying capacity by 55% while the same beams with PGFRP sheets could increase load-carrying capacity by 100%. The ⊥-shaped beams with GFRP sheets could increase load-carrying capacity by 97% while the same beams with PGFRP sheets could increase the loading-carrying capacity by 117%. Under the same external loads, beams with GFRP sheets underwent larger deflections than beams with PGFRP sheets. While GFRP sheets strengthen R. C. beams, PGFRP sheets decrease the beams' ductility, especially for the over-strengthened beams (⊥-shaped beams).

  2. Micromechanical Modeling of Fiber-Reinforced Composites with Statistically Equivalent Random Fiber Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the random fiber distribution of a fiber-reinforced composite is of great importance for studying the progressive failure behavior of the material on the micro scale. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm for generating random representative volume elements (RVEs with statistical equivalent fiber distribution against the actual material microstructure. The realistic statistical data is utilized as inputs of the new method, which is archived through implementation of the probability equations. Extensive statistical analysis is conducted to examine the capability of the proposed method and to compare it with existing methods. It is found that the proposed method presents a good match with experimental results in all aspects including the nearest neighbor distance, nearest neighbor orientation, Ripley’s K function, and the radial distribution function. Finite element analysis is presented to predict the effective elastic properties of a carbon/epoxy composite, to validate the generated random representative volume elements, and to provide insights of the effect of fiber distribution on the elastic properties. The present algorithm is shown to be highly accurate and can be used to generate statistically equivalent RVEs for not only fiber-reinforced composites but also other materials such as foam materials and particle-reinforced composites.

  3. Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes: Phase 2, Improved refractory fiber and industrial benefit development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yifang; Curtis, J.M.; DePoorter, G.L.; Martin, P.C.; Munoz, D.R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    1995-05-01

    This is Phase II of a three-phase study for the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes, for use in the aluminum, glass, cement, and iron and steel industries. Fiberization of 24 out of 25 compositions in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Si0{sub 2}-Zr0{sub 2} system were achieved. These 24 and three existing fiber compositions were evaluated: The shrinkage and the crystalline and vitreous phases were determined vs heat treatment time and temperature. Four theoretical models were developed: Shrinkage, devitrification kinetics, density change, and fiberization. Although some of the fibers formed during Phase II had properties as good as the reference ASZ fiber, no fiber had a significantly improved performance. This work, although not entirely successful, did produce significant benefits to refractory insulating fiber manufacturers and users: Mechanisms of both linear and thickness shrinkage for vitreous refractory fibers were determined, devitrification kinetics were quantified and used in models to predict shrinkage during service, and the mechanism of fiber formation in the melt spinning process was studied.

  4. Containment performance evaluation of prestressed concrete containment vessels with fiber reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young Sun; Park, Hyung Kui [Integrated Safety Assessment Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Fibers in concrete resist the growth of cracks and enhance the postcracking behavior of structures. The addition of fibers into a conventional reinforced concrete can improve the structural and functional performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants. The influence of fibers on the ultimate internal pressure capacity of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) was investigated through a comparison of the ultimate pressure capacities between conventional and fiber-reinforced PCCVs. Steel and polyamide fibers were used. The tension behaviors of conventional concrete and fiber-reinforced concrete specimens were investigated through uniaxial tension tests and their tension-stiffening models were obtained. For a PCCV reinforced with 1% volume hooked-end steel fiber, the ultimate pressure capacity increased by approximately 12% in comparison with that for a conventional PCCV. For a PCCV reinforced with 1.5% volume polyamide fiber, an increase of approximately 3% was estimated for the ultimate pressure capacity. The ultimate pressure capacity can be greatly improved by introducing steel and polyamide fibers in a conventional reinforced concrete. Steel fibers are more effective at enhancing the containment performance of a PCCV than polyamide fibers. The fiber reinforcement was shown to be more effective at a high pressure loading and a low prestress level.

  5. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer with Shredded Fibers: Quasi-Isotropic Material Properties and Antenna Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Artner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminate, with the top layer consisting of shredded fibers, is proposed and manufactured. The shredded fibers are aligned randomly on the surface to achieve a more isotropic conductivity, as is desired in antenna applications. Moreover, fiber shreds can be recycled from carbon fiber composites. Conductivity, permittivity, and permeability are obtained with the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method from material samples measured inside rectangular waveguides in the frequency range of 4 to 6 GHz. The decrease in material anisotropy results in negligible influence on antennas. This is shown by measuring the proposed CFRP as ground plane material for both a narrowband wire monopole antenna for 5.9 GHz and an ultrawideband conical monopole antenna for 1–10 GHz. For comparison, all measurements are repeated with a twill-weave CFRP.

  6. Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

  7. Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe to a stainless steel flange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Arnaud; Hoffmann, Ernst

    2008-02-05

    Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) to a stainless steel flange (12, 16), in which the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) is accommodated in a ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) in the flange (12, 16), the groove conforming to the dimensions of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18), where the gap remaining between the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) and the ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) is filled with a sealant (19).

  8. Dynamic crack growth in a fiber-reinforced composite plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kaixin; LIU Weifu; Zhang Jinxiang; LI Rong; ZHANG Guohua; FU Bin

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment on the failure of a precracked plate made of unidirectional glass-epoxy fiber-reinforced composites subjected to three-point bending impact load. In the experiment, the whole process of crack growth was recorded by using high-speed photographic technique, in which a transmitted light path was adopted. Moreover, a new phenomenon of dynamic fracture has been observed. Based on the results, some preliminary studies have been carried out on the rate and path of the crack growth, as well as the failure mode.

  9. Shear strengthening of pre-damaged reinforced concrete beams with carbon fiber reinforced polymer sheet strips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feras ALZOUBI; ZHANG Qi; LI Zheng-liang

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the response of pre-damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beam strengthened in shear using applied-epoxy unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheet. The reasearch included four test rectangular simply supported RC beams in shear capacity. One is the control beam, two RC beams are damaged to a predetermined degree from ultimate shear capacity of the control beam, and the last beam is left without pre-damaged and then strengthened with using externally bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer to upgrade their shear capacity. We focused on the damage degree to beams during strengthening, therefore, only the beams with side-bonded CFRPs strips and horizontal anchored strips were used. The results show the feasibility of using CFRPs to restore or increase the load-carrying capacity in the shear of damaged RC beams. The failure mode of all the CFRP-strengthened beams is debonding of CFRP vertical strips. Two prediction available models in ACI-440 and fib European code were compared with the experimental results.

  10. Strengthening reinforced concrete beams using prestressed glass fiber-reinforced polymer-Part Ⅱ: Analytical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yue-lin; HUNG Chien-hsing; YEN Tsong; WU Jong-hwei; LIN Yiching

    2005-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (R. C.) beams using prestressed glass fiber-reinforced polymer (PGFRP) was studied experimentally as described in Part Ⅰ of this paper (Huang et al., 2005). In that paper, R. C. beams, R. C. beams with GFRP(glass fiber-reinforced polymer) sheets, and R. C. beams with PGFRP sheets were tested in both under-strengthened and over-strengthened cases. The test results showed that the load-carrying capacities (ultimate loads) of the beams with GFRP sheets were greater than those of the beams without polymer sheets. The load-carrying capacities of beams with PGFRP sheets were greater than those of beams with GFRP sheets. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical method to compute all of these load-carrying capacities. This analytical method is independent of the experiments and based only on the traditional R. C.and P. C. (prestressed concrete) theory. The analytical results accorded with the test results. It is suggested that this analytical method be used for analyzing and designing R. C. beams strengthened using GFRP or PGFRP sheets.

  11. High-performance, anode-supported, microtubular SOFC prepared from single-step-fabricated, dual-layer hollow fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan; Droushiotis, Nicolas; Wu, Zhentao; Kelsall, Geoff; Li, Kang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-03

    A high-performance, microtubular solid oxide fuel cell is developed using an improved electrolyte/anode dual-layer hollow fiber fabricated via a novel coextrusion and co-sintering technique. The technique allows control over the porosity of the anode, resulting in an increase in the power output to almost double what has been previously reported. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Fabrication of a polymer-coated silver hollow optical fiber with high performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yi-Wei; Ito, Kentaro; Ma, Lin; Yoshida, Takanori; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2006-09-01

    The techniques for fabricating a hollow optical fiber with an inner silver layer and a cyclic olefin polymer (COP) layer have been improved to reduce the surface roughness of these two layers. The loss spectrum was thereby drastically reduced over a wide wavelength range, from visible to near infrared. Optimization of the COP layer thickness resulted in low loss simultaneously at several key laser wavelengths. Infrared hollow fiber with low loss was developed for Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers. It can also deliver green and red pilot beams with low loss. Use of this fiber in therapeutic and pilot lasers should prove useful for research and development in laser medicine.

  13. Carbon fiber-reinforced cyanate ester/nano-ZrW2O8 composites with tailored thermal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Prashanth; Rogalski, Mark K; Kessler, Michael R

    2012-02-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites are widely used in the design and fabrication of a variety of high performance aerospace components. The mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the high CTE polymer matrix and low CTE fiber reinforcements in such composite systems can lead to dimensional instability and deterioration of material lifetimes due to development of residual thermal stresses. The magnitude of thermally induced residual stresses in fiber-reinforced composite systems can be minimized by replacement of conventional polymer matrices with a low CTE, polymer nanocomposite matrix. Zirconium tungstate (ZrW(2)O(8)) is a unique ceramic material that exhibits isotropic negative thermal expansion and has excellent potential as a filler for development of low CTE polymer nanocomposites. In this paper, we report the fabrication and thermal characterization of novel, multiscale, macro-nano hybrid composite laminates comprising bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy)/ZrW(2)O(8) nanocomposite matrices reinforced with unidirectional carbon fibers. The results reveal that incorporation of nanoparticles facilitates a reduction in CTE of the composite systems, which in turn results in a reduction in panel warpage and curvature after the cure because of mitigation of thermally induced residual stresses.

  14. CO2 Laser Cutting of Glass Fiber Reinforce Polymer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, S.; Ishak, M.; Aqida, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The lamination, matrix properties, fiber orientation, and relative volume fraction of matrix of polymer structure make this polymer hard to process. The cutting of polymer composite using CO2 laser could involve in producing penetration energy in the process. Identification of the dominant factors that significantly affect the cut quality is important. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the CO2 spot size of beam cutting for Glass Fiber Reinforce Polymer Composite (GFRP). The focal length selected 9.5mm which gave smallest focus spot size according to the cutting requirements. The effect of the focal length on the cut quality was investigated by monitoring the surface profile and focus spot size. The beam parameter has great effect on both the focused spot size and surface quality.

  15. [The research on the surfacial modification of organic high-performance Kevlar fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-ying; Fu, Ming-lian; Cai, Wei-long; Wang, Can-yao; Wang, Liang-en

    2004-04-01

    In the paper the authors tried to use chemical disposal to bring the activity mass onto the surface of Kevlar fiber with the purpose of surface graft modification. In the paper the authors used the FTIR spectra to discuss the graft of toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate onto Kevlar fiber. The authors studied and analysed the effect of hydrolytic time on the content of -O-H group of the production, and the effect of hydrolyzation and hexyl-lactam steadily disposing on the graft reaction. The result showed that the content of -O-H group increased after hydrolyzation, it's helpful for the graft reaction, and hexyl-lactam steadily disposing made the graf product more stable. Through the research the authors came to the conclusion that by bringing some activity masses onto the fiber surface the authors can improve the interface of fiber/resin effectively.

  16. High Performance Acousto-Optic Arrays based on Fiber Bragg Gratings for Measuring Launch Acoustics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) proposes to prove the feasibility of innovations in acousto-optic sensor development for measurement of launch...

  17. Ballistic Impact Properties of Zr-Based Amorphous Alloy Composites Reinforced with Woven Continuous Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyeong Su; Son, Chang-Young; Lee, Sang-Bok; Lee, Sang-Kwan; Song, Young Buem; Lee, Sunghak

    2012-03-01

    This study aims at investigating ballistic impact properties of Zr-based amorphous alloy (LM1 alloy) matrix composites reinforced with woven stainless steel or glass continuous fibers. The fiber-reinforced composites with excellent fiber/matrix interfaces were fabricated without pores and misinfiltration by liquid pressing process, and contained 35 to 41 vol pct of woven continuous fibers homogeneously distributed in the amorphous matrix. The woven-STS-continuous-fiber-reinforced composite consisted of the LM1 alloy layer of 1.0 mm in thickness in the upper region and the fiber-reinforced composite layer in the lower region. The hard LM1 alloy layer absorbed the ballistic impact energy by forming many cracks, and the fiber-reinforced composite layer interrupted the crack propagation and blocked the impact and traveling of the projectile, thereby resulting in the improvement of ballistic performance by about 20 pct over the LM1 alloy. According to the ballistic impact test data of the woven-glass-continuous-fiber-reinforced composite, glass fibers were preferentially fragmented to form a number of cracks, and the amorphous matrix accelerated the fragmentation of glass fibers and the initiation of cracks. Because of the absorption process of ballistic impact energy by forming very large amounts of cracks, fragments, and debris, the glass-fiber-reinforced composite showed better ballistic performance than the LM1 alloy.

  18. Evaluating the mechanical properties of E-Glass fiber/carbon fiber reinforced interpenetrating polymer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Suresh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of vinyl ester and polyurethane interpenetrating polymer networks were prepared by changing the component ratios of VER (Vinyl ester and PU (Polyurethane and the polymerization process was confirmed with Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. IPN (Inter Penetrating Polymer Network - VER/PU reinforced Glass and carbon fiber composite laminates were made using the Hand lay up technique. The Mechanical properties of the E-glass and carbon fiber specimens were compared from tests including Tensile, Compressive, Flexural, ILSS (Inter Laminar Shear Strength, Impact & Head Deflection Test (HDT. The IPN Reinforced Carbon fiber specimen showed better results in all the tests than E-Glass fibre reinforced IPN laminate with same thickness of the specimen, according to ASTM standards. It was found that the combination of 60%VER and 40%PU IPN exhibits better impact strength and maximum elongation at break, but at the slight expense of mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, flexural, ILSS properties. The morphology of the unreinforced and reinforced composites was analyzed with help of scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Simultaneous thermal analysis and thermodilatometry of hybrid fiber reinforced UHPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinherrová, Lenka; Fořt, Jan; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Development of concrete technology and the availability of variety of materials such as silica fume, mineral microfillers and high-range water-reducing admixtures make possible to produce Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) with compressive strength higher than 160 MPa. However, UHPC is prone to spall under high temperatures what limits its use for special applications only, such as offshore and marine structures, industrial floors, security barriers etc. The spalling is caused by the thermal stresses due to the temperature gradient during heating, and by the splitting force owing to the release of water vapour. Hybrid fibre reinforcement based on combination of steel and polymer fibres is generally accepted by concrete community as a functional solution preventing spalling. In this way, Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) is produced possessing high mechanical strength, durability and resistance to water and salt ingress. Since UHPFRC find use in construction industry in tunnel linings, precast tunnel segments, and high-rise buildings, its behaviour during the high-temperature exposure and its residual parameters are of the particular importance. On this account, Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and Thermodilatometry Analysis (TDA) were done in the paper to identify the structural and chemical changes in UHPFRC during its high-temperature load. Based on the experimental results, several physical and chemical processes that studied material underwent at high-temperatures were recognized. The obtained data revealed changes in the composition of the studied material and allowed identification of critical temperatures for material damage.

  20. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer for Cable Structures—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP is an advanced composite material with the advantages of high strength, lightweight, no corrosion and excellent fatigue resistance. Therefore, unidirectional CFRP has great potential for cables and to replace steel cables in cable structures. However, CFRP is a typical orthotropic material and its strength and modulus perpendicular to the fiber direction are much lower than those in the fiber direction, which brings a challenge for anchoring CFRP cables. This paper presents an overview of application of CFRP cables in cable structures, including historical review, state of the art and prospects for the future. After introducing properties of carbon fibers, mechanical characteristics and structural forms of CFRP cables, existing CFRP cable structures in the world (all of them are cable bridges are reviewed. Especially, their CFRP cable anchorages are presented in detail. New applications for CFRP cables, i.e., cable roofs and cable facades, are also presented, including the introduction of a prototype CFRP cable roof and the conceptual design of a novel structure—CFRP Continuous Band Winding System. In addition, other challenges that impede widespread application of CFRP cable structures are briefly introduced.

  1. Matrix cracking of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites in shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Varun P.; Zok, Frank W.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanics of cracking in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) under general loadings remains incomplete. The present paper addresses one outstanding aspect of this problem: the development of matrix cracks in unidirectional plies under shear loading. To this end, we develop a model based on potential energy differences upstream and downstream of a fully bridged steady-state matrix crack. Through a combination of analytical solutions and finite element simulations of the constituent stresses before and after cracking, we identify the dominant stress components that drive crack growth. We show that, when the axial slip lengths are much larger than the fiber diameter and when interfacial slip precedes cracking, the shear stresses in the constituents are largely unaffected by the presence of the crack; the changes that do occur are confined to a 'core' region within a distance of about one fiber diameter from the crack plane. Instead, the driving force for crack growth derives mainly from the axial stresses-tensile in the fibers and compressive in the matrix-that arise upon cracking. These stresses are well-approximated by solutions based on shear-lag analysis. Combining these solutions with the governing equation for crack growth yields an analytical estimate of the critical shear stress for matrix cracking. An analogous approach is used in deriving the critical stresses needed for matrix cracking under arbitrary in-plane loadings. The applicability of these results to cross-ply CMC laminates is briefly discussed.

  2. Lyocell Fiber-Reinforced Cellulose Ester Composites-Manufacturing Considerations and Properties.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Biodegradable thermoplastic composites were prepared using high modulus lyocell fibers and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB). Two reinforcement fiber types: fabric and continuous fiber tow were used. Fabric had advantages of uniform alignment and easier processing, but lacked the use as a unidirectional reinforcement and a continuous method of matrix application. Three different matrix application methods were screened for both fiber types. Matrix application by suspension of particles in wate...

  3. A comparison of tensile properties of polyester composites reinforced with pineapple leaf fiber and pineapple peduncle fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraidi, J. M.; Shuhairul, N.; Syed Azuan, S. A.; Intan Saffinaz Anuar, Noor

    2013-12-01

    Pineapple fiber which is rich in cellulose, relatively inexpensive, and abundantly available has the potential for polymer reinforcement. This research presents a study of the tensile properties of pineapple leaf fiber and pineapple peduncle fiber reinforced polyester composites. Composites were fabricated using leaf fiber and peduncle fiber with varying fiber length and fiber loading. Both fibers were mixed with polyester composites the various fiber volume fractions of 4, 8 and 12% and with three different fiber lengths of 10, 20 and 30 mm. The composites panels were fabricated using hand lay-out technique. The tensile test was carried out in accordance to ASTM D638. The result showed that pineapple peduncle fiber with 4% fiber volume fraction and fiber length of 30 mm give highest tensile properties. From the overall results, pineapple peduncle fiber shown the higher tensile properties compared to pineapple leaf fiber. It is found that by increasing the fiber volume fraction the tensile properties has significantly decreased but by increasing the fiber length, the tensile properties will be increased proportionally. Minitab software is used to perform the two-way ANOVA analysis to measure the significant. From the analysis done, there is a significant effect of fiber volume fraction and fiber length on the tensile properties.

  4. Measurement of defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer drilled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Víctor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, fiber-reinforced materials are more widely used because of their good mechanical properties. It is usual to join pieces of these materials through screws and rivets, for which it is necessary to make a hole in the piece, usually by drilling. One of the problems of use CFRP resides in the appearance of defects due to the machining. The main defect to be taken into account is the delamination. Delamination implies poor tolerance when assembling parts, reducing the structural integrity of the part, and areas with high wear, as a series of stresses arise when mounting the screws. Much has been published about delamination and the factors that influence its appearance, so we are not going to focus on it. The present study aims to quantify and measure the defects associated with the drilling of compounds reinforced with carbon fibers, in relation to the cutting parameters used in each case. For this purpose, an optical measurement system and a posterior digital image processing will be used through Deltec Vision software.

  5. Biodegradation of flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Woven and nonwoven flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid (PLA biocomposites were prepared with amphiphilic additives as accelerator for biodegradation. The prepared composites were buried in farmland soil for biodegradability studies. Loss in weight of the biodegraded composite samples was determined at different time intervals. The surface morphology of the biodegraded composites was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results indicated that in presence of mandelic acid, the composites showed accelerated biodegradation with 20–25% loss in weight after 50–60 days. On the other hand, in presence of dicumyl peroxide (as additive, biodegradation of the composites was relatively slow as confirmed by only 5–10% loss in weight even after 80–90 days. This was further confirmed by surface morphology of the biodegraded composites. We have attempted to show that depending on the end uses, we can add different amphiphilic additives for delayed or accelerated biodegradability. This work gives us the idea of biodegradation of materials from natural fiber reinforced PLA composites when discarded carelessly in the environment instead of proper waste disposal site.

  6. Asymptotic Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Composites of Hexagonal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamkarov, Alexander L.; Andrianov, Igor V.; Pacheco, Pedro M. C. L.; Savi, Marcelo A.; Starushenko, Galina A.

    2016-08-01

    The fiber-reinforced composite materials with periodic cylindrical inclusions of a circular cross-section arranged in a hexagonal array are analyzed. The governing analytical relations of the thermal conductivity problem for such composites are obtained using the asymptotic homogenization method. The lubrication theory is applied for the asymptotic solution of the unit cell problems in the cases of inclusions of large and close to limit diameters, and for inclusions with high conductivity. The lubrication method is further generalized to the cases of finite values of the physical properties of inclusions, as well as for the cases of medium-sized inclusions. The analytical formulas for the effective coefficient of thermal conductivity of the fiber-reinforced composite materials of a hexagonal structure are derived in the cases of small conductivity of inclusions, as well as in the cases of extremely low conductivity of inclusions. The three-phase composite model (TPhM) is applied for solving the unit cell problems in the cases of the inclusions with small diameters, and the asymptotic analysis of the obtained solutions is performed for inclusions of small sizes. The obtained results are analyzed and illustrated graphically, and the limits of their applicability are evaluated. They are compared with the known numerical and asymptotic data in some particular cases, and very good agreement is demonstrated.

  7. Stabilized fiber-reinforced pavement base course with recycled aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Khaled

    This study evaluates the benefits to be gained by using a composite highway base course material consisting of recycled crushed concrete aggregate, portland cement, fly ash, and a modest amount of reinforcing fibers. The primary objectives of this research were to (a) quantify the improvement that is obtained by adding fibers to a lean concrete composite (made from recycled aggregate and low quantities of Portland cement and/or fly ash), (b) evaluate the mechanical behavior of such a composite base course material under both static and repeated loads, and (c) utilize the laboratory-determined properties with a mechanistic design method to assess the potential advantages. The split tensile strength of a stabilized recycled aggregate base course material was found to be exponentially related to the compacted dry density of the mix. A lean mix containing 4% cement and 4% fly ash (by weight) develops sufficient unconfined compressive, split tensile, and flexural strengths to be used as a high quality stabilized base course. The addition of 4% (by weight) of hooked-end steel fibers significantly enhances the post-peak load-deformation response of the composite in both indirect tension and static flexure. The flexural fatigue behavior of the 4% cement-4% fly ash mix is comparable to all commonly used stabilized materials, including regular concrete; the inclusion of 4% hooked-end fibers to this mix significantly improves its resistance to fatigue failure. The resilient moduli of stabilized recycled aggregate in flexure are comparable to the values obtained for traditional soil-cement mixes. In general, the fibers are effective in retarding the rate of fatigue damage accumulation, which is quantified in terms of a damage index defined by an energy-based approach. The thickness design curves for a stabilized recycled aggregate base course, as developed by using an elastic layer approach, is shown to be in close agreement with a theoretical model (based on Westergaard

  8. Electrodeposited manganese dioxide nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fibers: High performance materials for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Sayed Habib, E-mail: habibkazemi@iasbs.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center for Research in Climate Change and Global Warming (CRCC), Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maghami, Mostafa Ghaem [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kiani, Mohammad Ali [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, P.O. Box 14335-186, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We report a facile method for fabrication of MnO{sub 2} nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fiber. • MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode shows outstanding supercapacitive behavior even at high discharge rates. • Exceptional cycle stability was achieved for MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode. • The coulombic efficiency of MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode is nearly 100%. - Abstract: In this article we introduce a facile, low cost and additive/template free method to fabricate high-rate electrochemical capacitors. Manganese oxide nanostructures were electrodeposited on electro-etched carbon fiber substrate by applying a constant anodic current. Nanostructured MnO{sub 2} on electro-etched carbon fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The electrochemical behavior of MnO{sub 2} electro-etched carbon fiber electrode was investigated by electrochemical techniques including cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A maximum specific capacitance of 728.5 F g{sup −1} was achieved at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} for MnO{sub 2} electro-etched carbon fiber electrode. Also, this electrode showed exceptional cycle stability, suggesting that it can be considered as a good candidate for supercapacitor electrodes.

  9. New generation fiber reinforced polymer composites incorporating carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Eslam

    The last five decades observed an increasing use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites as alternative construction materials for aerospace and infrastructure. The high specific strength of FRP attracted its use as non-corrosive reinforcement. However, FRP materials were characterized with a relatively low ductility and low shear strength compared with steel reinforcement. On the other hand, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been introduced in the last decade as a material with minimal defect that is capable of increasing the mechanical properties of polymer matrices. This dissertation reports experimental investigations on the use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to produce a new generation of FRP composites. The experiments showed significant improvements in the flexure properties of the nanocomposite when functionalized MWCNTs were used. In addition, MWCNTs were used to produce FRP composites in order to examine static, dynamic, and creep behavior. The MWCNTs improved the off-axis tension, off-axis flexure, FRP lap shear joint responses. In addition, they reduced the creep of FRP-concrete interface, enhanced the fracture toughness, and altered the impact resistance significantly. In general, the MWCNTs are found to affect the behaviour of the FRP composites when matrix failure dominates the behaviour. The improvement in the mechanical response with the addition of low contents of MWCNTs would benefit many industrial and military applications such as strengthening structures using FRP composites, composite pipelines, aircrafts, and armoured vehicles.

  10. Building Nanoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks "Armor" on Fibers for High-Performance Composite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Jiang, Xu; Huang, Yudong; Guo, Zhanhu; Shao, Lu

    2017-02-15

    The nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) "armor" is in situ intergrown onto the surfaces of carbon fibers (CFs) by nitric acid oxidization to supply nucleation sites and serves as a novel interfacial linker between the fiber and polymer matrix and a smart cushion to release interior and exterior applied forces. Simultaneous enhancements of the interfacial and interlaminar shear strength as well as the tensile strength of CFs were achieved. With the aid of an ultrasonic "cleaning" process, the optimized surface energy and tensile strength of CFs with a MOF "armor" are 83.79 mN m(-1) and 5.09 GPa, for an increase of 102% and 11.6%, respectively. Our work finds that the template-induced nucleation of 3D MOF onto 1D fibers is a general and promising approach toward advanced composite materials for diverse applications to meet scientific and technical demands.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Coir Rope-Glass Fibers Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Bakri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber composites have been developed and taken more attention in the last decades. Coir fiber is the natural fiber which has been used as reinforcement of composites. This fiber is hybridized with glass fiber for reinforcement composite. In this paper, coir rope and glass fibers were combined as reinforcement into hybrid composites with unsaturated polyester resin as matrix. The composition of fibers and matrix into hybrid composites are used 30:70 (volume fraction with unsaturated polyester. Volume fractions of coir rope mat and glass fiber mat in hybrid composites are 10:20, 15:15 and 20:10 respectively. The mechanical properties of the coir rope-glass fiber composite hybrid were described in this paper. Their properties include tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact energy and impact strength. Fractography of tensile composite hybrid is also analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope.

  12. Curaua fiber reinforced high-density polyethylene composites: effect of impact modifier and fiber loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Albano de Morais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Short fibers are used in thermoplastic composites to increase their tensile and flexural resistance; however, it often decreases impact resistance. Composites with short vegetal fibers are not an exception to this behavior. The purpose of this work is to produce a vegetal fiber reinforced composite with improved tensile and impact resistance in relation to the polymer matrix. We used poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate, EVA, to recover the impact resistance of high density polyethylene, HDPE, reinforced with Curauá fibers, CF. Blends and composites were processed in a corotating twin screw extruder. The pure polymers, blends and composites were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensile mechanical properties and Izod impact resistance. EVA used as impact modifier in the HDPE matrix exhibited a co-continuous phase and in the composites the fibers were homogeneously dispersed. The best combination of mechanical properties, tensile, flexural and impact, were obtained for the formulations of composites with 20 wt. % of CF and 20 to 40 wt. % of EVA. The composite prepared with 20 wt. % EVA and containing 30 wt. % of CF showed impact resistance comparable to pure HDPE and improved tensile and flexural mechanical properties.

  13. Curaua fiber reinforced high-density polyethylene composites: effect of impact modifier and fiber loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Albano de Morais

    Full Text Available Abstract Short fibers are used in thermoplastic composites to increase their tensile and flexural resistance; however, it often decreases impact resistance. Composites with short vegetal fibers are not an exception to this behavior. The purpose of this work is to produce a vegetal fiber reinforced composite with improved tensile and impact resistance in relation to the polymer matrix. We used poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate, EVA, to recover the impact resistance of high density polyethylene, HDPE, reinforced with Curauá fibers, CF. Blends and composites were processed in a corotating twin screw extruder. The pure polymers, blends and composites were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensile mechanical properties and Izod impact resistance. EVA used as impact modifier in the HDPE matrix exhibited a co-continuous phase and in the composites the fibers were homogeneously dispersed. The best combination of mechanical properties, tensile, flexural and impact, were obtained for the formulations of composites with 20 wt. % of CF and 20 to 40 wt. % of EVA. The composite prepared with 20 wt. % EVA and containing 30 wt. % of CF showed impact resistance comparable to pure HDPE and improved tensile and flexural mechanical properties.

  14. Fabricating of high-performance functional graphene fibers for micro-capacitive energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tianju; Zhao, Chunyan; Xiao, Zhuangqing; Guo, Fangjun; Cai, Kaiyu; Lin, Hai; Liu, Yidong; Meng, Hong; Min, Yong; Epstein, Arthur J

    2016-07-08

    Although graphene is a typical two dimensional materials, it has converted to multi-dimensional materials with many unique properties. As an example, the one dimensional graphene fiber is fabricated by utilizing ionic liquid as coagulation and functional diamines as cross-linkers to connect graphene oxide layers. The fibers show excellent mechanical properties and superior electrical performance. The tensile strength of the resultant fibers reaches ~729 MPa after a super high temperature thermal annealing treatment at 2800 °C. Additionally, quasi-solid-state flexible micro-capacitors are fabricated with promising result on energy storage. The device show a specific volumetric capacity as high as ~225 F/cm(3) (measured at 103.5 mA cm(-3) in a three-electrode cell), as well as a long cycle life of 2000 times. The initial results indicate that these fibers will be a good candidate to replace energy storage devices for miniaturized portable electronic applications.

  15. Processing and Material Characterization of Continuous Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Polymer Derived Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.

    2014-01-01

    The need for high performance vehicles in the aerospace industry requires materials which can withstand high loads and high temperatures. New developments in launch pads and infrastructure must also be made to handle this intense environment with lightweight, reusable, structural materials. By using more functional materials, better performance can be seen in the launch environment, and launch vehicle designs which have not been previously used can be considered. The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Polymer matrix composites can be used for temperatures up to 260C. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed and cured and then to be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in the composites. In this study, continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material. The oxyacetylene torch testing and three point bend testing have been performed on test panels and the test results are presented.

  16. Feature guided waves (FGW) in fiber reinforced composite plates with 90° transverse bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xudong; Ratassepp, Madis; Fan, Zheng; Manogharan, Prabhakaran; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2016-02-01

    Fiber reinforced composite materials have been increasingly used in high performance structures such as aircraft and large wind turbine blades. 90◦ composite bends are common in reinforcing structural elements, which are prone to defects such as delamination, crack, fatigue, etc. Current techniques are based on local inspection which makes the whole bend area scanning time consuming and tedious. This paper explores the feasibility of using feature guided waves (FGW) for rapid screening of 90◦ composite laminated bends. In this study, the behavior of the bend-guided wave in the anisotropic composite material is investigated through modal studies by applying the Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method, also 3D Finite Element (FE) simulations are performed to visualize the results and to obtain cross validation. To understand the influence of the anisotropy, three-dimensional dispersion surfaces of the guided modes in flat laminated plates are obtained, showing the dependence of the phase velocity with the frequency and the fiber orientation. S H0-like and S 0-like bend-guided modes are identified with energy concentrated in the bend region, limiting energy radiation into adjacent plates and thus achieving increased inspection length. Finally, parametric studies are carried out to further investigate the properties of these two bend-guided modes, demonstrating the variation of the group velocity, the energy concentration, and the attenuation with the frequency.

  17. The development of studying flexible pipe bend reinforced by Kevlar fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI Chang-geng; HE Lin; LU Zhi-qiang

    2003-01-01

    The flexible pipe bend can not only reduce the structural vibration and fluid noise in pipeline, but also realize the flexible connection of a horizontal line and a vertical line and compensate the displacement of three dimensions produced by the shock or vibration of pipeline in the special situations. Up to now, little attention has been paid to study the flexible pipe bend applied in the pipeline of medium or high pressure, because no appropriate framework materials can be used to reinforce it which must endure the burst pressure higher than 10 MPa. The investigation shows that it is possible to produce the flexible pipe bend of medium or high pressure if such fibers with high performance as Kevlar fibers are used to be its reinforced materials. However, its structural designing theory, manufacturing technology and measuring techniques aren't yet perfect and systematic, which leads to the instability of the performance of products. Furthermore, few references about its research can be seen. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically and thoroughly develop the structural designing theory, manufacture technology and measuring techniques of flexible pipe bend.

  18. Investigations of sewn preform characteristics and quality aspects for the manufacturing of fiber reinforced polymer composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ogale, Amol

    2017-01-01

    Sewn net-shape preform based composite manufacturing technology is widely accepted in combination with liquid composite molding technologies for the manufacturing of fiber reinforced polymer composites. The development of threedimensional dry fibrous reinforcement structures containing desired fiber orientation and volume fraction before the resin infusion is based on the predefined preforming processes. Various preform manufacturing aspects influence the overall composite m...

  19. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the thermo-oxidative stability of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various fibers and to observe differences in the way they degrade in air. The fibers that were studied included graphite and the thermally stable Nicalon and Nextel ceramic fibers. Weight loss rates for the different composites were assessed as a function of mechanical properties, specimen geometry, fiber sizing, and interfacial bond strength. Differences were observed in rates of weight loss, matrix cracking, geometry dependency, and fiber-sizing effects. It was shown that Celion 6000 fiber-reinforced composites do not exhibit a straight-line Arrhenius relationship at temperatures above 316 C.

  20. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various continuous fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the thermooxidative stability of PMR-15 composites reinforced with various fibers and to observe differences in the way they degrade in air. The fibers studied include graphite and the thermally stable Nicalon and Nextel ceramic fibers. Weight-loss rates for the different composites were assessed as a function of mechanical properties, specimen geometry, fiber sizing, and interfacial bond strength. Differences were observed in rates of weight loss, matrix cracking, geometry dependency, and fiber sizing effects. It was shown that Celion 6000 fiber-reinforced composites do not exhibit a straight-line Arrhenius relationship at temperatures above 316 C.

  1. Impact properties of aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Periasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP sandwich panels are hybrid laminates consisting of GFRP bonded with thin aluminum sheets on either side. Such sandwich materials are increasingly used in airplane and automobile structures. Laminates with varying aluminium thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GFRP were fabricated by hand lay up method and evaluated for their impact performance by conducting drop weight tests under low velocity impacts. The impact energy required for initiating a crack in the outer aluminium layer as well as the energy required for perforation was recorded. The impact load-time history was also recorded to understand the failure behavior. The damage depth and the damage area were measured to evaluate the impact resistance. Optical photography and scanning electron micrographs were taken to visualize the crack and the damage zone. The bidirectional cross-ply hybrid laminate (CPHL has been found to exhibit better impact performance and damage resistance than the unidirectional hybrid laminate (UDHL. Increase in aluminium thickness fraction (Al tf and fiber volume fraction (Vf resulted in an increase in the impact energy required for cracking and perforation. On an overall basis, the sandwich panels exhibited better impact performance than the monolithic aluminium.

  2. Mechanical Behavior of Electrospun Palmfruit Bunch Reinforced Polylactide Composite Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Peter, A. A.; Olaleye, Samuel Adebayo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical characteristics of electrospun palm fruit bunch reinforced poly lactic acid (PLA) nanofiber composites using treated and untreated filler was examined. Poly lactic acid-palm fruit bunch-dichloromethane blends were electrospun by varying the concentration of the palm fruit bunch between 0 wt.% and 8 wt.%. A constant voltage of 26 kV was applied, the tip-to-collector distance was maintained at 27.5 cm and PLA-palm fruit bunch-dichloromethane (DCM) concentration of 12.5% (w/v) was used. The results revealed that the presence of untreated palm fruit bunch fillers in the electrospun PLA matrix significantly reduces the average diameters of the fibers, causing the formation of beads. As a result there are reductions in tensile strengths of the fibers. The presence of treated palm fruit bunch fillers in the electrospun PLA matrix increases the average diameters of the fibers with improvements in the mechanical properties. The optimal mechanical responses were obtained at 3 wt.% of the treated palm fruit bunch fillers in the PLA matrix. However, increase in the palm fruit fillers (treated and untreated) in the PLA matrix promoted the formation of beads in the nanofiber composites.

  3. Self-healing in single and multiple fiber(s) reinforced polymer composites

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    You Polymer composites have been attractive medium to introduce the autonomic healing concept into modern day engineering materials. To date, there has been significant research in self-healing polymeric materials including several studies specifically in fiber reinforced polymers. Even though several methods have been suggested in autonomic healing materials, the concept of repair by bleeding of enclosed functional agents has garnered wide attention by the scientific community. A self-...

  4. Relationship between fiber degradation and residence time distribution in the processing of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT were processed by in-line compounding equipment with a modified single screw extruder. A pulse stimulus response technique using PET spheres as the tracer was adopted to obtain residence time distribution (RTD of extrusion compounding. RTD curves were fitted by the model based on the supposition that extrusion compounding was the combination of plug flow and mixed flow. Characteristic parameters of RTD model including P the fraction of plug flow reactor (PFR and d the fraction of dead volume of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR were used to associate with fiber degradation presented by fiber length and dispersion. The effects of screw speed, mixing length and channel depth on RTD curves, and characteristic parameters of RTD models as well as their effects on the fiber degradation were investigated. The influence of shear force with different screw speeds and variable channel depth on fiber degradation was studied and the main impetus of fiber degradation was also presented. The optimal process for obtaining the balance of fiber length and dispersion was presented.

  5. Evaluation of seismic shear capacity of prestressed concrete containment vessels with fiber reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young Sun; Park, Jun Hee [Integrated Safety Assessment Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Fibers have been used in cement mixture to improve its toughness, ductility, and tensile strength, and to enhance the cracking and deformation characteristics of concrete structural members. The addition of fibers into conventional reinforced concrete can enhance the structural and functional performances of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants. The effects of steel and polyamide fibers on the shear resisting capacity of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) were investigated in this study. For a comparative evaluation between the shear performances of structural walls constructed with conventional concrete, steel fiber reinforced concrete, and polyamide fiber reinforced concrete, cyclic tests for wall specimens were conducted and hysteretic models were derived. The shear resisting capacity of a PCCV constructed with fiber reinforced concrete can be improved considerably. When steel fiber reinforced concrete contains hooked steel fibers in a volume fraction of 1.0%, the maximum lateral displacement of a PCCV can be improved by > 50%, in comparison with that of a conventional PCCV. When polyamide fiber reinforced concrete contains polyamide fibers in a volume fraction of 1.5%, the maximum lateral displacement of a PCCV can be enhanced by ∼40%. In particular, the energy dissipation capacity in a fiber reinforced PCCV can be enhanced by > 200%. The addition of fibers into conventional concrete increases the ductility and energy dissipation of wall structures significantly. Fibers can be effectively used to improve the structural performance of a PCCV subjected to strong ground motions. Steel fibers are more effective in enhancing the shear performance of a PCCV than polyamide fibers.

  6. Strengthening of Corrosion-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Beams with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Rose

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study showed the results of an experimental investigation on the strengthening of corrosion damaged reinforced concrete beams with unidirectional cloth glass fiber reinforced polymer (UDCGFRP laminates. Approach: All the beam specimens 150×250×3000 mm were cast and tested for the present investigation. One beam specimen was neither corroded nor strengthened to serve as a reference. Two beams were corroded to serve as a corroded control. A reinforcement mass loss of approximately 10 and 25% were used to define medium and severe degrees of corrosion. The remaining two beams corroded and strengthened with GFRP. Results: The test parameters included first crack load, first crack deflection, yield load, yield deflection, service load, service deflection, ultimate load and ultimate deflection. Based on the results it was found that GFRP Laminates had beneficial effects even at the corrosion-damaged stage. Conclusion/Recommendations: The UDCGFRP laminated beams showed distinct enhancement in ultimate strength and ductility by 72.37 and 49.49% respectively.

  7. Effects of CO 2 on a High Performance Hollow-Fiber Membrane for Natural Gas Purification

    KAUST Repository

    Omole, Imona C.

    2010-05-19

    A 6FDA-based, cross-linkable polyimide was characterized in the form of a defect-free asymmetric hollow-fiber membrane. The novel membrane was cross-linked at various temperatures and tested for natural gas purification in the presence of high CO2 partial pressures. The cross-linked membrane material shows high intrinsic separation performance for CO2 and CH4 (selectivity ∼49, CO2 permeability ∼161 barrer, with a feed at 65 psia, 35 °C, and 10% CO2). Cross-linked asymmetric hollow-fiber membranes made from the material show good resistance to CO2-induced plasticization. Carbon dioxide partial pressures as high as ∼400 psia were employed, and the membrane was shown to be promisingly stable under these aggressive conditions. The performance of the membrane was also analyzed using the dual-mode sorption/transport model. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Bending strength and fracture surface topography of natural fiber-reinforced shell for investment casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the properties of silica sol shell for investment casting process, various contents of cattail fibers were added into the slurry to prepare a fiber-reinforced shell in the present study. The bending strength of fiber-reinforced shell was investigated and the fracture surfaces of shell specimens were observed using SEM. It is found that the bending strength increases with the increase of fiber content, and the bending strength of a green shell with 1.0 wt.% fiber addition increases by 44% compared to the fiber-free shell. The failure of specimens of the fiber-reinforced green shell results from fiber rupture and debonding between the interface of fibers and adhesive under the bending load. The micro-crack propagation in the matrix is inhibited by the micro-holes for ablation of fibers in specimens of the fiber-reinforced shell during the stage of being fired. As a result, the bending strength of specimens of the fired shell had no significant drop. Particularly, the bending strength of specimens of the fired shell reinforced with 0.6wt.% fiber reached the maximum value of 4.6 MPa.

  9. Electrospun fibers for high performance anodes in microbial fuel cells. Optimizing materials and architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuiliang

    2010-04-15

    A novel porous conducting nanofiber mat (PCNM) with nanostructured polyaniline (nanoPANi) on the fiber surface was successfully prepared by simple oxidative polymerization. The composite PCNM displayed a core/shell structure with highly rough surface. The thickness and the morphology of PANi layer on the electrospun polyamide (PA) fiber surface could be controlled by varying aniline concentration and temperature. The combination of the advantages of electrospinning technique and nanostructured PANi, let the PA/PANi composite PCNM possess more than five good properties, i.e. high conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1}, high specific surface area of 160 m2.g{sup -1}, good strength of 82.88 MPa for mat and 161.75 MPa for highly aligned belts, good thermal properties with 5% weight loss temperature up to 415 C and excellent biocompatibility. In the PA/PANi composite PCNM, PANi is the only conducting component, its conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1} which is measured in dry-state, is not enough for electrode. Moreover, the conductivity decreases in neutral pH environment due to the de-doping of proton. However, the method of spontaneous growth of nanostructured PANi on electrospun fiber mats provides an effective method to produce porous electrically conducting electrospun fiber mats. The combination advantages of nanostructured PANi with the electrospun fiber mats, extends the applications of PANi and electrospun nanofibers, such as chemical- and bio-sensors, actuators, catalysis, electromagnetic shielding, corrosion protection, separation membranes, electro-optic devices, electrochromic devices, tissue engineering and many others. The electrical conductivity of electrospun PCNM with PANi as the only conducting component is too low for application of as anode in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). So, we turn to electrospun carbon fiber due to its high electrical conductivity and environmental stability. The current density is greatly dependent on the microorganism density of anode

  10. High-performance wearable supercapacitors fabricated with surface activated continuous filament graphite fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dedong; Yu, Xin; Chen, Tinghan; Wang, Shu; Tan, Hua; Liu, Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Li, Linlin

    2017-08-01

    Generally, carbon or graphite fibers (GFs) are used as the supporting materials for the preparation of flexible supercapacitors (SCs) by assembling various electrochemically active nanomaterials on them. A facile and rapid electrochemical oxidation method with a voltage of 3 V in a mixed H2SO4-HNO3 solution for 2-15 min is proposed to active continuous filament GFs. Detailed structural characterization, SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman and XPS demonstrate that the GFs-8 (oxidized for 8 min) possessing high specific surface area which provided numerous electrochemical sites and a large number of oxygen-containing functional groups producing pseudocapacitance. Cyclic voltammetric (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are conducted to test the capacitive of GFs and activated GFs. The capacitance of GFs-8 reaches as high as 570 mF cm-1 at the current density of 1 mA cm-1 in LiCl electrolyte, a 1965-fold enhancement with respect to the pristine GFs (0.29 mF cm-1). The fabricated fiber solid-state supercapacitors (SSCs) provide high energy density of 0.68 mWh cm-3 at the power density 3.3 W cm-3 and have excellent durability with 90% capacitance retention after 10000 cycles. In addition, such fiber SSCs features flexibility and mechanical stability, which may have wide applications in wearable electronic devices.

  11. Electrospun fibers for high performance anodes in microbial fuel cells. Optimizing materials and architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuiliang

    2010-04-15

    A novel porous conducting nanofiber mat (PCNM) with nanostructured polyaniline (nanoPANi) on the fiber surface was successfully prepared by simple oxidative polymerization. The composite PCNM displayed a core/shell structure with highly rough surface. The thickness and the morphology of PANi layer on the electrospun polyamide (PA) fiber surface could be controlled by varying aniline concentration and temperature. The combination of the advantages of electrospinning technique and nanostructured PANi, let the PA/PANi composite PCNM possess more than five good properties, i.e. high conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1}, high specific surface area of 160 m2.g{sup -1}, good strength of 82.88 MPa for mat and 161.75 MPa for highly aligned belts, good thermal properties with 5% weight loss temperature up to 415 C and excellent biocompatibility. In the PA/PANi composite PCNM, PANi is the only conducting component, its conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1} which is measured in dry-state, is not enough for electrode. Moreover, the conductivity decreases in neutral pH environment due to the de-doping of proton. However, the method of spontaneous growth of nanostructured PANi on electrospun fiber mats provides an effective method to produce porous electrically conducting electrospun fiber mats. The combination advantages of nanostructured PANi with the electrospun fiber mats, extends the applications of PANi and electrospun nanofibers, such as chemical- and bio-sensors, actuators, catalysis, electromagnetic shielding, corrosion protection, separation membranes, electro-optic devices, electrochromic devices, tissue engineering and many others. The electrical conductivity of electrospun PCNM with PANi as the only conducting component is too low for application of as anode in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). So, we turn to electrospun carbon fiber due to its high electrical conductivity and environmental stability. The current density is greatly dependent on the microorganism density of anode

  12. Development of natural fiber reinforced polylactide-based biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Herrera, Andrea Marcela

    Polylactide or PLA is a biodegradable polymer that can be produced from renewable resources. This aliphatic polyester exhibits good mechanical properties similar to those of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since 2003, bio-based high molecular weight PLA is produced on an industrial scale and commercialized under amorphous and semicrystalline grades for various applications. Enhancement of PLA crystallization kinetics is crucial for the competitiveness of this biopolymer as a commodity material able to replace petroleum-based plastics. On the other hand, the combination of natural fibers with polymer matrices made from renewable resources, to produce fully biobased and biodegradable polymer composite materials, has been a strong trend in research activities during the last decade. Nevertheless, the differences related to the chemical structure, clearly observed in the marked hydrophilic/hydrophobic character of the fibers and the thermoplastic matrix, respectively, represent a major drawback for promoting strong fiber/matrix interactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intrinsic fiber/matrix interactions of PLAbased natural fiber composites prepared by melt-compounding. Short flax fibers presenting a nominal length of ˜1 mm were selected as reinforcement and biocomposites containing low to moderate fiber loading were processed by melt-mixing. Fiber bundle breakage during processing led to important reductions in length and diameter. The mean aspect ratio was decreased by about 50%. Quiescent crystallization kinetics of PLA and biocomposite systems was examined under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The nucleating nature of the flax fibers was demonstrated and PLA crystallization was effectively accelerated as the natural reinforcement content increased. Such improvement was controlled by the temperature at which crystallization took place, the liquid-to-solid transition being thermodynamically promoted by the degree of supercooling

  13. Influence of the Initial Fiber Orientation on the Weld Strength in Welding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fiebig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The welding factors are significantly lower in welding of fiber reinforced thermoplastics than in welding of unreinforced thermoplastics due to the fiber orientation in the weld. This paper presents results from investigations on the influence of the initial fiber orientation on the weld strength in hot plate and vibration welding for glass fiber reinforced polypropylene and polyamide 6. Injection molded specimens are compared to specimens with main initial fiber orientation being longitudinal and transverse to the joining direction. The results of CT analysis of the fiber orientation in the weld show the opportunity to achieve a higher weld strength by using specimens with fibers being initially oriented longitudinally to the joining direction. The influence of the initial fiber orientation in the parts to be welded on the weld strength in hot plate welding is more distinct than in vibration welding.

  14. Review of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforced Material in Concrete Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuddin Ayuddin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP is a material that is lightweight, strong, anti-magnetic and corrosion resistant. This material can be used as an option to replace the steel material in concrete construction or as material to improve the strength of existing construction. CFRP is quite easy to be attached to the concrete structure and proved economically used as a material for repairing damaged structures and increase the resilience of structural beams, columns, bridges and other parts of the structure against earthquakes. CFRP materials can be shaped sheet to be attached to the concrete surface. Another reason is due to the use of CFRP has a higher ultimate strength and lower weight compared to steel reinforcement so that the handling is significantly easier. Through this paper suggests that CFRP materials can be applied to concrete structures, especially on concrete columns. Through the results of experiments conducted proved that the concrete columns externally wrapped with CFRP materials can increase the strength. This treatment is obtained after testing experiments on 130 mm diameter column with a height of 700 mm with concentric loading method to collapse. The experimental results indicate that a column is wrapped externally with CFRP materials can achieve a load capacity of 250 kN compared to the concrete columns externally without CFRP material which only reached 150 kN. If the column is given internally reinforcing steel and given externally CFRP materials can reach 270 kN. It shows that CFRP materials can be used for concrete structures can even replace reinforcing steel that has been widely used in building construction in Indonesia.

  15. Development of a High Performance PES Ultrafiltration Hollow Fiber Membrane for Oily Wastewater Treatment Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Adila Aluwi Shakir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to optimize the spinning process used for fabricating hollow fiber membranes using the response surface methodology (RSM. The spinning factors considered for the experimental design are the dope extrusion rate (DER, air gap length (AGL, coagulation bath temperature (CBT, bore fluid ratio (BFR, and post-treatment time (PT whilst the response investigated is rejection. The optimal spinning conditions promising the high rejection performance of polyethersulfone (PES ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes for oily wastewater treatment are at the dope extrusion rate of 2.13 cm3/min, air gap length of 0 cm, coagulation bath temperature of 30 °C, and bore fluid ratio (NMP/H2O of 0.01/99.99 wt %. This study will ultimately enable the membrane fabricators to produce high-performance membranes that contribute towards the availability of a more sustainable water supply system.

  16. Monosaccharide composition analysis of immunomodulatory polysaccharides by on-line hollow fiber microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nani; Wang, Xuping; Huang, Xiaowen; Mao, Zhujun; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Yong; Shou, Dan

    2016-03-01

    The monosaccharide compositions of functional polysaccharides are essential for structure elucidation and biological activity determination. A sensitive method based on on-line hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography has been established for the analysis of ten monosaccharide compositions (two uronic acids, two amino sugars and six neutral sugars) of the immunomodulatory polysaccharides. After derivatization, the sample was injected into the lumen of a hollow fiber immersed in butyl ether and separated by liquid chromatography. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curves were linear (r ≥ 0.9996) in the range of 10-2000 μmol L(-1) . The limits of detection were in the range of 0.04-1.58 μmol L(-1) , and the recoveries were in the range of 92.1-99.6%, which shows that the method is applicable to the analysis of the monosaccharide composition of various polysaccharides.

  17. High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler

    CERN Document Server

    Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    We present high performance fiber-coupled niobium titanium nitride superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated on thermally oxidized silicon substrates. The best device showed a system detection efficiency (DE) of 74%, dark count rate of 100 c/s, and full width at half maximum timing jitter of 68 ps under a bias current of 18.0 uA with a practical Gifford-McMahon cryocooler system. We also introduced six detectors into the cryocooler and confirmed that the system DE of all detectors was higher than 63% at the dark count rate of 100 c/s.

  18. High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen

    2013-04-22

    We present high performance fiber-coupled niobium titanium nitride superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated on thermally oxidized silicon substrates. The best device showed a system detection efficiency (DE) of 74%, dark count rate of 100 c/s, and full width at half maximum timing jitter of 68 ps under a bias current of 18.0 μA with a practical Gifford-McMahon cryocooler system. We also introduced six detectors into the cryocooler and confirmed that the system DE of all detectors was higher than 67% at the dark count rate of 100 c/s.

  19. Durability Studies on Confined Concrete using Fiber Reinforced Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponmalar, V.; Gettu, R.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, 24 concrete cylinders with a notch at the centre were prepared. Among them six cylinders were wrapped using single and double layers of fiber reinforced polymer; six cylinders were coated with epoxy resin; the remaining cylinders were used as a control. The cylinders were exposed to wet and dry cycling and acid (3 % H2SO4) solution for the period of 120 days. Two different concrete strengths M30 and M50 were considered for the study. It is found that the strength, ductility and failure mode of wrapped cylinders depend on number of layers and the nature of exposure conditions. It was noticed that the damage due to wet and dry cycling and acid attack was severe in control specimen than the epoxy coated and wrapped cylinders.

  20. Tapered Polymer Fiber Sensors for Reinforced Concrete Beam Vibration Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tapered polymer fiber sensors (TPFSs have been employed to detect the vibration of a reinforced concrete beam (RC beam. The sensing principle was based on transmission modes theory. The natural frequency of an RC beam was theoretically analyzed. Experiments were carried out with sensors mounted on the surface or embedded in the RC beam. Vibration detection results agreed well with Kistler accelerometers. The experimental results found that both the accelerometer and TPFS detected the natural frequency function of a vibrated RC beam well. The mode shapes of the RC beam were also found by using the TPFSs. The proposed vibration detection method provides a cost-comparable solution for a structural health monitoring (SHM system in civil engineering.

  1. Reinfiltration processes for polymer derived fiber reinforced ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio; Aparicio, M. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio; Rebstock, K. [Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany). Dornier Forschung; Vogel, W.D. [Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany). Dornier Forschung

    1997-06-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are candidate materials for applications like reentry heat-shields for spacecrafts or turbine parts for aircrafts. Taylored mechanical properties, improved oxidation resistance and environmental stability are very important for these materials. To improve the performance of liquid polymer derived ceramic matrix composites (LPI-CMCs), different techniques for reducing porosity by reinfiltration are discussed. Reinfiltration processes have been performed on a carbon fiber reinforced SiC ceramic, using injection of suitable polymers and sol-gel sols. It has been demonstrated that both methods can reduce the porosity and increase the mechanical properties. Different parameters have been controlled including impregnation pressures and times, heat curing and initial porosity of the substrates as well as composition, viscosity and concentration of the infiltrating solution. The infiltrated samples were characterized by Hg porosimetry, interlaminar shear strength and SEM as well as by oxidation tests. (orig.)

  2. Fatigue Defect of Layer Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study is carried out on fatigue defect of layer steel fiber reinforced concrete (LSFRC). Based on experimental data,the various relation curves are given corresponding to different stress levels 0.9, 0.85, and 0.8. Furthermore, the fatigue defect degree is defined, and the strain-cycle ratio equations and defect-cycle ratio equations with the correlation coefficients very close to 1, are regressed in terms of the cubic polynomial,of which the fittings are preferable.In addition,the results show that the fatigue defect of LSFRC presents three-phase development regularity too.And in comparison with the plain concrete,the third phase of the fatigue defect of LSFRC is longer, therefore the fatigue failure of LSFRC is more ductile.The mechanism of the fatigue defect is discussed too.

  3. Robotic inspection of fiber reinforced composites using phased array UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Jeffrey T.; De Odorico, Walter

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasound is the current NDE method of choice to inspect large fiber reinforced airframe structures. Over the last 15 years Cartesian based scanning machines using conventional ultrasound techniques have been employed by all airframe OEMs and their top tier suppliers to perform these inspections. Technical advances in both computing power and commercially available, multi-axis robots now facilitate a new generation of scanning machines. These machines use multiple end effector tools taking full advantage of phased array ultrasound technologies yielding substantial improvements in inspection quality and productivity. This paper outlines the general architecture for these new robotic scanning systems as well as details the variety of ultrasonic techniques available for use with them including advances such as wide area phased array scanning and sound field adaptation for non-flat, non-parallel surfaces.

  4. Tapered Polymer Fiber Sensors for Reinforced Concrete Beam Vibration Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Ibrahim, Zainah; Ma, Jianxun; Ismail, Zubaidah; Iseley, David Thomas

    2016-12-16

    In this study, tapered polymer fiber sensors (TPFSs) have been employed to detect the vibration of a reinforced concrete beam (RC beam). The sensing principle was based on transmission modes theory. The natural frequency of an RC beam was theoretically analyzed. Experiments were carried out with sensors mounted on the surface or embedded in the RC beam. Vibration detection results agreed well with Kistler accelerometers. The experimental results found that both the accelerometer and TPFS detected the natural frequency function of a vibrated RC beam well. The mode shapes of the RC beam were also found by using the TPFSs. The proposed vibration detection method provides a cost-comparable solution for a structural health monitoring (SHM) system in civil engineering.

  5. Fiber-reinforced polymer concrete: Property improvement by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez B, G. [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Km. 12 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, San Cayetano 50200, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Brostow, W. [Laboratory of Advanced Polymers and Optimized Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton TX 76203-5310 (United States)], e-mail: gonzomartinez02@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-07-01

    Polymer concrete (PC) is a particulate composite in which a thermoset resin forms a polymeric matrix and binds inorganic aggregates (dispersed particles of strengthening phases). This in contrast to Portland cement concrete (PCC) in which the binding is a result of interaction of cement with water. Adding polymeric materials to the concrete one can obtain high compressive and flexural strength, high impact and abrasion resistance, lower weight and lower costs. Moreover, PC is a very good repair material for structure elements damaged by trapping water inside the structure and by acid attacks which take place in the PCC. In the present chapter we discuss uses of polymer concrete and the importance of using gamma radiation as a novel technology for manufacturing fiber-reinforced polymer concrete. Our technology is different from the costly and time consuming current procedures such as chemical attack or thermal treatment. (Author)

  6. Fracture morphology of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Srinivasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites have been extensively used in fabrication of primary structures for aerospace, automobile and other engineering applications. With continuous and widespread use of these composites in several advanced technology, the frequency of failures is likely to increase. Therefore, to establish the reasons for failures, the fracture modes should be understood thoroughly and unambiguously. In this paper, CFRP composite have been tested in tension, compression and flexural loadings; and microscopic study with the aid of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM has been performed on failed (fractured composite surfaces to identify the principle features of failure. Efforts have been made in correlating the fracture surface characteristics to the failure mode. The micro-mechanics analysis of failure serves as a useful guide in selecting constituent materials and designing composites from the failure behavior point of view. Also, the local failure initiation results obtained here has been reliably extended to global failure prediction.

  7. Neutron stress measurement of W-fiber reinforced Cu composite

    CERN Document Server

    Nishida, M; Ikeuchi, Y; Minakawa, N

    2003-01-01

    Stress measurement methods using neutron and X-ray diffraction were examined by comparing the surface stresses with internal stresses in the continuous tungsten-fiber reinforced copper-matrix composite. Surface stresses were measured by X-ray stress measurement with the sin sup 2 psi method. Furthermore, the sin sup 2 psi method and the most common triaxal measurement method using Hooke's equation were employed for internal stress measurement by neutron diffraction. On the other hand, microstress distributions developed by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between these two phases were calculated by FEM. The weighted average strains and stresses were compared with the experimental results. The FEM results agreed with the experimental results qualitatively and confirmed the importance of the triaxial stress analysis in the neutron stress measurement. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Objective Surface Evaluation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stuart; Hall, Wayne

    2013-08-01

    The mechanical properties of advanced composites are essential for their structural performance, but the surface finish on exterior composite panels is of critical importance for customer satisfaction. This paper describes the application of wavelet texture analysis (WTA) to the task of automatically classifying the surface finish properties of two fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite construction types (clear resin and gel-coat) into three quality grades. Samples were imaged and wavelet multi-scale decomposition was used to create a visual texture representation of the sample, capturing image features at different scales and orientations. Principal components analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the texture feature vector, permitting successful classification of the samples using only the first principal component. This work extends and further validates the feasibility of this approach as the basis for automated non-contact classification of composite surface finish using image analysis.

  9. Chairside fabricated fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufyan Garoushi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in the materials and techniques for adhesive dentistry have allowed the development of non-invasive or minimally invasive approaches for replacing a missing tooth in those clinical situations when conservation of adjacent teeth is needed. Good mechanical and cosmetic/aesthetic properties of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC, with good bonding properties with composite resin cement and veneering composite are needed in FRC devices. Some recent studies have shown that adhesives of composite resins and luting cements allow diffusion of the adhesives to the FRC framework of the bridges. By this so-called interdiffusion bonding is formed [1]. FRC bridges can be made in dental laboratories or chairside. This article describes a clinical case of chairside (directly made FRC Bridge, which was used according to the principles of minimal invasive approach. Treatment was performed by Professor Vallittu from the University of Turku, Finland.

  10. Performance of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer Strengthened Timber Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate the use of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer (SFRP for retrofit of timber beams. A total of 10-full scale specimens were tested. Two different timber preservatives and two different bonding agents were investigated. Strengthening was characterized using load deflection diagrams. Results indicate that it is possible to enhance load-carrying capacity and energy absorption characteristics using the technique of SFRP. Of the two types of preservatives investigated, the technique appears to be more effective for the case of creosote-treated specimens, where up to a 51% improvement in load-carrying capacity and a 460% increase in the energy absorption capacity were noted. Effectiveness of the bonding agent used was dependent on the type of preservative the specimen had been treated with.

  11. Hollow fiber cell fishing with high performance liquid chromatography for screening bioactive compounds from traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xue; Li, Lihua; Chen, Xuan; Hu, Shuang; Bai, Xiaohong

    2013-03-08

    A novel hollow fiber cell fishing method with high performance liquid chromatography was proposed and used to screen, isolate, and analyze bioactive compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). The active compounds that interact with the living cells acceptor inside the hollow fiber lumen were screened and isolated from the TCM extracts in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). Subsequently, the active compounds bound to the cells were desorbed with methanol, and were analyzed using HPLC. HFCF with HPLC was introduced for the screening and analysis of lignans in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill and coumarins in Fructus Cnidii and Fructus Psoraleae. The surface properties of the hollow fibers filled with living cells were characterized. The nonspecific binding between the active centers of the hollow fibers and the bioactive compounds were investigated. The cell survival rates were determined before and after the screening. The repeatability of the method was tested. Some structures of the lignans and coumarins screened from TCMs were identified by the comparison to the retention times of the reference substances. HFCF-HPLC is a simple, fast, effective, and reliable method for the screening and analysis of bioactive compounds, and it can be extended to screen other bioactive compounds from TCMs.

  12. Abrasive waterjet machining of fiber reinforced composites: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, D. K.; Dhanasekaran, P. S.; Zhang, B.; Asmatulu, R.

    2012-04-01

    Machining of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is a major secondary manufacturing activity in the aircraft and automotive industries. Traditional machining of these composites is difficult due to the high abrasiveness nature of their reinforcing constituents. Almost all the traditional machining processes involve in the dissipation of heat into the workpiece which can be resulted in damage to workpiece and rapid wear of the cutting tool. This serious issue has been overcome by water jetting technologies. Abrasive waterjet machining (AWJM) is a nontraditional method and one of the best options for machining FRPs. This paper presents a review of the ongoing research and development in AWJM of FRPs, with a critical review of the physics of the machining process, surface characterization, modeling and the newer application to the basic research. Variable cutting parameters, limitations and safety aspects of AWJM and the noise related issues due to high flow rate of water jet will be addressed. Further challenges and scope of the future development in AWJM are also presented in detail.

  13. Biobased Nano Porous Active Carbon Fibers for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuxiang; Peng, Lele; Liu, Yue; Zhao, Guangjie; Chen, Jonathan Y; Yu, Guihua

    2016-06-22

    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) with different pore structure have been prepared from wood sawdust using the KOH activation method. A study was conducted to examine the influence of the activation parameters (temperature, alkali/carbon ratio, and time) on the morphology and structure of the as-prepared ACFs developed in the process of pore generation and evolution. Activation temperature was very essential for the formation of utramicropores (<0.6 nm), which greatly contributed to the electric double layer capacitance. The significance of metallic potassium vapor evolved when the temperature was above 800 °C, since the generation of 0.8- and 1.1 nm micropores cannot be ignored. When the the KOH/fiber ratio was increased and the activation time was prolonged, to some extent, the micropores were enlarged to small mesopores within 2-5 nm. The sample with the optimal condition exhibited the highest specific capacitance (225 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1)). Its ability to retain capacitance corresponding to 10 A g(-1) and 6 M KOH was 85.3%, demonstrating a good rate capability. With 10 000 charge-discharge cycles at 3 A g(-1), the supercapacitor kept 94.2% capacity, showing outstanding electrochemical performance as promising electrode material.

  14. Acoustic emission characteristics on microscopic damage behavior of carbon fiber sheet reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Lee, Joon Hyun

    2002-05-01

    In this study, a three-point bend test has been carried out to understand the damage progress and the micro-failure mechanism of carbon fiber sheet (CFS) reinforced concretes. For these purposes, four kinds of specimens were used; unreinforced concrete, steel bar reinforced concrete, CFS reinforced concrete, and concrete reinforced by both steel bar and CFS. Acoustic Emission (AE) technique was used to evaluate the characteristics of damage progress and the failure mechanism of the specimens.

  15. Design aid for shear strengthening of reinforced concrete T-joints using carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Ioan

    The research presented in the present work focuses on the shear strengthening of beam column joints using carbon fiber composites, a material considered in seismic retrofit in recent years more than any other new material. These composites, or fiber reinforced polymers, offer huge advantages over structural steel reinforced concrete or timber. A few of these advantages are the superior resistance to corrosion, high stiffness to weight and strength to weight ratios, and the ability to control the material's behavior by selecting the orientation of the fibers. The design and field application research on reinforced concrete cap beam-column joints includes analytical investigations using pushover analysis; design of carbon fiber layout, experimental tests and field applications. Several beam column joints have been tested recently with design variables as the type of composite system, fiber orientation and the width of carbon fiber sheets. The surface preparation has been found to be critical for the bond between concrete and composite material, which is the most important factor in joint shear strengthening. The final goal of this thesis is to develop design aids for retrofitting reinforced concrete beam column joints. Two bridge bents were tested on the Interstate-15 corridor. One bent was tested in the as-is condition. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite sheets were used to externally reinforce the second bridge bent. By applying the composite, the displacement ductility has been doubled, and the bent overall lateral load capacity has been increased as well. The finite element model (using DRAIN-2DX) was calibrated to model the actual stiffness of the supports. The results were similar to the experimental findings.

  16. High-Performance Lithium-Air Battery with a Coaxial-Fiber Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Wang, Lie; Guo, Ziyang; Xu, Yifan; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-03-24

    The lithium-air battery has been proposed as the next-generation energy-storage device with a much higher energy density compared with the conventional lithium-ion battery. However, lithium-air batteries currently suffer enormous problems including parasitic reactions, low recyclability in air, degradation, and leakage of liquid electrolyte. Besides, they are designed into a rigid bulk structure that cannot meet the flexible requirement in the modern electronics. Herein, for the first time, a new family of fiber-shaped lithium-air batteries with high electrochemical performances and flexibility has been developed. The battery exhibited a discharge capacity of 12,470 mAh g(-1) and could stably work for 100 cycles in air; its electrochemical performances were well maintained under bending and after bending. It was also wearable and formed flexible power textiles for various electronic devices.

  17. Optimizing the delamination failure in bamboo fiber reinforced polyester composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abilash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delamination is represented to be the most prevalent failure in composite structures. The use of composites in the manufacturing sector plays a very important role in the industry in general. Moreover these materials have unique characteristics when analyzed separately from constituents which are a part of them. In this paper, a partially ecological composite was made, using natural fibers as reinforcement (bamboo fiber, in the polyester resin matrix to form a composite, seeking to improve the mechanical behavior among its class of materials. The characteristics of a composite material are determined by how it behaves while machining, Drilling is the most predominant machining process because of its cost effectiveness when compared with other processes. Obviously delamination is the major problem that is focused by many researchers while selecting drilling as the machining process in polymeric composites. This research mainly emphasizes on the critical parameters by varying its speed, feed, and diameter of the cutting tool, their contribution to delamination was analyzed. Reduced delaminations were identified by varying the speed and feed rate.

  18. Unsaturated and Saturated Permeabilities of Fiber Reinforcement: Critics and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hae ePARK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, permeability measurement results show a strong scattering according to the measurement method, the type of test fluid and the fluid injection condition, even though permeability is regarded as a unique property of porous medium. In particular, the discrepancy between the unsaturated and saturated permeabilities for the same fabric has been widely reported. In the literature, relative permeability has been adopted to model the unsaturated flow. This approach has some limits in the modeling of double-scale porosity medium. We address this issue of permeability measurement by rigorously examining the mass conservation condition. Finally, we identify that the pressure gradient is non-linear with positive curvature in the unsaturated flow and a misinterpretation of pressure gradient is the main reason for the difference between the saturated and unsaturated permeabilities of the same fiber reinforcement. We propose to use a fixed value of permeability and to modify the mass conservation equation if there are air voids which are entrapped inside the fiber tow. Finally, we also suggest some guidelines and future perspectives to obtain more consistent permeability measurement results.

  19. Unsaturated and Saturated Permeabilities of Fiber Reinforcement: Critics and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chung Hae; Krawczak, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    In general, permeability measurement results show a strong scattering according to the measurement method, the type of test fluid and the fluid injection condition, even though permeability is regarded as a unique property of porous medium. In particular, the discrepancy between the unsaturated and saturated permeabilities for the same fabric has been widely reported. In the literature, relative permeability has been adopted to model the unsaturated flow. This approach has some limits in the modeling of double-scale porosity medium. We address this issue of permeability measurement by rigorously examining the mass conservation condition. Finally, we identify that the pressure gradient is non-linear with positive curvature in the unsaturated flow and a misinterpretation of pressure gradient is the main reason for the difference between the saturated and unsaturated permeabilities of the same fiber reinforcement. We propose to use a fixed value of permeability and to modify the mass conservation equation if there are air voids which are entrapped inside the fiber tow. Finally, we also suggest some guidelines and future perspectives to obtain more consistent permeability measurement results.

  20. Solvent-based self-healing approaches for fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amanda R.

    Damage in composite materials spans many length scales and is often difficult to detect or costly to repair. The incorporation of self-healing functionality in composite materials has the potential to greatly extend material lifetime and reliability. Although there has been remarkable progress in self-healing polymers over the past decade, self-repair in fiber-reinforced composite materials presents significant technical challenges due to stringent manufacturing and performance requirements. For high performance, fiber-reinforced composites, the self-healing components need to survive high temperature processing, reside in matrix interstitial regions to retain a high fiber volume fraction, and have minimal impact on the mechanical properties of the host material. This dissertation explores several microencapsulated solvent-based self-healing approaches for fiber-reinforced composites at the fiber/ matrix interface size scale as well as matrix cracking. Systems are initially developed for room temperature cured epoxies/ glass fiber interfaces and successfully transitioned to carbon fibers and high temperature-cured, thermoplastic-toughened matrices. Full recovery of interfacial bond strength after complete fiber/matrix debonding is achieved with a microencapsulated solvent-based healing chemistry. The surface of a glass fiber is functionalized with microcapsules containing varying concentrations of reactive epoxy resin and ethyl phenyl acetate (EPA) solvent. Microbond specimens consisting of a single fiber and a microdroplet of epoxy are cured at 35°C, tested, and the interfacial shear strengths (IFSS) during the initial (virgin) debonding and subsequent healing events are measured. Debonding of the fiber/matrix interface ruptures the capsules, releasing resin and solvent into the crack plane. The solvent swells the matrix, initiating transport of residual amine functionality for further curing with the epoxy resin delivered to the crack plane. Using a resin

  1. Performance of carbon fiber reinforced rubber composite armour against shaped charge jet penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Lian-yong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber is reinforced with carbon fiber; the protective performances of the carbonfiber reinforced rubber composite armour to shaped charge jet have been studied based on the depth of penetration experiments. The craters on the witness blocks, the nature rubber based composite plates’ deformation and the Scanning Electron Microscopy for the hybrid fiber reinforced rubber plate also is analyzed. The results showed that the composite armour can affect the stability of the jet and made part of the jet fracture. The carbon fiber reinforced rubber composite armour has good defence ablity especially when the nature rubber plate hybrid 15% volume percentage carbonfiber and the obliquity angle is 68°. The hybrid fiber reinforced rubber composite armour can be used as a new kind of light protective armour.

  2. [Preparation of carbon fiber reinforced fluid type resin denture (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, H; Sato, H; Nakabayashi, N

    1980-01-01

    Transverse strength of cured fluid resins is weaker than that of the heat cured. We have studied to improve the mechanical strength of self-cured acrylic resin by application of carbon fibers as reinforcement and simple methods which must be acceptable for technicians are proposed. A cloth type carbon fiber was the best reinforcement among studied carbon fibers such as chopped or mat. The chopped fibers were difficult to mix homogeneously with fluid resins and effectiveness of the reinforcement was low. Breaking often occurred at the interface between the reinforcement and resin in the cases of mat which gave defects to the test specimens. To prepare reinforced denture, the cloth was trimmed on the master cast after removal of wax and the prepreg was formed with the alginate impression on the cast by Palapress and the cloth. Other steps were same as the usual fluid resin.

  3. Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1990-01-01

    The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed.

  4. Health service accreditation reinforces a mindset of high-performance human resource management: lessons from an Australian study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenfield, D; Kellner, A; Townsend, K; Wilkinson, A; Lawrence, S A

    2014-01-01

    ...) and interview data (opinions and experiences regarding HRM and accreditation). Healthcare organizations identified as high performing on accreditation HRM criteria seek excellence primarily because of internal motivations linked to best practice...

  5. Evaluating cover depth of steel fiber reinforced concrete using impact-echo testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Feng

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate of the cover depth of steel fiber reinforced concrete using the impact-echo testing. In order to evaluate the security of the construction, usually need to estimate the cover depth of the reinforced concrete. At present, the examination technique of the cover depth of the reinforced concrete without the steel fiber is mainly applied in the magnetic and electrical methods, its rapid detection and good results. But the research of the reactive powder concrete be gradually progress, with the steel fiber concrete structure will be increased, if should still operate the examination with the magnetic and electrical methods, theoretically the steel fiber will have the interference to its electromagnetism field. Therefore, this research designs four kinds of reinforced concrete plate that include different steel fiber contents, to evaluate test results of estimate of the cover depth of the reinforcing bar. The results showed that: estimate of the cover depth of steel fiber reinforced concrete reinforcing bar using the impact-echo testing, the variety of the steel fiber content does not have much influence, the test measurement error within ± 10%, and the most important source of uncertainty is the velocity of concrete.

  6. A Comparative Investigation of the Tribological Behavior of Short Fiber Reinforced Polyimide Composites Under Dry Sliding and Water-Lubricated Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jun-hong; CHEN Jian-min; ZHOU Hui-di; CHEN Jian-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The friction and wear behavior of high performance polyimide (PI) and its composites reinforced with short cut fibers such as carbon fiber, glass fiber and quartz fiber was comparatively evaluated under dry sliding and water-lubricated condition, aiming at selecting matching materials for the pumps of pure water power transmission. The wear mechanisms of the composites under the two different sliding conditions were also comparatively discussed, based on scanning electron microscopic examination of the worn composite and steel counterpart surfaces. As the results, the PI composites reinforced with carbon fiber have the best mechanical and tribological properties compared with glass fiber and quartz fiber. PI composites sliding against stainless steel register lower friction coefficients and wear rates under water-lubricated condition than under dry sliding though the transfer of PI and its composites was considerably hindered in this case. PI and its composites are characterized by plastic deformation, micro cracking, and spalling under both dry-and water-lubricated sliding. Such plastic deformation, micro cracking, and spalling is significantly abated under water-lubricated condition. The glass and quart2 fibers were easily abraded and broken when sliding against steel in water environment, the broken fibers transferred to the mating metal surface and increase the surface roughness of mating stainless steel. This is probably the cause of the increased wear rate of glass fiber and quartz fiber PI composites in this case.

  7. Fiber-coatings for fiber-reinforced mullite/mullite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nubian, K.; Wahl, G. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oberflaechentechnik und Plasmatechnische Werkstoffentwicklung; Saruhan, B.; Schneider, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oberflaechentechnik und Plasmatechnische Werkstoffentwicklung; DLR, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.v., Koeln (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Mullite-based fiber-reinforced composites are favorite candidates for the application in combustion chambers of gas turbines. The application requires damage tolerance, temperature and oxidation-resistance at high temperatures (> 1200 C) over long terms. In order to realize crack deflection and fiber pull-out, an interphase coating of the mullite fibers (Nextel{sup TM} 720) is necessary to obtain a weak bonding between fibers and matrix. Two systems of interphases produced by CVD were described. The first system is a carbon/metal-oxide double layer (C/ZrO{sub 2}, C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Properties of the resulting composites after heat-treatment (1300 C, 1000 h) under cyclic and continuous heating conditions were described. The second system is the codeposition of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the fibers. After heat-treatment at 1300 C lanthanum hexaluminate (LaAl{sub 11}O{sub 18}) with a magneto plumbite structure containing sliding planes should be formed. (orig.)

  8. Behavior of tungsten fiber-reinforced tungsten based on single fiber push-out study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jasper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the intrinsic brittleness of tungsten (W, a tungsten fiber-reinforced tungsten-composite material (Wf/W is under development. The composite addresses the brittleness of W by extrinsic toughening through the introduction of energy dissipation mechanisms. These mechanisms allow the reduction of stress peaks and thus improve the materials resistance against crack growth. They do not rely on the intrinsinc material properties such as ductility. By utilizing powder metallurgy (PM one could benefit from available industrialized approaches for composite production and alloying routes. In this contribution the PM method of hot isostatic pressing (HIP is used to produce Wf/W samples containing W fibers coated with an Er2O3 interface. Analysis of the matrix material demonstrates a dense tungsten bulk, a deformed fiber and a deformed, but still intact interface layer. Metallographic analysis reveals indentations of powder particles in the interface, forming a complex 3D structure. Special emphasis is placed on push-out tests of single fiber HIP samples, where a load is applied via a small indenter on the fiber, to test the debonding and frictional properties of the Er2O3 interface region enabling the energy dissipation mechanisms. Together with the obtained experimental results, an axisymmetric finite element model is discussed and compared to existing work. In the HIP Wf/W composites the matrix adhesion is rather large and can dominate the push-out behavior. This is in contrast to the previously tested CVD produced samples.

  9. Use of Fiber-Reinforced Cements in Masonry Construction and Structural Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Erdogmus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforcement in traditional concrete mixes has been extensively studied and has been slowly finding its regular use in practice. In contrast, opportunities for the use of fibers in masonry applications and structural rehabilitation projects (masonry and concrete structures have not been as deeply investigated, where the base matrix may be a weaker cementitious mixture. This paper will summarize the findings of the author’s research over the past 10 years in these particular applications of fiber reinforced cements (FRC. For masonry, considering both mortar and mortar-unit bond characteristics, a 0.5% volume fraction of micro fibers in type N Portland cement lime mortar appear to be a viable recipe for most masonry joint applications both for clay and concrete units. In general, clay units perform better with high water content fiber reinforced mortar (FRM while concrete masonry units (CMUs perform better with drier mixtures, so 130% and 110% flow rates should be targeted, respectively. For earth block masonry applications, fibers’ benefits are observed in improving local damage and water pressure resistance. The FRC retrofit technique proposed for the rehabilitation of reinforced concrete two-way slabs has exceeded expectations in terms of capacity increase for a relatively low cost in comparison to the common but expensive fiber reinforced polymer applications. For all of these applications of fiber-reinforced cements, further research with larger data pools would lead to further optimization of fiber type, size, and amount.

  10. Assessment of the Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber-Reinforced Silty Clay Using Triaxial Shear Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankai Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforcement is widely used in construction engineering to improve the mechanical properties of soil because it increases the soil’s strength and improves the soil’s mechanical properties. However, the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced soils remain controversial. The present study investigated the mechanical properties of silty clay reinforced with discrete, randomly distributed sisal fibers using triaxial shear tests. The sisal fibers were cut to different lengths, randomly mixed with silty clay in varying percentages, and compacted to the maximum dry density at the optimum moisture content. The results indicate that with a fiber length of 10 mm and content of 1.0%, sisal fiber-reinforced silty clay is 20% stronger than nonreinforced silty clay. The fiber-reinforced silty clay exhibited crack fracture and surface shear fracture failure modes, implying that sisal fiber is a good earth reinforcement material with potential applications in civil engineering, dam foundation, roadbed engineering, and ground treatment.

  11. Photonic crystal fiber-based immunosensor for high-performance detection of alpha fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Song, Xingda; Dong, Zhiyong; Meng, Xiaoting; Chen, Yiping; Yang, Li

    2017-05-15

    We have developed a sensitive photonic crystal fiber (PCF)-based immunosensor for detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP). The unique PCF possesses a morphology characterized by numerous pore structures and a large surface area-to-volume ratio, which can be used as an immune-reaction carrier to improve the sensitivity and reaction speed of AFP detection. The PCF-based immunosensor possesses a low limit of detection of 0.1ng/mL, which is five times lower than that of the capillary-based sensor and 35 times lower than that of the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The wide linear dynamic range of 0.1-150ng/mL makes the developed immunosensor suitable for clinical practice. The proposed method was successfully applied to AFP detection in a clinical serum sample with acceptable precision. It is indicated that the present PCF-based immunosensor could be used as an attractive analytical platform for sensitive and specific detection of cancer biomarkers.

  12. Performance Analysis of a Fiber Reinforced Plastic Oil Cooler Cover Considering the Anisotropic Behavior of the Fiber Reinforced PA66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simulation method based on an orthogonal anisotropic material is proposed. A numerical example using a simple plate is presented to show the difference in the static performance between the orthogonal anisotropic and the isotropic models. Comparing with the tested modal data of a diesel engine oil cooler cover made by glass fiber reinforced polyamide 66 (PA66, the proposed simulation method was confirmed to be much closer to reality than the general isotropic model. After that, a comprehensive performance comparison between the plastic oil cooler covers with the orthogonal anisotropic and the isotropic fiber orientations was carried out including a static deformation and stress analysis under a pressure-temperature coupled load, a forced response analysis, and an acoustic analysis under real operating conditions. The results show that the stress, the deformation, the peak vibration velocity, and the overall sound power level of the orthogonal anisotropic model are different from that obtained with the isotropic model. More importantly, the proposed method can provide a much more detailed frequency content compared to the isotropic model.

  13. Modification of polyester resins during molding of glass-fiber-reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushin, V.; Jansons, J.; Bulmanis, V.; Cabulis, U.; Bulmanis, A.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of addition of two new urethane prepolymers on the mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester resins and glass-fiber-reinforced plastics based on them is investigated. The effect of concentration of these additives on the elastic modulus, elongation at break, and flexural strength of hardened orthophthalic resins is evaluated. A significant increase in the strength of the binders and glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) based on them is observed upon adding urethane prepolymers to the resins. The properties of laminated and randomly reinforced glass-fiber plastics with the modified orthophthalic resins are compared with those of similar GFRPs based on popular brands of industrial resins.

  14. Experimental Study on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Clay Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the mechanism and effect of basalt fiber reinforced clay soil, a series of unconfined compressive strength tests conducted on clay soil reinforced with basalt fiber have been performed under the condition of optimum water content and maximum dry density. Both the content and length of basalt fiber are considered in this paper. When the effect of content is studied, the 12 mm long fibers are dispersed into clay soil at different contents of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, and 0.35%. When the effect of length is researched, different lengths of basalt fibers with 4 mm, 8 mm, 12 mm, and 15 mm are put into soil at the same content of 0.05%. Experimental results show that basalt fiber can effectively improve the UCS of clay soil. And the best content and length are 0.25% and 12 mm, respectively. The results also show that the basalt fiber reinforced clay soil has the “poststrong” characteristic. About the reinforcement mechanism, the fiber and soil column-net model is proposed in this paper. Based on this model and SEM images, the effect of fiber content and length is related to the change of fiber-soil column and formation of effective fiber-soil net.

  15. Al2O3/GdAlO3 fiber for dental porcelain reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Igor S; Luz, Luciana A; Yoshimura, Humberto N; Cesar, Paulo F; Hernandes, Antonio C

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the addition of continuous or milled GdAlO3/Al2O3 fibers to a dental porcelain increases its mechanical properties. Porcelain bars without reinforcement (control) were compared to those reinforced with long fibers (30 vol%). Also, disk specimens reinforced with milled fibers were produced by adding 0 (control), 5 or 10 vol% of particles. The reinforcement with continuous fibers resulted in significant increase in the uniaxial flexural strength from 91.5 to 217.4 MPa. The addition of varied amounts of milled fibers to the porcelain did not significantly affect its biaxial flexural strength compared to the control group. SEM analysis showed that the interface between the continuous fiber and the porcelain was free of defects. On the other hand, it was possible to note the presence of cracks surrounding the milled fiber/porcelain interface. In conclusion, the reinforcement of the porcelain with continuous fibers resulted in an efficient mechanism to increase its mechanical properties; however the addition of milled fibers had no significant effect on the material because the porcelain was not able to wet the ceramic particles during the firing cycle.

  16. Microstructure of a cement matrix composite reinforced with polypropylene fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the microstructural characterization of a composite material, which is comprised of polypropylene fibers in an cement matrix, by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. The microstructure of the different phases that compose the matrix is very heterogeneous, though there is a uniform distribution of the fibers inside it. The surface of this composite is different after setting, cured and hardening depending if the zone is or not in touch with the walls of the mould. The interface between the different crystalline regions of the cement matrix and the dispersed fibers shows compatibility between the matrix and the polymeric fibers. The mechanical properties (compression and bending strength have also been evaluated. The use of melamine formaldehyde as additive leads to a reinforcement of the cement matrix and to the improvement of the mechanical properties.

    Se ha llevado a cabo una observacíón microestructural detallada de un material compuesto de fibras de polipropileno embebidas en una matriz de cemento usando los nuevos tipos de microscopía electrónica de barrido, tales como: un microscopio electrónico medioambiental (acrónimo en inglés: ESEM y uno de emisión de campo (acrónimo en inglés: FESEM. La microestructura de las diferentes fases que componen la matriz es muy heterogénea, aunque hay una distribución uniforme de las fibras dentro de ellas. La superficie de este material compuesto es diferente después del fraguado, curado y endurecimiento según qué zonas estén o no en contacto con las paredes del molde. La interfase entre las diferentes fases cristalinas de la matriz de cemento y las fibras dispersadas se ha observado a diferentes aumentos, comprobándose compatibilidad entre la matriz y las fibras poliméricas. Las propiedades de resistencia mecánica (tanto a flexión como a compresión han sido tambi

  17. Improving the mechanical performance of wood fiber reinforced bio-based polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chi

    Because of the environmental impact of fossil fuel consumption, soybean-based polyurethane (PU) foam has been developed as an alternative to be used as the core in structural insulated panels (SIPs). Wood fibers can be added to enhance the resistance of foam against bending and buckling in compression. The goal of this work is to study the effect of three modifications: fiber surface treatment, catalyst choice, and mixing method on the compression performance of wood fiber-reinforced PU foam. Foams were made with a free-rising process. The compression performance of the foams was measured and the foams were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray computed tomography (CT). The foam reinforced with alkali-treated fibers had improved compression performance. The foams made with various catalysts shared similar performance. The foam made using a mechanical stirrer contained well-dispersed fibers but the reinforcing capability of the fibers was reduced.

  18. Investigation into hemp fiber-and whisker-reinforced soy protein composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linxiang WANG; Rakesh KUMAR; Lina ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Whiskers, designated as W, were prepared from hemp fibers. Both fibers and whiskers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravi-metric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the dimensions of the fibers and whiskers, respectively.By incorporating different weight fraction of the fibers and whiskers into soy protein isolate, we prepared two different composites designated as SC and SC-W,respectively. Thiodiglycol was used as a plasticizer for the preparation of composites. The SC and SC-W composites were characterized and compared in terms of mechanical properties, volume fraction of porosity,and water uptake. The results indicated that there was not much significant difference in the properties of the composites. In fact, mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites were higher than whisker-reinforced composites at optimum weight fractions.This study can give us the idea about the judicious use of fibers or whiskers as reinforcement materials.

  19. Reinforcing and Toughening Effects of Bamboo Pulp Fiber on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Fiber Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/bamboo pulp fiber composites were melt-compounded and injection-molded. Tensile, impact and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were studied. In contrast to many other short natural fiber reinforced biocomposites which demonstrate decre...

  20. Mechanical Properties Optimization of Fiber Reinforced Foam Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 3 factors including fiber kind, fiber content and fiber mix-ability are selected to optimizing mechanical properties of foam concrete. By orthogonal experiment design, compression and flexural stress and strain of specimens from different fiber added ways were test. Range analysis and factor levels analysis show the best fiber added way. Test shows that fiber content is the most important factor to flexural stress. Next one is fiber kind and the third is fiber mix-ability. Fiber kind is the most important factor to stress curves. Fiber is not good for compression strength but good for flexural strength.

  1. Biocomposites reinforced by fibers or tubes as scaffolds for tissue engineering or regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Yu; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Qingling; Cui, Fu-zhai; Watari, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    As a dynamic and hierarchically organized composite, native extracellular matrix (ECM) not only supplies mechanical support, which the embedded cells need, but also regulates various cellular activities through interaction with them. On the basis of the ECM-mimetic principle, good biocompatibility and appropriate mechanical properties are the two basic requirements that the ideal scaffolds for the tissue engineering or regenerative medicine need. Some fibers and tubes have been shown effective to reinforce scaffolds for tissue engineering or regenerative medicine. In this review, three parts, namely properties affected by the addition of fibers or tubes, scaffolds reinforced by fibers or tubes for soft tissue repair, and scaffolds reinforced by fibers or tubes for hard tissue repair are stated, which shows that tissue repair or regeneration efficacy was enhanced significantly by fiber or tube reinforcement. In addition, it indicates that these reinforcing agents can improve the biocompatibility and biodegradation of the scaffolds in most cases. However, there are still some concerns, such as the homogeneousness in structure or composition throughout the reinforced scaffolds, the adhesive strength between the matrix and the fibers or tubes, cytotoxicity of nanoscaled reinforcing agents, etc., which were also discussed in the conclusion and perspectives part. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of fiber loading on the mechanical properties of bagasse fiber–reinforced polypropylene composites

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that sugarcane/bagasse is a highly potential natural composite fiber. In this study, the correlation of composition fiber amount to the mechanical strength was presented. Bagasse was treated with alkali and then reinforced in polypropylene by means of hot pressing. Fiber loading was set to be varied from 10 to 20 wt%. Composite samples were subjected to tensile, hardness, and flexural characterization. Composites with 30 wt% of fiber loading registered maximum tensile strength w...

  3. Natural Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites: Effect of Fiber Mixing and Nanoclay on Physical, Mechanical, and Biodegradable Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining two kinds of fibers is a potential way to improve the essential properties of natural fiber-reinforced hybrid polymer composites. Biocomposites produced from natural resources are experiencing an increase in interest due to their high demand in the market for manufacturing, in addition to environmental and sustainability issues. In this study, natural fiber-reinforced hybrid polymer nanocomposites were prepared from coir fiber, wood fiber, polypropylene, and montmorillonite nanoclay using a hot press technique. The effects of fiber mixing and montmorillonite on their physico-mechanical and biodegradable properties were subsequently investigated. Before being used, both the wood and the coir fibers were alkali-treated to reduce their hydrophilicity. The mechanical properties of the fabricated composites were measured using a universal tensile testing machine and found to be enhanced after fiber mixing and nanoclay incorporation. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that the characteristic peaks of the composites shifted after fiber mixing. A new peak around 470 cm-1 was observed in the case of the nanocomposites, which confirmed the interaction between the fiber, polymer, and montmorillonite (MMT. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed that MMT strongly improved the adhesion and compatibility between the fiber and polymer matrix. The combining of fibers improved the biodegradability and water absorption properties, while MMT addition had the reverse effect on the same properties of the composites.

  4. Strain Measurement Using Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Inside an Anchored Carbon Fiber Polymer Reinforcement Prestressing Rod for Structural Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrouche, Abdelfateh; Boyle, William J.O.; Sun, Tong

    2009-01-01

    Results are reported from a study carried out using a series of Bragg grating based optical fiber sensors written into a very short length (60mm) optical fiber net work and integrated into carbon fiber polymer reinforcement (CFPR) rod. Such rods are used as reinforcements in concrete structures...... from the calibrated force applied by the pulling machine and from a conventional resistive strain gauge mounted on the rod itself is obtained. Calculations from strain to shear stress show a relatively uniform stress distribution along the bar anchor used. The results give confidence to results from...... various methods of insitu monitoring of strains on such CFRP rods when used in different engineering structures....

  5. Failure mode interaction in fiber reinforced laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Pavana

    A novel computational modeling framework to predict the compressive strength of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite (FRPC) laminates has been presented. The model development has been motivated by a set of experimental results on the compression response of two different FRPCs. The model accounts for failure mode interaction between kink-banding and interface fracture (or delamination), which are observed in the experimental results. To reduce the size of the computational model, those interfaces that are most susceptible to delamination are first determined through a free-edge stress analysis. Furthermore, 0-axis layers, which are passive in the failure process are represented through an equivalent homogenized model, but the microstructural features of the on-axis layers (zero plies) are retained in the computational model. The predictions of the model matched well with the experimental observations, and they were found to accurately account for failure mechanism interactions. Therefore, this model has the potential to replace the need to carry out large numbers of tests to obtain the compressive strength allowable for FRPC laminates, the latter allowable being an essential element in the design of lightweight FRPC aerostructures. Furthermore, the thesis presents a new computational model to predict fiber/matrix splitting failure, a failure mode that is frequently observed in in-plane tensile failure of FRPC's. By considering a single lamina, this failure mechanism was seamlessly modeled through the development of a continuum-decohesive nite element (CDFE). The CDFE was motivated by the variational multiscale cohesive method (VMCM) presented earlier by Rudraraju et al. (2010) at the University of Michigan. In the CDFE, the transition from a continuum to a non-continuum is modeled directly (physically) without resorting to enrichment of the shape functions of the element. Thus, the CDFE is a natural merger between cohesive elements and continuum elements. The

  6. Properties of drawn W wire used as high performance fibre in tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, J.; Almanstötter, J.; Coenen, J. W.; Fuhr, M.; Gietl, H.; Han, Y.; Höschen, T.; Linsmeier, Ch; Travitzky, N.; Zhao, P.; Neu, R.

    2016-07-01

    High strength and creep resistance also at high temperature, combined with a high thermal conductivity and high melting point make tungsten (W) an ideal material for highly loaded areas in future fusion reactors. However, as a typical bcc metal tungsten features an intrinsic brittleness up to very high temperature and is prone to operational embrittlement. Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite (Wf/W) utilizes extrinsic toughening mechanisms similar to ceramic fibre-reinforced ceramics and therefore overcomes the brittleness problem. The properties of the composite are to a large extend determined by the properties of the drawn tungsten wire used as reinforcement fibres. W wire exhibits a superior strength and shows ductile behaviour with exceptional local plasticity. Beside the typical mechanisms observed for ceramic composites the ductile deformation of the fibres is therefore an additional very effective toughening mechanism. Tension tests were used to investigate this phenomenon in more detail. Results show that there is a region of enhanced localized plastic deformation. The specific energy consumption in this region was estimated and used to suggest optimisation options for Wf/W composites.

  7. Compression Molding of Chemical/Thermal Resistant Composite Materials Using Wastes of Glass Fiber Reinforced PTFE and Carbon Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    This report proposed the compression molding method of chemical/thermal resistant composite materials reinforced by the carbon fiber extracted from CFRP waste and the waste of glass fiber coated by PTFE. The FEP resin was used for the matrix material. The contents of carbon fiber and FEP resin were varied in the experiments, and the machanical properties of composite materials were discussed in detail. As a result, the bending strength and modulus increased with increasing the content of carb...

  8. Laser cutting of carbon fiber reinforced thermo-plastics (CFRTP) by single-mode fiber laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Sato, Tadatake; Narazaki, Aiko; Kurosaki, Ryozo; Muramatsu, Mayu; Harada, Yoshihisa; Anzai, Kenji; Aoyama, Mitsuaki; Matsushita, Masafumi; Furukawa, Koichi; Nishino, Michiteru; Fujisaki, Akira; Miyato, Taizo; Kayahara, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    We report on the laser cutting of carbon fiber reinforced thermo-plastics (CFRTP) with a cw IR fiber laser (single-mode fiber laser, average power: 350 W). CFRTP is a high strength composite material with a lightweight, and is increasingly being used various applications. A well-defined cutting of CFRTP which were free of debris and thermal-damages around the grooves, were performed by the laser irradiation with a fast beam galvanometer scanning on a multiple-scanpass method.

  9. Energy absorption at high strain rate of glass fiber reinforced mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenu Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of cement mortars reinforced with glass fibers was studied. The influence of the addition of glass fibers on energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate was investigated. Static tests in compression, in tension and in bending were first performed. Dynamic tests by means of a Modified Hopkinson Bar were then carried out in order to investigate how glass fibers affected energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate of the fiber reinforced mortar. The Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF was finally evaluated.

  10. MICROWAVE INDUCED DEGRADATION OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYESTER FOR FIBER AND RESIN RECOVERY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucar, Hülya; Nielsen, Rudi Pankratz; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    A solvolysis process to depolymerize the resin in glass fiber reinforced composites and recover the glass fibers has been investigated using microwave induced irradiation. The depolymerization was carried out in HNO3 with concentrations in the range of 1M-7M and in KOH with concentrations ranging...... from 1M-3.5M. With HNO3 concentrations of 3.5 M, 100 % resin removal was achieved at 208°C and recovery of pristine glass fibers without damage on the surface. Furthermore, it was possible to recover the monomer phthalic acid most efficiently at HNO3 concentrations ≤ 3.5M. Decreased level...... of depolymerization was achieved using KOH at concentrations ranging from 1-3.5M. Maximum 63 % resin removal was achieved using 1 M KOH and the resin removal efficiency decreased at higher KOH concentrations (3.5M). The glass fiber surfaces were damaged at both concentrations with more pronounced damages using 3.5M...

  11. Thermal degradation of fiber coatings in mullite-fiber-reinforced mullite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmuecker, M.; Schneider, H. [German Aerospace Research Establishment, Koeln (Germany). Inst. for Materials Research; Chawla, K.K.; Xu, Z.R. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The thermal degradation behavior of single-layer BN and of double-layer BN/SiC chemically vapor-deposited fiber coatings in mullite-fiber-reinforced mullite composites was investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy after processing and heat treatment of the composites at 1000, 1200, and 1300 C for 6 h in air. The single-layer BN coatings were {approximately}0.7 {micro}m thick and consisted of turbostratic BN with (0001) basal planes lying parallel to the surfaces of the fibers plus nanosized areas that had no preferential orientation. This microstructure remained unchanged up to 1000 C; however, distinct coarsening of the randomly oriented BN crystallites occurred in the temperature range of 1000--1200 C. The single-layer BN coatings were stable against oxidation, up to 1200 C. At higher temperatures, degradation of the coatings via oxidation occurred. Double-layer BN/SiC coating systems consisted of BN that was 0.08 {micro}m thick and SiC layers that were 0.16 {micro}m thick and deposited onto the mullite fibers. The turbostratic BN was highly anisotropic and did not undergo any microstructural change, up to 1300 C. The outer SiC layer of the double-layer coating system improved the oxidation resistance of BN in the 1200--1300 C temperature range, despite a partial oxidation of SiC to SiO{sub 2}.

  12. Effect of Fiber Waviness on Tensile Strength of a Flax-Sliver-Reinforced Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Piyatuchsananon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a composite material made from natural fibers and biodegradable resin, “green composite,” is attracting attention as an alternative composite material for the replacement of glass fiber-reinforced plastics. Plant-based natural fibers such as kenaf and flax have already been used as composite reinforcement materials because they are more environmentally friendly and costless fibers than artificial fibers. A problem of using natural fibers is the fiber waviness, which affects the tensile properties. Fiber waviness is fluctuation in the fiber orientation that is inherent in the sliver morphology of plant-based natural fibers. This study was conducted to clarify the relation between quantified parameters of fiber waviness and a composite’s tensile strength. First, the fiber orientation angles on a flax-sliver-reinforced composite were measured. Then the angle distribution was quantified through spatial autocorrelation analysis methods: Local Moran’s I and Local Geary’s c. Finally, the relation between the resultant tensile strength and quantified parameters was discussed.

  13. Carbon fiber/carbon nanotube reinforced hierarchical composites: Effect of CNT distribution on shearing strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Yi, H. Y.;

    2016-01-01

    The strength and fracture behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites with carbon nanotube (CNT) secondary reinforcement are investigated experimentally and numerically. Short Beam Shearing tests have been carried out, with SEM observations of the damage evolution in the composites. 3D...... multiscale computational (FE) models of the carbon/polymer composite with varied CNT distributions have been developed and employed to study the effect of the secondary CNT reinforcement, its distribution and content on the strength and fracture behavior of the composites. It is shown that adding secondary...... CNT nanoreinforcement into the matrix and/or the sizing of carbon fiber/reinforced composites ensures strong increase of the composite strength. The effect of secondary CNTs reinforcement is strongest when some small addition of CNTs in the polymer matrix is complemented by the fiber sizing with high...

  14. Carbon Nanotube (CNT) and Carbon Fiber Reinforced SiC Optical Components Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M Cubed has developed and patented technology to make carbon fiber reinforced SiC composites and components. In addition, the feasibility of doubling the toughness...

  15. Evaluation of Tensile Strength of Unresin Continuous Carbon Fiber Cables as Tensile Reinforcement for Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta, Toshiaki; Djamaluddin, rudy; Seo, SungTag; Sajima, Takao; Harada, Koji

    2002-01-01

    As a tensile reinforcement of a concrete structure member, tensile strength of Unresin Continuous Carbon Fiber (UCCF) cables should be stated clearly. It has been reported that, through direct tensile test, tensile capacity of UCCF cables ranged from 30%

  16. Effect of polyester fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties of interim fixed partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gopichander

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, polyester fiber reinforcements improved the mechanical properties of heat-polymerized PMMA, cold-polymerized PMMA, and bis-acrylic provisional FPD materials.

  17. Piezoresistivity in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Cement Based Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing CHEN; Keru WU; Wu YAO

    2004-01-01

    The resu lts of some i nteresti ng investigation on the piezoresistivity of ca rbon fi ber reinforced cement based com posites (CFRC) are presented with the prospect of developing a new nondestructive testing method to assess the integrity of the composite. The addition of short carbon fibers to cement-based mortar or concrete improves the structural performance and at the same time significantly decreases the bulk electrical resistivity. This makes CFRC responsive to the smart behavior by measuring the resistance change with uniaxial pressure. The piezoresistivity of CFRC under different stress was studied, at the same time the damage occurring inner specimens was detected by acoustic emission as well. Test results show that there exists a marking pressure dependence of the conductivity in CFRC, in which the so-called negative pressure coefficient of resistive (NPCR) and positive pressure coefficient of resistive (PPCR) are observed under low and high pressure. Under constant pressures, time-dependent resistivity is an outstanding characteristic for the composites, which is defined as resistance creep. The breakdown and rebuild-up process of conductive network under pressure may be responsible for the pressure dependence of resistivity.

  18. Thermal diffusivity measurements on porous carbon fiber reinforced polymer tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jürgen; Gresslehner, Karl Heinz; Mayr, Günther; Hendorfer, Günther

    2017-02-01

    This work presents the application of methods for the determination of the thermal diffusivity well suited for flat bodies adapted to cylindrical bodies. Green's functions were used to get the temperature time history for small and large times, for the approach of intersecting these two straight lines. To verify the theoretical considerations noise free data are generated by finite element simulations. Furthermore effects of inhomogeneous excitation and the anisotropic heat conduction of carbon fiber reinforced polymers were taken into account in these numerical simulations. It could be shown that the intersection of the two straight lines is suitable for the determination of the thermal diffusivity, although the results have to be corrected depending on the ratio of the cylinders inner and outer radii. Inhomogeneous excitation affects the results of this approach as it lead to multidimensional heat flux. However, based on the numerical simulations a range of the azimuthal angle exists, where the thermal diffusivity is nearly independent of the angle. The method to determine the thermal diffusivity for curved geometries by the well suited Thermographic Signal Reconstruction method and taking into account deviations from the slab by a single correction factor has great advantages from an industrial point of view, just like an easy implementation into evaluation software and the Thermographic Signal Reconstruction methods rather short processing time.

  19. Guided wave propagation in porous unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobmann, Nicolas; Bach, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Networks of piezoelectric transducers mounted on aircraft structures for Acousto Ultrasonics (AU) purposes are designed to be applied during the service life of the aircraft. The approach to integrate these sensor networks already during the manufacture of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) host structures prompts ideas to achieve an additional benefit by their application for cure monitoring, thus extending their use to the manufacturing chain. This benefit could be extended even further if guided waves generated by AU sensor networks could be used for porosity testing extensively applied for CFRP aircraft structures. In light of this, an experimental study was conducted to investigate effects of porosity on the propagation of guided waves in a basic configuration of unidirectional CFRP. Several samples were manufactured at different porosity levels by variation of the processing pressure. Wave fields were acquired using an ultrasonic scanning device. In the present work, phase velocities are chosen as best measurable and quantifiable propagation feature and the approach for the analysis of phase velocities in porosity samples is outlined. First results are presented and discussed regarding the influence of porosity on guided wave phase velocity and basic applicability for porosity testing of aircraft structures.

  20. Mechanical Reinforcement of Wool Fiber through Polyelectrolyte Complexation with Chitosan and Gellan Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Anuar Mat Amin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC wool fibers formed by dipping chitosan or gellan gum-treated wool fibers into biopolymer solutions of opposite charge is reported. Treating wool fibers with chitosan (CH and gellan gum (GG solutions containing food dyes resulted in improved mechanical characteristics compared to wool fibers. In contrast, pH modification of the solutions resulted in the opposite effect. The mechanical characteristics of PEC-treated fibers were affected by the order of addition, i.e., dipping GG-treated fibers into chitosan resulted in mechanical reinforcement, whereas the reverse-order process did not.

  1. Properties of glass/carbon fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. H.; Sevkani, V. R.; Patel, B. R.; Patel, V. B.

    2016-05-01

    Composite Materials are well known for their tailor-made properties. For the fabrication of composites different types of reinforcements are used for different applications. Sometimes for a particular application, one type of reinforcement may not fulfill the requirements. Therefore, more than one type of reinforcements may be used. Thus, the idea of hybrid composites arises. Hybrid composites are made by joining two or more different reinforcements with suitable matrix system. It helps to improve the properties of composite materials. In the present work glass/carbon fiber reinforcement have been used with a matrix triglycidyl ether of tris(m-hydroxy phenyl) phosphate epoxy resin using amine curing agent. Different physical and mechanical properties of the glass, carbon and glass/carbon fiber reinforced polymeric systems have been found out.

  2. State-of-the-art of fiber-reinforced polymers in additive manufacturing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have received a lot of attention in recent years for their use in multiple materials such as metals, ceramics, and polymers. The aim of this review article is to analyze the technology of fiber-reinforced polymers and its implementation with additive...... manufacturing. This article reviews recent developments, ideas, and state-of-the-art technologies in this field. Moreover, it gives an overview of the materials currently available for fiber-reinforced material technology....

  3. Mechanical behavior of Fiber Reinforced SiC/RBSN Ceramic Matrix Composites: Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    AD-A235 926 NASA AVSCOM Technical Memorandum 103688 Technical Report 91-C-004 Mechanical Behavior of Fiber Reinforced SiC/RBSN Ceramic Matrix Composites : Theory... CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES : THEORY AND EXPERIMENT Abhisak Chulya* Department of Civil Engineering Cleveland State University Cleveland, Ohio 44115...tough and sufficiently stable continuous fiber- reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) which can survive in oxidizing environ- ments at temperatures

  4. The Effects of Weathering on Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (Grp) Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, H.; S. Al Araimi and R. A. Siddiqui

    2012-01-01

    Glass fiber reinforced plastics composite is extensively used as a structural material for pools, oil pipes and tanks because it has good corrosion resistance properties.  The effects of weathering on the mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GRP) in the Sultanate of Oman have been studied.  The tensile and three point bend specimens were exposed to outdoor conditions (open atmosphere) in sunlight and tested for various intervals of time.  It was observed th...

  5. Proposed Methodology for Design of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Spike Anchors into Reinforced Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, Eric Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-26

    The included methodology, calculations, and drawings support design of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) spike anchors for securing U-wrap CFRP onto reinforced concrete Tbeams. This content pertains to an installation in one of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s facilities. The anchors are part of a seismic rehabilitation to the subject facility. The information contained here is for information purposes only. The reader is encouraged to verify all equations, details, and methodology prior to usage in future projects. However, development of the content contained here complied with Los Alamos National Laboratory’s NQA-1 quality assurance program for nuclear structures. Furthermore, the formulations and details came from the referenced published literature. This literature represents the current state of the art for FRP anchor design. Construction personnel tested the subject anchor design to the required demand level demonstrated in the calculation. The testing demonstrated the ability of the anchors noted to carry loads in excess of 15 kips in direct tension. The anchors were not tested to failure in part because of the hazards associated with testing large-capacity tensile systems to failure. The calculation, methodology, and drawing originator was Eric MacFarlane of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) Office of Seismic Hazards and Risk Mitigation (OSHRM). The checker for all components was Mike Salmon of the LANL OSHRM. The independent reviewers of all components were Insung Kim and Loring Wyllie of Degenkolb Engineers. Note that Insung Kim contributed to the initial formulations in the calculations that pertained directly to his Doctoral research.

  6. Health service accreditation reinforces a mindset of high-performance human resource management: lessons from an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, D; Kellner, A; Townsend, K; Wilkinson, A; Lawrence, S A

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether an accreditation program facilitates healthcare organizations (HCOs) to evolve and maintain high-performance human resource management (HRM) systems. Cross-sectional multimethod study. Healthcare organizations participating in the Australian Council on Healthcare Standards Evaluation and Quality Improvement Program (EQuIP 4) between 2007 and 2011. Ratings across the EQuIP 4 HRM criteria, a clinical performance measure, surveyor reports (HRM information) and interview data (opinions and experiences regarding HRM and accreditation). Healthcare organizations identified as high performing on accreditation HRM criteria seek excellence primarily because of internal motivations linked to best practice. Participation in an accreditation program is a secondary and less significant influence. Notwithstanding, the accreditation program provides the HCO opportunity for internal and external review and assessment of their performance; the accreditation activities are reflective learning and feedback events. This study reveals that HCOs that pursue highly performing HRM systems use participation in an accreditation program as an opportunity. Their organizational mindset is to use the program as a tool by which to reflect and obtain feedback on their performance so to maintain or improve their management of staff and delivery of care. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  7. A study on the crushing behavior of basalt fiber reinforced composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, A.; Veerasimman, A. P.; Vairavan, M.; Francisco, C.; Sultan, M. T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The crushing behavior and energy absorption capacity of basalt fiber reinforced hollow square structure composites are studied under axial compression. Using the hand layup technique, basalt fiber reinforced composites were fabricated using general purpose (GP) polyester resin with the help of wooden square shaped mould of varying height (100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm). For comparison, similar specimens of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites were also fabricated and tested. Axial compression load is applied over the top end of the specimen with cross head speed as 2 mm/min using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). From the experimental results, the load-deformation characteristics of both glass fiber and basalt fiber composites were investigated. Crashworthiness and mode of collapse for the composites were determined from load-deformation curve, and they were then compared to each other in terms of their crushing behaviors.

  8. Mechanical behavior and properties of fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites for high temperature use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongdu Cho; Qiang Pan; Sangkyo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Ceramics can keep their mechanical characteristics up to 2 000℃ or higher.In this paper,A model to predict ultimate strength of continuous fiber-reinforced brittle matrix composites is developed.A statistical theory for the strength of a uni-axially fiber-reinforced brittle matrix composite is presented.Also a semi-empirical frictional heating method for estimating in-situ interfacial shear in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites was improved.Local uneven fiber packing variation as well as uneven micro-damage during fatigue can be expected to have effects on the composites:generation of frictional heating,thermal gradients,and residual stresses around local fiber breaks.This study examined those engineering interests by the finite element method.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF BONDING IN OXIDE-FIBER (WHISKER) REINFORCED METALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CERAMIC FIBERS , BONDING), (*COMPOSITE MATERIALS, BONDING), (*BONDING, CERAMIC FIBERS ), ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, OXIDES, ZIRCONIUM, NICKEL, TITANIUM, CHROMIUM, SINGLE CRYSTALS, VACUUM, SHEAR STRESSES, SURFACE PROPERTIES, ADDITIVES.

  10. Review of Japanese recommendations on design and construction of different classes of fiber reinforced concrete and application examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uchida, Yuichi; Fischer, Gregor; Hishiki, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    Reinforced Cement Composites (HPFRCC) with strain hardening and multiple cracking behavior, and Ultra High-strength Fiber Reinforced concrete (UFC) with increased tensile strength. The recommendations on the design, production, and application of these classes of fiber reinforced concrete have been...

  11. Influence of Hybridizing Flax and Hemp-Agave Fibers with Glass Fiber as Reinforcement in a Polyurethane Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, six combinations of flax, hemp, and glass fiber were investigated for a hybrid reinforcement system in a polyurethane (PU composite. The natural fibers were combined with glass fibers in a PU composite in order to achieve a better mechanical reinforcement in the composite material. The effect of fiber hybridization in PU composites was evaluated through physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption (WA, specific gravity (SG, coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE, flexural and compression properties, and hardness. The mechanical properties of hybridized samples showed mixed trends compared to the unhybridized samples, but hybridization with glass fiber reduced water absorption by 37% and 43% for flax and hemp-agave PU composites respectively.

  12. The recycling of comminuted glass-fiber-reinforced resin from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Jia, Weifeng; Li, Jinhui

    2010-05-01

    The reuse of comminuted glass-fiber-reinforced resin with various granularities gathered from printed circuit manufacturing residues was investigated. As fillers, these residues were converted into polymeric composite board by an extrusion and injection process using polypropylene as a bonding agent. The mechanical properties of the reproduced composite board were examined by considering the effects of mass fraction and glass-fiber distribution. Interfacial-layer micrograph analysis of the composite material fracture surface was used to study the fiber reinforcement mechanism. Results showed that using comminuted glass-fiber-reinforced resin as a filler material greatly enhanced the performance properties of the composite board. Although the length and diameter of filler varied, these variations had no appreciable effect on the mechanical properties of the processed board. Maximum values of 48.30 MPa for flexural strength, 31.34 MPa for tensile strength, and 31.34 J/m for impact strength were achieved from a composite board containing mass fractions of 30, 10, and 20% glass-fiber-reinforced resin waste, respectively. It was found that the maximum amount of recyclate that could be added to a composite board was 30% of weight. Beyond these percentages, the materials blend became unmanageable and the mixture less amenable to impregnation with fiber. Presented studies indicated that comminuted glass-fiber-reinforced resin waste-filled polypropylene composites are promising candidates for structural applications where high stiffness and fracture resistance are required.

  13. Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Mercerized and Citric Acid Surface Treated Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Jyotiraman; Baxi, R. N., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Mercerization or NaOH fiber surface treatment is one of the most popular surface treatment processes to make the natural fibers such as bamboo fibers compatible for use as reinforcing material in composites. But NaOH being a chemical is hazardous and polluting to the nature. This paper explores the possibility of use of naturally derived citric acid for bamboo fiber surface treatment and its comparison with NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. Untreated, 2.5 wt% NaOH treated and 5 wt% citric acid treated Bamboo Fiber Composites with 5 wt% fiber content were developed by Hand Lay process. Bamboo mats made of bamboo slivers were used as reinforcing material. Mechanical and physical characterization was done to compare the effects of NaOH and citric acid bamboo fiber surface treatment on mechanical and physical properties of Bamboo Fiber Composite. The experiment data reveals that the tensile and flexural strength was found to be highest for citric acid and NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composite respectively. Water absorption tendency was found more than the NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. SEM micrographs used to analyze the morphology of fracture surface of tensile test specimens confirm improvement in fiber-matrix interface bonding due to surface treatment of bamboo fibers.

  14. Hysteretic Behavior of Tubular Steel Braces Having Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement Around End Net Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Haydaroğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental investigation into the seismic retrofit of tubular steel braces using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP members. CFRP retrofitting of net sections for compact tubes are proposed for delaying potential local net section failure. A total of almost full-scale three (TB-1, TB-2, and TB-3 compact steel tubular specimens were designed per AISC specifications, constructed, and cyclically tested to fracture. Retrofitted braces, when compared to the reference specimen, developed fuller hysteretic curves. Increase in cumulative hysteretic energy dissipation and the elongation in fracture life in the specimen retrofitted with CFRP plates and CFRP sheet wraps at net sections are observed during testing. This resulted in a maximum of 82.5% more dissipated energy for compact tube specimens. Also, this retrofit provided a longer experimental fracture life (maximum 59% more. Due to fracture initiation during the last cycles, significant reductions in strength and stiffness have been obtained. No significant change (maximum 10% in the brace stiffness was observed, which could be desirable in seismic retrofit applications. Pushover analysis per FEMA 356 for the bare specimen shows that FEMA does not represent actual brace behavior in the compression side although pushover and experimental results are in good agreement in the tension side.

  15. Micromechanical modeling of damage and fracture of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Brøndsted, Povl

    2009-01-01

    An overview of methods of the mathematical modeling of deformation, damage and fracture in fiber reinforced composites is presented. The models are classified into five main groups: shear lag-based, analytical models, fiber bundle model and its generalizations, fracture mechanics based and contin...

  16. How Properties of Kenaf Fibers from Burkina Faso Contribute to the Reinforcement of Earth Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Millogo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics of Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf fibers from Burkina Faso were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD, infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, chemical analysis and video microscopy. Kenaf fibers (3 cm long were used to reinforce earth blocks, and the mechanical properties of reinforced blocks, with fiber contents ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 wt%, were investigated. The fibers were mainly composed of cellulose type I (70.4 wt%, hemicelluloses (18.9 wt% and lignin (3 wt% and were characterized by high tensile strength (1 ± 0.25 GPa and Young’s modulus (136 ± 25 GPa, linked to their high cellulose content. The incorporation of short fibers of kenaf reduced the propagation of cracks in the blocks, through the good adherence of fibers to the clay matrix, and therefore improved their mechanical properties. Fiber incorporation was particularly beneficial for the bending strength of earth blocks because it reinforces these blocks after the failure of soil matrix observed for unreinforced blocks. Blocks reinforced with such fibers had a ductile tensile behavior that made them better building materials for masonry structures than unreinforced blocks.

  17. Jute fiber reinforced polypropylene produced by continuous extrusion compounding. Part 1. Processing and ageing properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Snijder, M.H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the processing and ageing properties of jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. The composite has been manufactured by a continuous extrusion process and results in free flowing composite granules, comprising up to 50 weight percent (wt %) jute fiber in PP. These

  18. Jute fiber reinforced polypropylene produced by continuous extrusion compounding. Part 1. Processing and ageing properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Snijder, M.H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the processing and ageing properties of jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. The composite has been manufactured by a continuous extrusion process and results in free flowing composite granules, comprising up to 50 weight percent (wt %) jute fiber in PP. These

  19. Residual stress measurements in an SiC continuous fiber reinforced Ti matrix composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, P.F.; Mulder, F.M.; Wei, W.; Rekveldt, M.Th.; Knight, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    During the fabrication of ceramic fiber reinforced metal matrix composites mismatch stresses will be introduced due to differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the matrix and the fibers. Calculations, based on a coaxial cylinder model, [1 and 2] predict that, for a Ti matrix SiC

  20. Micro-mechanical Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites using Cohesive Crack Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the mechanism appearing during fiber debonding in fiber reinforced cementitious composite. The investigation is performed on the micro scale by use of a Finite Element Model. The model is 3 dimensional and the fictitious crack model and a mixed mode stress formulation...

  1. Reinforcement of polypropylene by annual plant fibers: optimisation of the coupling agent efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.H.B.; Bos, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Annual growth agrofibers like flax and jute can compete with glass fibers, considering their intrinsic mechanical properties. This paper discusses reinforcement of polypropylene (PP) homopolymer with flax bast fibers. Maleic Anhydride modified PP (MAPP) grades are screened on coupling efficiency. Th

  2. Strength and deformability of concrete beams reinforced by non-metallic fiber and composite rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, K. L.; Plevkov, V. S.; Nevskii, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Production of durable and high-strength concrete structures with unique properties has always been crucial. Therefore special attention has been paid to non-metallic composite and fiber reinforcement. This article describes the experimental research of strength and deformability of concrete beams with dispersed and core fiber-based reinforcement. As composite reinforcement fiberglass reinforced plastic rods with diameters 6 mm and 10 mm are used. Carbon and basalt fibers are used as dispersed reinforcement. The developed experimental program includes designing and production of flexural structures with different parameters of dispersed fiber and composite rebar reinforcement. The preliminary testing of mechanical properties of these materials has shown their effectiveness. Structures underwent bending testing on a special bench by applying flexural static load up to complete destruction. During the tests vertical displacements were recorded, as well as value of actual load, slippage of rebars in concrete, crack formation. As a result of research were obtained structural failure and crack formation graphs, value of fracture load and maximum displacements of the beams at midspan. Analysis of experimental data showed the effectiveness of using dispersed reinforcement of concrete and the need for prestressing of fiberglass composite rebar.

  3. Evaluation of tensile strength of hybrid fiber (jute/gongura) reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Vijay, Kumar V.; Chandan, Byral R.; Prabaharan, G. P.; Raghav, Dasarath

    2015-07-01

    The polymer matrix composites attract many industrial applications due to its light weight, less cost and easy for manufacturing. In this paper, an attempt is made to prepare and study of the tensile strength of hybrid (two natural) fibers reinforced hybrid (Natural + Synthetic) polymer matrix composites. The samples were prepared with hybrid reinforcement consists of two different fibers such as jute and Gongura and hybrid polymer consists of polyester and cashew nut shell resins. The hybrid composites tensile strength is evaluated to study the influence of various fiber parameters on mechanical strength. The parameters considered here are the duration of fiber treatment, the concentration of alkali in fiber treatment and nature of fiber content in the composites.

  4. Microstructure and phase stress partition of Mo fiber reinforced CuZnAl composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Ni, Dingrui [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Hao, Shijie [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Li, Sirui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Ma, Zongyi [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Liu, Yinong [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Feng, Chun [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Cui, Lishan, E-mail: andor_20@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China)

    2015-03-25

    A Mo fiber reinforced CuZnAl composite was prepared by means of friction stir processing and wire drawing. Reinforcing effect of the Mo fiber and phase stress partition in the composite were investigated by means of in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The maximum elastic strain of the Mo fiber achieved was 1.8%, implying a component stress of 550 MPa on the fibers. The Mo fibers, with a volume fraction of 10%, carried 80% of stress fraction during tensile deformation. The change of modulus caused by stress-induced martensitic transformation strain resulted in redistribution of the phase stress partition between Mo fibers and CuZnAl matrix.

  5. Tensile strength and its scatter of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, H.; Oya, N.; Yamashita, K.; Maekawa, Z.I. [Kyoto Inst. of Technology (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    0 (along the fiber direction) and 90 degree (transverse to the fiber direction) tension tests of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) using a great number of specimens were conducted. Tensile properties and their scatter were evaluated by means of the data base. Materials used in this study were seven kinds of carbon fibers and three kinds of epoxy resins. Reinforcing fiber and matrix resin properties strongly affected on 0 and 90 degree properties of CFRP respectively. In 0 degree tension tests, fracture mode of specimen vaned in each material, and a relationship between the scatter of strength and the fracture mode existed. From the results of 9 degree tension tests, some differences of interfacial properties between each laminate were` also detected. According to some considerations on fracture mechanism in 0 degree tension test, it was deduced that the fracture mode depended on the balance of fiber, matrix and interface properties.

  6. Optimizing the Flexural Strength of Beams Reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bars Using Back-Propagation Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman O. Taha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reinforced concrete with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars (carbon, aramid, basalt and glass is used in places where a high ratio of strength to weight is required and corrosion is not acceptable. Behavior of structural members using (FRP bars is hard to be modeled using traditional methods because of the high non-linearity relationship among factors influencing the strength of structural members. Back-propagation neural network is a very effective method for modeling such complicated relationships. In this paper, back-propagation neural network is used for modeling the flexural behavior of beams reinforced with (FRP bars. 101 samples of beams reinforced with fiber bars were collected from literatures. Five important factors are taken in consideration for predicting the strength of beams. Two models of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP are created, first with single-hidden layer and the second with two-hidden layers. The two-hidden layer model showed better accuracy ratio than the single-hidden layer model. Parametric study has been done for two-hidden layer model only. Equations are derived to be used instead of the model and the importance of input factors is determined. Results showed that the neural network is successful in modeling the behavior of concrete beams reinforced with different types of (FRP bars.

  7. Experimental determination of optimum dielectric strength of Turmeric fiber reinforced polyester composites using flexural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murali Mohan Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation puts forward new natural fiber turmeric to be used in the preparation of turmeric fiber reinforced polyester (FRP composites. The dielectric strength of the composites shown decrease in trend with increase in volume fraction of fiber with appreciable reduction in their weight. There was clear fall in the density of the composites with increase in fiber volume fraction. The optimum value of dielectric strength was determined with flexural strength, flexural modulus and specific flexural strength, specific flexural modulus against percentage volume fraction of fiber from the graphs.

  8. Statistical modelling of compression and fatigue damage of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Brøndsted, Povl

    2009-01-01

    A statistical computational model of strength and damage of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced composites under compressive and cyclic compressive loading is presented in this paper. The model is developed on the basis of the Budiansky–Fleck fiber kinking condition, continuum damage mechanics...... concept and the Monte-Carlo method. The effects of fiber misalignment variability, fiber clustering, load sharing rules on the damage in composite are studied numerically. It is demonstrated that the clustering of fibers has a negative effect of the damage resistance of a composite. Further, the static...

  9. X-ray determination of thermal stresses in compositions reinforced by fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samoilov, A.I.; Krivko, A.I.; Ignatova, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    The direct sin2 phi X-ray method for determining the stresses in fiber-reinforced composites is discussed. The diffraction on a stressed fibrous composite is examined in detail, and the integral (X-ray) deformation of the matrix is determined in an arbitrary direction lying in a plane including the axis of the fiber and normal to the plane of the sample. It is found that the sin2 phi method can be advantageously used to estimate the degree of the bond at the boundary between the reinforcement fiber and the matrix.

  10. Research on the melt impregnation of continuous carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, M. Y.; Li, C. X.; Xue, P.; Chen, K.; Chen, T. H.

    2016-07-01

    Impregnation mold of continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites was designed and built in the article. Based on the theory of fluid mechanics and Darcy's law, a model of the melt impregnation was also established. The influences of fiber bundle width and impregnation pins’ diameter on the impregnation degree were studied by numerical simulation. Continuous carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composites were prepared. The effects of coated angle and impregnation mold temperature on the mechanical properties of the composites were also described.The agreement between the experimental data and prediction by the model was found to be satisfactory.

  11. Engineering of fiber-reinforced tissues with anisotropic biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Nandan L; Baker, Brendon M; Chen, Chiu-Yu; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    The repair of dense fiber-reinforced tissues poses a significant challenge for the tissue engineering community. The function of these structures is largely dependent on their architectural form, and as such, scaffold organization is an important design parameter in generating tissue analogues. To address this issue, we have recently utilized electrospinning to instill controllable fiber anisotropy in nanofibrous scaffolds. This abstract details the mechanical characterization of the bulk and local properties of these scaffolds, and points to their potential application in the repair and/or generation of fiber-reinforced tissues that recapitulate the native form.

  12. Modeling and mesoscopic damage constitutive relation of brittle short-fiber-reinforced composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪秋; 梁乃刚; 夏蒙棼

    1999-01-01

    Aimed at brittle composites reinforced by randomly distributed short-fibers with a relatively large aspect ratio, stiffness modulus and strength, a mesoscopic material model was proposed. Based on the statistical description,damage mechanisms, damage-induced anisotropy, damage rate effect and stress redistribution, the constitutive relation were derived. By taking glass fiber reinforced polypropylene polymers as an example, the effect of initial orientation distribution of fibers, damage-induced anisotropy, and damage-rate effect on macro-behaviors of composites were quantitatively analyzed. The theoretical predictions compared favorably with the experimental results.

  13. Monitoring ageing of alkali resistant glass fiber reinforced cement (GRC) using guided ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J. N.; Amjad, U.; Mahmoudabadi, E.; Payá, J.; Bonilla, M.; Kundu, T.

    2013-04-01

    Glass fiber reinforced cement (GRC) is a Portland cement based composite with alkali resistant (AR) glass fibers. The main drawback of this material is the ageing of the reinforcing fibers with time and especially in presence of humidity in the environment. Until now only destructive methods have been used to evaluate the durability of GRC. In this study ultrasonic guided wave inspection of plate shaped specimens has been carried out. The results obtained here show that acoustic signatures are capable of discerning ageing in GRC. Therefore, the ultrasonic guided wave based inspection technique is a promising method for the nondestructive evaluation of the durability of the GRC.

  14. Effect of fiber content on flexural properties of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 prepared by injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Manamu; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2017-07-26

    The use of non-metal clasp denture (NMCD) materials may seriously affect the remaining tissues because of the low rigidity of NMCD materials such as polyamides. The purpose of this study was to develop a high-rigidity glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (GFRTP) composed of E-glass fiber and polyamide-6 for NMCDs using an injection molding. The reinforcing effects of fiber on the flexural properties of GFRTPs were investigated using glass fiber content ranging from 0 to 50 mass%. Three-point bending tests indicated that the flexural strength and elastic modulus of a GFRTP with a fiber content of 50 mass% were 5.4 and 4.7 times higher than those of unreinforced polyamide-6, respectively. The result showed that the physical characteristics of GFRTPs were greatly improved by increasing the fiber content, and the beneficial effects of fiber reinforcement were evident. The findings suggest that the injection-molded GFRTPs are adaptable to NMCDs because of their excellent mechanical properties.

  15. A note on the effect of the fiber curvature on the micromechanical behavior of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Escalante-Solis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the role of the fiber curvature on the tensile properties of short-natural-fiber reinforced composites, a photoelastic model and a finite element analysis were performed in a well characterized henequen fiber-high density polyethylene composite material. It was hypothesized that the angle of orientation of the inclusion and the principal material orientation with respect to the applied load was very important in the reinforcement mechanics. From the photoelastic and finite element analysis it was found that the stress distribution around the fiber inclusion was different on the concave side from that observed on the convex side and an efficient length of stress transfer was estimated to be approximately equal to one third the average fiber length. This approach was used to predict the short-natural-fiber reinforced composite mechanical properties using probabilistic functions modifications of the rule of mixtures models developed by Fukuda-Chow and the Fukuda-Kawata. Recognizing the inherent flexibility that curves the natural fibers during processing, the consideration of a length of one third of the average length l should improve the accuracy of the calculations of the mechanical properties using theoretical models.

  16. Enhanced mechanical properties of a novel, injectable, fiber-reinforced brushite cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenz, Stefan; Kunisch, Elke; Mühlstädt, Mike; Böhm, Anne; Kopsch, Victoria; Bossert, Jörg; Kinne, Raimund W; Jandt, Klaus D

    2014-11-01

    Injectable, brushite-forming calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have great potential as bone replacement materials due to enhanced degradability and long-term inclusion in bone remodeling. However, the use of such brushite-forming CPCs in load-bearing areas is limited by their low mechanical strength. One approach to overcome this limitation is the use of reinforcing fibers. Thus, an injectable, biodegradable, brushite-forming CPC based on beta-tricalcium phosphate/phosphoric acid with fiber reinforcement was developed for minimally invasive surgery. The fibers (diameter 25 µm; length 0.25, 1 or 2mm) were extruded from poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) and added to the CPC (2.5, 5 or 7.5% (w/w)). Independent of the fiber content, injectability of the CPC was retained up to a fiber length of 1mm. The addition of all PLGA fiber types increased diametral tensile strength, biaxial flexural strength, and flexural strength by up to 25% (p ≤ 0.05 for the diametral tensile strength for the CPC with 5% (w/w) 1mm fibers and the biaxial flexural strength of the CPC with 5% (w/w) 0.25 mm fibers). In contrast, the work of fracture strongly and significantly increased (pfiber content, the mechanical properties of the fiber-reinforced CPC were mostly augmented with increasing fiber length. Also, the addition of PLGA fibers to the brushite-forming CPC (up to 7.5% (w/w)) only transiently delayed cell growth and did not decrease cell viability. Fiber reinforcement of CPCs thus augments their mechanical strength while preserving the injectability and biocompatibility required for their application in modern surgery.

  17. Mechanical interaction of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) rebar in tensile loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a preliminary study of the composite interaction of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC), reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) rebar. The main topic of this paper will focus on the interaction of the two materials (ECC and GFRP) during axial loading......, particularly in post cracking phase of the concrete matrix. The experimental program carried out in this study examined composite behavior under monotonic and cyclic loading of the specimens in the elastic and inelastic deformation phases. The stiffness development of the composite during loading was evaluated...

  18. Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites and Methods of Making Same Without the Use of Oven or Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnell, Thomas J. (Inventor); Rauscher, Michael D. (Inventor); Stienecker, Rick D. (Inventor); Nickerson, David M. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Method embodiments for producing a fiber-reinforced epoxy composite comprise providing a mold defining a shape for a composite, applying a fiber reinforcement over the mold, covering the mold and fiber reinforcement thereon in a vacuum enclosure, performing a vacuum on the vacuum enclosure to produce a pressure gradient, insulating at least a portion of the vacuum enclosure with thermal insulation, infusing the fiber reinforcement with a reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent under vacuum conditions, wherein the reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent generates exothermic heat, and producing the fiber-reinforced epoxy composite having a glass transition temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. by curing the fiber reinforcement infused with the reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent by utilizing the exothermically generated heat, wherein the curing is conducted inside the thermally insulated vacuum enclosure without utilization of an external heat source or an external radiation source.

  19. Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Properties of Electroless Nickel-coated Carbon Fiber Paper Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; WANG Jun; WANG Tao; WANG Junpeng; XU Renxin; YANG Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fibers (CFs) were coated with a nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) film using an electroless plating process. The morphology, elemental composition and phases in the coating layer of the CFs were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Wet paper-making method was used to prepare nickle coated carbon fiber paper (NCFP). Vacuum assisted infusion molding process (VAIMP) was employed to manufacture the NCFP reinforced epoxy composites, and carbon fiber paper (CFP) reinforced epoxy composites were also produced as a comparison. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties of the composites were measured in the 3.22-4.9 GHz frequency range using waveguide method. Both NCFP and CFP reinforced epoxy composites of 0.5 mm thickness exhibited high EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) at 8wt%fiber content, 35 dB and 30 dB, respectively, and reflection was the dominant shielding mechanism.

  20. Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Smart Soft Composite Actuators According to Material Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Min-Woo; Kim, Hyung-Il; Song, Sung-Hyuk; Ahn, Sung-Hoon [Seoul Nat’l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Fiber-reinforced polymer composites, which are made by combining a continuous fiber that acts as reinforcement and a homogeneous polymeric material that acts as a host, are engineering materials with high strength and stiffness and a lightweight structure. In this study, a shape memory alloy(SMA) reinforced composite actuator is presented. This actuator is used to generate large deformations in single lightweight structures and can be used in applications requiring a high degree of adaptability to various external conditions. The proposed actuator consists of numerous individual laminas of the glass-fiber fabric that are embedded in a polymeric matrix. To characterize its deformation behavior, the composition of the actuator was changed by changing the matrix material and the number of the glass-fiber fabric layers. In addition, current of various magnitudes were applied to each actuator to study the effect of the heating of SMA wires on applying current.

  1. Effect of Different Parameters on Mechanical and Erosion Wear Behavior of Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer composites has been continuously growing during the last few decades. These composites find diverse applications in hostile environment where they are exposed to external attacks such as solid particle erosion. Also, in many respects, the mechanical properties of different polymer composites are their most important characteristics. Therefore, improvement of the erosion resistance and mechanical behavior of polymer composites are the prime requirements in their applications. Bamboo fiber which is rich in cellulose, relatively inexpensive, and abundantly available has the potential for reinforcement in polymers. To this end, an attempt has been made in this paper not only to study the utilization potential of bamboo fiber in polymer composites but also to study the effect of various parameters on mechanical and erosion wear performance of bamboo fiber reinforced epoxy composites.

  2. Influence of the curing cycles on the fatigue performance of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüther, Jonas; Brøndsted, Povl

    2016-01-01

    stresses are built up and frozen, as residual stresses occur. In the present work, a glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminate with an unidirectional architecture based on non-crimp fabrics with backing fibers is investigated. Three different curing cycles (time-temperature cycles) are used, leading...... demonstrated that the resulting residual stresses barely influences the quasi-static mechanical properties of reinforced glass-fiber composites. It is found that the fatigue performance in the 0° direction is significantly influenced by the internal stresses, whereas the fatigue performance in the off axes......During the manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polymers the curing reaction of the resin results in shrinkage of the resin and introduces internal stresses in the composites. When curing at higher temperatures in order to shorten up the processing time, higher curing stresses and thermal...

  3. Perawatan Satu Kunjungan Restorasi Pasak Fiber Reinforced Composite Pada Gigi Insisivus Atas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Ariani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perawatan saluran akar satu kali kunjungan memberikan keuntungan antara lain memperkecil resiko kontaminasi mikroorganisme dan menghemat waktu perawatan. Pasak fiber reinforced composite memiliki ikatan yang baik dengan dentin menggunakan semen resin dan inti dari resin. Penggunaan pasak bisa mengurangi risiko fraktur. Tujuan penulisan laporan kasus ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi hasil restorasi gigi 11 nekrosis pulpa pasca perawatan saluran akar disertai restorasi dengan pasak fiber reinforced composite. Pasien wanita, 22 tahun datang ke Klinik Konservasi RSGM FKG UGM untuk merawat gigi depan atas kanan yang berlubang. Berdasarkan pemeriksaan subjektif, objektif dan radiografis diperoleh diagnosis gigi 11 nekrosis pulpa. pasca perawatan saluran akar gigi Gigi direstorasi dengan resin komposit dan pasak fiber reinforced composite. Kesimpula dari hasil evaluasi klinis saat kontrol tidak ada keluhan rasa sakit dan pasien merasa puas. One Visit Treatment of Fiber Reinforced Compositerestoration in Maxillary Right First Incisivus. One visit root canal treatment is advantageous to minimize the risk of microorganism contamination. It saves time and more tolerable for the patients. Fiber reinforced composite post is fabricated, and it has been known to have a good bond with dentinal wall of root space, resin cement and composite resin core. The use of this post could decrease the risk of fracture. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of dental restoration 11 pulp necrosis after root canal treatment with resin composite restorations and post fiber reinforced composite. A 22 year-old female patient who came to Faculty of Dentistry UGM complained about her maxillary right incisor teeth which decayed and needed a treatment. Based on the subjective, objective and radiograph examinations, it was diagnosed that the pulp was necrotic. After one visit root canal treatment and based on clinical evaluation, it is concluded that the right upper

  4. Optical and mechanical properties of glass fiber and ribbon reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, John Matthew

    Composites with excellent optical clarity have been fabricated by matching the refractive index of the glass fiber reinforcement to that of the polymer matrix. Refractive index mismatch, resulting from temperature changes, leads to degradation of optical clarity in fiber composites due to light impinging upon the fiber/matrix interface at oblique angles of incidence. The plane parallel surfaces of glass ribbon reinforcement minimize incidence at oblique angles, thereby reducing the sensitivity to refractive index mismatch. Optical data show that the use of ribbons in place of fibers increases the temperature range over which these composites retain good optical clarity by more than five times. A Monte Carlo type simulation of optical transmission of fiber reinforced composites has been developed. Temperature dependent optical transmission of glass fiber and ribbon reinforced composites was measured using a He/Ne laser and a detection assembly with an acceptance angle of 0.15sp°. Good agreement was observed between the measured transmission data and the calculations from the computer model. The computer model was used to predict achievable optical transmission in hypothetical fiber and ribbon composites with varying dn/dT and glass content. Results indicate that ribbon reinforced composites have the potential for nearly temperature independent optical clarity. Flexural strength of glass fiber and ribbon reinforced composites was calculated from 3-point bend data on specimens with a neat PMMA core and composite veneer on the surfaces. Veneer strength was 40 to 50% higher than that of neat PMMA. A hypothetical quasi-isotropic veneered composite was designed using lamination theory. For equivalent load bearing capacity beams, the mass of the composite is 16 and 70% less than neat PMMA and fused silica, respectively.

  5. Design and analysis of a novel latch system implementing fiber-reinforced composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Arreola, Francisco Javier

    The use of fiber-reinforced composite materials have increased in the last four decades in high technology applications due to their exceptional mechanical properties and low weight. In the automotive industry carbon fiber have become popular exclusively in luxury cars because of its high cost. However, Carbon-glass hybrid composites offer an effective alternative to designers to implement fiber-reinforced composites into several conventional applications without a considerable price increase maintaining most of their mechanical properties. A door latch system is a complex mechanism that is under high loading conditions during car accidents such as side impacts and rollovers. Therefore, the Department of Transportation in The United States developed a series of tests that every door latch system comply in order to be installed in a vehicle. The implementation of fiber-reinforced composite materials in a door latch system was studied by analyzing the material behavior during the FMVSS No. 206 transverse test using computational efforts and experimental testing. Firstly, a computational model of the current forkbolt and detent structure was developed. Several efforts were conducted in order to create an effective and time efficient model. Two simplified models were implemented with two different contact interaction approaches. 9 composite materials were studied in forkbolt and 5 in detent including woven carbon fiber, unidirectional carbon fiber, woven carbon-glass fiber hybrid composites and unidirectional carbon-glass fiber hybrid composites. The computational model results showed that woven fiber-reinforced composite materials were stiffer than the unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite materials. For instance, a forkbolt made of woven carbon fibers was 20% stiffer than a forkbolt made of unidirectional fibers symmetrically stacked in 0° and 90° alternating directions. Furthermore, Hybrid composite materials behaved as expected in forkbolt noticing a decline

  6. Tensile Properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy Resin Reinforced with Recycled Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Yuta

    2017-08-01

    To better understand the mechanical properties of recycled carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (rCFRP), CFRP crushed into small pieces was mixed randomly in different proportions (0-30 wt%) with two different resins: unsaturated polyester and epoxy resin. Two different sizes of crushed CFRP were used: 0.1 mm × 0.007 mm (milled CFRP) and 30 mm × 2 mm (chopped CFRP). The tensile strength of rCFRP was found to depend on both the proportion and the size of the CFRP pieces. It increased with increasing proportion of chopped CFRP, but decreased with increasing proportion of milled CFRP. There was no clear dependence of the tensile strength on the resin that was used. A low fracture strain was found for rCFRP samples made with chopped CFRP, in contrast to those made with milled CFRP. The fracture strain was found to increase with increasing content of milled CFRP up to 20 wt%, at which point, coalescence of existing microvoids occurred. However, there was a reduction in fracture strain for rCFRP with 30 wt% of milled CFRP, owing to the formation of defects (blow holes). Overall, the fracture strain was higher for rCFRPs based on epoxy resin than for those based on unsaturated polyester with the same CFRP content, because of the high ductility of the epoxy resin. The different tensile properties reflected different failure characteristics, with the use of chopped CFRP leading to a complicated rough fracture surface and with milled CFRP causing ductile failure through the presence of tiny dimple-like fractures. However, for a high content of milled CFRP (30 wt%), large blow holes were observed, leading to low ductility.

  7. A new constitutive theory for fiber-reinforced incompressible nonlinearly elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Cornelius O.; Saccomandi, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    We consider an incompressible nonlinearly elastic material in which a matrix is reinforced by strong fibers, for example fibers of nylon or carbon aligned in one family of curves in a rubber matrix. Rather than adopting the constraint of fiber inextensibility as has been previously assumed in the literature, here we develop a theory of fiber-reinforced materials based on the less restrictive idea of limiting fiber extensibility. The motivation for such an approach is provided by recent research on limiting chain extensibility models for rubber. Thus the basic idea of the present paper is simple: we adapt the limiting chain extensibility concept to limiting fiber extensibility so that the usual inextensibility constraint traditionally used is replaced by a unilateral constraint. We use a strain-energy density composed with two terms, the first being associated with the isotropic matrix or base material and the second reflecting the transversely isotropic character of the material due to the uniaxial reinforcement introduced by the fibers. We consider a base neo-Hookean model plus a special term that takes into account the limiting extensibility in the fiber direction. Thus our model introduces an additional parameter, namely that associated with limiting extensibility in the fiber direction, over previously investigated models. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mathematical and mechanical feasibility of this new model and to examine the role played by the extensibility parameter. We examine the response of the proposed models in some basic homogeneous deformations and compare this response to those of standard models for fiber reinforced rubber materials. The role of the strain-stiffening of the fibers in the new models is examined. The enhanced stability of the new models is then illustrated by investigation of cavitation instabilities. One of the motivations for the work is to apply the model to the biomechanics of soft tissues and the potential merits

  8. Provisional anterior tooth replacement using nonimpregnated fiber and fiber-reinforced composite resin materials: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel C N; Giannini, Marcelo; De Goes, Mario Fernando

    2006-05-01

    The loss of anterior teeth is often a serious esthetic concern. While conventional fixed partial dentures and implant-supported restorations may be the treatments of choice, nonimpregnated fibers (NFs) and fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) resins offer a conservative alternative for improving esthetics. This article describes 2 clinical situations in which NF glass ribbon and FRC were successfully used to provisionally restore anterior edentulous areas in an esthetic, functional, and timely manner.

  9. Fatigue Life Prediction of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites with Different Fiber Preforms at Room and Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbiao Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fatigue life of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs with different fiber preforms, i.e., unidirectional, cross-ply, 2D (two dimensional, 2.5D and 3D CMCs at room and elevated temperatures in air and oxidative environments, has been predicted using the micromechanics approach. An effective coefficient of the fiber volume fraction along the loading direction (ECFL was introduced to describe the fiber architecture of preforms. The statistical matrix multicracking model and fracture mechanics interface debonding criterion were used to determine the matrix crack spacing and interface debonded length. Under cyclic fatigue loading, the fiber broken fraction was determined by combining the interface wear model and fiber statistical failure model at room temperature, and interface/fiber oxidation model, interface wear model and fiber statistical failure model at elevated temperatures, based on the assumption that the fiber strength is subjected to two-parameter Weibull distribution and the load carried by broken and intact fibers satisfies the Global Load Sharing (GLS criterion. When the broken fiber fraction approaches the critical value, the composites fatigue fracture.

  10. Determination of Water Diffusion Coefficients and Dynamics in Adhesive/ Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Resin Composite Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; WANG Zhi; WANG Jing; SU Tao

    2007-01-01

    To determinate the water diffusion coefficients and dynamics in adhesive/carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composite joints, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis(EDX) is used to establish the content change of oxygen in the adhesive in adhesive/carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composite joints. As water is made up of oxygen and hydrogen, the water diffusion coefficients and dynamics in adhesive/carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composite joints can be obtained from the change in the content of oxygen in the adhesive during humidity aging, via EDX analysis. The authors have calculated the water diffusion coefficients and dynamics in the adhesive/carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composite joints with the aid of both energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The determined results with EDX analysis are almost the same as those determined with elemental analysis and the results also show that the durability of the adhesive/carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composite joints subjected to silane coupling agent treatment is better than those subjected to sand paper burnishing treatment and chemical oxidation treatment.

  11. Impact strength of denture polymethyl methacrylate reinforced with continuous glass fibers or metal wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallittu, P K; Vojtkova, H; Lassila, V P

    1995-12-01

    The impact strength of heat-cured acrylic resin test specimens that had been reinforced in various ways was compared in this study. Ten rectangular test specimens were fabricated for each test group. The strengtheners included 1.0-mm-diameter steel wire and continuous E-glass fibers. Both notched and unnotched test specimens were tested in a Charpy-type impact test. In a further analysis the concentration of glass fibers in the test specimens was determined and plotted against the impact strength of the test specimens. The results showed that, compared with the unreinforced specimens, both types of reinforcement increased the impact strength of the test specimens considerably (p < 0.001). There was no clear difference between the mean impact strength value of the test specimens reinforced with metal wire and that of the specimens reinforced with glass fiber. The correlation coefficient between the fiber concentration of the test specimens and their impact strength was 0.818 (p < 0.005). Specimens with fiber concentrations greater than 25 wt% yielded to the higher impact strength more readily than those with metal wire reinforcement did.

  12. Screening of matrices and fibers for reinforced thermoplastics intended for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A J; Burstone, C J; Hadjinikolaou, I; Jancar, J

    1994-02-01

    Plastics reinforced with continuous fibers (FRC) are being developed for dental applications, such as prosthodontic frameworks and orthodontic retainers. Flexure properties, stress relaxation and hydrolytic stability of FRC based on six thermoplastic matrices, three types of fibers, and three fiber volume fractions were evaluated. Samples with clinically relevant dimensions were tested. Polycarbonate was the preferred matrix material. Polycarbonate reinforced with 42 volume percent glass fibers exhibited the highest combination of flexure modulus (17.9 +/- 2.6 GPa), flexure strength (426 +/- 40 MPa), reinforcing efficiency (0.79), and resistance to stress relaxation. No statistically significant difference was observed between E and S2 glass reinforced composites under the experimental conditions used. Kevlar reinforced materials exhibited a low flexure modulus and strength. The apparent flexure moduli of all composites decreased with span length in the range of clinical interest. Generally, the prevalent mode of failure for all FRC investigated was brittle failure under flexure loading. Relatively large sample-to-sample variation in both composition and properties indicated that improved fabrication methods will be needed in future studies. The combination of good flexure properties, formability, and translucency suggests that novel appliance designs for dentistry are feasible with FRC, but further studies of its properties and particularly the effects of fiber/matrix interfacial quality are needed.

  13. The Young's moduli prediction of random distributed short-fiber-reinforced polypropylene foams using finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo; WANG RongXiu; WU Yong

    2009-01-01

    The elastic moduli of short-fiber-reinforced foams depend critically on the fiber content and fiber length, as well as on the fiber orientation distribution. Based on periodic tetrakaidecahedrons, the finite ele-ment models with short-fiber reinforcement were proposed in this paper to examine the effects of the fiber content and fiber length on Young's modulus. The fiber length distribution and fiber orientation distribution were also considered. The proposed models featured in a three-dimensional diorama with random short-fiber distribution within or on the surfaces of the walls and edges of the closed-cells of polypropylene (PP) foams. The fiber length/orientation distributions were modeled by Gaussian prob-ability density functions. Different fiber volume fractions, different lengths, and different distributions were investigated. The predicted Young's moduli of the PP foams with short-glass-fiber or short-carbon-fiber reinforcement were compared with other theoretic and experimental results, and the agreement was found to be satisfactory. The proposed finite element models were proved to be ac-ceptable to predict the Young's moduli of the grafted closed-cell PP foams with short-fiber reinforce-ment.

  14. Approach to microstructure-behavior relationships for ceramic matrix composites reinforced by continuous fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamon Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs reinforced with continuous fibers exhibit several features that differentiate them from homogeneous unreinforced materials. The microstructure consists of various distinct constituents: fibres, matrix, and fiber/matrix interfaces or interphases. Several entities at micro- and mesoscopic length scales can be defined depending on fiber arrangement. Furthermore, the CMCs contain flaw populations that govern matrix cracking and fiber failures. The paper describes the microstructure-behavior relations for ceramic matrix composites reinforced with continuous fibers. It focuses on matrix damage by multiple cracking, on ultimate fracture, on delayed fracture at high temperatures, and on stochastic features induced by flaw populations. Models of damage and ultimate failure are based on micromechanics and fracture probabilities. They provide a basis for a multiscale approach to composite and component design.

  15. Flexural, Impact Properties and Sem Analysis of Bamboo and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao. H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Flexural, Impact properties and Scanning electron microscope analysis of Bamboo/glass fibers Reinforced polyester Hybrid composites were studied. The effect of alkali treatment of the bamboo fibers on these properties was also studied. It was observed that the Flexural, impact properties of the hybrid composite increase with glass fiber content. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in the hybrid composites. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treated leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glass/Bamboo reinforced polyester composites. The effect of alkali treatment on the bonding between Glass/Bamboo composites was also studied.

  16. Fiber Reinforcement in Injection Molded Nylon 6/6 Spur Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilvelan, S.; Gnanamoorthy, R.

    2006-07-01

    Injection molded polymer composite gears are being used in many power and or motion transmission applications. In order to widen the utilization of reinforced polymers for precision motion transmission and noise less applications, the accuracy of molded gears should be increased. Since the injection molded gear accuracy is significantly influenced by the material shrinkage behaviour, there is a need to understand the influence of fiber orientation and gate location on part shrinkage behaviour and hence the gear accuracy. Unreinforced and 20% short glass fiber reinforced Nylon 6/6 spur gears were injection molded in the laboratory and computer aided simulations of gear manufacturing was also carried out. Results of the mold flow simulation of gear manufacturing were correlated with the actual fiber orientation and measured major geometrical parameters of the molded gears. Actual orientation of the fibers near the tooth profile, weld line region and injection points of molded gears were observed using optical microscope and correlated with predicted fiber orientation.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Glass/Steel Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K. McBride

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While conventional fiber-reinforced polymer composites offer high strength and stiffness, they lack ductility and the ability to absorb energy before failure. This work investigates hybrid fiber composites for structural applications comprised of polymer, steel fiber, and glass fibers to address this shortcoming. Varying volume fractions of thin, ductile steel fibers were introduced into glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Non-hybrid and hybrid composite specimens were prepared and subjected to monolithic and half-cyclic tensile testing to obtain stress-strain relationships, hysteresis behavior, and insight into failure mechanisms. Open-hole testing was used to assess the vulnerability of the composites to stress concentration. Incorporating steel fibers into glass/epoxy composites offered a significant improvement in energy absorption prior to failure and material re-centering capabilities. It was found that a lower percentage of steel fibers (8.2% in the hybrid composite outperformed those with higher percentages (15.7% and 22.8% in terms of energy absorption and re-centering, as the glass reinforcement distributed the plasticity over a larger area. A bilinear hysteresis model was developed to predict cyclic behavior of the hybrid composite.

  18. Fabrication of Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites Based on Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was added by the mass of phenol to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF resins, which were used to fabricate glass fiber (GF reinforced BPF resin (GF/BPF composites. The properties of the BPF resin and the GF/BPF composites prepared were tested. The functional groups and thermal property of BPF resin were thoroughly investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra and dynamic thermomechanical analysis (DMA. Results indicated that the addition of 20% bio-oil exhibited favorable adaptability for enhancing the stiffness and heat resistance of phenol formaldehyde (PF resin. Besides, high-performance GF/BPF composites could be successfully prepared with the BPF resin based on hand lay-up process. The interface characteristics of GF/BPF composites were determined by the analysis of dynamic wettability (DW and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It exhibited that GF could be well wetted and embedded in the BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20%.

  19. Microstructural effects on the dynamic fracture toughness of cellulose-fiber-reinforced polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Craig Merrill

    Natural fiber reinforced thermoplastics are a rapidly growing, commercially interesting area. Unlike their glass reinforced counterparts, microstructure and dynamic fracture behavior of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastics have hardly been investigated. We characterized the microstructure of cellulose fiber reinforced polypropylene and determined its effect on dynamic fracture toughness. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces and x-ray diffraction were used to investigate fiber orientation in injection molded composites. The polypropylene matrix was removed by solvent extraction, and the lengths of the residual fibers were optically determined. Fiber lengths were reduced by one-half when compounded in a high-intensity thermokinetic mixer and then injection molded. At low fiber contents, there was little fiber orientation; at high fiber contents, a layered structure arose exhibiting differing fiber orientations through the thickness of the injection molded specimen. Scanning electron microscopy of acid etched specimens revealed spherulitic structure emanating from cellulose fibers (i.e. transcrystallinity) in injection molded composites containing less than 5% fibers. The etching procedure failed to provide any matrix surface relief in high fiber content composites. To better understand fracture under impact loading, dynamic fracture analysis was performed based on linear elastic fracture mechanics. Dynamic critical energy release rates and dynamic critical stress intensity factors were deduced from instrumented Charpy impact test measurements. Dynamic fracture toughness increased with cellulose content and with orientation of fibers perpendicular to the crack plane. To better control composite microstructure, model laminates of highly aligned plies were produced and tested. Dynamic fracture toughness decreased with fiber alignment angle. A simple model successfully related the microstructure to the dynamic fracture toughness. Increasing test

  20. Development and Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics Geogrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingbiao; ZHANG Cong; WEN Xiaokang; L Rongshan; LIANG Xunmei; LU Shide

    2015-01-01

    Glassfi ber reinforced plastics geogrid has a wide application in thefi eld of soil reinforcement because of its high strength, good toughness, and resistance to environmental stress, creep resistance and strong stability. In order to get high-powered glassfi ber reinforced plastics geogrid and its mechanical characteristics, the properties and physical mechanical index of geogrid have been got through the study of its raw material, production process and important quality index. The analysis and study have been made to the geogrid’s mechanical properties with loading speed, three-axial compression, temperature tensile test and FLAC3D numerical simulation, thus obtain the mechanical parameters of its displacement time curve, breaking strength and elongation at break. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (a) Using glassfi ber materials, knurling and coated projection process, the fracture strength and corrosion resistance of geogrid are greatly improved and the interlocking bite capability of soil is enhanced. (b) The fracture strength of geogrid is related to temperature and loading rate. When the surrounding rock pressure is fixed, the strength and anti-deformation ability of reinforced soil are significantly enhanced with increasing reinforced layers. (c) The pullout test shows the positive correlation between geogrid displacement and action time. (d) As a new reinforced material, the glass fi ber reinforced plastics geogrid is not mature enough in theoretical research and practical experience, so it has become an urgent problem both in theoretical study and practical innovation.

  1. In vitro evaluation of veneering composites and fibers on the color of fiber-reinforced composite restorations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Hasani Tabatabaei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Color match between fiber-reinforced composite (FRC restorations and teeth is an imperative factor in esthetic dentistry. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of veneering composites and fibers on the color change of FRC restorations.Glass and polyethylene fibers were used to reinforce a direct microhybrid composite (Z250, 3M ESPE and a microfilled composite (Gradia Indirect, GC. There were eight experimental groups (n=5 disks per group. Four groups were used as the controls (non-FRC control and the others were used as experimental groups. CIELAB parameters (L*, a* and b* of specimens were evaluated against a white background using a spectrophotometer to assess the color change. The color difference (ΔE* and color coordinates were (L*, a* and b* analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test.Both types of composite and fiber influenced the color parameters (ΔL*, Δa*. The incorporation of fibers into the composite in the experimental groups made them darker than the control groups, except in the Gradia Indirect+ glass fibers group. Δb* is affected by types of fibers only in direct fiber reinforced composite. No statistically significant differences were recognized in ΔE* among the groups (p>0.05.The findings of the present study suggest that the tested FRC restorations exhibited no difference in color in comparison with non-FRC restoration. Hence, the types of veneering composites and fibers did not influence the color change (ΔE* of FRC restorations.

  2. Investigating the influence of alkalization on the mechanical and water absorption properties of coconut and sponge fibers reinforced polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okikiola Ganiu AGBABIAKA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are products made from renewable agricultural and forestry feedstock, which can include wood, grasses, and crops, as well as wastes and residues. There are two primary ways these fibers are used: to create polymers or as reinforcement and filler. Thermoplastic polymer may be reinforced or filled using natural fibers such as coir, sponge, hemp, flax, or sisal. This paper focused on the influence of alkalization (NaOH treatment on the mechanical and water absorption properties of selected natural fibers (coconut and sponge fibers reinforced polypropylene composites. In this study, coconut and sponge fiber were extracted from its husk by soaking them in water and was dried before it was cut into 10mm length. Those fibers were chemically treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH in a shaking water bath before it was used as reinforcement in polypropylene composite. The reinforced polypropylene composite was produced by dispersing the coconut fibers randomly in the polypropylene before it was fabricated in a compression molding machine where the composite was produced. The fiber content used were; 2%wt, 4%wt, 6%wt, 8%wt and 10%wt. Tensile and flexural properties was observed from universal testing machine while water absorption test was carried out on the samples for seven (7 days. It was observed that the influence of NaOH treatment highly enhanced the Flexural and water absorption properties of sponge fiber reinforced polypropylene composites than coconut fiber reinforced composite samples.

  3. Feasibility study of prestressed natural fiber-reinforced polylactic acid (pla) composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliffe, Sean A.

    The feasibility of manufacturing prestressed natural-fiber reinforced biopolymer composites is demonstrated in this work. The objective of this study was to illustrate that the specific mechanical properties of biopolymers can be enhanced by leveraging a combination of additive manufacturing (3D printing) and post-tensioning of continuous natural fiber reinforcement. Tensile and flexural PLA specimens were 3D-printed with and without post-tensioning ducts. The mechanical properties of reinforcing fibers jute and flax were characterized prior to post-tensioning. The effect of matrix cross-sectional geometry and post-tensioning on the specific mechanical properties of PLA were investigated using mechanical testing. Numerical and analytical models were developed to predict the experimental results, which confirm that 3D-printed matrices improve the specific mechanical properties of PLA composites and are further improved via initial fiber prestressing. The results suggest that both additive manufacturing and fiber prestressing represent viable new methods for improving the mechanical performance of natural fiber-reinforced polymeric composites.

  4. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Il Seo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %. The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  5. Effects of glass fiber modified with calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H(I)) reinforced cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, M.; Zhang, L.; Ge, S.; Cheng, X.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H(I)) and glass fiber modified with C-S-H(I) (SiF) at ambient temperature were synthesized. SiF and untreated fiber (OF) were incorporated into cement paste. Phase composition of C-S-H(I), SiF and OF was characterized by XRD. The surface morphologies were characterized by SEM. Flexural performance of fiber reinforced cement (FRC) at different curing ages was investigated. Results indicated that both SiF and OF could reinforce cement paste. SiF had a more positive effect on improving the flexural performance of FRC than OF. The strength of SiF reinforced cement was 11.48MPa after 28 days curing when fiber volume was 1.0%, 12.55% higher than that of OF reinforced cement. The flexural strength increased with the addition of fiber volume. However, the large dosage of fiber might cause a decrease in flexural strength of FRC.

  6. Fabrication and evaluation of mechanical properties of alkaline treated sisal/hemp fiber reinforced hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesha Gupta, N. S.; Akash; Sreenivasa Rao, K. V.; kumar, D. S. Arun

    2016-09-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composite have acquired a dominant place in variety of applications because of higher specific strength and modulus, the plant based natural fiber are partially replacing currently used synthetic fiber as reinforcement for polymer composites. In this research work going to develop a new material which posses a strength to weight ratio that for exceed any of the present material. The hybrid composite sisal/hemp reinforced with epoxy matrix has been developed by compression moulding technique according to ASTM standards. Sodium hydroxide (NAOH) was used as alkali for treating the fibers. The amount of reinforcement was varied from 10% to 50% in steps of 10%. Prepared specimens were examined for mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness. Hybrid composite with 40wt% sisal/hemp fiber were found to posses higher strength (tensile strength = 53.13Mpa and flexural strength = 82.07Mpa) among the fabricated hybrid composite specimens. Hardness value increases with increasing the fiber volume. Morphological examinations are carried out to analyze the interfacial characteristics, internal structure and fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope.

  7. Fiber reinforced concrete: Characterization of flexural toughness and some studies on fiber-matrix bond-slip interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Ashish

    One major problem associated with the testing of fiber reinforced concrete specimens under flexural loading is that the measured post-cracking response is severely affected by the stiffness of the testing machine. As a consequence, misleading results are obtained when such a flexural response is used for the characterization of composite toughness. An assessment of a new toughness characterization technique termed the Residual Strength Test Method (RSTM) has been made. In this technique, a stable narrow crack is first created in the specimen by applying a flexural load in parallel with a steel plate under controlled conditions. The plate is then removed, and the specimen is tested in a routine manner in flexure to obtain the post-crack load versus displacement response. Flexural response for a variety of fiber reinforced cementitious composites obtained using the Residual Strength Test Method has been found to correlate very well with those obtained with relatively stiffer test configurations such as closed-loop test machines. The Residual Strength Test Method is found to be effective in differentiating between different fiber types, fiber lengths, fiber configurations, fiber volume fractions, fiber geometries and fiber moduli. In particular, the technique has been found to be extremely useful for testing cement-based composites containing fibers at very low dosages (shear lag theory is introduced to study the problem of fiber pullout in fiber reinforced composites. The proposed model eliminates limitations of many earlier models and captures essential features of pullout process, including progressive interfacial debonding, Poisson's effect, and variation in interfacial properties during the fiber pullout process. Interfacial debonding is modeled using an interfacial shear strength criterion. Influence of normal contact stress at the fiber-matrix interface is considered using shrink-fit theory, and the interfacial frictional shear stress over the debonded

  8. Extraction of carbamate pesticides in fruit samples by graphene reinforced hollow fibre liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatographic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoxing; Wang, Juntao; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2014-08-15

    Graphene reinforced hollow fibre liquid phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection was developed for the determination of some carbamate pesticides (metolcarb, carbaryl, isoprocarb, and diethofencarb) in fruit samples. The main parameters that affect the extraction efficiency for the carbamates were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity was observed in the range of 1.0-100.0 ng g(-1) for carbaryl and 3.0-100.0 ng g(-1) for the other three analytes, with the correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9965-0.9993. The limits of detection of the method ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng g(-1). The relative standard deviations were in the range from 6.2% to 7.8%. The results indicated that the developed method is sensitive and efficient for the determination of the carbamate pesticides in fruit samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of fiber type and coating on the composite properties of EPDM compounds reinforced with short aramid fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintze, C.; Sadatshirazi, S.; Wiessner, S.; Talma, Auke; Heinrich, G.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in the application of short aramid fibers in elastomers because of the considerable improvement in mechanical and dynamic properties of the corresponding rubber composites. Possible applications of short aramid fiber–reinforced elastomers are tires, dynamically loaded

  10. Influence of fiber type and coating on the composite properties of EPDM compounds reinforced with short aramid fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintze, C.; Shirazi, S.; Wiessner, S.; Talma, A.G.; Heinrich, G.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in the application of short aramid fibers in elastomers because of the considerable improvement in mechanical and dynamic properties of the corresponding rubber composites. Possible applications of short aramid fiber–reinforced elastomers are tires, dynamically loaded rub

  11. Fabrication of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramics with a nanosized mullite precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, O.; Saruhan, B.; Kanka, B.; Schneider, H. [Institute of Materials Research, Cologne (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Chemically synthesized mullite precursor powders which are suitable materials for the production of continuous fiber-reinforced mullite composites, owing to their high sintering activity at relatively low processing temperatures were used as a matrix material. Since commercially available polycrystalline mullite fibers become instable at high temperatures, optimized slip-casting and sintering conditions were used which allowed hot-pressing of the composites at temperatures lower than 1250{degrees}C. A strong interfacial bonding between fiber and matrix has been observed due to the preferential grain growth which starts on the fiber surfaces and extends into the matrix.

  12. Effect of surface modification on carbon fiber and its reinforced phenolic matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hua; Wang, Chengguo; Zhang, Shan; Lin, Xue

    2012-10-01

    In this work, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fiber were chemically modified with H2SO4, KClO3 and silane coupling agent (γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APS), and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic matrix composites were prepared. The structural and surface characteristics of the carbon fiber were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman scattering (LRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Single fiber mechanical properties, specific surface area, composite impact properties and interfacial shear strength (ILSS) were researched to indicate the effects of surface modification on fibers and the interaction between modified fiber surface and phenolic matrix. The results showed that carbon fiber surface modification by oxidation and APS can strengthen fiber surface chemical activity and enlarge the fiber surface area as well as its roughness. When carbon fiber (CF) is oxidized treatment, the oxygen content as well as the O/C ratio will be obviously increased. Oxygen functional groups increase with oxidation time increasing. Carbon fiber treated with APS will make Csbnd Osbnd R content increase and Osbnd Cdbnd O content decrease due to surface reaction. Proper treatment of carbon fiber with acid and silane coupling agent prove an effective way to increase the interfacial adhesion and improve the mechanical and outdoor performance of the resulting fiber/resin composites.

  13. Experimental evaluation and simulation of volumetric shrinkage and warpage on polymeric composite reinforced with short natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jonnathan D.; Fajardo, Jorge I.; Cuji, Alvaro R.; García, Jaime A.; Garzón, Luis E.; López, Luis M.

    2015-09-01

    A polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composite is developed by extrusion and injection molding process. The shrinkage and warpage of high-density polyethylene reinforced with short natural fibers of Guadua angustifolia Kunth are analyzed by experimental measurements and computer simulations. Autodesk Moldflow® and Solid Works® are employed to simulate both volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts at different configurations: 0 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.% reinforcing on shrinkage and warpage behavior of polymer composite. Become evident the restrictive effect of reinforcing on the volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts. The results indicate that volumetric shrinkage of natural composite is reduced up to 58% with fiber increasing, whereas the warpage shows a reduction form 79% to 86% with major fiber content. These results suggest that it is a highly beneficial use of natural fibers to improve the assembly properties of polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composites.

  14. Microstructure/Property Relationships for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-25

    hypodermic syringe and blunted needle . After mounting the fiber, the card containing the fiber is inserted into the test fixture (figure 2). The edges... theory suggesting that this may not necessarily be the case [211. They showed that a weak interface may, 14 in fact, lead to improved composite properties...agree, at least in principle , with Ochai and Murakami’s theory and composites produced from Cornie’s fibers proved to be quite strong longitudinally

  15. Efficiency of fiber reinforced concrete application in structures subjected to dynamic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Valeriy Ivanovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced concretes possess high strength under dynamic loadings, which include impact loads, thanks to their high structural viscosity. This is the reason for using them in difficult operating conditions, where increasing the performance characteristics and the structure durability is of prime importance, and the issues of the cost become less significant. Applying methods of disperse reinforcement is most challenging in case of subtle high-porous materials on mineral binders, for example foamed concrete. At the same time, the experiments conducted in Russia and abroad show, that also in other cases the concrete strength resistance several times increases as a result of disperse reinforcement. This doesn't depend on average density of the concrete and type of fiber used. In the article the fibre reinforced concrete impact resistance is analysed. Recommendations are given in regard to fibre concrete application in manufacture of monolithic floor units for industrial buildings and precast piles.

  16. Experimental Study on Common and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Under Dynamic Tensile Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董新龙; 陈江瑛; 高培正; 祁振林; 王永忠; 王永刚; 王礼立

    2004-01-01

    Split Hopkinson technique has been developed to test the strength of common concrete and steel fiber reinforced concrete under dynamic tensile stress. Two types of test methods are considered, the splitting tensile test and a modified spalling test in which a specimen is loaded under uniaxial stress. The result shows that the dynamic strength enhancement of concrete is remarkable by using the reinforcing fiber. But for the common concrete, the base of compressive strength seems to show little effect on the tensile strength under dynamic loading. The experimental results also show that the resistance to tensile fracture of the steel fiber reinforced concrete for C100-mix is higher than those of C40-mix.

  17. Processing and damage recovery of intrinsic self-healing glass fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Federica; Michaud, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    Glass fiber reinforced composites with a self-healing, supramolecular hybrid network matrix were produced using a modified vacuum assisted resin infusion moulding process adapted to high temperature processing. The quality and fiber volume fraction (50%) of the obtained materials were assessed through microscopy and matrix burn-off methods. The thermo-mechanical properties were quantified by means of dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing very high damping properties compared to traditional epoxy-based glass fiber reinforced composites. Self-healing properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. A high recovery of the flexural properties, around 72% for the elastic modulus and 65% of the maximum flexural stress, was achieved after a resting period of 24 h at room temperature. Recovery after low velocity impact events was also visually observed. Applications for this intrinsic and autonomic self-healing highly reinforced composite material point towards semi-structural applications where high damping and/or integrity recovery after impact are required.

  18. Finite-Element Analysis of Jute- and Coir-Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Composite Multipanel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirbhay, M.; Misra, R. K.; Dixit, A.

    2015-09-01

    Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials are rapidly gaining interest worldwide both in terms of research and industrial applications. The present work includes the characterization and modeling of jute- and coir-fiber-reinforced hybrid composite materials. The mechanical behavior of a two-panel plate and a sixpanel box structure is analyzed under various loading regimes by using the finite-element software ABAQUS®. Exhaustive parametric studies are also performed to obtain a clear insight into the relationships between various parameters and deflections of the panels and stress distributions in them. Deflections of both the structures are compared and found to be in good agreement with published results. To determine the mechanical behavior of natural-fiber-reinforced composite panels, a finite-element analysis is performed.

  19. Clinical evaluation of carbon fiber reinforced carbon endodontic post, glass fiber reinforced post with cast post and core: A one year comparative clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Restoring endodontically treated teeth is one of the major treatments provided by the dental practitioner. Selection and proper use of restorative materials continues to be a source of frustration for many clinicians. There is controversy surrounding the most suitable choice of restorative material and the placement method that will result in the highest probability of successful treatment. This clinical study compares two different varieties of fiber posts and one cast post and core in terms of mobility of crown margin under finger pressure, recurrent caries detected at the crown margin, fracture of the restoration, fracture of the root and periapical and periodontal pathology requiring crown removal over the period of 12months as evaluated by clinical and radiographical examination. Materials and Methods: 30 root canal treated, single rooted maxillary anterior teeth of 25 patients in the age range of 18-60 years where a post retained crown was indicated were selected for the study between January 2007 and August 2007; and prepared in a standard clinical manner. It was divided into 3 groups of 10 teeth in each group. After post space preparation, the Carbon fiber and Glass fiber reinforced posts were cemented with Scotch bond multipurpose plus bonding agent and RelyX adhesive resin cement in the first and second groups respectively. The Cast post and cores were cemented with Zinc Phosphate cement in the third group. Following post- cementation, the preparation was further refined and a rubber base impression was taken for metal-ceramic crowns which was cemented with Zinc Phosphate cement. A baseline periapical radiograph was taken once each crown was cemented. All patients were evaluated after one week (baseline, 3 months, 6 months and one year for following characteristics mobility of crown margin under finger pressure, recurrent caries detected at the crown margin, fracture of the restoration, fracture of the root and periapical and

  20. High Performance Thin-film Composite Membranes with Mesh-Reinforced Hydrophilic Sulfonated Polyphenylenesulfone (sPPSU) Substrates for Osmotically Driven Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang

    2015-12-17

    We have for the first time combined the strength of hydrophilic sulfonated material and thin woven open-mesh via a continuous casting process to fabricate mesh-reinforced ultrafiltration (UF) membrane substrates with desirable structure and morphology for the development of high-performance thin-film composite (TFC) osmosis membranes. A new sulfonated polyphenylenesulfone (sPPSU) polymer with super-hydrophilic nature is used as the substrate material, while a hydrophilic polyester (PET) open-mesh with a small thickness of 45 μm and an open area of 44.5% is employed as the reinforcing fabric during membrane casting. The newly developed sPPSU-TFC membranes not only exhibit a fully sponge-like cross-section morphology, but also possess excellent water permeability (A=3.4–3.7 L m−2 h−1 bar−1) and selectivity toward NaCl (B=0.10–0.23 L m−2 h−1). Due to the hydrophilic nature and low membrane thickness of 53–67 μm, the PET-woven reinforced sPPSU substrates have remarkably small structural parameters (S) of less than 300 μm. The sPPSU-TFC membranes thereby display impressive water fluxes (Jw) of 69.3–76.5 L m−2 h−1 and 38.7–47.0 L m−2 h−1 against a deionized water feed using 2 M NaCl as the draw solution under pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and forward osmosis (FO) modes, respectively. This performance surpasses the state-of-the-art commercially available FO membranes. The sPPSU-TFC membranes also show exciting performance for synthetic seawater (3.5 wt% NaCl) desalination and water reclamation from real municipal wastewater. The newly developed PET-woven sPPSU-TFC membranes may have great potential to become a new generation membrane for osmotically driven processes.

  1. The Effect of Two Different E Glass Fiber Reinforcements on Mechanical Properties of Polymethyl Metacrylate Denture Base Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Sinmazisik, G.; Ozyegin, LS.; Akesi, S.

    2002-01-01

    Denture base polymers were reinforced with various types of fibers, such as glass, carbon/graphite and ultrahigh-modulus polyethylene fibers. These procedures were performed to take advantage of the good esthetic qualities of glass fibers and good bonding of glass fibers to polymers via silane coupling agents. The most common type of glass used in fiber production is the so-called E glass (electrical glass). This study investigated the effect of chopped fibers with two different silane coupli...

  2. Understanding the Reinforcing Mechanisms in Kenaf Fiber/PLA and Kenaf Fiber/PP Composites: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Ok Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on exploring the feasibility of green composites made from biodegradable and renewable materials as potential alternatives to petroleum polymer composites and understanding the reinforcing mechanisms in composites containing kenaf fibers (KF. KF-reinforced poly(lactide acid (PLA composites were made using melt compounding and injection molding, and their properties were compared to that of KF-reinforced polypropylene (PP composites. The flexural properties and thermomechanical behavior were determined as a function of the fiber content, the crystallization of PLA and PP was studied using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, and the composites’ morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. It was concluded that PLA exhibits higher modulus and Tg compared to those of neat PP. The modulus of the composites at 40 wt% fibers is 6.64 GPa and 2.96 GPa for PLA and PP, respectively. In general, addition of kenaf results in larger property enhancement in PP due to better wetting of the fibers by the low melt viscosity PP and the crystallization behavior of PP that is significantly altered by the fibers. The novelty of this work is that it provides one-to-one comparison of PLA and PP composites, and it explores the feasibility of fabricating green composites with enhanced properties using a simple scalable process.

  3. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement of Aerospace Carbon Fiber Composites: Substructural Strength Evaluation for Aerostructure Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman de Villoria, Roberto; Ydrefors, L.; Hallander, P.; Ishiguro, Kyoko; Nordin, P.; Wardle, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are placed between all plies in an aerospace carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminate (unidirectional plies, [(0/90/±45)2]s) to reinforce the interlaminar region in the z-direction. Significant improvement in Mode I and II interlaminar toughness have been observed previously. In this work, several substructural in-plane strength tests relevant to aerostructures were undertaken: bolt/tension-bearing, open hole compression, and L-shape laminate be...

  4. Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor for Personal Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fábio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lima, Édio Pereira; da Luz, Fernanda Santos

    2017-08-01

    Lighter and less expensive polymer composites reinforced with natural fibers have been investigated as possible components of a multilayered armor system (MAS) for personal protection against high-velocity ammunition. Their ballistic performance was consistently found comparable with that of conventional Kevlar® synthetic aramid fiber. Among the numerous existing natural fibers with the potential for reinforcing polymer composites to replace Kevlar® in MAS, mallow fiber has not been fully investigated. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the ballistic performance of epoxy composites reinforced with 30 vol.% of aligned mallow fibers as a second MAS layer backing a front ceramic plate. The results using high-velocity 7.62 ammunition show a similar indentation to a Kevlar® layer with the same thickness. An impedance matching calculation supports the similar ballistic performance of mallow fiber composite and Kevlar®. Reduced MAS costs associated with the mallow fiber composite are practical advantages over Kevlar®.

  5. Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor for Personal Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fábio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lima, Édio Pereira; da Luz, Fernanda Santos

    2017-10-01

    Lighter and less expensive polymer composites reinforced with natural fibers have been investigated as possible components of a multilayered armor system (MAS) for personal protection against high-velocity ammunition. Their ballistic performance was consistently found comparable with that of conventional Kevlar® synthetic aramid fiber. Among the numerous existing natural fibers with the potential for reinforcing polymer composites to replace Kevlar® in MAS, mallow fiber has not been fully investigated. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the ballistic performance of epoxy composites reinforced with 30 vol.% of aligned mallow fibers as a second MAS layer backing a front ceramic plate. The results using high-velocity 7.62 ammunition show a similar indentation to a Kevlar® layer with the same thickness. An impedance matching calculation supports the similar ballistic performance of mallow fiber composite and Kevlar®. Reduced MAS costs associated with the mallow fiber composite are practical advantages over Kevlar®.

  6. Electromagnetic modeling of periodically-structured fiber-reinforced single-layer laminate with multiple fibers missing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.-C.; Li, C.-Y.; Lesselier, D.; Zhong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of periodically-structured, fiber-reinforced laminates with fibers missing is investigated, this applying as well to similarly disorganized photonic crystals at optical frequencies. Parallel cylindrical fibers are periodically embedded within a layer sandwiched between two half-spaces. Absent fibers destroy the periodicity. The supercell concept involving an auxiliary periodic structure provides subsidiary solutions, wherein plane-wave illumination can be analyzed with the help of the Floquet theorem, while the field response due to a line source can be calculated from the pertinent plane-wave expansion. Accuracy, computational efficacy and versatility of the above approaches are illustrated by comprehensive numerical simulations with in particular comparisons to results provided by a finite-element code, all-purpose but computationally demanding, this work seen as the first step to the localization of missing fibers in a damaged laminate and imaging thereof.

  7. Characterization and Effects of Fiber Pull-Outs in Hole Quality of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Alizadeh Ashrafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hole quality plays a crucial role in the production of close-tolerance holes utilized in aircraft assembly. Through drilling experiments of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites (CFRP, this study investigates the impact of varying drilling feed and speed conditions on fiber pull-out geometries and resulting hole quality parameters. For this study, hole quality parameters include hole size variance, hole roundness, and surface roughness. Fiber pull-out geometries are quantified by using scanning electron microscope (SEM images of the mechanically-sectioned CFRP-machined holes, to measure pull-out length and depth. Fiber pull-out geometries and the hole quality parameter results are dependent on the drilling feed and spindle speed condition, which determines the forces and undeformed chip thickness during the process. Fiber pull-out geometries influence surface roughness parameters from a surface profilometer, while their effect on other hole quality parameters obtained from a coordinate measuring machine is minimal.

  8. Reinforcement of conventional glass-ionomer restorative material with short glass fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Ibrahim M

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the strengthening effect of glass fibers when added to conventional glass-ionomer restorative material. Glass fibers were incorporated into glass-ionomer powder in 3 wt% and 5 wt%. The fibers used had 1 mm length and 10 microm thickness. These criteria of fiber length, diameter, and concentration represent a new approach for reinforcing conventional glass-ionomer [Medifill, conventional restorative glass-ionomer]. The mechanical properties tested were diametral tensile strength, hardness, flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness after 24-h and 7-days of storage in deionized water. Glass short fibers were mixed thoroughly into the glass-ionomer powder before mixing with the cement liquid. Samples of specific dimensions were prepared for each time interval and fiber loading according to the manufacturer's instructions and international standards. Hardness was measured using a micro-hardness tester at 100 gram applied load for 15 s. The other mechanical properties were measured using a Lloyd universal testing machine. The results showed increased diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness by the addition of glass fibers. There was an appreciable increase of the tested mechanical properties of glass-ionomer restorative material as a result of increasing fiber loading and water storage for 1 week. It was concluded that conventional glass-ionomer can be reinforced by the addition of short glass fibers.

  9. A Review on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layth Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are getting attention from researchers and academician to utilize in polymer composites due to their ecofriendly nature and sustainability. The aim of this review article is to provide a comprehensive review of the foremost appropriate as well as widely used natural fiber reinforced polymer composites (NFPCs and their applications. In addition, it presents summary of various surface treatments applied to natural fibers and their effect on NFPCs properties. The properties of NFPCs vary with fiber type and fiber source as well as fiber structure. The effects of various chemical treatments on the mechanical and thermal properties of natural fibers reinforcements thermosetting and thermoplastics composites were studied. A number of drawbacks of NFPCs like higher water absorption, inferior fire resistance, and lower mechanical properties limited its applications. Impacts of chemical treatment on the water absorption, tribology, viscoelastic behavior, relaxation behavior, energy absorption flames retardancy, and biodegradability properties of NFPCs were also highlighted. The applications of NFPCs in automobile and construction industry and other applications are demonstrated. It concluded that chemical treatment of the natural fiber improved adhesion between the fiber surface and the polymer matrix which ultimately enhanced physicomechanical and thermochemical properties of the NFPCs.

  10. TENSILE STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH STONE GROUNDWOOD FIBERS FROM SOFTWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan P. López,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of stone groundwood / polypropylene injection-molded composites was evaluated with and without coupling agent. Stone groundwood (SGW is a fibrous material commonly prepared in a high yield process and mainly used for papermaking applications. In this work, the use of SGW fibers was explored as a reinforcing element of polypropylene (PP composites. The surface charge density of the composite components was evaluated, as well as the fiber’s length and diameter inside the composite material. Two mixing extrusion processes were evaluated, and the use of a kinetic mixer, instead of an internal mixer, resulted in longer mean fiber lengths of the reinforcing fibers. On the other hand, the accessibility of surface hydroxyl groups of stone groundwood fibers was improved by treating the fibers with 5% of sodium hydroxide, resulting in a noticeable increase of the tensile strength of the composites, for a similar percentage of coupling agent. A new parameter called Fiber Tensile Strength Factor is defined and used as a baseline for the comparison of the properties of the different composite materials. Finally the competitiveness of stone groundwood / polypropylene / polypropylene-co-maleic anhydride system, which compared favorably to sized glass-fiber / polypropylene GF/PP and glass-fiber / polypropylene / polypropylene-co-maleic anhydride composite formulations, was quantified by means of the fiber tensile strength factor.

  11. Study of the Effect of Reinforced Glass Fibers on Fatigue Properties for Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed G. Hamad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This  research  included  the  study of  the effect  of  reinforced  glass fibers  on  fatigue  properties  for composite materials. Polyester  resin  is used  as  connective  material(matrix in two types  of  glass  fibers  for reinforced. The  first  type  is regular  glass fibers  (woven  roving with the  directional(0-90, the second  is  glass  fibers  with  the  random  direction. The first type is the panels with regular reinforced (0-90, and with number of layer (1,2.The  second  type  is  the  panels with random  reinforced  and  with  number  of  layers (1,2. The  results  and  the  laboratory  examinations  for  the samples  reinforce  with  fibers  have  manifested (0-90  that there  is  a decrease  in the number  of  cycles  to the  fatigue  limit  when  the  number  of  reinforce  layers  have  increased . And  an elasticity of this  type  of  samples  are decreased  by  increasing  the number  of  reinforced  layers  with  fiber  .We  find  the  random  reinforced  number  of  fatigue  cycles  for the samples  with  two  layers  of  random  reinforced  are  decreased  more  than the samples  with  one  layer of random  reinforced .

  12. Long fiber reinforcement of polypropylene/polystyrene blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inberg, J.P.F.; Hunse, P.H.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The recycling of inseparable polymer mixtures usually results in blends with poor mechanical properties. A mixture of PP and PS was taken as a model compound for a recyclate. The effect of adding glass fibers to a mixture of PP/PS (70/30) was studied, with special attention to long glass fiber reinf

  13. Behavior of Concrete Panels Reinforced with Synthetic Fibers, Mild Steel, and GFRP Composites Subjected to Blasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. P. Pantelides; T. T. Garfield; W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson; J. E. Blakeley

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents experimental data generated for calibrating finite element models to predict the performance of reinforced concrete panels with a wide range of construction details under blast loading. The specimens were 1.2 m square panels constructed using Normal Weight Concrete (NWC) or Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC). FRC consisted of macro-synthetic fibers dispersed in NWC. Five types of panels were tested: NWC panels with steel bars; FRC panels without additional reinforcement; FRC panels with steel bars; NWC panels with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars; and NWC panels reinforced with steel bars and external GFRP laminates on both faces. Each panel type was constructed with three thicknesses: 152 mm, 254 mm, and 356 mm. FRC panels with steel bars had the best performance for new construction. NWC panels reinforced with steel bars and external GFRP laminates on both faces had the best performance for strengthening or rehabilitation of existing structures. The performance of NWC panels with GFRP bars was strongly influenced by the bar spacing. The behavior of the panels is classified in terms of damage using immediate occupancy, life safety, and near collapse performance levels. Preliminary dynamic simulations are compared to the experimental results.

  14. Fabrication and Testing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Truss Core Sandwich Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Wang; Linzhi Wu; Li Ma; Qiang Wang; Shanyi Du

    2009-01-01

    Truss core sandwich panels reinforced by carbon fibers were assembled with bonded laminate facesheets and carbon fiber reinforced truss cores. The top and bottom facesheets were interconnected with truss cores. Both ends of the truss cores were embedded into four layers of top and bottom facesheets. The mechanical properties of truss core sandwich panels were then investigated under out-of-plane and in-plane compression loadings to reveal the failure mechanisms of sandwich panels. Experimental results indicated that the mechanical behavior of sandwich structure under in-plane loading is dominated by the buckling and debonding of facesheets.

  15. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED STARCH-BASED BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS REINFORCED WITH PULP FIBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingfangJi; ShucaiLi

    2004-01-01

    Native corn starch and hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) based plastic films were prepared using the short pulp fiber as reinforcement and the glycerol as the plasticizer. The results of tensile test showed that the tensile strength and the elongation at break increased with the pulp contents. With the glycerol contents, the elongation at break increased considerably, but the tensile strength decreased. The water uptake of the films decreased with the pulp contents and hydroxypropylation, but increased with the glycerol contents. So it is concluded that the films was reinforced by pulp fiber and hydroxypropylation.

  16. NDE of Fiber Reinforced Foam Composite Structures for Future Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, james; Roth, Don; Hopkins, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the complexities of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber reinforced foam composite structures to be used for aerospace vehicles in the future.Various views of fiber reinforced foam materials are shown and described. Conventional methods of NDE for composites are reviewed such as Micro-computed X-Ray Tomography, Thermography, Shearography, and Phased Array Ultrasonics (PAUT). These meth0ods appear to work well on the face sheet and face sheet ot core bond, they do not provide adequate coverage for the webs. There is a need for additional methods that will examine the webs and web to foam core bond.

  17. Influence of Carbon & Glass Fiber Reinforcements on Flexural Strength of Epoxy Matrix Polymer Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Jagannatha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composite materials are more attracted by the engineers because of their properties like stiffness and high specific strength which leads to the potential application in the area of aerospace, marine and automobile sectors. In the present investigation, the flexural strength and flexural modulus of carbon and glass fibers reinforced epoxy hybrid composites were studied. The vacuum bagging technique was adopted for the fabrication of polymer hybrid composite materials. The hardness, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the hybrid composites were determined as per ASTM standards. The hardness, flexural strength and flexural modulus were improved as the fiber reinforcement contents increased in the epoxy matrix material.

  18. Steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes: part 1: technological analysis of the mechanical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. de Figueiredo

    Full Text Available This paper is the first part of an extensive work focusing the technological development of steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes (FRCP. Here is presented and discussed the experimental campaign focusing the test procedure and the mechanical behavior obtained for each of the dosages of fiber used. In the second part ("Steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes. Part 2: Numerical model to simulate the crushing test", the aspects of FRCP numerical modeling are presented and analyzed using the same experimental results in order to be validated. This study was carried out trying to reduce some uncertainties related to FRCP performance and provide a better condition to the use of these components. In this respect, an experimental study was carried out using sewage concrete pipes in full scale as specimens. The diameter of the specimens was 600 mm, and they had a length of 2500 mm. The pipes were reinforced with traditional bars and different contents of steel fibers in order to compare their performance through the crushing test. Two test procedures were used in that sense. In the 1st Series, the diameter displacement was monitored by the use of two LVDTs positioned at both extremities of the pipes. In the 2nd Series, just one LVDT is positioned at the spigot. The results shown a more rigidity response of the pipe during tests when the displacements were measured at the enlarged section of the socket. The fiber reinforcement was very effective, especially when low level of displacement was imposed to the FRCP. At this condition, the steel fibers showed an equivalent performance to superior class pipes made with traditional reinforced. The fiber content of 40 kg/m3 provided a hardening behavior for the FRCP, and could be considered as equivalent to the critical volume in this condition.

  19. Properties of Hooked Steel Fibers Reinforced Alkali Activated Material Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, alkali activated material was produced by using Class F fly ash from Manjung power station, Lumut, Perak, Malaysia. Fly ash then was activated by alkaline activator which is consisting of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Hooked end steel fibers were added into the alkali activated material system with percentage vary from 0 % – 5 %. Chemical compositions of fly ash were first analyzed by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF. All hardened alkali activated material samples were tested for density, workability, and compression after 28 days. Results show a slight increase of density with the addition of steel fibers. However, the workability was reduced with the addition of steel fibers content. Meanwhile, the addition of steel fibers shows the improvement of compressive strength which is about 19 % obtained at 3 % of steel fibers addition.

  20. Kenaf-glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites: Tensile properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhafer, S. F.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Shahnaz, S. B. S.; Musa, L.; Zuliahani, A.

    2016-07-01

    The use of natural fibers in composite is rising in recent years due their lightweight, non-abrasive, combustible, non-toxic, low cost and biodegradable properties. However, in comparison with synthetic fibers, the mechanical properties of natural fibers are lower. Therefore, the inclusion of synthetic fibers could improve the mechanical performance of natural fiber based composites. In this study, kenaf bast fiber and glass fiber at different weight percentage loading were used as reinforcement to produce hybrid composites. Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin was used as matrix and hand lay-up process was performed to apply the UP resin on the hybrid kenaf bast/glass fiber composite. Effect of different fiber loading on tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break of the hybrid composite was studied. It has been found that the highest value of tensile strength and modulus was achieved at 10 wt.% kenaf/10 wt.% glass fiber loading. It was concluded that addition of glass fiber has improved the tensile properties of kenaf bast fiber based UP composites.

  1. The Young’s moduli prediction of random distributed short-fiber-reinforced polypropylene foams using finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The elastic moduli of short-fiber-reinforced foams depend critically on the fiber content and fiber length, as well as on the fiber orientation distribution. Based on periodic tetrakaidecahedrons, the finite element models with short-fiber reinforcement were proposed in this paper to examine the effects of the fiber content and fiber length on Young’s modulus. The fiber length distribution and fiber orientation distribution were also considered. The proposed models featured in a three-dimensional diorama with random short-fiber distribution within or on the surfaces of the walls and edges of the closed-cells of polypropylene (PP) foams. The fiber length/orientation distributions were modeled by Gaussian prob-ability density functions. Different fiber volume fractions, different lengths, and different distributions were investigated. The predicted Young’s moduli of the PP foams with short-glass-fiber or short-carbon-fiber reinforcement were compared with other theoretic and experimental results, and the agreement was found to be satisfactory. The proposed finite element models were proved to be acceptable to predict the Young’s moduli of the grafted closed-cell PP foams with short-fiber reinforcement.

  2. Numerically design the injection process parameters of parts fabricated with ramie fiber reinforced green composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. P.; He, L. P.; Chen, D. C.; Lu, G.; Li, W. J.; Yuan, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The warpage deformation plays an important role on the performance of automobile interior components fabricated with natural fiber reinforced composites. The present work investigated the influence of process parameters on the warpage behavior of A pillar trim made of ramie fiber (RF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites (RF/PP) via numerical simulation with orthogonal experiment method and range analysis. The results indicated that fiber addition and packing pressure were the most important factors affecting warpage. The A pillar trim can achieved the minimum warpage value as of 2.124 mm under the optimum parameters. The optimal process parameters are: 70% percent of the default value of injection pressure for the packing pressure, 20 wt% for the fiber addition, 185 °C for the melt °C for the mold temperature, 7 s for the filling time and 17 s for the packing time.

  3. In vitro Study on Biodegradable AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Fibers Reinforced PLGA Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.H.Wu; N.Li; Y.Cheng; Y.F.Zheng; Y.Han

    2013-01-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy fibers reinforced poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composites were prepared and their mechanical property,immersion corrosion behavior and biocompatibility were studied.The tensile test showed that with the addition of AZ31 fibers,the composites had a significant increment in tensile strength and elongation.For the direct cell attachment test,all the cells showed a healthy morphology and spread well on the experimental sample surfaces.The immersion results indicated that pH values of the immersion medium increased with increasing AZ31 fiber contents.All the in vitro experimental results indicated that this new kind of magnesium alloy fibers reinforced PLGA composites show a potential for future biomedical applications.

  4. Analysis of the Behaviour of Composite Steel and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Petkevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There was a pending influence of steel fiber on the strength and stiffness of composite steel–concrete slabs under statical short–time load. Steel profiled sheeting and steel fiber reinforced concrete were used for specimens. Four composite slabs were made. Experimental investigations into the behaviour and influence of steel fiber reinforced concrete in composite slabs were conducted. Transverse, longitudinal, shear deformation and deflection of the slab were measured. The results indicated that the use of steel fiber in composite slabs was effective: strength was 20–24 % higher and the meanings of deflections under the action of the bending moment were 0,6MR (where MR is the bending moment at failure of the slabs and were 16–18 % lower for slabs with usual concrete. Article in Lithuanian

  5. MECHANICAL AND THERMO–MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BI-DIRECTIONAL AND SHORT CARBON FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. AGARWAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper based on bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites reports the effect of fiber loading on physical, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties respectively. The five different fiber loading, i.e., 10wt. %, 20wt. %, 30wt. %, 40wt. % and 50wt. % were taken for evaluating the above said properties. The physical and mechanical properties, i.e., hardness, tensile strength, flexural strength, inter-laminar shear strength and impact strength are determined to represent the behaviour of composite structures with that of fiber loading. Thermo-mechanical properties of the material are measured with the help of Dynamic Mechanical Analyser to measure the damping capacity of the material that is used to reduce the vibrations. The effect of storage modulus, loss modulus and tan delta with temperature are determined. Finally, Cole–Cole analysis is performed on both bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites to distinguish the material properties of either homogeneous or heterogeneous materials. The results show that with the increase in fiber loading the mechanical properties of bidirectional carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites increases as compared to short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites except in case of hardness, short carbon fiber reinforced composites shows better results. Similarly, as far as Loss modulus, storage modulus is concerned bidirectional carbon fiber shows better damping behaviour than short carbon fiber reinforced composites.

  6. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of posterior fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial denture Part 2: influence of fiber reinforcement on mesial and distal connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Nobuhisa; Shinya, Akikazu; Yokoyama, Daiichiro; Lassila, Lippo V J; Gomi, Harunori; Vallittu, Pekka K; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of connectors under two different loading conditions on displacement and stress distribution generated in isotropic hybrid composite fixed partial denture (C-FPD) and partially anisotropic fiber-reinforced hybrid composite fixed partial denture (FRC-FPD). To this end, two three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of three-unit FPD from mandibular second premolar to mandibular second molar - intended to replace the mandibular first molar - were developed. The two loading conditions employed were a vertical load of 629 N (applied to eight points on the occlusal surface) and a lateral load of 250 N (applied to three points of the pontic). The results suggested that the reinforcing fibers in FRC framework significantly improved the rigidity of the connectors against any twisting and bending moments induced by loading. Consequently, maximum principal stress and displacement generated in the connectors of FRC-FPD were significantly reduced because stresses generated by vertical and lateral loading were transferred to the reinforcing fibers.

  7. Reinforcing Wooden Composite with Glass Fiber Fabric - Manufacturing Technology as a Factor Limiting Mechanical Properties and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deskiewicz Adam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the strength and reliability of the wooden composites reinforced with glass fiber for the skateboard application. Three different methods of glass-fiber reinforcement have been used to prepare totally 94 samples, including control trial. Two lamination methods have been utilized: vacuum and HPL (High Pressure Lamination. Conducted analysis allowed to determine preferred production technique.

  8. Mechanical Properties of a Unidirectional Basalt-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Under a Loading Simulating Operation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, D. S.; Slovikov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of unidirectional composites based on basalt fibers and different marks of epoxy resins are presented. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out using a specimen fixation technique simulating the operation conditions of structures. The mechanical properties of the basalt-fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) were determined. The diagrams of loading and deformation of BFRP specimens were obtain. The formulations of the composites with the highest mechanical properties were revealed.

  9. Mechanical properties of short carbon/glass fiber reinforced high mechanical performance epoxy resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竞; 黄培

    2009-01-01

    To research the relationship between epoxy and fiber inherent property and mechanical properties of composite,we prepared a series of composites using three kinds of high mechanical performance epoxy resins as matrices and reinforced by the same volume fraction(5%)of short carbon and glass fiber.Their mechanical properties were investigated from the perspective of chemical structure and volume shrinkage ratio of epoxy.We analyzed their tensile strength and modulus based on the mixing rule and Halpin-Tsai eq...

  10. Behavior of Low Grade Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Made with Fresh and Recycled Brick Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shariful Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW have been widely accepted in construction sectors as the replacement of coarse aggregate in order to minimize the excessive use of natural resources. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to observe the influence of low grade steel fiber reinforcements on the stress-strain behavior of concrete made with recycled and fresh brick aggregates. In addition, compressive strength by destructive and nondestructive tests, splitting tensile strength, and Young’s modulus are determined. Hooked end steel wires with 50 mm of length and an aspect ratio of 55.6 are used as fiber reinforcements in a volume fraction of 0% (control case, 0.50%, and 1.00% in concrete mixes. The same gradation of aggregates and water-cement ratio (w/c=0.44 were used to assess the effect of steel fiber in all these concrete mixes. All tests were conducted at 7, 14, and 28 days to perceive the effect of age on different mechanical properties. The experimental results show that around 10%~15% and 40%~60% increase in 28 days compressive strength and tensile strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete, respectively, compared to those of the control case. It is observed that the effect of addition of 1% fiber on the concrete compressive strength is little compared to that of 0.5% steel fiber addition. On the other hand, strain of concrete at failure of steel fiber reinforced concrete has increased almost twice compared to the control case. A simple analytical model is also proposed to generate the ascending portions of the stress-strain curve of concrete. There exists a good correlation between the experimental results and the analytical model. A relatively ductile failure is observed for the concrete made with low grade steel fibers.

  11. Effect of random/aligned nylon-6/MWCNT fibers on dental resin composite reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alexandre L S; Münchow, Eliseu A; de Oliveira Souza, Ana Carolina; Yoshida, Takamitsu; Vallittu, Pekka K; Bottino, Marco C

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to synthesize and characterize random and aligned nanocomposite fibers of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/nylon-6 and (2) to determine their reinforcing effects on the flexural strength of a dental resin composite. Nylon-6 was dissolved in hexafluoropropanol (10 wt%), followed by the addition of MWCNT (hereafter referred to as nanotubes) at two distinct concentrations (i.e., 0.5 or 1.5 wt%). Neat nylon-6 fibers (without nanotubes) were also prepared. The solutions were electrospun using parameters under low- (120 rpm) or high-speed (6000 rpm) mandrel rotation to collect random and aligned fibers, respectively. The processed fiber mats were characterized by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopies, as well as by uni-axial tensile testing. To determine the reinforcing effects on the flexural strength of a dental resin composite, bar-shaped (20×2×2 mm(3)) resin composite specimens were prepared by first placing one increment of the composite, followed by one strip of the mat, and one last increment of composite. Non-reinforced composite specimens were used as the control. The specimens were then evaluated using flexural strength testing. SEM was done on the fractured surfaces. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey׳s test (α=5%). Nanotubes were successfully incorporated into the nylon-6 fibers. Aligned and random fibers were obtained using high- and low-speed electrospinning, respectively, where the former were significantly (presin composite tested was significantly reinforced when combined with nylon-6 fibrous mats composed of aligned fibers (with or without nanotubes) or random fibers incorporated with nanotubes at 0.5 wt%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Post-cracking behavior of blocks, prisms, and small concrete walls reinforced with plant fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Soto

    Full Text Available Structural masonry using concrete blocks promotes the rationalization of construction projects, lowering the final cost of a building through the elimination of forms and the reduction of the consumption of reinforcement bars. Moreover, production of a block containing a combination of concrete and vegetable fiber sisal results in a unit with properties such as mechanical strength, stiffness, flexibility, ability to absorb energy, and post-cracking behavior that are comparable to those of a block produced with plain concrete. Herein are reported the results of a study on the post-cracking behavior of blocks, prisms, and small walls reinforced with sisal fibers (lengths of 20 mm and 40 mm added at volume fractions of 0.5% and 1%. Tests were performed to characterize the fibers and blocks and to determine the compressive strength of the units, prisms, and small walls. The deformation modulus of the elements was calculated and the stress-strain curves were plotted to gain a better understanding of the values obtained. The compression test results for the small walls reinforced with fibers were similar to those of the reference walls and better than the blocks and prisms with added fibers, which had resistances lower than those of the corresponding conventional materials. All elements prepared with the addition of sisal exhibited an increase in the deformation capacity (conferred by the fibers, which was observed in the stress-strain curves. The failure mode of the reference elements was characterized by an abrupt fracture, whereas the reinforced elements underwent ductile breakage. This result was because of the presence of the fibers, which remained attached to the faces of the cracks via adhesion to the cement matrix, thus preventing loss of continuity in the material. Therefore, the cement/plant fiber composites are advantageous in terms of their ductility and ability to resist further damage after cracking.

  13. Corrosion detection of steel reinforced concrete using combined carbon fiber and fiber Bragg grating active thermal probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijie; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Song, Gangbing

    2016-04-01

    Steel reinforcement corrosion is one of the dominant causes for structural deterioration for reinforced concrete structures. This paper presents a novel corrosion detection technique using an active thermal probe. The technique takes advantage of the fact that corrosion products have poor thermal conductivity, which will impede heat propagation generated from the active thermal probe. At the same time, the active thermal probe records the temperature response. The presence of corrosion products can thus be detected by analyzing the temperature response after the injection of heat at the reinforcement-concrete interface. The feasibility of the proposed technique was firstly analyzed through analytical modeling and finite element simulation. The active thermal probe consisted of carbon fiber strands to generate heat and a fiber optic Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor. Carbon fiber strands are used due to their corrosion resistance. Wet-dry cycle accelerated corrosion experiments were performed to study the effect of corrosion products on the temperature response of the reinforced concrete sample. Results suggest a high correlation between corrosion severity and magnitude of the temperature response. The technique has the merits of high accuracy, high efficiency in measurement and excellent embeddability.

  14. Effect of fiber loading on the mechanical properties of bagasse fiber–reinforced polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivarao Subramonian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is evident that sugarcane/bagasse is a highly potential natural composite fiber. In this study, the correlation of composition fiber amount to the mechanical strength was presented. Bagasse was treated with alkali and then reinforced in polypropylene by means of hot pressing. Fiber loading was set to be varied from 10 to 20 wt%. Composite samples were subjected to tensile, hardness, and flexural characterization. Composites with 30 wt% of fiber loading registered maximum tensile strength while with 10 wt% fiber loading registered the minimum. Hardness increases with the amount of fiber. Flexural strength and flexural modulus were found to be greater than original polypropylene. Scanning electron microscopy examination revealed the mechanisms of the strength gain in morphological point of view. The findings give manufactures and engineers a sound basis decision whether to apply the use of this composite for weight reduction especially in automotive applications or not.

  15. Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Bamboo/Glass Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sudha Madhuri,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical resistance of Bamboo/Glass reinforced Polyester hybrid composites to acetic acid, Nitric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Benzene, Toluene, Carbon tetrachloride and Water was studied. The tensile and impact properties of these composites were also studied. The effect of alkali treatment of bamboo fibers on these properties was studied. It was observed that the tensile and impact properties of the hybrid composites increase with glass fiber content. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glsss/Bamboo fiber composites by SEM. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in hybrid composites. The hybrid fiber composites showed better resistance to the chemicals mentioned above. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treatment leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations.

  16. Rate dependent response and failure of a ductile epoxy and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rae, Philip J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stahl, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    An extensive characterization suite has been performed on the response and failure of a ductile epoxy 55A and uniaxial carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite of IM7 fibers in 55A resin from the quasistatic to shock regime. The quasistatic and intermediate strain rate response, including elastic modulus, yield and failure have are characterized by quasistatic, SHPB, and DMA measurements as a function of fiber orientation and temperature. The high strain rate shock effect of fiber orientation in the composite and response of the pure resin are presented for plate impact experiments. It has previously been shown that at lower impact velocities the shock velocity is strongly dependent on fiber orientation but at higher impact velocity the in-plane and through thickness Hugoniots converge. The current results are compared with previous studies of the shock response of carbon fiber composites with more conventional brittle epoxy matrices. The spall response of the composite is measured and compared with quasistatic fracture toughness measurements.

  17. Development of Flexible Link Slabs using Ductile Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi

    emphasis oncrack formation and development at the rebar-matrix interface during direct tensile loading. Utilizing a high definition DIC technique in a novel approach, detailed measurements of the crack formation and debonding process are obtained. It is found that ductile ECC, in contrast to conventional...... two adjacent bridge deck segments. The link slab element, composed of GFRP reinforced ECC,exhibited the same tension stiffening and tension strengthening behavior with limited crack widths as was observed in the reinforced prisms under monotonic and cyclic loading. The combination of ductile ECC...

  18. Mechanical Properties of Natural Jute Fabric/Jute Mat Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed A. Elbadry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycled needle punched jute fiber mats as a first natural fiber reinforcement system and these jute mats used as a core needle punched with recycled jute fabric cloths as skin layers as a second natural fiber reinforcement system were used for unsaturated polyester matrix composites via modifying the hand lay-up technique with resin preimpregnation into the jute fiber in vacuum. The effect of skin jute fabric on the tensile and bending properties of jute mat composites was investigated for different fiber weight contents. Moreover, the notch sensitivity of these composites was also compared by using the characteristic distance do calculated by Finite Element Method (FEM. The results showed that the tensile and flexural properties of jute mat composites increased by increasing the fiber weight content and by adding the jute fabric as skin layers. On the other hand, by adding the skins, the characteristic distance decreased and, therefore, the notch sensitivity of the composites increased. The fracture behavior investigated by SEM showed that extensive fiber pull-out mechanism was revealed at the tension side of jute mat composites under the bending load and by adding the jute cloth, the failure mode of jute mat was changed to fiber bridge mechanism.

  19. Investigation on The Mechanical Properties of Banana Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Chaitanya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available the interest in natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials is rapidly growing both in terms of their industrial applications and fundamental research. The natural fiber composites are more environmentally friendly, and their availability, renewability, low density, and price as well as satisfactory mechanical properties make them an attractive ecological alternative to glass, carbon and man-made fibers used for the manufacturing of composites. The main objective of this project is to investigate the effect of NaOH solution on the mechanical properties of Banana fiber in polyester composites. The composites have been made by with and without treatment of NaOH solution using polymer matrix using Banana fiber. Mechanical properties such as tensile, impact and bending strengths were Studied by Carrying out respective tests with varying weights of fiber (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 gm’s. The tensile, impact and bending Strength of Banana fiber reinforced composites with NaOH solution was found to be increased when compared with without NaOH solution by varying fiber content. The concentrated of NaOH solution (5% to water (for 1lit.

  20. Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbery, James; Houston, Dan

    2006-11-01

    In the past decade, natural-fiber composites with thermoplastic and thermoset matrices have been embraced by European car manufacturers and suppliers for door panels, seat backs, headliners, package trays, dashboards, and interior parts. Natural fibers such as kenaf, hemp, flax, jute, and sisal offer such benefits as reductions in weight, cost, and CO2, less reliance on foreign oil sources, and recyclability. However, several major technical considerations must be addressed before the engineering, scientific, and commercial communities gain the confidence to enable wide-scale acceptance, particularly in exterior parts where a Class A surface finish is required. Challenges include the homogenization of the fiber's properties and a full understanding of the degree of polymerization and crystallization, adhesion between the fiber and matrix, moisture repellence, and flame-retardant properties, to name but a few.